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Sample records for piracanjuba brycon orbignyanus

  1. Curvas de crescimento morfométrico de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Morphometric growth curves of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

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    Juliana Sampaio Guedes Gomiero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento no setor de piscicultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras M.G., com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de crescimento morfométrico em função do peso corporal para a piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Alevinos de piracanjuba foram cultivados em viveiros de terra e alimentados com ração comercial até atingirem peso aproximado de 1 kg. Durante o período experimental realizaram-se amostragens aleatórias, onde foram avaliadas as medidas morfométricas comprimento da cabeça (CCAB, comprimento padrão (CP, altura (AND e largura (LND tomada no 1ºraio da nadadeira dorsal e as razões morfométricas (CCAB/CP, AND/CP, LND/CP, AND/LND utilizando-se as funções de Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz e Logística. As funções estudadas apresentaram bom ajuste para todas as medidas morfométricas e para a razão CCAB/CP. As funções de Brody, von Bertalanffy e Gompertz apresentaram qualidades de ajuste semelhantes e superiores à função Logística para as medidas morfométricas. Para a razão CCAB/CP a função Logística apresentou-se superior às demais. A taxa de crescimento da CCAB e LND foi superior às do CP e AND, indicando um crescimento mais rápido da cabeça e largura do que do comprimento padrão e altura. Conclui-se que todos os modelos estudados apresentaram bom ajuste, sendo o de Brody e o de von Bertalanffy os que descrevem melhor o crescimento morfométrico da piracanjuba.An experiment was carried out at the fish farming sector of the Universidade Federal de Lavras M.G., with the objective of establishing morphometric growth curves as a function of the body weight of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Fingerlings of piracanjuba were cultivated in earthen ponds and fed a commercial diet (ad libitum until they reached weight of about 1 kg. During the experimental period, samplings were randomly selected to take morphometric measures of the head length (CCAB, standard length (CP, height (AND, and breadth (LND

  2. Efeito do peso de abate nos rendimentos do processamento da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849 Effect of body weight on processing yields of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849

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    Thiago Archangelo Freato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito do peso de abate sobre os rendimentos do processamento do peixe teleósteo piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849. Inicialmente, alevinos com peso médio de 12 g, oriundos da Estação Experimental da Usina Hidrelétrica de Itutinga, foram estocados e cultivados em um viveiro de terra na Estação de Piscicultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Ao final de 18 meses de cultivo, 121 peixes foram insensibilizados, abatidos, pesados e dissecados, para a determinação das porcentagens de cabeça (%CAB, nadadeiras (%NAD, vísceras (%VIS, pele com escamas (%PE, e resíduos da filetação (%RF e dos rendimentos de carcaça (RCAR e de filé sem pele (RFSP, em relação ao peso de abate. Para as análises de variância, os dados obtidos foram agrupados em 4 classes de peso (CP1=515 g a 629 g; CP2=630 g a 744 g; CP3=745 g a 859 g; e CP4=860 g a 975 g e as equações de regressão estimadas em função do peso médio de cada classe. Não foi constatado (P>0,05 efeito de classe de peso sobre RCAR, %NAD e %PE. Por outro lado, observaram-se efeito linear do peso de abate sobre %CAB (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body weight on processing yields of a teleost fish piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849. Firstly, fingerlings were reared in ponds in the Fish Culture of the Animal Sciences Department, Federal University of Lavras, M.G. - Brazil, for 18 months. Then, 121 fishes were insensibilized, slaughtered, weighed and dissected, in order to determine the percentages of head (%CAB, fins (%NAD, visceras (%VIS, skin with scales (%PE, and fillet residues (%RF, and the carcass yield (RCAR and fillet without skin yield (RFSP, in relation to body weight. For analyses of variances, data were distributed over four weight classes (CP1 = 515 to 629g; CP2 = 630 to 744g; CP3 = 745 to 859g; and CP4 = 860 to 975g and the regression

  3. Dose inseminante utilizada na fertilização artificial de ovócito de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

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    Viviane de Oliveira Felizardo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 é uma espécie de peixe migratória, ameaçada de extinção. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a dose inseminante na fertilização artificial de ovócitos de piracanjuba. Para isso, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e três repetições. Três casais de piracanjuba, selecionados dos tanques de reprodutores da Estação Ambiental de Itutinga (EAI - CEMIG, no período de piracema 2006/2007, receberam aplicação de hormônio extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa (EBHC para obtenção dos gametas. Adotaram-se quatro tratamentos diferentes para a fertilização de 0,1 grama de ovócitos: 10µL, 20µL, 30µL e 40µL de sêmen. As amostras foram ativadas com 5 mL de água do próprio tanque e, em seguida, levadas para incubadoras, dotadas de renovação constante de água, à temperatura de 28ºC. Após 8 e 16 horas, analisaram-se as taxas de fertilização (ovos viáveis e de eclosão dos ovos, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. As relações sêmen-ovócitos testadas não alteraram as taxas de fertilização e eclosão (P>0,05. O número de espermatozoides-ovócitos, variando de 10,4 x10(5 a 41,6 x10(5, foi eficiente para obtenção de boas taxas de fertilidade.

  4. Viabilidade espermática do sêmen de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus resfriado a 4°C Spermatic viability of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus semen cooled at 4°C

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    Luis David Solis Murgas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de três meios diluidores (BTS+KCl - D1, BTS+2KCL - D2 e BTS+Citrato de Sódio - D3, considerando três diferentes tempos de resfriamento (0, 72 e 144 horas, foram analizados no sêmen de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus a 4°C. Testou-se, ainda, a utilidade do meio diluidor BTS (Beltsville Thawing Solution, adicionado a citrato de sódio e cloreto de potássio, na manutenção da imobilidade dos espermatozóides e na conservação de características do sêmen. Resultados satisfatórios foram encontrados até 144 horas de resfriamento. A motilidade espermática média do sêmen in natura foi de 94 ± 5,48%, com duração média de 55,6 ± 32,25 segundos (s. Para o sêmen diluído, as médias da motilidade e sua duração foram de 76,00 ± 1,86% e 56,6 ± 6,54 s, 77,00 ± 1,86% e 54,6 ± 6,54 s, e 74,33 ± 1,86% e 75,0 ± 6,54 s, respectivamente, para os diluidores D1, D2 e D3. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os diluidores, que apresentaram efeitos semelhantes nos diferentes tempos. As análises nos tempos 0 e 72 horas mostraram motilidades espermáticas superiores àquelas nas 144 horas, embora as durações da motilidade espermática não tenham diferido nesses tempos. A concentração espermática média do sêmen foi de 8,21 ± 2,26 X 10(9 sptz/mL. Algumas amostras evidenciaram motilidade espermática antes da ativação do sêmen (pré-ativação, principalmente a partir das 96 horas de resfriamento. O meio diluidor BTS pode ser recomendado para conservação de sêmen de piracanjuba (B. orbignyanus, desde que sua osmolaridade seja elevada.The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of 3 diluents BTS+KCl - D1, BTS+2KCL - D2 and BTS+Sodium Citrate - D3 and three different times (hour 0, 72 hours and 144 hours in Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus semen at 4°C. The assay aimed to test usefulness of BTS (Betsville Thawing Solution diluent medium, added to Sodium citrate and Potassium clorate, in maintenance

  5. Exigência Protéica e Relação Energia/Proteína para Alevinos de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Dietary Protein Requirement and Energy to Protein Ratio for Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Fingerlings

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    Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a exigência protéica e correspondente relação energia/proteína em dietas para alevinos de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus. Seis dietas semi-purificadas isocalóricas foram formuladas para conter 3.000 kcal de energia metabolizável (EM/kg e concentrações de proteína bruta (PB de 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42%. Para essas concentrações, as relações E/P das dietas foram de 12,3; 11,6; 10,4; 9,2; 8,5 e 7,1 kcal EM/g PB, respectivamente. As fontes de proteína, lipídios e carboidratos digestíveis foram, respectivamente, caseína/gelatina, óleo de fígado de bacalhau/óleo de soja e dextrina. Após condicionamento de cinco dias, as dietas foram fornecidas, até a saciedade, em duas alimentações diárias, a 162 alevinos (27 peixes/dieta, que apresentaram 8,38 ± 0,09 g de peso médio inicial, distribuídos em 18 tanques de fibra-de-vidro de 100 L, conectados a um sistema de recirculação de água. A temperatura média da água foi de 26,3°C, com extremos de 23,7 e 30,2°C. Após 90 dias, a concentração de proteína na dieta que proporcionou ganho em peso máximo aos peixes foi 29% PB, com relação E/P igual a 10,4 kcal EM/g PB. As dietas com concentrações de PB iguais a 32, 36 e 42% não se mostraram superiores para conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência protéica, valor produtivo da proteína e retenção de energia bruta. A deposição corporal de proteína e gordura não sofreu influência da concentração de PB da dietaThe aim of this study was to determine the dietary protein requirement and associated energy to protein (E/P ratio for "Piracanjuba", Brycon orbignyanus, fingerlings. Casein-gelatin semipurified diets were formulated to contain six crude protein (CP concentrations: 24, 26, 29, 32, 36 e 42% at one energy level, 3,000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg. These diets resulted in E/P ratios of 12.3, 11.6, 10.4, 9.2, 8.5 and 7.1 kcal ME/g CP, respectively. The protein, lipid

  6. Utilização da fibra bruta na nutrição da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Effect of crude fiber on the nutrition of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

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    Evoy Zaniboni Filho

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho da piracanjuba, quando arraçoada com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra bruta. Empregou-se um lote de 60 alevinos, com peso médio de 17,40±3,06g e comprimento padrão médio de 11,70±0,73cm, alojados em 12 aquários circulares de fibra de vidro com capacidade para 150L e numa lotação de cinco peixes por aquário, com abastecimento de água proporcionado por um sistema de circulação fechada. Utilizaram-se rações com semelhante composição em proteína (32%, níveis de energia que variaram de 3.037 a 3.356 kcal ED/kg de ração e níveis crescentes de fibra bruta (5%, 7%, 8% e 9% por 105 dias. Constatou-se que os peixes apresentaram melhor resposta de ganho de peso, quando arraçoados com dietas contendo 9% de fibra bruta e que a utilização de níveis de fibra bruta, acima dos convencionalmente empregados, proporcionou baixos níveis de gordura na carcaça, sem que houvesse prejuízos ao desempenho zootécnico, e que as rações podem ser elaboradas empregando-se subprodutos de origem vegetal ricos em fibra bruta.The present experiment evaluated the performance of Brycon orbignyanus fed on diets with different levels of crude fiber. Fish with mean weight of 17.40±3.06 g and total length of 11.70±0,73cm were stocked in 12 fiberglass aquariums (150 L fitted with center standpipes in a recirculating system at a density of 5 fish/aquarium. The fish were fed four diets containing similar levels of protein (32%, energy levels varyng from 3,037 to 3,356 kcal DE/kg, and crude fiber levels of 5%; 7%; 85 and 9% for 105 days. The fish had better weight gain when fed diet containing 9% of crude fiber, and it can be concluded that fish fed diets containing higher levels of crude fiber than usually used result in fish with less fat on carcass without loss of growth, and by products of plant origin rich in fiber could be used to produce diets for this kind of fish.

  7. Desenvolvimento embrionário e larval da piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1660 Embryonic and larvae development of piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Pisces, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1660

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    Juan Ramón Esquivel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do desenvolvimento embrionário e larval das espécies de peixes é de extrema importância por permitir um melhor estudo da biologia e sistemática da espécie. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o desenvolvimento embrionário e larval da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus. Foram realizadas amostragens contínuas de 15 a 20 embriões durante toda a embriogênese. Os ovos se apresentaram semidensos, transparentes, esféricos e com um grande espaço perivitelínico. Depois de 18 horas e 30 minutos da fertilização, mantidos a 25 ± 0,8°C aconteceu a eclosão. O comprimento total das larvas recém eclodidas foi de 4,46 ± 0,39mm e o peso de 2,56 ± 0,73mg. As larvas de piracanjuba apresentaram forte canibalismo depois de 36 horas da eclosão, quando foi observada também a presença de olhos bem desenvolvidos e pigmentados, assim como uma abertura vertical da boca de 15,2 ± 1,9% do comprimento corporalThe knowledge of embryonic and larvae development of fishes is a fundamental key which enables a closer approach to their biology and taxonomy. The present study aims to characterize piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus embryonic and larvae development. During the whole embryogenesis, 15 to 20 embryos were sampled and analyzed. Eggs of B. orbignyanus are semidense, transparent, spherical, and bear a large perivitelline space. Hatching takes place 18 hours and 30 minutes after fertilization at 25 ± 0.8ºC. Total length and weight of just hatched larvae were 4.46 ± 0.39mm and 2.56 ± 0.73mg, respectively. Larvae presented entirely developed and pigmented eyes, as well as a vertical mouth opening of 15.2 ± 1.9% of body length, 36 hours after hatching, period from which intense cannibalism was observed

  8. Utilização de diferentes densidades, dietas e formatos de tanque na larvicultura da piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Characiformes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2082 Use of different densities, diets and tank formats in the larvae culture of the piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Characiformes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2082

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    Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuner

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a taxa de sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus (Characiformes, characidae, foram realizados três experimentos com três repetições por tratamento. Os experimentos consistiram em testar três diferentes estoques iniciais de densidade (5, 15 e 25 larvas de piracanjuba/L, três dietas (Artemia sp, ração comercial e larva de curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus e dois formatos de tanque de larvicultura (quadrado e retangular. Os parâmetros de qualidade de água foram medidos duas vezes ao dia. A alimentação foi oferecida em um intervalo de 4 horas, iniciando após a abertura da boca das larvas. Sob as condições de realização deste experimento, conclui-se que as diferentes densidades de estocagem utilizadas, assim como as três diferentes dietas, não influenciaram a sobrevivência, média de peso, comprimento e altura dorso-ventral das larvas de piracanjuba. Entretanto, o comprimento e o peso das larvas, diferentemente dos outros fatores, foi significativamente melhor no tanque de formato quadradoAiming to study the survival rate and the development of piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus (Characiformes, characidae fry, three experiments were set, with three repetitions by treatment. The experiments consisted of testing three different initial stocking densities (5, 15 and 25 piracanjuba larvae/L, three diets (Artemia sp, commercial ration and curimbatá larvae, Prochilodus lineatus and two formats of hatchery tank (square and rectangular. The parameters of water quality were measured twice a day. The feeding was offered in a 4-hour interval, beginning soon after the mouth-opening of the fry. The results showed that different stocking densities and diets didn't influence the larvae survival, average weight, length and back-ventral height. However, the average weight and length were significantly better in the square tank

  9. Influência do fotoperíodo no crescimento e sobrevivência de pós-larvas de piracanjuba Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae Influence of photoperiod on the growth and survival of piranjuba post-larvae Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae

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    Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do fotoperíodo no cultivo de pós-larvas de piracanjuba Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae, submetidas a quatro tratamentos: 0L-24E (L=Luz; E= Escuro, 10L-14E, 14L-10E e 24L-0E, com três 3 repetições. Pós-larvas com comprimento de 7,8±0,7mm e com peso de 3,5±0,8mg foram distribuídas em 12 aquários de 10L, estocados com 12 pós-larvas por aquário. Os indivíduos foram diariamente alimentados com naúplios de Artemia, ao longo dos 10 dias de experimento. Ao final, observou-se relação positiva entre a sobrevivência e o aumento do período com luz, sendo o maior valor de sobrevivência 88,9±9,7%, obtido no tratamento com 24 horas de luminosidade, e o menor valor 58,3±8,3%, no tratamento com 24 horas em escuridão. O comprimento e peso das pós-larvas de piracanjuba não apresentaram diferenças significativas (P>0,05 entre os diferentes tratamentos, porém foi observada uma maior heterogeneidade entre as pós-larvas cultivadas com maior período de escuridão.This paper aims at studying the influence of photoperiod on the cultivation of Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Osteichthyes, Characidae post-larvae submitted to four treatments: 0L-24D (L=Light; D=Dark, 10 - L14D, 14L - 10D and 24L-0D, with 3 repetitions. Post-larvae measuring 7.8±0.7mm and weighting 3.5±0.8mg were distributed in 12 aquariums (10L, stocked with 12 post-larvae per aquarium. Fishes were fed daily with Artemia sp. nauplii, in 10 days experiment. A positive relationship between the survival rate (88.9±9.7% observed in the treatment with 24 hours of luminosity, and the lowest (58.3±8.3%, in the treatment with 24 hours of darkness. No difference was showed (P>0.05 in the mean length and weight of the post-larvae, although there was greater heterogeneity among the post-larvae cultivated at the longer darkness period.

  10. Caracterização genética de Brycon orbignyanus utilizando o sistema seminatural Genetic characterization of Brycon orbignyanus using the semi-natural system

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    N.M. Lopera-Barrero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do sistema seminatural na diversidade genética de um estoque de Brycon orbignyanus, utilizado em programas de repovoamento, com o marcador molecular RAPD. Vinte e quatro reprodutores, 12 machos e 12 fêmeas e 95 larvas da progênie foram analisados. Os nove primers utilizados produziram 90 fragmentos, dos quais 94,4% foram polimórficos. Houve diferença significativa na frequência de 20 dos 90 fragmentos entre os reprodutores e sua progênie sem a presença de fragmentos exclusivos. O índice de diversidade genética de Shannon, a porcentagem de fragmentos polimórficos e a diversidade genética de Nei foram mais altos nos indivíduos da progênie. A similaridade genética foi maior nos indivíduos do estoque de reprodutores. A análise de variância molecular mostrou que a maior parte da variação está dentro de cada grupo (89,1% e não entre os grupos (10,9%. A identidade e a distância genética entre os estoques foram de 0,944 e 0,057, respectivamente. Assim, a utilização do sistema seminatural evitou a mortalidade de reprodutores B. orbignyanus e conservou a variabilidade genética da progênie.The effect of the semi-natural system on the genetic diversity of a Brycon orbignyanus stock, used in stock enhancement programs, was evaluated with the RAPD molecular marker. Twenty-four broodstocks - 12 males and 12 females - and 95 larvae of the offspring were analyzed. The nine used primers produced 90 fragments, of which 94.4% were polymorphic. There was significant difference in the frequency of 20 out of the 90 fragments between the broodstocks and their offspring without the presence of exclusive fragments. The Shannon genetic diversity index, the percentage of polymorphic fragments and the Nei gene diversity were higher in the offspring individuals. Genetic similarity was higher in broodstock individuals. The analysis of molecular variance results showed that the major part of the genetic variation is within the

  11. Water quality and zooplankton in tanks with larvae of Brycon Orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1949).

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    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Alvarez, E J da S; Braga, F M de S

    2008-02-01

    Due to the importance of water variables conditions and available food in the development and survival of fish larvae, the current research evaluates the effects of two different food treatments (ration + zooplankton and only zooplankton) and water quality in tanks with Brycon orbignyanus larvae. Total water transparency (45 cm) has been mainly associated with short residence time, continuous water flow and shallowness. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.32 and 7.00 mg.L(-1) in tanks with ration + zooplankton and between 1.82 and 7.60 mg.L(-1) in tanks with only zooplankton treatments. Nutrients were directly affected by the addition of ration in water, with the exception of nitrite. Ten Rotifera species were found represented by high densities, ranging between 8.7 x 10(5) and 1.3 x 10(6) org.m(-3), throughout the experimental period (January to March/1996). Cladocera had the lowest density in the four tanks under analysis and ranged between 4.7 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(5) org.m(-3) for the six species. Diaphanosoma birgei has been classified as the most frequent species. Since ration + zooplankton produced better larvae yield, this treatment is recommended for Brycon orbignyanus larvae.

  12. Development of fingerlings of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae in tanks fertilized with organic manures/ Desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae em tanques experimentais fertilizados com adubação orgânica

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    Carmino Hayashi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the development of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus in tanks under differents organic fertilizers. The experiment, entirely randomized, was accomplished in 16 tanks of 1000 liters, fertilized with manures of bovine (BOV, pigs (SUI, chickens (FRG and others without fertilizer (SAO, using 15 fish/m3 with an initial average weight and length of 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. After 30 days, the experiment showed a uniform development of the fish and high survival rate in thestudied density. The treatments presented significant statistical differences (PO objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, em tanques com adubações orgânicas. O experimento, inteiramente casualizado, foi realizado em 16 tanques de 1000 litros, adubados com estercos de bovinos (BOV, suínos (SUI, frangos de corte (FRG e outros sem adubação (SAO, utilizando 15 peixes/m3 com peso e comprimento médios iniciais de 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. Após 30 dias, o experimento mostrou um desenvolvimento uniforme dos peixes e alta taxa de sobrevivência na densidade estudada. Os tratamentos apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05 para ganho de peso e crescimento diário, com exceção dos tratamentos BOV e SUI quando comparados entre si. A temperatura e o oxigênio dissolvido foram os fatores abióticos que exerceram maior influência sobre a biota aquática, afetando o desenvolvimento dos peixes. Entre o fitoplâncton houve maior abundância de organismos nanoplanctônicos favorecendo o desenvolvimento do zooplâncton, destacando-se as clorófitas, com o gênero Scenedesmus, e as cianofíceas, com o gênero Microcystis, e entre o zooplâncton, a maior abundância foi de rotíferos dos gêneros Brachionus e Keratella, seguido por copépodas. O tratamento adubado com esterco de frangos possibilitou um maior desenvolvimento da comunidade planctônica, e melhores

  13. Anatomia funcional e morfometria dos intestinos e dos cecos pilóricos do teleostei (pisces de água doce Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849

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    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a anatomia funcional e a morfometria comparativas nos intestinos médio e posterior e nos cecos pilóricos da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae. Foram conduzidos estudos anatomofuncionais e morfométricos nos intestinos médio e posterior e nos cecos pilóricos dessa espécie com hábito alimentar onívoro. Constatou-se, por meio destes estudos, que o padrão de enrolamento das alças intestinais em arranjo em N apresentou, na segunda classe de tamanho, freqüentes variações no intestino médio, mas foi compatível com os de outras espécies de hábitos alimentares similares. Os estudos da morfometria mostraram que o comprimento total do intestino e das alças intestinais e seus calibres, provavelmente, exercem função específica na absorção dos nutrientes. As relações entre o arranjo das pregas da mucosa e a velocidade de transporte do alimento no intestino médio sugerem que os padrões transversal e oblíquo retardam o avanço do alimento em sentido aboral, possibilitando maior período digestivo e melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes, contribuindo para a preparação do bolo fecal. O comprimento e o calibre dos cecos pilóricos aumentam com o desenvolvimento do peixe, e o seu padrão de mucosa possui características anatômicas semelhantes às do intestino.

  14. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN Genetic Variability in Brycon orbignyanus Stocks Used in Stocking Programs: Management and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELSON M LOPERA-BARRERO

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa-das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios genéticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosistema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar.Environmental alterations caused by the global heating and mainly caused by man's action, have reduced natural fish populations. As a conservation measure, stocking programs have been used; however, without scientific orientation these measures can generate genetic disturbances on the genetic diversity of natural fish populations and the

  15. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARGAS LAURO

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa-das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios genéticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosistema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar

  16. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO: MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELSON M. LOPERA-BARRERO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alteraciones ambientales causadas por el calentamiento global y principalmente causa- das por la acción del hombre, han reducido poblaciones naturales de peces. Como forma de conservación, programas de repoblamiento han sido utilizados; sin embargo, sin una debida orientación científica, estas medidas pueden generar disturbios gené- ticos sobre la diversidad genética de poblaciones de peces naturales y sobre el ecosis- tema. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar y analizar la variabilidad genética de dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento, utilizando el marcador molecular RAPD ( Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Cincuenta y ocho reproductores de dos lotes (A y C y 30 larvas de la progenie del lote A (B pertenecientes a la Estação de Aqüicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy Internacional (Geração Parana-panema; São Paulo, Brasil fueron analizados. Los resultados de variabilidad genética estimados por el índice de diversidad de Shannon (A: 0,3184; B: 0,3433 y C: 0,3687 y por el porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (A: 54,02%; B: 57,47% y C: 58,62% mostraron que la variabilidad genética fue mantenida en la progenie, debido posiblemente al adecuado manejo reproductivo y al efecto fundador. Por el contrario, la variabilidad encontrada entre los dos lotes de reproductores indica una similaridad genética, a pesar de ser originarios de diferentes pisciculturas. Este resultado es comprobado en el valor moderado de diferenciación genética encontrado (0,0968, en el alto Nm (4,67 y en el dendrograma, que sugieren que los lotes poseen un pool genético similar.

  17. Morphological and behavioral development of the piracanjuba larvae Desenvolvimento morfológico e comportamental de larvas de piracanjuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the morphologic development and the swimming and feeding behaviors of piracanjuba larvae, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae, during the period from zero to 172 hours after hatching (standard length = 3.62 - 11.94 mm. The morphological analyses were accomplished by using a trinocular stereo microscope, while the behavioral analyses were performed through periodic observations. In 28 hours after hatching, the larvae (standard length = 6.25 ± 0.13 mm showed the following structural and behavioral characteristics that made them become active predators able to overcome a larval critical phase, the beginning of exogenous feeding: presence of pigmented eyes, terminal and wide mouth, developed oral dentition, developing digestive tube, yolk sac reduction, fins and swim bladder formation, horizontal swimming, cannibalism, and predation. Intense cannibalism among larvae was verified from 26 to 72 hours. At the end of the metamorphosis - 172 hours after hatching - the larvae measuring 11.94 + 0.80 mm in standard length presented a flexed notochord, caudal fin bifurcation, dorsal and anal fin formation, synchronized movements, and formation of shoals, characteristics that together allow enhanced perception and locomotio in exploration of the environment, determining the best moment for transfering to the fishponds. New studies can contribute to commercial fish farming by improving feeding management, performance, survival, and productivity of this species.Objetivou-se estudar o desenvolvimento morfológico e os comportamentos natatório e alimentar de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae no período de 0 a 172 horas após a eclosão (comprimento-padrão = 3,62 - 11,94 mm. As análises morfológicas foram realizadas com auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico trinocular e as comportamentais, por meio de

  18. A revision of the cis-andean species of the genus Brycon Müller & Troschel (Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Flávio C T

    2017-01-22

    A revision of the cis-andean species of Brycon, with the exception of the Brycon pesu species-complex, is presented. Twenty-one Brycon species (including B. pesu) are recognized from cis-andean river systems: Brycon stolzmanni Steindachner, from the upper Río Marañon basin, Peru; Brycon coxeyi Fowler, from the Río Marañon basin, Ecuador and Peru; Brycon polylepis Moscó Morales, from the Lago de Maracaibo, Río Orinoco, upper rio Amazonas, and rio Tocantins basins, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil; Brycon coquenani Steindachner, from the upper Río Caroni, Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela; Brycon insignis Steindachner, from the rio Paraíba do Sul and small adjacent coastal river basins of eastern Brazil; Brycon vermelha Lima & Castro, endemic from the rio Mucuri basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon howesi new species, endemic from the rio Jequitinhonha basin, Brazil; Brycon dulcis new species, endemic from the rio Doce basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon ferox Steindachner, from several small coastal river systems, including the rio Mucuri basin in eastern Brazil; Brycon vonoi new species, from the rio Pardo basin and apparently also from a adjacent river system, the rio Una, in eastern Brazil; Brycon opalinus (Cuvier), from the headwaters of the rio Paraíba do Sul and rio Doce basins, eastern Brazil; Brycon nattereri Günther, from the headwaters of the upper rio Paraná, rio São Francisco, and upper rio Tocantins basins, Brazil; Brycon orthotaenia Günther, endemic from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil; Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraná and rio Uruguai basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay; Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraguai, middle rio Paraná, and upper rio Amazonas basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Peru, and Ecuador; Brycon whitei Myers & Weitzman, from the Río Orinoco basin in Colombia and Venezuela; Brycon amazonicus (Agassiz), from the Rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, Brazil, Peru, Colombia

  19. Diversidad genética de piracanjuba usada en programas de repoblación con marcadores microsatélites Genetic diversity of piracanjuba used in stock enhancement programs with microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Rodriguez-Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la diversidad genética de un lote de Brycon orbignyanus usado en programas de repoblación, a través de marcadores microsatélites. Se analizaron muestras de 44 reproductores, de 70 larvas y de 69 alevinos, con la amplificación de cinco loci descritos para Brycon opalinus. El número de alelos, la heterozigosidad observada (Ho y esperada (He, el índice de Shannon (IS, la diversidad genética de Nei (DGN, el coeficiente de endogamia (Fis, la distancia (DG e identidad genética (IG, el número efectivo de alelos, el test del equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg (EHW y el desequilibrio de ligación fueron calculados. Reproductores y progenie tuvieron un número similar de alelos en los loci evaluados. La Ho media, IS, DGN, DG e IG mostraron que existe menor distancia genética entre parentales y larvas y una disminución de variabilidad genética en los alevinos. Fueron observados desvíos en EHW y desequilibrio de ligación en seis pares de loci. El Fis mostró exceso de heterocigotos en parentales y larvas y déficit de heterocigotos en los alevinos. El lote de reproductores está en proceso de pérdida de alelos y hubo disminución de la variabilidad genética entre la fase de larva y alevino.The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic diversity of a Brycon orbignyanus lot used in stock enhancement programs, using microsatellite markers. Samples of 44 broodstocks, 70 larvae and 69 fingerlings, were analyzed with amplification of five loci described for Brycon opalinus. The number of alleles, the observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosity, Shannon index (IS, Nei's genetic diversity (DGN, the inbreeding coefficient (Fis, distance (DG and genetic identity (IG, the effective number of alleles, the test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (EHW and the linkage disequilibrium were calculated. Broodstocks and offspring had a similar number of alleles at the tested loci. Ho average, IS, DGN, DG and IG showed

  20. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pilarski, F. [UNESP; ROSSINI, AJ.; CECCARELLI, PS.

    2008-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish w...

  1. Egg Development of Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1839

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Ronzani Cerqueira

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of the Southern Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus were obtained through spawning induction and reared in laboratory. The eggs released were free-floating or pelagic. Other important characteristics were: spherical shape, smooth chorion, narrow perivitelline space, and a single oil globule. Egg and oil globule diameter were about 0.792 ± 0.008 mm and 0.114 ± 0.003 mm, respectively. The blastodisc was observed approximately 1 h after fertilization and followed by blastodisc cleavage. Blastula stage started after about 5 h and gastrula stage after 9 h. Approximately 20 h after fertilization, blastopore closure was observed. Neurula or early embryo occurred after 24 h. Cardiac beats and movements of the free embryonic tail were recorded after 40 h of incubation. Hatching occurred after an incubation period of 40-50 h at temperatures ranging from 18 to 20 ºC. Newly hatched larvae were about 2.04 ± 0.024 mm long and quite undeveloped, with a large yolk sac with a posterior oil globule and sparse pigmentation. These results were greatly similar to those obtained by previous studies regarding congener species. This is one of the first steps towards the artificial propagation of this species under controlled conditions.Através do cultivo de ovos do linguado Paralichthys orbignyanus, obtidos de reprodução induzida em laboratório, foram descritos pela primeira vez seus estádios de desenvolvimento. O ovo era livre e flutuante, caracteristicamente pelágico. Além disso, tinha formato esférico, córion liso, espaço perivitelino estreito, vitelo homogêneo, e uma única gota de óleo. Seu diâmetro médio era de 0,792 ± 0,008 mm e o da gota de óleo de 0,114 ± 0,003 mm. Cerca de 1 h após a fecundação observou-se o blastodisco e em seguida a segmentação celular. A blástula iniciou após cerca de 5 h e a gástrula após 9 h. Com aproximadamente 20 h observou-se o fechamento do blastóporo. A nêurula ou embrião na fase inicial

  2. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, F; Rossini, A J; Ceccarelli, P S

    2008-05-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish white spots, especially on the head, dorsal part and caudal fin of the fish. The sampling comprised 50 samples representing four different fish species selected for study. Samples for culture were obtained by skin and kidney scrapes with a sterile cotton swabs of columnaris disease fish and streaked onto Carlson and Pacha (1968) artificial culture medium (broth and solid) which were used for isolation. The strains in the liquid medium were Gram negative, long, filamentous, exhibited flexing movements (gliding motility), contained a large number of long slender bacteria and gathered into columns'. Strains on the agar produced yellow-pale colonies, rather small, flat that had rhizoid edges. A total of four Flavobacterium columnare were isolated: 01 Brycon orbignyanus strain, 01 Piaractus mesopotamicus strain, 01 Colossoma macropomum strain, and 01 Hypostomus plecostomus strain. Biochemical characterization, with its absorption of Congo red dye, production of flexirubin-type pigments, H2S production and reduction of nitrates proved that the isolate could be classified as Flavobacterium columnare.

  3. THE EXODUS OF RURAL AREAS. THE CASE PIRACANJUBA – GOIÁS – BRAZIL (2000-2010

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    Margot Riemann Costa e Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on studies conducted between 2000 and 2010 in Piracanjuba/Goiás. The strong growth of GDP per capita driven largely by milk production contrasts with poor social indicators and marked migration of the young population. The studies cover: a the profitability of dairy production; b the quality of employment conditions and levels of income of workers in dairy farms; c local social indicators; d data on population growth and GDP per capita of municipalities in Goiás. The results indicate that the gains of both the producers and dairy workers are lower than those of urban entrepreneurs with the same capital investment, or urban workers with similar skill levels. In effect this situation occurs also in other agricultural sectors, resulting in migration to metropolitan areas and simultaneous decline of population in the interior and rural regions of Goiás.

  4. Neuropeptide Y gene expression around meal time in the Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinicius F Campos; Ricardo B Robaldo; João C Deschamps; Fabiana K Seixas; Alan John A McBride; Luis Fernando Marins; Marcelo Okamoto; Luís A Sampaio; Tiago Collares

    2012-06-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is considered the major stimulant for food intake in mammals and fish. Previous results indicate that NPY is involved in the feeding behaviour of the Brazilian flounder, Paralichthys orbignyanus. In this study, we evaluated hypothalamic NPY expression before (−2 h), during (0 h) and after feeding (+2 h) in two independent experiments: (1) during a normal feeding schedule and (2) in fish fasted for 2 weeks. During normal feeding, changes in the levels of NPY mRNA were periprandial, with expression levels being significantly elevated at meal time ( < 0.05) and significantly reduced 2 h later (< 0.05). Comparing the fasting and unfasted groups, NPY mRNA levels were significantly higher ( < 0.05) at −2 h and +2 h in the fasting group, but there was no difference at 0 h. In addition, the higher NPY mRNA levels that were observed in the fasting group were maintained throughout the sampling period. In summary, our results show that NPY expression was associated with meal time (0 h) in food intake regulation.

  5. Frugivory by the fish Brycon hilarii (Characidae) in western Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reys, Paula; Sabino, José; Galetti, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Frugivory and seed dispersal have been poorly studied in Neotropical freshwater fishes. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by the piraputanga fish ( Brycon hilarii, Characidae) in the Formoso River, Bonito, western Brazil. We examined the stomach contents of 87 fish and found the diet of piraputanga consisted of 24% animal prey (arthropods, snails, and vertebrates), 31% seeds/fruits and 45% other plant material (algae/macrophytes/leaves/flowers). The piraputangas fed on 12 fruit species, and were considered as seed dispersers of eight species. Fruits with soft seeds larger than 10 mm were triturated, but all species with small seeds (e.g. Ficus, Psidium) and one species with large hard seed ( Chrysophyllum gonocarpum) were dispersed. Piraputangas eat more fruits in the dry season just before the migration, but not during the spawning season. Fish length had a positive relation with the presence of fruits in their guts. The gallery forest of the Formoso River apparently does not have any plant species that depend exclusively on B. hilarii for seed dispersal because all fruit species are also dispersed by birds and mammals. Based on seed size and husk hardness of the riparian plant community of Formoso River, however, the piraputangas may potentially disperse at least 50% of the riparian fleshy fruit species and may be particularly important for long-distance dispersal. Therefore, overfishing or other anthropogenic disturbances to the populations of piraputanga may have negative consequences for the riparian forests in this region.

  6. Cryopreservation of yamú (Brycon amazonicus) sperm for large scale fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Medina-Robles, Mauricio; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

      To determine the effect of straw size and thawing temperature on cryopreserved sperm quality of yamú (Brycon amazonicus), ovulation and spermiation were induced in sexually mature broodstock using Carp Pituitary Extract. Sperm quality was evaluated by motility, activation time and fertility. Sp...

  7. Heterochromatin patterns and karyotype relationships within and between the genera Brycon and Salminus (Pisces, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pavan Margarido

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomes of two Brycon species (B. lundii and B. microlepis and Salminus hilarii were analyzed. Based on constitutive heterochromatin distribution patterns, karyotypic relationships within and between Bryconinae and Salmininae were examined. A monophyletic origin for the genus Brycon, comprising at least two chromosome synapomorphies (presence of two large submetacentric bearing paracentromeric and telomeric heterochromatin, is suggested. Moreover, Bryconinae and Salmininae may represent a monophyletic unit among Characidae, as they share several chromosome features.Foram analisados os cromossomos de duas espécies de peixes do gênero Brycon (B. lundii e B. microlepis e de Salminus hilarii. Principalmente baseado no padrão de distribuição da heterocromatina constitutiva, foram discutidas as relações cariotípicas dentro e entre os grupos Bryconinae e Salmininae. É sugerida uma origem monofilética para o gênero Brycon, com pelo menos duas sinapomorfias cromossômicas (presença de dois grandes submetacêntricos apresentando blocos pericentromérico e telomérico de heterocromatina constitutiva. Ainda, Bryconinae e Salmininae, compartilhando vários caracteres cromossômicos, podem formar uma unidade monofilética entre os Characidae, na qual outros caracídeos não estão incluídos.

  8. Milt quality and spermatozoa morphology of captive Brycon siebenthalae (Eigenmann) broodstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Lombo-Rodríguez, Dora A.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop artificial reproduction in freshwater fish for potential species to be developed in South American aquaculture, milt quality and sperm morphology were studied in yamu (Brycon siebenthalae) under captive conditions during the natural middle spermiation period. The volume of milt...

  9. Embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus (SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Sampaio Nakauth

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to describe the embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus, featuring the main events up to 50 hours after fertilization (AF. The material was provided by the Aquaculture Training, Technology and Production Center, Presidente Figueiredo (AM. The characterization was based on stereomicroscopic examination of the morphology of eggs, embryos and larvae and comparison with the literature. Matrinxã eggs are free, transparent, and spherical, with a perivitelline space of 0.56 ± 0.3 mm. The successive divisions give rise to cells with 64 blastomeres during the first hour AF. The gastrula stage, beginning 02 h 40 min AF, was characterized by progressive regression cells and the formation of the embryonic axis, leading to differentiation of the head and tail 05 h 30 min AF. From 06 to 09 h AF the somites, notochord, otic and optic vesicles and otoliths were observed, in addition to heart rate and the release of the tail. The larvae hatched at 10 h 30 min AF (29.9 °C, with a total length of 3.56 ± 0.46 mm. Between 19 and 30 h AF, we observed 1 pigmentation and gut formation, 2 branchial arches, 3 pectoral fins, 4 a mouth opening and 5 teeth. Cannibalism was initiated earlier (34 h AF which was associated with rapid yolk absorption (more than 90% until 50 h AF, signaling the need for an exogenous nutritional source. The environmental conditions (especially temperature influenced the time course of some events throughout the embryonic and larval development, suggesting the need for further studies on this subject.

  10. Spermatozoon ultrastructure and semen parameters of Brycon vermelha (Characiformes, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, F; Silva, R C; Hilbig, C C; Makino, L C; Senhorini, J A; Ninhaus-Silveira, A; Nakaghi, L S O

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzed semen parameters and the ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Brycon vermelha. The semen was white and viscous, with a mean volume of 5.0±2.6 mL/kg body weight and mean spermatozoon concentration of 4.3±0.8×10(10) spermatozoa/mL. The estimated motility rate was 90%, with 50% of spermatozoa motile at 35.0±0.1 s and 100% immotile by 46.5±0.1 s. The spermatozoon of B. vermelha had a distinct head, midpiece, and flagellum. The ovoid head measured 1.9±0.2 μm by 1.3±0.1 μm, with its volume almost completely occupied by the nucleus, and was enveloped by an irregular nuclear membrane, with no acrosome vesicle. The nuclear fossa held the centriole complex and the initial segment of flagellum. The midpiece was symmetrical and measured 1.3±0.3μm. Mitochondria were scarce and restricted to the anterior region, while vesicles were absent. The posterior region of the midpiece was characterized by the absence of mitochondria and the presence of the cytoplasmic sheath. The flagellum, enclosed by the flagellar membrane, measured 29.6±3.4 μm, and possessed an axial filament containing a 9+2 microtubule pattern. The spermatozoa of B. vermelha appeared similar in structure to those of fish that breed through external fertilization, thus classifying them as uniflagellate anacrosomal aquasperm, or Type 1 aquasperm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification, tissue distribution and evaluation of brain neuropeptide Y gene expression in the Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinicius F Campos; Tiago Collares; João C Deschamps; Fabiana K Seixas; Odir A Dellagostin; Carlos Frederico C Lanes; Juliana Sandrini; Luis Fernando Marins; Marcelo Okamoto; Luís A Sampaio; Ricardo B Robaldo

    2010-09-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most potent stimulants of food intake in vertebrates, mammals and fish. However, the present knowledge about feeding behaviour in fish is still limited and based on studies in a few species. The Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus is being considered for aquaculture, and it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating feeding in order to improve its performance in captivity. The objectives of this study were to clone NPY cDNA, evaluate the mRNA levels in different tissues of flounder, and also evaluate brain NPY expression to associate food intake with NPY expression levels. A 597 bp NPY cDNA was cloned from Brazilian flounder brain. NPY expression was detected in all the peripheral tissues analysed. No significant differences were observed in brain NPY gene expression over 24 h after food intake at a temperature of 15 ± 3°C. No correlation was observed among plasma glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and NPY expression levels during this 24 h period. On the other hand, mRNA levels were increased after two weeks of fasting at elevated temperatures. Our results suggest that NPY mRNA levels in Brazilian flounder are affected by temperature.

  12. Genetic evidence of population structuring in the neotropical freshwater fish Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, A; Galetti Jr, P M

    2007-12-01

    Brycon hilarii is a migratory fish widely distributed throughout the Paraguay River Basin. It is appreciated in sport fishing and for its superior meat quality. It is also the main species for tourist attraction in the Bonito region (State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Considering the lack of information on the genetic structure of the fish of this species, the aim of the present study was to detect the genetic variability of Brycon hilarii through RAPD markers. A total of eighty specimens collected in different seasons at four sites of the Miranda River sub-basin (Paraguay River Basin, Brazil) were used for analysis. The results of genetic similarity, Shannon diversity, and AMOVA revealed differences between the sampling sites. Through AMOVA, differences between populations were more evident among the animals collected during the non-reproductive season, corresponding to a time of less movement of these fish. A population structuring model in which B. hilarii appears organized into genetically differentiated reproductive units that coexist and co-migrate through the studied system was suggested, contrasting the currently accepted idea that freshwater migratory fish form large panmictic populations in a determined hydrographic system. Despite the lack of a complete picture regarding the distribution of B. hilarii in the studied region, this initial idea on its population genetic structure could be an important contribution to providing aid for management and conservation programs of these fish.

  13. Genetic evidence of population structuring in the neotropical freshwater fish Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sanches

    Full Text Available Brycon hilarii is a migratory fish widely distributed throughout the Paraguay River Basin. It is appreciated in sport fishing and for its superior meat quality. It is also the main species for tourist attraction in the Bonito region (State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Considering the lack of information on the genetic structure of the fish of this species, the aim of the present study was to detect the genetic variability of Brycon hilarii through RAPD markers. A total of eighty specimens collected in different seasons at four sites of the Miranda River sub-basin (Paraguay River Basin, Brazil were used for analysis. The results of genetic similarity, Shannon diversity, and AMOVA revealed differences between the sampling sites. Through AMOVA, differences between populations were more evident among the animals collected during the non-reproductive season, corresponding to a time of less movement of these fish. A population structuring model in which B. hilarii appears organized into genetically differentiated reproductive units that coexist and co-migrate through the studied system was suggested, contrasting the currently accepted idea that freshwater migratory fish form large panmictic populations in a determined hydrographic system. Despite the lack of a complete picture regarding the distribution of B. hilarii in the studied region, this initial idea on its population genetic structure could be an important contribution to providing aid for management and conservation programs of these fish.

  14. Caracterización citogenética del pez neotropical Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana David López

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La sabaleta Brycon henni, es un pez nativo del occidente colombiano importante para la seguridad alimentaria de las poblaciones ribereñas y para la pesca deportiva por sus característica combativas. El desarrollarse entre los 18 y 28ºC la convierte en una especie de cultivo promisoria. Un estudio citogenético a partir de células branquiales indicó diferentes complementos cromosómicos. Este trabajo aplicó la técnica de cultivo de linfocitos a muestras de sangre de adultos. Las muestras de sangre total fueron sembradas en 4 ml de medio de cultivo Ham-F12, suplementado con 0.5 ml de Suero Fetal Bovino y 0.7 ml del mitógeno Fitohemaglutinina M (Gibco® durante 96 hr a 28ºC; 1.5 hr antes de la cosecha agregamos 100µl de Colcemid al 10% como factor antimitótico. Cada cultivo se incubó con 10 ml de solución hipotónica KCl 0.56% por 24 min a 37ºC, para continuar con tres fijaciones sucesivas, centrifugaciones y tinción Giemsa al 5%. Las mejores metafases fueron fotografiadas en microscopio, correspondientes a 6 machos y 8 hembras, indicando un número diploide de 50 cromosomas, clasificados en Metacéntricos (26M, Submetacéntricos (16SM y Subtelocéntricos (8ST, para un número fundamental (NF de 100 brazos. La tendencia evolutiva hallada fue de tipo B; no se encontraron cromosomas supernumerarios pero sí un primer par de cromosomas metacéntricos grandes, considerado marcador para el género Brycon, no determinante de heteromorfismo sexual. Estos resultados coinciden con los demás bricónidos investigados, en donde se podría considerar un ancestro común con un número cromosómico básico y cariotipos simétricos.Cytogenetic characterization of the neotropical fish Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae. Brycon henni, is a native fish from Western Colombia is important as food and in sport fishing, and could be cultured in waters between 18 and 28ºC. A previous cytogenetic study in branchial cells indicated different chromosomal

  15. Controle neuroendócrino do comportamento agressivo de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkers,Carla Patrícia Bejo

    2010-01-01

    Considerando a importância fisiológica do sistema serotoninérgico e os conhecimentos restritos acerca desse sistema em peixes, este estudo avaliou a distribuição dos neurônios serotoninérgicos imunoreativos (5-HTir) no encéfalo de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus). Para tanto, os animais foram anestesiados e submetidos ao procedimento de perfusão e coleta dos encéfalos. Foram feitas secções coronais de 25 μm do encéfalo, com exceção do bulbo olfatório, sendo as secções montadas em lâmin...

  16. Determinação do sistema endócrino difuso nos intestinos de três Teleostei (Pisces de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de verificar a presença de células endócrinas nos intestinos médio e posterior, ou reto, e nos cecos pilóricos de três espécies tropicais de peixes Teleostei de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes: piracanjuba, (Brycon orbignyanus e piau (Leporinus friderici, onívoro; e surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans, carnívoro. Para tanto, foram utilizados sete exemplares da piracanjuba, com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 410,16 ± 66,33 g e 27,42 ± 1,17 cm, respectivamente, 13 exemplares de piau com médias de 77,71 ± 24,31 g e 14,84 ± 1,56 cm de peso e comprimento-padrão, respectivamente; e cinco exemplares do surubim com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 309,91 ± 94,23 g e 32,70 ± 1,79 cm, respectivamente. Pode-se constatar a presença de células endócrinas do "tipo aberto" nos segmentos referentes aos intestinos médio e posterior das espécies onívoras e do "tipo fechado" no intestino médio e no reto da espécie carnívora. As células argirófilas foram observadas entre as células absortivas do epitélio intestinal. Os resultados permitem concluir que a presença de células endócrinas nas espécies estudadas pode indicar que estas atuam no mecanismo de controle da absorção dos nutrientes do alimento.

  17. A new species of Brycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from Nicaragua and Costa Rica, with a key to the lower Mesoamerican species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Arturo; Gracian-Negrete, Jatziry Marlene

    2013-10-30

    A new species of Brycon is described from the Atlantic slope of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Brycon costaricensis n. sp. differs from all other Central American Brycon species by the following combination of characters: 49 to 54 scales in the lateral line; 5 or 6 rows of scales between lateral line and pectoral fin base; 9 to 11 rows of scales between lateral line and dorsal fin base; 5 to 7 rows of scales between lateral line and anal fin base; anal fin notably longer than head, with 33 to 37 total rays; and a elongated and shallow caudal peduncle, whose length is 1.78 to 2.35 times its depth. A key to lower Mesoamerican species of the genus is also presented.

  18. Stocking densities of juvenile Brycon orthotaenia: production parameters and economic benefits in net cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Assis Lago

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing a rearing technology requires the determination of the optimum stocking density. This study aimed to determine the best stocking density for Brycon orthotaenia juveniles grown in net cages, during the rearing phase. The research was conducted at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG, in Felixlândia, Minas Gerais State, in the Três Marias Reservoir. 9,000 fingerlings were distributed into 12 net cages, 2 m3each, according to a completely randomized design with three replications and four different stocking densities (150, 300, 450, 600 fish m-3. Random samples were taken from each net cage, at the onset of the experiment and at 60 rearing days, to assess production parameters, specific growth rate and uniformity. We verified a positive linear relationship (p 0.05 for growth parameters, uniformity and final weight. It can be concluded that the density of 300 fish m-3 is the most suitable, because it provides higher net revenue, survival, and a good feed conversion.

  19. Brycon gouldingi (Teleostei, Characidae): aspects of the embryonic development in a new fish species with aquaculture potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Francine; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika

    2011-11-01

    Brycon gouldingi is an endemic species from Tocantins-Araguaia basin, used as a food source by riverine communities and relevant to aquaculture. Information about the initial morphology of B. gouldingi, a recently described species, is absent. In the present study, we analysed the fertilization and the embryonic development of this species based on light and scanning electron microscopy. After collection of adult specimens in Mortes River - Mato Grosso, Brazil, adaptation to captivity and induced spawning at Buriti Fishculture, Nova Mutum - Mato Grosso, Brazil, in December 2007 and January 2008, samples were collected at pre-defined periods from egg extrusion up to larval hatching, which occurred at 13.9 ± 0.06 h post-fertilization (hpf) in average. At the moment of extrusion, the eggs were slightly ovoid bearing a single micropyle per oocyte with a funnel-shaped micropyle canal and vestibule covered with longitudinal folds, typical of the genus Brycon. The embryonic development of B. gouldingi was characterized by six stages with distinct features: zygote (from fertilization up to formation of egg-cell); cleavage (cell divisions resulting in blastomeres, including the morula phase); blastula (several embryonic cells in a cup shape, without distinction of cell boundaries); gastrula (cell movement); histogenesis/organogenesis (formation of tissues and organs); and hatching (larval chorion rupture). Right after hatching, the larvae presented neither swimming abilities nor visual accuracy, and the digestive trait was undifferentiated. The present study is the first report on biological features of embryogenesis in B. gouldingi, providing relevant information to several approaches, mainly related to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and captive rearing of this new Brycon species.

  20. Fish stock assessment of piraputanga Brycon microlepis in the Cuiabá River basin, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. de F. MATEUS

    Full Text Available Fork length measurements of individuals of Brycon microlepis landed and commercialized at the Porto Market in Cuiabá, MT, from May-October 1996 to May-October 1997 were used to estimate growth and mortality parameters for this species. The average estimated populational parameters were: L¥ = 705 mm, k = 0.275 year--1, C = 0.775, WP = 0.465, Lc = 164 mm, M = 0.585 year--1, Z = 0.822 year--1, with F = 0.237 year--1. Yield per recruit analysis suggests that the stock is not yet overexploited.

  1. VALOR AGREGADO DE LAS ESPECIES Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO), Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA), Arapaima gigas (PAICHE) y Agouti paca (MAJAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Doylith Vásquez Jurafo; Cinthya Córdova Ríos; Wendy Olórtegui Morey; Nirsa Cachique Oliveira; Luis Silva Ramos; Ricardo García Pinchi

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo  la obtención de  productos mínimamente procesados (PMP) de Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO), Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA), Arapaima gigas (PAICHE), y Agouti paca (MAJAS) congelado y empacado al vacio. Para las especies piscícolas, se ha aplicado un diseño factorial de 32 con dos factores de estudios: concentración de NaCl en la solución osmótica con tres niveles (15, 20 y 25 %) y temperatura de proceso  con tres niveles de estudio (5, 10 y 15 °C). Para...

  2. Seasonal variation of sperm quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and sperm concentration in yamú Brycon amazonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Medina-Robles, Víctor M.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2007-01-01

    Osmolality, the concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, and the concentrations of ions such as Na+, Cl-, K+, and Mg2+ in the seminal plasma of yamú Brycon amazonicus were evaluated during one reproductive season. Semen quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and ...

  3. Spawning failure in Brycon amazonicus may be associated with ovulation and not with final oocyte maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hainfellner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os possíveis mecanismos envolvidos com a falha na desova de matrinxãs (Brycon amazonicus, submetidas à indução hormonal por extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa. Para tal, após a extrusão, os ovários foram coletados e analisados histomorfometricamente. Nas fêmeas que não desovaram (FNDs, a maioria dos ovócitos vitelogênicos remanescentes nos ovários atingiu a maturação final, apresentando quebra de vesícula germinativa, mas não foram ovulados (NOs. Consequentemente, estas fêmeas apresentaram frequências mais baixas de folículos pós ovulatórios (5% quando comparadas com a que desovou (FD (23%. Com relação aos NOs, os valores se inverteram e a frequência destes nas FNDs (21% foi maior do que na FD (3%. Estes dados indicam que as falhas na desova desta espécie estão provavelmente relacionadas com a ovulação, uma vez que a maturação final dos ovócitos ocorre de forma similar tanto nas FNDs como na FD. Os dados sugerem que as substâncias que promovem a ovulação, como as prostaglandinas, podem aumentar o sucesso de desova em peixes reofílicos.

  4. Moments of induced spawning and embryonic development of Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika; Faustino, Francine; Mendes, José Mário Ribeiro; de Braga, Francisco Manoel

    2014-11-01

    Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity.

  5. Morphological and morphometric aspects of early life stages of piabanha Brycon gouldingi (Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, F; Makino, L C; Neumann, E; Nakaghi, L S O

    2015-05-01

    Adult specimens of piabanha Brycon gouldingi were collected from Rio das Mortes (Mato Grosso, Brazil), adapted to captivity and induced to spawn at Buriti Fisheries (Nova Mutum, MT, Brazil). The early developmental stages of B. gouldingi were then characterized. Samples were collected at pre-determined times from oocyte extrusion to total yolk absorption. Oocyte diameter, total larval length (LT ) and yolk-sac volume were measured. The mean ± s.d. duration of embryo developmental of B. gouldingi was 13·90 ± 0·06 h at 26·40 ± 1·13° C. The mean ± s.d. oocyte diameter was 1·13 ± 0·06 mm with 54% of oocytes ranging from 1·11 to 1·20 mm. Seven stages characterized the early developmental phase of this species: zygote, cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, histogenesis-organogenesis and hatching, with unique features related to each stage. At hatching, the larvae measured 3·40 ± 0·07 mm, presented an elongated shape with yolk-sac volume of 0·46 ± 0·08 µl, non-pigmented eyes and exhibited swimming ability. When the yolk was completely absorbed at 55 h post-hatch, mean ± larval LT was 6·68 ± 0·65 mm, the eyes were highly pigmented and the teeth were visible. These are the first reported findings on the initial developmental stages of B. gouldingi and could be used to improve captive breeding management and conservation practices. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Population genetic structure revealed by a school of the freshwatermigratory fish, Brycon hilarii Estructura genética poblacional revelada por un cardumen del pez migratorio de agua dulce, Brycon hilarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sanches

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that different genetic populations of migratory fishes can co-exist in a single hydrographic system. Although different populations may occupy and explore the river together, they segregate during the spawning season and consequently the population genetic structuring is maintained. Genetic variation of a Brycon hilarii spawning school and samples from different collection sites in the Miranda River basin were surveyed using seven microsatellites. Population structuring was revealed by a significant differentiation of the spawning school related to the supposed local populations. The genetic differentiation detected may be supported by behavior during the reproductive season that promotes the maintenance of the genetic integrity of different populations. These data may contribute toward the understanding of the behavior and biology of these fish as well as fishery management and species conservation programs.Se ha documentado que diferentes poblaciones genéticas de peces migratorios pueden coexistir en un único sistema hidrográfico. Diferentes poblaciones pueden ocupar y explorar el río juntas, pero se segregan durante la temporada de desove y consecuentemente la estructuración genética poblacional se mantiene. La diversidad genética de un cardumen reproductivo de Brycon hilarii y muestras de diferentes sitios en la cuenca del Río Miranda fueron analizadas mediante siete microsatélites. La estructura poblacional fue revelada por una diferenciación genética significativa del cardumen reproductivo con las muestras de las poblaciones locales. La diferenciación genética detectada puede ser resultado de un probable comportamiento durante la temporada reproductiva, que promueve el mantenimiento de la integridad genética de las diferentes poblaciones. Estos datos pueden contribuir a la comprensión del comportamiento y biología de estos peces, así como amparar programas de gestión de la pesca y conservación de las

  7. Cultivo de matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864 em tanques-rede, em diferentes densidades de estocagem = Matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia rearing in floating cage in different stocking densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mattos Pedreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento avaliou o desempenho e sobrevivência de juvenis de matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia cultivados em tanques-rede de 4 m3, por 197 dias, em três densidades de estocagem: 20, 40 e 60 peixes m-3. Foram utilizados exemplares com 19,9 ± 0,3 cm de comprimento total e 90,0 ± 0,15 g de peso. Os animais foram alimentados com ração extrusada contendo 36% de proteína bruta. O comprimento total e o peso foram superiores (p 0,05 entre as diferentes densidades; porém, a biomassa produzida foi superior (p This experiment evaluated the development and survival of matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia juveniles reared during a 197-day experiment, in a 4 m3 floating cage, in three stocking densities: 20, 40 and 60 fish m-3. Juveniles with 19.9 ± 0.3 cm of total length and 90.0 ± 0.15 g of weight were used. The animals were fed with floating pellets (commercial diet with 36% crude protein. The total length, and weight were higher (p 0.05 among the different densities; however, the produced biomass was higher (p < 0.05 in densities of 40 and 60 fish m-3. The increased stocking density showed a more homogeneous growth. The increase in stocking density for B. orthotaenia juveniles presented a higher biomass, homogeneity of fishes, lesser growth, but had no effect in survival.

  8. Effect of methyl parathion on the muscle and brain acetylcholinesterase activity of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Luciana Cristina de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming of the freshwater fish is emerging in Brazil and many species from the wild are promising. The teleost matrinxã (Brycon cephalus holds several characteristics such as fast growth rate, high commercial value and adaptability to artificial raring conditions, which make it a promising species for commerce. The use of pesticides in aquatic environment is frequent in Brazil, and methyl parathion is very common in aquaculture. We have determined the enzymatic activity of acetyl cholinesterase in white muscle and brain of matrinxã exposed to 2ppm of environmental methyl parathion for 24 hours. There was 64% and 69% of acetyl cholinesterase inhibition in muscle and brain respectively. These activities were not recovered after 8 days from exposure to this pesticide. It can be concluded that acetyl cholinesterase from those tissues was inhibited by small amounts of methyl parathion, and the main effect was observed in the brain.

  9. Gonadossomatic relation and reproductive strategy of Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819 in the Serra do Mar State Park - Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Gomiero

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the gonadossomatic relation of males and females of Brycon opalinus (the Pirapitinga do Sul in the Serra do Mar State Park-Núcleo Santa Virgínia. The study area included three rivers: Paraibuna, Ipiranga, and Grande. From the gonadossomatic relation, it was possible to determine the reproductive season and strategy of this species. The gonadossomatic relation was high throughout the year for both males and females. Sperm competition and dilution of the ejaculate in the spawning locations favored substantial development of the testicles. The sex ratio of Brycon opalinus was always in favor of females. The existence of sexual dimorphism in this species was confirmed from the larger size of the females.

  10. Probiotic in feeding of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus: economic viability=Probiótico na alimentação de juvenis de matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus: viabilidade econômica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Tachibana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the economic feasibility of supplement probiotics Bacillus subtilis to “matrinxã” Brycon amazonicus, raised in cages. The experiment was conducted at the Polo Regional Vale do Ribeira, in Pariquera-açu municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, from February to July 2009. A total of 960 juvenile matrinxã were stocked in twelve 2.7 m³-net cages (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.2 m, in ponds with a total area of 600 m2 and an average depth of 1.50 m. The tests were conducted with a control treatment (T1 and two probiotic doses (T2 = 5 g and T3 = 10 g kg-1 of diet with four replicates. Results showed that T2 produced better economic performance for matrinxã at the juvenile stage in intensive rearing system.Objetivou-se analisar a viabilidade econômica do uso do probiótico Bacillus subtilis na alimentação de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus, em tanques-rede. O experimento foi conduzido no Polo Regional do Vale do Ribeira, no município de Pariquera-Açu, São Paulo, Brasil, entre fevereiro e julho de 2009. Foram avaliados 960 peixes juvenis, divididos em 12 tanques-rede de 2,7 m³ (1,5 x 1,5 x 1,2 m em uma área total de 600 m2, com profundidade média de 1,50 m. Os testes foram conduzidos com um tratamento testemunha (T1, duas doses de probiótico (T2 = 5 g e T3 = 10 g kg-1 de ração e quatro repetições. Os resultados mostraram que o T2 proporcionou melhor desempenho zootécnico e econômico da matrinxã na fase de engorda no sistema intensivo de criação.

  11. Effects of clove oil on the stress response of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus subjected to transport Efeito do óleo de cravo na resposta de estresse do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus submetido ao transporte

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    Luís Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish transport is one of the most stressful procedures in aquaculture facilities. The present work evaluated the stress response of matrinxã to transportation procedures, and the use of clove oil as an alternative to reduce the stress response to transport in matrinxã (Brycon cephalus. Clove oil solutions were tested in concentrations of 0, 1, 5 and 10 mg/L during matrinxã transportation in plastic bags, supplied with water and oxygen as the usual field procedures in Brazil. Clove oil reduced some of the physiological stress responses (plasma cortisol, glucose and ions that we measured. The high energetic cost to matrinxã cope with the transport stress was clear by the decrease of liver glycogen after transport. Our results suggest that clove oil (5 mg/l can mitigate the stress response in matrinxã subjected to transport.O transporte de peixes vivos é certamente um dos principais estímulos adversos à homeostase dos peixes nas condições de criação em cativeiro. O presente trabalho mensurou o estresse do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, quando submetido ao transporte em sacos plásticos, bem como avaliou os efeitos do uso do anestésico óleo de cravo nessa etapa do manejo. Foram testadas as concentrações de 0, 1, 5 e 10 mg/L de óleo de cravo em bolsas plásticas preenchidas com água e oxigênio, de acordo com as práticas comumente utilizadas no Brasil. O óleo de cravo reduziu algumas das principais respostas ao estresse (cortisol, glicose plasmática e íons mensuradas. O alto gasto de energia para o matrinxã tolerar o transporte foi evidenciado pela diminuição dos valores de glicogênio hepático. Os resultados sugerem que o óleo de cravo em concentração de 5 mg/L pode atenuar as principais respostas de estresse do matrinxã durante o transporte.

  12. Benzocaine and eugenol as anesthetics for Brycon hilarii - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16644

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Bittencourt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic products are frequently employed during fish handling practices; however, the correct doses of the various chemicals for different species are still unknown. This study determined the ideal concentrations of benzocaine and eugenol as anesthetics used in Brycon hilarii juveniles. The fish were acquired from a commercial fish farm located in western Paraná state, Brazil, totaling 104 juveniles, with average body weight and length of 50.04 ± 20.80 g and 16.30 ± 12.32 cm respectively. The study was carried out at the Aquiculture Laboratory from the Aquaculture Management Study Group - GEMAq at the West Parana State University. Five benzocaine concentrations (50.0, 100.0, 150.0, 200.0 and 250.0 mg L-1 and seven eugenol concentrations (50.0, 100.0, 150.0, 200.0, 250.0, 300.0 and 350 mg L-1 were evaluated in order to assess the induction time to anesthesia. The fish were transferred to anesthetic-free tanks to recover, and the time needed to return to normal activity was recorded. The best results were observed with the benzocaine dose of 100 mg L-1 and the eugenol dose between 100 and 150 mg L-1.  

  13. Feeding and social behavior of the piabanha, Brycon devillei (Castelnau, 1855 (Characidae: Bryconinae in the wild, with a note on following behavior

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    Pedro G Azevedo

    Full Text Available Knowledge concerning the behavior of wild freshwater fishes in Brazil is restricted to a few studies, despite such studies being able to answer fundamental questions about conservation. Species of Brycon are amongst the most threatened in the Neotropics, particularly in southeast Brazil, due to anthropogenic activities in this region. This study investigated the feeding and social behaviors of the endangered fish, Brycon devillei in the Preto River, Jequitinhonha basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Behavioral data were collected by snorkeling with four spatially separated groups (habituated, and direct observations of shoals were made using an underwater video camera (a total of 448 hours of observations. This species showed diverse tactics to obtain food. However, the species proved to be predominately a specialist surface-picker, which adopted alternative tactics to find food at certain times of the year, most notably when food items on the water surface became low. Feeding frequency was shown to be negatively correlated to agonistic behavior between conspecifics. Feeding associations were also recorded between the anostomid Leporinus garmani, acting as a nuclear species, and B. devillei, as follower species. The data presented here showed the importance of conserving the riparian environment to protect B. devillei populations. Furthermore, the present study included rare observations of nuclear-follower feeding association among freshwater fishes, especially between medium-sized characiforms, being the first observations of such kind in a Cerrado stream.

  14. Juveniles of the piscivorous dourado Salminus brasiliensis mimic the piraputanga Brycon hilarii as an alternative predation tactic

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    Eduardo Bessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the district of Bom Jardim, in Nobres, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, there are clear water streams originating on karstic terrain. The dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, is an apex stalking predator in these streams. In clear waters, where visually oriented prey may perceive predator in advance, surprise is needed for successful attacks. These streams are cohabited by other Characiformes, like the frugivorous piraputanga Brycon hilarii, which lives in schools and exhibits body colour and shape similar to the dourados. Here we describe an alternative predatory tactic for juvenile dourado occurring in headwater streams of the Paraguay River basin, in which they act as an aggressive mimic of the piraputanga. Based on 43 h of observations in Bom Jardim, and on additional 11 h in the Bodoquena Plateau Rivers of Mato Grosso do Sul State, we quantified the number of rushes by dourados when they were among piraputangas or foraging alone, and observed the proportion of piraputangas per dourado in multispecific schools. Dourados of up to 30 cm total length (TL stayed among the piraputangas of similar size hiding within the school and going to the periphery of the school before rushing against prey. The dourados exhibited colours similar to the piraputangas. They not only stayed longer among piraputangas (78% of the observation time, but also rushed against prey more often than when foraging alone (53 rushes/h against 14 rushes/h, respectively.No distrito de Bom Jardim, Nobres, Mato Grosso, Brasil, existem rios de águas claras que se originam sobre terreno cárstico. O dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, é um predador perseguidor de topo de cadeia nestes rios. Em águas, onde presas visualmente orientadas são capazes de perceber antecipadamente o predador, o fator surpresa é necessário para ataques bem sucedidos. Estes córregos são coabitados por outros Characiformes, como a frugívora piraputanga, Brycon hilarii, a qual vive em cardumes e exibe colora

  15. Caracterización de la diversidad genética en el pez Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae en Colombia central por medio de marcadores RAPD

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    Hermes Pineda Santis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento sobre la diversidad genética de especies nativas de peces, es esencial para la conservación y manejo apropiado de animales en los programas de repoblación. Brycon henni ha sido reportada en las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena y Cauca; actualmente, la especie ha disminuido su número de animales y reducido su distribución geográfica como consecuencia de los efectos antrópicos. Por lo tanto, es necesario conocer el componente genético de los reducidos grupos de animales en los riachuelos, para iniciar algunos programas de repoblación. En este estudio el Polimorfismo de ADN Amplificado al Azar (RAPD, fue utilizado para estimar el componente genético actual en esta especie. Para este propósito; se evaluaron seis sitios de muestreo localizados en el departamento de Antioquia, cordillera Central de Colombia. De cuarenta iniciadores utilizados, treinta y cinco de ellos (87.5 % produjeron 1 466 fragmentos reproducibles y consistentes; 417 fueron considerados como fragmentos únicos, que permitieron discriminar entre las muestras de las cuencas de los ríos Magdalena (Humarada-1 y Humarada-2 y Cauca (Piedras, La Clara y Guaracú, sugiriendo que cada una es una unidad discreta. Esta diversidad en los resultados, según el sitio de muestreo y por las características de cada uno de ellos, posiblemente sugiere, que los efectos antrópicos como presión por pesca, construcción de embalses, deforestación y contaminación del agua, han contribuido al aislamiento de estos grupos de peces en las zonas de alta montaña. Brycon moorei y Colossoma macropomum, como grupos de control inter especifico, se ubicaron fuera del grupo general de B. henni, confirmando su clasificación taxonómica mediante datos morfológicos. La técnica de RAPD fue útil para conocer la diversidad genética y discriminar entre poblaciones de B. henni de diferente origen geográfico, ello permitiría realizar un plan apropiado de conservación y manejo en medio

  16. Novelty of the arena impairs the cortisol-related increase in the aggression of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Mônica; Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2015-03-15

    The dichotomic effect of a cortisol level rise in vertebrate behavior has been widely observed. Generally, a chronic increase of the hormone level inhibits aggression, while an acute rise increases aggression. However, in this study, we show that this increase in aggression through an acute rise of cortisol also depends on the context in which the agonistic interaction occurs in the tropical fish matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. We combined two factors: the type of housing (resident or non-resident in the trial arena) and the level of cortisol at the beginning of the fight (normal level - control, or high level - hydrocortisone-treated fish). The cortisol treatment increased the aggressiveness in the resident fish, but this effect was not observed in the non-resident fish, which fought in an unknown arena. The novelty of the arena may have elicited an "alerted state" in the non-resident fish; in this situation the fight was not the priority, and the cortisol effect in aggression could be impaired by a conflict between motivational systems (fear and aggression). In our knowledge, in fish, the increase of aggression promoted by an acute rise in cortisol levels was always tested and observed in a resident context, and the inhibition of cortisol effect in the agonist behavior is demonstrated for the first time. As the cortisol effect in aggression is observed in several taxa, the inhibition of aggressiveness increased by the novelty of the arena should be investigated in other groups to clarify the dynamics of this effect of cortisol in animal behavior.

  17. VALOR AGREGADO DE LAS ESPECIES Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE y Agouti paca (MAJAS

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    Doylith Vásquez Jurafo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo  la obtención de  productos mínimamente procesados (PMP de Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE, y Agouti paca (MAJAS congelado y empacado al vacio. Para las especies piscícolas, se ha aplicado un diseño factorial de 32 con dos factores de estudios: concentración de NaCl en la solución osmótica con tres niveles (15, 20 y 25 % y temperatura de proceso  con tres niveles de estudio (5, 10 y 15 °C. Para el Agouti paca (majas se aplico un diseño factorial completamente aleatorizado con tres factores de estudio: tiempo de proceso (30, 60 y 90 minutos, método de ahumado (ahumado líquido y ahumado en caliente y tipo de corte del músculo (partes y filetes. Para trabajar se ha diseñado y montado un deshidratador Osmótico teniendo en cuenta, diámetro de tubería, deshidratador propiamente dicho con doble chaqueta, capacidad del deshidratador en función del volumen de la Salmuera.  Todos los productos se obtuvieron  en procesos con 10 °C y tiempos entre 30 min y  90 min. El tiempo de vida en almacenamiento en las evaluaciones de aroma y color en majas tienen una vida útil de 4 meses de almacenados a -18 °C. Los análisis microbiológicos realizados a los PMP no pasan los límites de la NTS Nº 071 MINSA/DIGESA V01.

  18. VALOR AGREGADO DE LAS ESPECIES Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE y Agouti paca (MAJAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doylith Vásquez Jurafo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la obtención de productos mínimamente procesados (PMP de Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE, y Agouti paca (MAJAS congelado y empacado al vacio. Para las especies piscícolas, se ha aplicado un diseño factorial de 32 con dos factores de estudios: concentración de NaCl en la solución osmótica con tres niveles (15, 20 y 25 % y temperatura de proceso con tres niveles de estudio (5, 10 y 15 °C. Para el Agouti paca (majas se aplicó un diseño factorial completamente aleatorizado con tres factores de estudio: tiempo de proceso (30, 60 y 90 minutos, método de ahumado (ahumado líquido y ahumado en caliente y tipo de corte del músculo (partes y filetes. Para trabajar se ha diseñado y montado un deshidratador Osmótico teniendo en cuenta, diámetro de tubería, deshidratador propiamente dicho con doble chaqueta, capacidad del deshidratador en función del volumen de la Salmuera.  Todos los productos se obtuvieron en procesos con 10 °C y tiempos entre 30 min y 90 min. El tiempo de vida en almacenamiento en las evaluaciones de aroma y color en majas tienen una vida útil de 4 meses de almacenados a -18 °C. Los análisis microbiológicos realizados a los PMP no pasan los límites de la NTS Nº 071 MINSA/DIGESA V01.

  19. Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913 EFFECT OF SOME IONS ON SPERM ACTIVATION IN Brycon henni (EIGENMANN 1913

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    JAVIER TABARES

    2007-06-01

    M (p<0.05. The conclusion is that interaction of the ionic environment with the cell membrane leads to changes in membrane potential and intracellular signalling that trigger sperm motility in Brycon henni.

  20. Evaluación del cultivo de la dorada ( Brycon moorei sinuensis en jaulas flotantes utilizando cuatro alimentos concentrados.

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    Robinsón Rosado

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se inició el 30 de septiembre del2000 con el cultivo de Dorada (Brycon mooreisinuensis en jaulas flotantes en el reservorio de laGranja Piscícola Tamarindo (El Espinal, Colombia,utilizando cuatro alimentos concentrados durante 180días. Se determinó el crecimiento mediante laganancia en longitud, ganancia en peso, tasa decrecimiento específico, sobre-vivencia final, biomasatotal, factor de condición, factor de conversiónalimenticia. Se sembraron 816 juveniles con longitudpromedio de 17.8 cm y peso promedio de 78.9 g,divididos en cuatro tratamientos con densidad desiembra de 25 peces/cm3 y tres réplicas cada uno.Las dietas balanceadas (proteína bruta y la cantidadde energía (Kcal/Kg suministrada fueron: Tratamiento1: 20% y 2637; tratamiento 2: 32% y 3127;tratamiento 3: 28% y 2852; y tratamiento 4: 24% y2751, respectivamente. El diseño experimental fuecompletamente aleatorio y se aplicó la técnica deanálisis de varianza a los datos biométricos yparámetros físico-químicos. Como prueba designificancia se usó la prueba de Tukey-Kramer con95% de confiabilidad. El modelo matemático de VIONBERTALANFY y la transformación de FOR-WALFORDfueron válidos para el ajuste de las curvas decrecimiento en longitud, peso y la relación longitud– peso. Se puede afirmar que la Dorada consumiólas dietas de origen vegetal de igual manera que lasde origen animal, sin embargo la dieta del 28% deproteína bruta (tratamiento 3 muestra los mejoresresultados, sin diferencias significativas entretratamientos (p > 0.05. De acuerdo con la literaturacitada no hay investigaciones que muestren losrequerimientos nutricionales óptimos para laalimentación de esta especie. En todos los trabajosanteriores, la ganancia de peso diaria fue baja, peromejores que las obtenidas en esta investigación.Mientras que el rendimiento en biomasa fue mayorque los reportados para cultivo en tierra, para todoslos tratamientos en este estudio fue muy bajo.

  1. LD5o of the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila to matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus DL5o da bactéria Aeromonas hydrophila para o matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus

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    Sarah Ragonha de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the lethal dose (96-h LD50 of the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila to matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, to be applied in challenge tests, 90 fish (63.23 ± 6.39 g were divided into five treatments, with different bacterial solutions: T1 - Control (0.9% NaCl saline solution; T2 (4 x 10(11 cells/ mL; T3 (5 x 10(11 cells/ mL; T4 (1.36 x 10(12 cells/ mL and T5 (3.06 x 10(12 cells/ mL. Fish were previously anesthetized with benzocaine (60 mg L-1, inoculated in the peritoneal cavity with the bacterial suspensions and then distributed into fifteen 80-L test chambers, where the water variables were monitored and fish mortality was observed. The experiment was randomly designed in three replicates and the 96-h LD50 was estimated according to the trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Water quality variables remained within adequate ranges for fish health and performance. Fish mortality rate increased with the bacterial concentrations of A. hydrophila (T1 = 0%; T2 = 16.66%; T3 = 44.44%; T4 = 72.22% and T5 = 100%, and the first mortalities were observed after 57 h, although the signs of the bacterial infection were already observed 24 h after the inoculation. The results indicate that the 96-h LD50 value of A. hydrophila to matrinxã is 6.66 x 10(11 cells/ mL.Para determinar a dose letal (DL50 96-h da bactéria Aeromonas hydrophila para o matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, com aplicabilidade para testes de desafio, foram utilizados 90 peixes (63,23 ± 6,39 g, divididos em cinco tratamentos, com diferentes soluções bacterianas: T1 - Controle (solução salina 0,9% NaCl; T2 (4 x 10(11 células/ mL; T3 (5 x 10(11 células/ mL-1; T4 (1,36 x 10(12 células/mL-1 e T5 (3,06 x 10(12 células/ mL-1. Os peixes foram previamente anestesiados com benzocaína (60 mg L-1, inoculados na cavidade peritoneal com as suspensões bacterianas e distribuídos em 15 aquários de vidro de 80 L de capacidade, com aeração constante. O experimento teve duração de 96 h, no

  2. Efeito do manejo alimentar no desempenho do matrinxã Brycon amazonicus em tanques de cultivo Effect of the feed management on performance of Matrinxã Brycon amazonicus in rearing ponds

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    Célia Maria Frasca-Scorvo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do horário, taxa e freqüência de alimentação no desempenho do matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus em tanques de cultivo. O trabalho foi realizado no Centro de Aqüicultura da UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP, no período de outubro de 1997 a janeiro de 1998 sendo realizados três ensaios, em tanques de 200m² subdivididos em 4 de 50 m². No ensaio I foram medidos em 3 períodos (manhã-m; meio do dia-md e tarde-t o consumo de ração, índice de ingestão, tempo de saciação e velocidade de ingestão em peixes com peso médio de 232,13 g, alimentados com ração extrusada (32% de PB. Não foi observada diferença significativa nos parâmetros analisados. No ensaio II, em peixes com peso médio de 233,98 g, foi medido o consumo médio de ração, em intervalos de duas horas, das 07 às 19 horas. O maior consumo ocorreu quando o matrinxã foi alimentado às 17 horas. No ensaio III, durante 57 dias, os peixes foram alimentados uma vez ao dia (m; uma vez ao dia (t; duas vezes ao dia(m/t e três vezes ao dia (m,md,t. Peixes com peso médio inicial de 322,25 g receberam ração com 32% de PB, na quantidade de 2% do PV. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas no ganho de peso diário (3,17; 2,80; 3,04 e 2,81 g e na conversão alimentar aparente (2,11; 2,48; 2,16 e 2,31:1. Concluiu-se que a freqüência de alimentação de uma vez ao dia, em qualquer horário, mostrou ser suficiente.The objective of this study was the identification of effect of period, number of meals, ration feed and frequency of feeding on performance of Matrinxã Brycon amazonicus. The work was carried out on the Aquaculture Center of UNESP in Jaboticabal, SP. The observations were accomplished in three stages, from October 1997 to January 1998 in 16 ponds of 50m². In the first stage it was analyzed the feed consumption, ingestion index and satiation time. Fishes with initial average weight of 232.13g were fed extruded ration of CP 32% in

  3. Efecto de la pluviosidad y el brillo solar sobre la producción y características del semen en el pez Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tabares, C. J.; Montoya, A. F.; Arboleda, L.; Echeverri, A; Restrepo, L. F.; M Olivera-Angel

    2014-01-01

    El pez Brycon henni es una especie endémica protegida por la legislación colombiana, que habita cuerpos de agua de zonas cafeteras (700-1900 m.s.n.m), comprendidas entre los 4º35’56’’ N y 74º04’51’’ W, con temperaturas que oscilan entre los 18 y los 28ºC. A pesar de las características promisorias de esta especie, su reproducción en cautiverio a nivel comercial no ha sido posible por falta de conocimientos básicos de su biología y comportamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracteri...

  4. Probiotic in feeding of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus: economic viability - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.13257

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Romagosa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the economic feasibility of supplement probiotics Bacillus subtilis to “matrinxã” Brycon amazonicus, raised in cages. The experiment was conducted at the Polo Regional Vale do Ribeira, in Pariquera-açu municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, from February to July 2009. A total of 960 juvenile matrinxã were stocked in twelve 2.7 m³-net cages (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.2 m, in ponds with a total area of 600 m2 and an average depth of 1.50 m. The tests were conducted with a control treatment (T1 and two probiotic doses (T2 = 5 g and T3 = 10 g kg-1 of diet with four replicates. Results showed that T2 produced better economic performance for matrinxã at the juvenile stage in intensive rearing system.

  5. Description of the composition of fatty acids and lipids in the breeders muscle, oocytes and in the embryonic development of Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fatima Ferreira Martins, Edenilce; Magnone, Larisa; Bessonart, Martin; Costa, Deliane Cristina; Dos Santos, José Cláudio Epaminondas; Bazzoli, Nilo; Nakayama, Cintia Labussière; Luz, Ronald Kennedy

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the fatty acid and lipid composition of oocytes, newly hatched larvae (NHL), first feeding larvae (FFL) and muscle tissue of female Brycon orthotaenia broodstock. Total and polar lipid was significantly (P0.05) between stages. C18:3n 3 was highest (P<0.05) in NHL and FFL. C20:4n 6 (AA) and C22:6n 3 (DHA) showed the highest percentages during the larval stages. The fatty acids n-3 series was significantly higher (P<0.05) in FFL. The n-6HUFA was highest during development larval (P<0.05). The increases DHA reflects the ability of the species to elongate and desaturate to obtain n-3HUFA from 18:3n 3, shows the importance of this fatty acid during early development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Efectos del sistema de conservación sobre la fertilidad de oocitos de yamú (Brycon amazonicus) durante cortos períodos de almacenamiento

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Corredor-Santamaría, Wilson; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo fue evaluar los efectos del sistema de conservación sobre la fertilidad de oocitos de yamú (Brycon amazonicus) durante cortos períodos de almacenamiento. Se utilizaron hembras y machos adultos tratados con extracto de hipófisis de carpa para estimular la ovulación y aumentar el volumen...... seminal. Oocitos obtenidos de la misma hembra fueron sometidos a tres sistemas de conservación: in situ (IS, mantenidos dentro de la cavidad ovárica), ex situ a temperatura ambiente (T°A) y ex situ a temperatura de refrigeración (T°R). El diámetro ovocitario (DO) y la viabilidad fueron evaluados a los 0...... larvas. Bajo los tres sistemas de conservación, DO aumentó con el tiempo, siendo mayor (psistemas de conservación IS y a T°A, la...

  7. Ecología trófica de la Sabaleta Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae en el río Portugal de Piedras, Alto Cauca, Colombia

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    Alvaro Botero-Botero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la ecología trófica de la sabaleta (Brycon henni en el río Portugal de Piedras, cordillera Oriental, departamento del Valle del Cauca. Materiales y métodos. Desde octubre de 2008 hasta junio de 2009 se realizaron pescas exploratorias y se determinaron parámetros físico y químicos del hábitat. Los ejemplares capturados fueron eviscerados y el contenido estomacal fue determinado hasta el mínimo taxón posible. Resultados. La especie presenta una dieta generalista que incluye 35 categorías alimenticias, con tendencia al consumo de larvas y ninfas de insectos acuáticos entre los cuales se destacan tricópteros, dípteros y odonatos; también, consume organismos alóctonos al cauce como hormigas (Hymenoptera, escarabajos (Coleoptera y material vegetal: frutos, semillas y hojas. La relación longitud intestino (LI vs. longitud estándar (LS indican que la especie presenta características propias de una especie carnívora (LI = -13.8728 + 1.02377*LS, r= 0.35, n= 22, a su vez, el peso total (PT depende directamente de la longitud total (LT y LS del pez (PT = -49.308 + 0.609962*LT; r= 0.92 n=30; PT = -41.6011 + 0.672529*LS; r= 0.89, n=30, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La sabaleta (Brycon henni presentó caracteristicas de una especie carnivora.

  8. Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913 Efecto de algunos iones sobre la activación espermática en Brycon henni (Eigenmann 1913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Martha

    2007-04-01

    +, Mg2+ and Na+ as well as the effect of channel blocking agents. The parameters measured were cells with motility (%, duration of motility (s, plasma membrane potential, and the effect of channel blockers on activation time and on motility. There was an increased motility when the semen was incubated in solutions containing K+ (p<0.05 compared with the control (CaNaMgK solution; the longest duration of motility was attained when the incubation was performed in solutions containing Na+ and Mg2+ (p<0.05. All solutions induced a change in membrane potential detected
    after 15 s of activation. Blocking K+, Ca2+ and Na+ channels did not alter motility but decreased the activation time (p<0.05. Potassium induced activation at all concentrations up to 105 mM, but motility was drastically decreased at concentrations higher than 140 mM (p<0.05. The conclusion is that interaction of the ionic environment with the cell membrane leads to changes in membrane potential and intracellular signalling that trigger sperm motility in Brycon henni.

  9. Influence of food restriction on the reproduction and larval performance of matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix and Agassiz, 1829

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    ACS. Camargo

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of food restriction and refeeding of matrinxã females, Brycon amazonicus, on their reproductive performance and on the growth and survival of the progeny. Broodstocks were distributed in 8 earthen tanks (15 fish/tank and fish from 4 tanks were fed daily (G1 while fish from the other 4 tanks were fed for 3 days and not fed for 2 days (G2 during 6 months prior to artificial spawning. Among the induced females, 57% in G1 group and 45% in G2 group spawned and the mean egg weights were 208.1 g (G1 and 131.6 g (G2. Oocytes of G2 fish were smaller (1.017 ± 0.003 mm than oocytes of G1 fish (1.048 ± 0.002 mm. Fertilization (71.91 ± 12.6% and 61.18 ± 13.7% and hatching (61.28 ± 33.9% and 67.50 ± 23.4% rates did not differ between G1 and G2 fish. Larvae were collected at hatching and at 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation and fixed for growth measurement. After incubation, fry were transferred to aquaria and sampled 1, 5, 9 and 15 days later. G1 and G2 larvae had similar weight (1.51 ± 0.15 and 1.46 ± 0.07 mg but the G2 length was significantly higher (6.26 ± 0.13 and 6.74 ± 0.14 mm. By the ninth day of rearing, G2 fry had higher weight (13.6 ± 0.26 and 18.9 ± 0.07 mg and length (11.8 ± 0.09 and 14.5 ± 0.04 mm but by the fifteenth day, G1 fry had higher weight (90.2 ± 1.19 and 68.6 ± 0.77 mg and length (18.8 ± 0.16 and 18.5 ± 0.04 mm than G2 fry. By the ninth day of rearing, when fry are recommended to be transferred to outdoor tanks, G2 fry were larger and after 15 days, fry produced by restricted-fed females showed higher survival. The survival rate of G2 progeny by the fifteenth day was significantly higher (24.7 ± 2.07% than that of G1 progeny (19.2 ± 1.91%. The ration restriction (35% reduction imposed on matrinxã broodstock during 6 months prior to spawning reduced the number of spawned females and the egg amount, but it did not affect fertilization and hatching rates. Otherwise restricted

  10. Ontogenic changes in the feeding habits of the fishes Agonostomus monticola (Mugilidae and Brycon behreae (Characidae, Térraba River, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Cotta-Ribeiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las dietas de los peces varían con respecto a la calidad, la cantidad y el tamaño del alimento. Esta variación puede deberse a factores como la estacionalidad y la fase del desarrollo del individuo. Estudiamos los cambios ontogénicos en los hábitos alimentarios de dos peces dulceacuícolas, Agonostomus monticola y Brycon behreae, de la Cuenca del Río Térraba, Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. Ambas poblaciones son omnívoras, pero con cambios ontogénicos en la cantidad y calidad de los ítemes consumidos. Conforme crecía, A. monticola modificó su dieta de insectívora hacia un mayor consumo de materia vegetal, asociado con un aumento en la longitud relativa del intestino. Aunque mantuvo su dependencia de alimentos vegetales, B. behreae diversificó su dieta de dos formas. Primero, pasó de partes suaves de plantas a semillas, hojas y frutos. Luego, los ítemes cambiaron de insectos hacia una dieta más carnívora (peces y camarones. Estos hallazgos para ambas especies enfatizan la importancia de proteger la vegetación riparia de estos ecosistemas tropicales.Fish diets can vary in food quality, quantity and size. The variation can be caused by several factors, including season and the ontogenic phase of the individual (McCormick 1998. We studied the ontogenic changes in feeding habits of two freshwater fishes, Agonostomus monticola and Brycon behreae, from the Térraba River basin, South Pacific of Costa Rica. Both populations were omnivorous, but displayed ontogenic shifts in terms of quantity and quality of the food items consumed. As it grew, A. monticola modified its diet from insectivorous towards a higher consumption of vegetables, which was accompanied by an increase in relative length of the intestine. While remaining dependent on vegetation as staple food, B. behreae diversified its diet in two ways. Initially, from soft plant parts to seeds, leaves, and fruits. Secondly, prey items changed from insects into a more carnivore diet

  11. Ontogenic changes in the feeding habits of the fishes Agonostomus monticola (Mugilidae and Brycon behreae (Characidae, Térraba River, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Cotta-Ribeiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las dietas de los peces varían con respecto a la calidad, la cantidad y el tamaño del alimento. Esta variación puede deberse a factores como la estacionalidad y la fase del desarrollo del individuo. Estudiamos los cambios ontogénicos en los hábitos alimentarios de dos peces dulceacuícolas, Agonostomus monticola y Brycon behreae, de la Cuenca del Río Térraba, Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. Ambas poblaciones son omnívoras, pero con cambios ontogénicos en la cantidad y calidad de los ítemes consumidos. Conforme crecía, A. monticola modificó su dieta de insectívora hacia un mayor consumo de materia vegetal, asociado con un aumento en la longitud relativa del intestino. Aunque mantuvo su dependencia de alimentos vegetales, B. behreae diversificó su dieta de dos formas. Primero, pasó de partes suaves de plantas a semillas, hojas y frutos. Luego, los ítemes cambiaron de insectos hacia una dieta más carnívora (peces y camarones. Estos hallazgos para ambas especies enfatizan la importancia de proteger la vegetación riparia de estos ecosistemas tropicales.

  12. Morphological, ultrastructural and phylogenetic analyses of Myxobolus hilarii n. sp. (Myxozoa, Myxosporea), a renal parasite of farmed Brycon hilarii in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodifoglio, Kassia R H; Adriano, Edson A; Milanin, Tiago; Silva, Marcia R M; Maia, Antônio A M

    2016-06-01

    Myxobolus hilarii n. sp. was described, based on morphology, histology, ultrastructure and 18S rDNA sequencing, infecting the kidney of Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes 1850) (Characiformes: Bryconidae) taken from fish farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Thirteen specimens of B. hilarii were examined and 100% had round, white plasmodia in the kidney. The mature myxospores were rounded, measuring 11.5 ± 0.8 (9.8-13.4) μm in length, 11.0 ± 0.7 (9.7-12.4) μm in width and 7.6 ± 1.0 (6.7-9.0) μm in thickness. Polar capsules were elongated and of equal size, with 6.5 ± 0.4 (6.0-7.2) μm in length and 4.0 ± 0.2 (3.6-5.3) μm in width and their polar filaments had 5 to 7 coils. Histological analysis revealed plasmodial development in the renal tubules, causing compression and deformation of adjacent tissues and destruction of renal tubule cells. Ultrastructural analysis showed direct contact between the plasmodial wall and the host tissue and asynchronous plasmodial development. The phylogenetic analysis of South American myxobolids, based on 18S rDNA sequencing, showed the myxosporeans grouping into two main clades. M. hilarii n. sp. appears as sister species of Myxobolus piraputangae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolamento, caracterização de locos microssatélites e estimativa da variabilidade genética de Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) (Characidae: Bryconinae) em ambiente natural e cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo , Gisele Torres Clímaco de

    2012-01-01

    A pesca e aquicultura são atividades econômicas de grande importância para a Região Amazônica, tanto para fins de subsistência como para fins comerciais. Dentre as espécies nativas de exploração na aquicultura, o matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) destaca-se por apresentar bom ganho de peso e boa taxa de crescimento em cativeiro, aceitar as rações comerciais com facilidade e conseguir bons resultados na reprodução induzida. Entretanto, é importante saber como se encontra o perfil genético desse pei...

  14. Efectos del sistema de conservación sobre la fertilidad de oocitos de yamú (Brycon amazonicus) durante cortos períodos de almacenamiento

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Corredor-Santamaría, Wilson; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo fue evaluar los efectos del sistema de conservación sobre la fertilidad de oocitos de yamú (Brycon amazonicus) durante cortos períodos de almacenamiento. Se utilizaron hembras y machos adultos tratados con extracto de hipófisis de carpa para estimular la ovulación y aumentar el volumen...... larvas. Bajo los tres sistemas de conservación, DO aumentó con el tiempo, siendo mayor (pmayores DO fueron observados en oocitos conservados a T°R (p

  15. Comparative study on hematological parameters of farmed matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Characidae: Bryconinae with others Bryconinae species Estudo comparativo sobre parâmetros hematológicos de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Spix e Agassiz, 1892(Characidae: Bryconinae criados em cativeiro, com outras espécies de Bryconinae

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was not only to determine the red blood cells parameters, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts in farmed Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, to compare these parameters among Bryconinae species from literature, and also to investigate the presence of special granulocytic cells in these fish. The results of the blood cells parameters here established for farmed B. amazonicus, a species of great economic importance in Brazilian aquaculture, could help a better understanding of the blood features in natural populations of this Amazon species. Blood parameters varied between Bryconinae species investigated, mainly the red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. The presence of the blood granulocytes, neutrophils and heterophils in matrinxã suggest that both leukocytes can be a characteristic for Bryconinae family. Furthermore, it indicates that the existence of special granulocytic cells in the blood of Bryconinae species from literature is an artifact, and this was herein discussed.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os parâmetros eritrocíticos, as contagens de trombócitos e de leucócitos de espécimes de Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, criados em cativeiro e compará-los com aqueles descritos na literatura para outras espécies de Bryconinae. Além disso, foi ainda investigada a presença de células granulocíticas especiais nestes peixes. Os resultados dos parâmetros sangüíneos apresentados para B. amazonicus podem ajudar a entender melhor as características sangüíneas em população natural desta espécie de grande importância para a aqüicultura brasileira. Os parâmetros sangüíneos das espécies de Bryconinae investigadas apresentaram variação interespecíficas principalmente a contagem de eritrócitos, hemoglobina, hematócrito e volume corpuscular médio (VCM. A presença dos granulócitos sangüíneos, neutrófilos e heterófilos em matrinxã sugere que esta pode ser uma

  16. Criação e domesticação de fêmeas de Brycon siebenthalae destinadas a reprodução - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1860 Breeding and domesticating Brycon siebenthalae females for reproduction - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1860

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    Walter Vásquez-Torres

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Brycon siebenthalae (yamú (Characidae tem uma natureza indomável, apresentando respostas ao estresse intensas e duradouras. Três grupos de fêmeas foram tratados com hormônios gonadotróficos para induzir a maturação final e desova, buscando avaliar o efeito da manipulação das fêmeas durante o período de maturação gonadal. O primeiro e segundo grupo eram formados por peixes de quatro anos de idade criados em viveiros de terra. As fêmeas do primeiro grupo foram submetidas ao manejo mensal de “domesticação” a partir do sexto mês de idade. O segundo grupo foi submetido a esse manejo com freqüência anual. O terceiro grupo de fêmeas foi capturado do ambiente natural. As fêmeas submetidas ao manejo mensal apresentaram melhores resultados referente a resposta ao tratamento hormonal, a fecundiade relativa e a sobrevivência após o manejo da reprodução. Os distintos procedimentos de manejo das fêmeas durante a maturação gonadal não afetaram (p>0,05 a taxa de fertilização e a sobrevivência dos ovos e larvas provenientes dos diferentes grupos.Brycon siebenthalae (yamú (Characidae have quite an untamable “nature”, with intense, enduring responses to stress. Three groups of females were induced to spawn in order to study the effects of manipulation during breeding. Groups one and two were formed by four year-old specimens bred in earth ponds. Females from group one and two were subjected to monthly and anual “domestication” practices, respectively, from the time they were six months old. The third group of females was brought from the natural environment. It was observed that females bred and monthly tamed had better induction responses, relative fecundity and post-spawn survival. The physiological responses to different stress situations during the reproductive procedure did not significantly affect (p>0.05 fertility and embryonic and larval survival among groups.

  17. Cultivo de matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864 em tanques-rede, em diferentes densidades de estocagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.3687 Matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia rearing in floating cage in different stocking densities - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.3687

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    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento avaliou o desempenho e sobrevivência de juvenis de matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia cultivados em tanques-rede de 4 m3, por 197 dias, em três densidades de estocagem: 20, 40 e 60 peixes m-3. Foram utilizados exemplares com 19,9 ± 0,3 cm de comprimento total e 90,0 ± 0,15 g de peso. Os animais foram alimentados com ração extrusada contendo 36% de proteína bruta. O comprimento total e o peso foram superiores (p -3. Valores intermediários e inferiores foram registrados para a densidade de 40 e 60 peixes m-3, respectivamente. A sobrevivência e o Fator de condição de Fulton foram semelhantes (p > 0,05 entre as diferentes densidades; porém, a biomassa produzida foi superior (p -3. O aumento da densidade de estocagem também resultou em crescimento mais homogêneo dos animais. Para juvenis de B. orthotaenia, o aumento na densidade de estocagem leva a maior biomassa final, peixes mais homogêneos, menor crescimento, mas não tem efeito na sobrevivência.This experiment evaluated the development and survival of matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia juveniles reared during a 197-day experiment, in a 4 m3 floating cage, in three stocking densities: 20, 40 and 60 fish m-3. Juveniles with 19.9 ± 0.3 cm of total length and 90.0 ± 0.15 g of weight were used. The animals were fed with floating pellets (commercial diet with 36% crude protein. The total length, and weight were higher (p -3. The density of 40 and 60 fish m-3 showed intermediary and low values, respectively. Survival and Fulton condition factor were similar (p > 0.05 among the different densities; however, the produced biomass was higher (p -3. The increased stocking density showed a more homogeneous growth. The increase in stocking density for B. orthotaenia juveniles presented a higher biomass, homogeneity of fishes, lesser growth, but had no effect in survival.

  18. Alterações bioquímicas post-mortem de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura, mantido em gelo Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice

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    Gilvan Machado Batista

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foram estudadas as alterações bioquímicas post-mortem que ocorreram em matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 procedente da piscicultura e mantido em gelo em Manaus - AM. Foi determinado o tempo de estocagem em gelo por meio das avaliações sensoriais físicas e gustativas, das análises de pH, Nitrogênio das Bases Voláteis Totais (N-BVT e bacteriológicas durante 29 dias. Foram determinados os índices de rigor-mortis, as concentrações de ATP e seus produtos de degradações e o valor K. De acordo com a composição química, o peixe foi classificado como "semi-gordo". Os peixes entraram em rigor-mortis aos 75 minutos após a morte por hipotermia, tendo permanecido durante 10 dias. As avaliações sensoriais (físicas e gustativas mostraram que os peixes apresentaram condição de consumo até 26 dias. As análises de ATP e de seus produtos de degradação mostraram que a referida espécie foi considerada formadora de inosina (HxR, nas condições de experimento. O valor K mostrou que os exemplares de matrinxãs permaneceram "muito frescos" até 16 dias de estocagem em gelo, concordante com a avaliação sensorial gustativa.Post-mortem biochemical alterations in aquacultured matrinxã fish Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 when stored on ice in Manaus-AM, were studied in this paper. The storage time on ice was determined through tasting and physical sensory evaluations, pH, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVB-N and bacteriological analyses during 29 days. Rigor-mortis index, ATP-related compounds and K value were also determined. Chemical composition demonstrated that fish was classified as "semi-fat". The specimens presented rigor-mortis 75 minutes after death caused by hypothermia and remained that way for 10 days. Shelf life time on ice was 26 days, according to sensory evaluations, pH, TVBN determinations and bacteriological analyses. ATP-related compounds pointed out that the referred species was considered to

  19. Reproduction of Pirapitinga do Sul (Brycon opalinus Cuvier, 1819) in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar-Núcleo Santa Virgínia, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize seasonally and locally the reproduction of Pirapitinga do Sul (Brycon opalinus). The study area included three rivers (Paraibuna, Ipiranga, and Grande) in the Santa Virgínia Unit of the Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Breeding occurred in spring, summer, and autumn. The L(50) and the L(100) of this species were 16 to 18 cm and 26 to 28 cm, respectively. Spawning was total, with synchronous development in two groups. The size of mature oocytes was 1,346.4 microm, reaching a maximum of 2,570.4 microm, with a mean fecundity of 9,190.5 oocytes. This species has external fertilization, is non-migratory, and lacks parental care of the young. Preservation of the Pirapitinga do Sul depends, in great part, on maintaining water quality, preservation of the riverine forests, and access to breeding areas.

  20. Avaliação de níveis protéicos para a nutrição de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus Evaluation of dietary protein contents for juvenile matrinxã (Brycon cephalus

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    Antônio Cláudio Uchôa Izel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O matrinxã (Brycon cephalus - Gunther, 1869, é uma espécie de peixe nativa da bacia Amazônica que tem despertado grande interesse entre pesquisadores e piscicultores de todo o Brasil. A crescente demanda pelo cultivo desta espécie em ambiente controlado se deve, principalmente, à sua pronta adaptação ao cativeiro e à aceitação de alimentos artificiais, tanto de origem vegetal quanto animal, ao lado do seu elevado valor comercial. Contudo, para ser um empreendimento comercial bem sucedido, o alimento a ser fornecido a esta espécie deve atender a suas necessidades em proteína e permitir elevados ganhos de peso em períodos curtos. O experimento foi conduzido na estação de aqüicultura da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental. Foram testados cinco níveis de proteína bruta (16, 19, 22, 25 e 28% em dietas isocalóricas (EB = 390 kcal/100g em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com três repetições para cada tratamento. Os resultados obtidos após 210 dias de estudo mostraram que a dieta contendo 28 % de proteína bruta promoveu o maior ganho de peso, melhor conversão alimentar e mais alto crescimento corporal entre os níveis testados, indicando que este nível protéico atendeu satisfatoriamente às necessidades de proteína para esta espécie, nas condições deste experimento.Matrinxã (Brycon cephalus - Gunther, 1869 a native fish species from the Amazon basin, has been causing a great deal of interest among researchers and fish culturists all over Brazil. The rising demand for the culture of this species in controlled environment is mainly due, to its ready adaptation to captivity, the acceptance of manufactured feed made with either animal or plant ingredients, along with its high commercial value. However, for a successful commercial enterprise, feed must meet protein requirements of the fish to allow high weight gain in a short period. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental aquaculture

  1. Interação do exercício de natação sustentada e da densidade de estocagem no desempenho e na composição corporal de juvenis de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Sustained swimming and stocking density interaction in the performance and body composition of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Alberto Arbeláez-Rojas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar o efeito da densidade de estocagem associada ao exercício de natação moderada no desempenho e na composição corporal de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus. Foram utilizados peixes com comprimento e peso médio inicial de 12,3±0,5cm e 18,4±0,1g, os quais foram distribuídos ao acaso em dois grupos: o primeiro grupo de peixes foi estocado em três densidades correspondendo a 88, 176 e 353 peixes m-3 e foi condicionado a nadar a uma velocidade de 1,0cc s-1 (comprimento corporal por segundo em tanques circulares de 250L, durante 70 dias. O segundo grupo de peixes foi mantido nas mesmas densidades em água parada (sem exercício perfazendo no total seis tratamentos com três repetições. Foram estimados parâmetros de desempenho e da composição corporal, particularmente do músculo branco e do músculo vermelho de ambos os grupos. Os resultados mostraram que o exercício e a densidade afetaram significativamente o crescimento e a composição dos músculos do matrinxã. O grupo de peixes criados sob exercício moderado na densidade de 176 peixes m-3 apresentou melhor desempenho (PThe aim of the present study was to gauge the effect of stocking density associated to the sustained swimming on the performance and body composition of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus juveniles. The fish were initially sized at 12.3±0.5cm length and 18.4g±0.1g weight. They were distributed randomly in two groups: the first was arranged into three densities of 88, 176 and 353 fish m-3 and conditioned to swim at 1.0BL sec-1 in circular tanks of 250L for 70 days; the second was arranged in the same fish densities but in static waters performing six treatments with three repetitions. Performance and body compositions were estimated in white and red muscles for both groups. The results express the growth and muscle composition change in response to the exercise and fish density. The fish maintained in moderate swimming at 176

  2. Determinação da razão ótima de espermatozóides por ovócitos de piabanha Brycon insignis (pisces - characidae Determination of the optimum ratio of spermatozoa per oocyte of the piabanha Brycon insignis

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    E. Shimoda

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a razão ótima de espermatozóides por ovócitos da piabanha Brycon insignis, utilizando-se dois machos e duas fêmeas da espécie, submetidos ao procedimento de desova induzida. Os gametas foram extrusados manualmente 200 horas-grau após a aplicação do extrato bruto de hipófise. Os ovócitos foram misturados e deste pool retiraram-se amostras com 2g de ovócitos (701 ovócitos/g. O sêmen do pool foi diluído em solução de NaCL 1,2% de tal forma que, após a adição de 1ml do sêmen diluído aos ovócitos, fossem obtidas as seguintes razões espermatozóides por ovócitos em cada tratamento: T1=86.662, T2=173.324, T3=259.986, T4=346.648 e T5=433.310. A taxa de fertilização do sêmen não diluído usado como controle foi de 65,3%. Após ativação espermática com NaHCO3 1% e fecundação, os ovos foram transferidos para as incubadoras e nelas foram observadas as seguintes percentagens de fertilização em relação à do grupo-controle: T1=35,7%, T2=53,1%, T3=79,1%, T4=93,4% e T5=87,8%. A percentagem de fertilização (em relação ao controle aumentou de forma linear, segundo a equação de regressão: Y=15,55+0,0002297X (PThe optimum spermatozoa:oocyte ratio of piabanha Brycon insignis was studied. Two males and two females were induced to spawn, and the gametes were stripped after 200 hourgrades starting from the application of carp pituitary gland. Oocytes from two females were mixed, and samples of 2g (701 oocytes/g were collected from the obtained pool and placed into plastic cups. The semen from the two males, after mixed to compose a pool, was diluted in NaCl solution (1.2% so that, after the addition of 1ml of diluted sperm into the oocytes, the following spermatozoa:oocyte ratios (tri-replicated were obtained: T1=86,662, T2=173,324, T3=259,986, T4=346,648 and T5=433,310. After the activation using 1% NaHCO3 and fertilization, the eggs were transferred to incubators, and observed the percentages of fertilization

  3. Physiological stress responses in the warm-water fish matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus subjected to a sudden cold shock Respostas fisiológicas ao estresse do peixe de águas tépidas matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus submetido à queda brusca de temperatura

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    Luis Antonio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated several aspects of the generalized stress response [endocrine (cortisol, metabolic (glucose, hematologic (hematocrit and hemoglobin and cellular (HSP70] in the Amazonian warm-water fish matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus subjected to an acute cold shock. This species farming has been done in South America, and growth and feed conversion rates have been interesting. However, in subtropical areas of Brazil, where the water temperature can rapidly change, high rates of matrinxã mortality have been associated with abrupt decrease in the water temperature. Thus, we subjected matrinxã to a sudden cold shock by transferring the fish directly to tanks in which the water temperature was 10ºC below the initial conditions (cold shock from 28ºC to 18ºC. After 1h the fish were returned to the original tanks (28ºC. The handling associated with tank transfer was also imposed on control groups (not exposed to cold shock. While exposure to cold shock did not alter the measured physiological conditions within 1h, fish returned to the ambient condition (water at 28º C significantly increased plasma cortisol and glucose levels. Exposure to cold shock and return to the warm water did not affect HSP70 levels. The increased plasma cortisol and glucose levels after returning the fish to warm water suggest that matrinxã requires cortisol and glucose for adaptation to increased temperature.O presente trabalho avaliou as principais respostas fisiológicas e celulares [endócrino (cortisol, metabólico (glicose, hematológico (hematócrito and hemoglobina e celular (HSP70] ao estresse de um peixe de águas tépidas, o matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus , quando submetido a um choque térmico frio abrupto. Essa espécie vem sendo amplamente cultivada na América do Sul por apresentar excelentes índices zootécnicos de crescimento e conversão alimentar. Entretanto, os produtores rurais encontram limitações no manejo do matrinxã, quando criado em

  4. Time of feed transition and inclusion levels of exogenous protease in rations for piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp. hatchery=Momento para a transição alimentar e níveis de inclusão de protease exógena na ração da larvicultura de piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Pelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted which consisted of determining the ideal time to make a feed transition from larvae of ‘curimba’ Prochilodus hartii to ration (from third, fifth and seventh days of life, with three days of co-feeding, and assess inclusion levels of exogenous protease (0, 0.02 and 0.2% in the diet of larvae of piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp., in a completely randomized experimental design and duration of 15 and 17 days, respectively. Biomass, survival, total length, weight and specific growth rate were measured at the end of the experiments. Water quality parameters were measured every three days. The different transition periods and levels of exogenous protease did not affect water quality. The animals subjected to feed transition on the seventh day of life showed better results for length (23.1 mm, weight (110.9 mg and SGR (25.5%, being similar in biomass and survival at the fifth day of life. Therefore, the transition can be made on the fifth day of life. The inclusion levels of exogenous protease in the commercial diet had no effect on performance.Foram realizados dois experimentos, que consistiram em determinar o momento ideal de se realizar a transição alimentar de larva de curimba Prochilodus hartii para ração (a partir do terceiro, quinto e sétimo dia de vida, com três dias de coalimentação, e avaliar níveis de inclusão de protease exógena (0; 0,02 e 0,2% na dieta de larvas de piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp., em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e duração de 15 e 17 dias, respectivamente. A biomassa, sobrevivência, comprimento total, peso médio e taxa de crescimento específico foram mensurados ao final dos experimentos. Já os parâmetros de qualidade de água foram aferidos a cada três dias. Os diferentes períodos de transição alimentar e níveis de protease exógena não interferiram na qualidade da água. Os animais submetidos à transição alimentar no sétimo dia de vida apresentaram melhores

  5. Variabilidad genética de Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae en la cuenca media de los ríos Nare y Guatapé, sistema Río Magdalena, Colombia

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    Julio César Hurtado-Alarcón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brycon henni es una especie nativa de la cuenca del río Magdalena, Colombia, donde es fuertemente explotada, por lo cual en este trabajo se estudió la variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional en individuos provenientes de la cuenca media de los ríos Nare y Guatapé, Antioquia. Se recolectaron 195 ejemplares y se les extrajo ADN genómico total del tejido muscular y/o sanguíneo. Se evaluaron 14 cebadores para la técnica RAPD (Random Amplifyed Polimorphic DNA, siendo cuatro de ellos polimórficos, los cuales generaron 66 fragmentos diferentes (63% polimorfismo. Por medio de un análisis de varianza molecular (AMOVA, se determinó la estructuración poblacional para todos los sitios evaluados y la cuenca del río Nare ( ΦST =0.297 y ΦST =0.163, respectivamente. Las distancias genéticas de Nei mostraron que todas las poblaciones diferían entre sí y que la mayor diferenciación genética se dio para las poblaciones del río Guatapé y la quebrada El Cardal. Un test de Mantel mostró correlación entre las distancias genéticas y geográficas (ambas cuencas, r=0.431; cuenca del río Nare, r=0.377. Esto sugiere aislamiento por distancia y separación de grupos genéticos producidos por los embalses sobre los ríos Nare y Guatapé, lo cual puede tener implicaciones relevantes en la conservación de la variabilidad genética de las poblaciones naturales de esta especie en el oriente antioqueño.Genetic variability of Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae in the middle basin of Nare and Guatapé rivers, Magdalena River system, Colombia. Brycon henni is a native species in Magdalena´s River basin, and because of its cultural and economic importance, is strongly overexploited. This study aimed to describe the genetic variability and population structure of this species from Nare and Guatapé rivers basins. A total of 195 individuals were collected and DNA extractions were obtained from muscle and blood tissue. Fourteen primers were

  6. Efecto de la pluviosidad y el brillo solar sobre la producción y características del semen en el pez Brycon henni (Pisces:Characidae

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    C.J Tabares

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El pez Brycon henni es una especie endémica protegida por la legislación colombiana, que habita cuerpos de agua de zonas cafeteras (700-1900 m. s. n. m,comprendidas entre los 4º35’56’’ N y 74º04’51’’ W, con temperaturas que oscilan entre los 18 y los 28ºC. A pesar de las características promisorias de esta especie, su reproducción en cautiverio a nivel comercial no ha sido posible por falta de conocimientos básicos de su biología y comportamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar la producción y la fisiología espermática de machos en cautiverio. A lo largo de un año se tomaron 20 muestras de cada uno de 10 ejemplares. El semen se obtuvo mediante masaje abdominal cráneo-caudal y se transportó a 4ºC para su análisis en el laboratorio. Con excepción de septiembre y octubre que fueron los meses más lluviosos, siempre se obtuvo semen de al menos el 50% de los animales. El color, la osmolalidad y el pH fueron similares en todas las muestras a lo largo del año. El volumen, la concentración, la viabilidad, la movilidad y el tiempo de activación fueron variables: El efecto del brillo solar fue positivo sobre el volumen (Spearman pEffect of pluviosity and sun shine on sperm production and seminal characteristics of the fish Brycon henni (Pisces:Characidae. In Colombia the fish Brycon henni is a protected endemic species. It inhabits water bodies in coffee producing areas (700-1900 ma.s.l.; 4º35’56’’ N -74º04’51’’ W; 18-28°C. Insufficient knowledge of its basic biology and behavior prevent the commercial culture of this promising fish. We studied the production and sperm physiology of captive males. Along a year 20 samples were taken from each of 10 males. The sample was obtained by abdominal cefalo-caudal massage and transported to the laboratory at 4°C. Except for September and October (maximum rainfall,sperm was always obtained in at least 50% of the males. Color, osmolality and pH were

  7. Influência da densidade de estocagem no cultivo de alevinos de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 em condições experimentais - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1670 Stocking density influence on matrinxã fingerlings (Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869, culture on experimental conditions - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1670

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    Claudemir Martins Soares

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da densidade de estocagem no cultivo de alevinos de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, foram utilizados 300 alevinos com peso inicial de 2g ± 0,82g e comprimento inicial de 5,7cm ± 0,74cm, distribuídos em 20 tanques (200L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 4 tratamentos (6, 12, 18 e 24 ind/tanque, correspondendo a 24, 48, 72 e 96 ind/m3 e 5 repetições. A alimentação foi à base de ração extrusada comercial, contendo 36% de proteína bruta fornecida à vontade 6 vezes ao dia, por 45 dias. Observou-se uma relação linear positiva (p 0,05 pelas diferentes densidades de estocagem. Os valores dos parâmetros físico-químicos permaneceram nos níveis adequados para o cultivo de peixes, embora esses valores tenham sofrido influência das densidades durante alguns dias de experimento. Concluiu-se, portanto, que a densidade de 96 ind/m3 é a mais indicada, pois observou-se maior biomassa total sem afetar o ganho de peso dos peixesThe aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the influence of stocking density on the culture of 300 matrinxã fingerlings (Brycon cephalus, of 2.0 ± 0.82g initial weight and 5.7 ± 0.74cm initial length, distributed in 20 ponds (250-L. The utilized experimental design was entirely randomized in four treatments (6, 12, 18 e 24 ind/pond, corresponding to 24, 48, 72, e 96ind/m3 and five replications. The food consisted of a commercial ration of 36% of crude protein, that was supplied ad libitum six times a day during 45 days. A positive linear relation (p 0.05 for the different stocking densities. The values of physical and chemical parameters remained at adequate levels for fish culture, although densities influenced these values during some days of the experiment. Results showed that the density of 96ind/m3 is the highly recommended, because higher total biomass was observed, which did not affect the fish weight gain

  8. A new species of Auriculostoma (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) from the intestine of Brycon guatemalensis (Characiformes: Bryconidae) from the Usumacinta River Basin, Mexico, based on morphology and 28S rDNA sequences, with a key to species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mena, David Iván; Lynggaard, Christina; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; DE León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

    2016-11-22

    We describe a new species of Auriculostoma Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo & Choudhury, 2004 based on several sources of information including morphology (light and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]), sequences of two nuclear genes, host association, and geographical distribution. Morphologically, the new species most closely resembles Auriculostoma astyanace Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo & Choudhury, 2004, but differs by having deeply lobated testes and cirrus-sac extending posteriorly to seminal receptacle level. Auriculostoma lobata n. sp. can be readily distinguished from all the other congeners by the combination of the following characters: testes located in tandem, testes deeply lobated, and larger body size. A phylogenetic analysis using 28S rDNA sequences along with those available for other allocreadiid trematodes, revealed that the new species is a sister taxon of A. astyanace, a species described from the banded astyanax, Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier) in Nicaragua. Auriculostoma totonacapanensis Razo-Mendivil, Mendoza-Garfias, Pérez-Ponce de León & Rubio-Godoy, 2014 from the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi) in Mexico is the sister taxon of A. astyanace plus the new species. Genetic divergence levels for the 28S rDNA and ITS2 were estimated among the Middle-American species of Auriculostoma infecting characiforms. The validity of the new species is then established by reliable morphological differences, its host association to bryconids (Brycon guatemalensis Regan), restricted geographical distribution (Usumacinta and Lacantun River basins), and genetic divergence levels, albeit relatively low. A morphometric comparison between the new species and the other seven congeneric species was undertaken and, in addition, a taxonomic key to identify the species contained in the genus Auriculostoma, widely distributed across the Americas, is provided.

  9. Variabilidad genética de Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae en la cuenca media de los ríos Nare y Guatapé, sistema Río Magdalena, Colombia

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    Julio César Hurtado-Alarcón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brycon henni es una especie nativa de la cuenca del río Magdalena, Colombia, donde es fuertemente explotada, por lo cual en este trabajo se estudió la variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional en individuos provenientes de la cuenca media de los ríos Nare y Guatapé, Antioquia. Se recolectaron 195 ejemplares y se les extrajo ADN genómico total del tejido muscular y/o sanguíneo. Se evaluaron 14 cebadores para la técnica RAPD (Random Amplifyed Polimorphic DNA, siendo cuatro de ellos polimórficos, los cuales generaron 66 fragmentos diferentes (63% polimorfismo. Por medio de un análisis de varianza molecular (AMOVA, se determinó la estructuración poblacional para todos los sitios evaluados y la cuenca del río Nare ( ΦST =0.297 y ΦST =0.163, respectivamente. Las distancias genéticas de Nei mostraron que todas las poblaciones diferían entre sí y que la mayor diferenciación genética se dio para las poblaciones del río Guatapé y la quebrada El Cardal. Un test de Mantel mostró correlación entre las distancias genéticas y geográficas (ambas cuencas, r=0.431; cuenca del río Nare, r=0.377. Esto sugiere aislamiento por distancia y separación de grupos genéticos producidos por los embalses sobre los ríos Nare y Guatapé, lo cual puede tener implicaciones relevantes en la conservación de la variabilidad genética de las poblaciones naturales de esta especie en el oriente antioqueño.

  10. Relação peso-comprimento e fator de condição de Brycon opalinus (Pisces, Characiformes no Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar- Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Mata Atlântica, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1034 Length-weight relationship and condition factor for Brycon opalinus (Pisces, Characiformes in Serra do Mar State Park – Santa Virgínia Unit, Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1034

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    Leandro Muller Gomiero

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados a relação peso-comprimento e o fator de condição de Brycon opalinus, em três rios do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar-Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Estado de São Paulo. Foram constatadas diferentes condições nos três ambientes abordados e determinadas a sazonalidade, a época reprodutiva e as diferenças entre fêmeas e machos, segundo os parâmetros que evidenciam as melhores condições fisiológicas dos peixes. Essa espécie apresentou fator de condição variável ao longo das estações, nos três locais de coletas, influência do comprimento de primeira maturação gonadal e longo período reprodutivo com maior intensidade na primavera e verão.In this study, the length-weight relationship and the condition factor of Brycon opalinus were analyzed in three rivers within the Santa Virgínia Unit, at Serra do Mar State Park, in São Paulo State. The different conditions in these three environments were evidenced, such as the seasonality, reproductive period, and the differences between females and males according to the parameters which evidenced the best physiological condition of the fish. In this species, the condition factor varied along the seasons at all three collection sites. The length of the first gonadal maturation and the reproductive period were long, with the highest intensity in the spring and summer.

  11. Estresse devido ao transporte e à ação da benzocaína em parâmetros hematológicos e população de parasitas em matrinxã, Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 (Osteichthyes, Characidae Transport with different benzocaine concentrations and its consequences on hematological parameters and gill parasite population of matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 (Osteichthyes, Characidae

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    Maurício Laterça Martins

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do transporte, sob diferentes concentrações de benzocaína, em parâmetros hematológicos e na população de parasitas de brânquias do matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Osteichthyes, Characidae. Trinta peixes (peso médio 1,0 kg foram transportados em tambores plásticos de 200 L por quatro horas. Cada tambor foi preparado com uma concentração de benzocaína (B0 = 0 mg/L; B1 = 5 mg/L; B2 = 10 mg/L e B3 = 20 mg/L. Anteriormente ao carregamento dos tambores, cinco peixes foram amostrados para determinar a condição inicial. Outras três amostragens foram feitas posteriormente: na chegada, 24 e 96 horas após o transporte. Os peixes transportados sob efeito da benzocaína apresentaram menor resposta de fuga durante a captura comparado aos peixes do B0, sendo que os peixes do B3 mostraram dificuldade de manter o equilíbrio durante a viagem. Após o transporte, registraram-se os níveis mais elevados de cortisol plasmático, em todos os tratamentos, com retorno aos níveis iniciais após 24 horas. A glicemia elevou-se na chegada, em todos os tratamentos, e após 24 horas apenas os peixes transportados nas duas concentrações mais altas ainda não haviam recuperado os valores iniciais. Na chegada, a porcentagem de linfócitos decresceu, permanecendo neste patamar após 24 horas, sendo que os peixes do B2 e B3 não retornaram à condição inicial até o final do período experimental. Foi observado aumento da porcentagem de neutrófilos, desde a chegada até 24 horas após o transporte, em todos os tratamentos. Os peixes do B2 e B3 mantiveram elevadas as porcentagens de neutrófilos até 96 horas após o transporte. Na última coleta, constatou-se que o número do parasita branquial Piscinoodinium sp. havia aumentado nos peixes do B3. Foi possível observar que o uso da benzocaína contribuiu com a elevação da glicemia e dos níveis plasmáticos do cortisol após o transporte, sendo registrados

  12. Variação periódica da triiodotironina (T3 plasmática e sua ação na reprodução induzida do matrinxã, Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869 em cativeiro Periodic variation of plasma triiodotironina (T3 and its effect on the induced reproduction of matrinxã, Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869

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    Maria do Carmo Figueredo Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O matrinxã, Brycon cephalus, espécie nativa oriunda da Bacia Amazônica, apresenta características adequadas para a piscicultura. Entretanto, trata-se de peixe reofílico, sendo necessário manejo adequado para induzir à reprodução. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o perfil da triiodotironina (T3 plasmática no matrinxã, durante 16 meses (outubro/97 a janeiro/99, relacionando-o com a maturação sexual, além de testar a ação do T3 associado ao extrato pituitário de carpa na reprodução induzida da espécie. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Peixes Tropicais - CEPTA, Pirassununga, SP, e no Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal, da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal - UNESP. Foram amostrados, mensalmente, 8 a 12 peixes, de ambos os sexos, totalizando 173 animais, de onde retirou-se sangue para dosagem do T3 plasmático. As gônadas foram removidas para análise histológica com identificação do sexo e determinação do estádio de maturação. Analisaram-se testículos e ovários de 161 peixes em corte transversal, tendo predominado machos (63,35% e o estádio sexual imaturo entre ambos. A concentração plasmática de T3 foi maior de dezembro a janeiro, para machos e fêmeas, coincidindo com o período de maior atividade reprodutiva da espécie e maiores temperaturas da água. Em janeiro/99, reprodutores de matrinxã foram induzidos com extrato de pituitária de carpa (EPC associado à administração de T3 (20 mg/kg em 0,1 mL de suspensão oleosa. Os resultados sugeriram que o T3 atuou sinergicamente à gonadotropina do extrato hipofisário e que o tratamento agudo de triiodotironina com o EPC pode estimular o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-ovário. O tempo de eclosão das larvas provenientes das fêmeas tratadas com o T3 foi menor e o crescimento inicial e a sobrevivência dessas larvas, maiores.The matrinxã, Brycon cephalus, native specie from the Amazonian

  13. Hematological and morphometric blood value of four cultured species of economically important tropical foodfish

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    Genoefa Amália Dal'Bó

    Full Text Available The use and validation of fish health monitoring tools have become increasingly evident due to aquaculture expansion. This study investigated the hematology and blood morphometrics of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Brycon orbignyanus, Oreochromis niloticus and Rhamdia quelen. The fish were kept for 30 days in 300-liter aquariums, after which they were anesthetized with benzocaine and blood was collected from caudal vessels. In comparison to other species, B. orbignyanus presented the highest hematocrit (Ht, RBC averages and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV with a particular range of data. B. orbignyanus presented lower Ht, Hb, RBC averages and values, and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC. Oreochromis niloticus presented lower Ht, Hb, RBC averages and values, and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC. Rhamdia quelen and O. niloticus presented higher variation of White Blood Cells (WBC, neutrophils (Nf, lymphocytes (Lf, monocytes (Mf and thrombocytes (Trb. Data of large axes (LA, minor axes (MA, surface (SF and volume (VL are in the same variance range. This study has demonstrated that hematological variances can occur between animals of different species as well as of the same species.

  14. The effect of structural enrichment in hatchery tanks on the morphology of two neotropical fish species

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    Sarah de Oliveira Saraiva

    Full Text Available Reared fish differ from wild fish in several aspects, including morphology, because they are adapted to captive conditions that are totally different from natural conditions. To minimize the influence of the hatchery environment on the morphology of fish, the use of environmental enrichment through the incorporation of natural designs in captivity, has been proposed. In the present study, we performed the physical structuring of fish farming tanks to verify the enrichment effect on the morphology of two species of neotropical fishes: Prochilodus lineatus and Brycon orbignyanus. Each species was subjected to four different treatments over two months: tanks with submersed logs, with artificial aquatic plants, with both structures and without any structure. Results showed that the structural enrichment had a strong effect on the morphology of the cultured fish, which varied with each species analyzed and with the type of structural complexity added to the tanks. There was an increase of morphological variability in the population of P. lineatus and an increase of the average length in the population of B. orbignyanus. This shows that the environmental enrichment is capable to induce morphological differentiation through phenotypic plasticity, probably generating phenotypes more adapted to exploiting a complex environment. Peixes cultivados diferem de peixes selvagens em vários aspectos, incluindo morfologia, pois são adaptados às condições de cativeiro, que são totalmente diferentes das condições naturais. Para minimizar a influência do meio de cultivo sobre a morfologia dos peixes, o enriquecimento ambiental, através da incorporação de 'designs' naturais em cativeiro, tem sido proposto. No presente estudo, foi realizada a estruturação física de tanques de piscicultura para verificar o efeito deste tipo de enriquecimento ambiental sobre a morfologia de duas espécies de peixes neotropicais: Prochilodus lineatus e Brycon orbignyanus

  15. EFFECT OF SOME IONS ON SPERM ACTIVATION IN Brycon henni (EIGENMANN 1913

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    JAVIER TABARES

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espermatozoides en los carácidos se mantienen inmóviles en plasma seminal, acti- vándose cuando se liberan en el agua. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer algunos de los mecanismos que inducen la activación espermática (porcentaje de espermato- zoides que adquieren movilidad y el tiempo que dura la misma. El efecto de las solucio- nes isosmóticas, se analizó considerando las combinaciones de los iones Ca2+, K+, Mg2+ y Na+, y el efecto de algunos bloqueadores de canales iónicos. Se evaluó el porcentaje y duración de la movilidad, así como el potencial de la membrana plasmática. La motili- dad espermática fue mayor cuando el semen se incubó en las soluciones que contenían K+ (p<0,05 comparado con el control positivo. La mayor duración de la movilidad se obtuvo cuando se incubaron los espermatozoides en soluciones que contenían Na+ y Mg2+ (p<0,05. Todas las soluciones probadas indujeron un cambio en el potencial de membrana, detectado después de 15 segundos de la activación. Bloqueo de los canales de K+, Ca2+ y Na+ no alteró la movilidad, sino que disminuyó el tiempo de activación (p<0,05. Los iones potasio indujeron la activación en todas las concentraciones hasta 105 mM, pero la movilidad disminuyó drásticamente cuando las concentraciones fue- ron mayores de 140 mM (p<0,05. Se concluye que la interacción del ambiente iónico con la membrana de la célula conduce a cambios en el potencial de la membrana que conllevan a señales intracelulares que desencadenan la movilidad del esperma.

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0081 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0081 gb|AAQ03363.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] gb|AA...Q03365.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] gb|AAQ03367.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argente...us] gb|AAQ03373.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] gb|AAQ03375.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argente...us] gb|AAQ03385.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] gb...|AAQ03387.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] AAQ03363.1 0.33 26% ...

  17. Spawning and nursery habitats of neotropical fish species in the tributaries of a regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; da Silva, Patrícia S.; Makrakis, Sergio; de Lima, Ariane F.; de Assumpção, Lucileine; de Paula, Salete; Miranda, Leandro E.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides information on ontogenetic patterns of neotropical fish species distribution in tributaries (Verde, Pardo, Anhanduí, and Aguapeí rivers) of the Porto Primavera Reservoir, in the heavily dammed Paraná River, Brazil, identifying key spawning and nursery habitats. Samplings were conducted monthly in the main channel of rivers and in marginal lagoons from October through March during three consecutive spawning seasons in 2007-2010. Most species spawn in December especially in Verde River. Main river channels are spawning habitats and marginal lagoons are nursery areas for most fish, mainly for migratory species. The tributaries have high diversity of larvae species: a total of 56 taxa representing 21 families, dominated by Characidae. Sedentary species without parental care are more abundant (45.7%), and many long-distance migratory fish species are present (17.4%). Migrators included Prochilodus lineatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, Pimelodus maculatus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Sorubim lima, two threatened migratory species: Salminus brasiliensis and Zungaro jahu, and one endangered migratory species: Brycon orbignyanus. Most of these migratory species are vital to commercial and recreational fishing, and their stocks have decreased drastically in the last decades, attributed to habitat alteration, especially impoundments. The fish ladder at Porto Primavera Dam appears to be playing an important role in re-establishing longitudinal connectivity among critical habitats, allowing ascent to migratory fish species, and thus access to upstream reaches and tributaries. Establishment of Permanent Conservation Units in tributaries can help preserve habitats identified as essential spawning and nursery areas, and can be key to the maintenance and conservation of the fish species in the Paraná River basin.

  18. NPY and sbGnRH gene expression in juvenile and adult male Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus Expressão gênica do NPY e do sbGnRH em machos juvenis e adultos de linguado Paralichthys orbignyanus

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    Vinicius Farias Campos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate neuropeptide Y (NPY and sea bream gonadotropin-release hormone (sbGnRH gene expression in juvenile and adult males of Brazilian flounder. Hypothalamuses from fish were sampled for total RNA extraction. After cDNA synthesis, real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. NPY showed approximately 2-fold increases in their mRNA levels while sbGnRH showed 3-fold increases in adult fish. These results suggest that these peptides could be involved on hypothalamic regulation of Brazilian flounder sexual maturation.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão gênica do neuropeptídeo Y (NPY e da variante sea bream do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofinas (sbGnRH em linguados machos juvenis e adultos. O hipotálamo foi isolado para a extração de RNA total. Após a síntese de cDNA, a PCR em tempo real foi usada para avaliar a expressão gênica. Foi observado um aumento de aproximadamente duas vezes nos níveis de NPY e de aproximadamente três vezes nos níveis de sbGnRH nos peixes adultos. Esses resultados demonstram que estes peptídeos podem estar envolvidos na regulação, via hipotálamo, da maturação sexual no linguado.

  19. Desenvolvimento gonadal de fêmeas de matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, submetidas a restrição alimentar Gonadal development of matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, females submitted to feed restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cleber da Silva Camargo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de ciclos de restrição alimentar e realimentação (2/3 dias, aplicados durante seis meses antes da desova, no desenvolvimento gonadal de matrinxã. Na ocasião da desova, fêmeas alimentadas diariamente e submetidas ao regime alimentar experimental, selecionadas para a indução hormonal, foram sacrificadas para retirada das gônadas e do fígado, com os quais se calculou o IGS (índice gonadossomático e o IHS (índice hepatossomático, sendo os ovários processados para análise histológica. Não houve alteração no peso relativo dos ovários e fígado, e o desenvolvimento gonadal não foi afetado pelo esquema alimentar. Os valores de IGS foram de 5,09±4,98% e 9,79±4,17% e os de IHS foram de 0,84±0,07% e 0,91±0,11%, para as fêmeas controle e experimentais, respectivamente, sem diferenças significativas entre os grupos. Os ovários de peixes dos dois grupos apresentaram as mesmas características do estádio maduro, com predominância de ovócitos na fase final de maturação, repletos de vitelo. O estudo indica que a restrição alimentar não afetou a preparação das fêmeas para a reprodução e que ciclos adequados de restrição e realimentação poderão ser aplicados na criação do matrinxã, assegurando menores custos de produção.The present study evaluated the effect of cycles of feed restriction and refeeding (2/3 days during 6 months before the spawning on the gonadal development of matrinxã. At the spawning time, females selected to hormonal induction were killed for gonad and liver removal and GSI (gonadosomatic index and HSI (hepatosomatic index were calculated. Ovaries were processed for histological analysis. The feeding regime did not alter GSI and HSI and the gonadal development. The values of GSI were 5.09±4.98% and 9.79±4.17%, and of HSI were 0.84±0.07% and 0.91±0.11%, in control and experimental females, respectively, without significant difference between groups. Ovaries from both fish groups showed the same charachteristics of the mature stage, with predominance of oocytes in the final phase of maturation, presenting large amount of yolk. The study indicates that the feed restriction did not affect the matrinxã ability to reproduction and that cycles of feed restriction and refeeding can be used in matrinxã farming leading to lower production costs.

  20. Clove oil as anaesthetic for juveniles of matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869 Óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869

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    Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Many chemicals have been used as anaesthetics in fish farms and fish biology laboratories to keep the fish immobilized during handling procedures and to prevent accidents and animal stress. In Brazil, tricaine methane sulfonate (MS 222, quinaldine sulfate, benzocaine, and phenoxyethanol are the most common fish anaesthetics used to prevent fish stress during handling, but many side effects such as body and gill irritations, corneal damage and general risks of intoxication have been reported. Clove oil is a natural product proposed as an alternative fish anaesthetic by many researchers and it has been used in many countries with great economic advantages and no apparent toxic properties. In this work, we assessed the suitability of clove oil to anaesthetize matrinxã. Sixty-three juveniles of matrinxã were exposed to seven anaesthetic batches of clove oil (pharmaceutical grade namely 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mg/L. The times to reach total loss of equilibrium and to recover the upright position were measured. Clove oil concentration about 40 mg/L was enough to anaesthetize the fish in approximately one minute and the recovery time was independent in regard to anaesthetic concentration.Diversos produtos químicos têm sido empregados como anestésicos para peixes nas estações de piscicultura e laboratórios de biologia de peixes para a devida imobilização dos organismos, afim de se prevenir acidentes e ferimentos na superfície do corpo dos próprios peixes, que podem ficar susceptíveis a patógenos e taxas altas de mortalidade. A tricaina metano sulfonato (MS 222, a quinaldina, a benzocaina e o phenoxyethanol têm sido amplamente utilizados no Brasil, mas alguns efeitos colaterais são observados como perda de muco, irritação nas brânquias e olhos, e também alguns incômodos aos trabalhadores como a necessidade do uso de luvas. Dessa forma, o óleo de cravo é proposto como um anestésico alternativo por ser um produto natural de custo acessível e sem riscos aparentes de intoxicações. No presente trabalho estudamos a possibilidade do uso do óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de matrinxã, utilizando-se 63 peixes, expondo-os a banhos anestésicos nas concentrações de 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 60 mg/L, de forma que foram mensurados os tempos necessários para que os peixes atingissem a perda total de equilíbrio e a incapacidade de retornar a posição normal de nado. A concentração de 40 mg/L foi suficiente para anestesiar juvenis de matrinxã em aproximadamente 1 minuto, sendo a recuperação independente da concentração do anestésico.

  1. Standardization of 2-phenoxyethanol as anesthetic for juvenile Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869: the use in field procedures

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    Inoue Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyper motility is a negative factor in fish handling procedures due to the risks of damages to the animals. Chemicals are widely used to anesthetize fish during biometry and many other handling procedures. 2-Phenoxyethanol is largely employed, but many studies are necessary about tropical fish responses. The present research evaluated the anesthesia induction time for juvenile matrinxã submitted to eight different levels of 2-phenoxyethanol. The range of 2-phenoxyethanol concentration was 250-600mg liter-1. Induction time of anesthesia decreased as a function of 2-phenoxyethanol concentrations. Fish were safely anesthetized approximately after one minute of exposure to 2-phenoxyethanol batches in concentrations above 400mg/liter, and the recover period was about one minute for all anesthetic concentrations. 2-Phenoxyethanol is a safe anesthetic for juvenile matrinxã even in exposures up to 600mg liter-1 being recommended for many field procedures of fish handling.

  2. Efeito do resfriamento sobre a textura post-mortem da carne do Matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Pisces: Characiforme)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahecha, Hector Suarez

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências dos Alimentos. O amolecimento da carne dos peixes, post-mortem, é um fator de qualidade diretamente influenciado pelas características dos tipos de colágenos presentes em cada espécie. A degradação do colágeno está relacionada com a armazenagem dos peixes sob resfriamento. Algumas pesquisas têm demonstrado, através de testes bioquímicos e, principalmente, atra...

  3. Aloe vera bathing improved physical and humoral protection in breeding stock after induced spawning in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Zaiden, Sérgio F; Senhorini, José A; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we show that induced spawning causes stress, an intense loss of epithelia and immunosuppression, decreasing physical and humoral protection in fish, effects that were prevented or improved in fish bathed with Aloe vera. A. vera has several medicinal properties, including wound healing and immunostimulatory effects, which we observed in this study. Fish bathed with A. vera had a higher number of epidermal goblet cells and, in general, an improved wound healing rate compared with the control after induced spawning. These effects might be related to (1) the stimulation of leukocyte activity, represented here by the increased leukocyte respiratory activity triggered by A. vera (leukocytes are recognized as playing an important role in wound repair); (2) the antimicrobial properties of A. vera, which decrease wound infection and accelerate the healing process; and (3) several mechanisms that explain the healing effect of A. vera (increased collagen synthesis, rate of epithelialization, and anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects). Our results also suggest that caution is necessary during the induced spawning process, especially during stripping, and A. vera bathing is recommended after intensive aquaculture operations.

  4. Stress responses of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus after transport in a closed system under different loading densities Respostas de estresse de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus juvenil após transporte em sistema fechado sob diferentes densidades de carga

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    Janessa Sampaio de Abreu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimum loading density for the transport of matrinxã juveniles was investigated in a closed system with plastic bags. Transport was conducted for 4 h with fish (23.5± 0.4g and 11.6 (0.08cm starved for 24h at loading densities of 83g L-1 (D1, 125g L-1 (D2, 168g L-1 (D3 and 206g L-1 (D4. Fish were sampled before transport (BT, after transport (AT and 24h AT. The water quality was monitored before capturing fish in depuration tanks, after transport in plastic bags and in recovery tanks. Water oxygen decreased to values below 4mg L-1 in D2, D3 and D4, temperature was around 32°C, pH 6.5-6.78, total ammonia 1.09-1.7mg L-1, un-ionized ammonia 3.58-9.33x10³mg L-1 and alkalinity 134-165mg CaCO3 L-1. Blood cortisol and glucose concentrations increased in fish of all densities AT and recovered the BT levels 24h after arrival. Osmolality did not change AT but increased 24h AT in fish of all densities whereas plasma chloride decreased inversely to the loading densities after the procedure. Hematocrit decreased 24h AT in fish of all densities but no differences were verified in the number of erythrocytes. No mortality was registered in any treatment during the next week after transport. Matrinxã demonstrated to be a crowding tolerant-species in transport operations besides tolerating low levels of oxygen in the water.Neste estudo, foram investigadas as densidades de carga adequadas para transporte de matrinxãs juvenis em sistema fechado com sacos plásticos. O transporte de 4h foi feito com peixes (23,5±0,4g; 11,6 (0,08cm em jejum por 24h, em densidades de 83g L-1 (D1, 125g L-1 (D2, 168g L-1 (D3 e 206g L-1 (D4. Os peixes foram amostrados antes do transporte (AT, logo após o transporte (chegada (DT e 24h depois. A qualidade da água foi monitorada antes da captura dos peixes nos tanques de depuração, após o transporte nos sacos plásticos e nos tanques de recuperação. O oxigênio da água diminuiu para valores inferiores a 4mg L-1 em D2, D3 e D4, a temperatura esteve em torno de 32°C, pH 6,5-6,78, a amônia total foi de 1,09-1,7mg L-1, a amônia não-ionizada foi de 3,58-9,33 x 10³mg L-1 e alcalinidade 134-165mg CaCO3 L-1. O cortisol plasmático e a glicose sanguínea aumentaram após o transporte nos peixes em todas as densidades ensaiadas, voltando aos valores controle 24h depois. Os valores de osmolaridade não mudaram logo após o transporte, mas aumentaram 24h depois de modo igual em todas as densidades. O cloreto plasmático diminuiu na chegada, de modo inversamente proporcional à densidade de carga. O hematócrito diminuiu 24h depois da chegada dos peixes, em todas as densidades testadas, mas não houve diferença no número de eritrócitos. Não houve mortalidade até uma semana após o transporte. O matrinxã mostrou ser uma espécie tolerante a altas densidades de carga em embalagens para transporte além de suportar baixos níveis de oxigênio na água.

  5. Influence of the weight of juveniles Matrinxã (“Brycon cephalus” and Tambaqui (“Colossoma macropomum” to the anesthetic action of the eugenol Influência do peso de juvenis de matrinxã ("Brycon cephalus" e tambaqui ("Colossoma macropomum" à ação anestésica do eugenol

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    Elitieri Batista dos Santos Neto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the influence of the weight in the effect of the anesthetic eugenol for juveniles of matrinxã and tambaqui. For that, it was used a total of 69 matrinxãs and 49 tambaquis. The animals were anesthetized individually, weighed and observed during the induction and the recover of the anesthesia. For the induction it was used the concentration of the anesthetic's 50 mg/L, previously diluted in alcohol. The obtained weights were gathered in five classes and no difference statistics was observed for the times of induction and recovery among them.Foi avaliada a influência do peso de juvenis de matrinxã e tambaqui sobre a ação do anestésico eugenol. Para isso, foram utilizados 69 matrinxãs e 49 tambaquis. Os animais foram individualmente anestesiados, pesados e observados durante a indução e a recuperação da anestesia. Para a indução foi utilizada a concentração de 50 mg/L do anestésico, previamente diluído em álcool. Os pesos obtidos foram reunidos em cinco classes, não sendo observada diferença estatística para os tempos de indução e de recuperação entre elas.

  6. Efeito das classes de peso sobre a composição corporal e o rendimento de processamento de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus Effect of weight classes on body composition and processing yield of cultivated matrinxã (Brycon cephalus

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    Rose Meire Vidotti

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrinxã é um peixe originário da Bacia Amazônica que vem sendo cultivado na Região Sudeste, atendendo ao crescente mercado dos pesque-pague. Embora não exista um consenso sobre o peso de comercialização para essa espécie, ela tem sido realizada com exemplares acima de 600g. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de processamento e a composição corporal do matrinxã em três classes de peso. Foram coletados em tanques de cultivo do Caunesp, Jaboticabal, SP, 45 exemplares, separados em três classes de peso: P1 = 400 a 500g; P2 = 501 a 600g e P3 = 601 a 700g, e submetidos ao processo de filetagem manual e determinação da composição corporal. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros de rendimento (%: filé sem pele, vísceras, gordura visceral, carcaça sem cabeça, cabeça e resíduo total. Para a composição corporal foram determinados os teores de umidade, proteína bruta, lipídeos e cinzas. As classes de peso tiveram efeito (p 0,05. Os menores valores obtidos para carcaça sem cabeça e vísceras foram observados na classe P1 (75,94% e 8,38 e os maiores na P3 (78,05% e 9,48%. Destaca-se que a gordura visceral compreende em torno de 43% do total das vísceras em todas as classes de peso, havendo uma correlação positiva e significativa (r2 = 0,957* entre esses dois parâmetros. A composição corporal apresentou diferenças significativas apenas quanto aos teores de cinzas, sendo que o maior valor foi observado nos peixes da maior classe de peso. Embora não significativo, nota-se uma tendência de maior acúmulo de gordura nos peixes maiores. Este alto teor de lipídeos observado com o matrinxã reflete uma característica comum em espécies de peixes tropicais de água doce. Com base nesses resultados, pode-se concluir que os teores de proteína bruta e lipídeos apresentam-se semelhantes nas três classes de peso avaliadas, e, sem prejuízo do rendimento de filé, os peixes podem ser processados com pesos menores aos normalmente comercializados.Matrinxã is a native fish from the Amazon basin, which has been cultivated in the Southestern region due to increasing interest in sport fishing. Although there is no agreement on the ideal commercialization weight for the species, fishing has been carried out with fish above 600 g. This study aimed to determine the processing yield and body composition in three weight classes. Forty-five fish were collected in fish ponds at Caunesp, Jaboticabal, SP, according to the following weight classes: P1 = 400 to 500 g; P2 = 501 to 600 g; and P3 = 601 to 700 g. The fish were filleted and their body composition was determined. The following yield parameters (% were evaluated: skinless fillet, visceral fat, headless carcass, and total residue. For body composition, moisture (M, crude protein (CP, lipid (L, and ash (A were determined. The weight had effect on (p 0.05. The lowest value obtained for headless carcass and visceral components was observed for weight class P1 (75,94% e 8,38% and the highest for P3 (78,05% e 9,48%. It should be noted that visceral fat is about 43% of total visceral components for all weight classes with significant and positive correlation (r2 = 0.957*. The body composition showed significant differences with respect to ash: the highest value was found in the heaviest weight class. Although not significant, a tendency for higher fat accumulation in heavier fish was observed. The lipid content reflects a common feature in tropical fish species. From the analysis of the results, it is possible to conclude that crude protein and lipid were similar for all evaluated weight classes. Therefore, smaller fish may be processed while maintaining fillet yield.

  7. Isotopic variation in five species of stream fishes under the influence of different land uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, D R; Castro, D; Callisto, M; Moreira, M Z; Pompeu, P S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test if changes in land use alter the isotopic signature of fish species, promoting changes in the trophic position and food resource partitioning between these consumers. Three different systems were investigated: pasture streams (n = 3), streams in sugar cane plantations (n = 3) and reference streams (n = 3). Fish species Aspidoras fuscoguttatus, Astyanax altiparanae, Characidium zebra, Hisonotus piracanjuba and Knodus moenkhausii were selected, and their nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions were estimated to assess changes in the trophic level and partitioning of food items consumed. The composition of δ(13) C (‰) only differed among the land use categories for A. altiparanae, H. piracanjuba and K. moenkhausii. Resource partitioning was different for all species, with changes in the sources or proportions they consumed in each land use category, but only A. altiparanae introduced new food sources in large quantity in altered land uses. It is important to note, however, that the results from the resource partitioning analysis are limited due to large overlapping of isotopic signatures between the analysed food resources. All fish species exhibited variation in δ(15) N (‰), with the highest values found in streams under sugar cane or pasture influence. Despite the variation in nitrogen isotopic values, only C. zebra and H. piracanjuba displayed changes in trophic level. Therefore, it is believed that the increase in the δ(15) N (‰) value of the individuals collected in streams under the influence of sugar cane or pasture was due to the greater influence of livestock dung and chemical and organic fertilizers. The results also highlight the importance of studying consumer species along with all forms of resources available at each location separately, because the signatures of these resources also vary within different land uses.

  8. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 October 2012-30 November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Serap; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F; Azevedo, V C R; Baucom, Regina; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, L B; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Brassaloti, Ricardo A; Burgess, Treena I; Caccone, Adagisa; Chang, Shu-Mei; Ciampi, A Y; Ciancaleoni, S; Clímaco, Gisele T; Clouet, Cécil; Coimbra, Maria R M; Coutinho, Luiz L; Dantas, Hozana L; De Vega, Clara; Echodu, Richard; Enyaru, John; Figueira, Antonio; Filho, Manoel A G; Foltz, Britnie; Fressigné, L; Gadomski, Mateusz; Gauthier, Nathalie; Herrera, Carlos M; Hyseni, Chaz; Jorge, Erika C; Kaczmarczyk, Dariusz; Knott, Emily; Kuester, Adam; Lima, Ana P S; Lima, Maíra A; Lima, Marcos P; Longo, Ana Luiza B; Lor, Grant; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Marques, Thiago S; Martins, Aline R; Matoso, Daniele A; Medrano, Mónica; Mendonça, M A C; Mettler, Raeann; Nascimento, Priscila Roberta M; Negri, V; Oliveira, Karine K C; Oliveira, L O; Ovcarenko, Irina; Paula-Silva, Maria N; Raggi, L; Sandoval-Castillo, J; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Martin Schaefer, H; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seino, Miyuki M; Sistrom, Mark; Taole, Matsepo M; Teske, P R; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Verdade, Luciano M; Villela, Priscilla M S; Vinson, C C; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 153 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Brassica oleracea, Brycon amazonicus, Dimorphandra wilsonii, Eupallasella percnurus, Helleborus foetidus, Ipomoea purpurea, Phrynops geoffroanus, Prochilodus argenteus, Pyura sp., Sylvia atricapilla, Teratosphaeria suttonii, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Trypanosoma brucei. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Dimorphandra coccicinea, Dimorphandra cuprea, Dimorphandra gardneriana, Dimorphandra jorgei, Dimorphandra macrostachya, Dimorphandra mollis, Dimorphandra parviflora and Dimorphandra pennigera.

  9. Review of species of the Astyanax bimaculatus "caudal peduncle spot" subgroup sensu Garutti & Langeani (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio La Plata and rio São Francisco drainages and coastal systems of southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Carlos Alberto S De; Soares, Helena Gouvea

    2016-01-28

    The species of the Astyanax bimaculatus 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup of the drainages of the rios La Plata and São Francisco, as well as southeastern coastal systems of Brazil and Uruguay, are revised. Two nominal species are considered valid and are redescribed: Astyanax lacustris and A. abramis. Astyanax jacuhiensis, A. asuncionensis and A. altiparanae are recognized as new junior synonyms of A. lacustris. Bertoniolus paraguayensisis recognized as a new junior synonym of A. abramis. The names Astyanax orbignyanus, A. vittatus, and A. borealis are considered species inquirendae. Notes on A. maculisquamis, included in the 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup from rio Guaporé (rio Madeira drainage), and Astyanax bahiensis from Bahia, mistakenly considered of the same subgroup, are presented.

  10. Redescription of Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing, 1850 (Callodistomidae, Digenea with New Host Records and Data on Morphological Variability

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    Anna Kohn

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing,1850 Travassos, 1922 from the gall bladder of Astyanax bimaculatus, Caranx gibbosus, Galeocharax humeralis, Leporinus copelandii, Pimelodus fur, Pseudopimelodus roosevelti, Salminus brevidens, Salminus maxillosus and from the new hosts, Cynopotamus amazonum and Triurobrycon lundii is redescribed, demonstrating a large morphological variation, mainly in body and testes size and shape. New hosts harbouring immature specimens of P. obesa are presented: Brycon sp., Leporellus vittatus, Pachyurus squamipinnis, Pimelodus clarias, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Salminus hilarii. Scanning electron microscopy micrographies, original figures and measurements of adult and immature specimens from different Brazilian hosts and localities are presented

  11. Respostas metabólicas do matrinxã submetido a banhos anestésicos de eugenol - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.474 Metabolic responses of matrinxã to eugenol in anesthetic baths - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.474

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    Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus é uma espécie de interesse comercial. Porém, este peixe movimenta-se em excesso durante práticas de manejo, podendo sofrer ferimentos e perdas de escamas que, muitas vezes, resultam em taxas elevadas de mortalidade. O eugenol, principal componente do óleo de cravo, tem sido bastante utilizado como um anestésico alternativo para peixes por ser um produto natural e de baixo custo. Entretanto, estudos que tratam de respostas metabólicas, em peixes tropicais expostos a diferentes anestésicos, são ainda necessários. Dentro deste intuito, o presente trabalho avaliou respostas metabólicas do Brycon amazonicus ao eugenol, em simulações de banhos anestésicos. A demanda metabólica do matrinxã foi suprida principalmente pelo catabolismo de aminoácidos. Respostas típicas ao estresse foram detectadas por causa do manuseio imposto aos peixes para a realização dos banhos anestésicos. O eugenol não reduziu totalmente essas reações ao estresse. Por outro lado, esse anestésico não provocou estresse adicional em virtude de sua presença em exposições curtas de até 60 mg L-1 por 10 min. O eugenol proporciona segurança aos trabalhadores durante práticas de manejo, sem maiores prejuízos ao matrinxã.Matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus is a commercial fish that presents excessive movements during handling. This characteristic predisposes the animals to injuries and losses of scales that may result in high mortality rates. Eugenol, the main component of clove oil, has been reported as an alternative fish anesthetic because it is a natural product and cheap. However, studies remain necessary about the metabolic responses of tropical fishes to anesthetics. The present work evaluated metabolic responses of Brycon amazonicus to eugenol in simulated anesthetic baths. The fish metabolic demand was supplied mainly by amino acids catabolism. Typical metabolic stress responses to handling were detected but eugenol could

  12. Avanços da maricultura na primeira década do século XXI: piscicultura e carcinocultura marinha Advances in mariculture on the first decade of the XXI century: marine fish and shrimp culture

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    Luís André Sampaio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A piscicultura marinha é um setor pouco desenvolvido na maricultura brasileira. Por vários anos foi avaliado o potencial de cultivo de algumas espécies como o robalo-peva Centropomus parallelus e o linguado Paralichtys orbignyanus. Entretanto, somente a partir do investimento sobre o bijupirá Rachycentron canadum é que empresas privadas passaram a demonstrar maior interesse na atividade. Além dos sistemas tradicionais de piscicultura, o bijupirá pode ser criado em tanques-rede oceânicos. Esta espécie apresenta crescimento rápido, atingindo entre 4 e 8 kg em um ano de vida, e carne de excelente qualidade. A carcinocultura tem sido questionada por questões ambientais, uso de insumos como farinha e óleo de peixe e disseminação de doenças. A criação de camarões em sistemas sem renovação de água "ZEAH" (Zero Exchange, Aerobic, Heterotrophic Culture Systems ou cultivo em meio aos Bioflocos (BFT aplica métodos que minimizam estes problemas, contribuindo para uma maricultura mais saudável.Marine fish culture is still in its infancy in Brazil. For several years the snook Centropomus parallelus and the flounder Paralicithys orbignyanus were considered for aquaculture, but their commercial application has not yet been achieved. However, once technology for culture of cobia Rachycentron canadum became available, several private companies showed interest for marine fish culture. Besides traditional rearing technologes, cobia is suitable for open ocean culture in cages. This species shows fast growth rates, fish can achieve 4 or 8 kg within one year of age and its flesh is highly appreciated. Shrimp farming has been questioned for environmental issues, use of fish oil and fish meal, and spreading diseases. Rearing shrimp in systems without water exchange, know as ZEAH (Zero Exchange Aerobic Heterotrophic Culture systems or bioflocs applies methods that minimize these problems, contributing for the development of sustainable shrimp

  13. Brasilochondria riograndensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Copepoda, Chondracanthidae a parasite of flounders of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Brasilochondria riograndensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Copepoda, Chondracanthidae a parasite of the flounder, Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1839, is described. The new genus has a spherical head a post-mandibular "neck" and two pairs of modified biramous legs. In these respects, it resembles Argentinochondria patagonensis Etchegoin, Timi & Sardella, 2003. In the Argentine genus, however, the bulbous head has a medial constriction and the posterior of the female lacks the lateral extensions that are present in the new genus. Pseudolernentoma brasiliensis Luque & Alves, 2003, also resembles the new genus but it lacks the lateral extensions of the trunk and the latter is cylindrical rather than flat. The second leg of the new genus is small and the endopod is shorter than the exopod. The other two genera have large second legs with subequal rami.Brasilochondria riograndensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Copepoda, Chondracanthidae, um parasito do linguado, Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1839, é descrito. O novo gênero tem uma cabeça esférica, um "pescoço" pós-mandíbular e dois pares de pernas que são birremes e modificados na fêmea. Nestes aspectos, ela parece com Argentinochondria patagonensis Etchegoin, Timi & Sardella, 2003. Nesta, no entanto, a cabeça é esférica com uma constrição medial e na parte posterior do tronco faltam as extensões póstero-laterais que o novo gênero possui. Pseudolernentoma brasiliensis Luque & Alves, 2003, é também parecido com o novo gênero, mas carece das extensões póstero-laterais e o mesmo tronco é cilíndrico em vez de achatado. A segunda perna no novo gênero é pequena e o endopodito é mais curto que o exopodito. Nos outros dois gêneros, as segundas pernas são grandes e os ramos são sub-iguais.

  14. Molecular Phylogeny of the Myxobolus and Henneguya Genera with Several New South American Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Márcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037

  15. Inversión ocular en Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867 lenguado de ojos chicos (Pleuronectiformes, Paralichthyidae: un caso del ambiente y un análisis en ejemplares cultivados

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    Héctor Flores

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En diversas especies de Pleuronectiformes se han registrado casos de inversión ocular, fenómeno, en que el individuo reposa en el fondo por el lado contrario al habitual y/o normal. La proporción en que se presenta esta condición es variable y depende de las especies que se analicen. En el género Paralichthys se ha reportado inversión ocular en cuatro especies: P. albigutta, P. orbignyanus, P. californicus y P. dentatus. En el presente trabajo, se informa la captura de un ejemplar silvestre de Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867, con inversión ocular, capturado en Caldera (Chile. También, se han reportado individuos invertidos de esta especie provenientes de un cultivo, a partir de reproductores que fueron capturados en Bahía Coquimbo. En ejemplares diestros y siniestros proveniente de cultivo, se efectuó comparación de relaciones morfométricas. La proporción de peces con inversión ocular y que provienen de un cultivo, representa 2,2% de la población de peces producidos. Se discute la frecuencia de este tipo de anomalías y las probables causas que las estarían produciendo.

  16. A pesca comercial na bacia do rio Madeira no estado de Rondônia, Amazônia brasileira The Commercial fisheries of the Madeira river basin in the Rondônia state, brazilian Amazon

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    Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caracteriza quali e quantitativamente a atividade pesqueira comercial na bacia do rio Madeira, afluente do rio Amazonas, no trecho entre Guajará-Mirim e Porto Velho, estado de Rondônia. No período de janeiro a dezembro/2004, foram registrados 460 t, correspondendo 935 viagens. A análise dos dados oriundos do monitoramento dos desembarques demonstrou que a pesca na região tem caráter artesanal de pequena escala, destacando a maior participação das canoas motorizadas (131 unidades do que barcos pesqueiros (45 unidades; capacidade média: 3.000kg na frota pesqueira. Os peixes migradores jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans e filhote (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum se destacaram na composição das espécies desembarcadas. As informações técnicas geradas são importantes para subsidiar ações de ordenamento pesqueiro, bem como para avaliar futuras variações que possam ocorrer na atividade frente aos impactos dos empreendimentos hidrelétricos em construção na região.This study presents qualitative and quantitative information about commercial fishery in the basin of the Madeira River, tributary of the Amazon River, describing the fishing activity in the segment between Guajará-Mirim and Porto Velho, in Rondônia State. From January to December/2004, 219 fishermen and 935 trips were registered, corresponding to the capture of 460 t of fish. Data from fish landings demonstrate that fisheries in the region are small-scaled and point to a higher participation of small motorized canoes (130 units than of fishing boats (45 units; average capacity: 3000 kg in the fishing fleet. Migratory species like jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans

  17. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA DIET OF THE NEOTROPICAL OTTER Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae IN THE ROBLE RIVER, UPPER CAUCA BASIN, COLOMBIA

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    Rosemary Mayor-Victoria

    Full Text Available Se estudio la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja , alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron colectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble. En el laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia. Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimenticias, dentro los cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae , presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp. (9,55% y Ancistrus sp. (8,54%; otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9% (Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae , especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontró diferencias significativa, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0.00001.The diet of Neotropical otters was studied at Roble river, a tributary of La Vieja river, Upper Cauca basin, Colombia . From August 2006 to March 2007 otter scats were collected twice per month using plastic bags, from the lower stretch of the Roble river. In the laboratory, the scats were washed, sieved and items were identified by comparing them with a reference collection. Fourteen food categories were recognized. Ranked by frequency of occurrence, benthic sucker-mouthed catfish were the favored food items, especially Chaetostoma sp (22,6 % followed by Hypostomus sp. (9,55% and Ancistrus sp. (8,54%. Other species of fish eaten by the otters are: Apteronotus sp. (11,6 %, Brycon henni (9,86 %, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15 %; (Family Loricariidae., followed by insects Corydalus sp (9% (Family Corydalidae. The lowest frequency observed was for

  18. Effects of hot and cold smoking processes on organoleptic properties, yield and composition of matrinxa fillet Efeitos do processo de defumação a quente e a frio sobre as propriedades organolépticas, o rendimento e a composição de filé de matrinxã

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    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza Franco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hot (45-90ºC/5 hours and cold (27-45ºC/10 hours smoking processes on the organoleptic properties, yield and composition of matrinxa (Brycon cephalus fillets are evaluated. No significant differences were observed for fillet yield in both non-smoked and smoked fillets. Smoking process losses were significantly higher for hot smoked (19.37% when compared to cold smoked (17.08%. Smoking process reduced moisture (in natura = 72.91%, for hot = 58.51% and cold = 59.68% and increased crude protein, lipid and ash contents. However, there was a significant difference only for protein level between hot smoked (28.07% and cold smoked (27.14%. Cold smoked process resulted in better fillet appearance and color, while hot smoked presented superior flavor, salt content and general acceptance. Aroma and texture did not differ significantly among processes. Therefore, hot smoking process shows the best results for organoleptic properties and protein levels.Foi avaliado o efeito do processo de defumação a quente (45-90ºC/5 horas e a frio (27-45ºC/10 horas nas propriedades organolépticas, no rendimento e na composição dos filés de matrinxã (Brycon cephalus. Não houve diferença significativa no rendimento de filés defumados e não-defumados. As perdas no processo de defumação foram significativamente maiores para defumação a quente (19,37% em comparação à defumação a frio (17,08%. O processo de defumação reduziu a umidade (in natura = 72,91%; defumado a quente = 58,51%; e defumado a frio = 59,68% e aumentou os teores de proteína bruta, lipídios e cinzas. Houve diferença significativa somente nos teores de proteína no defumado a quente (28,07% e defumado a frio (27,14%. O processo a frio resultou em melhor aparência e cor de filé, enquanto o processo a quente melhorou o sabor, o teor de sal e a aparência geral. O aroma e a textura não diferiram significativamente entre os processos. O processo de defumação a quente

  19. Short-term cold storage of sperm from six neotropical characiformes fishes

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    Simone Marques

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sperm of the following Neotropical Characiformes fish species were tested for cold storage: Brycon lundii, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus elongatus, Leporinus friderici, Prochilodus lineatus and Prochilodus marggravii. Each sperm sample was split into two aliquots. The first was placed into a plastic bag with air or oxygen and the second, in a plastic tube with air. The samples were maintained at temperatures between 1.7-4.9 ºC. The rate of sperm motility was estimated using a 50 mM NaCl solution as the activating solution. The shortest sperm storage duration (7 h was recorded for L. friderici, when the sperm motility rate reached ~ 30%, whereas the longest duration (20 h was obtained with the sperm of P. lineatus. A fertilisation test using Prochilodus marggravii sperm refrigerated for 8 h yielded 88-90% of viable embryos. The refrigerated storage method could be of practical applications, especially in fish reproductive management at hatchery stations.O sêmen das seguintes espécies de Characiformes neotropicais foi testado para armazenamento em ambiente resfriado: Brycon lundii, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus elongatus, Leporinus friderici, Prochilodus lineatus e Prochilodus marggravii. Amostras de sêmen, obtidas por massagem da parede celômica, foram armazenadas em saco plástico com ar ou oxigênio ou em tubo plástico com ar, e mantidas resfriadas entre 1,7-4,9º C. A taxa de motilidade espermática foi estimada usando-se NaCl 50 mM como solução ativadora. O sêmen com menor duração de viabilidade (7 h foi o de L. friderici, quando a taxa de motilidade espermática alcançou ~30%, enquanto que o de maior duração (20 h foi o de P. lineatus. A fertilização de ovócitos utilizando sêmen refrigerado por 8 h de Prochilodus marggravii produziu 88-90% de embriões viáveis. O método de armazenamento desenvolvido neste trabalho tem aplicações práticas, especialmente no manejo reprodutivo de peixes em estações de

  20. Atividade proteolítica e crescimento de matrinxã em natação sustentada e alimentado com dois níveis de proteína

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    Gustavo Alberto Arbeláez-Rojas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da natação sustentada sobre a atividade digestiva proteolítica e o crescimento de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus, alimentados com dois níveis de proteína. Foram utilizados 240 peixes, tratados com 28 ou 38% de proteína bruta (PB, durante 60 dias, em duas situações distintas: em natação sustentada à velocidade de uma vez e meia o comprimento corporal por segundo, e em sistema convencional de cultivo, sem movimento forçado. Os peixes em natação sustentada e alimentados com 28% de PB apresentaram melhor desempenho, expresso como maior crescimento, alta taxa de crescimento específico, maior ganho de peso e melhor eficiência alimentar. A natação sustentada proporcionou aumento significativo da atividade digestiva proteolítica alcalina, proporcional ao conteúdo de proteína na dieta. Juvenis de matrinxã alimentados com dietas com 28% de PB e em natação sustentada apresentam melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes como consequência de ação proteolítica digestiva mais efetiva.

  1. Cross-amplification of heterologous microsatellite markers in Rhamdia quelen and Leporinus elongatus

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    Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Native fish species in Brazil are an asset in fish farming, but their natural stocks have been significantly reduced in recent years. To mitigate this negative impact, studies on fish conservation are being conducted and genetic tools for the discrimination of population parameters are increasingly achieving great importance. Current analysis evaluates a set of microsatellite heterologous primers in the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and in the piapara (Leporinus elongatus. Samples from the caudal fin of 15 broodstock from each species were analyzed. DNA extraction was performed with NaCl protocol and the integrity of the extracted DNA was checked with agarose gel 1%. Twenty primers developed for Piaractus mesopotamicus, Colossoma macropomum, Prochilodus lineatus, Brycon opalinus and Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated. Cross amplification of four primers of the B. opalinus and P. lineatus species (BoM12, Pli43 and Pli60 in R. quelen and BoM2, Pli43 and Pli60 in L. elongatus was assessed. Primers of P. mesopotamicus, C. macropomum and O. niloticus showed no cross amplification in the two species analyzed. Results revealed the possibility of using the four amplified heterologous primers in genetic studies for R. quelen and L. elongatus.

  2. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA.

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    ROSEMARY MAYOR-VICTORIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja, alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron recolectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble. En el laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia. Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimentarias, dentro de las cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae, presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp. (9,55% y Ancistrus sp. (8,54%; otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9%; Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae, especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontraron diferencias significativas, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0,00001.

  3. Fishing resources in the rio Cuiabá basin, Pantanal do Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Lúcia. A. F. Mateus

    Full Text Available The rio Cuiabá is one of the most important tributaries of the upper rio Paraguay basin that form the Pantanal wetlands. The fishing resources of the rio Cuiabá basin were studied based on landing data obtained from the Fish Market of the city of Cuiabá, State of Mato grosso, Brazil. A description is given of the composition and origin of the 2000 and 2001 catch. The rio Cuiabá is the main source of fish for Cuiabá, although some fish sold locally comes from the rio Paraguay. The 2000-2001 catch consisted mainly of migratory species. The main landed species were the pimelodids pintado -Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, cachara -Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, and jaú -Paulicea luetkeni, and the characiforms pacu -Piaractus mesopotamicus, piraputanga -Brycon microlepis, piavuçu -Leporinus macrocephalus, and dourado -Salminus brasiliensis. Large catfishes (Pimelodidae represented 70% of the landed fish, among which pintado was the most abundant. The data indicate that current catches are smaller than those recorded in the early 1980s and fish are caught far off the urban zone. Moreover, although the number and composition of species caught were similar to those of the 80s, the distribution of species abundance has changed. Currently, fisheries catch more carnivorous species than fish from lower trophic levels. These findings cannot be credited solely to overfishing, but appear to result from a complex interaction of factors, i.e., environmental degradation, changes in market preferences, and restrictive legal fishing regulations.

  4. Páginas iniciais

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    Ficha catalográfica e sumário bilíngue

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available REDES, Santa Cruz do Sul, v. 18, nº 3, p. 1 - 273, set/dez. 2013. ISSN: 1982-6745 Editores Virginia Elisabeta Etges Silvio Cezar Arend Sumário/Summary O PROCESSO DE MODERNIZAÇÃO AGRÍCOLA E AS TRAJETÓRIAS E ESTRATÉGIAS EMPREENDIDAS PELOS PRODUTORES AGRÍCOLAS DO MUNICÍPIO DE PASSO FUNDO – RS – BRASIL AGRICULTURAL MODERNIZATION PROCESS AND THE TRAJEÓRIAS AND STRATEGIES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS TAKEN BY THE CITY OF STEP FUND – RS –BRASIL Luiz Fernando Fritz Filho Lovois de Andrade Miguel Karen Beltrame Becker Fritz ANÁLISE ESPACIAL DA PRODUTIVIDADE DA AGROPECUÁRIA NO ESTADO DO PARANÁ – 1970, 1996 E 2007 SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN THE STATE OF PARANA - 1970, 1996 AND 2007 Lucir Reinaldo Alves Andreice Criscieli Saran Aneli O ESVAZIAMENTO DAS REGIÕES RURAIS: O CASO DA BACIA LEITEIRA DE PIRACANJUBA – GO – BRASIL (2000-2010 THE EXODUS OF RURAL AREAS. THE CASE PIRACANJUBA – GOIÁS – BRAZIL (2000-2010 Margot Riemann Costa e Silva Luis Antonio Estevam A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DA AGRICULTURA FAMILIAR PARA O DESENVOLVIMENTO RURAL DE MATO GROSSO DO SUL - BRASIL THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE FAMILY FARM FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE - BRAZIL Adriana Rita Sangalli Madalena Maria Schlindwein PEDAGOGIA DA ALTERNÂNCIA E REPRESENTAÇÕES SOCIAIS DE MEIO AMBIENTE EM DOCENTES E DISCENTES DE CASAS FAMILIARES RURAIS ALTERNATION PEDAGOGY AND SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENT ON TEACHERS AND STUDENTS OF RURAL FAMILY HOUSES Edival Sebastião Teixeira Ederson Henrique de Souza Machado Fernanda Luiza Algeri Raffael Cantú BENEFÍCIOS DOS ARRANJOS PRODUTIVOS LOCAIS: A PERCEPÇÃO DOS APICULTORES SOBRE A REDE ABELHA CEARÁ - BRASIL BENEFITS OF LOCAL PRODUCTIVE ARRANGEMENTS (LPA: PERCEPTIONS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE APICULTURE NETWORK ‛REDE ABELHA CEARÁ - BRAZIL Oderlene Vieira de Oliveira Francisco Correia de Oliveira Rosângela Andrade Pessoa QUALIDADE E INOVAÇÃO EM SERVIÇOS DE TRANSPORTE COLETIVO P

  5. Mercúrio total em pescado de água-doce Total mercury in fresh-water fish

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    Sandra Emi KITAHARA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O mercúrio total foi quantificado em 11 espécies de peixes de água-doce, originárias de diferentes procedências comerciais. O mercúrio vem sendo utilizado na agricultura, indústria, mineração, etc., e isso tem provocado drástico aumento desse metal no meio ambiente, atingindo em conseqüência a cadeia trófica. Nesse contexto, o homem, através do consumo de alimentos, principalmente pescado, torna-se vulnerável à ação tóxica do mercúrio. Os resultados obtidos para as espécies mandi - Pimelodus maculatus, tilápia - Tilapia sp, sagüiru - Cyphocharax modestus, lambari - Astyanax sp, sardela - Triportheus sp, traíra - Hoplias sp, curimbatá - Prochilodus sp e dourado - Salminus sp, comercializadas em São Paulo - SP, e para o jaraqui - Semaprochilodus insignis, curimatã - Prochilodus nigricans e matrinchã - Brycon sp, procedentes da Amazônia brasileira, variaram de 0,01 a 0,39mgHg/Kg. Os resultados observados, sob o ponto-de-vista de Saúde Pública, estão abaixo dos limites de tolerância brasileiros, de 0,5 e 1,0mgHg/Kg, para espécies não-predadoras e predadoras, respectivamente. Nas espécies de hábito alimentar carnívoro (traíra e dourado os teores de mercúrio foram de 0,26 a 0,39mgHg/Kg. A expectativa de ocorrência de espécies excessivamente contaminadas não se confirmou.Total mercury was quantified in 11 fresh-water fish species from different commercial origins. Mercury has been used in agriculture, industry, mining, etc. Consequently there was an increase of mercury discharge to environment, that enters into the throphic chain. In this context, the man, through the consumption of foods, mainly fishery products, turns vulnerable to mercury. The obtained results for mandi - Pimelodus maculatus, tilápia - Tilapia sp, sagüiru - Cyphocharax modestus, lambari- Astyanax sp, sardela - Triportheus sp, traíra - Hoplias sp, curimbatá - Prochilodus sp and dourado - Salminus sp, commercialized in São Paulo-SP, and

  6. Abundance, feeding and reproduction of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae from mountain streams of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela

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    Douglas Rodríguez-Olarte

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain basic information for management, aspects of the ecology of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae, were studied in piedmont rivers of the southwestern flank of the Andes in Venezuela. Collections were made with seines of various lengths and mesh sizes, and both underwater and terrestrial observations were recorded to estimate abundance and feeding events. Interviews with local fishermen and inhabitants were made to obtain data on use. The species is present along the entire length of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela, although in some rivers it is now scarce. Small individuals form mixed schools with Brycon whitei, but larger Salminus sp. usually only school with others of the same species. Average abundance was greater in larger rivers, and didn't vary appreciably with season for any of the rivers studied. Size and weight ranged from 15.1 to 40.5 cm SL and 47.7 to 1,210 g, respectively. Females had maximum ovary maturity at the beginning of the rainy season, with an average fecundity of 35,834 eggs, and spawning occurred during spates of high water. Feeding was crepuscular, with most events recorded during the first and last hours of sunlight. In smaller fish up to 20 cm SL, the diet was varied, but above that size fish were the principal food item. Salminus sp. has little commercial importance in this region but forms an important part of the local subsistence fishery, and occasionally it is targeted for sport fishing. The minimum legal size of capture for the species should be raised, since the current limit permits the capture of many sexually immature individuals.Para obter informações básicas para o manejo de Salminus sp. no sopé andino ocidental da Venezuela, se estudaram aspectos sobre sua ecologia e aproveitamento. Nos rios do sopé da montanha efetuaram-se capturas de peixes com variados tamanhos de malha, assim como observações subaquáticas e terrestres para estimar abundâncias e eventos de alimentação. Aplicaramse

  7. Abundance, feeding and reproduction of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae from mountain streams of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela

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    Douglas Rodríguez-Olarte

    Full Text Available To obtain basic information for management, aspects of the ecology of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae, were studied in piedmont rivers of the southwestern flank of the Andes in Venezuela. Collections were made with seines of various lengths and mesh sizes, and both underwater and terrestrial observations were recorded to estimate abundance and feeding events. Interviews with local fishermen and inhabitants were made to obtain data on use. The species is present along the entire length of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela, although in some rivers it is now scarce. Small individuals form mixed schools with Brycon whitei, but larger Salminus sp. usually only school with others of the same species. Average abundance was greater in larger rivers, and didn't vary appreciably with season for any of the rivers studied. Size and weight ranged from 15.1 to 40.5 cm SL and 47.7 to 1,210 g, respectively. Females had maximum ovary maturity at the beginning of the rainy season, with an average fecundity of 35,834 eggs, and spawning occurred during spates of high water. Feeding was crepuscular, with most events recorded during the first and last hours of sunlight. In smaller fish up to 20 cm SL, the diet was varied, but above that size fish were the principal food item. Salminus sp. has little commercial importance in this region but forms an important part of the local subsistence fishery, and occasionally it is targeted for sport fishing. The minimum legal size of capture for the species should be raised, since the current limit permits the capture of many sexually immature individuals.

  8. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA

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    Botero-Botero Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudio la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja, alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron colectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble, en laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia.Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimenticias, dentro los cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae, presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp.  (9,55% y  Ancistrus sp.  (8,54%;  otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni  (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9% (Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae, especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontró diferencias significativa, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0.00001.

  9. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone.

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    Härer, Andreas; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale infrastructure projects commonly have large effects on the environment. The planned construction of the Nicaragua Canal will irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua in many ways. Two distinct drainage basins (San Juan and Punta Gorda) will be connected and numerous ecosystems will be altered. Considering the project's far-reaching environmental effects, too few studies on biodiversity have been performed to date. This limits provision of robust environmental impact assessments. We explored the geographic distribution of taxonomic and genetic diversity of freshwater fish species (Poecilia spp., Amatitlania siquia, Hypsophrys nematopus, Brycon guatemalensis, and Roeboides bouchellei) across the Nicaragua Canal zone. We collected population samples in affected areas (San Juan, Punta Gorda, and Escondido drainage basins), investigated species composition of 2 drainage basins and performed genetic analyses (genetic diversity, analysis of molecular variance) based on mitochondrial cytb. Freshwater fish faunas differed substantially between drainage basins (Jaccard similarity = 0.33). Most populations from distinct drainage basins were genetically differentiated. Removing the geographic barrier between these basins will promote biotic homogenization and the loss of unique genetic diversity. We found species in areas where they were not known to exist, including an undescribed, highly distinct clade of live bearing fish (Poecilia). Our results indicate that the Nicaragua Canal likely will have strong impacts on Nicaragua's freshwater biodiversity. However, knowledge about the extent of these impacts is lacking, which highlights the need for more thorough investigations before the environment is altered irreversibly. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Factors determining the structure of fish assemblages in an Amazonian river near to oil and gas exploration areas in the Amazon basin (Brazil: establishing the baseline for environmental evaluation

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    Igor David Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Determining the significance of biotic and abiotic factors in the structuring of fish assemblages in freshwater environments is an important question in ecology, particularly in view of environmental changes caused by man. In this paper we sought to identify the factors responsible for the composition and abundance of fish species collected with gill nets in six locations near ports in forest clearance areas opened up for oil and natural gas exploration (Petrobras Pedro Moura Base in the Urucu River, during drought and flood cycles. In all, 923 individuals from 23 families and 82 species were collected, totalling a biomass of 182,244 g. The most abundant species during the flood season were Bryconops alburnoides (Kner, 1858 and Dianema urostriatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912; in the drought season, the predominant species were Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829 and Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766. The species with the greatest biomass during the flood season were Pellona castelnaeana (Valenciennes, 1847, S. rhombeus and Pellona flavipinis (Valenciennes, 1847. During the drought season, the predominant species was O. bicirrhosum. When both periods were analysed together, electrical conductivity, water transparency and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors. The species Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840, O. bicirrhosum, Chaetobranchus flavenscens Heckel, 1840, Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855 were strongly related to high values of conductivity, pH and water current velocity during the drought season, as well as Serrasalmus altispinis Merckx, Jégu & Santos, 2000, Triportheus albus Cope, 1872, Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 and Brycon melanopterus (Cope, 1872 that were associated with less depth and width in the drought season whereas P. castelnaeana, D. urostriatum, Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner, 1858 and Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 were mainly associated with high transparency and

  11. Effect of Aloe vera extract on the improvement of the respiratory activity of leukocytes of matrinxã during the transport stress

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    Fábio Sabbadin Zanuzzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of extract of Aloe vera in the transport water of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus fish on stress response and leukocyte respiratory activity. Fish was transported for 4 h in water containing Aloe at levels 0; 0.02; 0.2 and 2 mg/L, and sampled before transport 2, 4, 24 and 96 h after for determination of plasma glucose and respiratory activity of leukocytes. An additional in vitro assay was conducted with another fish species, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, to test the respiratory burst of leukocytes exposed to Aloe extract (0.0, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS only at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. Plasma glucose increased after 2 and 4 h of transport and returned to control levels within 24 h, but the addition of Aloe in the transport water did not affect the level of blood glucose. However, at 2 h of transport, Aloe enhanced the respiratory activity of leukocytes in a dose-dependent way. The highest value of respiratory burst activity of leukocytes was observed in the fish transported in water containing Aloe at 2 mg/L. The enhancing effect of the plant extract on the production of oxygen radicals was confirmed in vitro in leukocytes of pacu incubated in Aloe at concentrations 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L. The results suggest that Aloe vera is a modulator of the immune system in fish improving the innate immune response tested.

  12. Effect of fatty Amazon fish consumption on lipid metabolism

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    Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin on lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group treated with commercial chow; Mapará group was fed diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; Matrinxã group was fed diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and, Tambaqui group was fed diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. Rats with approximately 240g±0.60 of body weight were fed ad libitum for 30 days, and then were sacrificed for collection of whole blood and tissues. RESULTS: The groups treated with enriched diets showed a significant reduction in body mass and lipogenesis in the epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues and carcass when compared with the control group. However, lipogenesis in the liver showed an increase in Matrinxã group compared with the others groups. The levels of serum triglycerides in the treated groups with Amazonian fish were significantly lower than those of the control group. Moreover, total cholesterol concentration only decreased in the group Matrinxã. High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly in the Mapará and Tambaqui compared with control group and Matrinxã group. The insulin and leptin levels increased significantly in all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin changed the lipid metabolism by reducing serum triglycerides and increasing high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in rats fed with diets enriched with Mapará, Matrinxã, and Tambaqui.

  13. [Diversity and ichthyofaunistic abundance of the Rio Grande de Térraba, south of Costa Rica].

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    Rodrigo Rojas, José; Rodríguez, Omar

    2008-09-01

    The diversity, abundance and distributional pattern of freshwater fish communities in the Térraba River, south Costa Rica, were investigated from the early dry season of 2004 to early rain season of 2005. There have been no preview studies on the freshwater fish distribution in Térraba. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine fish species richness, abundance and distribution there. Fish sampling was done using a combination of gears such as gill net, fine mesh net and visual observation. Thirty three species, 26 genera and 14 families were collected in four sampling sites along the river. The number and biomass captured during the entire study was 984 individuals and 147 410.9 g respectively. Most of them are carnivorous species (48%), 33.3% are omnivorous and 12% detritivorous, and only two species are herbivorous. The most important species in relative abundance (56.5%) and biomass (53.7%) in the study area was the machaca (Brycon behreae). It should be clear that although the list of fish species that occur in Térraba River is reasonably complete, knowledge of their ichthyogeographic history patterns is superficial. The main community component was secondary freshwater species; with 17 invading brackish water species and one introduced species (tilapia O. niloticus). Nine species are reported for the first time in this river. The diversity index H' varied from 2.32 (El Brujo) to 1.67 (Coto), a similar pattern was also showed for the other indexes. Most of our results were similar to those of previous studies on freshwater fish distribution elsewhere, however no significant correlation between species distribution and environmental variables was found, and we hypothesized that the depth and water velocity and geomorphological are major environmental variables that influence the fish distribution. Our findings are opposed to the tendency, for species composition, to increase from upstream to the mouth of the river, which is probably due to two major

  14. Fish mercury development in relation to abiotic characteristics and carbon sources in a six-year-old, Brazilian reservoir

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    Tuomola, Leena; Niklasson, Terese [Evolutionary Biology Centre and Department of Limnology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 20, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Castro e Silva, Edinaldo de [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av. Fernando C. Costa/sn, 78 090-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air, Water and Landscape Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: Lars.Hylander@hyd.uu.se

    2008-02-01

    Time series on fish mercury (Hg) development are rare for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics. In the central-western part of Brazil, a hydroelectric reservoir, called Lago Manso, was completed in 1999 after that background levels of fish Hg concentrations had been determined. The development for the first 3 years was studied in 2002. The objective of the present study was to determine development of fish Hg concentrations for a second three-year period after flooding. The bioaccumulation factor and certain abiotic and biotic factors, possibly affecting the availability and accumulation of Hg, were also examined. The results show that Hg levels in fish from Lago Manso have increased more than five times compared to the background levels observed before construction of the reservoir. At the same time, dissolved organic carbon has increased while dissolved oxygen has decreased indicating enhanced bioavailability of Hg. In the reservoir, Salminus brasiliensis had in average a Hg content of 1.1 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w., Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum 1.2, Serrasalmus marginatus/spilopleura 0.9, and Brycon hilarii 0.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} f.w. The average fish Hg contents were higher downstream, except for B. hilarii. In the reservoir, the average Hg content of each species was in 2005 always over the consumption limit (0.55 {mu}g total Hg g{sup -1} f.w.) recommended by WHO. Therefore, the people living around Lago Manso should be informed of the health effects of Hg, and fish consumption recommendations should be carried out. The accumulation of Hg varies widely between species as shown by the bioaccumulation factor which ranges between 5.08 and 5.59 log units. The observed variation is explained by differences in diet and trophic position with piscivorous fish exhibiting the highest mean Hg concentration, followed by carnivorous and omnivorous species. Carbon isotope analyses imply that trophic position is not the only cause of the observed differences in Hg levels between

  15. Fish mercury development in relation to abiotic characteristics and carbon sources in a six-year-old, Brazilian reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomola, Leena; Niklasson, Terese; de Castro E Silva, Edinaldo; Hylander, Lars D

    2008-02-01

    Time series on fish mercury (Hg) development are rare for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics. In the central-western part of Brazil, a hydroelectric reservoir, called Lago Manso, was completed in 1999 after that background levels of fish Hg concentrations had been determined. The development for the first 3 years was studied in 2002. The objective of the present study was to determine development of fish Hg concentrations for a second three-year period after flooding. The bioaccumulation factor and certain abiotic and biotic factors, possibly affecting the availability and accumulation of Hg, were also examined. The results show that Hg levels in fish from Lago Manso have increased more than five times compared to the background levels observed before construction of the reservoir. At the same time, dissolved organic carbon has increased while dissolved oxygen has decreased indicating enhanced bioavailability of Hg. In the reservoir, Salminus brasiliensis had in average a Hg content of 1.1 microg g(-1) f.w., Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum 1.2, Serrasalmus marginatus/spilopleura 0.9, and Brycon hilarii 0.6 microg g(-1) f.w. The average fish Hg contents were higher downstream, except for B. hilarii. In the reservoir, the average Hg content of each species was in 2005 always over the consumption limit (0.55 microg total Hg g(-1) f.w.) recommended by WHO. Therefore, the people living around Lago Manso should be informed of the health effects of Hg, and fish consumption recommendations should be carried out. The accumulation of Hg varies widely between species as shown by the bioaccumulation factor which ranges between 5.08 and 5.59 log units. The observed variation is explained by differences in diet and trophic position with piscivorous fish exhibiting the highest mean Hg concentration, followed by carnivorous and omnivorous species. Carbon isotope analyses imply that trophic position is not the only cause of the observed differences in Hg levels between omnivorous B

  16. Análise da pele de três espécies de peixes: histologia, morfometria e testes de resistência

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    Souza Maria Luiza R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a pele de três espécies de peixes (piavuçu Leporinus macrocephalus, pacu prata Mylossoma sp e piraputanga Brycon hilarii através de análise histologica e morfometrica e testes de resistência após o curtimento. Amostras de peles da região dorsal foram coletadas, fixadas em Bouin por 24 horas, incluídas em parafina, cortadas em 5 mm de espessura e coradas por Hematoxilina-eosina. Os cortes foram analisados pela microscopia de luz. Foi utilizado o dinamômetro EMIC para a análise físico-mecânica do couro em 10 amostras no sentido longitudinal a partir da região dorsal do peixe de cada espécie. A derme desses peixes possui um padrão estrutural comum aos teleósteos, porém a disposição e distribuição das fibras colágenas apresentaram-se diferentes entre as espécies analisadas. Através da análise morfométrica constatou-se que a espessura da derme da pele diferiu entre as três espécies. Não houve diferença no teste de resistência à tração no couro da piraputanga (16,88 N/mm² e piavuçu (18,50 N/mm². Os resultados para os couros destas duas espécies de peixes foram superiores ao pacu (11,83 N/mm². O valor de alongamento até a ruptura foi superior para piavuçu (52,83% e piraputanga (60,45%, não diferindo entre eles, porém foi inferior para o pacu (33,83%. O rasgamento progressivo foi maior no couro de pacu (36,51 N/mm. As peles das três espécies analisadas podem ser transformadas em couro para sua aplicação em diversos artefatos.