WorldWideScience

Sample records for pipiens diptera culicidae

  1. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae, in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Perez Alfonso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Results Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Conclusions Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p

  2. Evaluation of Some Plant Fruit Extracts for the Control of West Nile Virus Vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Evren, Ozay Hasan; Cetin, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The extracts of different parts of plants were found very effective against various pests. The aim of this research was to determine the insecticidal activity of fruit methanol extracts obtained from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae), Phoenix theophrasti (Arecaceae), Styphnolobium japonicum (Fabaceae) and Pyracantha coccinea (Rosaceae) against the larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The fruits of test plants were collected from the Campus of Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey in 2013. A series of concentrations of the extracts ranging from 62.5–1000 ppm were tested against second instar larvae. Results: Only the extracts of Me. azedarach and Ph. theoprasti showed significant larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens and the LC50 values of these extracts were found to be 169.48 and 220.60 ppm, respectively. This is the first research investigating the insecticidal or larvicidal activity of Ph. theophrasti, St. japonicum and Py. coccinea extracts on mosquitoes. Conclusion: The methanol extract of fruits of Me. azedarach and Ph. theophrasti showed significantly higher larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens. PMID:28032112

  3. Evaluation of temephos and chlorpyrifos-methyl against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, H; Yanikoglu, A; Kocak, O; Cilek, J E

    2006-11-01

    The larvicidal activity of chlorpyrifos-methyl and temephos was evaluated against Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey. Chlorpyrifos-methyl (Pyrifos MT 25 emulsifiable concentrate [EC] ) was evaluated at application rates of 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12 mg active ingredient (AI)/liter, and temephos (Temeguard 50 EC) was evaluated at 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mg (AI)/liter during a 21-d study. Generally, overall larval reduction in septic tanks from single- and multifamily dwellings treated with either larvicide was significantly greater than pretreatment levels and control tanks for the duration of the study. At 14 d posttreatment, duration of control was greatest in multifamily tanks treated with chlorpyrifos-methyl at the highest application rate with similar levels of control through 21 d for single-family dwellings (range 97-100%). Septic tanks from both types of family dwellings treated at the highest application rate of temephos resulted in >90% reduction through day 21 (range 91-100%). Laboratory bioassays of septic tank water treated at field application rates, without daily dilution, revealed that complete larval mortality was achieved for 21 d at each application rate and formulation. It is thought that daily addition of water and organic matter to the septic tanks in the single and multifamily dwellings influenced the duration of effectiveness of the larvicides.

  4. Asymmetric introgression between sympatric molestus and pipiens forms of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae in the Comporta region, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côrte-Real Ana R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culex pipiens L. is the most widespread mosquito vector in temperate regions. This species consists of two forms, denoted molestus and pipiens, that exhibit important behavioural and physiological differences. The evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these forms remain unclear. In northern European latitudes molestus and pipiens populations occupy different habitats (underground vs. aboveground, a separation that most likely promotes genetic isolation between forms. However, the same does not hold in southern Europe where both forms occur aboveground in sympatry. In these southern habitats, the extent of hybridisation and its impact on the extent of genetic divergence between forms under sympatric conditions has not been clarified. For this purpose, we have used phenotypic and genetic data to characterise Cx. pipiens collected aboveground in Portugal. Our aims were to determine levels of genetic differentiation and the degree of hybridisation between forms occurring in sympatry, and to relate these with both evolutionary and epidemiological tenets of this biological group. Results Autogeny and stenogamy was evaluated in the F1 progeny of 145 individual Cx. pipiens females. Bayesian clustering analysis based on the genotypes of 13 microsatellites revealed two distinct genetic clusters that were highly correlated with the alternative traits that define pipiens and molestus. Admixture analysis yielded hybrid rate estimates of 8-10%. Higher proportions of admixture were observed in pipiens individuals suggesting that more molestus genes are being introgressed into the pipiens form than the opposite. Conclusion Both physiological/behavioural and genetic data provide evidence for the sympatric occurrence of molestus and pipiens forms of Cx. pipiens in the study area. In spite of the significant genetic differentiation between forms, hybridisation occurs at considerable levels. The observed pattern of asymmetric

  5. Cloning and expression of cry2Aa from native Bacillus thuringiensis strain SY49-1 and its insecticidal activity against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Semih; Azizoglu, Ugur; Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Temizgul, Ridvan; Atciyurt, Zehra Büşra; Karabörklü, Salih

    2017-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) is well known for having toxicity against pest insects because of their ability to form endospores and broad-range activity of their parasporal inclusions. In this study, a new member of cry2A gene from previously characterized native B. thuringiensis SY49-1 strain was cloned, expressed and used for its activity against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The sequence analysis of the cloned cry2A gene revealed that it encodes a polypeptide of 633 aa residues with 99% identity to Cry2Aa protein with expected molecular weight of 70.7 kDa. Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin nomenclature committee designed our sequence as Cry2Aa18 being a new member of Bt toxins. Bioassays against last instar larvae of C. pipiens indicated that Cry2Aa18 has considerable toxicity with LC50 of 630 μg ml(-1). In order to prevent the spread of infectious diseases mediated by C. pipiens, this newly characterized cry2Aa18 gene could constitute as an important biological control tool for controlling mosquito larvae living in freshwater systems and can be used as a good alternative for minimizing the use of chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Pictorial Key for Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae In Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dehghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to design pictorial key and taxonomic literature of Culex pipiens complex in Iran.Methods: Larvae were collected using standard dipping methods in 13 randomly selected areas of Bushehr, Hame­dan, Kerman, Khorasan-e-Razavi, Khuzistan, Mazandaran, Tehran, Sistan and Baluchistan and Yazd Provinces from April 2009 to October 2010. The data were analyzed using SPSS Ver. 11.5.Results: Culex pipiens larvae were identified based on the Seta 1 of the abdominal segments III–IV in north and central parts of Iran. This diagnostic character had some variation among the Cx. quinquefasciatus collected from south of the country. The identification value of intersection of costa, subcosta and bifurcation of R2+3 of female veins, was calculated as 90–100 % for Cx. pipiens. This diagnostic character was varied among the Cx. quinquefas­ciatus specimens. The male genitalia found as the main characters to distinguish of Cx. quinquefasciatus from Cx. pipiens.Conclusion: It is necessary more studies on the behavior and genetic variations of Cx. pipiens complex in Iran.

  7. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouad El-Akhal; Abdelhakim El Ouali Lalami; Yassine Ez Zoubi; Hassane Greche; Raja Guemmouh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae). Methods: The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oil were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Biological test was performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the World Health Organization protocol with slight modification. Results:This oil mainly consisted of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes. The majority compounds are 4-terpinene (28.96%), γ-terpinene (18.57%), α-terpinene (12.72%) and sabinene (8.02%). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) measured for the essential oil Origanum majorana, were respectively of the order of 258.71 mg/L and 580.49 mg/L.

  8. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Akhal, Fouad; Guemmouh, Raja; Ez Zoubi, Yassine; El Ouali Lalami, Abdelhakim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens. PMID:26640701

  9. High Insecticides Resistance in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae from Tehran, Capital of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Salim-Abadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent years transmission of Dirofilaria immitis (dog heart worm by Culex pipiens and West Nile virus have been reported from Iran. The present study was preformed for evaluating the susceptibility status of Cx. pipiens collected from capital city of Tehran, Iran.Methods: Four Insecticides including: DDT 4%, Lambdacyhalothrin 0.05%, Deltamethrin 0.05% and Cyfluthrin 0.15 % according to WHO standard  methods were used for evaluating the susceptibility status of Cx. pipiens from Tehran moreover  For comparison susceptibility status a Laboratory strain also was used.  Bioassay data were ana­lyzed using Probit program. The lethal time for 50% and 90% mortality (LT50 and LT90 values were calculated from regression line.Results: The susceptibility status of lab strain of Cx. pipiens revealed that it is susceptible to Lambdacyhalothrin, Deltamethrin, Cyfluthrin and resistant to DDT. Moreover cyfluthrin with LT50=36 seconds and DDT with LT50=3005 seconds had the least and most LT50s. Field population was resistance to all tested insecticides and DDT yielded no mortality.Conclusion: Highly resistance level against all WHO recommended imagicides were detected in field populations. We suggest more biochemical and molecular investigations to detect resistance mechanisms in the field population for further decision of vector control.

  10. Mom Matters: Diapause Characteristics of Culex pipiens-Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Hybrid Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuti, Megan E; Short, Clancy A; Denlinger, David L

    2015-03-01

    Females of the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens L., are capable of entering an adult overwintering diapause characterized by arrested ovarian development, enhanced stress tolerance, and elevated lipid stores. In contrast, the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, lacks this capacity and is therefore unable to survive the harsh winters found in northern regions of North America. These two species are capable of forming fertile hybrids in the United States, yet the diapause characteristics of these hybrids have not been extensively investigated. We crossed Cx. pipiens from Columbus, OH, with Cx. quinquefasciatus from Vero Beach, FL, and reared F1 hybrids from all mothers separately under diapause-inducing, short-day conditions (a photoperiod of 8:16 [L:D] h) at 18°C. Egg follicle length and lipid content were used to assess the diapause status of hybrids. Diapause incidence of hybrids varied widely for progeny from different mothers of the same species, but hybrids with Cx. pipiens mothers were consistently more prone to enter diapause than hybrids that had Cx. quinquefasciatus mothers. Our results suggest a strong maternal influence on the diapause phenotype and that a high percentage (45-75%) of Cx. pipiens-Cx. quinquefasciatus hybrids are capable of entering diapause. This implies that many hybrids can successfully overwinter, leading to a possible widening of the hybrid zone of these two species in North America.

  11. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad El-Akhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens.

  12. Repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Abdallah F; El-Haj, Samih; Tueni, Marie; Taoubi, Khalil; Nader, Natalie Abi; Mrad, Abir

    2005-06-01

    The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, flowers and roots of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus Forskal were determined. Extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were the most toxic, followed by those of Ferula hermonis Boiss, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, Pinus pinea L, Laurus nobilis L and Eucalyptus spp with LC50 values of 24.5, 44.0, 60.0, 75.0, 117.0 and 120.0 mg litre(-1), respectively. Combination tests between the LC50 and the maximum sub-lethal concentration (MSLC) were determined. Over 20 major components were identified in extracts from each plant species tested. Five essential oils and nine pure components were studied for their repellency against mosquito bites. Terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the most effective against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1.6 and 2 h, respectively.

  13. Decreased Flight Activity in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Naturally Infected With Culex flavivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christina M; Anderson, Tavis K; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-01-01

    Insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFVs) commonly infect vectors of mosquito-borne arboviruses. To investigate whether infection with an ISFV might affect mosquito flight behavior, we quantified flight behavior in Culex pipiens L. naturally infected with Culex flavivirus (CxFV). We observed a significant reduction in the scotophase (dark hours) flight activity of CxFV-positive mosquitoes relative to CxFV-negative mosquitoes, but only a marginal reduction in photophase (light hours) flight activity, and no change in the circadian pattern of flight activity. These results suggest that CxFV infection alters the flight activity of naturally infected Cx. pipiens most dramatically when these vectors are likely to be host seeking and may therefore affect the transmission of medically important arboviruses.

  14. Native Argentinean cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda) as predators of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Tranchida, María C.; Micieli, María V.; Arnaldo Maciá; García, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cyclopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops ur...

  15. Native Argentinean cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda) as predators of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    C. Tranchida, María; V. Micieli, María; Maciá, Arnaldo; J. García, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cyclopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops ur...

  16. The Morphological Variations of Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae in Yazd Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dehghan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract "nBackground: Culex pipiens complex shows variations in morphological and biological characters including differ­ent biological forms and has medical and veterinary importance. Because of having morphological variations, some­times it is not easy to separate this species from Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. torrentium. The aim of this study was to  identify the  Culex pipiens complex species in order to use in control programs in the future. "nMethods: This study was carried out in two randomly selected rural villages in Yazd County, eastern Iran using dip­ping technique from April to October 2009. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. "nResults: Average of siphon index in fourth-instrar larvae was 3.86±0.03, the minimum and maximum were calculated 2.43 and 5.14, respectively. Siphon/Saddle index was measured as average, minimum and maximum 3.2±0.2, 2.78, and 4.42 respectively. In our study, only 4 specimens had single seta 1 on segments III and VI (2.5% and the remaining beard double seta (97.5%. The maximum 3-6 branches seta 1a-S and 1b-S (95% were observed on siphon. "nConclusion: More populations of Culex pipiens from different areas of Iran need to be studied to gain complete informa­tion about the taxonomy and ecology of the species in the country. "n  "nKeywords: Culex pipiens complex, larvae, taxonomy, Iran

  17. Isolation and identification of α-proteobacteria from Culex pipiens (Diptera Culicidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, M C; Riccillo, P M; Rodriguero, M S; García, J J; Micieli, M V

    2012-01-01

    A survey of drainage ditches in suburban areas of La Plata, Buenos Aires province, Argentina for pathogens of Culex pipiens larvae was conducted from 2003 to 2006. C. pipiens larvae of opaque, white color were found in several of those field collections. When the white larvae were dissected and observed by phase-contrast microscopy in wet-mount preparations, the presence of bacteria, located in the hemocoel, was recorded. Laboratory experiments were performed to elucidate the pathway for transmission of this pathogen. Although approaches involving traditional culturing had failed to reveal the identity of the new microorganism present, molecular techniques to identify the pathogen in the studies reported here were successful. The partial sequence of the 16S-rRNA gene constitutes a powerful tool for the detection of new isolates from the hemocoele of C. pipiens larvae. These bacteria were characterized as belonging to the genus Novispirillum. In spite of the genus's wide distribution in different aquatic environments, information related to the parasitic relationship of Novispirillum spp. to aquatic insects is scarce, and this association has not been described in other mosquito species. This report constitutes the first documentation of Novispirillum spp. as a pathogen for mosquito larvae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations in Colorado, USA Using Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothera, Linda; Godsey, Marvin S.; Doyle, Michael S.; Savage, Harry M.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes such as those in the Culex pipiens complex are important vectors of disease. This study was conducted to genetically characterize Cx. pipiens complex populations in the state of Colorado, USA, and to determine the number of genetic clusters represented by the data. Thirteen populations located among four major river basins were sampled (n = 597 individuals) using a panel of 14 microsatellites. The lowest-elevation sites had the highest Expected Heterozygosity (HE) values (range 0.54–0.65). AMOVA results indicated the presence of statistically significant amounts of variation within each level when populations were analyzed as one group or when they were grouped either by river basin or by their position on the east or west side of the Rocky Mountains. Most pairwise FST values were significant via permutation test (range 0–0.10), with the highest values from comparisons with Lamar, in southeast CO. A neighbor joining tree based on Cavalli–Sforza and Edwards’s chord distances was consistent with the geographic locations of populations, as well as with the AMOVA results. There was a significant isolation by distance effect, and the cluster analysis resolved five groups. Individuals were also assayed with an additional microsatellite marker, Cxpq78, proposed to be monomorphic in Cx. pipiens but polymorphic in the closely related but biologically distinct species Cx. quinquefasciatus. Low frequencies (≤3%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus alleles for this marker were noted, and mostly confined to populations along the Interstate 25 corridor. Pueblo was distinct in that it had 10% Cx. quinquefasciatus alleles, mostly of one allele size. The degree of population genetic structure observed in this study is in contrast with that of Cx. tarsalis, the other major vector of WNV in the western U.S., and likely reflects the two species’ different dispersal strategies. PMID:23094068

  19. Natural vertical transmission of ndumu virus in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes collected as larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomiah, Joel; Ongus, Juliette; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Sang, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    Ndumu virus (NDUV) is a member of the family Togaviridae and genus Alphavirus. In Kenya, the virus has been isolated from a range of mosquito species but has not been associated with human or animal morbidity. Little is know about the transmission dynamics or vertebrate reservoirs of this virus. NDUV was isolated from two pools of female Culex pipiens mosquitoes, IJR37 (n = 18) and IJR73 (n = 3), which were collected as larvae on 15 April 2013 from two dambos near the village of Marey, Ijara District, Garissa County, Kenya, and reared to adults and identified to species. These results represent the first field evidence of vertical transmission of NDUV among mosquitoes.

  20. Native Argentinean cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda) as predators of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, María C; Micieli, María V; Maciá, Arnaldo; García, Juan J

    2009-12-01

    Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cyclopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus. Female copepods presented the highest predatory capacity. No predatory preference for mosquito species was found. According to overall predation potential, copepods were ranked as follows: D. uruguayensis biological control agents for mosquitoes.

  1. Efficiency of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract and histopathological effects on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Monairy, Olfat M

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract on 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens. Bioassays showed that the 3rd instar larvae was the most susceptible to the different concentrations of extract, where the LC50 after 48 hr. post-exposure was 79.41, 109.65 & 141.25 for the 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupal stage respectively. The histo-pathological effects of C. esculenta leaves extract on midgut regions and gastric caeca of the 3rd instar larvae were studied. When larvae were treated with 100 ppm of C. esculenta extract, all larvae developed dramatic pathological lesions especially Malpighian tubules were extensively affected. The midgut cells showed morphological deviation from normal ones, through slightly apical degenerated (lysis) of epithelial cells. The epithelial cells with extensive cellular microvilli were shrinkage, the nuclei showed pyknotic characteristic and the peritrophic membrane was appeared discontinuation in compared to control. When the 3rd larval instar was exposed to extract 400 ppm, the epithelial cells, adipose fabric and muscles were extensively affected. Also, the gastric caeca was affected obviously. These observation and alterations in cells of Cx. pipiens larvae are related to the dangerous effect of C. esculent leaves extract.

  2. The Arrival of the Northern House Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) on Newfoundland's Avalon Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulk, Andrew C; Carson, Kate P; Whitney, Hugh G; Fonseca, Dina M; Chapman, Thomas W

    2016-11-01

    Culex pipiens L., the northern house mosquito, is the primary vector of West Nile virus to humans along the east coast of North America and thus the focus of much study. This species is an urban container-breeding mosquito whose close contact with humans and flexibility in host choice has led to its classification as a "bridge vector"; that is, it is thought to move zoonotic diseases to humans from vertebrate reservoirs. While this invasive species is now well documented in its established range, which expanded in 2001 to include Canada, the existence of populations of this species along the fringes of its range are less well known. Here we report, using morphological and genetic techniques, the existence of two locations where Cx. pipiens exists in Newfoundland in both expected and unexpected sites based on projected habitat suitability on the island. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Native Argentinean cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda as predators of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Tranchida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cyclopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus. Female copepods presented the highest predatory capacity. No predatory preference for mosquito species was found. According to overall predation potential, copepods were ranked as follows: D. uruguayensis Se hizo una prospección de copépodos en La Plata, Argentina, con los objetivos de caracterizar la comunidad local de copépodos larvívoros en sitios de cría de mosquitos, e identificar nuevas especies depredadoras de los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens. La diversidad de ciclopoides larvívoros fue máxima en charcos permanentes. Se examinó la depredación por sexos y edad, la selectividad por especies de mosquito, y la tasa de depredación diaria durante cinco días en Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus y Mesocyclops longisetus. Los copépodos hembra presentaron la capacidad depredadora más alta. No se encontró preferencia por alguna especie de mosquito. De acuerdo al potencial de depredación en general, los copépodos se ordenan así: D. uruguayensis < A. robustus < M. albidus < M. longisetus. También se evaluó la tolerancia a la desecación del hábitat y la capacidad de resistir en agua de contenedores artificiales. D. uruguayensis y A. robustus sobrevivieron en condiciones de sequía, pero D. uruguayensis presentó menor supervivencia en agua de floreros de cementerio. M. albidus no sobrevivió condiciones de

  4. Artificial Selection for Different Host Preferences in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    Most mosquito species display host preferences that are a crucial determinant of the transmission rate of mosquito-borne pathogens. Although a transgenic approach, based on driving genes for zoophily into vector populations, has been advocated as a malaria control strategy by the World Health Organization since 1982, the genes involved in mosquito host choice remain poorly understood. Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet mosquitoes were artificially selected for two different host preferences in a specially designed experimental enclosure. Of 3,035 mosquitoes obtained from larvae and pupae collected from the wild (the F0 generation), 27% preferentially fed on pigeons and 16% fed on mice. Following artificial selection for these host preferences over successive generations, the percentage of mosquitoes that preferred to feed on pigeons or mice gradually increased, eventually stabilizing at ∼55 and 34%, respectively, after the sixth generation. Intergenerational differences in host preferences were significant (P mosquitoes selected to prefer pigeons and those selected to prefer mice were both significant and consistent over almost six generations.

  5. The Morphological Variations of Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae in Yazd Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dehghan

    2010-12-01

    Methods: This study was carried out in two randomly selected rural villages in Yazd County, eastern Iran using dip­ping technique from April to October 2009. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Results: Average of siphon index in fourth-instrar larvae was 3.86±0.03, the minimum and maximum were calculated 2.43 and 5.14, respectively. Siphon/Saddle index was measured as average, minimum and maximum 3.2±0.2, 2.78, and 4.42 respectively. In our study, only 4 specimens had single seta 1 on segments III and VI (2.5% and the remaining beard double seta (97.5%. The maximum 3-6 branches seta 1a-S and 1b-S (95% were observed on siphon. Conclusion: More populations of Culex pipiens from different areas of Iran need to be studied to gain complete informa­tion about the taxonomy and ecology of the species in the country.

  6. Predation and control efficacies of Misgurnus mizolepis (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) toward Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae) and fish toxicity of temephos in laboratory and septic tank conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Seong Chun; Kwon, Young Hyun; Min, Kyung Il; Kim, Hyung Soo; Kim, Nam-Jin; Kim, Jun-Ran; Son, Bong Gi; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-07-01

    Culex pipiens molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae) is the dominant mosquito species in septic tanks in South Korea. An assessment was made of the biological control potential of mud loaches, Misgurnus mizolepis Günther (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae), toward Cx. p. molestus larvae in laboratory and septic tanks. Results were compared with those of temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate. In laboratory tests, all mud loaches survived on sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of aerobic septic tanks (ASTs), whereas all mud loaches died within 3-12 h after introduction into sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of anaerobic septic tanks, Gill hyperplasia and hemorrhages at the bases of pectoral fins were detected in all dead mud loaches. These appeared to have been caused by bacterial disease, rather than the physical and chemical characteristics of the septic tank water. A mud loach consumed an average range of 1,072-1,058 larvae of Cx. p. molestus in the AST water at 24 h. At the manufacturer's recommended rate (10 ml/ton) in the AST water, the temephos formulation did not cause fish mortality. In the AST experiment, predation of mosquito larvae by mud loaches at a release rate of one fish per 900 mosquito larvae resulted in complete mosquito control from the third day after treatment throughout the 18-wk survey period, compared with temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate-treated AST water (reduction rate, 40% at 28 days after treatment). Reasonable mosquito control in aerobic septic tanks can be achieved by mosquito breeding season stocking of a rate of one mud loach per 900 mosquito larvae.

  7. Insecticide susceptibility in larval populations of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens L.(Diptera: Culicidae) in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al Thabiani Aziz; Jazem Abdullah Mahyoub; Hasibur Rehman; Shalini Saggu; Kadarkarai Murugan; Chellasamy Panneerselvam; Majed Salum S.Alrefaei; Marcello Nicoletti; Hui Wei; Angelo Canale; Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the susceptibility to some conventional and non-conventional insecticides in laboratory and field larval populations of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens L.(Cx. pipiens), the dominant species in Jeddah Province, Saudi Arabia.Methods: The tested conventional insecticides were Actikil and Pesgard, while the nonconventional ones were Bacilod, Dudim and Baycidal. Probit analysis and photomicroscopical observations were carried out to shed light on acute toxicity in laboratory and field Cx. pipiens strains.Results: Cx. pipiens were more susceptible to Pesgard(LC50: 0.045 and 0.032 mg/L)than Actikil(0.052 and 0.038 mg/L) and Bacilod(0.129 and 0.104 mg/L), for the field and laboratory strains, respectively. Results showed that treatments with the chitin synthesis inhibitor Dudim and Baycidal evoked morphological effects similar to those induced by other insect growth regulators. According to IC50 values obtained(concentration which to inhibit the emergence of 50% of mosquito adults), the compound Dudim(0.000 3 and 0.000 1 mg/L) was more effective against Cx. pipiens L. mosquitoes than Baycidal(0.000 4 and 0.000 3 mg/L) for both the field and laboratory strains, respectively.Conclusions: Our results provide baseline data to enhance control programs and orient public health decisions on the selection of pesticides against mosquito vectors in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Insecticide susceptibility in larval populations of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens L. (Diptera:Culicidae) in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al Thabiani Aziz; Angelo Canale; Giovanni Benelli; Jazem Abdullah Mahyoub; Hasibur Rehman; Shalini Saggu; Kadarkarai Murugan; Chellasamy Panneerselvam; Majed Salum S Alrefaei; Marcello Nicoletti; Hui Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the susceptibility to some conventional and non-conventional insecticides in laboratory and field larval populations of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens L. (Cx. pipiens), the dominant species in Jeddah Province, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The tested conventional insecticides were Actikil and Pesgard, while the non-conventional ones were Bacilod, Dudim and Baycidal. Probit analysis and photo-microscopical observations were carried out to shed light on acute toxicity in laboratory and field Cx. pipiens strains. Results: Cx. pipiens were more susceptible to Pesgard (LC50: 0.045 and 0.032 mg/L) than Actikil (0.052 and 0.038 mg/L) and Bacilod (0.129 and 0.104 mg/L), for the field and laboratory strains, respectively. Results showed that treatments with the chitin syn-thesis inhibitor Dudim and Baycidal evoked morphological effects similar to those induced by other insect growth regulators. According to IC50 values obtained (concen-tration which to inhibit the emergence of 50%of mosquito adults), the compound Dudim (0.000 3 and 0.000 1 mg/L) was more effective against Cx. pipiens L. mosquitoes than Baycidal (0.000 4 and 0.000 3 mg/L) for both the field and laboratory strains, respectively. Conclusions: Our results provide baseline data to enhance control programs and orient public health decisions on the selection of pesticides against mosquito vectors in Saudi Arabia.

  9. Oviposition preferences of Culex restuans and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) for selected infusions in oviposition traps and gravid traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bryan T; Paulson, Sally L; Youngman, Roger R; Scheffel, Sabra L; Hawkins, Belinda

    2005-12-01

    Field studies were conducted in southwestern Virginia to determine the ovipositional preferences of Culex restuans and Culex pipiens by using ovitraps and gravid traps baited with selected infusions. For the ovitrap collections, 4 different infusions (manure, hay, grass, and rabbit chow) were used. Significant differences among infusions were detected on most sample dates for both species. For 3 of the first 4 wk of collections, the manure infusion collected significantly more Cx. restuans than all the other infusions. The hay and grass infusions collected the majority of the egg rafts during weeks 5-9. Cx. pipiens egg rafts were absent from the first 3 wk of collections. Of the remaining 6 wk, 4 showed significant differences in attractiveness of infusions, with the hay and grass infusions preferred by Cx. pipiens. Two infusions, manure and hay, were used for the gravid trap experiment and both Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens data were combined for analysis. Only the first 2 wk showed significance, with manure being preferred over hay in both weeks. In later collections, the relative attractiveness of the hay infusion increased. A seasonal shift in infusion preference may be related to incubation temperature during preparation of the infusions. New infusions were prepared each week and incubation was done outside. Increased attractiveness of the hay infusion coincided with higher average temperatures in July and August. Hay infusion was very effective for trapping both Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans in southwestern Virginia and is more convenient to use than manure. However, cool outside temperatures in the early season may interfere with the fermentation process and thus incubation should be done for a longer time or brought indoors.

  10. Effects of Forced Egg Retention on the Temporal Progression of West Nile Virus Infection in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    SMARTT, CHELSEA T.; RICHARDS, STEPHANIE L.; Anderson, Sheri L.; Vitek, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental factors that impact the biology of mosquito vectors can have epidemiological implications. Lack of oviposition sites facilitated by environmental factors such as temperature and drought can often force Culex spp. mosquitoes to retain their eggs. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say were fed blood meals containing West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) and either allowed to oviposit or forced to retain their eggs through different time points postinfection (9,...

  11. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Hanem Fathy; Shalaby, Afaf Abdel-Salam

    2008-01-01

    The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens.

  12. Identification of genes involved in pyrethroid-, propoxur-, and dichlorvos- insecticides resistance in the mosquitoes, Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-xiao; Guo, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Ying-mei; Dong, Yan-de; Xing, Dan; Yan, Ting; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Heng-duan; Zhao, Tong-yan

    2016-05-01

    Culex pipiens pallens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus are important vectors of many diseases, such as West Nile fever and lymphatic filariasis. The widespread use of insecticides to control these disease vectors and other insect pests has led to insecticide resistance becoming common in these species. In this study, high throughout Illumina sequencing was used to identify hundreds of Cx. p. pallens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus genes that were differentially expressed in response to insecticide exposure. The identification of these genes is a vital first step for more detailed investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in Culex mosquitoes.

  13. Asymmetric effects of native and exotic invasive shrubs on ecology of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Allison M; Allan, Brian F; Frisbie, Lauren A; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-06-16

    Exotic invasive plants alter the structure and function of native ecosystems and may influence the distribution and abundance of arthropod disease vectors by modifying habitat quality. This study investigated how invasive plants alter the ecology of Culex pipiens, an important vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that three native leaf species (Rubus allegheniensis, blackberry; Sambucus canadensis, elderberry; and Amelanchier laevis, serviceberry), and three exotic invasive leaf species (Lonicera maackii, Amur honeysuckle; Elaeagnus umbellata, autumn olive; and Rosa multiflora, multiflora rose) alter Cx. pipiens oviposition site selection, emergence rates, development time, and adult body size. The relative abundance of seven bacterial phyla in infusions of the six leaf species also was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to test the hypothesis that variation in emergence, development, and oviposition site selection is correlated to differences in the diversity and abundance of bacteria associated with different leaf species, important determinants of nutrient quality and availability for mosquito larvae. Leaf detritus from invasive honeysuckle and autumn olive yielded significantly higher adult emergence rates compared to detritus from the remaining leaf species and honeysuckle alleviated the negative effects of intraspecific competition on adult emergence. Conversely, leaves of native blackberry acted as an ecological trap, generating high oviposition but low emergence rates. Variation in bacterial flora associated with different leaf species may explain this asymmetrical production of mosquitoes: emergence rates and oviposition rates were positively correlated to bacterial abundance and diversity, respectively. We conclude that the displacement of native understory plant species by certain invasive shrubs

  14. Toxicity of Amorphigenin from the Seeds of Amorpha fruticosa against the Larvae of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Liang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The larvicidal activity of the crude petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform and ethanol extracts of Amorpha fruticosa seeds was individually assayed for toxicity against the early fourth-instar larva of the mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens after 24 h exposure. Of the tested extracts, the ethanol one exhibited the highest larvicidal activity (LC50 = 22.69 mg/L. Amorphigenin (8'-hydroxyrotenone, a rotenoid compound which exhibits a strong larvicidal activity with LC50 and LC90 values of 4.29 and 11.27 mg/L, respectively, was isolated from the ethanol extract by column chromatograpy. Its structure was elucidated by 1H-NMR, UV and IR spectral data. Furthermore, investigation of amorphigenin’s effects on mitochondrial complex I activity and protein synthesis in C. pipiens pallens larvae reveals that amorphigenin decreases mitochondrial complex I activities to 65.73% at 10.45 μmol/L, compared to the control, when NADH were used as the substrate. Meanwhile, amorphigenin at 10.45 μmol/L also caused a 1.98-fold decrease in protein content, compared to the control larvae treated with acetone only.

  15. Effects of forced egg retention on the temporal progression of West Nile virus infection in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, Chelsea T; Richards, Stephanie L; Anderson, Sheri L; Vitek, Christopher J

    2010-02-01

    Environmental factors that impact the biology of mosquito vectors can have epidemiological implications. Lack of oviposition sites facilitated by environmental factors such as temperature and drought can often force Culex spp. mosquitoes to retain their eggs. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say were fed blood meals containing West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) and either allowed to oviposit or forced to retain their eggs through different time points postinfection (9, 13, 20, 27 d) at 28 degrees C. Oviposition status did not significantly affect rates of WNV infection (% with virus-positive bodies), dissemination (% with virus-positive legs), or transmission (% with virus-positive saliva) for any of the tested time points. As expected, WNV titers in bodies and legs were significantly (P studies are needed to assess the effects of drought on virus transmission risk and how these interactions affect our interpretation of field data.

  16. Larvicidal Activities of Indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates and Nematode Symbiotic Bacterial Toxins against the Mosquito Vector, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases and the resistance of mosquitoes to conventional pesticides have recently caused a panic to the authorities in the endemic countries. This study was conducted to identify native larvicidal biopesticides against Culex pipiens for utilization in the battle against mosquito-borne diseases.Methods: Larvicidal activities of new indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and crude toxin complexes (TCs of two nematode bacterial-symbionts, Photorhabdus luminescens akhurstii (HRM1 and Ph. luminescens akhurstii (HS1 that tested against Cx. pipiens. B. thuringiensis isolates were recovered from different environmental samples in Saudi Arabia, and the entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis indica (HRM1 and He. sp (HS1 were iso­lated from Egypt. Larvicidal activities (LC50 and LC95 of the potentially active B. thuringiensis strains or TCs were then evaluated at 24 and 48h post-treatment.Results: Three B. thuringiensis isolates were almost as active as the reference B. thuringiensis israelensis (Bti-H14, and seven isolates were 1.6–5.4 times more toxic than Bti-H14. On the other hand, the TCs of the bacterial sym­bionts, HRM1 and HS1, showed promising larvicidal activities. HS1 showed LC50 of 2.54 folds that of HRM1 at 24h post-treatment. Moreover, histopathological examinations of the HS1-treated larvae showed deformations in midgut epithelial cells at 24h post-treatment.Conclusion: Synergistic activity and molecular characterization of these potentially active biocontrol agents are currently being investigated. These results may lead to the identification of eco-friend mosquito larvicidal product(s that could contribute to the battle against mosquito-borne diseases.

  17. Enhanced toxicity of binary mixtures of larvicidal constituents from Asarum heterotropoides root to Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Kim, Jun-Ran; Kim, Soon-Il; Kwon, Hyung Wook; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of pellitorine alone or in combination with (-)-asarinin, alpha-asarone, methyleugenol, or pentadecane (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1, and 3:1 ratios) to third instars from an insecticide-susceptible KS-CP strain and -resistant DJ-CP colony of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett was evaluated using a direct-contact mortality bioassay. The binary mixture of pellitorine and (-)-asarinin (3:1 ratio) was significantly more toxic against KS-CP larvae (0.95 mg/liter) and DJ-CP larvae (1.07 mg/liter) than either pellitorine (2.08 mg/liter for KS-CP and 2.33 mg/liter for DJ-CP) or (-)-asarinin (11.45 and 12.61 mg/liter) alone. The toxicity of the other binary mixtures (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 2:1 ratios) and pellitorine did not differ significantly from each other. Based on the co-toxicity coefficient (CC) and synergistic factor (SF), the three binary mixtures (1:3, 2:1, and 3:1) operated synergistically (CC, 250-390 and SF, 1.4-2.2 for KS-CP; CC, 257-279 and SF, 1.1-2.1 for DJ-CP). The binary mixtures of pellitorine and (-)-asarinin merit further study as potential larvicides for the control of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations.

  18. REPELLENT EFFECT OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA EXTRACTS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO VECTOR, CULEX PIPIENS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Hammad, Kotb M; Saeed, Saeed M

    2015-08-01

    Essential or volatile oils of plants have been variously reported to have many medicinal applications. Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens mosquito. The repellent action of the present plants extracts were varied depending on the solvent used and dose of extract. Methanol extract of O. basilicum exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded 77.4% at 6.7mg/cm2. The petroleum ether and acetone extract of 0. basilicum showed repellency of 98.1 & 84.6% respectively, at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, while methanolic extract of G. glabra recorded 73.8 & 50.3% at dose of 6.7 &1.7mg/cm2 respectively, the petroleum ether and acetone extract of G. glabra showed repellency of 76.3 & 81.6%, respectively at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, compared with the commercial formulation, N.N. diethyl toulamide (DEET) which exhibited 100% repellent action at dose of 1.8mg/cm2, respectively. The results may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection meaure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  19. Effect of environmental temperature on the ability of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, David J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Turell, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Environmental temperature can affect the ability of mosquitoes to transmit an arbovirus. However, results of various studies indicate that these effects are not consistent among viruses or mosquito species, and there is no information available on the effect of environmental temperature on the ability of North American mosquito species to transmit West Nile (WN) virus. We evaluated the effect of incubation temperature (18, 20, 26, or 30 degrees C) on the ability of Culex pipiens L. derived from specimens collected during the outbreak in New York in 1999 to transmit a strain of WN virus obtained from a crow that died during this outbreak. Although mosquitoes fed on the same viremic chickens, infection rates were directly related to subsequent incubation temperatures. In mosquitoes held at 30 degrees C, virus was recovered from nearly all mosquitoes tested, disseminated infections were detected as early as 4 d after the infectious blood meal, and >90% of all mosquitoes had a disseminated infection 12 or more days after the infectious blood meal. In contrast, for mosquitoes held at 18 degrees C, disseminated infections were not detected until 25 d after the infectious blood meal, and even after 28 d, <30% contained a disseminated infection. Results for mosquitoes held at 20 and 26 degrees C were intermediate for both infection and dissemination rates. The effect of environmental temperature should to be considered when evaluating the vector competence of these mosquitoes and modeling risk of WN virus transmission in nature.

  20. The impact of weather conditions on Culex pipiens and Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance: a case study in Peel Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiafeng; Ogden, Nick H; Zhu, Huaiping

    2011-03-01

    Mosquito populations are sensitive to long-term variations in climate and short-term variations in weather. Mosquito abundance is a key determinant of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases, such as West Nile virus (WNV). In this work, the short-term impact of weather conditions (temperature and precipitation) on Culex pipiens L.-Culex restuans Theobald mosquito abundance in Peel Region, Ontario, Canada, was investigated using the 2002-2009 mosquito data collected from the WNV surveillance program managed by Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care and a gamma-generalized linear model. There was a clear association between weather conditions (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito abundance, which allowed the definition of threshold criteria for temperature and precipitation conditions for mosquito population growth. A predictive statistical model for mosquito population based on weather conditions was calibrated using real weather and mosquito surveillance data, and validated using a subset of surveillance data. Results showed that WNV vector abundance on any one day could be predicted with reasonable accuracy from relationships with mean degree-days >9 degrees C over the 11 preceding days, and precipitation 35 d previously. This finding provides optimism for the development of weather-generated forecasting for WNV risk that could be used in decision support systems for interventions such as mosquito control.

  1. The Effect of West Nile Virus Infection on the Midgut Gene Expression of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea T. Smartt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of the mosquito and the invading virus is complex and can result in physiological and gene expression alterations in the insect. The association of West Nile virus (WNV and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes results in measurable changes in gene expression; 22 gene products were shown previously to have altered expression. Sequence analysis of one product, CQ G1A1, revealed 100% amino acid identity to gram negative bacteria binding proteins (CPQGBP in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti (70% and Anopheles gambiae (63% that function in pathogen recognition. CQ G1A1 also was differentially expressed following WNV infection in two populations of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus colonized from Florida with known differences in vector competence for WNV and showed spatial and temporal gene expression differences in midgut, thorax, and carcass tissues. These data suggest gene expression of CQ G1A1 is influenced by WNV infection and the WNV infection-controlled expression differs between populations and tissues.

  2. Point mutations associated with organophosphate and carbamate resistance in Chinese strains of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Zhao

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase resistance has been well documented in many insects, including several mosquito species. We tested the resistance of five wild, Chinese strains of the mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to two kinds of pesticides, dichlorvos and propoxur. An acetylcholinesterase gene (ace1 was cloned and sequenced from a pooled sample of mosquitoes from these five strains and the amino acids of five positions were found to vary (V185M, G247S, A328S, A391T, and T682A. Analysis of the correlation between mutation frequencies and resistance levels (LC50 suggests that two point mutations, G247S (r2 = 0.732, P = 0.065 and A328S (r2 = 0.891, P = 0.016, are associated with resistance to propoxur but not to dichlorvos. Although the V185M mutation was not associated with either dichlorvos or propoxur resistance, its RS genotype frequency was correlated with propoxur resistance (r2 = 0.815, P = 0.036. And the HWE test showed the A328S mutation is linked with V185M, also with G247S mutation. This suggested that these three mutations may contribute synergistically to propoxur resistance. The T682A mutation was negatively correlated with propoxur (r2 = 0.788, P = 0.045 resistance. Knowledge of these mutations may help design strategies for managing pesticide resistance in wild mosquito populations.

  3. Point mutations associated with organophosphate and carbamate resistance in Chinese strains of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minghui; Dong, Yande; Ran, Xin; Wu, Zhiming; Guo, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Yingmei; Xing, Dan; Yan, Ting; Wang, Gang; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Hengduan; Li, Chunxiao; Zhao, Tongyan

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase resistance has been well documented in many insects, including several mosquito species. We tested the resistance of five wild, Chinese strains of the mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to two kinds of pesticides, dichlorvos and propoxur. An acetylcholinesterase gene (ace1) was cloned and sequenced from a pooled sample of mosquitoes from these five strains and the amino acids of five positions were found to vary (V185M, G247S, A328S, A391T, and T682A). Analysis of the correlation between mutation frequencies and resistance levels (LC50) suggests that two point mutations, G247S (r2 = 0.732, P = 0.065) and A328S (r2 = 0.891, P = 0.016), are associated with resistance to propoxur but not to dichlorvos. Although the V185M mutation was not associated with either dichlorvos or propoxur resistance, its RS genotype frequency was correlated with propoxur resistance (r2 = 0.815, P = 0.036). And the HWE test showed the A328S mutation is linked with V185M, also with G247S mutation. This suggested that these three mutations may contribute synergistically to propoxur resistance. The T682A mutation was negatively correlated with propoxur (r2 = 0.788, P = 0.045) resistance. Knowledge of these mutations may help design strategies for managing pesticide resistance in wild mosquito populations.

  4. Efectos de la competencia larval en los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales, Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae en condiciones semi-controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía FRANCIA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti (Linneo y Culex pipiens Linneo pueden criar conjuntamente en pequeños contenedores artificiales de agua, se genera así una competencia interespecífica y/o intraespecífica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la magnitud relativa de la competencia intra e interespecífica en A. aegypti y C. pipiens, generada durante el desarrollo larval en contenedores artificiales. Las variables medidas como respuesta fueron la supervivencia y el tiempo de desarrollo larval, y la biomasa total producida en estado de pupa. Se criaron larvas de ambos mosquitos en neumáticos de automóvil con agua declorinada y hojarasca. Se introdujeron larvas recién eclosionadas de acuerdo a la densidad (δ estimada según un censo previo de A. aegypti y C. pipiens. Se realizaron los siguientes tratamientos agregando larvas de: (1 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar δ A. aegypti determinada según el censo previo, (2 C. pipiens hasta δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (3 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (4 C. pipiens hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo y (5 A. aegypti y C. pipiens hasta δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo. Las tres variables medidas fueron afectadas por los tratamientos, excepto la supervivencia y la biomasa producida por C. pipiens. Aedes aegypti fue más alterada por la competencia intraespecífica que por la competencia interespecífica. En C. pipiens, la competencia interespecífica superó en sus efectos a la competencia intraespecífica. Existió asimetría competitiva, ya que C. pipiens fue más afectada por A. aegypti que lo contrario.

  5. Larvicidal activity of Cyclamen (Myrsinaceae) extracts against the larvae of West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens L. (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emre Oz; Samed Koc; Olcay Dinc Dusen; Ramazan Mammadov; Huseyin Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of the tuber extracts isolated from two species of Cyclamen (Cyclamen mirabile Hildebr. and Cyclamen alpinum Dammann ex. Sprenger) against Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Twenty young (first-second) or older (third-fourth) instars of the Culex pipiens were exposed to various concentrations (100 to 1 000 ppm) of the extracts. Mortality was recorded after 12-, 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h of exposure. Results: We determined that the young larval stages were more susceptible to the extracts in comparison with the older larval stages. A comparison of LC50 and LC90 values has shown that Cyclamen mirabile was more active than Cyclamen alpinum. Conclusions: This study is the first to report on the larvicidal activity of the extracts of Cyclamen species against Culex pipiens. More studies are needed to isolate and identify the active components involved, their mode of action, and effects on other mosquito and pest species.

  6. Host-feeding patterns of Culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) of West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) collected in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Alves, Maria João

    2012-05-01

    The host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile Virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). In Portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including Culex pipiens L., considered the primary vector of WNV to humans. The sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from June 2007 to November 2010 in 34 Portuguese counties were analyzed by sequencing cytochrome-b partial fragments. Cx. pipiens was the most common species collected and successfully analyzed (n = 135/78). In addition, blood-fed females of the following species were analyzed: Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas (n = 20), Culex theileri Theobald (n = 16), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (n = 10), Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (n = 7), Aedes aegypti L. (n = 6), Culex perexiguus Theobald (n = 3), Culiseta annulata Schrank (n = 3), and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday (n = 3). The Cx. pipiens mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds (n = 55/78, 70.5%), with a high diversity of avian species used as hosts, although human blood was identified in 18 specimens (18/78, 23.1%). No significant differences were found between the host-feeding patterns of blood-fed Cx. pipiens collected in residential and nonresidential habitats. The occurrence of human derived blood meals and the presence of a mix avian-human bloodmeal accordingly suggest this species as a potential vector of WNV. Therefore, in Portugal, Cx. pipiens may play a role both in the avian-to-avian enzootic WNV cycle and in the avian-to-mammal transmission. In this context, the identity of Cx. pipiens (considering the forms molestus and pipiens) and the potential consequence on feeding behavior and WNV transmission are discussed.

  7. Experimental transmission of Hepatozoon gracilis (Wenyon, 1909) com. nov., in its natural host the bean skink lizard (Mabuya quinquetaeniata quinquetaeniata) and vector Culex (C.) pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, Fatma K; Gabre, Refaat M; Ayaad, Tahany A; Galal, Fatma H

    2007-12-01

    The bean skink lizard Mabuya quinquetaeniata quinquetaeniata (Family: Scincidae) collected from Abu-Rawash, Giza was infected with the protozoon Hepatozoon gracilis. The mean percent of infection rate all over the year was 12.57% with the highest peak was in October (33%), meanwhile the lowest infection rate was detected in June (2.1%) and no infection was detected in February. Microscopical examination of experimentally infected Culex (C.) pipiens L smears revealed the presence of gamogony and sporogony stages of H. gracilis in their haemoceal. Cx. pipiens was capable to transmit H. gracilis to non-infected M. q. quinquetaeniata under laboratory conditions (21 +/- 1 & 60-70% R.H) after a prepatent period of 32 +/- 1 days from the infective bite. Various developmental schizogony stages were detected both in the lung endothelial cells and liver parenchymal cells. Developmental stages of H. gracilis in both vector or vertebrate host were described. Cx. pipiens was unable to transmit H. gracilis to snake, Psammophis schokari present in the same area of the bean skink lizard.

  8. Efectos de la competencia larval en los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales, Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae en condiciones semi-controladas Effects of larval competition between the container mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae in semi-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Francia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti (Linneo y Culex pipiens Linneo pueden criar conjuntamente en pequeños contenedores artificiales de agua, se genera así una competencia interespecífica y/o intraespecífica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la magnitud relativa de la competencia intra e interespecífica en A. aegypti y C. pipiens, generada durante el desarrollo larval en contenedores artifi ciales. Las variables medidas como respuesta fueron la supervivencia y el tiempo de desarrollo larval, y la biomasa total producida en estado de pupa. Se criaron larvas de ambos mosquitos en neumáticos de automóvil con agua declorinada y hojarasca. Se introdujeron larvas recién eclosionadas de acuerdo a la densidad (5 estimada según un censo previo de A. aegypti y C. pipiens. Serealizaron los siguientes tratamientos agregando larvas de: (1 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar δ A. aegypti determinada según el censo previo, (2 C. pipiens hasta δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (3 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (4 C. pipiens hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo y (5 A. aegypti y C. pipiens hasta δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo. Las tres variables medidas fueron afectadas por los tratamientos, excepto la supervivencia y la biomasa producida por C. pipiens. Aedes aegypti fue más alterada por la competencia intraespecífica que por la competencia interespecífica. En C. pipiens, la competencia interespecífica superó en sus efectos a la competencia intraespecífica. Existió asimetría competitiva, ya que C. pipiens fue más afectada por A. aegypti que lo contrario.Larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linneo and Culex pipiens Linneo may develop together in small artificial water containers, promoting inter- and/or intra-specific competition. Our aim was to compare the relative importance of interspecific and intraspecific competition in both species during

  9. Evaluación de palaemonetes argentinus (Decapoda, Natantia en el control biológico de larvas de Culex pipiens (Diptera, Culicidae en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri Federico

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The predator-prey relationship of Palaemonetes argentinus Nobili, 1901 and Culex pipiens s.l. larvae was studied under laboratory conditions. The prawns were separated in two groups, isolated and grouped ones. Mosquitoe larvae were offered to prawns in two forms, limited and unlimited offer to both groups. In the first analysis, values of predation did not differ significantly between males and females of P. argentinus. Predation in 24 h was 14,9 ± 4,2 larvae/prawn. A reduction of predation was observed with unlimited offer for the same hour, during all the experiment. Predation with unlimited offer was higher on the first day than on the second, but returned to high values on the third day, for both groups. In the grouped experiment, predation with limited offer was total on the first days, decreasing to the last day. As a result, P. argentinus was considered an efficient predator of C. pipiens s.l. larvae under laboratory conditions.

  10. Larvicidal, Biological and Genotoxic Effects, and Temperature-Toxicity Relationship of Some Leaf Extracts of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaurub H El-Sayed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: The present study was undertaken to study the larvicidal activity of different extracts of Nerium ole­ander leaves, and post-treatment temperature- toxicity relationship of these extracts against Culex pipiens. Further, the most potent extract was used to evaluate its biological and genotoxic activities. Methods: Crude extracts of N. oleander leaves were prepared using water, chloroform, acetone and diethyl ether as solvents. Extraction was carried out using soxhlet apparatus. Bioassay test was carried out on the larvae, and the LC50 of each extract was determined. Thus, newly hatched first instar larvae were treated, and the mortality count was recorded daily till pupation (accumulated mortality. The LC50 of diethyl ether extract, as the most potent ex­tract, was used for the further biological and genotoxic studies. Results: The results obtained indicated that diethyl ether extract of N. oleander leaves was the most potent extract, with LC50 of 10500 mg/l. The toxicity of the four extracts, using the LC50, at 10 °C was higher than that at 35 °C. The LC50 of diethyl ether extract significantly decreased the larval duration, pupal duration, percentage of pupation, percentage of adult emergence, longevity of females, fecundity, and oviposition activity index, whereas the growth index and the percentage of development per day of larvae and pupae were significantly increased compared to non-treated insects. Moreover, treatment with this extract induced significant dominant lethality in both male and female adults.  Conclusion: It appears that diethyl ether extract of N. oleander leaves is potential control agent to Cx. pipiens

  11. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana(Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens(Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouad; El-Akhal; Abdelhakim; El; Ouali; Lalami; Yassine; Ez; Zoubi; Hassane; Greche; Raja; Guemmouh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum mtijoruna(Lamiaceae)cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens(Diptera:Culicidae).Methods:The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oil were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.Biological test was performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the World Health Organization protocol with slight modification.Results:This oil mainly consisted of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes.The majority compounds are 4-terpinene(28.96%),y-terpinene(18.57%),α-terpinene(12.72%) and sabinene(8.02%).The lethal concentrations(LC50 and LC90) measured for the essential oil Origanum majorana,were respectively of the order of 258.71 mg/L and 580.49 mg/L.Conclusions:The results could be useful in search for newer,safer,and more effective natural larvicidal agents.

  12. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae from an egyptian locality Potencial de óleos de plantas biologicamente ativos para o controle da larva do mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae de localidade egípcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanem Fathy Khater

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum, earth almond (Cyperus esculentus, mustard (Brassica compestris, olibanum (Boswellia serrata, rocket (Eruca sativa, and parsley (Carum ptroselinum, respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens.O efeito inseticida de seis óleos de plantas comercialmente disponíveis foi testado contra larvas de 4ºinstar de Culex pipiens. Larvas foram coletadas originalmente de Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egito e então cultivadas no laboratório até a geração F1. Os valores LC50 foram 32,42, 47,17, 71,37, 83,36, 86,06 e 152,94 ppm para o feno grego (Trigonella foenum-grecum, amêndoa da terra (Cyperus esculentus, mostarda (Brassica compestris, olíbano (Boswellia serrata, rocket (Eruca sativa e salsa (Carum ptroselium, respectivamente. Os óleos testados alteraram

  13. Temporal patterns of abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamgang, Basile; Ngoagouni, Carine; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Christophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae...

  14. Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae): Neotype Designation and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Diptera Ð Culicidae). Guayaquil Univ., Guayaquil, Ecuador. Levi-Castillo, R. 1945. Los anofelinos de la Republica del Ecuador, vol. 1: 1Ð172. Artes ...BritishMuseumNatural History, Lon- don, England. Vargas, L., and A. Martinez Palacios. 1956. Anofelinos mexicanos . Taxonomia y distribucion. Secretaria

  15. [Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.

  16. Development of Wuchereria bancrofti in Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed in the larval instar to sublethal dosages of insecticides and one insect growth regulator and their influence on reproduction of filaria-infected mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, A I; Husseiny, I M; Soliman, B A; Soliman, M A; el-Kady, M A

    1997-12-01

    The effects of exposure of Culex pipiens larvae to sublethel concentrations of larvicides on uptake, development of Wuchereria bancrofti, survival rate and reproduction of filaria-infected mosquitoes were investigated. Fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens were exposed to LC40 of the surfactant Triton X-100, the insect growth regulator DPX alone or combined with LC10 of the surfactant and permethrin alone or combined with LC10 of the surfactant. Adults that survived insecticide treatments and controls were infected by allowing them to feed on microfilaremic volunteers. Significant reduction in the uptake of microfilaria was observed in groups treated with Triton X-100 alone or combined either with permethrin or DPX when compared to control. The overall infection and infective rates were significantly reduced in mosquitoes treated with Triton X-100 either alone or combined with permethrin. Treatment with Triton X-100 and DPX prolonged the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) and retarded the development of filarial larvae, while permethrin either alone or combined with Triton X-100 and DPX combined with Triton X-100 shortened the EIP. All larvicides reduced the number of infective larvae (L3)/mosquito and induced deformities among he different parasite stages, especially in mosquitoes treated with combination of permethrin and Triton X-100 or mixture of DPX and Triton X-100 where 36% and 54.9% respectively of L3S were deformed. In treated mosquitoes, a low percentage of L3S was detected in the head and proboscis region while the majority was trapped in the thoracic region. The survival rates of mosquitoes were reduced in cases treated with permethrin, DPX and Triton X-100 while treatment with mixture of DPX and Triton X-100 induced higher rate of mortalities when compared to control. Egg production of filaria- infected Cx. pipiens was significantly reduced in mosquitoes treated with DPX and Triton X-100. It was observed that the addition of Triton X-100 to DPX or to

  17. Experimental and natural vertical transmission of West Nile virus by California Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Brittany M; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan; Carroll, Brian D; Macedo, Paula; Kluh, Susanne; Reisen, William K

    2013-03-01

    Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, the primary summer vectors of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV), also may serve as overwintering reservoir hosts. Detection of WN viral RNA from larvae hatched from eggs deposited by infected females during late summer and fall may provide evidence for the vertical passage of WNV to overwintering cohorts. To determine whether vertical transmission to the overwintering generation occurs in populations of Culex mosquitoes throughout California, larvae from naturally infected females were tested by family for WN viral RNA by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction during August through October 2011. Viral RNA was detected in 34 of 934 Culex tarsalis Coquillett and Cx. pipiens complex females that laid viable egg rafts. From these egg rafts, first-instar larvae from nine families tested positive, yielding an overall field vertical transmission rate of 26% (n = 34). To determine whether the WNV may be lost transtadially during development to the adult stage, first-instar larvae and adult progeny from experimentally infected Cx. pipiens complex females were assessed for the presence and quantity of WN viral RNA. Most (approximately 75%) WNV infections were lost from positive families during larval development to the adult stage. In field and laboratory studies, only infected mothers with mean cycle threshold scores Culex mosquitoes collected throughout California during late summer and fall, with females having high titered infections capable of passing WNV onto their progeny destined for overwintering.

  18. Considerations for accurate identification of adult Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) in field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Laura C; Poulson, Rebecca L

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the ecology and behavior of different mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) is essential for identifying their role in disease transmission cycles and public health risk. Two species of Culex mosquitoes in the northeastern United States, Culex pipiens L. and Culex restuans Theobald, have been implicated in enzootic transmission of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). Despite the difficulty of differentiating these two species as adults, many public health workers and vector biologists collecting adults in the field separate these species based on external morphology. This approach is often used rather than examination of dissected male genitalia or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics due to time or cost constraints. We evaluated the reliability of seven published morphological characters to differentiate adults of these species by comparing blindly scored morphology with PCR-based confirmations. Our study demonstrates that morphological identification of Cx. pipiens is marginal and often not reliable for Cx. restuans. We also examined error rates with molecular-based approaches. DNA samples were contaminated with as little as one leg from another species. We conclude that to fully understand the respective roles of Culex species in the epidemiology of WNV and other pathogens, more attention should be paid to these considerations for accurate species identification.

  19. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and their relevance as disease vectors in the city of Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Silbermayr, Katja; Obwaller, Adelheid; Berer, Dominik; Brugger, Katharina; Walter, Melanie; Pinior, Beate; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Rubel, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors for a wide range of pathogenic organisms. As large parts of the human population in developed countries live in cities, the occurrence of vector-borne diseases in urban areas is of particular interest for epidemiologists and public health authorities. In this study, we investigated the mosquito occurrence in the city of Vienna, Austria, in order to estimate the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes were captured using different sampling techniques at 17 sites in the city of Vienna. Species belonging to the Culex pipiens complex (78.8 %) were most abundant, followed by Coquillettidia richiardii (10.2 %), Anopheles plumbeus (5.4 %), Aedes vexans (3.8 %), and Ochlerotatus sticticus (0.7 %). Individuals of the Cx. pipiens complex were found at 80.2 % of the trap sites, while 58.8 % of the trap sites were positive for Cq. richiardii and Ae. vexans. Oc. sticticus was captured at 35.3 % of the sites, and An. plumbeus only at 23.5 % of the trap sites. Cx. pipiens complex is known to be a potent vector and pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Tahyna virus (TAHV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Plasmodium sp., and Dirofilaria repens can be transmitted by this species. Cq. richiardii is a known vector species for Batai virus (BATV), SINV, TAHV, and WNV, while Ae. vexans can transmit TAHV, USUV, WNV, and Dirofilaria repens. An. plumbeus and Oc. sticticus seem to play only a minor role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases in Vienna. WNV, which is already wide-spread in Europe, is likely to be the highest threat in Vienna as it can be transmitted by several of the most common species, has already been shown to pose a higher risk in cities, and has the possibility to cause severe illness.

  20. 41种植物精油对淡色库蚊的熏蒸活性%Fumigation activity of 41 essential oils against Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付臣臣; 万涛; 江志利; 吴华; 冯俊涛; 马志卿; 张兴

    2013-01-01

    为发现具有较高杀蚊活性的精油,推动植物精油类卫生杀虫剂的创制,本研究采用三角瓶熏蒸法测定了17科41种植物精油对淡色库蚊Culex pipiens pallens雌成蚊的熏蒸活性,并进一步采用密闭圆筒法验证其杀虫毒力大小.三角瓶熏蒸法测定表明,在12μL/L浓度下,留兰香油(spearmint oil)、薰衣草油(lavender oil)、山苍子油(Litsea cubeba oil)等26种精油均有较强的熏蒸作用,KT50小于15 min.该26种精油用密闭圆筒熏蒸法进一步测定表明,在浓度为10 μL/L时,冬青油(wintergreen oil)、艾叶油(blumea oil)、薄荷油(peppermint oil)、桉叶油(Eucalyptus robusta oil)和蓝桉油(E.globulus oil)等植物精油熏蒸活性较强,其KT50分别为16.91,21.20,22.57,18.43和19.48 min.结果证明冬青油、艾叶油、薄荷油、桉叶油和蓝桉油等5种精油对淡色库蚊具有较强的熏蒸活性,具备作为淡色库蚊防控剂开发的潜力,值得进一步研究.%To find the essential oils with high insecticidal activity and promote the development of hygienic insecticides,essential oils from 41 plants belonging to 17 families were evaluated for adulticidal activity against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens by airtight fumigation in conical flask and hermetic round canister method.The results showed that 26 essential oils (12 μL/L) including spearmint oil,lavender oil and Litsea cubeba oil were very toxic to the mosquito (KT50 < 15 min) by airtight fumigation in conical flask.Further assay using hermetic round canister method indicated that 5 essential oils (wintergreen oil,blumea oil,peppermint oil,Eucalyptus robusta oil and E.globulus oil) had high fumigation toxicity at the concentration of 10 μL/L,and their KT50 values were 16.91,21.20,22.57,18.43 and 19.48 min,respectively.The results demonstrate that wintergreen oil,blumea oil,peppermint oil,E.robusta oil and E.globulus oil all have high fumigation activity against C.pipiens pallens,with the

  1. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Biting Deterrence: Structure-Activity Relationship of Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Biting Deterrence: Structure- Activity Relationship of...deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti (L), yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) using theK...corresponding C12:0 and C12:1 homologues. KEYWORDS fatty acid, biting deterrence, repellent, structure-activity relationship, Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes transmit

  2. An Update on the Potential of North American Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to Transmit West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-22

    Ps. ferox SLE Mammals Day 2 km 0, 8 0 0 Distributionandbionomicsbasedonandgeneralized from information inCarpenter andLaCasse(1955), Darsie ...competence of Culexunivittatus(Diptera:Culicidae) forWestNile virus. J. Med. Entomol. 30: 449Ð456. Darsie , R. F., and R. A. Ward. 1981. IdentiÞcation and...Mitchell, and G. B. Craig Jr . 1993. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) at a temperate North American site. J. Med. Entomol. 30

  3. An Annotated Bibliography of the Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases of Guam (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Nematocera . University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. 618 pp. Family Culicidae; see A. Stone and M.D. Delfinado, 1973. 359 Edgren, D.C., V.S...Culicidae, in Delfinado, M.D. and D.E. Hardy (Eds.), A Catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental Region, Vol. 1: Nematocera , pp. 266-343. University Press

  4. Determination of Mosquitoes Fauna (Culicidae: Diptera in Poldokhtar County of Lorestan Province, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahirnia A H

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insects as the largest category of arthropods include numerous groups and families that the most important of them belong to order Diptera, family Culicidae. Because of feeding on the human's blood, a number of species of this family have been known as responsible for the transmission of pathogens for many diseases such as malaria, filariasis, encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue fever in the world. Given that no research has been conducted to determine the fauna of existing mosquitoes in the city of Poldokhtar, Lorestan Province, the present study aimed to exactly determine the mosquitoes' fauna in this city to perform appropriate prevention measures. Methods: In this faunistic and cross-sectional descriptive study, four urban areas and four rural areas in four geographic directions in the city of Poldokhtar were determined. In each urban area, two places and in each designated rural area, four places including two human places and two animal places were selected. From the early of April 2015 to the early of January 2016, larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes of the Culicidae family were collected. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and mature were ladling, night catch, total and hand catch with an aspirator. Characteristics including the name of the collector, date of collection, code related to habitat, habitat status (permanent or temporary, type of vegetation cover, type of substrate, and the situation of sunlight were recorded in the related form. The samples were identified by resources and valid identification keys. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally, 5392 mosquito adults of the Culicidae family including 1818 mosquito adults and 3574 larvae in designated areas in the city as well as four rural areas were collected. The three genera Anopheles (21.9%, Culex (64.6%, and Culiseta (13.5% were diagnosed. Also, from three genera, 12 species were identified as follows: Culex theiler, Cx

  5. Medical Entomology Studies - XV. A Revision of the Subgenus Paraedes of the Genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Med. Res. 10: 430-75. Diptera Nematocera from the Federated Malay States museums. J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 14: l-139. Philippine nematocerous...Culicidae. p. 266-343. In M. D. Delfinado and D. E. Hardy, Ed. A catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental region. Volume I. Suborder Nematocera . Univ

  6. Overwintering Biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    NELMS, BRITTANY M.; MACEDO, PAULA A.; KOTHERA, LINDA; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2014-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar under field, seminatural, and experimental conditions. All Culex spp. remained vagile throughout winter, enabling the collection of 3,174 females and 1,706 males from diverse habitats during the winters of 2010–2012. Overwintering strategies included both quiescence and diapause. In addition, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl females remained reproductively active in both underground and aboveground habitats. Some blood-fed, gravid, and parous Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens complex females were collected throughout the winter period. Under both field and experimental conditions, Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females exposed to autumnal conditions arrested primary follicular maturation at previtellogenic stage I, with primary to secondary follicular ratios <1.5 (indicative of a hormonally induced diapause). In contrast, most Cx. pipiens complex females did not enter reproductive diapause and ovarian follicles matured to ≥stage I–II (host-seeking arrest) or were found in various stages of degeneration. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females by mid-late October and was terminated after the winter solstice, but host-seeking seemed limited by temperature. An accrual of 97.52 ± 30.7 and 162.85 ± 79.3 degree-days after the winter solstice was estimated to be necessary for diapause termination in Cx. tarsalis under field and seminatural conditions, respectively. An increase in the proportion of blood-fed Culex females in resting

  7. Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae Mosquitoes in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Moosa-Kazemi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to de­ter­mine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs.Methods: Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae were collected by dipping tech­nique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, Feb­ru­ary, and March 2007.Results: The collected species included:  Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province, Culex  arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx.  pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus cabal­lus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata.Conclusion: Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most use­ful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention.

  8. Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae Mosquitoes in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Moosa-Kazemi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to de­ter­mine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs."nMethods: Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae were collected by dipping tech­nique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, Feb­ru­ary, and March 2007."nResults: The collected species included:  Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province, Culex  arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx.  pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus cabal­lus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata."nConclusion: Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most use­ful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention.

  9. Mosquito Fauna (Diptera: Culicidae of Hamedan County, Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Zahirnia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and determine the larval and adult mosquitoes (Culicidae fauna in Hamedan County, western Iran.It was a cross-sectional study which took place in four area of the Hamedan County. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and adults were dipping, hand catch, night catch and total catch. Larvae and adult mosquitoes collected and were sent to laboratory of Medical Entomology, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran for further identification to species level to determination of fauna. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version19.Three genera and eight species of family Culicidae were collected and identified in Hamedan County, Hamedan Province, West Iran, during May to October 2013. These species included: Culex theileri, Cx. pipiens, Cx. antennatus, Culiseta subochrea, Cs. langiareolata, Anopheles superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. stephensi. The species Cx. antennatus and An. stephensi were reported for the first time in Hamedan County.An. stephensi and Cx. antennatus caught had not been previously recorded in Hamedan Province. Due to vast agricultural activities in the province which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes and since many of them are potential vectors of human and domesticated animal pathogens, their ecology needs to be studied extensively.

  10. Description of the Pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) Grossbecki Dyar and Knab (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Diptera: Culicidae). Bull. Illinois Nat. 25:83-126. Hist. Surv. 24:1-96. Darsie , R.F., Jr . and R.A. Ward. 1981. Iden- Siverly, R.E. 1972. Mosquitoes of...Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 16:227- onomists’ glossary of mosquito anatomy. 270. Plexus Publ. Inc., Marlton, New Jersey. Ward, R.A. and R.F. Darsie , Jr ...Knight and Stone 1977, Knight 1978, Wood Maryland, Prince George’s County, Fort et al. 1979, Darsie and Ward 1981, Ward Washington, coll. no. BH 901, 28

  11. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  12. Spatiotemporal investigation of adult mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in an eastern Iowa county, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroote, John; Mercer, David R; Fisher, Jeffrey; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2007-11-01

    Landscape and climatic factors regulate distributions of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) over time and space. The anthropogenic control of mosquito populations is often carried out at a local administrative scale, and it is applied based on the relevant agency's experiential knowledge rather than systematic analysis of spatial and temporal data. To address this shortcoming, a spatial and temporal analysis of landscape and climatic parameters in relation to mosquito populations in Black Hawk County, IA, USA, has been carried out. Adult mosquito sampling took place using CDC light traps from May to August 2003 in representative landscapes. Mosquitoes were identified to species level with Aedes trivittatus (Coquillet) and Aedes vexans (Meigen) dominating the collection totals. The best publicly available spatial data on landscape and demographic attributes were collated and included land cover, human census, soils, floodplain, elevation, wetlands, hydrography, roads, and vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery. Spatial processing was carried out to organize landscape attributes for statistical comparison with abundance data from the potentially important West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) vector species Ae. vexans and Ae. trivittatus. Landscape parameters shown to be significantly correlated with mosquito counts included soil hydrological properties, presence in floodplain, wetland areas, and deciduous and bottomland forest cover. Data on temperature and precipitation were used to investigate the climatic influence on the temporal occurrence of mosquito population abundances. Late spring rain provided ample moisture for mosquito development, but low temperatures delayed widespread emergence of Ae. trivittatus and Ae. vexans until June 2003. Landscape and climatic impacts on adult mosquito population distributions were demonstrated, and these results could form the basis for the development of a spatiotemporal modeling framework that

  13. [The mosquitoes (Diptera Culicidae) of Morocco. Bibliographic review (1916-2001) and inventory of the species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trari, B; Dakki, M; Himmi, O; el Agbani, M A

    2003-11-01

    The history of the Culicidae of Morocco was related from bibliographical data. A synthesis of the almost entire works carried out on these Insects (Diptera) since 1916 allowed to bring out the main stages of research of which they were the subject, while emphasizing the important periods of large malaria epidemics in Morocco. A short list of species is also given.

  14. Description of the Immature Stages of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rondoni (Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae) Maria Anice Mureb Sallum/+, Richard C Wilkerson* Núcleo de Pesquisa Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia ...Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia Médica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. The following specimens were used for setal counts and measurements (the

  15. Registros de mayor altitud para mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Carlos Navarro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae. Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera

  16. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Smir marshes (northwest of Morocco): inventory and biotypology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Joubari, M; Louah, A; Himmi, O

    2014-02-01

    The Smir marshes are a favorable environment for the growth of many mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). The inventory of Culicidae species reveals 14 species, is 33% of the species of Morocco, distributed in four genera: Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus and Anopheles (with 5, 2, 5 and 2 species respectively) which Anopheles labranchiae, vector of the agent of the malaria in Morocco until 2004. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal mesological affinities and we tried to explain the biotypology of mosquito populations of the site. These analyzes revealed several groups of stations and species according to various parameters, especially salinity.

  18. Medical Entomology Studies - XVI. A Review of the Species of Subgenus Verrallina, Genus Aedes, from Sri Lanka and a Revised Description of the Subgenus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    351-401. Diptera Nematocera from the Federated Malay States Museums. J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 14: 1-139, 2 pls. Diptera, Fam. Culicidae. In P...266-343. In M. D. Delfinado and D. E. Hardy, Ed. A catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental region. Volume I. Suborder Nematocera . Univ. Press Hawaii

  19. The Brazilian Malaria Vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) Cruzii: Life Stages and Biology (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Mosquitos no litoral paranaense. I - Idade fisioldgica de no Parque National da Serra dos Orgaos, Anopheles cruzii (Diptera, Culicidae). Arq. Estado do...no Parque National da Peryassii, A.G. 1908. OS culicideos do Brazil. Serra dos Grgaos, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Inst. de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro...Kerteszia no litoral Guimar%es, A.E. and V.N.M. Victoria. 1986. do estado de Santa Catarina. Rev. Bras. Mosquitos no Parque National da Serra dos

  20. Argyritarsis Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae). Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 1(2):1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio sistematico de los...subgenero Nyssorhynchus do Brasil. Arq. Hig. Saude Publica 8:141-162. 1950. Do diagnostico diferencial entre A (N) strodel e A (N) pessoai na fase larvaria...Mex. , D. F. , Secr. Salubr. Asist. 181 p. Vargas V. M. 1956. Clave numerica para identificacion de larvas en cuarta fase de Anophelini en Costa Rica

  1. A Revision of the Argyritarsis Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Middle America. Contrib. Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 1(2):1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio...N) pessoai na fase larvaria. Rev. Bras. Malariol. 2:38-48. Galvao, A. L. A. and F. A. D. Amaral 1938. Sobre urn novo anofelino de Campos do Jordao...Salubr. Taxonomia y distribution. Mex., D. F., P* identification de larvas en cuarta fase de Rev. Biol. Trop. 4:27-34. identification de larvas

  2. MOSQUITO (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) AS A BIOINDICATOR OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND DISEASE OUTBREAK

    OpenAIRE

    Sugeng Juwono Mardihusodo

    2006-01-01

    Quality of public health is greatly influenced by a lot of environmental factors, especially biotic factors among wich is a group of hematophagus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) showing high competence as disease vector(s). The vector mosquitoes belong to different species of different genera: *Anopheles, Aedes, Culex*, and *Mansonia.*In hypersensitive individuals, mosquito bites may induce pain and itching on the skin where the mosquito suck blood, allergic dermat...

  3. Second Supplement to "A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World" (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    female)‘, P ( pupa ), L (larva) and E (egg). An asterisk (*) to the right of the symbols indicates an accompanying illustration. Type-depositories are...Acta Parasitol. Sinica 2:397-403. Chen Han-Bin. 1980. Study on the Culex vishnui subgroup in China with discussions on the taxonomic status of C...Danilov, V.N. 1982. Mosquito fauna (Diptera, Culicidae) of the Ethiopian zoogeographical region 2. A new species of Mansonia (CoquiZtettidia) and a key

  4. Sampling Outdoor, Resting Anopheles gambiae and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Western Kenya with Clay Pots

    OpenAIRE

    Odiere, M.; Bayoh, M. N.; Gimnig, J; Vulule, J; Irungu, L.; Walker, E.

    2007-01-01

    Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s...

  5. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to

  6. Oviposition responses of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) and identification of volatiles from bacteria-containing solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindh, J.M.; Kännaste, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Faye, I.; Borg-Karlson, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a dual-choice oviposition bioassay was used to screen responses of gravid An. gambiae toward 17 bacterial species, previously isolated from Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) midguts or oviposition sites. The 10 isolates from oviposition sites have been identified by

  7. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  8. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  9. Culex Verutus, a New Species of the Subgenus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    216 Cu7ex verutus, a new species of the subgenu s1 Cu7ex (Diptera: Culicidae) from Sierra Leone Ralph E. Harbach’ Walter Reed Biosystematics...sp. from Sierra Leone are described and illus- trated. The new species is compared to other members of the guiarti group. This paper describes a...new species of Cu7ex collected in Sierra Leone by Dr. Yiau-Min Huang and Mr. James Pecor during field studies conducted in 1984. The species has been

  10. The Anopheles (Anopheles) Crucians Subgroup in the United States (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    collected in light traps and dog-baited traps. Mosq. News 33:39-41. Darsie , R. F., Jr . 1949. Pupae of the anopheline mosquitoes of the north- eastern...United States (Diptera: Culicidae). Rev. de Entomol. 20:509-30. Darsie , R. F., Jr . 1973. A record of changes in mosquito taxonomy in the United States...of America, 1955-1972. Mosq. Syst. 5:187-93. 60 Darsie , R. F., Jr ., D. MacCreary, and L. A. Stearns. 1951. An annotated list of the mosquitoes of

  11. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae by Hiroshi Nakano*a)b)c), Abbas...larvicides against Aedes aegypti . Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3’’) and C(4...mg/ml), 4 (LC50 , 17.95 mg/ml), 6 (LC50 , 18.55 mg/ml), and 7 (LC50 , 19.97 mg/ml). These data indicated that A. aegypti larvicidal activities of

  12. The morphological variations of Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae) in central Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Dehghan; Javid Sadraei; Seyed Hassan Moosa-Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the variations in morphological characters of Culex pipiens complex and identify the species complex. Methods:A study was carried out from April to October 2009 in Yazd Province, Iran. This study was performed in two randomly selected rural villages in Yazd County using different sampling methods such as larval collection, hand catch, pyrethrum space spray, light trap, and pit shelter collections. The data were analyzed using SPSS software Ver. 16. ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test was used to compare the ratios of the samples. Results:The average of the DV/D ration was 0.090±0.007 and the range was 0-0.33. The average D/V ratio was 1.07±0.02, with maximum 1.6 and minimum 0.6. The costa and subcosta intersection were observed beyond the bifurcation of R2+3 in most of the specimens. The bifurcations of R2+3 and M1+3 veins were not on one direction in all samples. The range of the R-Cell/R2+3 ratio was 2.42-7.91. The average ratio of cross wing was 2.25±0.04 with a range of 1.36-3.70. Conclusions:More populations of Culex pipiens from different areas of Iran need to be studied to gain complete information about the taxonomy and ecology of the species.

  13. Coetzeemyia, a new subgenus of Aedes, and a Redescription of the Holotype Female of Aedes (Coetzeemyia) fryeri (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 97, 1–16. Edwards, F.W. (1917) Notes on Culicidae, with descriptions of new species...Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B), 32, 165–170. McIntosh, B.M., Weinbren, M.P., Worth, C.B. & Kokernot, R.H. (1962...the Entomological Society of Washington , 46, 205–225. Theobald, F.V. (1912) No. V.– Diptera, Culicidae. Transactions Linnean Society of London (2), 15

  14. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  15. Permethrin resistance in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and associated fitness costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiang Hao; Zairi, Jaal

    2013-03-01

    Insecticide resistance has become a serious issue in vector management programs. Information on insecticidal resistance and its associated mechanisms is important for successful insecticide resistance management. The selection of a colony of permethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), originating from Penang Island, Malaysia, yielded high larval-specific resistance to permethrin and cross-resistance to deltamethrin. Synergism assays showed that the major mechanism underlying this resistance involves cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The resistance is autosomal, polygenically inherited and incompletely dominant (D = 0.26). Resistant larvae were reared under different conditions to assess the fitness costs. Under high larval density, larval development time of the resistant SGI strain was significantly longer than the susceptible VCRU strain. In both high- and low-density conditions SGI showed a lower rate of emergence and survival compared with the VCRU strain. Resistant larvae were more susceptible to predation by Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The body size of SGI females reared under high-density conditions was larger compared with females of the susceptible strain. SGI females survived longer when starved than did VCRU females. The energy reserve upon eclosion was positively correlated with the size of the adults.

  16. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  17. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of diff...

  18. Assessing the Susceptibility Status of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in a Dirofilariasis Focus, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Ataie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes are considered as the vectors of dirofilariasis and some vector borne disease in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility level of the vectors to various insecticides recommended by WHO for any control measures in an endemic area in northwestern Iran.Methods: Mosquito larval and adult collections were carried out using different methods provided by WHO including dipping and hand catch techniques. The susceptibility level was assessed to DDT 4%, malathion 5%, propoxur 0.1%, deltamethrin 0.05% and lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%.Results: Totally, 749 adults and 5060 larvae of Culicidae mosquitoes were collected comprising seven species of adult and larvae, including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis, An. sacharovi, Culex hortensis, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri and Culiseta longiaerolata. Frequency of larvae and adults of An. maculipennis was very low, so susceptibility tests on this species did not performed. Results showed that Cx. theileri, Cs. longiaerolata and Cx. pipiens were resistant to DDT 4%, lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%, and propoxur 0.1% whereas found tolerant to deltamethrin 0.05% and malathion 5%. The LT50 and LT90 values for five insecticides were calculated.Conclusion: We suggest the same study in different parts of the world to obtain the data due to bionomic and susceptibility status of dirofilariasis vectors. This information will help the health authorities for monitoring and evaluation of control measures.

  19. Larval Habitats Diversity and Distribution of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species in the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K

    2015-11-01

    A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova.

  20. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of diff...

  1. Testing of UK Populations of Culex pipiens L. for Schmallenberg Virus Vector Competence and Their Colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Manley

    Full Text Available Schmallenberg virus (SBV, an arboviral pathogen of ruminants, emerged in northern Europe during 2011 and has subsequently spread across a vast geographic area. While Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae have been identified as a biological transmission agent of SBV, the role of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae as potential vectors has not been defined beyond small-scale field collections in affected areas. Culex pipiens L. are one of the most widespread mosquitoes in northern Europe; they are present on farms across the region and have previously been implicated as vectors of several other arboviruses. We assessed the ability of three colony lines of Cx. pipiens, originating from geographically diverse field populations, to become fully infected by SBV using semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR (sqPCR.Two colony lines of Cx. pipiens were created in the UK ('Brookwood' and 'Caldbeck' from field collections of larvae and pupae and characterised using genetic markers. A third strain of Cx. pipiens from CVI Wageningen, The Netherlands, was also screened during experiments. Intrathoracic inoculation of the Brookwood line resulted in infections after 14 days that were characterised by high levels of RNA throughout individuals, but which demonstrated indirect evidence of salivary gland barriers. Feeding of 322 individuals across the three colony lines on a membrane based infection system resulted in no evidence of full dissemination of SBV, although infections did occur in a small proportion of Cx. pipiens from each line.This study established two novel lines of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes of UK origin in the laboratory and subsequently tested their competence for SBV. Schmallenberg virus replication and dissemination was restricted, demonstrating that Cx. pipiens is unlikely to be an epidemiologically important vector of the virus in northern Europe.

  2. Ovicidal activity of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, C; Tai, M H H; Santos, A H; Rocha, L F N; Albernaz, D A S; Silva, H H G

    2007-09-01

    The ovicidal activity of 21 hyphomycete fungi species against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested. Fungi with ovicidal activity developed on high numbers of eggs (> or =70%) during 25 d of exposure. A clear ovicidal activity with low values of hatch (1.3-40%) was observed after 25 d of incubation with Isaria farinosa (Holm: Fries) Fries, Paecilomyces carneus (Duché & Heim) Brown & Smith, Paecilomyces marquandii (Massee) Hughes, Isaria fumosorosea (Wize), Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, Penicillium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, and Evlachovaea kintrischica Borisov & Tarasov. More than 63% of eggs hatched after 25-d exposures to 11 other fungi species deemed as ineffective. These are the first results to show the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against eggs of Ae. aegypti, and they suggest their potential as control agents of this vector.

  3. Pupal dimensions as predictors of adult size in fitness studies of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenraadt, C J M

    2008-03-01

    Adult body size is a central life history character in mosquito fitness studies. I evaluated the predictive values of pupal cephalothorax length, cephalothorax width, and wet weight for adult size (wing length) of male and female Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Cephalothorax length was the most consistent and accurate predictor of adult size. Width of the cephalothorax and wet weight were more variable, and they significantly decreased shortly before adult emergence. I propose that cephalothorax length could be used as a proxy for adult size to test how physical and biological factors such as resource-limited environments and competition affect mosquito fitness with the advantage that the specimen does not need to be killed.

  4. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The arbovirus vector Culex torrentium is more prevalent than Culex pipiens in northern and central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, J C; Rettich, F; Merdić, E; Vignjević, G; Ostman, O; Schäfer, M; Schaffner, F; Foussadier, R; Besnard, G; Medlock, J; Scholte, E-J; Lundström, J O

    2014-06-01

    Two species of arbovirus vector, Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), occur in several European countries, but difficulties in their accurate identification and discrimination have hampered both detailed and large-scale distribution and abundance studies. Using a molecular identification method, we identified to species 2559 larvae of Cx. pipiens/torrentium collected from 138 sites in 13 European countries ranging from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean coast. In addition, samples of 1712 males of Cx. pipiens/torrentium collected at several sites in the Czech Republic were identified to species based on the morphology of their hypopygia. We found that the two species occur together in large areas of Europe, and that Cx. torrentium dominates in northern Europe and Cx. pipiens dominates south of the Alps. The transition in dominance occurs in central Europe, where both species are roughly equally common. There was a strong correlation between the length of the growing season at different sites and occurrences of the two species. As the growing season increases, the proportion and detection of Cx. torrentium decrease, whereas those of Cx. pipiens increase. The present findings have important consequences for the interpretation of the results of studies on major enzootic and link-vectors of mosquito-borne bird-associated viruses (i.e. Sindbis, West Nile and Usutu viruses), especially in central Europe and Scandinavia.

  6. SITUACIÓN ACTUAL EN ESPAÑA Y ECO-EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LAS ARBOVIROSIS TRANSMITIDAS POR MOSQUITOS CULÍCIDOS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Bueno Marí

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente manuscrito se analiza la posible emergencia y/o reemergencia en España de algunas de las arbovirosis transmitidas por mosquitos culícidos (Diptera: Culicidae de mayor incidencia a nivel mundial en los últimos años. Los datos faunísticos, bioecológicos y de distribución de los culícidos en nuestro país permiten discernir entre especies con capacidad de mantener la enzootia de algunas de estas arbovirosis de otras que pueden actuar como vectores puente de la virosis hasta el ser humano. Los resultados revelan la existencia de especies, algunas de ellas muy frecuentes en los humedales de nuestro país y fuertemente antropófilas como Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens u Ochlerotatus caspius, con una elevada capacidad para transmitir flavivirus como el virus West Nile o el virus Usutu. Además, la reciente introducción, establecimiento y expansión del mosquito tigre, Aedes albopictus, abre una preocupante vía para la aparición de posibles brotes, probablemente incluso de tipo epidémico, de arbovirosis habitualmente importadas a nuestro país por personas inmigrantes y turistas, como el Dengue o Chikungunya. Por último, también se discute el interés epidemiológico de especies propias de nuestro entorno como Aedes vittatus u Ochlerotatus geniculatus, debido a su capacidad vectorial constatada para la transmisión de algunas de estas virosis típicamente tropicales.

  7. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  8. Vector Competence of Peruvian Mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) for a Subtype IIIC Strain in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Complex Isolated from Mosquitoes Captured in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15:295–298. Turell MJ, Gargan TP II, Bailey CL. 1984. Replication and dissemination...Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphavirus by Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Peru. J Med Entomol 42:404–408

  9. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera.

  10. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From the Northwestern Brazilian Amazon: Padauari River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, R S G; Hutchings, R W; Menezes, I S; Motta, M de A; Sallum, M A M

    2016-11-01

    The mosquito fauna (Culicidae) from remote northern areas of the State of Amazonas were sampled using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Shannon, Malaise, and Suspended traps, together with net sweeping and immature collections. One hundred and seven collections were performed in five localities along the Padauari River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, during June 2010. The 20,557 mosquitoes collected are distributed in 17 genera, representing 117 different species, of which four are new distributional records for the State of Amazonas. Furthermore, there are 10 morphospecies that may represent undescribed new taxa, eight of which are also new records for the State of Amazonas. The genus Culex had the highest number of species and the largest number of individuals. Aedes and Psorophora both represented 10% of the total sample and had the second highest number of species and individuals. The most abundant species was Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos Sallum, Hutchings & Ferreira, followed by Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus (Wiedemann), Culex (Melanoconion) vaxus Dyar, Culex (Melanoconion) portesi Senevet & Abonnenc, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) amazonica Cerqueira, Culex (Culex) mollis Dyar & Knab, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) albigenu (Peryassú), and Culex (Melanoconion) theobaldi Lutz. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed and are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region. The results represent the most diverse standardized inventory of mosquitoes along the Padauari River, with the identification of 127 species-level taxa distributed in five localities, within two municipalities (Barcelos and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Nationwide inventory of mosquito biodiversity (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteirt, V; Boyer, S; Damiens, D; De Clercq, E M; Dekoninck, W; Ducheyne, E; Grootaert, P; Garros, C; Hance, T; Hendrickx, G; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2013-04-01

    To advance our restricted knowledge on mosquito biodiversity and distribution in Belgium, a national inventory started in 2007 (MODIRISK) based on a random selection of 936 collection points in three main environmental types: urban, rural and natural areas. Additionally, 64 sites were selected because of the risk of importing a vector or pathogen in these sites. Each site was sampled once between May and October 2007 and once in 2008 using Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. Diversity in pre-defined habitat types was calculated using three indices. The association between species and environmental types was assessed using a correspondence analysis. Twenty-three mosquito species belonging to traditionally recognized genera were found, including 21 indigenous and two exotic species. Highest species diversity (Simpson 0.765) and species richness (20 species) was observed in natural areas, although urban sites scored also well (Simpson 0.476, 16 species). Four clusters could be distinguished based on the correspondence analysis. The first one is related to human modified landscapes (such as urban, rural and industrial sites). A second is composed of species not associated with a specific habitat type, including the now widely distributed Anopheles plumbeus. A third group includes species commonly found in restored natural or bird migration areas, and a fourth cluster is composed of forest species. Outcomes of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed sampling scheme and support the choice of the trap type. Obtained results of this first country-wide inventory of the Culicidae in Belgium may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  12. Molecular identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batovska, Jana; Blacket, Mark J; Brown, Karen; Lynch, Stacey E

    2016-05-01

    DNA barcoding is a modern species identification technique that can be used to distinguish morphologically similar species, and is particularly useful when using small amounts of starting material from partial specimens or from immature stages. In order to use DNA barcoding in a surveillance program, a database containing mosquito barcode sequences is required. This study obtained Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) sequences for 113 morphologically identified specimens, representing 29 species, six tribes and 12 genera; 17 of these species have not been previously barcoded. Three of the 29 species ─ Culex palpalis, Macleaya macmillani, and an unknown species originally identified as Tripteroides atripes ─ were initially misidentified as they are difficult to separate morphologically, highlighting the utility of DNA barcoding. While most species grouped separately (reciprocally monophyletic), the Cx. pipiens subgroup could not be genetically separated using COI. The average conspecific and congeneric p-distance was 0.8% and 7.6%, respectively. In our study, we also demonstrate the utility of DNA barcoding in distinguishing exotics from endemic mosquitoes by identifying a single intercepted Stegomyia aegypti egg at an international airport. The use of DNA barcoding dramatically reduced the identification time required compared with rearing specimens through to adults, thereby demonstrating the value of this technique in biosecurity surveillance. The DNA barcodes produced by this study have been uploaded to the 'Mosquitoes of Australia-Victoria' project on the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD), which will serve as a resource for the Victorian Arbovirus Disease Control Program and other national and international mosquito surveillance programs.

  13. Winter biology of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say, (Diptera: Culicidae from Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R Almirón

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult cohorts and immature stages were kept under field conditions during the autumn and winter of three consecutive years. Survival, oviposition and development time from egg to adult were considered. The adult cohorts were studied under three experimental conditions: unfed cohorts, cohorts fed with sugar solution ansd cohorts fed with both sugar solution and blood (chicken. Female longevity showed significant differences among the three treatments. Females of unfed cohorts lived up to three weeks; females fed with sugar solution survived until six weeks, while those fed both with sugar and blood lived at most fourteen weeks; after the blood intake eggs were laid. In the immature stages, the highest relative mortality rates occurred during the egg and larval stages. Total pre-adult mortality varied between 59.09 and 89.71%. The developmental duration from egg to adult was between 43-62 days; there were no differences among results obtained for the three years.

  14. Natural vertical transmission of Ndumu virus in Culex pipiens (Diptera; Culicidae) mosquitoes collected as larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumu virus (NDUV) is a member of the Family: Togaviridae and Genus: Alphavirus. In Kenya the virus has been isolated from a range of mosquito species but has not been associated with human or animal morbidity. Little is know about the transmission dynamics or vertebrate reservoirs of this virus. We...

  15. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, Paegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, Pinsecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program.

  16. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Pedroso, Murilo Fernandes; Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Silva, Onilda Santos

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.

  17. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  18. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito larvicida de extratos hidro-etanólicos de folhas verdes e secas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae em Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. Todos os extratos avaliados induziram mortalidade em larvas de 3º e 4º estágios de Aedes aegypti, após 24 e 48 horas de exposição aos produtos. Embora estudos prévios tenham demonstrado a ação de sementes e frutos de Melia azedarach em larvas de diferentes populações de Aedes aegypti, o presente estudo é o primeiro a reportar o efeito larvicida de folhas verdes e secas desta planta.

  19. Impact of livestock on a mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Brazilian tropical dry forest

    OpenAIRE

    Cleandson Ferreira Santos; Magno Borges

    2015-01-01

    AbstractINTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil.METHODS: Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models.RESULTS: Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition.CO...

  20. MOSQUITO (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE AS A BIOINDICATOR OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND DISEASE OUTBREAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Juwono Mardihusodo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Quality of public health is greatly influenced by a lot of environmental factors, especially biotic factors among wich is a group of hematophagus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae showing high competence as disease vector(s. The vector mosquitoes belong to different species of different genera: *Anopheles, Aedes, Culex*, and *Mansonia.*In hypersensitive individuals, mosquito bites may induce pain and itching on the skin where the mosquito suck blood, allergic dermatitis leads up to dermatosis, even persistently, causing nuisance. Through the mosquito bites, man may risk to being infected with pathogens causing Malaria, Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF, Chikungunya, Japanese Encephalitis (JE, and Lymphatic filariasis, specifically in areas where the mosquito-borne disease (MBD is (are endemic. Survival of a mosquito vector species of disease vector is much dependent on its environment, mainly on the availability of a number of suitable habitats for its pre-adult stages, larvae and pupae. Number, type and size of the larval habitats as well as quality of water in the mosquito breeding places apparently determine rates of survival and density of the mosquito breeding in it which generally positively correlate with the increase of the MBD transmission. Therefore, mosquito mainly a disease vector could be used as one of the bioindicators of environment health and its significant increase in density is predictive of the probable occurrence of a MBD epidemic in a communityliving in an endemic area.

  1. Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antonio C. Zequi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.

  2. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae Plant Extracts for Larvicidal Activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macêdo Maria E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis - Diptera: Culicidae. The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l.

  3. Molecular ecological analysis of planktonic bacterial communities in constructed wetlands invaded by Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, David A; Han, Suk-Kyun; Lanoil, Brian; Walton, William E

    2006-11-01

    The succession of the planktonic bacterial community during the colonization by Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes of 0.1-ha treatment wetlands was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methodology. Relationships between apparent bacterial diversity and ecological factors (water quality, total bacterial counts, and immature mosquito abundance) were determined during a 1-mo flooding period. Analysis of DGGE banding patterns indicated that days postflooding and temporal changes in water quality were the primary and secondary determinants, respectively, of diversity in bacterial communities. Lower levels of diversity were associated with later postflood stages and increases in ammoniacal nitrogen concentration and total bacterial counts. Diversity was therefore most similar for bacteria present on the same sampling date at wetland locations with similar flooding regimes and water quality, suggesting that wastewater input was the driving force shaping bacterial communities. Comparatively small changes in bacterial diversity were connected to natural processes as water flowed through the wetlands. Greater immature mosquito abundance coincided with less diverse communities composed of greater total numbers of bacteria. Five individual DGGE bands were directly associated with fluctuations in mosquito production, and an additional 16 bands were associated with hydrological aspects of the environment during the rise and fall of mosquito populations. A marked decline in mosquito numbers 21 d after inundation may have masked associations of bacterial communities and mosquito recruitment into the sparsely vegetated wetlands. DGGE was an effective tool for the characterization of bacteria in mosquito habitat in our study, and its potential application in mosquito ecology is discussed.

  4. Sexually dimorphic body size and development time plasticity in Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Jillian D; Juliano, Steven A

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in insects often accompanies a sexual difference in development time, sexual bimaturism (SBM). To determine whether three Aedes mosquito species have similar plasticity in SSD, attain sexual dimorphism through similar strategies, and whether SSD and SBM are associated. Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). In four different food availability environments, we quantified plastic responses of relative growth rate (RGR), development time, and adult body size in individually reared males and females. Food availability affected RGR differently for the sexes for all three species. The RGR of males and females differed significantly in the 0.1 g/L food treatment. This difference did not account for observed SSD. Food levels over which the largest changes in RGR were observed differed among the species. Male and female adult mass and development time were jointly affected by food availability in a pattern that differed among the three species, so that degree of SSD and SBM changed differentially with food availability for all three species. Development time was generally less sexually dimorphic than mass, particularly in A. albopictus. At lower food levels, A. aegypti and A. triseriatus had accentuated dimorphism in development time. These results, combined with our knowledge of mosquito life history, suggest that a direct benefit of SBM is improbable for mosquitoes and that the observed intersexual differences in development time are more likely byproducts of selection for SSD.

  5. Derris (Lonchocarpus urucu (Leguminosae Extract Modifies the Peritrophic Matrix Structure of Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusmão Desiely Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous suspension of ethanol extracts of Derris (Lonchocarpus urucu (Leguminosae, collected in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae. The aim of this study was to observe the alterations of peritrophic matrix in Ae. aegypti larvae treated with an aqueous suspension of D. urucu extract. Different concentrations of D. urucu root extract were tested against fourth instar larvae. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 150 µg/ml (LC50 17.6 µg/ml 24 h following treatment. In response to D. urucu feeding, larvae excreted a large amount of amorphous feces, while control larvae did not produce feces during the assay period. Ultrastructural studies showed that larvae fed with 150 µg/ml of D. urucu extract for 4 h have an imperfect peritrophic matrix and extensive damage of the midgut epithelium. Data indicate a protective role for the peritrophic matrix. The structural modification of the peritrophic matrix is intrinsically associated with larval mortality.

  6. Artificial activation of mature unfertilized eggs in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.

  7. Aedes aegypti survival in the presence of Toxorhynchites violaceus (Diptera: Culicidae fourth instar larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Albeny

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Different methods have been used to control A. aegypti, including chemical and biological tools. However, chemical control can lead to a subsequent increase in the mosquitoes' insecticide resistance, and biological control represents an important method as an alternative to insecticide usage. Larvae from the Toxorhynchites genus (Diptera: Culicidae are predators of other mosquitoes and represent a potential natural biocontrol agent of A. aegypti larvae. In the present work, A. aegypti larval survival was studied in the presence of the neotropical Toxorhynchites violaceus (Wiedemann, 1821 fourth instar larvae. Toxorhynchites violaceus consumption of A. aegypti increased during the 192 hours of the experiment and was more marked in the intervals between 96 and 120 hours and between 168 and 192 hours, when the A. aegypti survival reached 0%. During the fourth instar, T. violaceus increased its predation on A. aegypti larvae, possibly in order to increase its nutrient storage prior to pupation. Otherwise, low prey consumption can lead to a nutritional deficit for the larvae, delaying the adult's sexual development and reducing its egg production. Here we show that A. aegypti survival can be reduced by the T. violaceus fourth larvae predation under laboratory conditions

  8. Sampling outdoor, resting Anopheles gambiae and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya with clay pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiere, M; Bayoh, M N; Gimnig, J; Vulule, J; Irungu, L; Walker, E

    2007-01-01

    Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s.l. were sampled in total of which 63% were An. gambiae s.s. (46% female) and 37% were An. arabiensis (66% female). The clay pots were useful and practical for sampling both sexes of An. gambiae s.l. Additionally, 617 An. funestus (58% female) and 5,232 Culex spp. (males and females together) were collected. Temporal changes in abundance of An. gambiae s.l. were similarly revealed by all four sampling methods, indicating that the clay pots could be used as devices to quantify variation in mosquito population density. Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution. Aside from providing a useful sampling tool, the AgREPOT also may be useful as a delivery vehicle for insecticides or pathogens to males and females that enter and rest in them.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes ( Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Westphal-Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae. Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus Theobald individuals vary considerably in size and color of the reflections of the scales on their thorax, abdomen, antepronotal lobes and occiput. The goal of this study was to investigate and to characterize the differences in the color of the scales among preserved specimens and to analyze the differences in the microstructures of the scales that cover their bodies using near-infrared spectroscopy, and to evaluate whether the latter is efficient in distinguishing the populations. A total of 201 adult females were analyzed for the characterization of color patterns. In addition, absorbance spectra and scanning electron microscope images were obtained from them. As a result of color analysis, two variations were identified, one represented by specimens with yellow or green scales and the other with blue or purple scales. The same two variations were corroborated using NIRS. Analysis of the microstructure of the scales lining the mesonotum, occiput and antepronotal lobes resulted in the same variations. The three methodologies, near-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and coloration of the reflections of the scales revealed two variations within Sa. albiprivus.

  10. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB's Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr.

  11. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela MR Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ovitrap (BR-OVT based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis.

  12. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  13. Larvicidal and Cytotoxic Potential of Squamocin on the Midgut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza S. Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetogenins are secondary metabolites exclusively produced by Annonaceae, which have antitumor, cytotoxic, and pesticide activities. In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal and cytotoxic effect of squamocin from Annona squamosa on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae midgut. The compound was solubilized in 2% Tween 20 at 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 ppm. The assay was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, each with 20 third-instar larvae. Larval mortality was assessed every hour until total mortality, and the data were subjected to Probit analysis. Cellular damage was evaluated every 30 min in groups comprising five larvae subjected to squamocin at 50 and 100 ppm for 240 min. The total larval mortality occurred after 360 min following application of 50, 80, and 100 ppm squamocin, and 600 min after applying other concentrations with LC50 at 6.4 ppm. Both 50 and 100 ppm of squamocin showed cytotoxic activity in the midgut epithelium of A. aegypti after 240 min with 50 ppm resulting in midgut cells with light cytoplasm containing small vacuoles, whereas at 100 ppm were found cells with cytoplasm highly vacuolated, damaged apical surface and cell protrusion toward the gut lumen. In conclusion, squamocin has the potential to control A. aegypti.

  14. Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Observations on the predatory potential of Lutzia fuscana on Aedes aegypti larvae: implications for biological control (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soujita Pramanik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the natural predators, larval stages of the mosquito Lutzia fuscana (Wiedemann, 1820 (Diptera: Culicidae bear potential as a biological control agent of mosquitoes. An estimation of the predatory potential of the larva of L. fuscana against the larva of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae was made to highlight its use in vector management. Laboratory experiments revealed that the larva of L. fuscana consumes 19 to 24 A. aegypti larvae per day, during its tenure as IV instar larva. The consumption of A. aegypti larvae was proportionate to the body length (BL and body weight (BW of the predatory larva L. fuscana as depicted through the logistic regressions: y = 1 / (1 + exp(-(-2.09 + 0.35*BL and y = 1 / (1 + exp(-(0.4+ 0.06*BW. While the prey consumption remained comparable among the days, the net weight gained by the L. fuscana larva showed a decreasing trend with the age. On the basis of the results, it is apparent that the larva of the mosquito L. fuscana can be used in the regulation of the mosquito A. aegypti through augmentative release, particularly, in the smaller mosquito larval habitats.

  16. Effectiveness of seven mosquito larvicides against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (L. in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazem Abdullah Mahyoub

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effects of different chemical larvicides, bioinsecticides and insect growth regulators against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae (Cx. pipiens in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We tested seven commercial mosquito larvicides, including classic cyfluthrin, diazinon and propoxur, bioinsecticides Bactilarvae and Tracer 24%, and insect growth regulators Baycidal and Sumilarv. LC50 and LC90 values were calculated in laboratory conditions using probit analysis. Results: Concerning chemical insecticides, the highest larval mortality was observed for diazinon, with LC50 = 0.352 3 mg/L, followed by propoxur and cyfluthrin. The bacterial insecticide Tracer was more effective than Bactilarvae (LC50 = 0.008 7 mg/L and 0.011 7 mg/L, respectively by 1.37 folds. Furthermore, Cx. pipiens larvae were more susceptible to insect growth regulators Baycidal (IC50 = 0.0004 mg/L if compared to Sumilarv (IC50 = 0.0029 mg/L by 7.25 folds. Conclusions: Overall, this research added basic knowledge about the effectiveness of seven mosquito larvicides with different mechanisms of action as potential candidates for the control programs of Cx. pipiens mosquito populations in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Impact of livestock on a mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae in a Brazilian tropical dry forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleandson Ferreira Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil.METHODS: Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models.RESULTS: Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition.CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate the impact of cattle removal on Culicidae community structure in Brazil and demonstrates the importance of assessing ecological parameters such as community species composition.

  18. Impact of livestock on a mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Brazilian tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cleandson Ferreira; Borges, Magno

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil. Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models. Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition. This is the first study to evaluate the impact of cattle removal on Culicidae community structure in Brazil and demonstrates the importance of assessing ecological parameters such as community species composition.

  19. A New Species of Culex (Eumelanomyia) from India with Descriptions of Pupae and Larvae of Cx. pluvialis Barraud and Cx. iphis Barraud (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Barraud and Cx. <@is Barraud (Diptera: Culicidae)l Sunthorn Sirivanakarn 2 ABSTRACT. All known stages of CuZex Nilgiri Hills, Madras, India and the...specimens collected by Be N. Mohan in the Nilgiri Hills, Madras, India in 1974 and by Eb L. Peyton and Y,-M. Huang in Sri Lanka in 1975% These collec...of topotypic specimens of CUZSX in the Nilgiri Hills have been a valuable contribution to the taxonomic knowledge of several Indian species. The

  20. Field Responses of Anopheles gambiae Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Liberia using Yeast-Generated Carbon Dioxide and Synthetic Lure-Baited Light Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION Field Responses of Anopheles gambiae Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Liberia using Yeast-Generated...and light, bed-net, tent, andodor-baited traps (Mboera 2005). TheCenters forDiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC) light trap with its typical 4Ð6 W...using paper- clips. Although primarily developed and used to attract day ßying Stegomyia ( Aedes ) mosquitoes, blends of this lureÕs primary ingredients

  1. The Mosquitoes of the Subgenus Culex in Southwestern Asia and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 24, Number 1, 1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Pathol. Exot. 53: 531-542. 1968. Contribution a I’etude des moustiques du Maroc (Diptera, Culicidae) six especes nouvelles pour le pays. Cah. ORSTOM...quelques moustiques du Maroc. Arch. inst. Pasteur Maroc 2: 361-365. 1957. Sur Culex torrentium Martini. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 32: 438-442...De Grandpre, A.D. and D. D’E. De Charmoy 1900(1901). Les moustiques : anatomie et biologie. Contribution a I’etude des Culicides et principalement

  2. Exploring New Thermal Fog and Ultra-Low Volume Technologies to Improve Indoor Control of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) JAMES F. HARWOOD,1,2 MUHAMMAD FAROOQ,1 ALEC G. RICHARDSON,1 CARL W. DOUD,1 JOHN L. PUTNAM,3 DANIEL E...vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), inside human habitations must be performed quickly and efÞciently to reduce the risk of transmission during dengue...e.g.,WHO2009, Bhatt et al. 2013). Dengue is primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti (L.) in urban endemic regions. Ae. aegypti , which is also a vector

  3. [Effect of several extracts derived from plants on the survival of larvae of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, R A; Mendes, N M; Pereira, J P; Santos, B de S; Lamounier, M A

    1988-01-01

    The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26.6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (alpha = 0.05) at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni). Anacardic acid (A. occidentale) was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract) at 1 ppm.

  4. Grass Pollen Affects Survival and Development of Larval Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Yelfwagash; Hopkins, Richard J; Tekie, Habte; Hill, Sharon R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Nutrients in breeding sites are critical for the survival and development of malaria mosquitoes, having a direct impact on vectorial capacity. Yet, there is a limited understanding about the natural larval diet and its impact on the individual fitness of mosquitoes. Recent studies have shown that gravid Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) are attracted by and oviposit in grass-associated habitats. The pollen provided by these grasses is a potential source of nutrients for the larvae. Here, we assess the effect of Typha latifolia L. (Poales: Typhaceae), Echinochloa pyramidalis Lamarck, Pennisetum setaceum Forsskål, and Zea mays L. pollen on larval survival and rate of development in An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. In addition, we characterize the carbon to nitrogen ratio and the size of pollen grains as a measure of diet quality. Carbon-rich pollen with a small grain size (T. latifolia and P. setaceum; 9.7 ± 0.3 × 103 and 5.5 ± 0.2 × 104 µm3, respectively) resulted in enhanced rates of development of An. arabiensis. In contrast, the larva fed on the nitrogen-rich control diet (TetraMin) was slower to develop, but demonstrated the highest larval survival. Larvae fed on carbon-rich and large-grained Z. mays pollen (4.1 ± 0.2 × 105 µm3) survived at similar levels as those fed on the control diet and also took a longer time to develop compared with larvae fed on the other pollens. While males and females did not appear to develop differently on the different pollen diets, males consistently emerged faster than their female counterparts. These results are discussed in relation to integrated vector management.

  5. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: a review of their biodiversity, distribution and medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Mohamed Lemine, Aichetou; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Hasni Ebou, Moina; Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ouldabdallahi Moukah, Mohamed; Ould Bouraya, Issa Nabiyoullahi; Brengues, Cecile; Trape, Jean-François; Basco, Leonardo; Bogreau, Hervé; Simard, Frédéric; Faye, Ousmane; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2017-01-19

    Although mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important disease vectors, information on their biodiversity in Mauritania is scarce and very dispersed in the literature. Data from the scientific literature gathered in the country from 1948 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Overall 51 culicid species comprising 17 Anopheles spp., 14 Aedes spp., 18 Culex spp. and two Mansonia spp. have been described in Mauritania among which Anopheles arabiensis, Aedes vexans, Culex poicilipes and Culex antennatus are of epidemiological significance. Anopheles arabiensis is widely distributed throughout the country and its geographic distribution has increased northwards in recent years, shifting its northern limit form 17°32'N in the 1960s to 18°47'N today. Its presence in the central region of Tagant highlights the great ecological plasticity of the species. Conversely, the distribution of Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and Anopheles melas has shrunk compared to that of the 1960s. Anopheles rhodesiensis and An. d'thali are mainly confined in the mountainous areas (alt. 200-700 m), whereas Anopheles pharoensis is widely distributed in the Senegal River basin. Culex poicilipes and Cx. antenattus were naturally found infected with Rift valley fever virus in central and northern Mauritania following the Rift valley outbreaks of 1998 and 2012. Recently, Ae. aegypti emerged in Nouakchott and is probably responsible for dengue fever episodes of 2015. This paper provides a concise and up-to-date overview of the existing literature on mosquito species known to occur in Mauritania and highlights areas where future studies should fill a gap in knowledge about vector biodiversity. It aims to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes particularly in the field of medical entomology to inform evidence-based decision-making for vector control and management strategies.

  6. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.

  7. Toxicity and Larvicidal Activity of Podophyllum-Based Lignans Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleck, Marise; Hollanda, Priscila de Oliveira; Serdeiro, Michele Teixeira; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araújo; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Silva, Cláudia Gontijo

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a mosquito species that has adapted to urban environments and is the main vector of dengue viruses. Because of the increasing incidence of dengue, a more environmentally acceptable insecticide needs to be found. Natural products have been and continue to be an important source of leading compounds that can be modified in order to develop new drugs. The lignan family of natural products includes compounds with a diverse spectrum of biological activity. Podophyllotoxin and its related lignans represent an exciting class of natural products that can be targeted at different types of biological activity and are therefore worth exploring further. This study had the aim of evaluating the larvicidal activity of an ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of Podophyllum hexandrum (PM-3) and its isolated lignans, podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2), on the larvae of the mosquito vector Ae. aegypti. The PM-3 extract and the compounds (1) and (2) were dissolved in a mixture of acetone and dimethylsulfoxide at final concentrations of 1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. After dilution, the solutions were applied (μg/ml) to the larvae-rearing medium. Overall, the ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of P. hexandrum and the compounds (1) and (2) showed larvicidal activity against the larvae of Ae. aegypti According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2) exhibited significant toxicity toward Ae. aegypti larvae. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lista das espécies de Culicidae (Diptera depositadas na Coleção de Entomologia Pe. J. S. Moure Species list of the Culicidae (Diptera deposited at the Entomological Collection "Pe. J. S. Moure"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Tissot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Coleção de Entomologia do Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP abriga cerca de 5.000.000 de exemplares de insetos. A coleção de Diptera está representada por aproximadamente 2.000.000 de exemplares, sendo Muscidae; Culicidae e Syrphidae as famílias mais representativas. A ordem Diptera possui cerca de 150.000 espécies descritas e a coleção conta com cerca de 103.000 exemplares representantes de 78 famílias. A lista das espécies pertencentes à família Culicidae conta com 9.579 exemplares, distribuídos em 2 subfamílias, 7 tribos, 17 gêneros, 26 subgêneros e 85 espécies. A maioria dos exemplares foi coletado em remanescentes de mata localizados em áreas urbanas e rurais, ambientes silvestres e urbanos de regiões litorâneas ou áreas urbanas pertencentes a diferentes cidades do Estado do Paraná, e algumas espécies incluídas foram capturadas nos Estados de São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina e no Distrito Federal. As informações específicas de cada exemplar, como local de coleta, latitude, longitude, coletor, data de coleta, método de coleta e nome do pesquisador que identificou, e também informações taxonômicas como ordem, tribo, gênero, subgênero e espécie, foram informatizados em um banco de dados.The Entomological Collection of Departamento de Zoologia of Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP accommodates about 5,000,000 insect specimens. The collection of Diptera is represented by approximately 2,000,000 specimens, being Muscidae, Culicidae and Syrphidae the most representative families. The Diptera order consists of approximately 150,000 described species and in the Collection about 103,000 specimens within 78 families are registered. The list of species of the family Culicidae presents 9,579 specimens within 2 subfamilies, 7 tribes, 17 genera, 26 subgenera and 85 species. Most specimens were captured in forest remnants in urban and rural areas, wild and urban environments in

  9. Characterisation of novel Bacillus thuringiensis isolates against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Jihen; Tounsi, Slim; Ben Hassen, Najeh Belguith; Lacoix, Marie Noël; Chandre, Fabrice; Jaoua, Samir; Zghal, Raida Zribi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is successfully used in pest management strategies as an eco-friendly bioinsecticide. Isolation and identification of new strains with a wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, new B. thuringiensis isolates were investigated to search for original strains active against diptera and able to produce novel toxins that could be used as an alternative for the commercial H14 strain. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed a remarkable diversity among the studied strains. Using the PCR method, cry4C/Da1, cry30Ea, cry39A, cry40 and cry54 genes were detected in four isolates. Three strains, BLB355, BLB196 and BUPM109, showed feeble activities against Aedes aegypti larvae. Interestingly, spore-crystal mixtures of BLB361, BLB30 and BLB237 were found to be active against Ceratitis capitata with an LC50 value of about 65.375, 51.735 and 42.972 μg cm(-2), respectively. All the studied strains exhibited important mortality levels using culture supernatants against C. capitata larvae. This suggests that these strains produce a wide range of soluble factors active against C. capitata larvae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Larvicidal activity of lipophilic extract of Hypericum carinatum (Clusiaceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and benzophenones determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Flavia Corvello; de Barros, Francisco Maikon Corrêa; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; da Silva, Onilda Santos; Pereira, Thiago Nunes; de Loreto Bordignon, Sérgio A; Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the larvicidal activity of an enriched fraction of the major lipophilic phenolic compounds from Hypericum carinatum Griseb. (Clusiaceae) was investigated against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of dengue virus in Brazil. The larval mortality rate ranged 37.33 to 72.00 % at concentrations of 66-200 μg/mL. The effect demonstrated to be dose-dependent. The lethal concentration 50 % and confidence interval were 100 and 88-111 μg/mL, respectively. The results could be attributed to the presence of cariphenone A and cariphenone B in concentrations of 1.24 ± 0.04 and 0.56 ± 0.01 %, respectively, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Besides, the results reinforce the potential of genus Hypericum as source of alternative insecticides.

  11. Larvicide and oviposition deterrent effects of fruit and leaf extracts from Melia azedarach L. on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, C; Almiron, W; Valladares, G; Carpinella, C; Ludueña, F; Defago, M; Palacios, S

    2008-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main urban vector of dengue, has developed resistance to various insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. We explored the effects of Argentine Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) fruit and senescent leaf extracts on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival, by rearing cohorts of first instar mosquitoes in water with different extract concentrations. We also analysed oviposition deterrent activity in choice tests with extract-treated ovitraps. The leaf extract showed a strong larvicide activity, with all larvae dying before pupation, and significantly delayed development time. It strongly inhibited oviposition by Ae. aegypti females. The fruit extract showed much weaker effects. This first report of highly effective larvicidal, growth regulating and oviposition deterrent activity of a senescent leaf extract of M. azedarach against Ae. aegypti, suggests that such extract could represent a promising tool in the management of this mosquito pest.

  12. Ecology, monitoring and mapping of insecticide resistance of malaria vector, Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae to different imagicides in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Vatandoost

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To work on bioecology and to monitor and map the insecticide resistance of malaria vector, Anopheles culicifacies (An. culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae in Iran. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected from different breeding places in Sistan and Baluchistan Province and then reread at insectary. F1 generation was used for susceptibility tests. All the impregnated papers were provided by World Health Organization (WHO and tests were carried out according to WHO guideline. Results: Results of adult susceptibility tests against female An. culicifecies revealed that this species was resistant to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, dieldrin, tolerated to bendiocarb, propoxur and deltamethrin and susceptible to other imagicides recommended by WHO. An. culicifecies was resistant to organochlorine insecticides and tolerant to organophosphae, carbamate and pyrethroids. Conclusions: Results of the ecology and susceptibility status of malaria vectors will help authorities to make decision for vector control. More biomedical assays was required to found the mechanisms of insecticide resistance.

  13. [A new technique for the study of thoracic sclerites of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) allowing correct identification of genera and species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalin, A V; Aĭbulatov, S V

    2012-01-01

    A new technique for the study of the external morphology of thoracic sclerites of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) is elaborated. According to this method, the shape of sclerites and the location of setal and scale bases can be examined under a scanning electron or an optical microscopes even in cases when setae or scales are lost. The method can be recommended for the damaged material, as it often happens while sample collecting. The bases of setae differ significantly from those of scales in the size of the orifice in the socket. The diameter of setal bases usually exceeds 100 microns, while the diameter of scale bases is about 30 microns. The analysis of the structure of sclerites (and the disposition of setae and scales on the sclerites) taken from the different specimens of one species will allow describing intraspecific variations of the given complex of morphological characters. The comparison of species from different genera of family Culicidae, as well as the comparison of closely related species, will presumably help evaluating the diagnostic value of thoracic sclerites as morphological characters.

  14. Cryptic Species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex: Incongruence Between Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction Identification and Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA COI Gene Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    SYSTEMATICS Cryptic Species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex: Incongruence Between Random Amplified...J.M.,O.Pellmyr, J.N.Thompson, andR.G.Harrison. 1994. Phylogeny of Greya ( Lepidoptera : Prodoxidae), based on nucleotide sequence variation in

  15. Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae: Pisces and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae: Pisces as predators of immature Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae and Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Two fish species, Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae were tested for predacious behavior toward immature mosquitoes (Aedes fluviatili9s, Diptera: Culicidae and schistosomiasis snail hosts (Biomphalaria glabrata, Mollusca: Planorbidae, in the presence or absence of non-living food and laboratory conditions. A. ocellatus, a species indigenous to Brazil, was a very efficient predator of both organisms (alpha=1,05; M. operculatis, an exotic species, preyed well on immature mosquitoes, but small snails and snail egg-masses were ingested only irregulary. Both fish species seemed to prefer live to non-living food.

  16. SITUACIÓN ACTUAL EN ESPAÑA Y ECO-EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LAS ARBOVIROSIS TRANSMITIDAS POR MOSQUITOS CULÍCIDOS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Bueno Marí; Ricardo Jiménez Peydró

    2010-01-01

    En el presente manuscrito se analiza la posible emergencia y/o reemergencia en España de algunas de las arbovirosis transmitidas por mosquitos culícidos (Diptera: Culicidae) de mayor incidencia a nivel mundial en los últimos años. Los datos faunísticos, bioecológicos y de distribución de los culícidos en nuestro país permiten discernir entre especies con capacidad de mantener la enzootia de algunas de estas arbovirosis de otras que pueden actuar como vectores puente de la virosis hasta el ser...

  17. Vector Competence of Argentine Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MICIELI, MARÍA V.; MATACCHIERO, AMY C.; MUTTIS, EVANGELINA; FONSECA, DINA M.; ALIOTA, MATTHEW T.; KRAMER, LAURA D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the ability of Culex pipiens L. complex mosquitoes from Argentina to vector West Nile virus (WNV) to assess their role in the transmission of WNV in South America. Several egg rafts of Culex spp. were collected from different breeding sites in the suburbs of the city of La Plata, Argentina, and a subset of each progeny was scored with morphological and genetic species indicators. Surprisingly, we did not find Cx. pipiens form pipiens, but found evidence of genetic hybrids of Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. We then used morphological traits to create two colonies predominantly composed of one of these two taxa, although some hybrids are likely to have been included in both. These colonies were used in vector competence studies using NY99 and WN02 genotype strains of WNV obtained in New York State. As controls, we also tested colonies of U.S. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. Additional Culex larvae from three drainage ditches near the cities of La Plata and Berisso, Argentina, were identified by morphological and high-resolution molecular markers (microsatellites) as Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, Cx. pipiens form molestus, and hybrids. Results indicate that Argentinian Culex are competent but only moderately efficient vectors of WNV and are less susceptible to this virus than comparable U.S. mosquito strains. Studies of vertical transmission of NY99 virus by Cx. pipiens f. molestus hybrids from Argentina yielded a minimal filial infection rate of 1.19 from females feeding during their second and later bloodmeals. PMID:23926785

  18. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Cantrell, Charles L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Duke, Stephen O; Schneider, John C; Agramonte, Natasha M; Khan, Ikhlas

    2012-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti (L), yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) using the K & Dbioassay module system. Saturated (C6:0 to C16:0 and C18:0) and unsaturated fatty acids (C11:1 to C14:1, C16:1, C18:1, and C18:2) showed biting deterrence index (BDI) values significantly greater than ethanol, the negative control. Among the saturated fatty acids, mid chain length acids (C10:0 to C13:0) showed higher biting deterrence than short (C6:0 to C9:0) and long chain length acids (C14:0 to C18:0), except for C8:0 and C16:0 that were more active than the other short and long chain acids. The BDI values of mid chain length acids (C10:0 to C13:0) were not significantly less than N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), the positive control. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, C11:1 showed the highest activity (BDI = 1.05) and C18:2 had the lowest activity (BDI = 0.7). In C11:1, C12:1, and C14:1 BDI values were not significantly less than DEET. After the preliminary observations, residual activity bioassays were performed on C11:0, C12:0, C11:1, and C12:1 over a 24-h period. All the fatty acids (C11:0, C12:0, C11:1, and C12:1) and DEET showed significantly higher activity at all test intervals than the solvent control. At treatment and 1-h posttreatment, all fatty acids showed proportion not biting (PNB) values not significantly less than DEET. At 3-, 6-, and 12-h posttreatment, all fatty acids showed PNB values significantly greater than DEET. At 24-h posttreatment, only the PNB value for C12:0 was significantly higher than DEET. The dose-responses of C12:0 and DEET were determined at concentrations of 5-25 nmol/cm2. As in the residual activity bioassays, the PNB values for C12:0 and DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) were not significantly different. However, at lower concentrations, the PNB values for C12:0 were significantly greater than DEET. These results clearly indicate that mid

  19. [English and Russian terminology for the thoracic skeletal structures of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae): a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalin, A V; Aĭbulatov, S V

    2013-01-01

    The authors analyze different names of thoracic skeletal structures in mosquitoes (Dip- tera: Culicidae), used by various authors (Kirkpatrick, 1925; Edwards, 1932; Stackelberg, 1937; Sazonova, 1958; Belkin, 1962a, b: Maslov, 1967: Gutsevich et al., 1970; Knight, Laffoon, 1970; McAlpine, 1981; Becker et al., 2010). In the abovementioned publications, a small number of skeletal structures, morphologically very important for the identification of species and genera of the family Culicidae, are denoted by multiple synonymic names, while certain completely different skeletal structures are represented under a single homonymous name. Duplicated synonymic names for thoracic sclerites, setae, and scales on sclerites considerably hamper the work of specialists determining species of the family Culicidae. In some cases, this fact results in erroneous diagnostics of species. We provide a detailed description of the thoracic morphology of mosquitoes, pointing to existing synonymic Russian and English names for each skeletal structure and also recommend the use of a single Russian term for each structure.

  20. The Cretaceous Fossil Burmaculex antiquus Confirmed as the Earliest Known Lineage of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkent, Art; Grimaldi, David A

    2016-01-01

    A second female of mid-Cretaceous Burmaculex antiquus Borkent & Grimaldi, preserved in 99 myo Burmese amber, and the oldest known member of the Culicidae, is described in detail. Although generally opaque and distorted, some character states are added or refined. The discovery of well-developed scales on the legs shows that this feature must now be considered a synapomorphy of both the fossil and all extant members of the family. Previously described synapomorphies and further interpretation here confirm the phylogenetic position of this fossil as the sister group to extant and all known fossil Culicidae. It is placed in the new subfamily Burmaculicinae.

  1. INVENTORY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN CONSERVATION UNITS IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY FORESTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cleandson Ferreira; Silva, Alex Chavier; Rodrigues, Raquel Andrade; de Jesus, Jamilli Sanndy Ramos; Borges, Magno Augusto Zazá

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, most studies of the Culicidae family are concentrated in rainforest regions. As such, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the diversity of Culicidae in regions with different climatic and vegetational characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of Culicidae in protected areas of the semi-arid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to better understand the diversity of the family within this region. The study was conducted across four protected areas in the northern region of the state, in tropical dry forest (TDF) fragments. Sampling methods included Shannon trap and CDC light trap, as well as active collection. A total of 11,219 mosquito specimens were collected between August 2008 and July 2012, belonging to 11 genera and 45 species; 15 new records for the state of Minas Gerais were registered, as well as 26 new records for semi-arid regions within the state. The high number of new Culicidae records in this region demonstrates the importance of inventory studies for increasing the knowledge of culicid biodiversity in Minas Gerais, and in particular within semi-arid regions of the state.

  2. INVENTORY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE IN CONSERVATION UNITS IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleandson Ferreira SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, most studies of the Culicidae family are concentrated in rainforest regions. As such, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the diversity of Culicidae in regions with different climatic and vegetational characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of Culicidae in protected areas of the semi-arid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to better understand the diversity of the family within this region. The study was conducted across four protected areas in the northern region of the state, in tropical dry forest (TDF fragments. Sampling methods included Shannon trap and CDC light trap, as well as active collection. A total of 11,219 mosquito specimens were collected between August 2008 and July 2012, belonging to 11 genera and 45 species; 15 new records for the state of Minas Gerais were registered, as well as 26 new records for semi-arid regions within the state. The high number of new Culicidae records in this region demonstrates the importance of inventory studies for increasing the knowledge of culicid biodiversity in Minas Gerais, and in particular within semi-arid regions of the state.

  3. Biological activity of selected Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant essential oils against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Murugesan, Arunachalam Ganesan

    2012-03-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Mentha piperita L. Ocimum basilicum L. Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber officinale L. were investigated against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).The results indicated that the mortality rates at 80, 100, 200 and 400 ppm of M. piperita, Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum concentrations were highest amongst all concentrations of the crude extracts tested against all the larval instars and pupae of A. aegypti. Result of log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed that lethal concentration LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 47.54 and 86.54 ppm for M. piperita, 40.5 and 85.53 ppm for Z. officinale, 115.6 and 193.3 ppm for C. longa and 148.5 and 325.7 ppm for O. basilicum, respectively. All of the tested oils proved to have strong larvicidal activity (doses from 5 to 350 ppm) against A. aegypti fourth instars, with the most potent oil being M. piperita extract, followed by Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum. In general, early instars were more susceptible than the late instars and pupae. The results achieved suggest that, in addition to their medicinal activities, Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant extracts may also serve as a natural larvicidal agent.

  4. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  5. Selection of insensitive acetylcholinesterase as a resistance mechanism in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Santiago de Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, Juan; Rodríguez, María M; Fernández, Ditter

    2006-11-01

    A sample of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) from Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, with a high level of propoxur resistance compared with the reference susceptible Rockefeller strain (12.60 x at the 50% lethal concentration [LC50] and 18.08 at the 90% lethal concentration [LC90]), with a 4.3% frequency of insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) frequency, was subjected to propoxur selection for 13 successive generations to increase the frequency of this resistance mechanism in Ae. aegypti. High resistance to propoxur was developed during this selection (41.73-fold), and the frequency of insensitive AChE mechanism was increased 13.25-fold. Other mechanisms (overproduced esterases, glutathione transferases, or monooxygenases) were not detected in the propoxur-selected strain. The selection of an insensitive AChE resistance mechanism in Ae. aegypti has important implications and will be a valuable resource for genetic studies and molecular characterization of the ace gene mutation(s) associated with insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti.

  6. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils from the Leaves and Fruits of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Carolina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the larvicidal activity of essential oil (EO extracted from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt leaves and fruits by steam distillation, and to analyze its chemical compounds. The EO yield of nutmeg leaves and fruits collected from the same tree was 0.66% and 0.30%, respectively. Larvicidal tests with the EO were carried out against Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae. The concentrations of nutmeg EO used for the larvicidal assay were 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/mL. The results showed that fruit oil was more toxic than the leaf oil. LC50 values of leaf and fruit EOs were 133.8 and 110.1 µg/mL, respectively. The chromatogram of GC-MS showed that the chemical components in nutmeg leaf and fruit EOs were dominated by α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, delta-3-carene, limonene, β-phellandrene, α-terpinolene, linalool, safrole, croweacin, and myristicin.

  7. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  8. Early history of laboratory breeding of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) focusing on the origins and use of selected strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Goro

    2010-11-01

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), is well recognized for its extensive adaptation to diverse ecological conditions and for genetic variation. Recognizing the importance of strain variation of this mosquito, researchers have established a large number of laboratory strains. Some of the popular strains have been used for research for years in many laboratories around the world. However, the exact origins of many of these strains are unknown. In this review, publications and archival records were examined to report the early laboratory mosquito rearing practices around the world and to identify the origins of selected strains. The records showed that inter-laboratory sharing of strains was already underway in the early part of the 20th century because of the ease of breeding Ae. aegypti and of sending eggs by mail. It also was found that the four strains established in major U.S. institutions by the mid-1930s, including the "ROCK" (short for Rockefeller) strain, had been derived from Cuba, Nigeria, Philippines, or Puerto Rico, all known for a long history of transmission of yellow fever virus or dengue virus rather than from North America. The strains used for research in Europe were primarily derived from West Africa, but strains of Asian, Caribbean, and South American origins also were used for comparative experiments among geographic strains. Neglected issues related to strain designation and original source identification in scientific publications were found and their relevance to current research is discussed.

  9. Processes affecting Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) infestation and abundance: inference through statistical modeling and risk maps in northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelli, F M; Espinosa, M O; Gürtler, R E

    2012-05-01

    Understanding the processes that affect Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) may serve as a starting point to create and/or improve vector control strategies. For this purpose, we performed statistical modeling of three entomological surveys conducted in Clorinda City, northern Argentina. Previous 'basic' models of presence or absence of larvae and/or pupae (infestation) and the number of pupae in infested containers (productivity), mainly based on physical characteristics of containers, were expanded to include variables selected a priori reflecting water use practices, vector-related context factors, the history of chemical control, and climate. Model selection was performed using Akaike's Information Criterion. In total, 5,431 water-holding containers were inspected and 12,369 Ae. aegypti pupae collected from 963 positive containers. Large tanks were the most productive container type. Variables reflecting every putative process considered, except for history of chemical control, were selected in the best models obtained for infestation and productivity. The associations found were very strong, particularly in the case of infestation. Water use practices and vector-related context factors were the most important ones, as evidenced by their impact on Akaike's Information Criterion scores of the infestation model. Risk maps based on empirical data and model predictions showed a heterogeneous distribution of entomological risk. An integrated vector control strategy is recommended, aiming at community participation for healthier water use practices and targeting large tanks for key elements such as lid status, water addition frequency and water use.

  10. Comparative account of energy reserves in four co-occurring mosquito species in Kolkata, India (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Sushree

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy reserves in mosquitoes are an indicator of fitness, linking larval effort in resource acquisition with adult survival and fecundity. In other words, life history strategies and disease transmission potential can be related to the amount of energy reserves. The energy reserves of four mosquitoes – Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae – were calculated to justify species-specific differences in their life history strategies. Following repeated sampling of pupae from the respective larval habitats, the glycogen, sugar and lipid contents of individual mosquitoes were assessed and corroborated with pupal weight and adult wing length. Discriminant function analysis was used to acquire an initial reflection of the differences of the parameters among the sex and species of the mosquitoes considered in the study. Using logistic regression and ANOVA, the effects of species and sex as contributors to variations in energy reserves could be established. The results indicated that for all the mosquitoes, sex-specific differences were prominent with reference to the energy reserves. Species-specific differences in energy reserves reflect differences in resource acquisition and assimilation in the tissues, and thus the differences in the life history strategies of these four species.

  11. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  12. Evaluation of four sampling techniques for surveillance of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoes in African rice agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muriu, Simon; Jacob, Benjamin; Mbogo, Charles M; John, Githure; Novak, Robert

    2007-05-01

    Field studies were conducted in a rice, Oryza sativa L., agroecosystem in Mwea Kenya to compare the efficiency of CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps against nonbaited CDC light traps and gravid traps against oviposition traps in outdoor collection of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoes. Collectively, 21 mosquito species from the genera Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia, Ficalbia, and Aedes were captured during the 10-wk study period. Cx. quinquefasciatus was the predominant species in all trap types with proportions ranging from 57% in the nonbaited CDC light traps to 95% in the gravid traps. Significantly higher numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Culex annulioris Theobald were collected in the CO2-baited CDC light traps than in the nonbaited CDC light traps, but the numbers of other mosquito species, including malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Anopheles funestus Giles did not differ significantly between the two trap types. More Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected in grass infusion-baited gravid traps than egg rafts of this species in oviposition traps containing the same infusion. Although most mosquitoes captured in CO,-baited and nonbaited CDC light traps were unfed, most of those collected in gravid traps were gravid. From these findings, it is concluded that at least in the rice-growing area of Mwea Kenya, CO2-baited CDC light traps in conjunction with gravid traps can be used in monitoring of Cx. quinquefasciatus both for control and disease surveillance.

  13. Larvicidal and repellent activity of tetradecanoic acid againstAedes aegypti (Linn.) andCulex quinquefasciatus (Say.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivakumar R; Jebanesan A; Govindarajan M; Rajasekar P

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and repellent efficacy of tetradecanoic acid against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. andCulex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say (Diptera: Culicidae).Methods: Larvicidal efficacy of tetradecanoic acid was tested at various concentrations against the early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatus. The repellent activity was determined against two mosquito species at three concentrations viz.,1.0,2.5 and5.0 ppm under the laboratory conditions.Results: The tetradecanoic acid was found to be more effective againstCx. quinquefasciatus thanAe. aegypti larvae. TheLC50values were14.08 ppm and25.10 ppm, respectively. Tetradecanoic acid showed lesser repellency againstAe. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatus. The highest repellency was observed in higher concentration of5.0 mg/cm2provided100% protection up to60 and 90 min againstAe. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatusrespectively.Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the tetradecanoic acid is a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus andAe. aegypti mosquitoes.

  14. Odonate Nymphs: Generalist Predators and Their Potential in the Management of Dengue Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Waseem; Ali-Khan, Hafiz Azhar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was evaluated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter. Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (Podonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05). Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56) followed by A. parthenope (n=47) and B. geminate (n=46). The number of larvae consumed was decreased with increasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume. Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages. PMID:27308283

  15. Application Site and Mosquito Age Influences Malathion- and Permethrin-Induced Mortality in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert L; Kaufman, Phillip E; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Gezan, Salvador A; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2017-09-06

    Concentrations of malathion and permethrin typical in droplets generated from ultra-low-volume and low-volume applications used to control mosquito populations were evaluated for efficacy against multiple-aged Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), using a topical bioassay. Although insecticide droplets will impinge on many exoskeletal body regions and a range of ages of mosquitoes in a population, traditional mosquito topical bioassays focus pesticide application to the mesothoracic pleural or dorsal regions across an average mosquito age (e.g., 3-7 d). Our results document nonuniform insecticide sensitivity across body regions at ages not previously assessed in mosquitoes (teneral and 14-d old). We expect our findings to influence the topical bioassay process, illustrating the difference in mosquito body regions and ages that ultimately may explain insecticide effectiveness wherever droplets impinge upon the mosquito body during field control applications. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Odonate Nymphs: Generalist Predators and their Potential in the Management of Dengue Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the den­gue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was eval­uated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter.Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (P< 0.01. However, the interaction between odonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05. Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56 followed by A. parthenope (n=47 and B. geminate (n=46. The number of larvae consumed was decreased with in­creasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume.Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages. 

  17. Temporal Patterns of Abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Ngoagouni, Carine; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Christophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR), where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were the most heavily colonized productive larval habitats for both species in both seasons. The invasive species Ae. albopictus predominated over the resident species at all sites in which the two species were sympatric. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus in CAR. Phylogeographical analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that the Ae. albopictus haplotype in the CAR population segregated into two lineages, suggesting multiple sources of Ae. albopictus. These data may have important implications for vector control strategies in central Africa. PMID:24349596

  18. Temporal patterns of abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Kamgang

    Full Text Available The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR, where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were the most heavily colonized productive larval habitats for both species in both seasons. The invasive species Ae. albopictus predominated over the resident species at all sites in which the two species were sympatric. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus in CAR. Phylogeographical analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that the Ae. albopictus haplotype in the CAR population segregated into two lineages, suggesting multiple sources of Ae. albopictus. These data may have important implications for vector control strategies in central Africa.

  19. Filamentous fungi associated with mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eleny da S; Sarquis, Maria I de M; Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth Leila; Neusa Hamada; Alencar, Yamile B

    2009-01-01

    Algumas espécies da família Culicidae são importantes vetores de doenças em humanos e em outros animais. Estágios imaturos são filtradores não seletivos de partículas orgânicas e microrganismos. Estudos da diversidade microbiológica podem contribuir para a descoberta de novas substâncias que podem ser usadas em indústrias farmacêuticas, para alimentação ou para controle biológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar e identificar os fungos associados a larvas de Culicidae encontradas em difere...

  20. Influência de diversos derivados de vegetais na sobrevida das larvas de Aedes fluviatilis(Lutz (Diptera: Culicidade em laboratorio Larvicidal properties of plant extracts against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades larvicidas de 34 extratos, provenientes de 29 vegetais, foram testados em larvas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae nas concentrações de 100, 10 e 1 ppm. 26,5% dos exames utilizados, reduziram significamente a sobrevida larvária (alfa = 0,05, quando empregados na concentração de 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata e Vernonia salzmanni. O ácido anacárdio (A. occidentale mostrou-se larvicida na concentração de 10 ppm e o extrato bruto de A. sativum foi eficaz contra as larvas na concentração de 1 ppm.The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26,6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (x = 0,05 at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina serobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni. Anacardic acid (A. occidentale was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract at 1 ppm.

  1. Pictorial Keys for the Identification of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Associated With Dengue Virus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-03

    mediovittatus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 39, 218–222. Gubler, D.J. (1997) Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever: its history and...Culicidae). Insecta Koreana, 19(1), 1–130. © 2004 Magnolia Press 9KEY TO MOSQUITOES 589...virus in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, and implication of Aedes hensilli as an epidemic vector. American Journal of Tropical Medicine

  2. Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae inhabiting foliar tanks of Guzmania brasiliensis Ule (Bromeliaceae in central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlene Roberta da Silva Torreias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes in the family Culicidae develop their immature forms in different environments depending on various circumstances. This study represents the first contribution to the ecological knowledge of culicids living in the bromeliad G. brasiliensis. The objectives of the study were to compare the Culicidae fauna of bromeliads in two seasonal periods, analyzing their abundance, richness and the influence of pH, conductivity and water volume, on the populations. Sampling was done at Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil between 2003 and 2005. Six samplings were done in the rainy season and six in the dry season. On each sampling day, six terrestrial and six epiphytic bromeliads, totaling 144 sampling units, were retrieved. A total of 444 immature mosquitoes were collected, distributed in the following species: Culex (Microculex stonei Lane & Whitman, Culex (Microculex chryselatus Dyar & Knab, Culex (Microculex sp., Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia autocratica Dyar & Knab and Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia splendida Bonne-Wepster & Bonne. The relationship between abundance of Culicidae and sampling period was not significant, although abundance was higher in the dry period. There were significant correlations between water volume and the abundance (p = 0.003 and richness (p = 0.001 of culicids. The pH was positively related to the occurrence of the species Wy. autocratica (p= 0.010 and Wy. splendida (p= 0.006, demonstrating the influence of this factor in the structuring of bromeliad-inhabiting communities.

  3. Frequency tuning of individual auditory receptors in female mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshin, D N; Vorontsov, D D

    2013-08-01

    The acoustic sensory organs in mosquitoes (Johnston organs) have been thoroughly studied; yet, to date, no data are available on the individual tuning properties of the numerous receptors that convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals. All previous measurements of frequency tuning in mosquitoes have been based on the acoustically evoked field potentials recorded from the entire Johnston organ. Here, we present evidence that individual receptors have various frequency tunings and that differently tuned receptors are unequally represented within the Johnston organ. We devised a positive feedback stimulation paradigm as a new and effective approach to test individual receptor properties. Alongside the glass microelectrode technique, the positive feedback stimulation paradigm has allowed us to obtain data on receptor tuning in females from three mosquito species: Anopheles messeae, Aedes excrucians and Culex pipiens pipiens. The existence of individually tuned auditory receptors implies that frequency analysis in mosquitoes may be possible.

  4. [BLOODSUCKING MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN, THE TULA REGION ARE POTENTIAL VECTORS OF DIROFILARIAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V

    2015-01-01

    Bloodsucking mosquitoes were collected in Tula and its Region in May to August 2013-2014. The fauna included 17 species from 5 genera in the subfamily Culicinae and Anopheles maculipennis complex in the subsystem Anophelinae. Ochlerotatus cantans was a dominant species in the collections. The dominant species also included Aedes einereus, Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. diantaeus, Och. intrudens, Och. Cataphylla, and Culex pipiens. The possible value of different mosquito species Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis as vectors of dirofilarasis was discussed.

  5. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48%) were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae (An. sinensis), 6636 (91.14%) as culicine larvae (Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 213 (2.93%) as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45%) as Aedes larvae (Aedes albopictus). In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs.

  6. Species Composition and Seasonal Distribution of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern New Jersey, Burlington County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    A total of 36,495 larvae consisting of 45 species from 11 genera were collected from 7,189 sites from southern New Jersey, Burlington County between the months of March and October, 2001-2014. Density and seasonal distribution were determined among natural and artificial habitat. The most dominant species collected from natural habitat was Aedes vexans (Meigen) followed by Ochlerotatus canadensis canadensis (Theobald), Culex restuans Theobald, Culex pipiens L., and Culex territans Walker. The most dominant species collected from artificial habitat was Aedes albopictus (Skuse) followed by Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald), Cx. restuans, Cx. pipiens, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens were the only species categorized as dominant among both natural and artificial habitat and comprised greater than half the total density. Sympatry was common among dominant species from artificial habitat where a significant percentage of the total collection contained multiple species. The most common types of natural habitats were forested depressions and stream flood plains whereas rimless vehicle tires and various plastic containers were the most common artificial habitats. The pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea L. was the only habitat exclusive to one species. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  8. The Influence of Ambient Temperature on the Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to the Pyrethroid Insecticide Permethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Shavonn R; Peterson, Robert K D

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides are the most common strategy used for the management of mosquitoes. Changes in ambient temperature can alter the toxicity of insecticides to ectothermic organisms. Studies show organophosphate insecticides exhibit a positive correlation between ambient temperature and mortality for many insect species, and carbamate insecticides exhibit a slightly negative correlation between ambient temperature and mortality. Pyrethroid insecticides exhibit a distinctly negative correlation between increasing ambient temperature and mortality for insects. However, this relationship has not been systematically studied for adult mosquitoes. Therefore, we examined the influence of temperature on the susceptibility of adult Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) when exposed to permethrin. The median lethal concentration, LC50, was estimated for adult Ae. aegypti when exposed to eight concentrations of permethrin (ranging from 0.06–0.58 ng/cm2) at each of the following temperatures—16, 23, 26, 30, 32, and 34C—for 24 h in bottle assays. The estimated LC50 for each temperature was 0.26, 0.36, 0.36, 0.45, 0.27, and 0.31 ng/cm2, respectively. Results indicated a negative correlation between temperature and mortality from 16 to 30C, a positive correlation between temperature and mortality from 30 to 32C, and a negative correlation between temperature and mortality from 32 to 34C. If mosquito populations are expanding in space and time because of increased ambient temperatures and cannot be managed as effectively with pyrethroids, the spread of mosquito-borne diseases may pose considerable additional risk to public health.

  9. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC 50 and LC 90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  10. Bioefficacy of Morinda tinctoria and Pongamia glabra plant extracts against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amerasan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labour outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the larvicidal, adulticidal and ovicidal activity of dried leaf chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, aqueous, and methanol extracts of Morinda tinctoria and Pongamia glabra against larvae of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found with the leaf methanol extracts of M. tinctoria and P. glabra against the larvae of A. stephensi lethal concentration (LC50=136.24 and 141.05 ppm; LC90=342.67 and 368.89 ppm, respectively. The results of the adulticidal activity assays of chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, aqueous, and methanol extracts of M. tinctoria and P. glabra showed significant mortality against larvae of A. stephensi. The methanol extract showed maximum activity compared with the other extracts. The greatest effect on mean percentage hatch in the ovicidal assays was observed 48 h post-treatment. Percent hatch was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract, and directly proportional to the number of eggs. A mortality of 100% was observed with 100-400 ppm methanol extracts and 200-400 ppm aqueous extracts of M. tinctoria, and 200-400 ppm aqueous and methanol extracts of P. glabra. This study provides the first report of the larvicidal, adulticidal and ovicidal activities of M. tinctoria and P. glabra plant extracts against the malaria vector, A. stephensi, representing an ideal eco-friendly approach for its control.

  11. Biochemical studies of insecticide resistance in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethuan, S; Jirakanjanakit, N; Saengtharatip, S; Chareonviriyaphap, T; Kaewpa, D; Rongnoparut, P

    2007-06-01

    Biochemical analysis was performed on field caught Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes to determine activities of enzymes including mixed function oxidases (MFO), nonspecific esterases (alpha- and beta-), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Biochemical tests were performed on F1 generation of Ae. aegypti field caught mosquitoes, while in Ae. albopictus F2 progenies were used. Twenty-six samples of Ae. aegypti mosquito were collected from areas across different parts of Thailand including Bangkok (central), and the provinces of Chiang Rai (north), Nakhon Sawan (north-central), Nakhon Ratchasrima (northeast), Chonburi (east), Chanthaburi (east), and Songkhla (south). Eight wild caught samples of Ae. albopictus were from Songkhla, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Ratchasrima and Kanchanaburi (west) provinces. The susceptibility to pyrethroids (deltamethrin, permethrin), organophosphate (fenitrothion) and carbamate (propoxur) insecticides were revealed in these samples. The biochemical test results were compared with those of the susceptible Bora (French Polynesia) strain. There was significant enhancement of MFO in pyrethroid resistant Ae. aegypti samples, except those from Songkhla and Hauykwang district in Bangkok. Biochemical assay results suggested that nonspecific esterases conferred fenitrothion resistance in Ae. aegypti in Nakhon Sawan, while insensitive AChE and/or nonspecific esterases could play role in fenitrothion resistance in Nakhon Ratchasrima. There was no consistent association of GST with pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti. Low enzyme activities found in Ae. aegypti in Songkhla and in Ae. albopictus corresponded to their insecticide susceptibility status. The increased enzyme activity in field samples reflecting local history of insecticide employment was discussed.

  12. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yu Tong; Smallegange, Renate C; Ter, Braak Cajo J F; Spitzen, Jeroen; Van Loon, Joop J A; Jawara, Musa; Milligan, Paul; Galimard, Agnes M; Van Beek, Teris A; Knols, Bart G J; Takken, Willem

    2007-11-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to which carbon dioxide (CO2) was added were tested in four sets of experiments. In a second series of experiments, MM-X traps with 14 odor blends without CO2 were tested. A blend of ammonia and L-lactic acid with or without CO2 was used as control odor in series 1 and 2, respectively. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps were placed in a traditional house and an experimental house to monitor mosquito densities during the experiments. The MM-X traps caught a total number of 196,756 mosquitoes, with the most abundant species belonging to the genera Mansonia (70.6%), Anopheles (17.5%), and Culex (11.5%). The most abundant mosquito species caught by the CDC traps (56,290 in total) belonged to the genera Mansonia (59.4%), Anopheles (16.0% An. gambiae s.l. Giles, and 11.3% An. ziemanni Grünberg), and Culex (11.6%). MM-X traps baited with synthetic blends were in many cases more attractive than MM-X traps baited with human odors. Addition of CO2 to synthetic odors substantially increased the catch of all mosquito species in the MM-X traps. A blend of ammonia + L-lactic acid + CO, + 3-methylbutanoic acid was the most attractive odor for most mosquito species. The candidate odor blend shows the potential to enhance trap collections so that traps will provide better surveillance and possible control.

  13. Comparison of the effects of extracts from three Vitex plant species on Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamoita, Mokua G; Ester, Innocent; Zakaria, Mbwambo H; Wilber, Lwande; Bwire, Ochola J; Ahmed, Hassanali

    2013-09-01

    Acetone and methanol extracts of different parts of three Vitex species (leaves and stem bark of Vitex trifolia, leaves, stem bark and root bark of Vitex schiliebenii and stem and root bark of Vitex payos) were evaluated for their potential to control Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). The extracts gave different levels and rate of mortality of the larvae. Some (methanol extract of V. trifolia leaves, acetone extracts of stem bark and leaves of V. schiliebenii, acetone extract of root bark of V. payos) caused 100% mortality at 100 ppm in 72 h, with those of V. schiliebenii and V. payos showing faster rate of mortality (LT₅₀=8 h) than that of V. trifolia (LT₅₀=14 h). At lower doses of these extracts (≤50 ppm), most of the larvae failed to transform to normal pupae but gave larval-pupal intermediates between 4 and 14 days of exposure. Some pupated normally but the adults that emerged appeared to be weak and died within 48 h. Extracts of the stem bark of V. payos showed interesting effects on the larvae. Initially, the larvae were relatively hyperactive compared to those in control treatments. Later, the ones that did not transform to larval-pupal intermediates became stretched and inactive and died and floated in clusters on the surface. These observations suggest some interesting growth-disrupting constituents in the plants, with possible application in the practical control of mosquito larvae in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Histopathological effects of Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) on larvae of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawin, Thomas; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Ndiaye, Mady; Compere, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) was previously found to be an opportunistic pathogen of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, the mechanism leading to its insecticidal activity was investigated regarding histological damages on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to A. clavatus spores. Multiple concentration assays using spore suspensions (0.5-2.5 × 10(8) spores ml(-1)) revealed 17.0-74.3 % corrected mortalities after 48 h exposure. Heat-deactivated spores induced a lower mortality compared to nonheated spores suggesting that insecticidal effects are actively exerted. Spore-treated and untreated larvae were prepared for light microscopy as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Spores failed to adhere to the external body surface (except the mouth parts) of these aquatic immature stages but progressively filled the digestive tract where their metabolism seemed to activate. In parallel, the internal tissues of the larvae, i.e. the midgut wall, the skeletal muscles, and the cuticle-secreting epidermis, were progressively destroyed between 8 and 24 h of exposure. These observations suggest that toxins secreted by active germinating spores of A. clavatus in the digestive tract altered the larval tissues, leading to their necrosis and causing larval death. Fungal proliferation and sporulation then occurred during a saprophytic phase. A. clavatus enzymes or toxins responsible for these pathogenic effects need to be identified in further studies before any use of this fungus in mosquito control. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Culex pipiens s.l. and Culex torrentium (Culicidae) in Wrocław area (Poland): occurrence and breeding site preferences of mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Thomas; Jawień, Piotr; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Lonc, Elzbieta; Becker, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Both ornithophilic mosquito species, Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) and Culex torrentium (Martini, 1925), occur sympatric in temperate Europe. They are presumed to be primary vectors of West Nile and Sindbis viruses. Differentiation of these morphologically similar Culex species is essential for evaluation of different vector roles, for mosquito surveillance and integrated control strategies. Cx. torrentium has been neglected or erroneously determined as Cx. pipiens s.l. in some previous studies, because only males of both species can be diagnosed reliably by morphology. Thus, knowledge about species abundance, geographical distribution, breeding site preferences and the zoonotic risk assessment is incomplete also in Poland. In Wrocław area (Silesian Lowland), besides typical urban breeding sites, huge sewage irrigation fields provide suitable breeding conditions for Culex species. They are also inhabited by 180 resident and migratory bird species serving as potential virus reservoirs. In this study, morphology of larvae and males as well as species diagnostic enzyme markers, namely adenylate kinase (AK) and 2-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), were used to discriminate Cx. pipiens s.l. and Cx. torrentium. In a total of 650 Culex larvae from 24 natural and artificial breeding sites, Cx. pipiens s.l. had a proportion of 94.0% and Cx. torrentium only 6.0%. It could be shown that both species are well adapted to various breeding site types like ditches, catch basins, flower pots and buckets with diverse water quality. Cx. torrentium preferred more artificial water containers in urban surrounding (12% species proportion), whereas in semi-natural breeding sites, Cx. torrentium was rare (3%). In 12 of 24 breeding sites, larvae of both species have been found associated.

  16. Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de los parques naturales de la Comunidad Valenciana

    OpenAIRE

    Bernués Bañeres, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    La familia Culicidae incluye algunas de las especies de dípteros más relevantes en el ámbito de la Salud Pública, no solo por las molestias que son capaces de causar debido a su tipo de alimentación hematófaga, sino por su capacidad para actuar como vectores de enfermedades de afección humana. Por este motivo, los mosquitos han sido, desde siempre, una de las dianas predilectas en los programas de control establecidos para la regulación de sus poblaciones y, por tanto, como medida profiláctic...

  17. [Assemblages of bloodsucking mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in water bodies of the northern Kulunda steppe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevich, O É; Iurchenko, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    The population structure of bloodsucking mosquito larvae in temporary and constant water bodies of the northern Kulunda steppe was investigated. The seasonal dynamics of the population density, the number of species in different types of reservoirs, and average density of each species are given. The productivity of water reservoirs in relation to mosquitoes of the family Culicidae is analyzed. The basic factors affecting the distribution of larvae of dominant species between different water bodies were revealed. The degree of correlation between the structure of bloodsucking mosquito larva assemblages and the type of the reservoir was established.

  18. Morphological, Molecular, and Chromosomal Discrimination of Cryptic Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) (Diptera: Culicidae) from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Elliott, R 1968. Studies on man-vector contact in some ma- larious areas in Colombia. Bull. WHO 38: 239-253. Falleroni, D. 1926. Fauna anofelica italiana ...Presencia de1 A. (N.) darlingi (Diptera: Cu- licidae), en alrededores de la ciudad de Iquitos Loreto- Peru. Bol. Sot. Per. Enf. Inf. Trop. 5: 10-12

  19. Especificidade da armadilha Adultrap para capturar fêmeas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae Specificity of the Adultrap for capturing females of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A Adultrap é uma nova armadilha feita para capturar fêmeas de Aedes aegypti. Foram realizados testes para avaliar sua especificidade tendo como referência a técnica da aspiração da espécie em abrigos artificiais. A Adultrap ficou exposta por 24 horas no intradomicílio e peridomicílio de 120 casas sorteadas em dois bairros da Cidade de Foz do Iguaçu, Estado do Paraná. O teste estatístico foi o modelo log-linear de Poisson. O resultado foi a captura de 726 mosquitos Culicidae, dos quais 80 eram Aedes aegypti. A Adultrap capturou apenas fêmeas desta espécie, enquanto o aspirador os dois sexos de Aedes aegypti e mais cinco outras espécies. A Adultrap capturou Aedes aegypti dentro e fora das casas, mas a análise indicou que no peridomicílio a armadilha capturou significantemente mais fêmeas do que a aspiração. Também, ficou evidenciada a sensibilidade da Adultrap para detectar Aedes aegypti em situação de baixa freqüência.The Adultrap is a new trap built for capturing females of Aedes aegypti. Tests were carried out to evaluate the specificity of this trap in comparison with the technique of aspiration of specimens in artificial shelters. Adultraps were kept for 24 hours inside and outside 120 randomly selected homes in two districts of the city of Foz do Iguaçú, State of Paraná. The statistical test was Poisson’s log-linear model. The result was 726 mosquitoes captured, of which 80 were Aedes aegypti. The Adultrap captured only females of this species, while the aspiration method captured both sexes of Aedes aegypti and another five species. The Adultrap captured Aedes aegypti inside and outside the homes, but the analysis indicated that, outside the homes, this trap captured significantly more females than aspiration did. The sensitivity of the Adultrap for detecting females of Aedes aegypti in low-frequency situations was also demonstrated.

  20. Socioeconomic status affects mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitat type availability and infestation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Zara; Ladeau, Shannon L; Armbruster, Peter; Biehler, Dawn; Leisnham, Paul T

    2013-07-01

    Mosquito populations are largely regulated by processes occurring at the larval stage. We sampled mosquito larval microhabitats (mostly water-holding containers) in six neighborhoods in the Washington, DC, area that varied in socioeconomic status (SES) and housing structure (row houses vs. stand-alone houses) to test associations among these neighborhood characteristics, microhabitat abundance and parameters, and mosquito occurrence and densities. Thirty-four percent (33.9%) of sampled microhabitats contained mosquito larvae, and 93.1% of larvae were Aedes albopictus Skuse or Culex pipiens L. Five specific container types (drains, corrugated flexible drainpipes, planters, garbage cans, and buckets) accounted for the majority of water-holding (56.0%) and mosquito-positive (50.6%) microhabitats sampled. We found no associations between SES or housing structure with total microhabitat abundance per yard, mosquito occurrence or mosquito densities per microhabitat. In contrast, container purpose varied with SES, with low SES neighborhoods having greater numbers of disused containers and lower numbers of functional containers than low and medium SES neighborhoods. Ae. albopictus were 83% more abundant in disused containers, whereas Cx. pipiens were more abundant in structural and functional containers, possibly owing to species-specific oviposition and development related to water quality. Ae. albopictus densities increased over the summer, whereas Cx. pipiens densities remained constant. Ae. albopictus is usually the dominant pest in urban areas in the eastern United States; therefore, integrated mosquito management programs should incorporate the elimination of disused containers to reduce its infestation and adult production, especially in low SES neighborhoods where they occur most frequently.

  1. [INFECTION OF BLOOD-SUCKING MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) WITH DIROFILARIAE (SPIRURIDA, ONCHOCERCIDAE) IN THE TULA REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Blood-sucking mosquitoes (n = 2277) collected in Tula and its Region in 2013-2014 were examined using a PCR assay for dirofilariae. A total of 12 species from 4 genera (Culiseta, Aedes, Ochlerotatus [foreign character] Culex) out of 18 found mosquito species were infected with Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. The proportion of the infected mosquitoes was 2.5% (D. immitis, 1.5%; D.repens, 1%). According to preliminary data, the most efficient Dirofilaria vectors, in the Tula Region may be Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. cantans, and Cx. pipiens.

  2. [Mosquito fauna (Diptera:Culicidae) from Falcon State, Venezuela. I. New records and current checklist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, J C; Bastidas, R J; Zavala, Y

    1994-01-01

    A total of 16 new species records of Culicidae from Falcon State was collected at the "Juan Crisostomo Falcon National Park" (Sierra de San Luis), Natural Monument "Cerro Santa Ana", Coro, and La Vela. Species of Sabethini, Culicini and Toxorhynchitini Tribes were found in natural breeding sites (Phytotelmata), with special occurrence in plants belonging to Tillandsia, Vriesea, Guzmania, Aechmea (Bromelianceae), Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), Calathea (Marantaceae) and Colocasia (Araceae). Aedini and Mansonini were collected only as adults. A specie of Culex (Carrollia) was collected from an artificial container. The Culicidae species belong to 6 genera out of the 23 genera reported from Venezuela (Culex, Wyeomyia, Johnbelkinia, Aedes, Psorophora, Mansonia and Coquillettidia) and to 5 Tribes out of the 9 present in the country. The Aedini, Sabethini and Culicini Tribes were richer in species with 5, 4 and 4 species, respectively, than the Mansonini (2 species) and Toxorhynchitini (1 species) Tribes. We discuss some bioecological aspects regarding the 16 new-species records in Falcon State and give a checklist of the mosquito species previously reported in the literature.

  3. Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes of the Genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae in Guilan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Azari-Hamidian

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during April to December 2000 to study mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Prov¬ince of northern Iran. The mosquito larvae were collected by dipping method and larval habitat characteristics recorded ac¬cording to hydro-ecological features. In total, 3937 larvae of the genus Culex from 92 larval breeding sites were collected. Six spe¬cies of the genus Culex; Cx. mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. hortensis, and Cx. terri¬tans were identified in the province and respectively comprised 10.3%, 47.2%, 2.2%, 31%, 6.5%, and 2.8% of the samples. Most of the larvae were collected from the natural habitats (75.6% such as river edges (6.5%, riverbed pools (28.2%, rain pools (47.8%, stream edges (9.4%, grasslands (1.9%, marshes (2.8%, and hoof-prints (3.4% and others from artificial habitats (24.4% including rice fields (32.1%, irrigation channels (7.1%, wells (16.4%, discarded concrete tubes (33.1%, dis¬carded tires (11.0%, and agricultural water-storage pools (0.3%. The ecology of Cx. pipiens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, which are the most prevalent species and potentially involved in the transmission of many pathogens to humans and domes¬ticated animals, must be extensively studied.

  4. Vector competence of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Dohm, D J; Jones, J W

    2001-03-01

    We evaluated the potential for several North American mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced West Nile (WN) virus. Mosquitoes collected in the New York City metropolitan area during the recent WN virus outbreak, at the Assateague Island Wildlife Refuge, VA, or from established colonies were allowed to feed on chickens infected with WN virus isolated from a crow that died during the 1999 outbreak. These mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 wk later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus (Theobald) were highly susceptible to infection, and nearly all individuals with a disseminated infection transmitted virus by bite. Culex pipiens L. and Aedes sollicitans (Walker) were moderately susceptible. In contrast, Aedes vexans (Meigen), Aedes aegypti (L.), and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) were relatively refractory to infection, but individual mosquitoes inoculated with WN virus did transmit virus by bite. Infected female Cx. pipiens transmitted WN virus to one of 1,618 F1 progeny, indicating the potential for vertical transmission of this virus. In addition to laboratory vector competence, host-feeding preferences, relative abundance, and season of activity also determine the role that these species could play in transmitting WN virus.

  5. Ecology of Anopheline (Diptera, Culicidae, malaria vectors around the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil: 1 - Frequency and climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    Full Text Available The ecology of anopheline species (Diptera, Culicidae was studied in the vicinity of the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil. Climatic factors and frequency of anopheline populations were analyzed. Bimonthly human-bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted for 36 consecutive months (January 1997 through December 1999. A total of 5,205 adult anophelines belonging to five species were collected. Anopheles darlingi was the most frequently collected anopheline (61.4%, followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (35.4%, An. triannulatus. (2.5%, An. oswaldoi (0.4%, and An. evansae (0.2%. The water level and vegetation along the banks of the reservoir were crucial to the frequency of the various anopheline species. Climatic factors had a secondary influence. The reservoir's water-level stability, increased frequency of An. darlingi, and the arrival of gold prospectors were responsible for the increase in malaria cases.

  6. Morphological changes in the midgut of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae following exposure to an Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M S; Pinheiro, D O; Serrão, J E; Pereira, M J B

    2012-08-01

    Bioinsecticides are important in the control of disease vectors, but data regarding their physiological effects on target insects are incomplete. This study describes morphological changes that occur in the midgut of third instar Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) following treatment with a methanolic extract of Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae). Dissected midguts were subdivided into anterior and posterior regions and analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. Insects exposed to the extract displayed intense, destructive cytoplasmic vacuolization in columnar and regenerative midgut cells. The apical surfaces of columnar cells exhibited cytoplasmic protrusions oriented toward the lumen, suggesting that these cells could be involved in apocrine secretory processes and/or apoptosis. We report that A. coriacea extracts induced morphological alterations in the midgut of A. aegypti midgut larvae, supporting the use of plant extracts for control of the dengue vector.

  7. Primeiro registro do gênero Toxorhynchites Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae em Mata Atlântica, Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simões Albeny

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante os meses de março e abril de 2007 foi verificada a presença do gênero Toxorhynchites (Diptera, Culicidae em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. No experimento foram utilizadas 500 armadilhas de oviposição. Registrando-se, pela primeira vez na região de Viçosa o gênero Toxorhynchites, sendo as espécies T. pusillus (Costa Lima, 193 1 e T. theobaldi (Dyar & Knab, 1906 encontradas pela primeira vez no Estado de Minas Gerais. As espécies relatadas como primeiro registro e sua distribuição são citadas e discutidas.

  8. Bothaella manhi, a new species of tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Cuc Phuong National Park of Vietnam based on morphology and DNA sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    COOK, SHELLEY; LIEN, NGO GIANG; MCALISTER, ERICA; HARBACH, RALPH E.

    2012-01-01

    A new species of genus Bothaella (Diptera: Culicidae) collected along with two other species of the genus during surveys for flavivirus isolations in the Cuc Phuong National Park in northern Vietnam is formally described and named as Bothaella manhi, sp. n. The adults, pupa and fourth-instar larva are characterized, the male genitalia and the two immature stages are illustrated and DNA sequence data are included for regions coding for sections of the COI and COII genes (mtDNA). The species is compared and distinguished from the other species of the genus, and sequence data are used to hypothesise its phylogenetic relationship with Bo. helenae and Bo. kleini, the other two species collected during the survey. PMID:23155353

  9. Biodiversity and influence of climatic factors on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) around the Peixe Angical hydroelectric scheme in the state of Tocantins, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Júlia Dos Santos; Pacheco, Juliana Barreto; Alencar, Jeronimo; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2010-03-01

    The influence of climatic factors on the seasonal frequency of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) at the Peixe Angical hydroelectric scheme (Tocantins, Brazil) was evaluated in the present paper. Mosquito surveys were conducted in the municipality of Peixe and in areas surrounding the reservoir in the municipalities of Paranã and São Salvador do Tocantins during two daytime periods (10 am-12 noon and 2 pm-4 pm) and two night-time periods (6 pm-8 pm and 6 pm-10 am) over 14 months. In total, 10,840 specimens from 42 species were captured, 84.5% of which belonged to the Culcinae. The most common species were Anopheles darlingi, Psorophora albipes and Sabethes chloropterus. The number of Culicidae specimens was higher in months with higher rainfall and air humidity than during the drier months. The large population of Ps. albipes and the presence of both An. darlingi (primary vector for human malaria parasites) and Haemagogus janthinomys (primary vector for yellow fever virus) are highlighted.

  10. [Detection of flavivirus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Easter Island-Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collao, Ximena; Prado, Lorena; González, Christian; Vásquez, Ana; Araki, Romina; Henríquez, Tuki; Peña, Cindy M

    2015-02-01

    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex (Culicidae) that are detected in tropical and subtropical areas. Main flaviviruses of public health importance are: dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, among others. In continental Chile, flaviviruses has not been detected. However, there are indigenous cases of dengue detected in Easter Island since 2002, as the presence of its vector Aedes aegypti. The aim of this study was: To determine diversity of flavivirus mosquitoes present in Easter Island. Thirty pools of mosquitoes collected in Hanga Roa were analyzed; a RT-PCR nested flavivirus was performed. Thirteen positive samples were detected and the amplification products were sequenced, identifying two specific flavivirus Insect, the Cell fusing agent virus and other related viruses Kamiti River. This is the first study in Chile showed the presence of flavivirus in vectors in Easter Island.

  11. Isolation and genetic characterization of Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains found in mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavados CFG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Clara de Fátima Gomes Cavados,1 Eder Soares Pires,1 Jeane Quintanilha Chaves,1 Danielle Nunes Alvarez,1 Helio Benites Gil,2 Iris Braz Ribeiro de Oliveira,2 Andrea de Barros Pinto Viviani Cunha,2 Carlos José Pereira da Cunha de Araújo-Coutinho2 1Laboratory of Bacterial Physiology, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 2Superintendência de Controle de Endemias – SUCEN, São Paulo, Brazil Introduction: Lysinibacillus sphaericus is a highly effective and specific bioinsecticide used for the control of Culicidae larvae. Objective: This study aimed to identify and characterize L. sphaericus strains isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in Brazil. Methods: C. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected from streams in the urban area of São Paulo state. L. sphaericus strains were identified through cytomorphology, biochemical, and physiological analyses. Qualitative bioassays were performed to evaluate the toxicity of the strains against C. quinquefasciatus. The crystal compound protein pattern of L. sphaericus strains was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Five reference strains were used as standards in all tests performed. Repetitive extragenic palindromic elements-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR was utilized in an attempt to differentiate pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates. Results: Twenty-one strains were isolated. Only one presented toxic activity against C. quinquefasciatus. REP-PCR results identified 23 patterns among the 26 strains used in the study, and the fragment analysis showed low similarity (16% between L. sphaericus isolates and the five reference strains. Conclusion: Comparison of strains isolated in this study using REP-PCR showed a low similarity to other strains, demonstrating the high intraspecific variability for L. sphaericus. Keywords: Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Culicidae, SDS-PAGE, qualitative bioassays, REP-PCR, mosquitoes, entomopathogenic bacteria 

  12. Natural infection of Culex theileri (Diptera: Culicidae) with Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) on Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Ana, Marta; Khadem, Manhaz; Capela, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were performed to verify whether Culex theileri Theobald functions as a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) on Madeira Island, Portugal. CO2-baited light traps (EVS traps) were use to sample mosquitoes monthly basis between February 2002 and February 2003 in the area of Quebradas (Funchal). Three mosquito species were captured, including 58 Culex pipiens L., 790 Cx. theileri, and three Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart). Only C. theileri tested positive for D. immitis. The presence of this filarial worm was detected by direct observation, infectivity assay dissection technique, and polymerase chain reaction methods. Infected mosquitoes were recovered in October and December 2002 and January 2003. These data provide evidence that Cx. theileri could be the main vector of D. immitis in Funchal, Madeira.

  13. Comparative morphology of the pyloric armature of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuten, H C; Bridges, W C; Adler, P H

    2012-09-01

    The structure of the pyloric armature, hypothesized to aid in blood-meal digestion or parasite resistance, was compared quantitatively among the following 8 species in 5 genera of adult mosquitoes from the southeastern United States: Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes triseriatus, Anopheles punctipennis, Culex pipiens s.l., Culex restuans, Orthopodomyia signifera, and Toxorhynchites rutilus. Females differed significantly among species in the structure of spines composing the armature, with Aedes spp. forming one general group, Culex spp. another, and An. punctipennis and Or. signifera a third. Relationships of species based on structural characters of the armature were consistent with recent culicid phylogenies. Although pyloric armature has been noted in mosquitoes and other insects, this is the first quantitative investigation of the mosquito pyloric armature.

  14. Crouching tiger, hidden trouble: urban sources of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae refractory to source-reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isik Unlu

    Full Text Available Our ultimate objective is to design cost-effective control strategies for Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, an important urban nuisance and disease vector that expanded worldwide during the last 40 years. We conducted mosquito larval surveys from May through October 2009 in the City of Trenton, New Jersey, USA, while performing intensive monthly source-reduction campaigns that involved removing, emptying, or treating all accessible containers with larvicides and pupicides. We examined patterns of occurrence of Ae. albopictus and Culex pipiens, another urban mosquito, among different container types by comparing observed and expected number of positive containers of each type. Expected use was based on the relative frequency of each container type in the environment. Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae were found significantly more often than expected in medium volumes of water in buckets and plant saucers but were rarely collected in small volumes of water found in trash items such as discarded cups and cans. They were also absent from large volumes of water such as in abandoned swimming pools and catch basins, although we consistently collected Cx. pipiens from those habitats. The frequency of Ae. albopictus in tires indicated rapid and extensive use of these ubiquitous urban containers. Standard larval-based indices did not correlate with adult catches in BG-Sentinel traps, but when based only on Ae. albopictus key containers (buckets, plant saucers, equipment with pockets of water, and tires they did. Although we found that only 1.2% of the 20,039 water-holding containers examined contained immature Ae. albopictus (5.3% if only key containers were counted, adult populations were still above nuisance action thresholds six times during the 2009 mosquito season. We conclude that in urban New Jersey, effective source reduction for Ae. albopictus control will require scrupulous and repeated cleaning or treatment of everyday use containers

  15. Crouching tiger, hidden trouble: urban sources of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) refractory to source-reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Strickman, Daniel; Fonseca, Dina M

    2013-01-01

    Our ultimate objective is to design cost-effective control strategies for Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, an important urban nuisance and disease vector that expanded worldwide during the last 40 years. We conducted mosquito larval surveys from May through October 2009 in the City of Trenton, New Jersey, USA, while performing intensive monthly source-reduction campaigns that involved removing, emptying, or treating all accessible containers with larvicides and pupicides. We examined patterns of occurrence of Ae. albopictus and Culex pipiens, another urban mosquito, among different container types by comparing observed and expected number of positive containers of each type. Expected use was based on the relative frequency of each container type in the environment. Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae were found significantly more often than expected in medium volumes of water in buckets and plant saucers but were rarely collected in small volumes of water found in trash items such as discarded cups and cans. They were also absent from large volumes of water such as in abandoned swimming pools and catch basins, although we consistently collected Cx. pipiens from those habitats. The frequency of Ae. albopictus in tires indicated rapid and extensive use of these ubiquitous urban containers. Standard larval-based indices did not correlate with adult catches in BG-Sentinel traps, but when based only on Ae. albopictus key containers (buckets, plant saucers, equipment with pockets of water, and tires) they did. Although we found that only 1.2% of the 20,039 water-holding containers examined contained immature Ae. albopictus (5.3% if only key containers were counted), adult populations were still above nuisance action thresholds six times during the 2009 mosquito season. We conclude that in urban New Jersey, effective source reduction for Ae. albopictus control will require scrupulous and repeated cleaning or treatment of everyday use containers and extensive

  16. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Trouble: Urban Sources of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Refractory to Source-Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Strickman, Daniel; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2013-01-01

    Our ultimate objective is to design cost-effective control strategies for Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, an important urban nuisance and disease vector that expanded worldwide during the last 40 years.  We conducted mosquito larval surveys from May through October 2009 in the City of Trenton, New Jersey, USA, while performing intensive monthly source-reduction campaigns that involved removing, emptying, or treating all accessible containers with larvicides and pupicides. We examined patterns of occurrence of Ae. albopictus and Culex pipiens, another urban mosquito, among different container types by comparing observed and expected number of positive containers of each type. Expected use was based on the relative frequency of each container type in the environment. Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae were found significantly more often than expected in medium volumes of water in buckets and plant saucers but were rarely collected in small volumes of water found in trash items such as discarded cups and cans. They were also absent from large volumes of water such as in abandoned swimming pools and catch basins, although we consistently collected Cx. pipiens from those habitats. The frequency of Ae. albopictus in tires indicated rapid and extensive use of these ubiquitous urban containers. Standard larval-based indices did not correlate with adult catches in BG-Sentinel traps, but when based only on Ae. albopictus key containers (buckets, plant saucers, equipment with pockets of water, and tires) they did. Although we found that only 1.2% of the 20,039 water-holding containers examined contained immature Ae. albopictus (5.3% if only key containers were counted), adult populations were still above nuisance action thresholds six times during the 2009 mosquito season. We conclude that in urban New Jersey, effective source reduction for Ae. albopictus control will require scrupulous and repeated cleaning or treatment of everyday use containers and extensive

  17. Chemical composition and laboratory investigation of Melissa officinalis essential oil against human malarial vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathalaimuthu Baranitharan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To decide the larvicides, ovicidal, pupicidal and repellent activity of Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis chemical compositions against important mosquito Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: A chemical constituent of 24 compounds was identified in the oils of M. officinalis compounds representing to 98.73%. A total of 25 3rd instar larvae of An. stephensi were showed to a variety of concentrations (30–300 mg/L in laboratory by means of utilizing the standard procedure portrayed by World Health Organization (2005. The larvae were exposed for 24 h and mortalities were subjected to probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was strong-minded against An. stephensi mosquito to a variety of concentrations ranging from 15– 90 mg/L under the laboratory circumstances. The repellent activity of M. officinalis chemical compositions tested at concentrations of 0.75 and 1.50 mg/cm2 was evaluated in a net cage (45 cm × 45 cm × 40 cm including 100 blood starving female mosquitoes of An. stephensi using the methods of World Health Organization (1996. Results: The LC50 and LC90 values of citronellal compound against An. stephensi larvae were 85.44 and 159.73 mg/L, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal action was observed 48 h post-treatment. Similarly, the citronellal compound and other compositions were found to be mainly effective against eggs of An. stephensi. Citronellal compound exerted 45, 60, 75 and 90 mg/L against An. stephensi, respectively. The repellent activity of citronellal compound was contained to be mainly effective and the maximum action was observed at 0.75 and 1.50 mg/cm2 concentrations giving 100% protection up to 210 min against An. stephensi. Conclusions: This current study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal, ovicidal, repellent potential of compounds from the M. officinalis essential oil against An. stephensi. This is initial statement on the mosquito larvicidal

  18. Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, G; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2009-11-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 92.60 , 93.04, 95.20, 88.26, 92.80, 94.01, 95.77, 96.93, and 92.54 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 47.14, 58.00, 56.52, 64.93, 71.09, 66.42, 50.62, 57.62, and 65.73 at 31.25 ppm in acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus at 500 ppm were -0.86, -0.87, -0.90, -0.78, -0.87, -0.86, -0.91, -0.94, and -0.86 respectively. The OAI values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with ethyl acetate extract of Aegle marmelos, methanol extracts Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and ethyl acetate extract of Cocculus hirsutus, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 90 to 120 min with the different extracts tested. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly

  19. Adulticidal, repellent, and ovicidal properties of indigenous plant extracts against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2013-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the adulticidal, repellent, and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, aqueous, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plants Andrographis paniculata, Cassia occidentalis, and Euphorbia hirta against the medically important mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata followed by C. occidentalis and E. hirta against the adults of A. stephensi with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 210.30, 225.91, and 263.91 ppm and 527.31, 586.36, and 621.91 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, aqueous, and methanol extract of A. paniculata, C. occidentalis, and E. hirta plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these three plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts

  20. Mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent properties of botanical extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Mathivanan, T; Elumalai, K; Krishnappa, K; Anandan, A

    2011-08-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as eggs, larvae, and adult. The larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of crude benzene and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in benzene extract of E. coronaria against the larvae of Anopheles Stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 79.08, 89.59, and 96.15 ppm and 150.47, 166.04, and 174.10 ppm, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h posttreatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The leaf extract of E. coronaria was found to be most effective than Caesalpinia pulcherrima against eggs/egg rafts of three vector mosquitoes. For E. coronaria, the benzene extract exerted 300, 250, and 200 ppm against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of benzene and ethyl acetate extract of E. coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the

  1. Ciclo de vida de Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1826 (Diptera: Culicidae bajo condiciones no controladas en Bogotá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Janeth Salazar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar varios aspectos del crecimiento y el desarrollo de los estadios inmaduros de Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1826 (Diptera: Culicidae, especie antropofílica frecuentemente encontrada en Bogotá. Con este fin, se realizaron dos experimentos en diferentes épocas del año 2001 (enero-febrero y septiembre-octubre, bajo condiciones no controladas (luz, temperatura y humedad relativa. Se colocaron recipientes plásticos transparentes con agua de charca a la que se le adicionó concentrado para perro; se tomaron cuatro balsas al azar para estudiar el ciclo de vida utilizando los parámetros de la tabla de vida: mortalidad y supervivencia. Las hembras ovipositaron entre cinco y ocho días después de la ingestión de sangre. El número de huevos por balsa varió entre 152 y 203. La eclosión de larvas L1 fue de 50% en el primer experimento y de 75% en el segundo. Se destacó la naturaleza no sincrónica de la eclosión de las L1, la menor duración proporcional del estadio de pupa (11% del tiempo del desarrollo total y la eficiencia del cambio pupa-adulto (98,61%. Se reporta una menor duración del ciclo de lo informado previamente. Además, los altos porcentajes de eclosión (83,58%, pupación (86,63% y emergencia (98,61% con las condiciones presentes para estos experimentos (temperatura media 14,8°C y 15,1°C y humedad relativa del 72,5% y 74,1%, respectivamente indican el alto grado de adaptación de C. quinquefasciatus al ambiente bogotano. Estas características, más la capacidad vectorial y la resistencia a los insecticidas, hacen de esta especie un problema de salud pública.

  2. Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Piovezan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers as larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores. Este estudo investiga a distribuição espacial da fauna urbana e de Culicidae e informa o monitoramento entomológico de espécies que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval. Coletas de larvas de mosquitos foram realizadas no município paulista de Santa Bárbara d' Oeste entre os anos de 2004 e 2006, durante visitas casa-a-casa. Um total de 1.891 amostras foi considerado, com nove espécies diferentes coletadas. A distribuição das espécies foi avaliada através do método de krigagem estatística extrapolando as divisões administrativas do município. O método de coleta adotado no presente estudo está de acordo com os métodos sugeridos aos serviços de saúde municipais pelo Ministério da Saúde e pode, portanto, ser adotado pelas autoridades p

  3. Molecular Characterization of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northwestern Iran by Using rDNA-ITS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshdel-Nezamiha, Farahnaz; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Mianroodi, Reza Arabi; Dabiri, Farrokh; Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2016-07-22

    Several mosquito species are vectors of disease; however, to understand their role in disease transmission, accurate species identification is of particular importance. Morphological identification is the main method used, but molecular techniques have emerged as a tool for the identification of closely related species. In this study, mosquitoes from the West Azerbaijan Province in northwestern Iran were characterized on the basis of their rDNA-ITS2 sequences. Nine populations of 6 species of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus were studied. To the best of our knowledge, ITS2 sequences of Culiseta longiareolata and Culex hortensis have been reported for the first time. In addition, ITS2 sequences of Culex theileri and Ochlerotatus caspius have been reported for the first time in Iran. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS2 showed that subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae of the family Culicidae could be differentiated successfully and subgenera Anopheles and Cellia of the genus Anopheles were separated. The analysis showed that the genera Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus have diverged separately.

  4. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) and their medical importance for Portugal: challenges for the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia de Almeida, A Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes are dipterous insects, responsible for the transmission of several pathogenic agents to humans, causing vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, lymphatic and other filariasis, and several arboviral diseases such as yellow fever and dengue. In this revision, Culicidae or mosquitoes are summarily characterized, as well as their bioecology, internal morphology, digestive and egg maturation physiology, and the main methods for their collection and control. The epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases depends on parameters such as Vectorial efficiency, Vector competence and Vectorial capacity, the concepts of which are presented. Forty one species of mosquitoes have been detected so far in mainland Portugal. Malaria was endemic till 1959, yellow fever outbreaks were registered in the XIX century, and human cases of dirofilarisis and West Nile fever have been detected. In face of the current climate changes in course and the threat of the (re)-introduction of exotic mosquito species, not only new cases of some of these diseases may occur, increasing their risk, but also other mosquito-borne diseases may be introduced constituting challenges for the XXI century, demanding a continued surveillance in a Public Health perspective.

  5. Mosquito Records from Mexico: The Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Tamaulipas State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Zavortink, Thomas J; Huerta-Jiménez, Herón; Sánchez-Rámos, Francisco J; Valdés-Perezgasga, Ma Teresa; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Siller-Rodríguez, Quetzaly K; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-03-01

    To document the diversity and distribution of mosquito species inhabiting the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, collection trips were conducted to all physiographic regions (Grand Northamerican Plains, Coastal Plain of North Gulf, and Sierra Madre Oriental) and subregions across the state. Additionally, we re-examined mosquito specimens in two Mexican entomological collections: the Collection of Insects and Mites of Medical Importance and the Collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance. In total, 3,931 specimens were collected. These represent the two Culicidae subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, 10 tribes, 17 genera, 27 subgenera, 80 named species, and 2 undescribed species. Of these, 3 tribes, 6 genera, 7 subgenera, and 20 species are new records for the mosquito fauna of Tamaulipas. Fourteen species recorded in the historical records were not found in collections made for this study. Taxonomic notes, new distribution limits, and comments about the medical importance of some of the species collected are reported. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity of a forest-fragment mosaic in the Amazon rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Rosa Sá Gomes; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Hutchings, Roger William

    2011-03-01

    To study the impact of Amazonian forest fragmentation on the mosquito fauna, an inventory of Culicidae was conducted in the upland forest research areas of the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project located 60 km north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The culicid community was sampled monthly between February 2002 and May 2003. CDC light traps, flight interception traps, manual aspiration, and net sweeping were used to capture adult specimens along the edges and within forest fragments of different sizes (1, 10, and 100 ha), in second-growth areas surrounding the fragments and around camps. We collected 5,204 specimens, distributed in 18 genera and 160 species level taxa. A list of mosquito taxa is presented with 145 species found in the survey, including seven new records for Brazil, 16 new records for the state of Amazonas, along with the 15 morphotypes that probably represent undescribed species. No exotic species [Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse)] were found within the sampled areas. Several species collected are potential vectors of Plasmodium causing human malaria and of various arboviruses. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed, and the results are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region.

  7. Cloning and sequence analysis of β-actin gene from Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijie Wang; Xiaobang Hu; Donghui Zhang; Jianhua Jiao; Yan Sun; Lei Ma; Changliang Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To obtain the complete β-actin gene from Aedes albopictus. Methods: Total RNA was extracted from C6/36 cells. Degenerate primers were designed based on the β-actin sequences of An. gambiae, Ae. aegypti, Cx. pipiens pallens and D.melanogaster. By RT-PCR, the product was amplified, purified, cloned into the pGT vector and sequenced. The β-actin sequence was aligned and phylogenetically analyzed by the BLAST program and the CLUSTAL W program. Results: A sequence of 1132 bp including an open reading frame of 1131 bp was obtained (GenBank DQ657949). The deduced protein had 376 amino acids.Aligned to SWISS-PROT, it exhibited a high level of identity with β-actins from Anopheles, Drosophila and Culex at the amino acid sequence level. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ae. albopictus β-actin was much more homologous with invertebrate β-actin than with vertebrate β-actin. Conclusion: The gene may be used as the internal control in the experiments of Ae. albopictus.

  8. Seasonal and Daily Activity Patterns of Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Vectors of Pathogens in Northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Mazzon, Luca; Cazzin, Stefania; Ciocchetta, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and daily activity of mosquito vectors of pathogens affecting animals and humans were studied in northeastern Italy at a site within the Po River Delta Park. A CDC-CO2 trap and a gravid trap were operated at 2-h intervals for 24 h every 15 d from May to October 2010. Overall, 5,788 mosquitoes comprising six species were collected, namely Culex pipiens L. (75.1% of total), Aedes caspius (Pallas) (15.2%), Aedes vexans (Meigen) (6.9%), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (2.6%), Culiseta annulata (Schrank) (0.2%), and Culex modestus Ficalbi (mosquito collection or two weeks before collection. Knowledge of the seasonal and daily host-seeking patterns of mosquitoes highlights the time periods of the day and the seasons of potential exposure for animals and humans to mosquito-borne pathogens, therefore delineating the best time for the application of preventive measures. Furthermore, knowledge of the oviposition site-seeking activity of the mosquitoes optimizes the capture of gravid females, thereby enhancing the likelihood of detecting pathogens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) and seasonal activity in Makka Al Mukarramah Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmed, A M; Al Kuriji, M A; Kheir, S M; Alahmedi, S A; Al Hatabbi, M J; Al Gashmari, M A M

    2009-12-01

    From March 2004 to February 2006, a mosquito survey was conducted in Makka Al Mukarrama Region, in the western part of Saudi Arabia, and 19 species which belong to 4 genera, were collected: Aedes (2 species), Anopheles (8 species), Culex (8 species) and Culiseta (1 species). The mosquitoes were Aedes caspius, Ae. aegypti, Anopheles d'thali, An. gambiae, An. multicolor, An. rhodesiensis, An. sergenti, An. stephensi, An. subpictus, An. turkhudi, Culex arbieeni, Cx. laticinctus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. tigripes, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. univittatus and Culiseta longiareolata. Cx. arbieeni was reported for the first time in Saudi Arabia from Al Taif District. The physical properties of water of mosquito's larval breeding sites showed the total dissolved salts (TDS) varied between 70-15552 ppm, pH ranged between 5.4-11.2 and water temperature varied between 15 degrees C in winter to 40.7 degrees C in summer. There was no correlation between these physical properties and the distribution of mosquito larvae. Light traps collected 1858 mosquitoes, and adult Culex were the most prevalent as 1658 (89.24%) were collected, followed by 121 (6.51%) Aedes, 68 (3.66%) Anopheles and 11 (0.59%) Culiseta. The effects of temperature and rainfall on seasonal abundance of mosquitoes in the study area are discussed.

  10. Fauna and Larval Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Khoshdel-Nezamiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province.Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province.Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases.

  11. Mediterranean essential oils as effective weapons against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens and the Echinostoma intermediate host Physella acuta: what happens around? An acute toxicity survey on non-target mayflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Amira, Smain; Benchikh, Fatima; Laouer, Hocine; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Conti, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Second to malaria as the world's most widespread parasitic disease, infection by trematodes is a devastating public health problem. In this study, we proposed two essential oils from plants cultivated in Mediterranean regions as effective chemicals against mosquitoes and freshwater snails vectors of Echinostoma trematodes. Chemical composition of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Rutaceae) was investigated. Acute toxicity was evaluated against larvae of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Mollusca: Physidae), an important intermediate host of many parasites, including Echinostoma revolutum (Echinostomidae). Acute toxicity of essential oils was assessed also on a non-target aquatic organism, the mayfly Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum essentials oils were mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes (59.3 and 71.0 % of the whole oil, respectively). Chrysanthenone and borneol were the two major constituents of Achillea millefolium essential oil (24.1 and 14.2 %, respectively). Major compounds of H. tuberculatum essential oil were cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol and trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (22.9 and 16.1 %, respectively). In acute toxicity assays, C. pipiens LC50 was 154.190 and 175.268 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively. P. acuta LC50 was 112.911 and 73.695 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively, while the same values were 198.116 and 280.265 ppm for C. dipterum. Relative median potency analysis showed that both tested essential oils were more toxic to P. acuta over C. dipterum. This research adds knowledge on plant-borne chemicals toxic against invertebrates of medical

  12. [Morphology and cytochemistry of Aedes aegypti's cell cultures (Diptera: Culicidae) and susceptibility to Leishmania panamensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alfonso Arturo; Sarmiento, Ladys; Caldas, María Leonor; Zapata, Cristina; Bello, Felio Jesús

    2008-06-01

    Morphology and cytochemistry of Aedes aegypti's cell cultures (Diptera: Culicidae) and susceptibility to Leishmania panamensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). The first cellular line of Aedes aegypti was developed by Grace in 1966; afterwards, other cellular lines of this species have been generated. These have been used for the study of pathogenic organisms like viruses, bacteria and parasites, which demonstrates their importance in biomedical applications. This research describes, for the first time, some cytochemical characteristics of A. aegypti cell cultures, that were infected with (MHOM/CO/87CL412) strain of Leishmania panamensis. A morphological study of the cell culture was also carried out. Maintenance of the cell culture, parasites and infection in vitro were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology, Cell Biology and Genetics of the Universidad de La Salle. The cell cultures infected with the parasite were maintained in a mixture of mediums Grace/L15, supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) at pH 6.8 and a temperature of 26 degrees C, during 3, 6 and 9 post-infection days. After this, these cell cultures were processed through High Resolution Light Microscopy (HRLM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) based on standard protocols defined by the Group of Microscopy and Image Analyses of the Instituto Nacional de Salud. Semi-fine slices of 1 microm colored with toluidine blue were used for the morphological analysis of the culture, and ultra fine cuts of 60 to 90 nm stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate where used for the ultrastructural study. In addition, PAS and peroxidase staining was carried out in cells fixed with methanol. The morphometric study was analyzed with software ImageJ (NIH). In the semi-fine slices, small cells were observed showing fibroblastic appearance 10.84 +/- 2.54 microm in length and 5.31 +/- 1.26 microm wide; other cells had epithelial appearance with a great peripheral nucleus, voluminous and

  13. Evaluation of leaf aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Nerium oleander against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni, Mathath; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-03-01

    Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and ecofriendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by the aqueous extract of the plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis. The production of the AgNPs synthesized using leaf extract of N. oleander was evaluated through a UV-Vis spectrophotometer in a wavelength range of 200 to 700 nm. This revealed a peak at 440 nm in N. oleander leaf extracts, indicating the production of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 509.12 cm(-1) (C-H bend alkenes), 1,077.05 cm(-1) (C-O stretch alcohols), 1,600.63 cm(-1) (N-H bend amines), 2,736.49 and 2,479.04 cm(-1) (O-H stretch carboxylic acids), and 3,415.31 cm(-1) (N-H stretching due to amines group). An SEM micrograph showed 20-35-nm-size aggregates of spherical- and cubic-shaped nanoparticles. EDX showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles of silver. Larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of N. oleander and synthesized AgNPs was carried out against Anopheles stephensi, and the results showed that the highest larval mortality was found in the synthesized AgNPs against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi with the following values: LC(50) of instar larvae 20.60, 24.90, 28.22, and 33.99 ppm; LC(90) of instar larvae 41.62, 50.33, 57.78, and 68.41

  14. Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera que habitan en fi totelmata en el Parque Nacional Iguazú, provincia de Misiones, Argentina subtropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A list of the most common phytotelmata and their Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae inhabitants from Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, Argentina, is presented, and biological and behavioral observations are also included. Species of Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, and Arecaceae, were identified as phytotelmata. Twenty six species of Culicidae and nine of Ceratopogonidae were identified. The highest species richness of culicids and ceratopogonids was recorded from the bamboo Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae and treeholes, respectively. Fourteen species of Culicidae and three of Ceratopogonidae inhabit bamboo, two and five treeholes, seven and three bromeliads, and nine and one, other less known phytotelmata, respectively.Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.

  15. Effect of chlorfenapyr on cypermethrin-resistant Culex pipiens pallens Coq mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J Z; Li, Q F; Huang, J B; Gao, J F

    2015-03-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a promising pyrrole insecticide with a unique mechanism of action that does not confer cross-resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. The effect of chlorfenapyr on pyrethorid-resistant Culex pipiens pallens Coq (Diptera: Culicidae) has not been fully investigated under laboratory conditions. In this study, cypermethrin-resistant C. p. pallens exhibited 376.79-fold and 395.40-fold increase in resistance to cypermethrin compared with susceptible strains after exposure for 24 and 48h, respectively. Larvae and adults were tested for susceptibility using dipping, topical, and impregnated paper methods as recommended by the WHO. No cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr was found. Increased mortality was apparent between 48 and 72h, indicating a slow rate of toxic activity. Synergism experiments with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) showed an antagonistic effect on chlorfenapyr toxicity. Mixtures of chlorfenapyr and cypermethrin could therefore provide additional benefits over either insecticide used alone. Mixtures of 5ng/ml chlorfenapyr and 500ng/ml cypermethrin exhibited a slight synergistic effect on cypermethrin-resistant mosquitoes (3.33, 6.84 and 2.34% after 24, 48 and 72h exposure, respectively. This activity was lost when the chlorfenapyr concentration was increased to 10 or 20ng/ml. Chlorfenapyr showed quite good results for pyrethroid-resistant C. p. pallens, and could improve public health by reducing the occurrence of mosquito bites and subsequently protecting against transmission of lymphatic filariasis and Japanese encephalitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical Compositions of the Peel Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium and its Natural Larvicidal Activity against the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae in Comparison with Citrus paradisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bioactive agents against mosquito vectors.Methods: The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae under laboratory condition. Then chemical com­position of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS.Results: The essential oils obtained from C. aurantium, and C. paradisi showed good larviciding effect against An. stephensi with LC50 values 31.20 ppm and 35.71 ppm respectively. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 80 ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. Twenty-one (98.62% constituents in the leaf oil were identified. The main constituent of the leaf oil was Dl-limonene (94.81.Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that the limonene of peel essential oil of C. aurantium is promising as larvicide against An. stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds.

  17. Efficacy of agnique (mmf) monomolecular surface film against immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis patton and Culex spp (diptera: culicidae) in Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Al; Hassan, A Abu; Salmah, M R Che; Rahman, W A

    2008-03-01

    The efficacy of the larvicidal and pupicidal agent (Agnique) MMF was evaluated against larvae of An. arabiensis and Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) under field conditions in Bahary Locality, Khartoum, Sudan. At an applied dosage of 0.25 ml/m2, MMF resulted in 89.4, 79.8 and 88.2% reductions in L3-L4 instars An. arabiensis and 63.5% in Culex larvae (all stages) 24 to 72 hours post-treatment. Pupae were completely eliminated (100%) within 24 hours posttreatment. The earlier instars (L1-L2) of An. arabiensis were more tolerant with a 62.5% reduction at 72 hours post-treatment compared to (L3-L4) instars and pupae. At 7-days post-treatment Agnique gave a 57.5% reduction in L1-L2 and 92.6% in L3-L4 instar larvae of An. arabiensis and 57.3% and 86.4% in Culex larvae and pupae, respectively. We conclude that Agnique can perform effectively against L3-L4 instars and pupae of An. arabiensis for only 1 week, and 3 to 4 days against L1-L2 instars of Culex spp.

  18. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

  19. In vitro Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of Marine Algae Against the Human Vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Idhayadhulla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty marine algae were collected from the rocky intertidal and subtidal regions of the southwest coast of India and extracted in methanol. The extracts were evaluated for larvicidal activity against the second and third instar larvae of the human vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Analysis on the activity profile of the above marine algae indicated that the early stage larvae were very sensitive to seven seaweed extracts that had been tested. Among the seven marine algae, Lobophora variegata was highly potential, showing LD50 value of 70.38 and 79.43 g mL-1 on the 2nd instar larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus respectively. The rank of larvicidal potency in highly active algae in the descending order is as follows: Lobophora variegata (Dictyotaceae>Spatoglossum asperum (Dictyotaceae>Stoechospermum marginatum (Dictyotaceae>Sargassum wightii (Sargassaceae >Acrosiphonia orientalis (Acrosiphoniaceae>Centroceras clavulatum (Ceramiacea>Padina tetrastromatica (Dictyotaceae. This is the first report that envisaged the mosquito larvicidal efficacy of L. variegata from the Indian coast. Therefore, this marine alga could be recognized as a potential resource of natural insecticide and can be developed to replace synthetic insecticides in future.

  20. Chlorfenapyr: irritant effect compared to other insecticides and its intrinsic toxicity in multiple-insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vaishali; Elamathi, N; Velamuri, Poonam S; Sreehari, U; Agrawal, O P; Raghavendra, K

    2015-03-01

    For effective management of vector resistance there is a need for new insecticide molecules with novel modes of action. For desired toxic effect of an insecticide, apart from other behavioural aspects, toxicity and chemical nature of the molecule are important that may cause irritability in the mosquito to the insecticide affecting the uptake. In this study, a pyrrole class insecticide, chlorfenapyr (a late acting insecticide) was tested for its irritability against multiple-insecticide-susceptible and -resistant strains of Anopheles stephensi Liston 1901 (Diptera: Culicidae). Studies were conducted to assess the irritability due to chlorfenapyr, DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and permethrin and intrinsic toxicity of chlorfenapyr in multiple-insecticide-susceptible and -resistant laboratory strains of An. stephensi following standard WHO methods. Chlorfenapyr molecule has shown least irritant effect against susceptible and resistant strains among all the insecticides tested allowing more landing time to the vector species on the impregnated surfaces to pick-up lethal dose. Chlorfenapyr could be an ideal insecticide for management of multiple-insecticide-resistance including pyrethroids.

  1. Larvicidal and repellent activity of essential oils from wild and cultivated Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), an arbovirus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Leonardi, Michele; Pistelli, Luisa; Profeti, Raffaele; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Benelli, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Rutaceae are widely recognized for their toxic and repellent activity exerted against mosquitoes. In our research, the essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of wild and cultivated plants of Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) were evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. In this research, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the essential oils from wild and cultivated plants showed only quantitative differences, in particular relatively to the amounts of ketone derivatives, while the qualitative profile evidenced a similar chemical composition. Both essential oils from wild and cultivated R. chalepensis plants were able to exert a very good toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae (wild plants, LC(50) = 35.66 ppm; cultivated plants, LC(50) = 33.18 ppm), and mortality was dosage dependent. These data are the first evidence of the toxicity of R. chalepensis against mosquitoes. Furthermore, the R. chalepensis essential oil from wild plants was an effective repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.000215 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.007613 μL/cm(2). Our results clearly evidenced that the larvicidal and repellent activity of R. chalepensis essential oil could be used for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  2. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pemphis acidula Frost. (Lythraceae) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Samidurai

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude methanol, benzene and acetone solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pemphis acidula (Pe. acidula) against the medically important mosquito vectors, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus) and Anopheles subpictus (An. subpictus) were exposed to various concentrations and (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Twenty five late third instar of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of treatment. Hundred eggs of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of Su and Mulla 1998. The ovicidal activity was observed 48 h of treatment. Results: The LC50 and LC90 values being 10.81and 20.64 and 22.10 and 43.71 ppm and hundred percent of egg mortality was observed at 350 and 400 ppm methanol extract of Pe. acidula against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that the leaf extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  3. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.

  4. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from Pedilanthus tithymaloides leaf extract with anti-developmental activity against larval instars of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera; Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaravadivelan, Chandran; Nalini Padmanabhan, Madanagopal; Sivaprasath, Prabhu; Kishmu, Lingan

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases to human beings wherein biological control of these vectors using plant-derived molecules would be an alternative to reduce mosquito population. Aqueous leaf extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) from Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit. were investigated for their efficacy against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera; Culicidae). The biologically synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and surface characteristics by atomic force microscopy. Further, on exposure of the larvae to varying concentrations of aqueous leaf and Ag NPs for 24 h, these Ag NPs showed 100 % mortality from first to fourth instars and pupae of A. aegypti at 0.25 %, which is the highest concentration, tested, wherein it was the lowest concentration of aqueous leaf extract alone which showed only 10-18 % of mortality. Lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of Ag NPs against the larval and pupal stages were 0.029, 0.027, 0.047, 0.086, and 0.018 % with no mortality in control. These results suggest that the use of P. tithymaloides silver nanoparticles can be a rapid, environmentally safer bio-pesticide which can form a novel approach to develop effective biocides for controlling the target vector.

  5. Comparison of fatty acid contents and composition in major lipid classes of larvae and adults of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from a steppe region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Yurchenko, Yuri A; Gladyshev, Michail I; Belevich, Olga E; Kalachova, Galina S; Kolmakova, Angelika A

    2013-10-01

    Emerging aquatic insects, including mosquitoes, are known to transfer to terrestrial ecosystems specific essential biochemicals, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We studied fatty acid (FA) composition and contents of dominant mosquito populations (Diptera: Culicidae), that is, Anopheles messeae, Ochlerotatus caspius, Oc. flavescens, Oc. euedes, Oc. subdiversus, Oc. cataphylla, and Aedes cinereus, inhabited a steppe wetland of a temperate climate zone to fill up the gap in their lipid knowledge. The polar lipid and triacylglycerol fractions of larvae and adults were compared. In most studied mosquito species, we first found and identified a number of short-chain PUFA, for example, prominent 14:2n-6 and 14:3n-3, which were not earlier documented in living organisms. These PUFA, although occurred in low levels in adult mosquitoes, can be potentially used as markers of mosquito biomass in terrestrial food webs. We hypothesize that these acids might be synthesized (or retroconverted) by the mosquitoes. Using FA trophic markers accumulated in triacylglycerols, trophic relations of the mosquitoes were accessed. The larval diet comprised green algae, cryptophytes, and dinoflagellates and provided the mosquitoes with essential n-3 PUFA, linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids. As a result, both larvae and adults of the studied mosquitoes had comparatively high content of the essential PUFA. Comparison of FA proportions in polar lipids versus storage lipids shown that during mosquito metamorphosis transfer of essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids from the reserve in storage lipids of larvae to functional polar lipids in adults occurred.

  6. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. III - daily biting rhythms and lunar cycle influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Anthony Érico

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae was studied in areas of the Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The influence of the lunar cycle and the daily biting rhythms of mosquito populations were analyzed. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made in a silvatic environment for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 20,591 specimens of adult mosquitoes belonging to 55 species were collected from 545 catches. Sabethini species were captured exclusively during daylight periods, with the exception of Trichoprosopon digitatum, while members of Anophelinae predominated during nocturnal hours. Members of the subfamily Culicinae that were collected primary during nocturnal periods included Culex nigripalpus, Coquillettidia chrysonotum and Cq. venezuelensis while daytime catches included Psorophora ferox and Ps. albipes. Others members of culicines mosquitoes that were collected during both day and night included: Aedes serratus, Ae. scapularis and Ae. fulvus. Lunar cycles did not appear to influence the daily biting rhythms of most mosquito species in the area, but larger numbers of mosquitoes were collected during the new moon. Ae. scapularis were captured mainly during the full moon.

  7. Evaluation of Andrographis paniculata Burm.f. (Family:Acanthaceae) extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) and Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and ovicidal efficacy of different extracts of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti ) L. (Diptera:Culicidae). Methods:Larvicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. paniculata with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The ovicidal activity was determined against two mosquito species to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 ppm under the laboratory conditions. Results:The benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of A. paniculata was found to be more effective against Cx. quinquefasciatus than Ae. aegypti. The LC50 values were 112.19, 137.48, 118.67, 102.05, 91.20 ppm and 119.58, 146.34, 124.24, 110.12, 99.54 ppm respectively. Among five tested solvent, methanol and ethyl acetate crude extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against two mosquito species. The extract of methanol and ethyl acetate exerted 100%mortality at 200 ppm against Cx. quinquefasciatus and at 250 ppm against Ae. aegypti. Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of A. paniculata was a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.

  8. Laboratory and field evaluation of the effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid on the oviposition response of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Elsa Antonio-Arreola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assessed the suitability of using the neonicotinoid imidacloprid with standard ovitraps by evaluating the ovicidal properties of imidacloprid and its influence on the oviposition response of gravid females of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae. First, we calculated the imidacloprid lethal dose 99 (LD99 by exposing third instar larvae of the target species to different concentrations of the insecticide. Next, Ae. aegypti eggs were exposed to the imidacloprid LD99 for 24 h and hatching inhibition was recorded. Finally, we investigated any potential repellent effect of the imidacloprid solution on the oviposition response of gravid Aedes females in field and laboratory conditions. The LD99 obtained from larvae tests proved to be sufficient to keep any exposed eggs from hatching. No repellent effect was observed; females laid as many eggs in imidacloprid-treated ovitraps as in traps containing either clean water or temephos-treated water in both field and laboratory conditions. Our results indicate that imidacloprid is a suitable insecticide for treating ovitraps against Ae. aegypti.

  9. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) population size survey in the 2007 Chikungunya outbreak area in Italy. I. Characterization of breeding sites and evaluation of sampling methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, M; Angelini, P; Venturelli, C; Maccagnani, B; Bellini, R

    2011-11-01

    The population of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) was measured in four towns in northern Italy by means of Stegomyia indices (house index: percentage of houses with at least one active breeding site; container index: percentage of containers with larvae; and Breteau index: number of active breeding sites per premises), pupae per premises index (PPI), pupae per hectare index (PHI), and ovitrap monitoring. A detailed investigation on types and number of productive or potential larval habitats in the inspected premises was performed. Catch basins were the most productive breeding sites in both private and public areas. The influence of the premises maintenance and premises shading indices (PMI and PSI) on the population indices and the correlations between the latter and egg density were assessed. The highest PPI was found in badly maintained premises, most times combined with shady coverage. Stegomyia indices and PPI were well correlated with each other, but not with the PHI, which also included the pupae collected in public areas. We obtained a highly positive correlation (R = 0.86) between the PHI and weekly mean egg density estimated 7-14 d after inspection of the premises. The number of females per hectare, calculated using the Focks model, was correlated with the mean egg density of the week after sampling (R = 0.79), and we propose that ovitrap monitoring can be used to evaluate the efficiency of the control activities or to determine a mean egg density threshold for epidemic risk evaluation.

  10. Larvicidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) fruits against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Flamini, Guido; Fiore, Giulia; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Conti, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The essential oils of many Apiaceae species have been already studied for their insecticidal and repellent properties against insect pests. In this research, the essential oil (EO) extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) was evaluated for the first time for its larvicidal and repellent activities against the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of C. sativum EO was investigated by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. Coriander EO was mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes, with linalool (83.6 %) as the major constituent. C. sativum EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae: LC(50) was 421 ppm, while LC(90) was 531.7 ppm. Repellence trials highlighted that C. sativum EO was a good repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.0001565 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.002004 μL/cm(2). At the highest dosage (0.2 μL/cm(2) of skin), the protection time achieved with C. sativum essential oil was higher than 60 min. This study adds knowledge about the chemical composition of C. sativum EO as well as to the larvicidal and repellent activity exerted by this EO against A. albopictus. On this basis, we believe that our findings could be useful for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  11. Toxicity of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 25EC) on Anopheles gambiae s.s., Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), and potential biocontrol agent, Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anogwih, Joy A

    2014-08-01

    The toxicity of an emulsifiable formulation of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 25EC) on Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), and predator fish Poecilia reticulata Peters (Pisces: Poeciliidae) was investigated. Acute toxicity tests were carried out to determine the effect of the larvicide on mosquito larvae and fish species. To investigate the nontarget effects on P. reticulata, fish of similar size (3.5 +/- 0.2 cm) were randomly selected and exposed for 28 d, under static renewal bioassay, to sublethal concentrations of the larvicide capable of killing 30 and 70% of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The 24 h LC50 value of pirimiphos methyl on the test organisms ranged between 20.44 and 697.30 microg liter(-1). The ultrastructural changes observed in the intestinal cells of P. reticulata were characterized by degenerating cell membranes with gradual loss of gray area in pycnotic nucleus at lower concentration. Marked damage was found at higher concentration including distinct loss of gray areas in cytosol, absence of cristae, numerous ruptures, and several dead cells. Pirimiphos methyl was toxic to a predatory fish species, and for its relevance in vector control and crop protection, warrants cumulative assessment to establish its comprehensive ecological risk, and the dosage required for field larviciding.

  12. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential in Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B T; Stone, C M; Ebrahimi, B; Briët, O J T; Foster, W A

    2015-03-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for use in experiments on behaviour, reproduction and adult survivorship in the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m(3) ) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito's energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed the easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately using a method that accounts for the loss of a proportion of bodies. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes in which space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. The effect of shade on the container index and pupal productivity of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens breeding in artificial containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, D; Albicócco, A P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether certain attributes of larval breeding sites are correlated with pupal productivity (i.e. numbers of pupae collected per sampling period), so that these could be used as the focus for control measures to enhance control efficiency. Therefore, the objectives were to identify the months of highest pupal productivity of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in an urban temperate cemetery in Argentina where artificial containers of containers and to determine whether the composition of the containers affected pupal productivity. Over a period of 9 months, 200 randomly chosen water-filled containers (100 sunlit and 100 shaded), out of approximately 3738 containers present (approximately 54% in shade), were examined each month within a cemetery (5 ha) in Buenos Aires (October 2006 to June 2007). In total, 3440 immatures of Cx pipiens and 1974 of Ae. aegypti were collected. The larvae : pupae ratio was 10 times greater for the former, indicating that larval mortality was greater for Cx pipiens. Both mosquito species showed a higher container index (CI) in shaded than in sunlit containers (Ae. aegypti: 12.8% vs. 6.9% [chi(2) = 17.6, P container and the number of pupae per pupa-positive container did not differ significantly between sunlit and shaded containers for either species. Therefore, the overall relative productivity of pupae per ha of Ae. aegypti and Cx pipiens was 2.3 and 1.8 times greater, respectively, in shaded than in sunlit areas as a result of the greater CIs of containers in shaded areas. Neither the CI nor the number of immatures per infested container differed significantly among container types of different materials in either lighting condition. The maximum CI and total pupal counts occurred in March for Ae. aegypti and in January and February for Cx pipiens. The estimated peak abundance of pupae in the whole cemetery reached a total of approximately 4388 in the middle of March for Ae

  14. Identification and Transcription Profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): Developmental Regulation and Environmental Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Laboratory in the Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research, University of Florida (Gainesville, FL, USA). The DNA sequence was analyzed using...to National Center for Biotechnology Information; GenBank Accession number: FJ458415. Permethrin experiments Five-day old adult female Ae...mitochondrial DNA and infection with symbiotic cytoplasmic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis in mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex from Russia

  15. Culicidae (Diptera del arco sur de la Laguna de Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina y su importancia sanitaria Culicidae (Diptera from the southern coast of Mar Chiquita Lake (Cordoba, Argentina and their sanitary importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ludueña Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se amplía la lista de veintidos especies de Culicidae citadas para el arco sur de la Laguna de Mar Chiquita a veintiocho. Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribalzaga , Culex acharistus Root, Culex chidesteri Dyar, Haemagogus spegazzinii Brèthes, Mansonia titillans (Walker y Psorophora holmbergi Lynch Arribalzaga se citan por primera vez para la región. Se sintetizan los antecedentes relacionados con la importancia sanitaria de los culícidos de la zona.The list of twenty-two species of Culicidae from the southern coast of Mar Chiquita Lake is extended to twenty-eight. Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribalzaga , Culex acharistus Root, Culex chidesteri Dyar, Haemagogus spegazzinii Brèthes , Mansonia titillans (Walker and Psorophora holmbergi Lynch Arribalzaga are listed for the first time for the region. The available information on sanitary importance of the culicids of the area is summarized.

  16. Evaluation of halofenozide against prey mosquito larvae Culex pipiens and the predator fish Gambusia affinis: impact on growth and enzymatic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, N; Chouahda, S; Smagghe, G

    2008-01-01

    Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most widely distributed mosquito species in Algeria and many other countries in the world. Mosquitoes are generally controlled by conventional insecticides but these may pose strong secondary effects on the environment. In this context, the insect growth regulators (IGRs) have shown promise in controlling pest insects. Halofenozide (23% EC) is a novel IGRs belonging to the class of non-steroidal ecdysone agonists, and it was found toxic for larvae of C. pipiens. In addition biological methods constitute an alternative to chemical control. Several fish species have been tested against mosquitoes, and Gambusia affinis was found very efficient. In the present study we evaluated the impact of this new potent insecticide (halofenozide) on growth and metric indexes in the larvivorous fish G. affinis under laboratory conditions. In addition, the effects were evaluated on the enzymatic activities of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The insecticide was added in water at two concentrations (12.6 and 28.6 microg/L) corresponding to the LC50 and LC90 obtained against fourth instar larvae of C. pipiens, and adult females of G. affinis were exposed to halofenozide for 30 days. At different exposure times we measured the length and weight of fishes, the index of condition (K), the gonado-somatic ratio (GSR) and the hepato-somatic ratio (HSR). The results showed that halofenozide had no significant (p>0.05) effects on growth, metric indexes and AChE activities. However, treatment caused a significant induction (p<0.05) in GST activities at days 15 and 30 with the highest dose. Our results indicate that this ecdysteroid agonist presented only minor secondary effects on the non-target fish species, and so it has potential for controlling of mosquitoes in an integrated manner.

  17. Atividade predatória de Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae sobre formas imaturas de Aedes fluviatilis e Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae em laboratório Predatory activity of Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae on immature forms of Aedes ftuviatilis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut Anna Gertrud Bohlmann Cônsoli

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade predatória, em laboratório, de Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae sobre ovos, larvas e pupas de Aedes fluviatilis e Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae, bem como a influência da presença desses hirudíneos sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas das duas espécies de mosquitos. Experimentos adicionais foram feitos testando a influência da profundidade da água e da sua salinidade sobre a capacidade predatória dos hirudíneos. Nas condições do experimento, foi observada predação de larvas e pupas, porém não de ovos das duas espécies de dípteros. Número estatisticamente menor de desovas foi depositado por fêmeas de Cx. quinquefasciatus em recipientes que continham hirudíneos, não ocorrendo o mesmo com fêmeas de Ae. fluviatilis. As diferentes profundidades de água testadas não interferiram na atividade predatória de H. t. lineata e somente em concentrações acima de 3% de NaCl essa atividade mostrou-se bastante diminuída.Experiments were conducted to determine the predatory activity of Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae on eggs, larvae and pupae of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory, The influence of the leeches on selection, of ovipositing sites by the females of both species of mosquitoes, as well as the role of salinity and water depth in relation to predation were investigated. Larvae and pupae of both species of mosquitoes were efficiently predated, but eggs were not touched. A significantly lower number of eggmasses of Cx. quinquefasciatus were deposited on water containing leeches, but the same did not occur with Ae. fluviatilis. The different depths of water investigated did not interfere with predation and only at concentrations above 3% NaCl was predation considerably diminished.

  18. [Evaluation of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) identified in Manisa province according to their breeding sites and seasonal differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslu, Hasan; Kurt, Ozgür; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    To identify the mosquito species and the potential mosquito-related infectious diseases in Manisa province, mosquito larvae were collected from aquatic habitats in Manisa between October 2008 and October 2009. Mosquito larvae were collected from the surface water of study sites with a standard larvae collection spoon. The 1st and 2nd stage larvae brought to the laboratory were kept until they become adults, and their species were identified during 3rd or 4th larvae stages. In addition, species identification was made for 3rd or 4th stage larvae as well as pupae in aquatic samples, as well. A total of 8098 larvae samples were collected during the study and Culex (Culex) pipiens and Culex (Neoculex) martini were found to be the predominant species in Manisa. Three Culex [Culex (Culex) pipiens, Culex (Neoculex) martini, Culex (Maillotia) deserticola], two Culiseta [Culiseta (Culiseta) annulata, Culiseta (Allotheobaldia) longiareolata] and one Anopheles [Anopheles (Cellia) superpictus] species were identified. Anopheles superpictus, the vector of malaria; Culex pipiens, Culiseta annulata, Culiseta longiareolata, the vectors of tularemia and arbovirus infections such as West Nile Virus infection, were identified in Manisa province. Conduction of similar larger-scale studies will contribute to the prevention of vector-borne diseases in our region.

  19. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.Atividade crepuscular de culicídeos (Diptera, Culicidae no peridomicílio e remanescentes de matas ciliares do Rio Tibagi. Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Mosquitos atraídos por humanos foram coletados por uma hora em torno do crepúsculo vespertino (meia hora antes e meia hora depois, de abril a dezembro de 2006, em dois locais (mata ciliar e peridomicílio na bacia do Rio Tibagi, município de Palmeira, Estado do Paraná. Foram capturados 749 mosquitos distribuídos em 13 espécies. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42,86% e Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40,59% foram as espécies mais freqüentes. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas entre as médias de indivíduos capturados entre os pontos de mata ciliar e peridomicílio para Ps. champerico (t = -0,792; g.l. = 16; p = 0

  20. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (<50%). Less than 20% of trees surveyed at ' Ainahou Ranch had treeholes and few mosquito larvae were detected. Aerial surveys at 'Ainahou Ranch detected 56% (95% CI: 42-68%) of the potential larval habitat identified in ground surveys. At Mauna Loa Strip Road, Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were only found in the rock holes of small intermittent stream drainages that made up 20% (5 of 25) of the total potential larval habitat. The volume of the potential larval habitat did not influence the probability of mosquito occurrence at Mauna Loa Strip Road. Our results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance, and subsequently avian malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  1. Effect of niloticin, a protolimonoid isolated from Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) on the immature stages of dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Balakrishna, Kedike; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of fractions and a compound niloticin from the hexane extract of Limonia acidissima L. leaves on eggs, larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). In these bioassays, the eggs, larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0ppm for compound. After 24h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were calculated for larvae and pupae. Per cent ovicidal activity was calculated for eggs after 120h post treatment. Among the sixteen fractions screened, fraction 8 from the hexane extract of L. acidissima generated good mosquitocidal activity against Ae. aegypti. The LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 8 were 4.11, 8.04ppm against Ae. aegypti larvae and 4.19, 8.10ppm against Ae. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound, niloticin recorded strong larvicidal and pupicidal activities. The 2ppm concentration of niloticin showed 100% larvicidal and pupicidal activities in 24h. The LC50 and LC90 values of niloticin on Ae. aegypti larvae were 0.44, 1.17ppm and on pupae were 0.62, 1.45ppm, respectively. Niloticin presented 83.2% ovicidal activity at 2ppm concentration after 120h post treatment and niloticin exhibited significant growth disruption and morphological deformities at sub lethal concentrations against Ae. aegypti. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of single XRD and spectral data ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and compared with literature spectral data. The results indicate that niloticin could be used as a potential natural mosquitocide.

  2. Genetic deviation in geographically close populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): influence of environmental barriers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Paramasivan, Rajaiah; Dinesh, Devakumar; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, dengue transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of dengue. Shedding light on genetic deviation in A. aegypti populations is of crucial importance to fully understand their molecular ecology and evolution. In this research, haplotype and genetic analyses were conducted using individuals of A. aegypti from 31 localities in the north, southeast, northeast and central regions of Tamil Nadu (South India). The mitochondrial DNA region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene was used as marker for the analyses. Thirty-one haplotypes sequences were submitted to GenBank and authenticated. The complete haplotype set included 64 haplotypes from various geographical regions clustered into three groups (lineages) separated by three fixed mutational steps, suggesting that the South Indian Ae. aegypti populations were pooled and are linked with West Africa, Columbian and Southeast Asian lineages. The genetic and haplotype diversity was low, indicating reduced gene flow among close populations of the vector, due to geographical barriers such as water bodies. Lastly, the negative values for neutrality tests indicated a bottle-neck effect and supported for low frequency of polymorphism among the haplotypes. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to molecular ecology of the dengue vector A. aegypti, providing the first evidence for multiple introductions of Ae. aegypti populations from Columbia and West Africa in South India.

  3. Host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed to vapors of geraniol, citral, citronellal, eugenol, or anisaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huiling; Wei, Jianrong; Dai, Jianqing; Du, Jiawei

    2008-05-01

    The changes of the host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) surviving in a space containing vapors of the spatial repellents geraniol, eugenol, citral, anisaldehyde, or citronellal were evaluated using an arm-in-cage test and a bioassay of bloodmeals on a shaved mouse. The mosquitoes surviving concentrations of geraniol, citral, eugenol, or anisaldehyde at 0.013, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100, and 0.250 microg/cm3 for 24 and 48 h all showed different degrees of reduction in host-seeking ability. After 48 h of exposure to 0.250 microg/cm3 geraniol, almost 100% of the mosquitoes lost their host-seeking ability. The next most potent spatial repellent, anisaldehyde, stopped host seeking by > 85.5%. Citronellal did not result in a significant reduction in the host-seeking ability at any concentration level after either 24 or 48 h of treatment. We also found that reduction of host-seeking ability recovered after various times. The longest recovery time (144 h) was observed for geraniol after 24 h at 0.250 microg/cm3. In the study, geraniol, eugenol, and citral all significantly affected the activation and orientation stages of the blood-feeding behavior. However, only anisaldehyde significantly interrupted the normal blood-feeding of mosquitoes in all stages of behavior. These initial laboratory results clearly showed that anisaldehyde and geraniol could be promising spatial repellents against Ae. albopictus that they could play a major role in new repellent technology.

  4. Laboratory evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weisheng; Huang, Congling; Wang, Kun; Fu, Jiantao; Cheng, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-06-01

    Mosquito control using insecticides has been the most successful intervention known to reduce malaria prevalence or incidence. However, vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In this research, the leaf aqueous leachate of Tephrosia vogelii was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and toward adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea) and Oreochromis niloticus, two non-target aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii was evaluated against fourth-instar larvae, non-blood fed 3-5 days old laboratory strains of A. albopictus under laboratory condition. In addition, the objective of the present work was to study the environmental safety evaluation for aquatic ecosystem. Mortality was then recorded after 7d exposure. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii showed high mosquitocidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, with a LC50=1.18μg/mL. However, it had a remarkable acute toxicity also toward adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50=0.47μg/L and O. niloticus with a LC50=5.31μg/L. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae in the aquatic ecosystem, as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. The extract could be used in stagnant water bodies for the control of mosquitoes acting as vector for many communicable diseases.

  5. Larvicidal and Pupicidal Activities of Alizarin Isolated from Roots of Rubia cordifolia Against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, M R; Reegan, A D; Ganesan, P; Sivasankaran, K; Paulraj, M G; Balakrishna, K; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A

    2016-08-01

    The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions and a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were estimated for larvae and pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 and 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.86 and 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, and 3.76 and 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.92 and 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal and pupicidal activities. LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 and 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and 1.31 and 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 and 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 2.05 and 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide and pupicide.

  6. Landscape factors influencing the spatial distribution and abundance of mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mixed residential-agricultural community in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito-borne avian diseases, principally avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox (Avipoxvirus sp.) have been implicated as the key limiting factor associated with recent declines of endemic avifauna in the Hawaiian Island archipelago. We present data on the relative abundance, infection status, and spatial distribution of the primary mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) across a mixed, residential-agricultural community adjacent to Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on Hawai'i Island. We modeled the effect of agriculture and forest fragmentation in determining relative abundance of adult Cx. quinquefasciatus in Volcano Village, and we implement our statistical model in a geographic information system to generate a probability of mosquito capture prediction surface for the study area. Our model was based on biweekly captures of adult mosquitoes from 20 locations within Volcano Village from October 2001 to April 2003. We used mixed effects logistic regression to model the probability of capturing a mosquito, and we developed a set of 17 competing models a priori to specifically evaluate the effect of agriculture and fragmentation (i.e., residential landscapes) at two spatial scales. In total, 2,126 mosquitoes were captured in CO 2-baited traps with an average probability of 0.27 (SE = 0.10) of capturing one or more mosquitoes per trap night. Twelve percent of mosquitoes captured were infected with P. relictum. Our data indicate that agricultural lands and forest fragmentation significantly increase the probability of mosquito capture. The prediction surface identified areas along the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary that may have high relative abundance of the vector. Our data document the potential of avian malaria transmission in residential-agricultural landscapes and support the need for vector management that extends beyond reserve boundaries and considers a reserve's spatial position in a highly

  7. Egg Hatching and Survival of Immature Stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Under Natural Temperature Conditions During the Cold Season in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Majo, María Sol; Montini, Pedro; Fischer, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    In temperate regions, the seasonal dynamics of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is mainly influenced by temperature. It is assumed that, during the winter season, the population remains as eggs and that the development and population growth of surviving eggs begin during the following spring. The aim of the current study was to assess egg hatching of Ae. aegypti during the winter in Buenos Aires city (Argentina), and analyze the survival of immature stages. The experiments consisted of immersing eggs and studying the development of immature stages of cohorts from June and September under natural temperature conditions. The proportion of hatched eggs was compared between weeks of immersion and related to environmental variables. Survival was compared among cohorts and the development rate was related to the mean temperature during development. The results showed that, with few exceptions, egg hatching was over 45% during the winter period. The proportion of hatched eggs was positively associated with immersion temperature, pre-immersion temperature and photoperiod. The immature stages completed the development during the cold season, with a trend toward increased survival of late-hatching cohorts. Survival was 30% at 13.2 °C and above 90% at 20 °C, whereas the development time at low temperatures was 49.4 d at 13.2 °C and 17.7 d at 20 °C. The high hatching and survival compared with other studies suggest that the local population might be adapting to winter conditions. The anticipated emergence of adults would be adaptive if they are able to reproduce successfully in the early spring.

  8. Population structure and gene flow of Anopheles farauti s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) among ten sites on five islands of Vanuatu: implications for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, D M; Kaneko, A; Taleo, G; Amos, M; Lum, J K

    2007-07-01

    The Anopheles punctulatus (Diptera: Culicidae) group is the main vector for malaria and Bancroftian filariasis in Vanuatu. Anopheles larvae were collected from 10 localities on five islands of Vanuatu during the 2004 dry season for species identification as well as for estimating population structure and gene flow within and among islands. Species identification was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region. Population structure and gene flow were examined by sequencing a portion of the ND4/ND5 region of the mitochondrial genome. Only one species of the An. punctulatus group, An. farauti s.s., was identified, consistent with previous studies in Vanuatu. A nonrandom distribution of An. farauti s.s. lineages was observed with one cosmopolitan lineage shared by eight sites on all five islands and a preponderance of island-specific lineages (36/40), indicating the introduction of a single main lineage into Vanuatu followed by dispersal, diversification, and limited lineage exchange between islands. Network analysis suggests a possible second introduction of An. farauti s.s. into the northern islands of Gaua and Malekula. Gene flow was high on three of the five islands, whereas Tanna and Santo have significant population structure. Among islands, gene flow was limited, indicating active mosquito dispersal only over short distances and a paucity of passive human-mediated dispersal over long distances. Minimal risk of active dispersal among these islands indicates that vector control can be effectively initiated at the island level within the archipelago of Vanuatu.

  9. Encontro de Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae, no Município de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Finding of Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae, in the municipality of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Em novembro de 2006, foi realizada uma investigação entomológica numa mata nativa do município de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O resultado foi a captura de várias espécies Culicidae, incluindo o primeiro registro da presença de Haemagogus leucocelaenus na localidade. Esta espécie é considerada vetora do vírus da febre amarela em alguns municípios do Estado, motivando esta comunicação para alertar sobre o potencial da área para circulação do agente etiológico desta doença.In November 2006, an entomological investigation was carried out in a native forest in the municipality of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The result was the capture of several Culicidae species, including the first recording of the presence of Haemagogus leucocelaenus in this locality. This species is considered to be a vector for the yellow fever virus in some municipalities of this State, and this was the motivation for the present communication, in order to warn regarding the potential of this area for circulation of the etiological agent for this disease.

  10. [Culicidae (Diptera) in the dam area bordering the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Almério C; Paula, Marcia B; Vitor Neto, João B; Borsari, Rodrigo; Ferraudo, Antonio S

    2009-01-01

    The Culicidae composition of the Barra Grande Lake situated between the municipalities of Esmeralda (Rio Grande do Sul State) and Anita Garibaldi (Santa Catarina State) was assessed by monthly samplings. Twenty-four species were identified from a total of 1,185 specimens (74.7% as adults and 25.3% as immatures), with Aedes fluviatilis Lutz as the most frequent species. Several species are new records, and some of them are of public health interest. It is suggested that local environmental changes may alter the relationship between humans and vector mosquitoes.

  11. Medical Entomology Studies - XI. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Oriental Region with Keys to the Species (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 ( Insecta , Diptera); proposed validation and interpretation under the plenary powers of the species so named. Z. N. (S.) 1216...Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology. Part II. Filariasis. Mem. Lpool. Sch. Trop. Med. 4 (Ap. ) ii: l-14. Huang: Aedes

  12. Larvicidal activity of selected plant hydrodistillate extracts against the house mosquito, Culex pipiens, a West Nile virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Huseyin; Yanikoglu, Atila; Cilek, James E

    2011-04-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Hypericum scabrum L., Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler, and Vitex agnus castus L. was investigated against the West Nile vector, Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Yield and identification of the major essential oils from each distillation was determined by GC-MS analyses. The major essential oil component for each plant species was as follows: α-pinene for P. terebinthus palaestina, and H. scabrum (45.3% and 42.3%, respectively), trans-β-caryophyllene for V. agnus castus (22.1%), and borneol for C. coronarium (20.9%). A series of distillate concentrations from these plants (that ranged from 1 ppm to 500 ppm, depending on plant species) were assessed against late third to early fourth C. pipiens larvae at 1, 6, and 24 h posttreatment. In general, larval mortality to water treated with a distillate increased as concentration and exposure time increased. H. scabrum and P. terebinthus palaestina were most effective against the mosquito larvae and both produced 100% mortality at 250 ppm at 24-h continuous exposure compared with the other plant species. Larval toxicity of the distillates at 24 h (LC(50) from most toxic to less toxic) was as follows: P. terebinthus palaestina (59.2 ppm) > H. scabrum (82.2 ppm) > V. agnus castus (83.3 ppm) > C. coronarium (311.2 ppm). But when LC(90) values were compared, relative toxicity ranking changed as follows: H. scabrum (185.9 ppm) > V. agnus castus (220.7 ppm) > P. terebinthus palaestina (260.7 ppm) > C. coronarium (496.3 ppm). Extracts of native Turkish plants continue to provide a wealth of potential sources for biologically active agents that may be applied against arthropod pests of man and animals.

  13. Species composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Nasab, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi; Aarabi, Mohsen; Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Enayati, Ahmadali

    2016-05-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the past years in management of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and West Nile fever through research in biology and ecology of the vectors, these diseases are still major threats to human health. Therefore, more research is required for better management of the diseases. This investigation provides information on the composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. In a large scale field study, mosquito larvae were collected from 120 sentinel sites in 16 counties in Mazandaran Province, using standard 350 ml dipper. Sampling took place monthly from May to December 2014. Collected larvae were mounted on glass slides using de Faure's medium and were diagnosed using morphological characters. Totally, 19,840 larvae were collected including three genera and 16 species from 120 larval habitats, as follows: Anopheles claviger, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Anopheles marteri, Anopheles plumbeus, Anopheles pseudopictus, Culex pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex torrentium, Culex perexiguus, Culex territans, Culex mimeticus, Culex hortensis, Culiseta annulata, Culiseta longiareolata, and Culiseta morsitans. Predominant species were Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. which show the highest co-occurrence. The pair of species An. hyrcanus/An. pseudopictus showed significant affinity and association. High co-occurrence of the predominant species Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. in the study area is of considerable importance in terms of vector ecology. It was also revealed that An. pseudopictus/An. hyrcanus often occur sympatrically indicating their common habitat requirements. The information may be equally important when vector control measures are considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Laboratory Transmission of Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses by Molestus Form of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Collected in Uzbekistan in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    variety of incubation periods, the dissemination rate increased after 14-d extrinsic incubation and was 80% for those Cx. pipi - ens held for 16Ð25 d at...1983. The effect of laboratory colonization on the vector pathogen interactions of Egyptian Culex pipi - ens and Rift Valley fever virus. Am. J. Trop.Med

  15. Host-Feeding Patterns of Native Culex pipiens and Invasive Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Urban Zones From Barcelona, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Eritja, Roger; Alcaide, Miguel;

    2011-01-01

    The feeding patterns of haematophagous arthropods are of major importance in the ampliÞcation and transmission of infectious disease agents to vertebrate hosts, including humans. The establishment of new vector populations in nonnative range might alter transmission networks. The Asian tiger mosq...

  16. Diversidade de Culicidae durante os períodos crepusculares em bioma de Floresta Atlântica e paridade de Anopheles cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae Diversity of Culicidae during the crepuscular periods in Atlantic Forest biome and parity of Anopheles cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. D. Bona

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da investigação foi analisar a variação da diversidade e abundância das espécies de Culicidae e sua relação com algumas variáveis ambientais, bem como estimar a taxa de paridade de Anopheles cruzii Dyar & Knab, 1908. O estudo foi desenvolvido em Floresta Ombrófila Densa da Mata Atlântica, localizada no Estado do Paraná, denominada de Floresta Estadual do Palmito. As capturas foram executadas quinzenalmente, de dezembro 2006 a março 2007, com a técnica de "aspiração menor", nos crepúsculos vespertino e matutino, iniciando antes dos crepúsculos e finalizando após os crepúsculos. Foram detectadas 25 espécies, sendo as mais abundantes, Anopheles cruzii (65,2%, Culex sachettae Sirivanakarn & Jacob, 1982 (11,2% e Anopheles bellator Dyar & Knab, 1906 (8,5%. De acordo com análise de variância, ocorreu diferença significativa na freqüência entre os períodos crepusculares para seguintes espécies: Aedes scapularis (Rondone, 1848 (p = 0,03651, Coquillettidia chrysonotum (Peryassu, 1922 (p = 0,00795, Mansonia fonsecai (Pinto, 1932 (p = 0,00804, e Runchomyia theobaldi Lane & Cerqueira, 1934 (p = 0,01996. Não houve correlação significativa com a abundância das principais espécies capturadas e as médias dos fatores abióticos avaliados. A taxa de paridade de Anopheles cruzii atingiu média percentual de 48%, não existindo correlação entre a abundância e a taxa de paridade. O crepúsculo exerce influência no comportamento apetente das espécies de Culicidae. A comparação de similaridade entre os crepúsculos apontou para elevada semelhança da composição específica. Anopheles cruzii atingiu dominância nos períodos vespertino e matutino, sendo a diversidade de forma geral reduzida nestes períodos.The aim of this investigation was to know the diversity and abundance of Culicidae associating with the climatic factors and obtaining the parity of Anopheles cruzii Dyar & Knab, 1908. The study was developed in a

  17. Changes in species richness and spatial distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) inferred from museum specimen records and a recent inventory: a case study from Belgium suggests recent expanded distribution of arbovirus and malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoninck, W; Hendrickx, F; Versteirt, V; Coosemans, M; De Clercq, E M; Hendrickx, G; Hance, T; Grootaert, P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) distribution data from a recent inventory of native and invading mosquito species in Belgium were compared with historical data from the period 1900-1960 that were retrieved from a revision of the Belgian Culicidae collection at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Both data sets were used to investigate trends in mosquito species richness in several regions in Belgium. The relative change in distribution area of mosquito species was particularly important for species that use waste waters and used tires as larval habitats and species that recently shifted their larval habitat to artificial larval habitats. More importantly, several of these species are known as vectors of arboviruses and Plasmodium sp. and the apparent habitat shift of some of them brought these species in proximity to humans. Similar studies comparing current mosquito richness with former distribution data retrieved from voucher specimens from collections is therefore encouraged because they can generate important information concerning health risk assessment at both regional and national scale.

  18. Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. CAMPOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.

  19. A 2-yr Mosquito Survey Focusing on Aedes koreicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northern Italy and Implications for Adult Trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, F; Montarsi, F; Arnoldi, D; Barategui, C; Ferro Milone, N; Da Rold, G; Capelli, G; Rizzoli, A

    2017-05-01

    Aedes koreicus (Edwards) is an invasive mosquito species, like Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald), that has already colonized a large part of northeastern Italy and other European countries. Despite its rapid expansion, information about adult distribution and trapping is lacking. Here, we conducted a 2-yr longitudinal survey using adult traps to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of Ae. koreicus and evaluated the effectiveness of three trapping devices in Latin square experiments conducted in an urban site and a forested site. The following three different traps were compared: a CO2-baited Biogents (BG) Sentinel trap, a CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap (CDC trap), and a grass infusion-baited gravid trap.In northern Italy, Ae. koreicus was collected from late April to early November, with peak of abundance observed in August. Aedes koreicus was more abundant in 2015 than in 2014 because of higher temperatures during summer. Unlike Ae. albopictus, the abundance of Ae. koreicus was not related to the altitude of the sampling locations in the range 241-660 m above sea level. The BG Sentinel and gravid traps collected significantly more Ae. koreicus than the CDC trap in the urban site, whereas there was no significant difference between the three traps in the forested site. In the urban site, the BG Sentinel trap and the gravid trap were the most effective for collecting Ae. albopictus and Culex pipiens L., respectively. In the forested site, Cx. pipiens was primarily collected by the CDC trap. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Udaiyan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Marcello; Barnard, Donald R; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes mosquitoes lead to high operational costs and adverse nontarget effects. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. We proposed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri, a cheap and nontoxic material. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of nanoparticles. SEM analyses of the synthesized nanoparticles showed a mean size of 30-60 nm. EDX spectrum showed the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. XRD highlighted that the nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of nanoparticles exhibited prominent peaks 3,327.63, 2,125.87, 1,637.89, 644.35, 597.41, and 554.63 cm(-1). In laboratory assays, the aqueous extract of P. niruri was toxic against larval instars (I-IV) and pupae of A. aegypti. LC50 was 158.24 ppm (I), 183.20 ppm (II), 210.53 ppm (III), 210.53 ppm (IV), and 358.08 ppm (pupae). P. niruri-synthesized nanoparticles were highly effective against A. aegypti, with LC50 of 3.90 ppm (I), 5.01 ppm (II), 6.2 ppm (III), 8.9 ppm (IV), and 13.04 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) lead to A. aegypti larval reduction of 47.6%, 76.7% and 100%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, while the P. niruri extract lead to 39.9%, 69.2 % and 100 % of reduction, respectively. In adulticidal experiments, P. niruri extract

  1. Repellent effect of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) essential oils against the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Benelli, Giovanni; Leonardi, Michele; Afifi, Fatma U; Cervelli, Claudio; Profeti, Raffaele; Pistelli, Luisa; Canale, Angelo

    2012-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) has been one of the fastest spreading insects over the past 20 years. Its medical importance is due to the aggressive daytime human-biting behavior and the ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, LaCrosse, Eastern Equine encephalitis and West Nile viruses. In this research, the essential oils (EOs) extracted from fresh air dried leaves of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) were evaluated for their repellent activity against A. albopictus by using the human-bait technique. The EOs chemical composition was also investigated, and EOs were divided in three different profiles on the basis of their chemical composition: EO with large amount of monoterpenes from S. sclarea, EO rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes from S. dorisiana, and S. longifolia EO characterized by similar percentages of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The efficacy protection from S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs, at dosages ranging from 0.004 to 0.4 μL cm(-2) of skin, was evaluated during 120 min of observation. Results indicated that S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs had a significant repellent activity (RD(50) =0.00035, 0.00049, and 0.00101 μL cm(-2), respectively), with differences in repellency rates, as a function of oil, dosage, and observation time. S. dorisiana was the most effective oil: at the two higher dosages, it gave almost complete protection (with a protective efficacy of 90.99% and 95.62%, respectively) for 90 min. The best protection time was achieved with S. dorisiana essential oil. It ranged from 9.2 to 92.4 min. Protection times of S. longifolia and S. sclarea oils ranged from 3.2 to 60 min, and from 3.6 to 64.2 min, respectively. Our findings clearly reveal that these EOs have a good repellent activity against A. albopictus, therefore they can be proposed to improve the efficacy of repellent formulations against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  2. Larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal efficacy of Erythrina indica (Lam.) (Family: Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-02-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and Japanese encephalitis. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Erythrina indica against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of E. indica against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values of 69.43, 75.13, and 91.41 ppm and 125.49, 134.31, and 167.14 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of E. indica against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus exerted 100 % mortality (zero hatchability) at 150, 200, and 250 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed above 99.3-100 % hatchability. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and

  3. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  4. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to availability of human and domestic animals in suburban landscapes of central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Apperson, Charles S

    2006-05-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major nuisance mosquito and a potential arbovirus vector. The host-feeding patterns of Ae. albopictus were investigated during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons in suburban neighborhoods in Wake County, Raleigh, NC. Hosts of blood-fed Ae. albopictus (n = 1,094) were identified with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, by using antisera made in New Zealand White rabbits to the sera of animals that would commonly occur in peridomestic habitats. Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on mammalian hosts (83%). Common mammalian hosts included humans (24%), cats (21%), and dogs (14%). However, a notable proportion (7%) of bloodmeals also was taken from avian hosts. Some bloodmeals taken from birds were identified to species by a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay (PCR-HDA). Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on chickens and a northern cardinal. PCR-HDA failed to produce detectable products for 29 (58%) of 50 bloodmeals for which DNA had been amplified, indicating that these mosquitoes took mixed bloodmeals from avian and nonavian hosts. Ae. albopictus preference for humans, dogs, and cats was determined by calculating host-feeding indices for the three host pairs based on the proportion of host specific blood-fed mosquitoes collected in relation to the number of specific hosts per residence as established by a door-to-door survey conducted in 2003. Estimates of the average amount of time that residents and their pets (cats and dogs) spent out of doors were obtained. Host-feeding indices based only on host abundance indicated that Ae. albopictus was more likely to feed on domestic animals. However, when feeding indices were time-weighted, Ae. albopictus fed preferentially upon humans. Ae. albopictus blood feeding on humans was investigated using a STR/PCR-DNA profiling technique that involved amplification of three short tandem repeats loci. Of 40 human bloodmeals, 32 (80%) were from a single human, whereas

  5. Population Dynamics and Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) Infectivity Rates for the Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) at Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandalo, Leonard C; Brooke, Basil D; Munhenga, Givemore; Lobb, Leanne N; Zikhali, Jabulani; Ngxongo, Sifiso P; Zikhali, Phineas M; Msimang, Sipho; Wood, Oliver R; Mofokeng, Mohlominyana; Misiani, Eunice; Chirwa, Tobias; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2017-09-06

    Anopheles arabiensis (Patton; Diptera: Culicidae) is a major malaria vector in the southern African region. In South Africa, effective control of this species using indoor-based interventions is reduced owing to its tendency to rest outdoors. As South Africa moves towards malaria elimination there is a need for complementary vector control strategies. One of the methods under consideration is the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Key to the successful implementation of an SIT programme is prior knowledge of the size and spatial distribution of the target population. Understanding mosquito population dynamics for both males and females is critical for efficient programme implementation. It is thus necessary to use outdoor-based population monitoring tools capable of sampling both sexes of the target population. In this project mosquito surveillance and evaluation of tools capable of collecting both genders were carried out at Mamfene in northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, during the period January 2014 to December 2015. Outdoor- and indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled in three sections of Mamfene over the 2-yr sampling period using modified plastic buckets, clay pots and window exit traps. Morphological and molecular techniques were used for species identifications of all samples. Wild-caught adult females were tested for Plasmodium falciparum (Welch; Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) infectivity. Out of 1,705 mosquitoes collected, 1,259 (73.8%) and 255 (15%) were identified as members of either the Anopheles gambiae complex or Anopheles funestus group respectively. An. arabiensis was the most abundant species contributing 78.8% of identified specimens. Mosquito density was highest in summer and lowest during winter. Clay pots yielded 16.3 mosquitoes per trap compared to 10.5 for modified plastic buckets over the 2-yr sampling period. P. falciparum infection rates for An. arabiensis were 0.7% and 0.5% for 2014 and 2015, respectively

  6. Using remote sensing to map larval and adult populations of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae a potential malaria vector in Southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger François

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although malaria disappeared from southern France more than 60 years ago, suspicions of recent autochthonous transmission in the French Mediterranean coast support the idea that the area could still be subject to malaria transmission. The main potential vector of malaria in the Camargue area, the largest river delta in southern France, is the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae. In the context of recent climatic and landscape changes, the evaluation of the risk of emergence or re-emergence of such a major disease is of great importance in Europe. When assessing the risk of emergence of vector-borne diseases, it is crucial to be able to characterize the arthropod vector's spatial distribution. Given that remote sensing techniques can describe some of the environmental parameters which drive this distribution, satellite imagery or aerial photographs could be used for vector mapping. Results In this study, we propose a method to map larval and adult populations of An. hyrcanus based on environmental indices derived from high spatial resolution imagery. The analysis of the link between entomological field data on An. hyrcanus larvae and environmental indices (biotopes, distance to the nearest main productive breeding sites of this species i.e., rice fields led to the definition of a larval index, defined as the probability of observing An. hyrcanus larvae in a given site at least once over a year. Independent accuracy assessments showed a good agreement between observed and predicted values (sensitivity and specificity of the logistic regression model being 0.76 and 0.78, respectively. An adult index was derived from the larval index by averaging the larval index within a buffer around the trap location. This index was highly correlated with observed adult abundance values (Pearson r = 0.97, p An. hyrcanus larval and adult populations from the landscape indices. Conclusion This work shows that it is possible to use

  7. Spatiotemporal variation of mosquito diversity (Diptera: Culicidae) at places with different land-use types within a neotropical montane cloud forest matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella-Medrano, Carlos Antonio; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego

    2015-09-24

    Land-use change has led to a dramatic decrease in total forest cover, contributing to biodiversity loss and changes of ecosystems' functions. Insect communities of medical importance can be favored by anthropogenic alterations, increasing the risk of novel zoonotic diseases. The response of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance and richness to five land-use types (shade coffee plantation, cattle field, urban forest, peri-urban forest, well-preserved montane cloud forest) and three seasons ("dry", "rainy" and "cold") embedded in a neotropical montane cloud forest landscape was evaluated. Standardized collections were performed using 8 CDC miniature black-light traps, baited with CO2 throughout the year. Generalized additive mixed models were used to describe the seasonal and spatial trends of both species richness and abundance. Rank abundance curves and ANCOVAs were used to detect changes in the spatial and temporal structure of the mosquito assemblage. Two cluster analyses were conducted, using 1-βsim and the Morisita-Horn index to evaluate species composition shifts based on incidences and abundances. A total of 2536 adult mosquitoes were collected, belonging to 9 genera and 10 species; the dominant species in the study were: Aedes quadrivittatus, Wyeomyia adelpha, Wy. arthrostigma, and Culex restuans. Highest richness was recorded in the dry season, whereas higher abundance was detected during the rainy season. The urban forest had the highest species richness (n = 7) when compared to all other sites. Species composition cluster analyses show that there is a high degree of similarity in species numbers across sites and seasons throughout the year. However, when considering the abundance of such species, the well-preserved montane cloud forest showed significantly higher abundance. Moreover, the urban forest is only 30 % similar to other sites in terms of species abundances, indicating a possible isolating role of the urban environment. Mosquito

  8. Culicidae (Diptera selection of humans, chickens and rabbits in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Stein

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to determine the selection of humans, chickens and rabbits by Culicidae in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina. Mosquitoes were collected fortnightly using cylindrical metal traps containing animal bait (chickens and rabbits. The mosquitoes were collected between June 2001-May 2002. During the same period and with the same frequency, mosquitoes biting the human operators of the traps were collected during the first 15 min of exposure within different time intervals: from 09:00 am-11:00 am, 01:00 pm-03:00 pm, 05:00 pm-07:00 pm and 09:00 pm-10:00 pm. A total of 19,430 mosquitoes of 49 species belonging to 10 genera were collected. Culex species mainly selected chicken bait and Wyeomyia species selected rabbit bait. Ochlerotatus and Psorophora species were more abundant in rabbit-baited traps. Anopheles triannulatus, Coquillettidia nigricans, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Mansonia titillans and Psorophora albigenu showed a strong attraction for human bait. The Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex and Mansonia species were more active between 05:00 pm-09:00 pm, while Ochlerotatus, Psorophora, Haemagogus and Wyeomyia were most active from 09:00 am-07:00 pm. This study provides additional information about the biology and ecology of arbovirus vectors in Chaco.

  9. First report of Coelomomyces santabrancae sp. nov. (Blastocladiomycetes: Blastocladiales) infecting mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Páramo, M E; Montalva, C; Arruda, W; Fernandes, É K K; Luz, C; Humber, R A

    2017-10-01

    A project from 2013 to 2017 sought to discover pathogenic fungi and oomycetes from dipteran species that are vectors of major diseases of humans and animals in central Brazil and to begin evaluating the potential of these pathogens as potential biological control agents concentrated on mosquito larvae. Some collecting sites proved to be especially productive for pathogens of naturally occurring mosquito species and for placements of healthy sentinel larvae of Aedes aegypti in various sorts of containers in a gallery forest in the Santa Branca Ecoturismo Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) near Terezópolis de Goiás (GO). Collections during May-April of 2016 and February 2017 yielded a few dead mosquito larvae of an undetermined Onirion sp. (Culicidae: Sabethini) whose hemocoels contained many ovoid, thick-walled, yellow-golden to golden-brown, ovoid thick-walled resistant sporangia, 38.3±4×22.8±2.3µm, decorated by numerous, closely and randomly spaced punctations of variable size and shape. These were the first indisputable collections from Brazil of any Coelomomyces species. Comparisons of the morphology of these sporangia with those of other species of Coelomomyces, confirmed that this Brazilian fungus represented a new species that is described here as Coelomomyces santabrancae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Potential mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vector of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis in urban areas of Eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocková, Eva; Iglódyová, Adriana; Kočišová, Alica

    2015-12-01

    This paper follows the study from 2013 focused on the molecular screening of mosquitoes as vectors of Dirofilaria spp. which provided the information on Aedes vexans as a potential vector of Dirofilaria repens in Slovakia. Current entomological and molecular research indicates that Ae. vexans can participate also in the transmission of Dirofilaria immitis within the region. Using the standard PCR method, we examined 10,500 mosquitoes (Ae. vexans, Ae. rossicus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Ochlerotatus sticticus, Ochlerotatus cantans, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culex pipiens/Culex torrentium, Coquillettidia richiardii), collected using CO2-baited traps at six locations in the Eastern Slovakia. Out of 105 pools, 6 pools of mosquitoes Ae. vexans were positive for D. repens DNA (minimum infective rate in Ae. vexas was 6:6.900, i.e. 0.8 per 1.000 mosquitoes), within which 4 were concurrently positive for D. immitis (minimum infective rate in Ae. vexans was 4:6.900 i.e. 0.5 per 1.000 mosquitoes).

  11. Epidemiology of West Nile infection in Volgograd, Russia, in relation to climate change and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bionomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, Alexander E; Fedorova, Marina V; Karan, Ludmila S; Shopenskaya, Tatyana A; Platonova, Olga V; Zhuravlev, Vitaly I

    2008-12-01

    In 1999, there was the large outbreak of West Nile fever (WNF) in Southern Russia (>500 cases in the Volgograd Province). In 2000-2004, the WNF incidence rate decreased steadily to zero, but a new outbreak occurred in 2007 (64 cases). The analysis of historical climate data for Volgograd from 1900 to present showed that the years 1999 and 2007 were the hottest ones due to a very mild "winter" (Dec.-Mar.) and a hot "summer" (June-Sep.). There are up to 15 potential WNF vectors in Volgograd, but only Culex pipiens and Culex modestus are abundant in late summer, both in urban and rural settings. Only these species are naturally attracted to and feed on both humans and birds. The RNA of pathogenic WN virus genovariant was found by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction only in Culex mosquitoes at the infection rate of about 0.04%. So these species may be considered as potential WNF "bridge vectors" between birds and humans as well as main vectors in sylvatic avain cycle. Their abundance in an epidemic season was higher in the years with a mild winter and a hot summer, so this phenomenon may serve as a connecting link between a climate and WNF epidemiology. These findings give some hints on the predisposing factors for WNF epidemic as well as the possibility to predict WNF outbreaks in the temperate climate zones.

  12. Composition and Genetic Diversity of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on Islands and Mainland Shores of Kenya's Lakes Victoria and Baringo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Villinger, Jandouwe; Omondi, David; Salifu, Daisy; Onchuru, Thomas Ogao; Njoroge, Laban; Muigai, Anne W T; Masiga, Daniel K

    2016-11-01

    The Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria regions of Kenya are associated with high seroprevalence of mosquito-transmitted arboviruses. However, molecular identification of potential mosquito vector species, including morphologically identified ones, remains scarce. To estimate the diversity, abundance, and distribution of mosquito vectors on the mainland shores and adjacent inhabited islands in these regions, we collected and morphologically identified adult and immature mosquitoes and obtained the corresponding sequence variation at cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) gene regions. A total of 63 species (including five subspecies) were collected from both study areas, 47 of which have previously been implicated as disease vectors. Fourteen species were found only on island sites, which are rarely included in mosquito diversity surveys. We collected more mosquitoes, yet with lower species composition, at Lake Baringo (40,229 mosquitoes, 32 species) than at Lake Victoria (22,393 mosquitoes, 54 species). Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene sequences revealed Culex perexiguus and Cx tenagius that could not be distinguished morphologically. Most Culex species clustered into a heterogeneous clade with closely related sequences, while Culex pipiens clustered into two distinct COI and ITS2 clades. These data suggest limitations in current morphological identification keys. This is the first DNA barcode report of Kenyan mosquitoes. To improve mosquito species identification, morphological identifications should be supported by their molecular data, while diversity surveys should target both adults and immatures. The diversity of native mosquito disease vectors identified in this study impacts disease transmission risks to humans and livestock.

  13. The ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County (Luristan province, western Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Hamid; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Kassiri, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    To determine ecology and characteristics of the larval habitats of the genus Anopheles (Dipetra: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County, western Iran. This descriptive cross-sectional research was carried out to study the anopheline larvae ecology in seven rural districts, Aligudarz County, from late April to late November 1997. Larvae were captured using the dipping method. Larval breeding places characteristics were noted according to water situation (turbid or clean, stagnant or running), substrate type, site type (man-made or natural), sunlight situation, site situation (transient or permanent, with or without vegetation). A total of 9 620 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Anopheles from 115 breeding places in 22 villages were captured, which belonged to the following species: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles d'thali, Anopheles apoci, Anopheles superpictus (forms A and B), Anopheles marterii sogdianus, Anopheles turkhodi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles claviger. Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles apoci were collected for the first time in this county. Anopheles superpictus (93.18%) was the most prevailed one and dispersed over the entire region. Larval habitats consisted of nine natural and three artificial larval habitats. The most important larval habitats were river edges (54.8%), rice fields (12.2%), and grassland (8.7%) with permanent or transient, stagnant or running and clean water, with or without vegetation, sand or mud substrate in full sunlight area. Regarding this research, river edges and rice fields are the most important breeding places of malaria vectors in Aligudarz County. It is worthy of note in larvicidal programs.

  14. Diversity and abundance of mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) in an urban park: larval habitats and temporal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio R; Ceretti-Júnior, Walter; de Carvalho, Gabriela C; Nardi, Marcello S; Araujo, Alessandra B; Vendrami, Daniel P; Marrelli, Mauro T

    2015-10-01

    Urban parks are areas designated for human recreation but also serve as shelter and refuge for populations of several species of native fauna, both migratory and introduced. In Brazil, the effect of annual climate variations on Aedes aegypti and dengue epidemics in large cities like São Paulo is well known, but little is known about how such variations can affect the diversity of mosquito vectors in urban parks and the risk of disease transmission by these vectors. This study investigates the influence of larval habitats and seasonal factors on the diversity and abundance of Culicidae fauna in Anhanguera Park, one of the largest remaining green areas in the city of São Paulo. Species composition and richness and larval habitats were identified. Seasonality (cold-dry and hot-rainy periods) and year were considered as explanatory variables and the models selection approach was developed to investigate the relationship of these variables with mosquito diversity and abundance. A total of 11,036 specimens from 57 taxa distributed in 13 genera were collected. Culex nigripalpus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus were the most abundant species. Bamboo internodes and artificial breeding sites showed higher abundance, while ponds and puddles showed greater richness. Significant relationships were observed between abundance and seasonality, with a notable increase in the mosquitos abundance in the warm-rainy periods. The Shannon and Berger-Parker indices were related with interaction between seasonality and year, however separately these predictors showed no relationship with ones. The increased abundance of mosquitoes in warm-rainy months and the fact that some of the species are epidemiologically important increase not only the risk of pathogen transmission to people who frequent urban parks but also the nuisance represented by insect bites. The findings of this study highlight the importance of knowledge of culicid ecology in green areas in urban environments.

  15. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages associated with Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads in Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Tatiani C; Bourke, Brian P; Laporta, Gabriel Z; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2012-02-16

    The most substantial and best preserved area of Atlantic Forest is within the biogeographical sub-region of Serra do Mar. The topographic complexity of the region creates a diverse array of microclimates, which can affect species distribution and diversity inside the forest. Given that Atlantic Forest includes highly heterogeneous environments, a diverse and medically important Culicidae assemblage, and possible species co-occurrence, we evaluated mosquito assemblages from bromeliad phytotelmata in Serra do Mar (southeastern Brazil). Larvae and pupae were collected monthly from Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads between July 2008 and June 2009. Collection sites were divided into landscape categories (lowland, hillslope and hilltop) based on elevation and slope. Correlations between bromeliad mosquito assemblage and environmental variables were assessed using multivariate redundancy analysis. Differences in species diversity between bromeliads within each category of elevation were explored using the Renyi diversity index. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess species co-occurrence. A total of 2,024 mosquitoes belonging to 22 species were collected. Landscape categories (pseudo-F value = 1.89, p = 0.04), bromeliad water volume (pseudo-F = 2.99, p = 0.03) and bromeliad fullness (Pseudo-F = 4.47, p mosquito assemblage structure. Renyi diversity index show that lowland possesses the highest diversity indices. The presence of An. homunculus was associated with Cx. ocellatus and the presence of An. cruzii was associated with Cx. neglectus, Cx. inimitabilis fuscatus and Cx. worontzowi. Anopheles cruzii and An. homunculus were taken from the same bromeliad, however, the co-occurrence between those two species was not statistically significant. One of the main findings of our study was that differences in species among mosquito assemblages were influenced by landscape characteristics. The bromeliad factor that influenced mosquito abundance and

  16. Additions to the aquatic diptera (Chaoboridae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Tipulidae) fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chapman, Eric G.

    2004-01-01

    The dipteran fauna of Arkansas is generally poorly known. A previous study of the Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, the largest refuge in Arkansas, reported only 12 diptera taxa out of 219 taxa collected (Chordas et al., 1996). Most of the dipterans from this study were identified only to the family level. The family Chironomidae is a large, diverse group and was predicted to be much more diverse in the refuge than indicated by previous studies. In this study, Chironomidae were targeted, with other aquatic or semiaquatic dipterans also retained, in collections designed to better define the dipteran fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge. Adult dipterans were collected from 22 sites within the refuge using sweep-nets, two types of blacklight traps, and lighted fan traps in June of 2001. Specimens from previous studies were retrieved and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 4,917 specimens representing 122 taxa was collected. The 122 taxa were comprised of the following: two chaoborids, 83 chironomids, 15 culicids, nine tabanids, and 13 tipulids. Of these, 46 species are new state records for Arkansas. Nine undescribed species of chironomids were collected, and eight species records represent significant range extensions.

  17. Estacionalidad de la densidad larval del mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae y otros insectos asociados a su hábitat en Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Berti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles aquasalis es considerado como el principal vector de malaria humana en el norte de Venezuela. El estudio longitudinal se llevó a cabo en áreas costeras de la Península de Paria, estado Sucre. El hábitat de las larvas de A. aquasalis fue clasificado como: manglar salobre y pantano herbáceo. Muestreos para recolectar larvas de mosquitos e insectos asociados se realizaron mensualmente en ambos criaderos desde enero hasta diciembre de 1999 (30 muestras. Simultáneamente se midieron cinco variables seleccionadas del agua: conductividad, salinidad, oxígeno disuelto, temperatura y pH. En ambos criaderos de determinaron las variaciones estacionales y temporales de las larvas de A. aquasalis e insectos acuáticos. Para el período de estudio, la abundancia de larvas fue mayor en el manglar. El análisis de correspondencia mostró una fuerte relación entre algunos factores químicos del agua y la abundancia de las larvas. La abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis en ambas épocas, se correlacionó positivamente con la salinidad del agua, pH y conductividad, y negativamente con el oxígeno disuelto, en la estación seca. La presencia de larvas se correlacionó positivamente con la presencia de Avicennia germinans. En el manglar existió una asociación positiva entre la abundancia de larvas y la abundancia de la familia Scirtidae y una correlación negativa entre la abundancia de larvas y la precipitación mensual (Spearman, así como una correlación negativa significativa entre la abundancia de Gerridae y la precipitación mensual. En el pantano herbáceo, no había asociaciones significativas entre la abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis y la abundancia de otros insectos acuáticos asociados al hábitat.Larval seasonality of the mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae and other insects associated to its habitat in Sucre, Venezuela. Anopheles aquasalis Curry is considered the main vector of human malaria in Northern

  18. Dynamics of the control of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae by Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis, related with temperature, density and concentration of insecticide Dinâmica do controle de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus, (Diptera, Culicidae por Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis, relacionada com a temperatura, densidade e concentração do inseticida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny E. Duque L

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the control of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus, (Diptera, Culicidae by Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis has been related with the temperature, density and concentration of the insecticide. A mathematical model for biological control of Aedes aegypti with Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti was constructed by using data from the literature regarding the biology of the vector. The life cycle was described by differential equations. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 of Bti were determined in the laboratory under different experimental conditions. Temperature, colony, larvae density and bioinsecticide concentration presented marked differences in the analysis of the whole set of variables; although when analyzed individually, only the temperature and concentration showed changes. The simulations indicated an inverse relationship between temperature and mosquito population, nonetheless, faster growth of populations is reached at higher temperatures. As conclusion, the model suggests the use of integrated control strategies for immature and adult mosquitoes in order to achieve a reduction of Aedes aegypti.Foi elaborado um modelo matemático do controle biológico de Aedes aegypti com foco em Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti. Na construção do modelo foram utilizados dados da literatura sobre a biologia do vetor, no qual o ciclo de vida foi descrito através de equações diferenciais. As concentrações letais (CL50 e CL95 do Bti foram determinadas no laboratório sob diferentes condições experimentais. As variáveis temperatura, colônia, densidade de larvas e concentração do bioinseticida acusaram diferenças significativas quando analisadas no modelo geral, porém quando analisadas individualmente, apenas a temperatura e concentração apresentaram diferenças. As simulações do modelo indicam que a temperatura afeta inversamente a produção de indivíduos e que os pontos máximos de produ

  19. Pesticidal and Mosquitocidal Activities of Clausena excavata Burm. F. (Rutaceae against Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera and Aedes aegypti L., Anopheles stephensi Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Thangarasu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the larvicidal and ovicidal activities of hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extract of Indian medicinal plant, Clausena excavata, at different concentrations against lepidopteran agricultural field pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, and Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae. Twenty-five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura and A. aegypti, An. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using specific protocols. The 24 h LC50 and LC90 values of the C. excavata leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity were determined against S. litura and A. aegypti, An. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus and was assessed 120 hrs after treatment. Results of this study show that the selected Indian medicinal plant C. excavata may be a potential source of natural larvicidal and ovicidal activities against selected pest and vector mosquitoes.

  20. The influence of the area of the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Plant, State of Goiás, on the frequency and diversity of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae: a study on the effect of a reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Melandri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bioecological aspects of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae near areas under the direct influence of the hydroelectric plant reservoir of Serra da Mesa in Goiás, Brazil, were analyzed. METHODS: Samples were collected at the surrounding dam area during the phases before and after reservoir impoundment. The influence of climatic and environmental factors on the occurrence of Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albitarsis, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles evansae was assessed using Pearson's correlations with indicators for richness and diversity as well as the index of species abundance (ISA and the standardized index of species abundance (SISA. RESULTS: The highest anopheline density occurred during the phase after filling the tank; however, no direct correlation with the climatic factors was observed during this stage. The reservoir formation determined the incidence of the anopheline species. An. darlingi was the predominant species (SISA = 1.00. CONCLUSIONS: The significant difference (p < 0.05 observed between the species incidence during the different reservoir phases demonstrates the environmental effect of the reservoir on anophelines.

  1. Abundancia y distribución de Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae y dispersión del dengue en Guasave Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipriano García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El dengue es una enfermedad viral en humanos transmitida por el mosquito A. aegypti (L, principal vector en América. En el 2006 en Sinaloa México se presentaron 477 casos de dengue hemorrágico y 1 510 de dengue clásico, el estado presentó el mayor número de casos de dengue hemorrágico del país, debido a esto se realizó un estudio sobre la abundancia y distribución del mosquito de abril 2008 a agosto 2009 en Guasave Sinaloa, México. La Ciudad se dividió en seis sectores, en la cual se consideraron 16 colonias con el mayor número de casas por sector; se colocaron 96 trampas para monitorear la densidad de población del insecto y el número de hembras por trampa, esto datos sirvieron para calcular los índices de densidad de adultos (IDA e índice de trampas positivas (ITP por sector, los cuales junto con los casos de dengue permitieron elaboraron mapas de dispersión de la enfermedad. En julio y agosto se registró la abundancia más alta de hembras (137 y 139. En agosto y septiembre los sectores dos, cuatro y seis presentaron valores de IDA de 2.44, 3.35 y 2.29, por lo que fueron de un alto riesgo epidemiológico, mientras que en estos mismos sectores se encontraron los valores más altos de ITP (56.25, 58.82 y 61.54. Los valores de mayor asociación de las correlaciones entre la abundancia poblacional de hembras se obtuvo con la precipitación (r=0.80 y con la temperatura promedio (r=0.76, a cero meses de retraso. La correlación entre el DC/DH con la precipitación fue más alta (r=0.98 que con la temperatura mínima (r=0.79; ambas con dos meses de retraso. En este estudio se demostró que los mapas mensuales de dispersión epidemiológica sirven como una medida del riesgo de la enfermedad en Guasave, Sinaloa.Abundance and distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae, and dengue dispersion in Guasave Sinaloa, México. Dengue is an important disease that affects humans, and is transmitted by A. aegypti. During 2006, a total of

  2. 植物精油及化合物对埃及伊蚊幼虫的生物活性%Essential Oils and Their Compounds as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera:Culicidae) Larvicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建忠; 李庆凤; 黄健波

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils and their compounds exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, which is the primary vector of dengue. More than 60%of 361 essential oils from 269 plant species were considered active(LC50﹤100 mg/L), and the majority of these active oils were derived from plant species belonging to Myrtaceae, Lamiaceae and Rutaceae. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. This article mainly reviews activities of essential oils against A. aegypti larvae, the factors affecting activities of essential oils, structure-activity relationships of essential oil compounds and their mode of action.%植物精油及化合物对登革热的主要媒介埃及伊蚊幼虫具有杀幼虫活性。从269种植物中提取的361个植物精油中,超过60%具有较高的生物活性(LC50<100 mg/L),这些植物主要为桃金娘科、唇形科和芸香科。精油中富含苯丙烷类、倍半萜烯类和单萜烯类物质具有最高的活性。着重介绍了植物精油对埃及伊蚊幼虫的活性、影响精油的活性因素、分子结构与活性相关性及精油及化合物的作用机理。

  3. Influência do período de quiescência dos ovos sobre o ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Heloisa Helena Garcia da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do período de quiescência dos ovos no ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório, na busca de informações que possam melhorar o direcionamento das ações de controle, pois sabe-se que o ovo é a forma mais resistente do ciclo biológico, possibilitando ao mosquito ampla sobrevida, devido à resistência às adversidades climáticas. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, mantida à temperatura de 28 ± 1oC, com umidade relativa de 80 ± 5% e fotofase de 12 horas. Apresentam-se os dados da influência de diferentes períodos de quiescência sobre a eclosão das larvas, desenvolvimento larval e pupal, ciclo evolutivo. Verificou-se o efeito altamente significativo do período de quiescência na eclosão das larvas. O período de quiescência não influenciou nas durações dos períodos de incubação, larval e pupal. Constatou-se que ovos de um mesmo período de quiescência apresentaram períodos de incubação estatisticamente diferentes entre si. As larvas eclodiam em grupos, definidos pela incubação, e este efeito de grupo foi significativo na duração do ciclo. Pode-se afirmar que, em 99,8% dos ciclos, a variação foi determinada pela incubação.

  4. Variabilidade genética de espécies de Culicidae e Simulidae usando marcador mitocondrial - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v10i1.1584

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Ramirez Rivera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As famílias Culicidae e Simulidae são de grande relevância por apresentarem insetos transmissores de doenças, com grande variabilidade genética e adaptabilidade biológica. Podem-se destacar o Aedes aegypti, principal vetor da dengue, Culex quinquefasciatus e C. pipiens, vetores da filiariose e do vírus do Oeste do Nilo, respectivamente, e Simulium quinquestriatum, S. damnosum e S. amazonicum, responsáveis pela síndrome hemorrágica de Altamira e pela transmissão da oncocercose e mansonelose. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar três espécies de Diptera a partir de um marcador baseado em DNA mitocondrial. O estudo do DNA mitocondrial é uma das técnicas que permite detectar polimorfismos e, utilizando-se um conjunto único de oligonucleotídios, será uma estratégia útil para a identificação dessas espécies para fins entomológicos e epidemiológicos.

  5. Larvicidal and ovicidal properties of leaf and seed extracts of Delonix elata (L.) Gamble (family: Fabaceae) against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae) vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Govindarajan; Rajamohan, Sivakumar; Mohan, Rajeswari; Krishnamoorthy, Yogalakshmi

    2012-07-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Delonix elata against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of D. elata against the larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 93.59 and 111.83, and 163.69 and 202.77 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against two mosquitoes with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 115.28 and 139.04, and 225.07 and 273.03 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 300 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 500 ppm for seed

  6. Immature culicidae (Diptera collected from the Igapó lake located in the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Igapó lake dam is located in an urban area in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. A one year study of the Culicidae immature forms was conducted in this ecosystem. From a total of 962 collected larvae following genera were identified: Anopheles (59.36%, Culex (19.65% Aedeomyia (19.23% Aedes (1.50%, and Uranotaenia (0.10%. The 10 most abundant species were Anopheles strodei, Aedeomyia squamipennis, Culex (Melanoconium spp., Culex mollis, Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles evansae, Culex coronator, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles argyritarsis and Aedes terrens respectively. An. strodei prevailed with greater averages during July and September, showing a significant negative lineal correlation in relation to the rainfall. Ad. squamipennis showed a positive lineal correlation with the temperature with smaller population averages during June, August and September of 1997. Cx. (Melanoconium spp. populations were constant throughout the year. High Culicidae population density could bring problems to quality of human life, thus strong measures to avoid and control of mosquito population growth in the lake are recommended.O lago Igapó é um conjunto de quatro represas localizadas na área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil, com condições propícias para procriação de culicídeos. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a culicideofauna de imaturos neste lago, monitorando possíveis vetores de agentes patogênicos. Durante um ano coletou-se 962 imaturos que se distribuíram nos seguintes gêneros: Anopheles (59,36%, Culex (19,65% Aedeomyia (19,23% Aedes (1,50%, and Uranotaenia (0,10%. As espécies mais abundantes foram Anopheles strodei, Aedeomya squamipennis, Culex. (Melanoconium spp., Culex mollis, Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles evansae, Culex coronator, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles argyritarsis e Aedes terrens respectivamente. An. strodei, prevaleceu com grandes médias populacionais de Julho a Setembro, mostrando uma correlação linear

  7. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Allium macrostemon Bunge and its selected major constituent compounds against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qiyong; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long

    2014-04-15

    During the screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and local wild plants, the essential oil of dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge (Liliaceae) was found to possess larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The aim of this research was to determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil and its major constituent compounds against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Essential oil of A. macrostemon was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil and its two major constituents were evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various essential oil/compound concentrations ranging from 9.0 - 150 μg/ml. The essential oil of A. macrostemon exhibited larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with an LC₅₀ value of 72.86 μg/ml. The two constituent compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyl propyl disulfide possessed strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with LC50 values of 36.36 μg/ml and 86.16 μg/ml, respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. macrostemon and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural larvicides.

  8. Flight height preference for oviposition of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of sylvatic yellow fever virus near the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Morone, Fernanda; De Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Dégallier, Nicolas; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; de Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the oviposition behavior of mosquito species exhibiting acrodendrophilic habits was investigated. The study was conducted near the Simplicio Hydroelectic Reservoir (SHR) located on the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected using oviposition traps installed in forest vegetation cover between 1.70 and 4.30 m above ground level during the months of April, June, August, October, and December of 2011. Haemagogus janthinomys (Dyar), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and Aedes terrens (Walker) specimens were present among the collected samples, the first two of which being proven vectors of sylvatic yellow fever (SYF) in Brazil and the latter is a vector of dengue in mainland Asia. As the data set was zero-inflated, a specific Poisson-based model was used for the statistical analysis. When all four species were considered in the model, only heights used for egg laying and months of sampling were explaining the distribution. However, grouping the species under the genera Haemagogus Williston and Aedes Meigen showed a significant preference for higher traps of the former. Considering the local working population of SHR is very large, fluctuating, and potentially exposed to SYF, and that this virus occurs in almost all Brazilian states, monitoring of Culicidae in Brazil is essential for assessing the risk of transmission of this arbovirus.

  9. Laboratory transmission of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, and Getah viruses by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected near Camp Greaves, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, Michael J; Mores, Christopher N; Dohm, David J; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A

    2006-09-01

    We conducted experimental studies to evaluate mosquitoes captured in Paju County, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, for their ability to transmit West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV), and Getah virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, GETV) under laboratory conditions. Both Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles were highly susceptible to infection with WNV, with infection rates > 65% when allowed to feed on chickens with viremias of approximately 10(7) plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/ml blood. In contrast, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were significantly more susceptible to JEV or GETV (infection rate 100%) than were the Cx. p. pallens (infection rate 3% for JEV and 0% for GETV) captured in the same area when allowed to feed on chickens with viremias of approximately 10(5) PFU of virus/ml blood. The detection of JEV in field-collected Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in Gyeonggi Province in 2000 and the demonstrated ability of this species to transmit this virus support the importance of the continued vaccination of Koreans against JEV and indicate a risk of infection for nonvaccinated individuals.

  10. Antimalarial efficacy of dynamic compound of plumbagin chemical constituent from Plumbago zeylanica Linn (Plumbaginaceae) against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sathish-Narayanan, Subbiah; Kirubakaran, Suyambulingam Arunachalam; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2014-08-01

    In the present investigation, the effective root compound of plumbagin of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) was evaluated for chemical constituent and antimalarial effect against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera). In the chromatographic analyses of root compound with Rf value of 0.788 and NMR analyses also revealed that the effective compound contain naphthoquinone plumbagin were identified as the major chemical constituent. Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The plumbagin compound showed remarkable larvicidal activity against A. stephensi (LC50 32.65 and LC9072.27 ppm). Histopathological effects of compound was observed in the treated larvae. Based on the results, the plumbagin compound of P. zeylanica can be considered as a new source of natural larvicide for the control of malarial vector.

  11. Culicidae (Diptera em área sob influência de construção de represa no Estado de São Paulo Culicidae (Diptera in a dam construction area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Bicudo de Paula

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a fauna Culicidae em área sob impacto da modificação ambiental causada pela construção de represa. MÉTODOS: Foi estudada a área onde estava sendo construída a Represa Porto Primavera no município de Presidente Epitácio, SP. As capturas dos culicídeos foram realizadas mensalmente, em seis pontos exploratórios antes do seu enchimento e em um ponto fixo, um ano antes (1997-1998 e outro depois do primeiro enchimento (1999-2000. Mosquitos adultos foram capturados com aspirador, no período matutino, e com armadilhas de Shannon e CDC, no período crepuscular vespertino. Os imaturos foram coletados por meio de conchadas nos criadouros maiores e com pipeta, nos menores. RESULTADOS: No período anterior ao enchimento da represa foram coletados 944 exemplares de culicídeos imaturos, distribuídos em dez gêneros. O total de adultos foi de 14.932, dos quais 7.031 mosquitos (em dez gêneros foram capturados nos pontos exploratórios e 7.901 espécimes, distribuídos em oito gêneros, no ponto fixo. Após a primeira etapa de enchimento da represa, o total de imaturos foi de 1.201 exemplares, distribuídos em quatro gêneros, e o total de mosquitos capturados foi de 5.912, distribuídos em nove gêneros. Houve redução populacional de espécies dos gêneros Aedes e Psorophora e aumento no número de espécimes dos gêneros Aedeomyia, Anopheles, Culex (Melanoconion, Mansonia e Uranotaenia. CONCLUSÕES: As mudanças ambientais decorrentes da construção da Represa Porto Primavera favoreceram o aumento da densidade de algumas populações de culicídeos vetores e que geram incômodo, com riscos potenciais de transmissão de patógenos para humanos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the culicidae fauna in an area impacted by environmental changes caused by the construction of a dam. METHODS: The studied area was the Porto Primavera dam construction site in Southeastern Brazil. Monthly culicidae samples were taken in six exploratory sites in

  12. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. V. Coleta de larvas em recipientes artificiais instalados em mata ciliar Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology of natural and artificial rural breeding places in horthern Parana, Brazil. V. Larvae captured in artificial reservoirs installed in ciliary forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A utilização pelos Culicidae de recipientes contendo água para a colocação de seus ovos, em área antropogênica, pode indicar plasticidade genética que os direcione evolutivamente no sentido da domiciliação. Nesse sentido, foram coletadas as diferentes espécies de Culicidae que colonizam recipientes alocados em mata ciliar, na área rural. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram instalados recipientes de pneu, plástico, lata e bambu, em mata ciliar, em área rural no Norte do Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se larvas de Cx. grupo coronator, Cx. declarator, Cx. laticlasper, Cx. (Melanoconion secção Spissipes, Cx. tatoi, Tr. compressum, Tr. pallidiventer, Ae. terrens, Cx. mollis, Cx. bigoti, Hg. leucocelaenus, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Li. durhamii e Toxorhynchites sp. As cinco primeiras espécies foram específicas de pneus. As duas espécies de Trichoprosopon ficaram restritas a bambu. Ae. terrens e Cx. mollis foram caletadas em pneu e bambu, Cx. bigoti foi coletada em pneu, lata e bambu, enquanto que Hg. leucocelaenus só não foi encontrada em lata. As quatro últimas espécies foram coletadas em todos os tipos de recipientes. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. eduardoi, Li. durhamii tiveram significante flutuação populacional. CONCLUSÕES: O pneu caracterizou-se como o recipiente mais aceito pelos culicídeos. As áreas onde a mata ciliar esteve mais densa e o locais onde o solo esteve mais úmido foram os pontos com maior número de capturas. A mata ciliar, mesmo muito reduzida e alterada, foi suficiente para abrigar várias espécies de culicídeos. As espécies caputradas podem ser portadoras de plasticidade gênica que as capacitem a colonizar ambientes antropogênicos.INTRODUCTION: The use of receptacles containing water for the laying of the Culicidae eggs in an anthropogenic area, may indicate a genetic plasticity thet leads them evolutionarily towards domiciliation. Thus, the varions species of Culicidae which

  13. Spatial distribution of Culicidae (Diptera larvae, and its implications for Public Health, in five areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Piovezan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In view of the adaptive ability of mosquitoes and their role in the transport of infective agents, entomological surveys undertaken in transitional environments are very important for the determination of the risk they represent for Public Health. Among the principal vectors of the infectious agents involved in the occurrence of important arboviruses, such as dengue, for example, are the Culicidae-insects capable of installing themselves in the urban nuclei, which exist within areas containing vestigial forests. This present study conducted a survey of mosquito species by means of traps to catch their larvae installed in five rural areas within the Atlantic Forest domain and containing its vestigial vegetation in the municipality of Santa Bárbara D'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 13,241 larvae belonging to six mosquito species were collected on 920 occasions (32.52% of positive collections. Aedes albopictus (64.23% and Aedes aegypti (32.75% were the most frequent, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (1.32%, Aedes fluviatilis (1.04%, Culex Complex Coronator (0.40% and Toxorhynchites theobaldi (0.22%. Three areas were analyzed by means of Simpson's diversity index and the spatial analysis showed that the sites with the greatest abundance of Ae. aegypti presented lower diversity values and were associated with more highly consolidated urban nuclei. The vector of dengue, chikungunya and zika has great infesting ability in urban areas, which means that the early implementation of entomological surveillance and control activities in specific areas - such as transitional ones - is highly important.

  14. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ceretti-Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be re­tained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for im­mature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 munici­pal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens and Cx. (Microculex imitator (444. The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. 

  15. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretti-Junior, Walter; de Oliveira Christe, Rafael; Rizzo, Marco; Strobel, Regina Claudia; de Matos Junior, Marco Otavio; de Mello, Maria Helena Silva Homem; Fernandes, Aristides; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects. Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically. Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. PMID:27047978

  16. Larvicidal and ovideterrent properties of neem oil and fractions against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): a bioactivity survey across production sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Cosci, Francesca; Toniolo, Chiara; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem seed oil (NSO) of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) contains more than 100 determined biologically active compounds, and many formulations deriving from them showed toxicity, antifeedancy and repellence against a number of arthropod pests. However, it is widely known that botanical products can differ in their chemical composition and bioactivity, as function of the production site and production process. We used high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) to investigate differences in chemical constituents of NSOs from three production sites. HPTLC analyses showed several differences in chemical abundance and diversity among NSOs, with special reference to limonoids. Furthermore, the three NSOs and their fractions of increasing polarities [i.e. ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and butanol (BU) fraction] were evaluated for larvicidal toxicity and field oviposition deterrence against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. Results from bioactivity experiments showed good toxicity of NSOs and EA fractions against A. albopictus fourth instar larvae (with LC50 values ranging from 142.28 to 209.73 ppm), while little toxicity was exerted by BU fractions. A significant effect of the production site and dosage was also found and is probably linked to differences in abundance of constituents among samples, as highlighted by HPTLC analyses. NSOs and EAs were also able to deter A. albopictus oviposition in the field (effective repellence values ranging from 98.55 to 70.10%), while little effectiveness of BU fractions was found. Concerning ovideterrent activity, no difference due to the production site was found. This is the first report concerning larvicidal toxicity of NSO against A. albopictus and ovideterrence against Culicidae in the field. The chance to use chemicals from the NSO EA fraction seems promising, since they are effective at lower doses, if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, and could be

  17. Morphological studies on adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and first report of the potential Zika virus vector Aedes (Stegomyia) unilineatus (Theobald, 1906) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M R; Doosti, S; Schaffner, F; Moosa-Kazemi, S H; Akbarzadeh, K; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, N

    2017-05-01

    Beside numerous extensive studies on Anophelinae mosquitoes of Iran, little is known on Aedes species in the country and existing reports are dispersed. The objective of this study was to identify adults of Culicinae species occurring in the Sistan and Baluchestan Province, southeast of Iran, during 2012-2014. Mosquito collections were carried out three times (May-June, September, October-November) in four counties by Centers for Diseases Control (CDC) light traps and human landing catches outdoors and under bed nets baited with carbon dioxide. These trapping were carried out two consecutive nights during the field studies. Several mosquito collections were also conducted with aspirator and pyrethrum spray space catches during the day. A total of 1885 mosquitoes were collected, belonging to 10 species of genus Culex including Cx. pipiens Complex, Cx. laticinctus, Cx. sinaiticus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, one species of the genus Culiseta, Cs. longiareolata, and five species of the genus Aedes, Ae. caspius, Ae. vexans, Ae. detritus, Ae. albopictus, and Ae. unilineatus. Ae. vexans was the dominant species in the area (77.7%). During the study, seven Ae. unilineatus were collected in two villages near the city of Chabahar located in a coastal area; this is the first record for Iran and identification was confirmed by Cytochrome oxidase (COI) sequences analysis. Confirmation of the presence of Ae. unilineatus in the country raises the number of species of the genus Aedes to 12. The detection of this species reveals its probable establishment in the southeast of the country, which has implications for public health such as dengue and Zika infections and requires active entomological surveillance and implementation of adapted vector control measures in the area.

  18. Composition and Genetic Diversity of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on Islands and Mainland Shores of Kenya’s Lakes Victoria and Baringo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Villinger, Jandouwe; Omondi, David; Salifu, Daisy; Onchuru, Thomas Ogao; Njoroge, Laban; Muigai, Anne W. T.; Masiga, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    The Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria regions of Kenya are associated with high seroprevalence of mosquito-transmitted arboviruses. However, molecular identification of potential mosquito vector species, including morphologically identified ones, remains scarce. To estimate the diversity, abundance, and distribution of mosquito vectors on the mainland shores and adjacent inhabited islands in these regions, we collected and morphologically identified adult and immature mosquitoes and obtained the corresponding sequence variation at cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) gene regions. A total of 63 species (including five subspecies) were collected from both study areas, 47 of which have previously been implicated as disease vectors. Fourteen species were found only on island sites, which are rarely included in mosquito diversity surveys. We collected more mosquitoes, yet with lower species composition, at Lake Baringo (40,229 mosquitoes, 32 species) than at Lake Victoria (22,393 mosquitoes, 54 species). Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene sequences revealed Culex perexiguus and Cx. tenagius that could not be distinguished morphologically. Most Culex species clustered into a heterogeneous clade with closely related sequences, while Culex pipiens clustered into two distinct COI and ITS2 clades. These data suggest limitations in current morphological identification keys. This is the first DNA barcode report of Kenyan mosquitoes. To improve mosquito species identification, morphological identifications should be supported by their molecular data, while diversity surveys should target both adults and immatures. The diversity of native mosquito disease vectors identified in this study impacts disease transmission risks to humans and livestock. PMID:27402888

  19. Imaturos de Culicidae (Diptera encontrados em recipientes instalados em mata residual no munícipio de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Immature specimens of Culicidae (Diptera found in installed recipients in forest fragments in the Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. C. Zequi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentos de mata na área urbana ou periurbana podem ser locais favoráveis a procriação de Culicidae. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo levantar as espécies de culicídeos que utilizam criadouros artificiais, suas coexistência e as flutuações populacionais em uma reserva de mata localizada em Londrina - PR. Realizou-se coletas quinzenais de outubro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 em pneus e internódios de bambu armadilha que foram instalados ao nível do solo e outros internódios instalados a 2 m de altura. Coletou-se 12.656 espécimes, pertencentes a cinco gêneros e 11 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes nos criadouros foram Limatus durham Theobald, 1901, Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia, 1968, Aedes terrens (Walker, 1856, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 e Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894. O maior número de indivíduos foi coletado em pneus, sendo que Limatus durham e Aedes terrens, apresentaram preferência nesse criadouro. A presença de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, Aedes albopictus e Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon, 1924 em diferentes coletas indica que esse tipo de ambiente não deve ser ignorado nas ações de controle de vetores, merecendo constante monitoramento.Forest fragments in an urban area were found to be a situable site for Culicidae breeding. This research aims to inventory the Culicidae species that use artificial breeding sites, their coexistence, and the population variation in a fragment forest in the Londrina City, Paraná State. Biweekly collecting efforts were performed from October 1995 to September 1996 using tires and bamboo internodes traps installed at a ground level and bamboo internodes traps at two 2 m height. A total of 12,656 culicid specimens belonging to five genus and 11 species were collected. The most abundant species in those artificial breeding sites were Limatus durhami Theobald, 1901, Culex eduardoi Couple & Garcia, 1968, Aedes terrens (Walker, 1856, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 and

  20. [Comparison of taxonomic importance of morphological and molecular-genetic characters in systematics of Microsporidia (Microsporidia) of blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakova, A V

    2014-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the taxonomic position of microsporidians from mosquitoes of the family Culicidae, for which SSU rDNA sequences data were obtained, demonstrates partial contradiction of systems based on morphological and phylogenetic characteristics. Representatives of the genera Anncaliia Issi. et al., 1993 and Vavraia Weiser, 1977 constitute separate evolutionary branches of the phylogenetic tree of microsporidians of blood-sucking mosquitoes. Representatives of other genera, for which the SSU rRNA sequences data were obtained (Amblyospora Hazard, Oldacre, 1975, Andreanna Simakova et al., 2008, Culicospora (Kudo, 1921), Weiser, 1977, Culicosporella Hazard, Savage, 1970, Edhazardia (Kudo, 1930), Sprague, Fucuda, 1989, Hazardia Weiser, 1977, Hyalinocysta Hazard, Oldacre, 1975, Novothelohania Andreadis et al., 2012, Parathelohania Codreanu, 1966, Senoma Simakova et al., 2005, and Trichoctosporea Larsson, 1994), form a separate, monophyletic group in the tree of Microsporidia. They are closely related and probably possess a common ancestor. The genera Amblyospora, Culicospora, Edhazardia, and Trichoctosporea were placed in the family Amblyosporidae with the revision of the diagnosis. On the basis of the obtained data on morphology and molecular phylogeny we placed Intrapredatorus barri Chen et al:, 1998 into the genus Amblyospora as Amblyospora barri, comb. nov., and also the species Amblyospora bakcharia Andreadis et al., 2012, A. kazankia Andreadis et al., 2012, A. mocrushinia Andreadis et al., 2012, and A. rugosa Simakova, Pankova, 2005 into the genus Trichoctosporea as Trichoctosporea bakcharia comb. nov., T. kazankia comb. nov., T. mocrushinia comb. nov., and T. rugosa comb. nov. Microsporidians of blood-sucking mosquitoes originally possessed complicated life cycles with transovarial and oral transmissions and with the presence of intermediate hosts (lower crustaceans). Later, some microsporidians had lost a part of their life cycle, either during

  1. Studies on the impact of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in relation to malaria and filariasis vector control against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarani, Selladurai; Sabhanayakam, Selvi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2013-02-01

    Biosynthesized nanoparticles have been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Vinca rosea (L.) (Apocynaceae) against the larvae of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of V. rosea and synthesized AgNPs for 24, 48, and 72 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of V. rosea, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 15 min. The results recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with the Bragg reflections at 2θ = 29.36, 38.26, 44.51, 63.54, and 77.13° which can be indexed to the (121), (111), (200), (220), and (311) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at the spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 3,406.71 to 3,431.90 cm(-1) double in case of NH(2) group of a primary amine (N-H stretch). The presence of the sharp peak at 2,926.54 to 2,925.80 cm(-1) very broad often looks like distorted baseline (O-H carboxylic acids). The band 1,633.26 to 1,625.81 cm(-1) was assigned to C = C alkenes, aromatic ring stretching vibration, respectively. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated and having the size of 120 nm. TEM reveals spherical shape of synthesized AgNPs. Particle size analysis revealed that the size of particles ranges from 25 to 47 nm with average size of 34.61 nm

  2. Assessment of productivity of Culex spp. larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban storm water catch basin system in Wrocław (SW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Jawień, Piotr; Lonc, Elżbieta; Modelska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    In urban environments, catch basins serve as major developmental and resting sites for anthropophilic and zoophilic mosquitoes. However, the use of this habitat is inconsistent, with abundance of larvae varying significantly across catch basins at a fine spatial scale. During seasonal summer investigations on mosquito species composition, their spatial and temporal distribution and the environmental characteristic of the breeding sites in the underground storm drain systems of the Wrocław urban area (SW Poland) were assessed from May to September in 2012-2013. The study was conducted in order to develop a rational strategy to control mosquito populations and prevent the potential human exposure to mosquito-transmitted pathogens. Mosquito larvae and pupae were collected and identified weekly from 100 regularly inspected street catch basins located in the town center. All existing and potential breeding habitats in the study area were recorded using a GPS receiver (Magellan MobileMapper CX) and transferred to the computer database. Collected data on the geographical location of inspected breeding places, water quality parameters in inspected catch basins, daily temperature, and precipitation were imposed on orthophotomap in ArcGIS (ESRI, USA). Water quality parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, and water temperature were measured by standard methods. Chemical water analysis of cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO2 (-), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-)) were carried out using Waters Alliance high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) 2695 with 432 Conductivity Detector and 2998 Photodiode Array Detector, an IC-Pak Anion HR column (glauconate/borate eluent) and IC-Pak Cation M/D column (EDTA/HNO3 eluent). Over two seasonal studies and 3739 samplings in total, 3669 mosquito larvae and 274 pupae/1 dip (from 0 to 110 individuals/dip) were collected by dipper. Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) and Cx. torrentium (Martini) prevailed at all catch basins

  3. Characterization of the doublesex gene within the Culex pipiens complex suggests regulatory plasticity at the base of the mosquito sex determination cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Dana C.; Egizi, Andrea; Dina M Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Background The doublesex gene controls somatic sexual differentiation of many metazoan species, including the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). As in other studied dipteran dsx homologs, the gene maintains functionality via evolutionarily conserved protein domains and sex-specific alternative splicing. The upstream factors that regulate splicing of dsx and the manner in which they do so however remain variable even am...

  4. Host-feeding habits of Culex and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Borough of Queens in New York City, with characters and techniques for identification of Culex mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperson, Charles S; Harrison, Bruce A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Irby, William S; Savage, Harry M; Aspen, Stephen E; Watson, D Wesley; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Engber, Barry R; Nasci, Roger S

    2002-09-01

    The host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes (n = 247) collected in the Borough of Queens in New York City in July and August 2000 were investigated using an indirect ELISA and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-heteroduplex assay. Culex pipiens L. and Cx. restuans Theobald fed primarily on birds, and their feeding habits support their implication as enzootic vectors of West Nile virus. Culex salinarius Coquillett and Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) fed mainly on mammals, with fewer blood meals taken from birds, and these two species are potential bridge vectors of West Nile virus. Culex mosquitoes took blood meals (n = 54) from 11 different avian species. Only the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), American robin (Turdus migratorius), and Brown-headed cow bird (MolIothrus ater) were fed upon by all three Culex species. Multiple blood feedings on avian hosts were detected in Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans. Species identifications of Culex mosquitoes made using morphological characteristics were confirmed with a PCR assay that employed species-specific primers. All Cx. pipiens (n = 20) and Cx. salinarius (n = 10) specimens were correctly identified, but three (20%) of 15 Cx. restuans were misidentified as Cx. pipiens.

  5. Novos registros e potencial epidemiológico de algumas espécies de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul New records and epidemiological potential of certain species of mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáder da Cruz Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A vigilância entomológica tem se mostrado uma importante estratégia de monitoramento da fauna de culicídeos com vistas a predizer o risco de exposição a espécies vetoras de patógenos. Esse trabalho apresenta uma lista de mosquitos identificados pela primeira vez no Rio Grande do Sul e discute o potencial epidemiológico de algumas espécies ocorrentes no Município de Maquiné com registros em outras regiões do Estado. MÉTODOS: Os mosquitos foram coletados com aspirador de Nasci e armadilhas CDC, entre dezembro de 2006 e dezembro de 2008, em área silvestre, rural e urbana do Município de Maquiné. RESULTADOS: Foram verificadas 55 espécies, das quais 22 são registradas pela primeira vez no estado e 10 são potencialmente vetoras do vírus Saint Louis, Oropouche, Aura, Trocara, Ilhéus, Rocio, Una, West Nile e encefalite equina do leste. CONCLUSÕES: Esses dados demonstram a importância da Vigilância Entomológica como ferramenta de informação e ação para a Vigilância em Saúde.INTRODUCTION: Entomological surveillance has proven to be an important strategy for monitoring culicidae fauna, aimed at predicting the risk of exposure to pathogen vector species. The present work reports species identified for the first time in the State Rio Grande do Sul and discusses the epidemiological potential displayed by mosquito species occurring in Maquiné municipality and in other regions of the State. METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected with Nasci vacuum and CDC light traps between December 2006 and December 2008, in the wild, rural and urban areas of Maquiné. RESULTS: Fifty-five species were verified, of which 22 were registered for the first time in the state and 10 are potential vector species for the Saint Louis, Oropouche, Aura, Trocara, Ilhéus, Rocio, Una, West Nile, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the importance of entomological surveillance as a tool for gathering

  6. Cubiertas de auto abandonadas como sitios de cría de Culex eduardoi (Diptera: Culicidae en el Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola, Provincia de Buenos Aires Discarded car tires as breeding sites of Culex eduardoi (Diptera: Culicidae in the Pereyra Iraola Provincial Park, Buenos Aires Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rubio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento sobre la fauna de mosquitos que se cría en cubiertas de auto es realmente escaso en Argentina. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar una población de inmaduros de Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia en una acumulación de cubiertas abandonadas en un bosque suburbano de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Entre noviembre 2009 y mayo 2010, se recolectaron mensualmente larvas de mosquitos en 27 cubiertas de auto abandonadas en un sector boscoso del Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola. Se recolectaron en total 1.009 larvas del tercer y cuarto estadio de Cx. eduardoi, y el índice de contenedores (IC global fue 66,3% (106/160. Culex eduardoi estuvo presente durante todos los meses, aunque el IC difirió significativamente (x²(6 = 15,11; p The knowledge about tire-breeding mosquitoes is truly scarce in Argentina. The objective of this study was to characterize a population of immatures of Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia, from a pile of abandoned tires located in a suburban forest of Buenos Aires Province. Between November 2009 and May 2010, mosquito larvae were monthly collected in 27 abandoned tires within a woody area of the Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola. A total of 1009 third and fourth instar larvae of Cx. eduardoi were collected, and the overall container index (CI was 66.3% (106/160. Culex eduardoi was collected every month but the CI differed significantly (x²(6 = 15.11; p < 0.05, reaching maximum values in November and December (76 and 92.5% respectively. In spring, the relative abundance of larvae was also the highest, and the mean number of larvae collected per habitat was 9.5 (min. 3.5 in March; max.15.1 in November. Other mosquito species such as Cx. pipiens Linneo and Toxorhynchites theobaldi Dyar & Knab were also found in the studied containers. The present findings contribute with novel knowledge on culicids of tires in Argentina.

  7. Eficiência e Persistência de Três Produtos Comerciais à Base de Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis e Bacillus sphaericus no controle de Culicidae (Diptera em Lagoas de Tratamento de Efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Lopes

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. The hematofagic effect caused by females belonging to some species of Culicidae on humans and animals can be directly related to pathogen transmission, allergic reactions and uneasiness. The emergence of populations resistant to chemical insecticides has fostered the use of alternative methods, mainly biological control. The trials were conducted in three effluent treatment lagoons, on larvae of Culicidae to test the efficiency and persistence of commercial products whose active principles are based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner and Bacillus sphaericus Neide. The products tested were Vectolex (a granulated formulation of B. sphaericus, Sphaericus (a liquid formulation of B. sphaericus and Bt-horus (a liquid formulation of B. thuringiensis. The products were applied biweekly and evaluations were conducted 0, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hours after each application. The lagoons were colonized by Culex nigripalpus Theobald (1.5%, Culex saltanensis Dyar (2.25%, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (96.25%. Bt-horus reduced larvae by 89.06%, 83.97% and 89.96% at 24, 48 and 72 hours after product application, respectively. The granulated and the liquid formulations containing B. sphaericus reduced larvae by 98.89 % and 98.34% 24 hours after application, and by 99.79% and 99.78% after 48 hours, respectively. The products and the different formulations were effective in controlling larvae of all three Culicidae species in lagoons with high levels of organic matter, but the persistence was recorded in two and three days for products containing respectively B. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis israelensis.

  8. Characterization of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera:Culicidae larval habitats near the Amazon River in Colombia Caracterización preliminar de los sitios de cría de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae en el municipio de Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alberto Olano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Because the role of Aedes albopictus as an incriminated vector of several viral pathogens, its control is important to human health. To establish appropriate control methods, characterization of the larval habitats is a necessary first step.
    Objective. Habitats of the immature stages of Ae. albopictus were characterized with respect to physical-chemical parameters and by floral and faunal arrays present.
    Materials and methods. Leticia is located at the southernmost tip of Colombia on the banks of the Amazon River. In the urban area, 154 houses were inspected in December 2002 and January 2003. Physical-chemical data were collected, including exposure to sunlight, location, container size and material, water conductivity, and dissolved oxygen. Macroinvertebrates and plankton samples were taken at each positive larval site. The results were compared using descriptive analysis, principal component analysis, classification dendrograms, and diversity indexes.
    Results. Twenty-one habitats were found positive for Diptera, and 13 were positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Most of the positive habitats (92% were located near the houses--they were small or medium size receptacles located in the shade. This water generally had low conductivity and low turbidity, although high values of these parameters were also identified. The habitats had low diversity indexes for macroinvertebrates and high diversity indexes for plankton. In the principal component analysis, significant correlation was found with mites, oligochaetes and hemipterans (the macroinvertebrates and with bacilarophyceaes, clorophyceaes and cianophyceas (the algal forms.
    Conclusion. In Leticia, females of Ae. albopictus were found in newly established habitats with sufficient availability of resources, low conductivity, and turbidity, lower intra-and interspecific competition.Introducción. Dada la importancia de Aedes albopictus en la salud pública, es necesario

  9. Midgut barrier imparts selective resistance to filarial worm infection in Culex pipiens pipiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Michalski

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex thrive in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, and serve as efficient vectors of Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis (LF caused by Wuchereria bancrofti in Asia, Africa, the West Indies, South America, and Micronesia. However, members of this mosquito complex do not act as natural vectors for Brugian LF caused by Brugia malayi, or for the cat parasite B. pahangi, despite their presence in South Asia where these parasites are endemic. Previous work with the Iowa strain of Culex pipiens pipiens demonstrates that it is equally susceptible to W. bancrofti as is the natural Cx. p. pipiens vector in the Nile Delta, however it is refractory to infection with Brugia spp. Here we report that the infectivity barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens is the mosquito midgut, which inflicts internal and lethal damage to ingested microfilariae. Following per os Brugia exposures, the prevalence of infection is significantly lower in Cx. p. pipiens compared to susceptible mosquito controls, and differs between parasite species with <50% and <5% of Cx. p. pipiens becoming infected with B. pahangi and B. malayi, respectively. When Brugia spp. mf were inoculated intrathoracically to bypass the midgut, larvae developed equally well as in controls, indicating that, beyond the midgut, Cx. p. pipiens is physiologically compatible with Brugia spp. Mf isolated from Cx. p. pipiens midguts exhibited compromised motility, and unlike mf derived from blood or isolated from the midguts of Ae. aegypti, failed to develop when inoculated intrathoracically into susceptible mosquitoes. Together these data strongly support the role of the midgut as the primary infection barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens. Examination of parasites recovered from the Cx. p. pipiens midgut by vital staining, and those exsheathed with papain, suggest that the damage inflicted by the midgut is subcuticular and disrupts internal tissues. Microscopic studies

  10. Ecological Niche Modeling of Potential West Nile Virus Vector Mosquito Species in Iowa

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling (ENM) algorithms, Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (Maxent) and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP), were used to develop models in Iowa for three species of mosquito — two significant, extant West Nile virus (WNV) vectors (Culex pipiens L and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)), and the nuisance mosquito, Aedes vexans Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae), a potential WNV bridge vector. Occurrence data for the three mosquito species from ...

  11. Estudos taxonômicos de espécies do gênero Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) da região neotropical, utilizando a subunidade I do gene mitocondrial citocromo oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Bruna Demari e

    2009-01-01

    Diversas espécies de mosquitos do gênero Culex Linnaeus são vetores de nematóides que causam filariose linfática (Wuchereria bancrofti) e de vários arbovírus, incluindo o Vírus do Nilo Ocidental (VNO) que causa encefelites em animais e humanos. Embora seja o maior gênero da família Culicidae, com 763 espécies conhecidas, pouco se sabe sobre a taxonomia e as relações filogenéticas do grupo. Considerando-se a grande diversidade de espécies do gênero Culex, as dificuldades para a identificação m...

  12. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TWO DIFFERENT STRAINS OF CULEX PIPIENS PALLENS (DIPTERS: CULICIDAE) TO EIGHT PLANT EXTRACTS%8种植物提取物对2种不同品系淡色库蚊的敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立新; 丁永健; 马磊; 孙艳; 董慧琴; 朱昌亮

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究开发有效的天然植物杀虫剂. 方法按照WHO推荐的蚊幼虫敏感性测定方法,用8种植物的叶、茎、果和皮等提取物,对野生和敏感2个品系淡色库蚊进行敏感性测定. 结果 银杏外果皮提取物对淡色库蚊2个品系杀虫效果最强,其次为三尖杉和水杉,其他5种植物(重阳木、乌桕、香椿、杜仲和山茱萸)杀虫效果较弱.随后用银杏外果皮提取物对淡色库蚊卵、幼虫、蛹进行毒力测定,结果表明,Ⅰ龄幼虫最敏感,其次为Ⅱ龄、Ⅲ龄和Ⅳ龄幼虫.银杏外果皮提取物对敏感品系Ⅰ龄、Ⅱ龄、Ⅲ龄和Ⅳ龄的LC50分别为2.52、8.62、3.3 和 18.6 mg/L;对野生品系Ⅰ龄、Ⅱ龄、Ⅲ龄和Ⅳ龄的LC50分别为7.4、15.2、19.2和 25.0 mg/L,明显高于敏感品系.银杏外果皮提取物在5~100 mg/L浓度范围内不影响卵的孵化,在100 mg/L以上时,影响蛹的羽化. 结论 8种植物提取物对淡色库蚊的敏感性各不相同,银杏外果皮提取物有明显的杀幼效果,值得进一步研究和开发.%Objective To study effective and affordable natural insecticides. Methods The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, barks, fruits and exocarps of eight plants against the susceptible and field strains of the fourth instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens were determined by following the standard World Health Organization larval susceptibility test methods. Results Extract of Ginkgo exocarps is the most toxic, followed by extracts of Cephalotaxaceae and Metasequoia. Other five plants (Chinese Bishopwood, China Tallowtree, China Toona, Eucommia and Fructus Corni) have limited effect against these two strains of Cx. pipiens pallens. Toxicity of extract of Ginkgo exocarps to the eggs, larvae and pupae of the two strains of Cx. pipiens pallens was studied in succession. The most susceptible developmental stage of mosquito is the 1st instar, followed by the 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar. The

  13. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. V. Coleta de larvas em recipientes artificiais instalados em mata ciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A utilização pelos Culicidae de recipientes contendo água para a colocação de seus ovos, em área antropogênica, pode indicar plasticidade genética que os direcione evolutivamente no sentido da domiciliação. Nesse sentido, foram coletadas as diferentes espécies de Culicidae que colonizam recipientes alocados em mata ciliar, na área rural. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram instalados recipientes de pneu, plástico, lata e bambu, em mata ciliar, em área rural no Norte do Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se larvas de Cx. grupo coronator, Cx. declarator, Cx. laticlasper, Cx. (Melanoconion secção Spissipes, Cx. tatoi, Tr. compressum, Tr. pallidiventer, Ae. terrens, Cx. mollis, Cx. bigoti, Hg. leucocelaenus, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Li. durhamii e Toxorhynchites sp. As cinco primeiras espécies foram específicas de pneus. As duas espécies de Trichoprosopon ficaram restritas a bambu. Ae. terrens e Cx. mollis foram caletadas em pneu e bambu, Cx. bigoti foi coletada em pneu, lata e bambu, enquanto que Hg. leucocelaenus só não foi encontrada em lata. As quatro últimas espécies foram coletadas em todos os tipos de recipientes. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. eduardoi, Li. durhamii tiveram significante flutuação populacional. CONCLUSÕES: O pneu caracterizou-se como o recipiente mais aceito pelos culicídeos. As áreas onde a mata ciliar esteve mais densa e o locais onde o solo esteve mais úmido foram os pontos com maior número de capturas. A mata ciliar, mesmo muito reduzida e alterada, foi suficiente para abrigar várias espécies de culicídeos. As espécies caputradas podem ser portadoras de plasticidade gênica que as capacitem a colonizar ambientes antropogênicos.

  14. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. V. Coleta de larvas em recipientes artificiais instalados em mata ciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A utilização pelos Culicidae de recipientes contendo água para a colocação de seus ovos, em área antropogênica, pode indicar plasticidade genética que os direcione evolutivamente no sentido da domiciliação. Nesse sentido, foram coletadas as diferentes espécies de Culicidae que colonizam recipientes alocados em mata ciliar, na área rural. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram instalados recipientes de pneu, plástico, lata e bambu, em mata ciliar, em área rural no Norte do Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se larvas de Cx. grupo coronator, Cx. declarator, Cx. laticlasper, Cx. (Melanoconion secção Spissipes, Cx. tatoi, Tr. compressum, Tr. pallidiventer, Ae. terrens, Cx. mollis, Cx. bigoti, Hg. leucocelaenus, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Li. durhamii e Toxorhynchites sp. As cinco primeiras espécies foram específicas de pneus. As duas espécies de Trichoprosopon ficaram restritas a bambu. Ae. terrens e Cx. mollis foram caletadas em pneu e bambu, Cx. bigoti foi coletada em pneu, lata e bambu, enquanto que Hg. leucocelaenus só não foi encontrada em lata. As quatro últimas espécies foram coletadas em todos os tipos de recipientes. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. eduardoi, Li. durhamii tiveram significante flutuação populacional. CONCLUSÕES: O pneu caracterizou-se como o recipiente mais aceito pelos culicídeos. As áreas onde a mata ciliar esteve mais densa e o locais onde o solo esteve mais úmido foram os pontos com maior número de capturas. A mata ciliar, mesmo muito reduzida e alterada, foi suficiente para abrigar várias espécies de culicídeos. As espécies caputradas podem ser portadoras de plasticidade gênica que as capacitem a colonizar ambientes antropogênicos.

  15. Anofelinos de Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brasil Anophelines of Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Teixeira Portes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil, a Região Amazônica é endêmica em malária. Em Santa Catarina, a malária foi eliminada na década de 80. A partir daí, ocorreram poucos casos autóctones isolados, e esporádicos. No entanto, em função da existência do vetor em seu território, da existência de extensa área endêmica no Brasil e da grande mobilidade de pessoas em áreas turísticas no estado, existe a probabilidade de reintrodução da doença. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se os seguintes dados: Banco de Dados do Núcleo de Entomologia da Fundação Nacional de Saúde, Santa Catarina (ACCES,1997-2000; Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde (Malária/SC e Sistema de Informação de Notificação e Agravo(SINAN/SC. Os mesmos foram transportados e analisados, no programa Microsoft Office Excel 2007. RESULTADOS: As coletas foram realizadas em 48 municípios, 159 localidades, sendo identificados 12.310 Culicídeos, 11.546 (93,7% Anopheles e 764 (6,2% como outros. Foram identificados três subgêneros e 13 espécies de anofelinos. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando que nos municípios pesquisados, foi identificada a presença de importantes vetores como Anopheles cruzii e Anopheles albitasis e há circulação de pessoas infectadas provenientes de áreas endêmicas, pode-se considerar que os mesmos são áreas receptivas e vulneráveis à malária. Essas espécies são suspeitas de serem responsáveis pela transmissão de malária na região, principalmente nos municípios de Gaspar, Indaial e Rodeio.INTRODUCTION: The Amazon region of Brazil is endemic for malaria. In the State of Santa Catarina, malaria was eliminated in the 1980s. Since then, a few sporadic isolated autochthonous cases have occurred. However, because malaria vectors are present within Brazilian territory and extensive endemic areas exist in this country, along with the great mobility of people in tourist areas of Santa Catarina, there is the likelihood of reintroduction of the disease. METHODS: The following data were used: the database of the Entomology Group of the National Health Foundation, Santa Catarina (ACCES, 1997-2000; the epidemiological surveillance information system of the Health Surveillance Department (Malaria/SC; and the notifiable disease information system (SINAN/SC. These data were transferred to and analyzed in the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software. RESULTS: Collections were carried out in 48 municipalities and 159 localities, and 12,310 culicids, 11,546 anophelines (93.7% and 764 others (6.2% were identified. Three subgenera and 13 species of anophelines were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Given that in the municipalities investigated, important vectors such as Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles albitasis were found to be present, with movements of infected individuals from endemic areas, these areas can be considered to be receptive and vulnerable to malaria. These species are suspected of being responsible for malaria transmission in this region, especially in the municipalities of Gaspar, Indaial and Rodeio.

  16. Preferência por local de oviposição de Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera, Culicidae, em relação à presença de imaturos da própria espécie, sob condições de laboratório Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse (Diptera, Culicidae, preference for oviposition site related with homospecific immatures presence, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Aparecida Barbosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 is an exotic Culicidae species in Brazil. Since its first report in this country, the mosquito has been increasing its geographic distribution. This mosquito is a natural dengue and Japanese Encephalitis virus vector in Asia. The females preference for oviposition sites related with homospecific immature presence was assessed. The experiment was performed with Aedes albopictus from laboratory colony since March ]999, in the Laboratório de Entomologia Médica e Veterinária, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná. The preferred container was the one that kept pupae for 24 hours, with 643 eggs, 30,6% at total. The eggs recipients received 11,45% from total set by the females, and the following numbers to the others: larva 1 (15,79%, larva 2 (14,69%, pupa 1 (20,74%, pupa 2 (30,58%, control (6,75%. Although the ANOVA did not detect significant difference among the treatments, the data possibly indicate that Aedes albopictus prefer laying eggs in containers previously colonized by immature.

  17. Sound and vibration sensitivity of VIIIth nerve fibers in the frogs Leptodactylus albilabris and Rana pipiens pipiens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Narins, P M

    1993-01-01

    1. Responses of 73 fibers to dorso-ventral vibration were recorded in the saccular and utricular branchlets of Rana pipiens pipiens using a ventral approach. The saccular branchlet contained nearly exclusively vibration-sensitive fibers (33 out of 36) with best frequencies (BFs) between 10 and 70...

  18. Preferência por hospedeiro e estratificação de Culicidae (Diptera em área de remanescente florestal do Parque Regional do Iguaçu, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil Host preference and Culicidae stratification in area of degradated inside forest of Regional do Iguaçu Park, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Tissot

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A investigação das populações de Culicidae em áreas de remanescentes florestais inseridas em área urbana, podem fornecer subsídios para compreensão dos processos de utilização de habitats apresentando diferentes graus de interferência antrópica. Foram investigadas espécies potencialmente zoofílicas durante o período vespertino no interior de remanescente florestal, no espaço urbano de Curitiba, Paraná. Durante o período de setembro de 2000 a junho de 2001, foram realizadas cinco coletas por estação, com auxílio de armadilhas CDC-M instaladas em dois estratos verticais, a 1,5 m do solo e na copa das árvores (6 m. Como iscas foram utilizados mamíferos Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia, Cavidae e aves Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815 (Tinamiformes, Tinamidae em cada um dos estratos, com revezamento das iscas animais. As armadilhas foram operadas no intervalo horário das 16:00 às 20:00 h, sendo retiradas amostras a cada intervalo de 30 minutos. Em 60 horas de operação das armadilhas CDC-M, foram capturados 1.407 exemplares de Culicidae, sendo 1.143 espécies identificadas, distribuídas em nove gêneros e 13 espécies. As espécies mais freqüentes foram Mansonia(Mansonia fonsecai (Pinto, 1932 e Mansonia (Mansonia pessoai (Barreto e Coutinho, 1944, destaca-se também a ocorrência de: Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus scapularis (Rondani, 1848; Psorophora (Janthinosoma ferox (Humboldt, 1819 e Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894. Na área foram detectadas a presença de espécies com graus variados de importância epidemiológica e com tendência a explorar ambientes exófilos, florestais e peridomiciliares.Parks and plazas (green areas or vegetation islands within urban areas can provide conditions for the development of populations of mosquitoes, many species of which are very adaptable to a variety of environments. The species of mosquitoes in the family Culicidae with animal hosts, in a vegetation island within an

  19. α-Humulene and β-elemene from Syzygium zeylanicum (Myrtaceae) essential oil: highly effective and eco-friendly larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious pathogens and parasites to humans and animals, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis. The extensive use of chemical pesticides leads to the development of resistance in mosquito vector populations and serious non-target effects on human health and the environment. Myrtaceae plants can be a useful reservoir of natural products effective against Culicidae young instars. In this research, we evaluated the mosquitocidal potential of the essential oil (EO) from Syzygium zeylanicum leaves against larvae of three mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance, the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus, and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the S. zeylanicum EO contained at least 18 compounds. The major chemical components were α-humulene (37.8.5 %) and β-elemene (10.7 %). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 83.11, 90.45, and 97.96 μg/ml, respectively. The two major constituents extracted from the S. zeylanicum EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the three mosquito vectors. α-Humulene and β-elemene appeared highly effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 6.19 and 10.26 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 6.86 and 11.15 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 7.39 and 12.05 μg/ml). Furthermore, the EO and its major components was safe towards the non-target fish Gambusia affinis; LC50 values were 20374.26, 1024.95, and 2073.18 μg/ml, respectively for EO, α-humulene and β-elemene. Overall, this study highlighted that the acute toxicity of S. zeylanicum EO towards mosquito larvae was mainly due to the presence of α-humulene and β-elemene. Furthermore, we pointed

  20. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L. et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahari S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these plant extracts have been investigated on 2nd and 4th instars larvae of Culicidae insects, Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. After 24 hours of exposition, bioassays revealed low lethal concentrations LC50. To control mosquitoes, these plant extracts might be used as natural biocides.

  1. ФАУНА КОМАРОВ (Diptera, Culicidae) ВОСТОЧНОГО ВЕРХНЕВОЛЖЬЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

    OpenAIRE

    Смирнов, А.; Егоров, С.; Абарыкова, О.; Петров, Ю.

    2006-01-01

    As a result of the studies of the urban ecosystem of the city of Zhytomyr we have found out 21 species (5 genera) of mosquitoes. The Aedes genus is the most numerous (47 %, 15 species) with Ae. cinereus Mg. being dominant. Representatives of the Anopheles genus amount 37 %, 2 species, An. maculipennis Mg. being dominant. The Culex genus is less numerous (16 %, 2 species) with Cx. pipiens pipiens L. being dominant. Representatives of the Mansonia (M. richiardii Fic.) and Culiseta (Cs. аnnulata...

  2. The Culex pipiens complex in the Mississippi River basin: identification, distribution, and bloodmeal hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Harry M; Kothera, Linda

    2012-12-01

    Members of the Culex pipiens complex are the primary vectors of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus in the Mississippi River basin (MRB). The Cx. pipiens complex in the MRB is composed of 4 taxa: Cx. p. pipiens form pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, hybrids between Cx. p. pipiens f. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. p. pipiens form molestus. Three studies on bloodmeal hosts with large sample sizes have been conducted on members of the Cx. pipiens complex in the MRB including 1 each on Cx. p. quinquefasciatus from Louisiana, Cx. p. pipiens-quinquefasciatus hybrids from Tennessee, and Cx. p. pipiens from Illinois. The top 8 bloodmeal hosts from each of the 3 sites accounted for 68-92% of bloodmeals. Only 14 species accounted for the top 8 bloodmeal hosts at each of the 3 sites. The most often utilized bloodmeal hosts for members of the Culex pipiens complex within the MRB are the American robin, Northern cardinal, human, raccoon, common grackle, house sparrow, mourning dove, dog, Northern mockingbird, blue jay, opossum, domestic horse, house finch and European starling. Human feeding varied widely among sites from 1% to 15.7% of bloodmeals. The proportion of bloodmeals taken on humans is an important epidemiological variable and future studies are needed to define the primary genetic and environmental factors that influence host utilization by members of the Cx. pipiens complex.

  3. Repellent activity of five essential oils against Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, F; Ulug, I; Yalcinkaya, B

    2006-12-01

    Essential oils extracted from the seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum), dried fruits of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), dried foliage of mint (Mentha piperita) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) and fresh foliage of laurel (Laurus nobilis) were tested for their repellency against the adult females of Culex pipiens. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees, eucalyptus, basil and anise being the most active.

  4. Avian host-selection by Culex pipiens in experimental trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Simpson

    Full Text Available Evidence from field studies suggests that Culex pipiens, the primary mosquito vector of West Nile virus (WNV in the northeastern and north central United States, feeds preferentially on American robins (Turdus migratorius. To determine the contribution of innate preferences to observed preference patterns in the field, we conducted host preference trials with a known number of adult female C. pipiens in outdoor cages comparing the relative attractiveness of American robins with two common sympatric bird species, European starling, Sternus vulgaris and house sparrow, Passer domesticus. Host seeking C. pipiens were three times more likely to enter robin-baited traps when with the alternate host was a European starling (n = 4 trials; OR = 3.06; CI [1.42-6.46] and almost twice more likely when the alternative was a house sparrow (n = 8 trials; OR = 1.80; CI = [1.22-2.90]. There was no difference in the probability of trap entry when two robins were offered (n = 8 trials. Logistic regression analysis determined that the age, sex and weight of the birds, the date of the trial, starting-time, temperature, humidity, wind-speed and age of the mosquitoes had no effect on the probability of a choosing a robin over an alternate bird. Findings indicate that preferential feeding by C. pipiens mosquitoes on certain avian hosts is likely to be inherent, and we discuss the implications innate host preferences may have on enzootic WNV transmission.

  5. Characterization of anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, O Ahmedou Salem Mohamed; Khadijetou, M Lekweiry; Moina, M Hasni; Lassana, Konate; Sébastien, Briolant; Ousmane, Faye; Ali, O Mohamed Salem Boukhary

    2013-12-01

    Despite the increasing number of reported autochthonous malaria cases in Nouakchott and the identification of Anopheles arabiensis as the major malaria vector in this Saharan city, anopheline larval habitats have never been identified so far. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize anopheline larval habitats in Nouakchott. During September and October 2012, samples from pools of rainwater, water discharged from standpipes and household drinking water tanks in the districts of Dar Naim, Teyarett and Arafat were analyzed for the presence/absence of anopheline larvae and physicochemical characterization of breeding habitats. Of the 51 prospected water bodies, eight consisting of seven water discharged from standpipes and one household drinking water tank were productive for Anopheles sp. All emerged anopheline mosquitoes from the positive dipping were morphologically identified as members of the An. gambiae complex. Multivariate regression analyses showed that a salinity up to 0.1 g/l and a shaded situation were respectively protective factors against high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI [0.44-0.87], p = 0.0052 and adjusted odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI [0.44-0.71, p <0.0001] and a pH up to 7.61 was a risk factor for high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56, 95% CI [1.25-1.95], p = 0.0001). The study demonstrated in Nouakchott that despite an arid and dry climate, human practices have contributed to the establishment of favourable environmental conditions for the development of anopheline mosquitoes and, therefore, maintaining malaria transmission in this Saharan city. The core malaria vector control intervention as the use of long-lasting insecicidal nets (LLINs) could be complemented in Nouakchott by larval source control. In this area, appropriate larval control measures may be recommended in line with an integrated vector management (IVM) approach.

  6. Characterization of anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae larval habitats in Nouakchott, Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ahmedou Salem Mohamed Salem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Despite the increasing number of reported autochthonous malaria cases in Nouakchott and the identification of Anopheles arabiensis as the major malaria vector in this Saharan city, anopheline larval habitats have never been identified so far. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize anopheline larval habitats in Nouakchott. Methods: During September and October 2012, samples from pools of rainwater, water discharged from standpipes and household drinking water tanks in the districts of Dar Naim, Teyarett and Arafat were analyzed for the presence/absence of anopheline larvae and physicochemical characterization of breeding habitats. Results: Of the 51 prospected water bodies, eight consisting of seven water discharged from standpipes and one household drinking water tank were productive for Anopheles sp. All emerged anopheline mosquitoes from the positive dipping were morphologically identified as members of the An. gambiae complex. Multivariate regression analyses showed that a salinity up to 0.1 g/l and a shaded situation were respectively protective factors against high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI [0.44-0.87], p = 0.0052 and adjusted odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI [0.44-0.71, p <0.0001] and a pH up to 7.61 was a risk factor for high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56, 95% CI [1.25-1.95], p = 0.0001. Interpretation & conclusion: The study demonstrated in Nouakchott that despite an arid and dry climate, human practices have contributed to the establishment of favourable environmental conditions for the development of anopheline mosquitoes and, therefore, maintaining malaria transmission in this Saharan city. The core malaria vector control intervention as the use of long-lasting insecicidal nets (LLINs could be complemented in Nouakchott by larval source control. In this area, appropriate larval control measures may be recommended in line with an integrated vector management (IVM approach.

  7. Studies on Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus Komp (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    records show that this species occurs on the eastern slopes of the Andes in Colombia and Bolivia, in Trinidad, Venezuela, the Guianas, Peru and...An. homunculus l.s. in Mata Atl? ica , southern Brazil, and suggest that specimens from Trinidad may belong to an unnamed morphologically similar...Trinidad especially in southern Mata Atl? ica , Brazil. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR

  8. LE ZANZARE ITALIANE: GENERALITÀ E IDENTIFICAZIONE DEGLI ADULTI (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Severini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nel presente lavoro vengono riportate le informazioni essenziali su tassonomia e biologia nonché sugli aspetti ecologici degli adulti dei Culicidi italiani. Attualmente la fauna culicidica italiana comprende 64 specie appartenenti a 2 sottofamiglie e 8 generi. Alla sottofamiglia Anophelinae appartiene soltanto il genere Anopheles, presente con 16 specie raggruppate in due sottogeneri. Alla sottofamiglia Culicinae appartengono i rimanenti 7 generi: Aedes con 6 specie raggruppate in 3 sottogeneri, Coquillettidia con 2 specie, Ochlerotatus con 20 specie raggruppate in 3 sottogeneri, Culex con 12 specie raggruppate in 4 sottogeneri, Culiseta con 6 specie raggruppate in 3 sottogeneri, Orthopodomyia e Uranotaenia con una specie ognuna. In questo contesto vengono fornite le chiavi di identificazione specifica per le zanzare adulte, in italiano e in inglese. Le chiavi sono corredate da un’ampia iconografia (figure 1-75. Alle chiavi fa seguito la diagnosi morfologica dell’adulto di ogni specie con note sulla relativa biologia e distribuzione. Per ulteriori approfondimenti viene riportata la bibliografia completa sulle zanzare della fauna italiana dal 1960 ed i precedenti lavori più autorevoli.

  9. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Captured in the Iquitos Area of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    1991 at three sylvan sites near tl ing arboviruses have been reported: Mayaro , quitos, Department of Loreto, Peru. Situatu on Oropouche, Guama... virus isolation was begun in 1988. within Iquitos. This report deals specifically with the capture Mosquito Collections. In total, eight different...Lima for virus isolation. Mos- groups of mosquitoes not identifiable to the spe- quitoes were identified to species using several cies level because of

  10. Genetic Structure of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    simultaneously for all the populations studied and population pairs using R ST software. 30 From these heterogeneity statis- tics , theoretical gene-flow...statis- tic was used, the average values ranged from 0.042 to 0.047, depending on the procedures used. This statistic again showed a moderate divergence...S , Suárez M , Sánchez G , Quiñones M , Herrera M , 1987 . Uso de la técnica inmunoradiometrica (IRMA) en Anopheles de Colombia para la

  11. Population Genetic Structure of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multini, Laura Cristina; Suesdek, Lincoln; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Although Aedes fluviatilis is an anthropophilic mosquito found abundantly in urban environments, its biology, epidemiological potential and genetic characteristics are poorly understood. Climate change and urbanization processes that result in environmental modifications benefit certain anthropophilic mosquito species such as Ae. fluviatilis, greatly increasing their abundance in urban areas. To gain a better understanding of whether urbanization processes modulate the genetic structure of this species in the city of São Paulo, we used eight microsatellite loci to genetically characterize Ae. fluviatilis populations collected in nine urban parks in the city of São Paulo. Our results show that there is high gene flow among the populations of this species, heterozygosity deficiency and low genetic structure and that the species may have undergone a recent population expansion. There are two main hypotheses to explain these findings: (i) Ae. fluviatilis populations have undergone a population expansion as a result of urbanization; and (ii) as urbanization of the city of São Paulo occurred recently and was quite intense, the structuring of these populations cannot be observed yet, apart from in the populations of Ibirapuera and Piqueri parks, where the first signs of structuring have appeared. We believe that the expansion found in Ae. fluviatilis populations is probably correlated with the unplanned urbanization of the city of São Paulo, which transformed green areas into urbanized areas, as well as the increasing population density in the city. PMID:27598889

  12. Susceptibility Status of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Differential fractionation of these extracts using solid phase extractor (SPE) suggests ... contamination of the environment in the urban areas. Due to .... shrimp mortality regression equations of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos and pirmiphos-methyl.

  13. Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashfaq

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection. The genus Aedes (Stegomyia comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. CONCLUSIONS: As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations.

  14. Reappearance of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C S; Cáceres, A G; Vaquerizo, A; Ibañez-Bernal, S; Cachay, L S

    2001-07-01

    We report here the reappearance of Aedes aegypti in the Rimac district, and summarize the history of this mosquito species in Peru since its first detection in 1852. On March 17 2000 were found Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mariscal Castilla town, Flor de Amancaes, San Juan de Amancaes, El Altillo and Santa Rosa in the Rimac district, Lima Province.

  15. Updated Checklist of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Dejean, Alain; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain

    2015-09-01

    The incredible mosquito species diversity in the Neotropics can provoke major confusion during vector control programs when precise identification is needed. This is especially true in French Guiana where studies on mosquito diversity practically ceased 35 yr ago. In order to fill this gap, we propose here an updated and comprehensive checklist of the mosquitoes of French Guiana, reflecting the latest changes in classification and geographical distribution and the recognition of current or erroneous synonymies. This work was undertaken in order to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes in a broad range of disciplines such as ecology, biogeography, and medical entomology. Thirty-two valid species cited in older lists have been removed, and 24 species have been added including 12 species (comprising two new genera and three new subgenera) reported from French Guiana for the first time. New records are from collections conducted on various phytotelmata in French Guiana and include the following species: Onirion sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (2000), Sabethes (Peytonulus) hadrognathus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) paradoxus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) soperi Lane and Cerqueira, Sabethes (Sabethinus) idiogenes Harbach, Sabethes (Sabethes) quasicyaneus Peryassú, Runchomyia (Ctenogoeldia) magna (Theobald), Wyeomyia (Caenomyiella) sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (1990), Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) ypsipola Dyar, Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia) lamellata (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne), Wyeomyia (Miamyia) oblita (Lutz), and Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab). At this time, the mosquitoes of French Guiana are represented by 235 species distributed across 22 genera, nine tribes, and two subfamilies.

  16. Revision of the Leucosphyrus Group of Anopheles (Cellia) (Diptera, Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    mosquitoes, VII. A- Culex ( Culex ) with banded proboscis and tarsi. B-Anopheles: the pupae of three rare species; the leucosphyrus-subgroup. Monthly...description of the adults, male and female, male genitalia, pupa and fourth-instar larva are provided for each taxon in addition to bionomics...distribution data and systematic discussion for each species, including diagnostic characters. Identification keys for females and fourth-instar larvae are

  17. Reappearance of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Sevilla Andrade; Cáceres,Abraham G; Aldo Vaquerizo; Sergio Ibañez-Bernal; Lourdes Sulca Cachay

    2001-01-01

    We report here the reappearence of Aedes aegypti in the Rimac district, and summarize the history of this mosquito species in Peru since its first detection in 1852. On March 17 2000 were found Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mariscal Castilla town, Flor de Amancaes, San Juan de Amancaes, El Altillo and Santa Rosa in the Rimac district, Lima Province.

  18. Reappearance of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sevilla Andrade

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available We report here the reappearence of Aedes aegypti in the Rimac district, and summarize the history of this mosquito species in Peru since its first detection in 1852. On March 17 2000 were found Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mariscal Castilla town, Flor de Amancaes, San Juan de Amancaes, El Altillo and Santa Rosa in the Rimac district, Lima Province.

  19. Blood Meal Identification from Florida Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stacey L. Watts; Daniel M. Fitzpatrick; James E. Maruniak

    2009-01-01

    ... región norte de Florida fueron colectadas durante un periodo de 12 meses y la comida de sangre de hembras fue analizada para determinar los hospederos de los cuales los mosquitos se habían alimentado...

  20. Innate Cellular Immune Responses in Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, D E; Farid, H A; Hammad, R E; Gad, A M; Bartholomay, L C

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit a variety of pathogens that have devastating consequences for global public and veterinary health. Despite their capacity to serve as vectors, these insects have a robust capacity to respond to invading organisms with strong cellular and humoral immune responses. In Egypt, Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771) has been suspected to act as a bridge vector of Rift Valley Fever virus between animals and humans. Microscopic analysis of Ae. caspius hemolymph revealed the presence of phagocytic cells called granulocytes. We further evaluated cellular immune responses produced by Ae. caspius as a result of exposure to a Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacterium, and to latex beads. After challenge, a rapid and strong phagocytic response against either a natural or synthetic invader was evident. Hemocyte integrity in bacteria-inoculated mosquitoes was not morphologically affected. The number of circulating granulocytes decreased with age, reducing the overall phagocytic capacity of mosquitoes over time. The magnitude and speed of the phagocytic response suggested that granulocytes act as an important force in the battle against foreign invaders, as has been characterized in other important mosquito vector species.

  1. Updated checklist of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraa, Slimane; Dekoninck, Wouter; Versteirt, Veerle; Schaffner, Francis; Coosemans, Marc; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic

    2015-12-01

    Most information about the systematics and bioecology of Belgian mosquitoes dates back from before 1950, and only scattered information was produced during the last decades. In this paper we review and update the list of mosquito species recorded in Belgium, from first report (1908) to 2015. Six genera and 31 species were recorded so far, including 28 autochthonous species and three invasive alien species recently recorded in Belgium: Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894), Ae. japonicus japonicus (Theobald 1901), and Ae. koreicus (Edwards 1917). The six genera are Anopheles (five species), Aedes (sixteen species), Coquillettidia (one species), Culex (four species), Culiseta (four species), and Orthopodomyia (one species).

  2. The J. Pedro Duret Mosquito Collection (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    22, NO.3 male: ൢ.VIII.58/ Panama /Rio Chagres/Juan Mina / Col. Duret//HOLOTIPO//5814//Sabethes (Sabethi- /nus) gorgasi sp. n./J.P. Duret Det. 1971...Duret Det. 1952." Paratypes - 6 males. bahiensis Duret, 1969b:40. Culex (MelQ/UXonion). Holotype male: "VIII.53/Brazil/ Bahia /Urucuca/Col. Duret...none. siriVfl1Ulkami Duret, 1982:167. Wyeomyia (Dendromyia). Holotype male: "I.1958/ Panama /Darien/Col. Duret/ [underside of label] J.O. Conte leg

  3. Discovery of Culex (Neoculex) arizonensis in Texas (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Will K; Darsie, Richard F

    2003-03-01

    A population of Culex arizonensis was found in Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Culberson County, TX. A new state record, this extends the range of this species eastward by 828 km. The essential diagnostic characters of the 4th-stage larva are given.

  4. Lista dos mosquitos da Bolívia: (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Cerqueira

    1943-08-01

    Full Text Available Em quinze gêneros, cento e vinte e seis espécies de mosquitos foram constatadas no material capturado pelo Servicio de Fiebre Amarilla desde 1933 até 1942. Êste número, três vezes mais elevado do que o existente na literatura para o país, seria ainda maior se possível fôsse identificar sem o auxílio de machos inúmeras fêmeas das espécies de Culex. Tôdas as espécies estudadas apresentavam suas distribuições geográficas nos departamentos e províncias onde casos de Febre Amarela foram observados. Algumas cosiderações foram feitas em torno de espécies que não correspondiam exatamente com as descrições existentes, assim como descrições de outras foram dadas, cujos sexos opostos apenas eram conhecidos.One hundred and twenty-six species of mosquitoes, corresponding fifteen genera, have been found in material collected by the Bolivian Yellow Fever Service between 1933 and 1942. This number is three times that given for the country in existing literature and would be even largar if it were possible to identify a consierable group of Culex mosquitoes composed principally of female specimens. All species studied come from Departmetns and Provinces where cases of yellow fever have been found. Consideration has been given to certain species which do not agree exactly with existing descriptions, and supplementary descriptions have been made for the male or female of two additional species for which only description of the opposite sex had existed.

  5. Resistance Mechanisms of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae to Temephos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboozar Soltani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anopheles stephensi is a sub-tropical species and has been considered as one of the most important vector of human malaria throughout the Middle East and South Asian region including the malarious areas of southern Iran. Current reports confirmed An. stephensi resistance to temephos in Oman and India. However, there is no comprehensive research on mechanisms of temephos resistance in An. stephensi in the literature. This study was designed in order to clarify the enzymatic and molecular mechanisms of temephos resistance in this species.Methods: Profile activities of α- and ß-esterases, mixed function oxidase (MFO, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, insensitive acetylcholinesterase, and para-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA-esterase enzymes were tested for An. stephensi strain with resistance ratio of 15.82 to temephos in comparison with susceptible strain.Results: Results showed that the mean activity of α-EST, GST and AChE enzymes were classified as altered indicating metabolic mechanisms have considerable role in resistance of An. stephensi to temephos. Molecular study using PCR-RFLP method to trace the G119S mutation in ACE-1 gene showed lack of the mutation responsible for organophosphate insecticide resistance in the temephos-selected strain of An. stephensi.Conclusion: This study showed that the altered enzymes but not targets site insensitivity of ACE-1 are responsible for temephos resistance in An. stephensi in south of Iran.

  6. A review of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Irish, SR; Al-Amin, HM; Alam, MS; Harbach, RE

    2016-01-01

    © The Author(s). 2016 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativec...

  7. Mosquito population dynamic (diptera: culicidae in a eutrophised dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ED. Wermelinger

    Full Text Available This study observed the mosquito population in a rural eutrophised dam. Larvae of L3 and L4 stages and pupae were dipped out during twelve month collections and the reared to the adult stage for identification. The collections were done along nine metres from the edge of the dam divided in three parts (P1, P2 and P3, each part being 3 m long. P1 did not have vegetation (grass along its edge,which would reach or sink into the water to promote some shade on the marginal water. A total of 217 adults of four species was identified with the following constancies and frequencies: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823 (83% and 40.6%, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus evansae (Brèthes, 1926 (92% and 26.7%, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia and Lopez, 1940 (83% and 14.3% and Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901 (33% and 18.4%. C. quinquefasciatus, A. evansae, A. rangeli and C. nigripalpus were more frequent in the quarters Nov./Dec./Jan. (85.7%, May/June/July (75%, Aug./Sept./Oct. (29.4% and Aug./Sept./Oct. (23.5% particularly in the months of December (88.4% Sept.tember (48.94, (38.3 and August (47.62 respectively. The presence of C. quinquefasciatus and the high incidence of Daphinia sp. and also the levels of Organic Nitrogen (0.28 mg/L and of total Phosphorus (0.02 mg/L are indications of the eutrophication of the dam. There was a difference regarding the total of Anopheles (A. avansae + A. rangeli and Culex species (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis between P1 and P2 (χ² = 0.0097, P1 and P3 (χ² = 0.0005, but not between P2 and P3 (χ² = 0.2045.The high C. quinquefasciatus constancy and frequency were confirmed to be a good biological indicator for a eutrophised environment and A. evansae showed a good potential for this environment. Vegetation can be an important factor for anopheline population dynamic also in eutrophic breeding sites.

  8. Mosquito population dynamic (Diptera: Culicidae) in a eutrophised dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermelinger, E D; Benigno, C V; Machado, R N M; Cabello, P H; Meira, A M; Ferreira, A P; Zanuncio, J C

    2012-11-01

    This study observed the mosquito population in a rural eutrophised dam. Larvae of L3 and L4 stages and pupae were dipped out during twelve month collections and the reared to the adult stage for identification. The collections were done along nine metres from the edge of the dam divided in three parts (P1, P2 and P3), each part being 3 m long. P1 did not have vegetation (grass) along its edge,which would reach or sink into the water to promote some shade on the marginal water. A total of 217 adults of four species was identified with the following constancies and frequencies: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) (83% and 40.6%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) evansae (Brèthes, 1926) (92% and 26.7%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia and Lopez, 1940) (83% and 14.3%) and Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901) (33% and 18.4%). C. quinquefasciatus, A. evansae, A. rangeli and C. nigripalpus were more frequent in the quarters Nov./Dec./Jan. (85.7%), May/June/July (75%), Aug./Sept./Oct. (29.4%) and Aug./Sept./Oct. (23.5%) particularly in the months of December (88.4%) Sept.tember (48.94), (38.3) and August (47.62) respectively. The presence of C. quinquefasciatus and the high incidence of Daphinia sp. and also the levels of Organic Nitrogen (0.28 mg/L) and of total Phosphorus (0.02 mg/L) are indications of the eutrophication of the dam. There was a difference regarding the total of Anopheles (A. avansae + A. rangeli) and Culex species (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis) between P1 and P2 (χ(2) = 0.0097), P1 and P3 (χ(2) = 0.0005), but not between P2 and P3 (χ(2) = 0.2045).The high C. quinquefasciatus constancy and frequency were confirmed to be a good biological indicator for a eutrophised environment and A. evansae showed a good potential for this environment. Vegetation can be an important factor for anopheline population dynamic also in eutrophic breeding sites.

  9. Olfactory Ionotropic Receptors in Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Man, Yahui; Li, Jianyong; Pei, Di; Wu, Wenjian

    2017-09-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are a conserved family of ligand-gated ion channels that primarily function to mediate neuronal communication at synapses. A variant subfamily of iGluRs, the ionotropic receptors (IRs), was recently identified in insects and proved with the function in odorant recognition. Ionotropic receptors participate in a distinct olfactory signaling pathway that is independent of olfactory receptors activity. In the present study, we identify 102 putative IR genes, dubbed as AalbIr genes, in mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) by in silico comparative sequence analysis. Among AalbIr genes, 19 show expression in the female antenna by RT-PCR. These putative olfactory AalbIRs share four conservative hydrophobic domains of amino acids, similar to the transmembrane and ion channel pore regions found in conventional iGluRs. To determine the potential function of these olfactory AalbIRs in host-seeking, we compared their transcript expression levels in the antennae of blood-fed females with that of non-blood-fed females by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Three AalbIr genes showed downregulation when the mosquito finished a bloodmeal. These results may help to improve our understanding of the IR-mediated olfactory signaling in mosquitoes. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae) diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D N; Mirza, Jawwad H; Khan, Arif M; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations.

  11. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. © M.L. Tantely et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  12. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae from Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantely Michaël Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species. This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species, Aedes (35 species, Anopheles (26 species, Coquillettidia (3 species, Culex (at least 50 species, Eretmapodites (4 species, Ficalbia (2 species, Hodgesia (at least one species, Lutzia (one species, Mansonia (2 species, Mimomyia (22 species, Orthopodomyia (8 species, Toxorhynchites (6 species, and Uranotaenia (73 species. Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%. Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27% with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar.

  13. The neotype of anopheles albitarsis (Diptera: culicidae O neótipo de Anopheles albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles albitarsis neotype is described from specimens collected in Baradero, Argentina, in Shannon's trap, in horse and pig stables and on the progeny of engorded females. The description includes illustrations of adult female, male and female genitalias, scanning electron miscroscopy of the eggs and complete chaetotaxy of pupa and larva. The importance for electing a neotype is based on the realization that An. albitarsis is a complex of cryptic species. It is an attempt to provide typt-locality specimens with which other memebers of the group can be compared.O neótipo de Anopheles albitarsis é descrito a partir de espécimens coletados em armadilha tipo Shannon, em estábulos de cavalos e porcos e progênies de fêmeas ingurgitadas em Baradero, Argentina, localidade-tipo da espécie. A descrição inclui ilustrações da fêmea adulda, genitálias masculina e feminina, ovos em microscopia eletrônica de varredura e da quetotaxia completa das larvas de 4º estádio e pupas. A eleição de um neótipo para albitarsis baseia-se em dados recentes que apontam a espécie como um complexo de espécies crípticas, o que evidencia a importância de uma descrição detalhada de espécimens da localidade-tipo com o qual outros membros do grupo possam ser comparados.

  14. Experimental investigation of the susceptibility of Italian Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolini, Daniela; Toma, Luciano; Di Luca, Marco; Severini, Francesco; Romi, R; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sabbatucci, Michela; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Fortuna, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the susceptibility of an Italian population of Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, tested in parallel with Aedes aegypti, as a positive control. We analysed mosquitoes at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 20 and 24 days after an infectious blood meal. Viral RNA was detected in the body of Cx. pipiens up to three days post-infection, but not at later time points. Our results indicate that Cx. pipiens is not susceptible to ZIKV infection.

  15. Experimental investigation of the susceptibility of Italian Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolini, Daniela; Toma, Luciano; Di Luca, Marco; Severini, Francesco; Romi, R; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sabbatucci, Michela; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Fortuna, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the susceptibility of an Italian population of Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, tested in parallel with Aedes aegypti, as a positive control. We analysed mosquitoes at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 20 and 24 days after an infectious blood meal. Viral RNA was detected in the body of Cx. pipiens up to three days post-infection, but not at later time points. Our results indicate that Cx. pipiens is not susceptible to ZIKV infection. PMID:27605056

  16. Culex pipiens forms and urbanization: effects on blood feeding sources and transmission of avian Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Ferraguti, Martina; Ruiz, Santiago; Roiz, David; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-12-08

    The wide spread mosquito Culex pipiens pipiens have two forms molestus and pipiens which frequently hybridize. The two forms have behavioural and physiological differences affecting habitat requirements and host selection, which may affect the transmission dynamic of Cx. p. pipiens-borne diseases. During 2013, blood engorged Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes were captured in urban, rural and natural areas from Southern Spain. In 120 mosquitoes, we identified the blood meal origin at vertebrate species/genus level and the mosquito form. The presence and molecular lineage identity of avian malaria parasites in the head-thorax of each mosquito was also analysed. Mosquitoes of the form pipiens were more frequently found in natural than in urban areas. The proportion of Cx. pipiens form molestus and hybrids of the two forms did not differ between habitat categories. Any significant difference in the proportion of blood meals on birds between forms was found. Birds were the most common feeding source for the two forms and their hybrids. Among mammals, dogs and humans were the most common hosts. Two Plasmodium and one Haemoproteus lineages were found in mosquitoes, with non-significant differences between forms. This study supports a differential distribution of Cx. p. pipiens form pipiens between urban and natural areas. Probably due to the similar feeding sources of both mosquito forms and their hybrids here, all of them may frequently interact with avian malaria parasites playing a role in the transmission of Plasmodium.

  17. Mitotic activity in dorsal epidermis of Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Arce, H.; Mizell, S.

    1972-01-01

    Study of statistically significant rhythms of mitotic division in dorsal epidermis of frogs, Rana pipiens, exposed to a 12:12 light:dark environment for 14 days. The results include the findings that (1) male animals have a primary period of 22 hr in summer and 18 hr in winter, (2) female animals have an 18 hr period, and (3) parapinealectomy and blinding abolish the rhythm.

  18. Insecticide resistance to organophosphates in Culex pipiens complex from Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osta Mike A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of Culex pipiens mosquitoes collected from a single site in Lebanon in 2005, revealed an alarming frequency of ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphate insecticides. Following this, in 2006 the majority of municipalities switched to pyrethroids after a long history of organophosphate usage in the country; however, since then no studies have assessed the impact of changing insecticide class on the frequency of resistant ace-1 alleles in C. pipiens. Methods C. pipiens mosquitoes were captured indoors from 25 villages across the country and subjected to established methods for the analysis of gene amplification at the Ester locus and target site mutations in ace-1 gene that confer resistance to organophosphates. Results We conducted the first large-scale screen for resistance to organosphosphates in C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from Lebanon. The frequency of carboxylesterase (Ester and ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphates were assessed among C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from 25 different villages across the country between December 2008 and December 2009. Established enzymatic assay and PCR-based molecular tests, both diagnostic of the major target site mutations in ace-1 revealed the absence of the F290V mutation among sampled mosquitoes and significant reduction in the frequency of G119S mutation compared to that previously reported for mosquitoes collected from Beirut in 2005. We also identified a new duplicated ace-1 allele, named ace-1D13, exhibiting a resistant phenotype by associating a susceptible and a resistant copy of ace-1 in a mosquito line sampled from Beirut in 2005. Fisher’s exact test on ace-1 frequencies in the new sample sites, showed that some populations exhibited a significant excess of heterozygotes, suggesting that the duplicated allele is still present. Starch gel electrophoresis indicated that resistance at the Ester locus was mainly attributed to the

  19. Insecticide resistance to organophosphates in Culex pipiens complex from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of Culex pipiens mosquitoes collected from a single site in Lebanon in 2005, revealed an alarming frequency of ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphate insecticides. Following this, in 2006 the majority of municipalities switched to pyrethroids after a long history of organophosphate usage in the country; however, since then no studies have assessed the impact of changing insecticide class on the frequency of resistant ace-1 alleles in C. pipiens. Methods C. pipiens mosquitoes were captured indoors from 25 villages across the country and subjected to established methods for the analysis of gene amplification at the Ester locus and target site mutations in ace-1 gene that confer resistance to organophosphates. Results We conducted the first large-scale screen for resistance to organosphosphates in C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from Lebanon. The frequency of carboxylesterase (Ester) and ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphates were assessed among C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from 25 different villages across the country between December 2008 and December 2009. Established enzymatic assay and PCR-based molecular tests, both diagnostic of the major target site mutations in ace-1 revealed the absence of the F290V mutation among sampled mosquitoes and significant reduction in the frequency of G119S mutation compared to that previously reported for mosquitoes collected from Beirut in 2005. We also identified a new duplicated ace-1 allele, named ace-1D13, exhibiting a resistant phenotype by associating a susceptible and a resistant copy of ace-1 in a mosquito line sampled from Beirut in 2005. Fisher’s exact test on ace-1 frequencies in the new sample sites, showed that some populations exhibited a significant excess of heterozygotes, suggesting that the duplicated allele is still present. Starch gel electrophoresis indicated that resistance at the Ester locus was mainly attributed to the Ester2 allele, which exhibits

  20. The vortex wake of the free-swimming larva and pupa of Culex pipiens (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbury, J

    2001-06-01

    The kinematics and hydrodynamics of free-swimming pupal and larval (final-instar) culicids were investigated using videography and a simple wake-visualisation technique (dyes). In both cases, swimming is based on a technique of high-amplitude, side-to-side (larva) or up-and-down (pupa) bending of the body. The pupa possesses a pair of plate-like abdominal paddles; the larval abdominal paddle consists of a fan of closely spaced bristles which, at the Reynolds numbers involved, behaves like a continuous surface. Wake visualisation showed that each half-stroke of the swimming cycle produces a discrete ring vortex that is convected away from the body. Consecutive vortices are produced first to one side then to the other of the mean swimming path, the convection axis being inclined at approximately 25 degrees away from dead aft. Pupal and larval culicids therefore resemble fish in using the momentum injected into the water to generate thrust. Preliminary calculations for the pupa suggest that each vortex contains sufficient momentum to account for that added to the body with each half-stroke. The possibility is discussed that the side-to-side flexural technique may allow an interaction between body and tail flows in the production of vorticity.

  1. Larvicidal activity of leguminous seeds and grains against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young-Su; Baek, Bong-Rae; Yang, Young-Cheol; Kim, Moo-Key; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2002-09-01

    Larvicidal activity of methanol extracts of 26 leguminous seeds and 20 grains against early 4th-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens was examined. At 200 ppm of the extracts from Cassia obtusifolia, Cassia tora, and Vicia tetrasperma, more than 90% mortality was obtained in larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens. Extract of C. tora gave 86.7 and 100% mortality in the larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 40 ppm but 59.2 and 78.3% mortality against larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 20 ppm, respectively. At 40 ppm, extract of C. obtusifolia caused 51.4 and 68.5% mortality of the 4th-stage larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens, respectively. Larvicidal activity of extract of C obtusifolia was significantly reduced when used at 20 ppm. Further studies of these plants as possible agents for mosquito control are warranted.

  2. Toxicity and synergistic activities of Chalcones against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito-borne illnesses are of great concern throughout the world, and chemical insecticides are commonly employed to decrease mosquito populations. However, the developmental insecticide pipeline for vector control has primarily been filled by repurposed agricultural products, and is hampered by t...

  3. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  4. Plasmodium relictum (lineages pSGS1 and pGRW11): complete synchronous sporogony in mosquitoes Culex pipiens pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskienė, Rita; Bernotienė, Rasa; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2013-04-01

    Plasmodium relictum is a widespread invasive agent of avian malaria, responsible for acute, chronic and debilitating diseases in many species of birds. Recent PCR-based studies revealed astonishing genetic diversity of avian malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium), with numerous genetic lineages deposited in GenBank. Many studies addressed distribution and evolutionary relationships of avian Plasmodium lineages, but information about patterns of development of different lineages in mosquito vectors remains insufficient. Here we present data on sporogonic development of 2 widespread mitochondrial cytochrome b lineages (cyt b) of P. relictum (pSGS1 and pGRW11) in mosquito Culex pipiens pipiens. Genetic distance between these lineages is 0.2%; they fall in a well-supported clade in the phylogenetic tree. Three P. relictum strains were isolated from common crossbill (Loxia curvirostra, lineage pSGS1), domestic canary (Serinus canaria domestica, pSGS1) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus, pGRW11). These strains were multiplied in domestic canaries and used as donors of malarial gametocytes to infect C. p. pipiens. Mosquitoes were allowed to take blood meal on infected canaries and then dissected on intervals to study development of sporogonic stages. All 3 strains developed synchronously and completed sporogony in this vector, with infective sporozoites reported in the salivary glands on the day 14 after infection. Ookinetes, oocysts and sporozoites of all strains were indistinguishable morphologically. This study shows that patterns of sporogonic development of the closely related lineages pSGS1 and pGRW11 and different strains of the lineage pSGS1 of P. relictum are similar indicating that phylogenetic trees based on the cyt b gene likely can be used for predicting sporogonic development of genetically similar avian malaria lineages in mosquito vectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex pipiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Koosha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens.Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and unfed were dissected separately in Tris-HCl buffer. The extracts of midguts were applied for hemagglutinin assay against red blood cells of rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, horse, sheep, guinea pig, cow, human (A, B, AB, O groups. Then, the RBCs with relatively high agglutinin activity were chosen for carbohydrate inhibition assay. D (+ glucose, D (+ galactose, D (+ mannose, D (- fructose, D (- arabinose, L (- fucose, lactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid were used to specify carbohydrate binding lectin.The highest agglutinin activities were found against sheep and rabbits RBCs. Sexual diversity of agglutinin activities was observed among midgut extraction of males and females. In addition, variation in agglutinin activity of blood fed and unfed female mosquitoes were detected. The lectin activity was inhibited highly with glucose, galactose, fucose and fructose but less inhibitor activities was observed by arabinose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, lactose and mannose.The secretion of hemagglutinins (lectins or lectin-like molecules in the digestive system depends on the type of food in the gut. This suggests that emptying of the gut in preparation for protein rich food probably starts the secretion of hemagglutinins.

  6. Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosha, Mona; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Abolhasani, Mandan; Charedar, Soroor; Basseri, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens. Methods: Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and unfed) were dissected separately in Tris-HCl buffer. The extracts of midguts were applied for hemagglutinin assay against red blood cells of rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, horse, sheep, guinea pig, cow, human (A, B, AB, O groups). Then, the RBCs with relatively high agglutinin activity were chosen for carbohydrate inhibition assay. D (+) glucose, D (+) galactose, D (+) mannose, D (−) fructose, D (−) arabinose, L (−) fucose, lactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid were used to specify carbohydrate binding lectin. Results: The highest agglutinin activities were found against sheep and rabbits RBCs. Sexual diversity of agglutinin activities was observed among midgut extraction of males and females. In addition, variation in agglutinin activity of blood fed and unfed female mosquitoes were detected. The lectin activity was inhibited highly with glucose, galactose, fucose and fructose but less inhibitor activities was observed by arabinose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, lactose and mannose. Conclusion: The secretion of hemagglutinins (lectins or lectin-like molecules) in the digestive system depends on the type of food in the gut. This suggests that emptying of the gut in preparation for protein rich food probably starts the secretion of hemagglutinins. PMID:23785692

  7. Acid exposure is an immune disruptor in adult Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatnick, Itzick; Andrews, Jaime; Colombo, Matthew; Madhoun, Hareth; Rameswaran, Muthuramanan; Brodkin, Marc A

    2006-01-01

    Acidic environments are physiological stressors for amphibians. The objective of the present study was to document the effect of an acidic environment on innate immune system function under controlled experimental conditions in Rana pipiens. We developed an in vivo assay, by injecting a suspension of 1-microm fluorescent beads in fluid thioglycollate, to induce peritonitis. The number of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and their phagocytic activity did not increase with thioglycollate injection when frogs were exposed to pH 5.5 compared to when frogs were exposed to pH 7.0. An environment of pH 5.5 disrupted the inflammatory response of frogs compared to an environment of pH 7.0; at pH 5.5, more nonphagocytic leukocytes and fewer highly phagocytic leukocytes were found compared to those in frogs exposed to pH 7.0. Frogs stimulated by thioglycollate injection and exposed to pH 5.5 had a 50% increase in cells that did not exhibit phagocytosis and a 4- to 10-fold reduction in the number of highly phagocytic cells. This is evidence that acid exposure functions as an immune disruptor in adult R. pipiens under laboratory conditions.

  8. Detection and isolation of the α-proteobacterium Asaia in Culex mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freece, C; Damiani, C; Valzano, M; D'Amelio, S; Cappelli, A; Ricci, I; Favia, G

    2014-12-01

    Investigations of microbiota within mosquitoes continue to widen the spectrum of possible symbiont-based applications against vector-borne diseases. In this context, α-proteobacteria of the genus Asaia (Rhodospirillales: Acetobacteraceae) are emerging as possible endosymbiotic candidates, particularly in paratransgenic approaches aimed at interrupting pathogen transmission. Previous studies have shown that Asaia spp. distribution among Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes displayed positive rates of infection in isolated midguts, salivary glands and reproductive tissues. Similarly, Asaia has been detected in Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) and Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations. Within the Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae), Asaia infection is still largely unexplored. Here, we summarize a preliminary survey of laboratory-reared Cx. pipiens complex and field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus for the presence of Asaia spp., and present the first identification of Asaia in some of the members of the Cx. pipiens complex and the first description in West African populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. X-ray diffraction pattern from the flight muscle of Toxorhynchites towadensis reveals the specific phylogenic position of mosquito among Diptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Diptera are a group of insects with only a single pair of wings (forewings), and are considered monophyletic (originating from a common ancestor). The flight muscle in Diptera has features not observed in other insects, such as the long Pro-Ala-rich peptide associated with tropomyosin, not with troponin-I as in other insects, and the formation of a superlattice by myosin filaments analogous to that in vertebrate skeletal muscle. Here we describe X-ray diffraction patterns from the flight muscle of a mosquito, Toxorhynchites towadensis (Culicidae), belonging to a primitive group of Diptera. The diffraction pattern indicates that myosin filaments in the flight muscle of this species do not form a superlattice. X-ray diffraction also shows meridional reflections that are not observed in other dipterans, but are present in the patterns from bumblebee (Hymenoptera) flight muscle. These observations suggest that the superlattice structure evolved after the common ancestor of Diptera had diverged from other insects. The flight muscle of mosquito may retain primitive structural features that are shared by Hymenoptera.

  10. The Developmental Effects Of A Municipal Wastewater Effluent On The Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater effluents are complex mixtures containing a variety of anthropogenic compounds, many of which are known endocrine disruptors. In order to characterize the development and behavorial effects of such a complex mixture, northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, were e...

  11. Acute toxicity of furazolidone on Artemia salina, Daphnia magna, and Culex pipiens molestus larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macri, A.; Stazi, A.V.; Dojmi di Delupis, G.

    1988-10-01

    As a result of evidence of the ecotoxicity of nitrofurans, the acute toxicity of furazolidone was tested in vivo on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, which are both crustaceans. Toxicity studies were also performed on larvae of Culex pipiens molestus. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the compound on Culex pipiens and Daphnia magna, while Artemia salina proved to be the least sensitive.

  12. Dieldrin-resistance in Culex pipiens fatigans in Malaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, R. H.

    1958-01-01

    Resistance to insecticides in Culex pipiens fatigans has already been reported from two areas in Malaya. In Penang two years' use of BHC as a larvicide resulted in the development of a strain which was found to have acquired a tenfold resistance to BHC, and also to dieldrin to which it had not been exposed. In Singapore, when larval control became unsatisfactory after 6 months' use of a dieldrin emulsion, laboratory experiments confirmed that active resistance to dieldrin had developed. The present observations report the finding of two further dieldrin-BHC resistant strains of C. p. fatigans in Malaya, but differ from the previous reports in that resistance, in one strain at least, was developed as a result of house-spraying with dieldrin against adult mosquitos. In this strain resistance to dieldrin was about 100 times in both adults and larvae, resistance to gamma-BHC in larvae was about 20 times, while resistance to DDT was slight. PMID:13536808

  13. Summary of the symposium Global Perspective on the Culex pipiens Complex in the 21st Century: The Interrelationship of Culex pipiens, quinquefasciatus, molestus and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2012-12-01

    A symposium on the mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens Complex (Pipiens Complex), including Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. molestus, invited 17 of the world's experts on this species Complex to explore the current state of knowledge on the systematic status, speciation, ecology, biology, vector competence, population genetics, endosymbionts, and role in disease transmission of these species in various parts of the world. A Foreword, Introduction, 14 full papers, 3 abstracts and this Summary are published in this special issue of the Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. A summary of findings, overall conclusions, and research needs will be discussed in relation to mosquito control and interrupting disease transmission caused by these species.

  14. The Culex pipiens complex in continental Portugal: distribution and genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Bruno; Parreira, Ricardo; Sousa, Carla A; Novo, Maria T; Almeida, António P G; Donnelly, Martin J; Pinto, João

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is a southern European country that displays favorable ecological conditions for the establishment of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycles. Competent mosquito vector species are present throughout the country. Among the species with reported cases of WNV isolation in Portugal, Culex pipiens is the most ubiquitous and abundant mosquito. This species exhibits two biological forms with differences in host preferences. The molestus form has a greater tendency to feed upon humans and other mammals whereas the pipiens form prefers avian hosts. In northern latitudes, both forms are physically separated, with molestus occupying underground habitats and pipiens being found aboveground. However, the warmer climatic conditions of southern regions such as Portugal may favor the sympatric occurrence of both forms hence promoting interform hybridization. Genetic introgression between molestus and pipiens forms may result in a higher propensity for admixed populations to serve as bridge-vectors of WNV between humans and birds. Here we revise our present knowledge on the distribution, role in WNV transmission and genetic structure of the Cx. pipiens complex in continental Portugal. We focus on recent findings of sympatric molestus and pipiens populations that display considerable levels of hybridization and discuss the epidemiological repercussions of this occurrence.

  15. Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex Pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Koosha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens. Methods: Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and un­fed were dissected separately in Tris-HCl buffer. The extracts of midguts were applied for hemagglutinin assay against red blood cells of rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, horse, sheep, guinea pig, cow, human (A, B, AB, O groups. Then, the RBCs with relatively high agglutinin activity were chosen for carbohydrate inhibition assay. D (+ glucose, D (+ galactose, D (+ mannose, D (- fructose, D (- arabinose, L (- fucose, lactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid were used to specify carbohydrate binding lectin.Results: The highest agglutinin activities were found against sheep and rabbits RBCs. Sexual diversity of agglutinin activities was observed among midgut extraction of males and females. In addition, variation in agglutinin activity of blood fed and unfed female mosquitoes were detected. The lectin activity was inhibited highly with glucose, galactose, fucose and fructose but less inhibitor activities was observed by arabinose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, lactose and mannose.Conclusion: The secretion of hemagglutinins (lectins or lectin-like molecules in the digestive system depends on the type of food in the gut. This suggests that emptying of the gut in preparation for protein rich food probably starts the secretion of hemagglutinins.

  16. The potential of cladocerans as controphic competitors of the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquesne, Sabine; Kroeger, Iris; Kutyniok, Magdalene; Liess, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    This study assesses the potential of cladocerans as competitors for controlling the oviposition and larval abundances of mosquitoes. Control of mosquito larvae involving the use of antagonists has focused mostly on predators. We hypothesized that cladoceran competitors have a strong potential to control larval populations of some species of mosquitoes that can be early colonizers of newly-filled waterbodies, and should be less efficient competitors. To test this hypothesis, the establishment and development of larval populations of wild Culex pipiens were investigated in outdoor microcosms varying in terms of Daphnia magna populations. When the population was well established (i.e., high densities of D. magna), oviposition was fully inhibited and there was consequently no mosquito larvae. When the population was more recently established (i.e., lower densities of D. magna), oviposition and larval development of Cx. pipiens occurred. In the absence of D. magna, oviposition, larval biomass, and abundance of Cx. pipiens reached high values. In this situation, conspecifics were inhibiting further oviposition of Cx. pipiens. Based on these results, we suggest that competing zooplankton species, such as D. magna, could be used for the control of mosquito species such as Cx. pipiens. This approach could be beneficial for the management of wetlands.

  17. Culex pipiens and Culex restuans mosquitoes harbor distinct microbiota dominated by few bacterial taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Bara, Jeffrey; Bach, Elizabeth M; Siddappaji, Madhura H

    2016-01-13

    Mosquitoes host diverse microbial communities that influence many aspects of their biology including reproduction, digestion, and ability to transmit pathogens. Unraveling the composition, structure, and function of these microbiota can provide new opportunities for exploiting microbial function for mosquito-borne disease control. MiSeq® sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to characterize the microbiota of adult females of Culex pipiens L. and Cx. restuans Theobald collected from nine study sites in central Illinois. Out of 195 bacterial OTUs that were identified, 86 were shared between the two mosquito species while 16 and 93 OTUs were unique to Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans, respectively. The composition and structure of microbial communities differed significantly between the two mosquito species with Cx. restuans hosting a more diverse bacterial community compared to Cx. pipiens. Wolbachia (OTU836919) was the dominant bacterial species in Cx. pipiens accounting for 91% of total microbiota while Sphingomonas (OTU817982) was the dominant bacterial species in Cx. restuans accounting for 31% of total microbiota. Only 3 and 6 OTUs occurred in over 60% of individuals in Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans, respectively. There was little effect of study site on bacterial community structure of either mosquito species. These results suggest that the two mosquito species support distinct microbial communities that are sparsely distributed between individuals. These findings will allow investigations of the role of identified microbiota on the spatial and temporal heterogeneity in WNV transmission and their potential application in disease control.

  18. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus: a potential vector to transmit Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Li, Chun-Xiao; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Xing, Dan; Liu, Qin-Mei; Wu, Qun; Sun, Ai-Juan; Dong, Yan-de; Cao, Wu-Chun; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-09-07

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a threat to global health since the outbreak in Brazil in 2015. Although ZIKV is generally considered an Aedes-transmitted pathogen, new evidence has shown that parts of the virus closely resemble Culex-transmitted viruses. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the competence of Culex species for ZIKV to understand their potential as vectors. In this study, female Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were orally exposed to ZIKV. Mosquito midguts, salivary glands and ovaries were tested for ZIKV to measure infection and dissemination at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 18 days post exposure (pe). In addition, saliva was collected from mosquitoes after infection and infant mice were bitten by infected mosquitoes to measure the transmission ability of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. The results showed that the peak time of virus appearance in the salivary glands was day 8 pe, with 90% infection rate and an estimated virus titer of 3.92±0.49 lg RNA copies/mL. Eight of the nine infant mice had positive brains after being bitten by infected mosquitoes, which meant that Cx. p. quinquefasciatus could be infected with and transmit ZIKV following oral infection. These laboratory results clearly demonstrate the potential role of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus as a vector of ZIKV in China. Because there are quite different vector management strategies required to control Aedes (Stegomyia) species and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, an integrated approach may be required should a Zika epidemic occur.

  19. Repellent effect of Lagenaria siceraria extracts against Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Fouda, Mohamad A; Hammad, Kotb M; Tanani, Mohamad A; Shehata, Ahmed Z

    2014-04-01

    Ethanolic, acetone and petroleum ether extracts from leaves and stems of Lagenaria siceraria (Cucurbitaceae) were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens L. mosquito. The repellent action of the present plant extracts were varied depending on the plant parts and the dose of extract. The petroleum ether extract of leaves showed the same repellency percent (100%) of commercial formulation, N. N.diethyl toulamide (DEET) at the higher dose (3.33 mg/cm2), while petroleum ether extract from stems exhibiting the repellent action (89.6%) at the same dose, respectively. Ethanolic extracts of leaves and stems exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded (81.3% and 69.1%) at (6.67 mg/cm2), respectively. Results of this study may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection measure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  20. “BIRD BITING” MOSQUITOES AND HUMAN DISEASE: A REVIEW OF THE ROLE OF CULEX PIPIENS COMPLEX MOSQUITOES IN EPIDEMIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.; Kramer, Laura D.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of vector-borne pathogens is greatly influenced by the ecology of their vector, which is in turn shaped by genetic ancestry, the environment, and the hosts it feeds on. One group of vectors, the mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex, play key roles in the transmission of a range of pathogens including several viruses such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.), and filarial worms. The Cx. pipiens complex includes Cx. pipiens pipiens with two forms, pipiens and molestus, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. australicus, and Cx. globocoxitus. While several members of the complex have limited geographic distributions, Cx. pipiens pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus are found in all known urban and sub-urban temperate and tropical regions, respectively, across the world, where they are often principal disease vectors. In addition, hybrids are common in areas of overlap. Although gaps in our knowledge still remain, the advent of genetic tools has greatly enhanced our understanding of the history of speciation, domestication, dispersal, and hybridization. We review the taxonomy, genetics, evolution, behavior, and ecology, of members of the Cx. pipiens complex and their role in the transmission of medically important pathogens. The adaptation of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes to human-altered environments led to their global distribution through dispersal via humans and, combined with their mixed feeding patterns on birds and mammals (including humans), increased the transmission of several avian pathogens to humans. We highlight several unanswered questions that will increase our ability to control diseases transmitted by these mosquitoes. PMID:21875691

  1. European Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens Are Competent Vectors for Japanese Encephalitis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprès, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. JEV transmission cycle involves mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts. The detection of JEV RNA in a pool of Culex pipiens caught in 2010 in Italy raised the concern of a putative emergence of the virus in Europe. We aimed to study the vector competence of European mosquito populations, such as Cx. pipiens and Aedes albopictus for JEV genotypes 3 and 5. Findings After oral feeding on an infectious blood meal, mosquitoes were dissected at various times post-virus exposure. We found that the peak for JEV infection and transmission was between 11 and 13 days post-virus exposure. We observed a faster dissemination of both JEV genotypes in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, when compared with Cx. pipiens mosquitoes. We also dissected salivary glands and collected saliva from infected mosquitoes and showed that Ae. albopictus mosquitoes transmitted JEV earlier than Cx. pipiens. The virus collected from Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens saliva was competent at causing pathogenesis in a mouse model for JEV infection. Using this model, we found that mosquito saliva or salivary glands did not enhance the severity of the disease. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that European populations of Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens were efficient vectors for JEV transmission. Susceptible vertebrate species that develop high viremia are an obligatory part of the JEV transmission cycle. This study highlights the need to investigate the susceptibility of potential JEV reservoir hosts in Europe, notably amongst swine populations and local water birds. PMID:28085881

  2. European Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens Are Competent Vectors for Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wispelaere, Mélissanne; Desprès, Philippe; Choumet, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. JEV transmission cycle involves mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts. The detection of JEV RNA in a pool of Culex pipiens caught in 2010 in Italy raised the concern of a putative emergence of the virus in Europe. We aimed to study the vector competence of European mosquito populations, such as Cx. pipiens and Aedes albopictus for JEV genotypes 3 and 5. After oral feeding on an infectious blood meal, mosquitoes were dissected at various times post-virus exposure. We found that the peak for JEV infection and transmission was between 11 and 13 days post-virus exposure. We observed a faster dissemination of both JEV genotypes in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, when compared with Cx. pipiens mosquitoes. We also dissected salivary glands and collected saliva from infected mosquitoes and showed that Ae. albopictus mosquitoes transmitted JEV earlier than Cx. pipiens. The virus collected from Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens saliva was competent at causing pathogenesis in a mouse model for JEV infection. Using this model, we found that mosquito saliva or salivary glands did not enhance the severity of the disease. In this study, we demonstrated that European populations of Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens were efficient vectors for JEV transmission. Susceptible vertebrate species that develop high viremia are an obligatory part of the JEV transmission cycle. This study highlights the need to investigate the susceptibility of potential JEV reservoir hosts in Europe, notably amongst swine populations and local water birds.

  3. Ontogeny and distribution of cells in B lineage in the American leopard frog, Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, L D

    1982-01-01

    Two-color immunofluorescence techniques were used in order to trace the development and distribution of cells expressing immunoglobulin in Rana pipiens. Evidence is provided which suggests that (i) embryo-larval urogenital tissues are sites of generation of cells in B lineage, (ii) during ontogeny, there is a sequential expression of immunoglobulin isotypes on B cell surfaces, (iii) larvae are able to produce the full range of immunoglobulin clases found in adults, and (iv) at least two subpopulations of lymphocytes exist in Rana pipiens, sIg+ and sIg-; thymocytes and presumably peripheral T cells lack conventional surface immunoglobulin. Some ontogenetic and phylogenetic implications are discussed.

  4. Energetic cost of insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, A; Magaud, A; Nicot, A; Vézilier, J

    2011-05-01

    The extensive use of insecticides to control vector populations has lead to the widespread development of different mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Mutations that confer insecticide resistance are often associated to fitness costs that prevent them from spreading to fixation. In vectors, such fitness costs include reductions in preimaginal survival, adult size, longevity, and fecundity. The most commonly invoked explanation for the nature of such pleiotropic effects of insecticide resistance is the existence of resource-based trade-offs. According to this hypothesis, insecticide resistance would deplete the energetic stores of vectors, reducing the energy available for other biological functions and generating trade-offs between insecticide resistance and key life history traits. Here we test this hypothesis by quantifying the energetic resources (lipids, glycogen, and glucose) of larvae and adult females of the mosquito Culex pipiens L. resistant to insecticides through two different mechanisms: esterase overproduction and acetylcholinesterase modification. We find that, as expected from trade-off theory, insecticide resistant mosquitoes through the overproduction of esterases contain on average 30% less energetic reserves than their susceptible counterparts. Acetylcholinesterase-modified mosquitoes, however, also showed a significant reduction in energetic resources (20% less). We suggest that, in acetylcholinesterase-modified mosquitoes, resource depletion may not be the result of resource-based trade-offs but a consequence of the hyperactivation of the nervous system. We argue that these results not only provide a mechanistic explanation for the negative pleiotropic effects of insecticide resistance on mosquito life history traits but also can have a direct effect on the development of parasites that depend on the vector's energetic reserves to fulfil their own metabolic needs.

  5. Pattern formation in artificially activated ectoderm (Rana pipiens and Ambystoma punctatum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwkoop, P.D.

    1963-01-01

    Presumptive ectoneuroderm of late blastulae or early gastrulae of Rana pipiens was partially activated by short-lasting disaggregation in Ca-free Holtfreter or Niu-Twitty solutions and subsequent reaggregation in normal solutions. The explants usually became dumbbell shaped and consisted respectivel

  6. Enhanced toxicity of binary mixtures of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and three essential oil major constituents to wild Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kyu-Sik; Shin, E-Hyun; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-07-01

    An assessment was made of the toxicity of 12 insecticides and three essential oils as well as Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) alone or in combination with the oil major constituents (E)-anethole (AN), (E) -cinnamaldehyde (CA), and eugenol (EU; 1:1 ratio) to third instars of bamboo forest-collected Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and rice paddy field-collected Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann. An. sinensis larvae were resistant to various groups of the tested insecticides. Based on 24-h LC50 values, binary mixtures of Bti and CA, AN, or EU were significantly more toxic against Ae. albopictus larvae (0.0084, 0.0134, and 0.0237 mg/liter) and An. sinensis larvae (0.0159, 0.0388, and 0.0541 mg/liter) than either Bti (1.7884 and 2.1681 mg/liter) or CA (11.46 and 18.56 mg/liter), AN (16.66 and 25.11 mg/liter), or EU (24.60 and 31.09 mg/liter) alone. As judged by cotoxicity coefficient (CC) and synergistic factor (SF), the three binary mixtures operated in a synergy pattern (CC, 140.7-368.3 and SF, 0.0007-0.0010 for Ae. albopictus; CC, 75.1-245.3 and SF, 0.0008-0.0017 for An. sinensis). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the aquatic environment justify further studies on the binary mixtures of Bti and essential oil constituents described, in particular CA, as potential larvicides for the control of malaria vector mosquito populations.

  7. Preferencia de hospedadores de Culicidae (Diptera recolectados en el centro de la Argentina Host preference of Culicidae (Diptera collected in central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Almirón

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la preferencia de hospedadores vertebrados por mosquitos hembras, durante 2 períodos octubre-abril (primavera-verano, se realizaron muestreos cada 15 días en Córdoba y Cosquín (Argentina. Se utilizaron trampas de latón con cebo animal: anfibios (sapos, aves (pollos, mamíferos (conejos y reptiles (tortugas. El 92,9% de los especímenes recolectados pertenecen al género Culex, mientras que un 7,0% corresponde a Aedes y el 0,02% restante a Psorophora ciliata, única especie que se capturó de ese género. En trampas con pollo se recolectó el mayor número de hembras (68,7%, siguiendo en orden las trampas con conejos (29,9%, con tortugas (0,8% y con sapos (0,5%, por lo tanto, la mayoría de los mosquitos entraron en las trampas con hospedadores homeotermos. Culex dolosus se alimentó sobre todos los cebos, mientras que Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri y Cx. quinquefasciatus se alimentaron sobre pollos, conejos y tortugas; Ae. albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens y Cx. coronator lo hicieron sobre ambos hospedadores homeotermos; Cx. apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Cx. spinosus se alimentaron solamente sobre pollos y Ps. ciliata sobre conejos.Com o propósito de estudar a preferência de mosquitos fêmeas por hospedeiros vertebrados, realizaram-se amostragens quinzenais nas cidades de Córdoba e Cosquín (Argentina, durante o período de outubro a abril (primavera-verão, por dois anos consecutivos. Utilizaram-se armadilhas com iscas animais: anfíbios, aves, mamíferos e répteis. Dos espécimes coletados, 92,9% pertenciam ao gênero Culex, 7,0% a Aedes e 0,02% a Psorophora ciliata, única espécie coletada desse gênero. A maior proporçãoo de fêmeas (68,7% foi capturada em armadilhas iscadas com galinhas, seguindo-se em ordem as armadilhas com coelhos (29,9%, com tartarugas (0,8% e com anfíbios (0,05%. Assim, a maioria dos mosquitos foi coletada em armadilhas com hospedeiros homeotermos. Culex dolosus alimentou-se em todas as iscas, enquanto que Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri e Cx. quinquefasciatus em galinhas, coelhos e tartarugas; Ae. albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens e Cx. coronator fizeram-no em ambos hospedeiros homeotermos; Cx. apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis e Cx. spinosus alimentaram-se apenas em galinhas e Ps. ciliata em coelhos.In order to study the host preference of female mosquitoes, samples were taken fortnightly in Cordoba and Cosquin (Argentina, during October-April of two consecutive years. Four different vertebrates were used in baited-can traps: frogs, chickens, rabbits and turtles. The genus Culex acounted for 92.9% of the specimens collected, Aedes for 7.0% and Psorophora ciliata 0.02%. The highest proportion of females were collected in chicken traps (68.7%, followed by rabbit traps (29.9%, turtles (0.8% and frogs (0.5%, thus the majority of the mosquitoes were collected in traps with homeotermous hosts. Only Culex dolosus fed on all the hosts. Culex acharistus, Cx. chidesteri and Cx. quinquefasciatus fed on chickens, rabbits and turtles. Aedes albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens and Cx. coronator fed on both homeotermous hosts. Culex apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis and Cx. spinosus fed only on chickens and Ps. ciliata only on rabbits.

  8. Variation in Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I DNA Can Successfully Identify Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex (Melanoconion) ribeirensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, A S; Maia, D A; Gil-Santana, H R; de Mello, C F; Martins, A de J; Alencar, J

    2016-12-22

    Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin 1980 and Culex (Melanoconion) ribeirensis Forattini & Sallum 1985 are two morphologically very similar species of the Pedroi subgroup of mosquitoes in the Spissipes section of the subgenus Melanoconion of the genus Culex L. 1758. We carried out an analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) DNA variation between these two species. The recent observation of sympatric coexistence in a forested area of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) triggered the need to validate these two species previously identified based on morphology. We concluded that the COI is a useful tool for identification of Cx. pedroi and Cx. ribeirensis.

  9. Nuevos registros y distribución de mosquitos de la Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae New records and distribution of mosquitoes from Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Rossi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 21 nuevos registros de especies y se amplía la distribución de otras 12 especies de los géneros Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach y Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald. Se incluyen comentarios y cambios de estatus para especies de Howardina Theobald, Ochlerotatus y Lutzia (Theobald. Actualmente, en la Argentina se hallan presentes 226 especies distribuidas en 23 géneros.Twenty one new records and 12 new distributional records of species of the genus Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach & Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald are reported. Comments and changes in the status of species of Howardina Theobald, Ochelrotatus and Lutzia Theobald are included. Currently, in Argentina are present 226 species distributed in 23 genera.

  10. Susceptibility of Culicidae Mosquitoes to Some Insecticides Recommended by WHO in a Malaria Endemic Area of Southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Fathian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the national strategy plan on monitoring of insecticides resistance, this study was carried out to determine the base line susceptibility of the Culicidae mosquitoes to the WHO-recommended insecticides in an endemic focus of malaria in southeastern Iran.Methods: Larval collection was carried out by dipping method and adult collection occurred by suction tube from January to December 2010. The susceptibility test was assessed to DDT 4 %, malathion 5 %, propoxur 0.1 %, deltamethrin 0.05 %, lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05 %, and cyfluthrin 0.15 % at different interval times (discriminative dose followed by 24 h recovery period . The LT50 and LT90 values were calculated for plotting the regression line using Microsoft office Excel software ver. 2007.Results: Anopheles stephensi was quite resistant to DDT and showed susceptible or tolerant to other insecticides. The LT50 and LT90 values to DDT in this species were 29.07, and 98.26 minutes, respectively. Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles dthali were found susceptible or tolerant to insecticides. Culex pipiens was found resistance to DDT, propoxur, lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin whereas observed susceptible to malathion and tolerant to deltamethrin. Ochlerotatus caspius sl. was resistant to DDT, whereas found susceptible to other insecticides. Culisita longiareolatawas susceptible to deltamethrin, whereas tolerant to other insecticides. The LT50 and LT90 values of Cs. longiareolata to DDT were 17.82, and 51.26 minutes.Conclusion: We suggested the same study in different parts of the country for monitoring and evaluation of control measures.

  11. Wolbachia Endobacteria in Natural Populations of Culex pipiens of Iran and its Phylogenetic Congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Karami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wolbachia are common intracellular bacteria that infect different groups of arthropods including mos­quitoes. These bacteria modify host biology and may induce feminization, parthenogenesis, male killing and cyto­plasmic incompatibility (CI. Recently Wolbachia is being nominated as a bio-agent and paratransgenic candidate to control mosquito borne diseases.Methods: Here we report the results of a survey for presence, frequency, and phylogenetic congruence of these en­dosymbiont bacteria in Culex pipiens populations in Northern, Central, and Southern parts of Iran using nested-PCR amplification of wsp gene.Results: Wolbachia DNA were found in 227 (87.3% out of 260 wild-caught mosquitoes. The rate of infection in adult females ranged from 61.5% to 100%, while in males were from 80% to 100%. The Blast search and phyloge­netic analysis of the wsp gene sequence revealed that the Wolbachia strain from Iranian Cx. pipiens was identical to the Wolbachia strains of supergroup B previously reported in members of the Cx. pipiens complex. They had also identical sequence homology with the Wolbachia strains from a group of distinct arthropods including lepidopteran, wasps, flies, damselfly, thrips, and mites from remote geographical areas of the world.Conclusion: It is suggested that Wolbachia strains horizontally transfer between unrelated host organisms over evo­lutionary time. Also results of this study indicates that Wolbachia infections were highly prevalent infecting all Cx. pipiens populations throughout the country, however further study needs to define Wolbachia inter-population repro­ductive incompatibility pattern and its usefulness as a bio-agent control measure.

  12. Complex spatial dynamics maintain northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) genetic diversity in a temporally varying landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Chen, Yongjiu; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to most local amphibian populations, northeastern populations of the Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens) have displayed uncharacteristically high levels of genetic diversity that have been attributed to large, stable populations. However, this widely distributed species also occurs in areas known for great climatic fluctuations that should be reflected in corresponding fluctuations in population sizes and reduced genetic diversity. To test our hypothesis that Northern Leopard Frog genetic diversity would be reduced in areas subjected to significant climate variability, we examined the genetic diversity of L. pipiens collected from 12 sites within the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota. Despite the region's fluctuating climate that includes periods of recurring drought and deluge, we found unexpectedly high levels of genetic diversity approaching that of northeastern populations. Further, genetic structure at a landscape scale was strikingly homogeneous; genetic differentiation estimates (Dest) averaged 0.10 (SD = 0.036) across the six microsatellite loci we studied, and two Bayesian assignment tests (STRUCTURE and BAPS) failed to reveal the development of significant population structure across the 68 km breadth of our study area. These results suggest that L. pipiens in the Prairie Pothole Region consists of a large, panmictic population capable of maintaining high genetic diversity in the face of marked climate variability.

  13. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS FROM BAMBOO FOR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AGAINST CULEX PIPIENS PALLENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-qunCao; Yong-deYue; Zhen-huaPeng; Ri-maoHua; FengTang

    2004-01-01

    The extracts from 7 species of bamboo were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens pallens. At the tested concentration, the extracts of selected bamboo had different degree of toxic effects on the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens. Among them,the extracts of Pleioblastus juxianensis, Brachystachyum albostriatum, Phyllostachys platyglossa and Pleioblastus amarus were found to be effective with LC50values at 24h of 30.65mg/L,53.94mg/L, 41.21 mg/L and 54.49 mg/L respectively, against Culex pipiens pallens larvae. The extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis by Soxhlet method showed stronger activity than the extract obtained by interval-shaking, the LC50 of which were 30.65 mg/L and 48.34 mg/L, respectively.The diethyl ether extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis exhibited better larvicidal activity than the methanol extract and the petroleum ether extract. The results would help to provide the basis for the study of environment acceptable pesticide for mosquito control, and also help to comprehensively utilize the source of bamboo.

  14. Evaluation of released malathion and spinosad from chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules against Culex pipiens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badawy MEI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed EI Badawy,1 Nehad EM Taktak,2 Osama M Awad,2 Souraya A Elfiki,2 Nadia E Abou El-Ela2 1Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, 2Department of Tropical Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Efficacy of spinosad and malathion loaded in eco-friendly biodegradable formulations was evaluated for controlling Culex pipiens larvae. Malathion (organophosphorus larvicide and spinosad (naturally derived insecticide were loaded on chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules. Capsules were characterized by size measurement, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and water uptake. In vitro release kinetics of the larvicides was studied in the running and stagnant water. Biochemical studies on the larvae treated with technical and formulated insecticides were also demonstrated. The results indicated that the released spinosad was active for a long time up to 48 and 211 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. However, the capsules loaded with malathion showed larvicidal activity for 20 and 27 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. Technical and formulated malathion and spinosad had an inhibition effect on acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase, and glutathione S-transferase. The results proved that the prepared capsules consisting of biodegradable polymers containing larvicides could be effective as controlled-release formulation against C. pipiens larvae for a long period. Keywords: chitosan capsules, larvicide, controlled-release formulation, swelling, mosquitocidal activity, Culex pipiens, biochemical study

  15. Behavioural response of female Culex pipiens pallens to common host plant volatiles and synthetic blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bao-Ting; Ding, Yan-Mei; Mo, Jian-Chu

    2015-11-17

    Most mosquito species need to obtain sugar from host plants. Little is known about the chemical cues that Culex pipiens pallens use during their orientation to nectar host plants. In this study, we investigated the behavioural responses of female Cx. pipiens pallens to common floral scent compounds and their blends. Behavioural responses of female Cx. pipiens pallens to 18 individual compounds at different concentrations were determined in the olfactometer bioassays. A synthetic blend composed of behaviourally active compounds was formulated, and its attractiveness to mosquitoes was tested. Several most attractive compounds constituted a reduced blend, and its attractiveness was tested against the solvent and the full blend, respectively. Mosquito response in the olfactometer was analyzed by comparing the percentages of mosquitoes caught in the two arms by χ(2) test (observed versus expected). Fifteen of the 18 compounds were attractive to female Cx. pipiens pallens in the dose-dependent bioassays, with the exception of β-pinene, acetophenone and nonanal. (68.00 ± 2.49) % mosquitoes responded to the full blend composed of these 15 compounds on their optimal doses when tested against the solvent, with the preference index at 46.11 ± 3.57. Six individual compounds whose preference indices were over 40 constituted the reduced blend, and it attracted (68.00 ± 1.33) % mosquitoes when tested against the solvent while its preference index was 42.00 ± 3.54. When tested against the full blend simultaneously in the olfactometer, the reduced blend could attract (45.00 ± 2.69) % of released mosquitoes, which was as attractive as the full blend. Our results demonstrate that female Cx. pipiens pallens is differentially attracted by a variety of compounds at different concentrations. Alteration of the concentration strongly affects the attractiveness of the synthetic blend. Several floral scent volatiles might be the universal olfactory cues for various

  16. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mosquito-Borne Viruses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen; Huang, Yan-Jang S

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive species that continues to expand its geographic distribution both in the United States and in countries on other continents. Studies have demonstrated its susceptibility to infection with at least 32 viruses, including 13 that are present in the United States. Despite this susceptibility, its role as a significant competent vector in natural transmission cycles of arboviruses, has been limited. However, with the recent introductions of chikungunya and Zika viruses into the Americas, for which Ae. albopictus is a recognized vector, it is possible that the species may contribute to the transmission of these viruses to humans and perhaps other susceptible vertebrates.

  17. Bio-Pesticides: New Tool for the Control of Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Culicidae: Diptera in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Application of plant extracts as mosquito control strategy was practiced from centuries. These are easily available, non-toxic, biodegradable and exhibit broad-spectrum target specific activities against larval stages of mosquitoes.Method: Different potential parts of locally grown plants, seeds of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans, peel of musambi (Citrus sinensis, leaves of babuna (Matricaria chamomilla, mint (Mentha spicata and ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale selected and evaluated for their larvicidal properties against Aedes (Stegomyis albopictus. Oils were ex­tracted through steam distillation process and extracts were evaluated as per WHO 2005 guidelines for testing of insecticides against larvae of mosquitoes.Result: Among the five plant extracts, C. sinensis had the lowest LC50 (400.81ppm while M. fragrans had the high­est LC50 value (710.30ppm respectively after 24h of exposure. In terms of % age mortality, a series of con­centra­tions (300–800ppm gave high % mortality in case of C. sinensis while M. fragrans gave low % age mortality.Conclusion: All the five plant species have larvicidal effects to certain extant and C. sinensis had great potential. Further small-scale field trials with the extracts of the most promising one (C. sinensis shall be conducted to deter­mine operational feasibility.    

  18. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition Preference as Influenced by Container Size and Buddleja davidii Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy J; Kline, Daniel L; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2016-03-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a container-breeding mosquito commonly found in residential areas of its range in the United States. Mosquitoes are known to utilize flowering plants for sugar acquisition. Limited information is known about the influences on oviposition site selection, outside of container size. Residential areas are often landscaped with a variety of flowering plants and are known to provide numerous sizes of potential larval developmental sites for container-breeding mosqutioes. Through screened enclosure and field studies, the oviposition preference of Ae. albopictus for containers of three selected sizes (473, 946 and 1,892 ml) and the influence of flowering butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii Franchett cultivar 'Guinevere') plants were examined. Our results document that significantly more eggs were oviposited in the largest containers. Additionally, significantly more eggs were oviposited in containers adjacent to flowering butterfly bushes than in those without a flowering butterfly bush. Finally, our results document that flowering butterfly bushes exerted greater influence over Ae. albopictus oviposition decisions than did container size. Our findings can be applied to several aspects of Ae. albopictus surveillance and control.

  19. Potential for Psorophora columbiae and Psorophora ciliata mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Rift Valley fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to pose a threat to much of the world. Unlike many arboviruses, numerous mosquito species have been associated with RVFV in nature, and many species have been demonstrated as competent vectors in the laboratory. In this study, we evaluated two field-collect...

  20. Two Species Previously Confused Under the Concept of Sabethes Tarsopus in Central America (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    u ., data . Ss hnqone rte s . oireorte for Information OP• etonatnd ft"ar l2t% 11¢1 fil 111111111111 1 1 Id udget P&OelwOtk Reduction 1 oje t illO 70...HONDURAS. Yoro: Camp Big ridge system (Holdridge and Budowski 1956). Bear. approx. 800 m. 7 Mar 86, R. Johnson. dominant plants consist of drought-resistant...Nijera, A. 1966. Mosquitos tropicales 1951. Descriptions of two new species of de Mexico. Rev. Invest. Salud Publica Wveom’ia and the male of

  1. Larval Mosquito Habitat Utilization and Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    container-in- habiting mosquitoes that transmit disease agents, outcompete native species, and continue to expand their range in theUnited States. Both...days to complete evaporation in containers in- habited by the most common species collected, us- ing themean temperature of 18.6Cduring sampling... snack bags, and Sty- rofoam cups and bowls. Evaporation analyses showed that Culex species were more common in containers that are less inßuenced by

  2. Survivorship of adult Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) feeding on indoor ornamental plants with no inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui De; Beier, John C; Müller, Günter C

    2013-06-01

    The international trade of lucky bamboo (Dracaena sanderiana [Asparagaceae]) is responsible for certain introductions of the exotic species Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in California and the Netherlands. Understanding the association of this species with lucky bamboo and other ornamental plants is important from a public health standpoint. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of indoor ornamental plants as sugar sources for adult A. albopictus. If exposed to D. sanderiana, bromeliad (Guzmania spp. hybrid [Bromeliaceae]), Moses-in-the-cradle (Rhoeo spathacea [Commelinaceae]), 10 % sucrose solution, and a negative water control as the only nutrient source, adult female A. albopictus mean survival time was 12, 7, 6, 15, and 4 days, respectively. Mean survival times for adult males were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the females and were 10, 7, 6, 14, and 3 days, respectively. Combined male and female survival times were not significantly different on lucky bamboo compared to survival times on a 10 % sucrose control. Based on our findings, A. albopictus can readily survive long enough to complete a gonotrophic cycle and potentially complete the extrinsic incubation period for many arboviruses when only provided access to lucky bamboo plants or possibly other common ornamentals. Vector control professionals should be aware of potential in-home infestations and public health concerns associated with mosquito breeding and plant tissue feeding on ornamental plants.

  3. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.; Hartemink, N.; Zeimes, C.B.; Vanwambeke, S.O.; Ienco, A.; Caputo, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat prefere

  4. Infestation by the Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito in the town of Chapeco, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Tessaro Balsan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever became a public health problem and it has caused concern among health professionals. This study aimed to evaluate the conditioning factors for the occurrence of dengue fever in the town of Chapeco, Santa Catarina, Brazil. One analyzed the information available on the Information System on Yellow Fever and Dengue Fever (SISFAD and conducted a survey through a semi-structured questionnaire applied to the population. The analyses indicate the association of infestation by the mosquito which transmits dengue to improperly handled garbage and to the rainwater collection deposit, as well as to the residential environment. The prevention of dengue in the town of Chapeco involves the implementation of public policies on health environmental education for proper separation and disposal of solid waste and improvements in the public water supply system. Educational campaigns aimed at care in the home environment are also needed.

  5. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, Daniela; Hartemink, Nienke; Zeimes, Caroline B; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Ienco, Annamaria; Caputo, Beniamino

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat prefere

  6. Seasonal Genetic Changes of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations in Selected Sites of Cebu City, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayson, S L; Gloria-Soria, A; Powell, J R; Edillo, F E

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of dengue virus in the Philippines, where dengue is endemic. We examined the genetic changes of Ae. aegypti collected from three selected sites in Cebu city, Philippines, during the relatively wet (2011-2012) and dry seasons (2012 and 2013). A total of 493 Ae. aegypti adults, reared in the laboratory from field-collected larvae, were analyzed using 11 microsatellite loci. Seasonal variation was observed in allele frequencies and allelic richness. Average genetic differentiation (DEST=0.018; FST=0.029) in both dry seasons was higher, due to reduced Ne, than in the wet season (DEST=0.006; FST=0.009). Thus, average gene flow was higher in the wet season than in the dry seasons. However, the overall FST estimate (0.02) inclusive of the two seasons showed little genetic differentiation as supported by Bayesian clustering analysis. Results suggest that during the dry season the intense selection that causes a dramatic reduction of population size favors heterozygotes, leading to small pockets of mosquitoes (refuges) that exhibit random genetic differentiation. During the wet season, the genetic composition of the population is reconstituted by the expansion of the refuges that survived the preceding dry season. Source reduction of mosquitoes during the nonepidemic dry season is thus recommended to prevent dengue re-emergence in the subsequent wet season.

  7. First report of Culex (Culex) tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Cape Verde Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Joana; Pina, Adilson de; Diallo, Mawlouth; Dia, Ibrahima

    2015-01-01

    During an entomological survey in Santiago Island, Cape Verde Islands, in November-December 2011 in order to study the bio-ecology and susceptibility to insecticides of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, 1905, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 was found to be present in the Santa Cruz District. Both adult and immature specimens were collected and a description of both is given. Further confirmation of the taxonomic identity of the specimens was obtained from studying the male genitalia. This is t...

  8. Reproductive strategies of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and implications for the sterile insect technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Clelia F; Damiens, David; Vreysen, Marc J B; Lemperière, Guy; Gilles, Jérémie

    2013-01-01

    Male insects are expected to optimize their reproductive strategy according to the availability of sperm or other ejaculatory materials, and to the availability and reproductive status of females. Here, we investigated the reproductive strategy and sperm management of male and virgin female Aedes albopictus, a mosquito vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses. The dynamics of semen transfer to the female bursa inseminalis and spermathecae were observed. Double-mating experiments were conducted to study the effect of time lapsed or an oviposition event between two copulations on the likelihood of a female double-insemination and the use of sperm for egg fertilization; untreated fertile males and radio-sterilised males were used for this purpose. Multiple inseminations and therefore the possibility of sperm competition were limited to matings closely spaced in time. When two males consecutively mated the same female within a 40 min interval, in ca. 15% of the cases did both males sire progeny. When the intervals between the copulations were longer, all progeny over several gonotrophic cycles were offspring of the first male. The mating behavior of males was examined during a rapid sequence of copulations. Male Ae. albopictus were parceling sperm allocation over several matings; however they would also attempt to copulate with females irrespective of the available sperm supply or accessory gland secretion material. During each mating, they transferred large quantities of sperm that was not stored for egg fertilization, and they attempted to copulate with mated females with a low probability of transferring their genes to the next generation. The outcomes of this study provided in addition some essential insights with respect to the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a vector control method.

  9. EFEKTIVITAS PEMANASAN KELAMBU BERINSEKTISIDA, OLYSET TERHADAP NYAMUK AEDES AEGYPTI (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upik Kesumawati Hadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to know the effectiveness of heating insecticide bednet, against the mosquito Aedes aegypti. As many as 240 Olyset samples from eleven health centers in Bangka District were tested its effectiveness against mosquitoes with WHO ball test method. In these test, there were used 25 Aedes aegypti female, and 3-5 days old. Bednet sample treatments was collected from six health centreareas that the people washed and heated the nets. Control samples was taken from five health centre areas where the people only washed their nets without heating. Sample collections were done for four periods with interval time of three months, from September 2007 to June 2008. The observation on knockdown effect/mortality of Aedes aegypti was done on 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 24 hours after 3 minutes exposured. The effectiveness of Olyset bed net was based on the value of knock-down time 50% (KT-50. The result showed that the difference of the average percentage mortality of Aedes aegypti after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours exposured on period of I, II, III and IV in the control groups and on the treatment groups were not significant enough. However, based on the value of KT-50, the heat regeneration on Olyset net has a better effectiveness compared with the control (P<0,05. Keywords: Olyset, long-lasting insecticidal net, Aedes aegypti, heat regeneration

  10. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) as a potential vector of endemic and exotic arboviruses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J; Ritchie, S A; van den Hurk, A F

    2014-05-01

    In 2005, established populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were discovered in the Torres Strait, the region that separates Papua New Guinea from northern Australia. This increased the potential for this species to be introduced to mainland Australia. Because it is an arbovirus vector elsewhere, we undertook laboratory-based infection and transmission experiments to determine the potential for Ae. albopictus from the Torres Strait to become infected with and transmit the four major Australian endemic arboviruses--Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus Kunjin strain (WNV(KUN)), Ross River virus (RRV), and Barmah Forest virus--as well as the exotic Japanese encephalitis virus. Ae. albopictus is susceptible to infection with all viruses, with infection rates ranging between 8% for WNV(KUN) and 71% for RRV. Transmission rates of approximately 25% were observed for RRV and Barmah Forest virus, but these were < 17% for Murray Valley encephalitis virus, WNV(KUN), and Japanese encephalitis virus. Given its relative vector competence for alphaviruses, we also examined the replication kinetics and extrinsic incubation periods required for transmission of RRV and chikungunya virus. Despite lower body titers, more mosquitoes reared and maintained at 28 degrees C became infected with and transmitted the virus than those reared and maintained at 22 degrees C. The minimum time between Ae. albopictus consuming an infected bloodmeal and transmitting chikungunya virus was 2 d at 28 degrees C and 4 d at 22 degrees C, and for RRV, it was 4 d, irrespective of the temperature. Given its opportunistic feeding habits and aggressive biting behavior, the establishment of Ae. albopictus on the Australian mainland could have a considerable impact on alphavirus transmission.

  11. Modeling of the putative distribution of the arbovirus vector Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaun, Christian; Werblow, Antje; Cunze, Sarah; Zotzmann, Sina; Koch, Lisa K; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Dörge, Dorian D; Huber, Katrin; Tackenberg, Oliver; Klimpel, Sven

    2015-03-01

    Today, international travel and global freight transportation are increasing and have a direct influence on the introduction and establishment of non-native mosquito species as well as on the spread of arthropod (mosquito)-borne diseases inside Europe. One of the mosquito species that has become invasive in many areas is the Asian rock pool or bush mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (synonyms: Aedes japonicus japonicus or Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica). This species was detected in Germany in 2008 for the first time. Until today, three different Oc. j. japonicus populations have been documented. Laboratory studies have shown that Oc. j. japonicus can act as a vector for a variety of disease agents. Thus, the knowledge on its current distribution is essential for different measurements. In the present study, ecological niche models were used to estimate the potential distribution of Oc. j. japonicus in Germany. The aim was to detect areas within Germany that could potentially function as habitats for this species. According to our model, areas in western, southern, and central Germany offer suitable conditions for the mosquito and may therefore be at risk for an invasion of the species. We strongly suggest that those areas should be monitored more intensively in the future. For this purpose, it would also be essential to search for possible dispersal routes as well as for natural barriers.

  12. Evaluation of different formulations of IGRs against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gul Zamin Khan; Inamullah Khan; Imtiaz Ali Khan; Alamzeb; Muhammad Salman; Kalim Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test the relative efficacy of pyriproxyfen and methoprene on mortality,deformity, inhibition and emergence to adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus.Methods: Serial dilutions(0.01–0.05 mg/L) of methoprene, pyriproxyfen 0.5 water dispersible granules(WDG) and pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG were used to assess mortality and inhibition of 3rd instar larvae of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Each concentration and control was replicated four times in completely randomized design.Data on larval mortality, growth inhibition, deformities and adult’s emergence was recorded weekly. On the basis of best comparative performance, the efficacy of pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG at 0.1 g/m3 was also tested in the field by collecting treated water samples monthly for 1–6 months after field application. Twenty five 3rd instar larvae of Aedes and Culex spp. of the same cohorts were used for bioassays and compared with larvae in control cups containing 1 L of untreated tap water.Results: Results revealed variations in fatality of different insect growth regulators(IGRs) to the 3rd instar larvae of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes. Among the IGRs, pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG was found best that exhibited significantly high emergence inhibition against Culex and Aedes spp. Based on the results, the IGRs were classified in terms of the tested parameters in order of pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG > pyriproxyfen 0.5WDG > methoprene. In case of field studies, pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG, pool data of the entire target treated sites showed minimum adult emergence from water sampled of habitats treated with 0.1 g/m3 of pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG.Conclusions: It is thus concluded that IGRs can be utilized as environment friendly control measures for Culex and Aedes spp. of mosquitoes on small and large scale. This will reduce the use of conventional insecticides by the public health authorities and help in reducing selection pressure of insecticides.

  13. Evaluation of different formulations of IGRs against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Zamin Khan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: It is thus concluded that IGRs can be utilized as environment friendly control measures for Culex and Aedes spp. of mosquitoes on small and large scale. This will reduce the use of conventional insecticides by the public health authorities and help in reducing selection pressure of insecticides.

  14. Evaluation of different formulations of IGRs against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gul Zamin Khan; Inamullah Khan; Imtiaz Ali Khan; Alamzeb; Muhammad Salman; Kalim Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test the relative efficacy of pyriproxyfen and methoprene on mortality, deformity, inhibition and emergence to adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus. Methods: Serial dilutions (0.01–0.05 mg/L) of methoprene, pyriproxyfen 0.5 water dispersible granules (WDG) and pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG were used to assess mortality and inhibition of 3rd instar larvae of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Each concentration and control was replicated four times in completely randomized design. Data on larval mortality, growth inhibition, deformities and adult's emergence was recorded weekly. On the basis of best comparative performance, the efficacy of pyr-iproxyfen 1.0 WDG at 0.1 g/m3 was also tested in the field by collecting treated water samples monthly for 1–6 months after field application. Twenty five 3rd instar larvae of Aedes and Culex spp. of the same cohorts were used for bioassays and compared with larvae in control cups containing 1 L of untreated tap water. Results: Results revealed variations in fatality of different insect growth regulators (IGRs) to the 3rd instar larvae of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes. Among the IGRs, pyr-iproxyfen 1.0 WDG was found best that exhibited significantly high emergence inhibition against Culex and Aedes spp. Based on the results, the IGRs were classified in terms of the tested parameters in order of pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG > pyriproxyfen 0.5 WDG > methoprene. In case of field studies, pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG, pool data of the entire target treated sites showed minimum adult emergence from water sampled of habitats treated with 0.1 g/m3 of pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG. Conclusions: It is thus concluded that IGRs can be utilized as environment friendly control measures for Culex and Aedes spp. of mosquitoes on small and large scale. This will reduce the use of conventional insecticides by the public health authorities and help in reducing selection pressure of insecticides.

  15. Evaluation of different formulations of IGRs against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gul Zamin Khan; Inamullah Khan; Imtiaz Ali Khan; Alamzeb; Muhammad Salman; Kalim Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test the relative efficacy of pyriproxyfen and methoprene on mortality, deformity, inhibition and emergence to adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus. Methods: Serial dilutions (0.01–0.05 mg/L) of methoprene, pyriproxyfen 0.5 water dispersible granules (WDG) and pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG were used to assess mortality and inhibition of 3rd instar larvae of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Each concentration and control was replicated four times in c...

  16. Mosquitocidal Effect of Glycosmis pentaphylla Leaf Extracts against Three Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Suganya, Ponnusamy; Natarajan, Devarajan; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

    2016-01-01

    The resistance status of malaria vectors to different classes of insecticides used for public health has raised concern for vector control programmes. Alternative compounds to supplement the existing tools are important to be searched to overcome the existing resistance and persistence of pesticides in vectors and the environment respectively. The mosquitocidal effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla using different solvents of acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts against three medically important mosquito vectors was conducted. Glycosmis pentaphylla plant leaves were collected from Kolli Hills, India. The WHO test procedures for larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate extracts against mosquito vectors, and the chemical composition of extracts identified using GC-MS analysis. The larvicidal and adulticidal activity of G. pentaphylla plant extracts clearly impacted the three species of major mosquitoes vectors. Acetone extracts had the highest larvicidal effect against An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.0004, 138.54; 0.2669, 73.7413 and 0.0585, 303.746 mg/ml, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 adulticide values of G. pentaphylla leaf extracts in acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate, solvents were as follows for Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and Ae. Aegypti: 2.957, 5.458, 2.708, and 4.777, 3.449, 6.676 mg/ml respectively. The chemical composition of G. pentaphylla leaf extract has been found in 20 active compounds. The plant leaf extracts of G. pentaphylla bioactive molecules which are effective and can be developed as an eco-friendly approach for larvicides and adulticidal mosquitoes vector control. Detailed identification and characterization of mosquitocidal effect of individual bioactive molecules ingredient may result into biodegradable effective tools for the control of mosquito vectors.

  17. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.; Hartemink, N.; Zeimes, C.B.; Vanwambeke, S.O.; Ienco, A.; Caputo, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat

  18. Reproductive biology in Anophelinae mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Fine structure of the female accessory gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghezza Masci, Valentina; Di Luca, Marco; Gambellini, Gabriella; Taddei, Anna Rita; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Guerra, Laura; Mazzini, Massimo; Fausto, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of female accessory reproductive glands of Anopheles maculipennis s.s., Anopheles labranchiae and Anopheles stephensi were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The reproductive system in these species is characterized by two ovaries, two lateral oviducts, a single spermatheca and a single accessory gland. The gland is globular and has a thin duct which empties into the vagina, near the opening of the spermathecal duct. Significant growth of the accessory reproductive gland is observed immediately after blood meal, but not at subsequent digestion steps. At ultrastructural level, the gland consists of functional glandular units belonging to type 3 ectodermal glands. The secretory cells are elongated and goblet shaped, with most of their cytoplasm and large nucleus in the basal part, close to the basement lamella. Finely fibrous electron-transparent material occupies the secretory cavity that is in contact with the end of a short efferent duct (ductule) emerging from the gland duct. The present study is the first detailed description of female accessory gland ultrastructure in Anophelinae and provides insights into the gland's functional role in the reproductive biology of these insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lineage Divergence Detected in the Malaria Vector Anopheles marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Amazonian Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    with an estimated 14% of all plant and animal species within its boundaries [2]. Because speciation is not always accompanied by mor- phological change...this region. Clearing of forest, in combination with an increase in human and domestic animal host abundance, may have led to an A. marajoara...USA. 4Department of Epidemiology, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 715 - Cerqueira Cesar 01246-904 Sao Paulo, Brazil. 5Laboratório de Fisiologia e Controle de

  20. Ecology of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Kleber S; Pinto, Israel De S; Leite, Gustavo R; Das Virgens, Thieres M; Dos Santos, Claudiney B; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the fauna composition of anopheline mosquitoes, their ecological aspects and behavior, and influence of climatic variables on their population dynamics can help in understanding the transmission of Plasmodium parasites and thus develop more efficient strategies for the control of malaria. In the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil, foci of introduced malaria have been reported among people returning from the Amazon region, north Brazil. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the anopheline fauna from a preserved environment and an adjacent peridomiciliary modified environment at the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor. We collected anopheline mosquitoes on a monthly basis from June 2004 to May 2006 from both these environments to understand the ecological aspects and their association with the occurrence of malaria. We captured 5,491 anopheline mosquitoes belonging to two subgenera and 11 species and studied the correlations between anopheline mosquito species and climatic variables. We considered Anopheles darlingi (Root) as the principal malaria vector and Anopheles albitarsis s. l. (Arribalzaga) as the secondary vector.

  1. Detection of Plasmodium sp.-infested Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz

    2013-03-01

    On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely.

  2. First report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Oran, West of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benallal, K E; Allal-Ikhlef, A; Benhamouda, K; Schaffner, F; Harrat, Z

    2016-12-01

    The increasing globalisation of trades, human movements and environmental changes facilitate the introduction and the establishment of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus outside its native geographical area. Alerted by the complaints about mosquito biting which occurred daytime for the inhabitants of the seaside town Ain Turk (West of Algeria), an entomological survey was conducted in December 2015 to determine the origin of this nuisance. Among the collected mosquitoes, specimens of Ae. albopictus (2 males, 3 females and 3 pupae) were collected. This is the first observation of that invasive mosquito in the west of Algeria which confirms its presence and establishment in Mediterranean Africa.

  3. Indirect effects of cigarette butt waste on the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Rajasaygar, Sudha; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Hamdan; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Abdul Hamid, Suhaila; Vargas, Ronald Enrique Morales; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Fadzly, Nik; Abu Kassim, Nur Faeza; Hashim, Nur Aida; Abd Ghani, Idris; Abang, Fatimah Bt; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2014-02-01

    Despite major insecticide-based vector control programs, dengue continues to be a major threat to public health in urban areas. The reasons for this failure include the emergence of insecticide resistance and the narrowing of the spectrum of efficient products. Cigarette butts (CBs), the most commonly discarded piece of waste, also represent a major health hazard to human and animal life. CBs are impregnated with thousands of chemical compounds, many of which are highly toxic and none of which has history of resistance in mosquitoes. This study was performed to examine whether exposure to CB alters various biological parameters of parents and their progeny. We examined whether the mosquito changes its ovipositional behaviors, egg hatching, reproductive capacity, longevity and fecundity in response to CB exposure at three different concentrations. Females tended to prefer microcosms containing CBs for egg deposition than those with water only. There were equivalent rates of eclosion success among larvae from eggs that matured in CB and water environments. We also observed decreased life span among adults that survived CB exposure. Extracts of CB waste have detrimental effects on the fecundity and longevity of its offspring, while being attractive to its gravid females. These results altogether indicate that CB waste indirectly affect key adult life traits of Aedes aegypti and could conceivably be developed as a novel dengue vector control strategy, referring to previously documented direct toxicity on the larval stage. But this will require further research on CB waste effects on non-target organisms including humans.

  4. Patterns of sugar feeding and host plant preferences in adult males of An. gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Poueme, Rodrigue S; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Fontenille, Didier; Simard, Frédéric

    2010-12-01

    Sugar feeding by male mosquitoes is critical for their success in mating competition. However, the facets of sugar source finding under natural conditions remain unknown. Here, evidence obtained in Western Burkina Faso indicated that the distribution of An. gambiae s.s. (M and S molecular forms) males across different peri-domestic habitats is dependent on the availability of potential sugar sources from which they obtain more favorable sites for feeding or resting. Among field-collected anophelines, a higher proportion of specimens containing fructose were found on flowering Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), Dolonix regia (Fabaceae), Thevetia neriifolia (Apocynaceae), Senna siamea, and Cassia sieberiana (both Fabaceae) compared to that recorded on other nearby plants, suggesting that some plants are favored for use as a sugar source over others. Y-tube olfactometer assays with newly-emerged An. gambiae s.s. exposed to odors from individual plants and some combinations thereof showed that males use odor cues to guide their preference. The number of sugar-positive males was variable in a no-choice cage assay, consistent with the olfactory response patterns towards corresponding odor stimuli. These experiments provide the first evidence both in field and laboratory conditions for previously unstudied interactions between males of An. gambiae and natural sugar sources.

  5. Genetics and morphology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Gerard; Brown, Julia E; Barrera, Roberto; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2011-11-01

    Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50-100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future.

  6. A Study on the Bionomics of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    shown). (B) A supervised classification of the image was used to quantify the difference in pixel counts of broadleaf/ palm forest (green), pasture...flow by bulldozed forest debris; contamination of freshwater by agrochemicals; and eutrophication of waterways by discharge from food and sugar...conditions of high populations and/or malaria transmission, the application of oils to potential breeding habitats surrounding homes will be performed

  7. Surveillance, insecticide resistance and control of an invasive Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornel, Anthony J.; Holeman, Jodi; Nieman, Catelyn C.; Lee, Yoosook; Smith, Charles; Amorino, Mark; Brisco, Katherine K.; Barrera, Roberto; Lanzaro, Gregory C.; Mulligan III, F. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The invasion and subsequent establishment in California of Aedes aegypti in 2013 has created new challenges for local mosquito abatement and vector control districts. Studies were undertaken to identify effective and economical strategies to monitor the abundance and spread of this mosquito species as well as for its control. Overall, BG Sentinel (BGS) traps were found to be the most sensitive trap type to measure abundance and spread into new locations. Autocidal-Gravid-Ovitraps (AGO-B), when placed at a site for a week, performed equally to BGS in detecting the presence of female Ae. aegypti. Considering operational cost and our findings, we recommend use of BGS traps for surveillance in response to service requests especially in locations outside the known infestation area. We recommend AGO-Bs be placed at fixed sites, cleared and processed once a week to monitor mosquito abundance within a known infestation area. Long-term high density placements of AGO-Bs were found to show promise as an environmentally friendly trap-kill control strategy. California Ae. aegypti were found to be homozygous for the V1016I mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel gene, which is implicated to be involved in insecticide resistance. This strain originating from Clovis, California was resistant to some pyrethroids but not to deltamethrin in bottle bio-assays. Sentinel cage ultra-low-volume (ULV) trials using a new formulation of deltamethrin (DeltaGard®) demonstrated that it provided some control (average of 56% death in sentinel cages in a 91.4 m spray swath) after a single truck mounted aerial ULV application in residential areas. PMID:27158450

  8. Productividad del vector del dengue aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), en Girardot-Cundinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalá Espinosa, Lucas Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Girardot, Cundinamarca es un municipio hiperendémico para dengue. Se determinó la productividad de su vector Aedes aegypti en una época de lluvia (Feb-May, 2011) y otra de sequía (Ago-Sept, 2011). Se estimaron los índices de pupas por persona (IPP), pupas por hectárea (IPH) y se estimó el tamaño corporal del insecto para cada tipo de sitio de cría usando estimación del tamaño del centroide. De todas las pupas recolectadas, los predios aportaron el 94% (n=7098) y los espacios públicos el 6% (n...

  9. MODELO BIOGEOGRÁFICO DE LOS MOSQUITOS CULEX SPP. (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE EN MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Torres Olave

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mosquitoes distribution and the presence of arboviruses are determined by temperature, rainfall, geographic barriers, and other factors that determine the distribution of Culex spp. and can influence the human arboviral. The objective of this study was to identify potential spatial distribution of Culex spp. The ecological niche modeling was performed using MaxEnt Ecological niche modeling was performed using MaxEnt, bioclimatic variables (WorldClim used for this process are derived from the monthly values of temperature and precipitation to generate biologically significant variables (representing annual trends and limiting factors for the distribution of species. The resulting maps can be interpreted as relative suitability areas, these areas are presented on the east coast of Mexico, mainly in the states of Veracruz and Tabasco. The results show that Bio 2 (mean monthly temperature range, Bio 7 (annual range of temperature and Bio 11 (mean temperature of the coldest quarter, determine the highest percentage range. Distribution modeling Culex spp. It is an approach to identify the most vulnerable areas in Mexico. It is necessary to strengthen and establish multidisciplinary programs for the prevention ofCulexspp transmitted diseases.

  10. Evaluation of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr against pyrethroid resistant and susceptible Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S V; Kaiser, M L; Wood, O R; Coetzee, M; Rowland, M; Brooke, B D

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr, which has a novel non-neurotoxic mode of action and is a promising alternative to conventional adulticides, against Anopheles funestus. The toxicity of a range of concentrations of chlorfenapyr against pyrethroid resistant and susceptible laboratory reared southern African An. funestus was assessed using standard WHO protocols and analysed using probit analysis. The pyrethroid resistant strain showed consistently higher LD50 and LD95 values compared to the susceptible strain, but these differences were not statistically significant and the magnitude was twofold at most. The LD50 values recorded for An. funestus are approximately three-fold higher than those reported elsewhere for other species of anopheline. Monooxygenase based pyrethroid resistance in An. funestus does not influence the toxic effect of chlorfenapyr. It is unlikely that such a small decrease in susceptibility of An. funestus to chlorfenapyr relative to other anophelines would have any operational implications. Chlorfenapyr is an important addition to insecticides available for malaria vector control, and could be used as a resistance management tool to either circumvent or slow the development of resistance.

  11. How dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae survive during the dry season in Dhaka City, Bangladesh?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Chowdhury

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In 2000, a dengue outbreak occurred in Bangladesh that included Dhaka City. Both dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in Bangladesh. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes mainly breed in and around houses and Ae. albopictus is an outside breeder. There are many old trees throughout Dhaka City in different parks, streets and the university campus which may have holes that can contribute as potential breeding habitat for the dengue vector. Therefore, a survey was conducted to investigate the presence of eggs of the dengue vector mosquitoes in treeholes during the dry season in February 2001 to know their contribution on dengue outbreaks. Methods: All treeholes in 10 different localities (parks, streets and university campus of Dhaka City were surveyed. All trees were examined for treeholes up to the height of approximately 3 m and sampled. Debris were collected and packed in poly bags and brought to the laboratory for detailed studies. These were then soaked with tap water to observe egg hatching. The soaked materials were kept up to 20 days covered by a fine mosquito net. After 2-3 days, the eggs started hatching and larvae were separated from the sample for rearing up to IV instar. Results: A total of 245 treeholes were surveyed in 49 identified tree species and 18 unidentified trees. Altogether, 1365 Aedes larvae were found, of which 1096 were Aedes albopictus and 269 were other Aedes species. The largest number of larvae was observed in Delonix regia of Leguminosae family. The number of Aedes albopictus found in the treeholes have perfect positive correlation with the number of other Aedes species. Not a single egg of Aedes aegypti was found in this survey. Interpretation & conclusion: This information will inform public health workers as well as the national control programme to help to solve mosquito borne diseases specially that of dengue. This is critical in planning for vector control operations due to the diversity of dengue outbreak in the nature.

  12. Diversity of breeding habitats of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae in Ramgarh district, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The study revealed that malaria vector species have been adapted to breed in a wide range of water bodies. The regular monitoring of such specific vector breeding sites under changing ecological and environmental conditions will be useful in guiding larval control operations selectively for effective vector/ malaria control.

  13. Larvicidal properties of two asclepiadaceous plant species against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Elsayed Edriss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain mosquito species are important vectors of fatal human diseases, among which Anopheles arabiensis is known to be associated with malaria transmission in different tropical and subtropical areas. Since chemical control of mosquitoes was linked with numerous drawbacks, like resistance development, the search for effective environmentally sound alternatives is urgently needed. Therefore, it was aimed by this study to evaluate some extracts prepared from two asclepiadaceous plants, viz., Solenostemma argel “Hargel” (seeds and leaves and Calotropis procera “Usher” (leaves and flowers, as natural larvicides against An. arabiensis. The main parameters included bioassays of treatments for knockdown and residual effects, besides phytochemical analysis of the tested extracts. The results revealed variable groups of secondary metabolites in the two plants, with S. argel seemed to be the richest one. Hence, S. argel extracts caused higher larval mortalities than those of C. procera. This could be ascribed to some potent secondary metabolites in the former plant, which needs further studies. Almost all the high concentrations of S. argel extracts exerted the highest knockdown effect (90% mortality after 24 h, which were comparable with those obtained by two standard insecticides. The highest doses of petroleum ether and water extracts of this plant also manifested significantly higher residual effects than the other extracts after three days following treatments, but were surpassed by the chemical insecticides thereafter. However, S. argel seed petroleum ether extract at 0.5% was the most effective of all botanicals up to three weeks of exposure. This extract needs to be evaluated under field conditions for proper exploitation as mosquito larvicide.

  14. Impact of invasive aquatic macrophytes on the population and behavioral ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field survey, three outdoor cage enclosure experiments, and laboratory studies were conducted to elucidate the impact of the invasive aquatic weeds Eichhornia crassipes (floating water hyacinth), Ludwigia hexapetala (emergent water yellow-primrose), and Egeria densa (submersed Brazilian waterweed)...

  15. Molecular identification of two Culex (Culex) species of the neotropical region (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirón, Walter R.; Gardenal, Cristina N.

    2017-01-01

    Culex bidens and C. interfor, implicated in arbovirus transmission in Argentina, are sister species, only distinguishable by feature of the male genitalia; however, intermediate specimens of the species in sympatry have been found. Fourth-instar larvae and females of both species share apomorphic features, and this lack of clear distinction creates problems for specific identification. Geometric morphometric traits of these life stages also do not distinguish the species. The aim of the present study was to assess the taxonomic status of C. bidens and C. interfor using two mitochondrial genes and to determine the degree of their reproductive isolation using microsatellite loci. Sequences of the ND4 and COI genes were concatenated in a matrix of 993 nucleotides and used for phylogenetic and distance analyses. Bayesian and maximum parsimony inferences showed a well resolved and supported topology, enclosing sequences of individuals of C. bidens (0.83 BPP, 73 BSV) and C. interfor (0.98 BPP, 97 BSV) in a strong sister relationship. The mean K2P distance within C. bidens and C. interfor was 0.3% and 0.2%, respectively, and the interspecific variation was 2.3%. Bayesian clustering also showed two distinct mitochondrial lineages. All sequenced mosquitoes were successfully identified in accordance with the best close match algorithm. The low genetic distance values obtained indicate that the species diverged quite recently. Most morphologically intermediate specimens of C. bidens from Córdoba were heterozygous for the microsatellite locus GT51; the significant heterozygote excess observed suggests incomplete reproductive isolation. However, C. bidens and C. interfor should be considered good species: the ventral arm of the phallosome of the male genitalia and the ND4 and COI sequences are diagnostic characters. PMID:28235083

  16. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Anopheles nuneztovari (Diptera: Culicidae from Western and Northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elisa Posso

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze 119 DNA samples of three Colombian Anopheles nuneztovari populations to study genetic variation and structure. Genetic diversity, estimated from heterozygosity, averaged 0.34. Genetic flow was greater between the two populations located in Western Colombia (F ST: 0.035; Nm: 6.8 but lower between these two and the northeastern population (F ST: 0.08; Nm: 2.8. According to molecular variance analysis, the genetic distance between populations was significant (phiST 0.1131, P < 0.001. The variation among individuals within populations (phiST 0.8869, P < 0.001was also significant, suggesting a greater degree of population subdivision, not considered in this study. Both the parameters evaluated and the genetic flow suggest that Colombian An. nuneztovari populations are co-specific.

  17. Mosquitocidal activities of thyme oils (Thymus vulgaris L.) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman; Vrchotová, Nadezda; Tríska, Jan

    2009-10-01

    Oil samples from four chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris were tested for mosquitocidal activity. Oil compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The different compositions of the oils varied in their biological activity as well. Larvicidal efficiency was determined for the most significant oil thymol type (T), namely the lowest doses LD(50) 32.9 and 14.2 mg/l for the third and fourth instars, respectively. The oils also showed very good efficiency with respect to mortality and to the percentage of adult emergence upon short-term exposure in water treated by lethal doses of individual oils. Although the larvae were left in treated water for only 5 h, mortality corresponding to LD(50) was determined after 24 h, i.e., between 49% and 63%. Furthermore, mortality increased significantly in relation to time of exposure, and total mortality of the larvae at the end of their development was about 90%. Such significant mortality was also naturally reflected in the total emergence of adults. In the control sample, there was 77% adult emergence from the larvae, whereas in oils, there was only from 5.3% to 16% emergence. The greatest fumigate efficiency was found for T and linalool chemotypes, with an LC(50) for 24 h of exposure being 1.1 and 1.8 mg/l, respectively. Essence T was also most efficient in the tarsal test, with LD(50) of 44 microg/cm(2) and LD(90) of 63 microg/cm(2). High antioviposition efficiency was found in all tested oils.

  18. Bionomics of Aedes aegypti subpopulations (Diptera: Culicidae) from Misiones Province, northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, Edmundo Fabricio; Almeida, Francisco Felipe Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Life statistics of four Aedes aegypti subpopulations from the subtropical province of Misiones were studied during autumn and winter, under semi-natural conditions, coming from the localities of Posadas (SW), San Javier (SE), Bernardo de Irigoyen (NE) and Puerto Libertad (NW). The eastern subpopulations are geographically separated by the central mountain system of the province from the western subpopulations. High percentages of larval and pupal survival (97-100%) were recorded, and no significant differences were detected among the four subpopulations. Larvae and pupae lasted approximately 8 days to complete their development, no significant differences being detected among the four subpopulations studied. Sex ratio recorded did not differ significantly from 1:1. Male longevity did not show difference among the different subpopulations, but female longevity was remarkably different among the four subpopulations (F=16.27; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.0009), ranging among 11.45 days for San Javier and 57.87 days for Posadas. Fecundity also varied considerably among subpopulations, the greatest number (307.44 eggs/female) being recorded for Posadas (F=4.13; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.04). Ae. aegypti females of the western subpopulations lived longer than the eastern subpopulations studied, therefore, the risk of dengue outbreak would be greater on the Misiones Province border with Paraguay.

  19. Molecular taxonomy of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi (Diptera: Culicidae) and malaria epidemiology in southern Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Saavedra, Marlon; Bickersmith, Sara A; Knoll, Elisabeth; Fernandez, Roberto; Vera, Hubert; Burrus, Roxanne G; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan Francisco; Rivera, Esteban; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2013-02-01

    Anopheline specimens were collected in 2011 by human landing catch, Shannon and CDC traps from the malaria endemic localities of Santa Rosa and San Pedro in Madre de Dios Department, Peru. Most specimens were either Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi B or An. (Nys.) rangeli, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer 2 (PCR-RFLP-ITS2) and, for selected individuals, ITS2 sequences. A few specimens from Lupuna, Loreto Department, northern Amazonian Peru, were also identified as An. benarrochi B. A statistical parsimony network using ITS2 sequences confirmed that all Peruvian An. benarrochi B analyzed were identical to those in GenBank from Putumayo, southern Colombia. Sequences of the mtDNA COI BOLD region of specimens from all three Peruvian localities were connected using a statistical parsimony network, although there were multiple mutation steps between northern and southern Peruvian sequences. A Bayesian inference of concatenated Peruvian sequences of ITS2 + COI detected a single clade with very high support for all An. benarrochi B except one individual from Lupuna that was excluded. No samples were positive for Plasmodium by CytB-PCR.

  20. Anopheles (Anopheles) Lesteri Biases and Hu (Diptera: Culicidae): Neotype Designation and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-30

    Anopheles) anthropoplwglts: Ma 1981: 1I (key; distribution, China: Fukien. Kiangsi. Kiangsu. Kwangsi. Kweichow. Shanghai. provinces south of Yantze River ...lowing: Taina Litwak for her illustrations; Bel Rueda, Buddy Buenavista. Lerma Bue- navista. Benjie Puma. and Modesta Coro- nado-Puma for their help in

  1. Phylogeny of anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) species in southern Africa, based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Laura C; Norris, Douglas E

    2015-06-01

    A phylogeny of anthropophilic and zoophilic anopheline mosquito species was constructed, using the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes. The ITS2 alignment, typically difficult due to its noncoding nature and large size variations, was aided by using predicted secondary structure, making this phylogenetically useful gene more amenable to investigation. This phylogeny is unique in explicitly including zoophilic, non-vector anopheline species in order to illustrate their relationships to malaria vectors. Two new, cryptic species, Anopheles funestus-like and Anopheles rivulorum-like, were found to be present in Zambia for the first time. Sequences from the D3 region of the 28S rDNA suggest that the Zambian An. funestus-like may be a hybrid or geographical variant of An. funestus-like, previously reported in Malawi. This is the first report of An. rivulorum-like sympatric with An. rivulorum (Leeson), suggesting that these are separate species rather than geographic variants. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  2. Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae in Europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria vector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffner Francis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles plumbeus has been recognized as a minor vector for human malaria in Europe since the beginning of the 20th century. In recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited novel breeding sites, including large and organically rich man-made containers, with consequently larger mosquito populations in close vicinity to humans. This lead to investigate whether current populations of An. plumbeus would be able to efficiently transmit Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most deadly form of malaria. Methods Anopheles plumbeus immatures were collected from a liquid manure pit in Switzerland and transferred as adults to the CEPIA (Institut Pasteur, France where they were fed on P. falciparum gametocytes produced in vitro. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes served as controls. Development of P. falciparum in both mosquito species was followed by microscopical detection of oocysts on mosquito midguts and by sporozoite detection in the head/thorax by PCR and microscopy. Results A total of 293 wild An. plumbeus females from four independent collections successfully fed through a membrane on blood containing P. falciparum gametocytes. Oocysts were observed in mosquito midguts and P. falciparum DNA was detected in head-thorax samples in all four experiments, demonstrating, on a large mosquito sample, that An. plumbeus is indeed receptive to P. falciparum NF54 and able to produce sporozoites. Importantly, the proportion of sporozoites-infected An. plumbeus was almost similar to that of An. gambiae (31 to 88% An. plumbeus versus 67 to 97% An. gambiae. However, the number of sporozoites produced was significantly lower in infected An. plumbeus. Conclusion The results show that a sample of field-caught An. plumbeus has a moderate to high receptivity towards P. falciparum. Considering the increased mobility of humans between Europe and malaria endemic countries and changes in environment and climate, these data strongly suggest that An. plumbeus could act as a vector for malaria and thus significantly contribute to increasing the malaria transmission risk in Central-Western Europe. In locations showing high vulnerability to the presence of gametocyte carriers, the risk of transmission of malaria by An. plumbeus should be considered.

  3. Swarming behavior of Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) and characterization of swarm markers in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuten, H C; Stone, C M; Dobson, S L

    2013-07-01

    We characterize the swarming behavior of male Aedes polynesiensis (Marks) in American Samoa. Instead of swarming around a blood host, males used the base of certain trees as a marker. Repeated sampling proved nondestructive and allowed us to investigate the impact of static (e.g., tree species) and dynamic (e.g., barometric pressure) characters on the likelihood of swarm presence and intensity. Tree circumference and oviposition activity (number of Ae. polynesiensis reared from oviposition cups) were significant positive predictors of the number of males in a swarm. Tree circumference and diameter were significantly positively associated, and canopy height was significantly negatively associated, with swarm occurrence. Comparisons between males swarming early and late during the swarming period allowed for insight into swarm composition in terms of male size and the amount of putative fluid (e.g., nectar) in the crop, indicators of energetic reserves. Males collected during the late period had significantly larger wings and less crop contents than did males of the early cohort. Because the ecology of male Ae. polynesiensis remains understudied, we consider how the current results could facilitate further studies related to applied autocidal strategies as well as the evolution of host-based mating behavior.

  4. Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bucker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM extracts and liquid culture media (LCM from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

  5. The role of midgut symbiotic bacteria in resistance of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to organophosphate insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Aboozar; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Enayati, Ahmad Ali; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2017-07-26

    In the current study, the effects of the presence of symbiotic bacteria on the activity of the enzymes involved in An. stephensi resistance to temephos are evaluated for the first time. Four different strains (I. susceptible strain, II. resistant strain, III. resistant strain + antibiotic, and IV. resistant strain + bacteria) were considered in order to determine the possible effects of the symbiotic bacteria on their hosts' resistance to temephos. The median values of all enzymes of susceptible strain were compared with those of other resistant strains. The results of this study indicated a direct relationship between the presence of bacteria in the symbiotic organs of An. stephensi and resistance to temephos. The profile of enzymatic activities in the resistant strain changed to a susceptible status after adding antibiotic. The resistance of An. stephensi to temephos could be completely broken artificially by removing their bacterial symbionts in a resistant population.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae) and the phylogenetics of known Anopheles mitogenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ya-Qiong; Ding, Yi-Ran; Yan, Zhen-Tian; Si, Feng-Ling; Luo, Qian-Chun; Chen, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Anopheles minimus is an important vector of human malaria in southern China and Southeast Asia. The phylogenetics of mosquitoes has not been well resolved, and the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) has proven to be an important marker in the study of evolutionary biology. In this study, the complete mtgenome of An. minimus was sequenced for the first time. It is 15 395 bp long and encodes 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and a non-coding region. The gene organization is consistent with those of known Anopheles mtgenomes. The mtgenome performs a clear bias in nucleotide composition with a positive AT-skew and a negative GC-skew. All 13 PCGs prefer to use the codon UUA (Leu), ATN as initiation codon but cytochrome-oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and ND5, with TCG and GTG, and TAA as termination codon, but COI, COII, COIII and ND4, all with the incomplete T. tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, but tRNA(Ser(AGN)) is consistent with known Anopheles mtgenomes. The control region includes a conserved T-stretch and a (TA)n stretch, and has the highest A+T content at 93.1%. The phylogenetics of An. minimus with 18 other Anopheles species was constructed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, based on concatenated PCG sequences. The subgenera, Cellia and Anopheles, and Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia have mutually close relationships, respectively. The Punctulatus group and Leucosphyrus group of Neomyzomyia Series, and the Albitarsis group of Albitarsis Series were suggested to be monophyletic. The monophyletic status of the subgenera, Cellia, Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia need to be further elucidated.

  7. Evaluation of immature mosquitocidal properties of Xanthium strumarium Linn. plant extracts against Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Roba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate immature mosquitocidal properties of Xanthium strumarium plant extracts against Culex mosquitoes at Entomology Laboratory, Maraki Campus, University of Gondar. Methods: The immature mosquitocidal activity of plant extracts was tested by following World Health Organization recommended protocol. Acetone, methanol and water extracts were prepared at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations and tested against third and fourth instar larvae and pupae of Culex mosquitoes. The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure period continuously. Results: Third instar larvae after 24 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 77.80% was recorded at 250 mg/L concentration of acetone extract. After 48 h and 72 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 88.90% was recorded in acetone extract in all the tested concentration. The maximum mortality of fourth instar larvae was 88.90% in acetone extract at 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations. Pupal mortality was also greater in acetone extract. The percentage of mortality in all the stage of mosquitoes was higher in acetone extract followed by methanol and water extract. Conclusions: The percentage of mortality is associated with concentration of the extracts tested and exposure period. This laboratory study confirmed immature mosquitocidal activity of Xanthium strumarium leaf extracts against Culex mosquitoes. The aqueous leaf extract can be used by applying on small man-made breeding places to prevent adult emergence.

  8. An aggregation pheromone modulates lekking behavior in the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Maira; Jaffe, Klaus

    2007-03-01

    Males of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes formed swarms in the laboratory, triggered by the onset of the photophase or by the presence of odors from a rat (which is a potential host for females). The swarm attracted both males and females and increased mating activity. The number of copulas per mosquito was positively correlated with the number of mosquitoes in the swarm and with the duration of the swarm. Swarming and mating activity increased with the presence of a host for females. Young sexually immature males, less than 24 h old, flew but did not swarm nor copulate. Observations using an olfactometer showed that swarming males produced a volatile pheromone that stimulates the flying activity of females at a distance. Females also produce a volatile attractant. The results suggest that males, and possibly also females, produce an aggregation pheromone that attracts males and females towards the swarm. The characteristics of the pheromone-mediated swarm may be described as a 3-dimensional lek. Our results suggest that the development of pheromone-based control systems and/or pheromone traps for the monitoring of vector populations is feasible, adding a new tool to combat this vector of several human pathogens.

  9. New Records and Reference Collection of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Cx. la’otoensis and Cx. pipie •s which have been reported in the Mr. Songni of north Chung- cheong Province and Hapcheon region of South Gye...the Halla mountain area. In Korea this species has only been reported from Jeju Island. The adults of Cx. kvotoensis are quite similar to Cx. pipi

  10. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, Daniela; Hartemink, Nienke; Zeimes, Caroline B; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Ienco, Annamaria; Caputo, Beniamino

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat prefere

  11. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura de ovos de Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alencar Jeronimo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar detalhes morfológicos de ovos de Haemagogus leucocelaenus visualizados pela primeira vez por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e realizar morfometria das principais estruturas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados ovos de Hg. leucocelaenus provenientes de fêmeas capturadas na Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, RJ, sendo parte destinada à eclosão e outra ao processamento de MEV, dos quais três foram submetidos à análise morfométrica. O material foi fixado em glutaraldeído 2,5% e pós-fixado em tetróxido de ósmio 1%, ambos em tampão cacodilato de sódio 0.1M, pH 7.2, processado e observado ao MEV Jeol 5310. Medições foram realizadas com o auxílio do software de análise Semafore. RESULTADOS: Os ovos apresentaram contorno elíptico com aproximadamente 574 µm de comprimento e 169 µm de largura, sendo o índice do ovo (l/wratio 3,39 µm. O exocório é extremamente regular, possuindo ornamentação hexagonal e algumas vezes pentagonal. Nas células coriônicas, observaram-se tubérculos simetricamente dispostos com relação ao eixo longitudinal, e, no interior delas, tubérculos menores, individualizados, dispostos na periferia, e poucos agrupados no centro. A superfície do retículo coriônico não apresentou rugosidades. O aparelho micropilar apresenta colar proeminente, contínuo, com disco micropilar bem evidente. CONCLUSÕES: A ornamentação do exocório apresenta diferenças em relação aos tubérculos das células coriônicas e ao retículo coriônico externo entre os ovos de Hg. leucocelaenus comparados aos ovos de Hg. janthinomys e Hg. equinus, bem como com relação aos de Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus e Ae bahamensis.

  12. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.; Hartemink, N.; Zeimes, C.B.; Vanwambeke, S.O.; Ienco, A.; Caputo, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat prefere

  13. Comportamento de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis adultos (Diptera: Culicidae no Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar e comparar o comportamento das espécies de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis, na localidade de Pedrinhas, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As observações foram feitas de outubro de 1996 a janeiro de 2000. Foram realizadas coletas sistemáticas de formas adultas mediante a utilização de isca humana, aspirações ambientais e armadilha tipo Shannon. A domiciliação foi estimada pelo índice de Nuorteva e pela razão de sinantropia. RESULTADOS: Foram feitas 87 coletas diurnas, com a obtenção de 872 adultos fêmeas. As médias de Williams', multiplicadas por 100, foram de 118 e 21 para Ae. albopictus nos horários de 7h às 18h e de 18h às 20h, respectivamente. Quanto a Ae. scapularis, foram de 100 e 106 nos mesmos períodos. Esse último revelou pico de atividade crepuscular vespertina. Na aspiração de abrigos, obteve-se o total de 1.124 espécimens, dos quais 226 Ae. albopictus e 898 Ae. scapularis. O período de janeiro a maio correspondeu ao de maior rendimento para ambos os mosquitos. Quanto à armadilha de Shannon, as coletas realizadas na mata revelaram a ausência de Ae. albopictus. No que concerne à domiciliação, esse último mostrou os maiores valores de índices, enquanto Ae. scapularis revelou comportamento de tipo ubiquista. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam outras observações, permitindo levantar hipóteses. Em relação a Ae. scapularis, sugere-se que possa existir fenômeno de diapausa das fêmeas no período verão-outono, a qual cessaria no inverno-primavera quando então a atividade seria retomada. Quanto a Ae. albopictus, os dados sugerem que se trata de população em processo adaptativo ao novo ambiente.

  14. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus thuringiensis against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, A Najitha; Balasubramanian, C; Moorthi, P Vinayaga

    2014-01-01

    The present study reveals the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) against Aedes aegypti responsible for the diseases of public health importance. The Bt-AgNPs were characterized by using UV-visible spectrophotometer followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. A surface plasmon resonance spectrum of AgNps was obtained at 420 nm. The particle sizes were measured through SEM imaging ranging from 43.52 to 142.97 nm. The Bt-AgNPs has also given a characteristic peak at 3 keV in EDX image. Interestingly, the mortality rendered by Bt-AgNPs was comparatively high than that of the control against third-instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC50 0.10 ppm and LC90 0.39 ppm) in all the tested concentrations, viz. 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15 ppm. Hence, Bt-AgNPs would be significantly used as a potent mosquito larvicide against A. aegypti.

  15. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus megaterium against malarial and dengue vector (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, A Najitha; Balasubramanian, C

    2015-11-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has provoked nowadays and alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized extracellular method using Bacillus megaterium. The AgNPs formations were confirmed initially through color change, and the aliquots were characterized through UV-visible spectrophotometer, followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The surface plasmon resonance band was shown at 430 nm in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The bioreduction was categorized through identifying the compounds responsible for the AgNP synthesis, and the functional group present in B. megaterium cell-free culture was scrutinized using FTIR. The topography and morphology of the particles were determined using SEM. In addition, this biosynthesized AgNPs were found to show higher insecticidal efficacy against vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 were found to be 0.567, 2.260; 0.90, 4.44; 1.349, 8.269; and 1.640, 9.152 and 0.240, 0.955; 0.331, 1.593; 0.494, 2.811; and 0.700, 4.435 with respect to the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. All the calculated χ (2) values are highly significant compared with the tabulated value. Therefore, B. megaterium-synthesized silver nanoparticles would be used as a potent larvicidal agent against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti.

  16. Myco-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Beauveria bassiana against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, A Najitha; Balasubramanian, C

    2014-08-01

    The efficacy of silver synthesized biolarvicide with the help of entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, was assessed against the different larval instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. The silver nanoparticles were observed and characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). A surface plasmon resonance band was observed at 420 nm in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The characterization was confirmed by shape (spherical), size 36.88-60.93 nm, and EDX spectral peak at 3 keV of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles have been tested against the different larval instars of Ae. aegypti at different concentrations for a period of 24 h. Ae. aegypti larvae were found more susceptible to the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The LC50 and LC90 values are 0.79 and 1.09 ppm with respect to the Ae. aegypti treated with B. bassiana (Bb) silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). First and second instar larvae of Ae. aegypti have shown cent percent mortality while third and fourth instars found 50.0, 56.6, 70.0, 80.0, and 86.6 and 52.4, 60.0, 68.5, 76.0, and 83.3% mortality at 24 h of exposure in 0.06 and 1.00 ppm, respectively. It is suggested that the entomopathogenic fungus synthesized silver nanoparticles would be appropriate for environmentally safer and greener approach for new leeway in vector control strategy through a biological process.

  17. Enzymatic characterization of insecticide resistance mechanisms in field populations of Malaysian Culex quinquefasciatus say (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Lun Low

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been no comprehensive study on biochemical characterization of insecticide resistance mechanisms in field populations of Malaysian Culex quinquefasciatus. To fill this void in the literature, a nationwide investigation was performed to quantify the enzyme activities, thereby attempting to characterize the potential resistance mechanisms in Cx. quinquefasciatus in residential areas in Malaysia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Culex quinquefasciatus from 14 residential areas across 13 states and one federal territory were subjected to esterases, mixed function oxidases, glutathione-S-transferase and insensitive acetylcholinesterase assays. Enzyme assays revealed that α-esterases and β-esterases were elevated in 13 populations and 12 populations, respectively. Nine populations demonstrated elevated levels of mixed function oxidases and glutathione-S-transferase. Acetylcholinesterase was insensitive to propoxur in all 14 populations. Activity of α-esterases associated with malathion resistance was found in the present study. In addition, an association between the activity of α-esterases and β-esterases was also demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study has characterized the potential biochemical mechanisms in contributing towards insecticide resistance in Cx. quinquefasciatus field populations in Malaysia. Identification of mechanisms underlying the insecticide resistance will be beneficial in developing effective mosquito control programs in Malaysia.

  18. Current susceptibility status of Malaysian Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) against DDT, propoxur, malathion, and permethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, V L; Chen, C D; Lee, H L; Lim, P E; Leong, C S; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2013-01-01

    A nationwide investigation was carried out to determine the current susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus Say populations against four active ingredients representing four major insecticide classes: DDT, propoxur, malathion, and permethrin. Across 14 study sites, both larval and adult bioassays exhibited dissimilar trends in susceptibility. A correlation between propoxur and malathion resistance and between propoxur and permethrin resistance in larval bioassays was found. The results obtained from this study provide baseline information for vector control programs conducted by local authorities. The susceptibility status of this mosquito should be monitored from time to time to ensure the effectiveness of current vector control operations in Malaysia.

  19. Phylogeny of Anophelinae (Diptera: Culicidae) Based on Nuclear Ribosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Entomologia M•dica, Departamento de Epidemiologia , Faculdade de Safide Pfiblica, Universidade de S•o Paulo, Brazil, -• Department of Systematic...Departamento de Epidemiologia , Faculdade de Safide Pfiblica, Universidade de Sgo Paulo, Av. Dr Arnaldo 715, CEP 01246-904, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. E

  20. Evaluation of boric acid sugar baits against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in tropical environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Diana P; Qualls, Whitney A; Müller, Gunter C; Samson, Dayana M; Roque, Deborah; Alimi, Temitope; Arheart, Kristopher; Beier, John C; Xue, Rui-De

    2013-04-01

    Attractive toxic sugar bait (active ingredient, 1% boric acid) was evaluated against Aedes albopictus Skuse populations in the laboratory, semi-field trials, and field trials in residential communities in St. Augustine, Florida. Laboratory evaluations of boric acid sugar baits applied to the plant Pentas lanceolata (Rubiaceae) demonstrated 100 and 92% mortality of A. albopictus at day 7 and 14, respectively. A semi-field study evaluating the bait application to the upperside or topside of leaves resulted in no significant difference on mortality (P>0.05). Overall combined top and bottom boric acid sugar bait application mortality at day 7 was 95% based on leaf bioassays. Field application of the boric acid sugar baits significantly (P<0.05) decreased adult A. albopictus populations up to day 21 post-treatment compared to the pre-treatment population numbers. A significant reduction in oviposition was demonstrated both at day 7 and 14 post-application (P=0.001) as monitored by ovitraps. Attractive toxic sugar bait application in tropical environments demonstrated efficacy, persistence, and feasibility in controlling A. albopictus populations.

  1. Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) to temephos in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Leslie C; Ponce, Gustavo; Oviedo, Milagros; Lopez, Beatriz; Flores, Adriana E

    2014-08-01

    Temephos is an insecticide widely used in Venezuela to control the proliferation of the larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.), the principal vector of dengue virus. The aim of this study was to identify the susceptibility to temephos of Ae. aegypti in four locations in western Venezuela: Lara, Tres Esquinas, Ureña and Pampanito. Larval bioassays were conducted on samples collected in 2008 and 2010, and the levels of α- and β-esterases, mixed-function oxidases, glutathione-S-transferase and insensitive acethyl cholinesterase were determined. Larval populations from western Venezuela obtained during 2008 and 2010 were found to be susceptible to temephos, with low resistance ratios and without overexpression of enzymes. The low RR values reveal the effectiveness of temephos in controlling the larval populations of Ae. aegypti. Control strategies must be vigorously monitored to maintain the susceptibility to temephos of these populations of Ae. aegypti. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Ovicidal activity of neem products (azadirachtin) against Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, T; Mulla, M S

    1998-06-01

    Bioactive compounds contained in the seed kernel and other parts of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) have been found to show insecticidal activities and other effects in many species of insects. These activities include antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression, male sterility, oviposition repellency, changes in biological fitness such as loss of flying ability, immunodepression, enzyme inhibition, splitting of biological rhythms, and so forth. We investigated the ovicidal effects of various formulations of azadrirachtin (AZ) against the mosquitoes Culex tarsalis Coquillett and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The formulations tested were wettable powder Azad WP10, emulsifiable concentrate Azad EC4.5, and technically pure AZ. The ovicidal activity of the test neem products was influenced by concentration of AZ, age of the egg rafts, and age of the neem preparations. Other factors such as formulation and mosquito species were also involved in the degree of ovicidal activity. When the egg rafts were deposited directly in fresh neem suspension and left there for 4 h before transfer to untreated water, 1 ppm of AZ produced almost 100% mortality in eggs. When egg rafts aged for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h were exposed to 10 ppm neem suspensions for 36 h, the ovicidal activity was only attained in the egg rafts deposited directly (0 h old) in the neem suspension, not in those with ages of 4-24 h. On aging, depending on the formulations and mosquito species, the neem suspensions at 1 ppm completely lost ovicidal activity within 7-20 days. The egg rafts of Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the test neem products than those of Cx. tarsalis. The formulated neem products were more persistent and effective than the technical AZ. The wettable powder (WP) formulation was slightly more persistent and effective than the emulsifiable concentrate (EC). The ovicidal activity of the neem products against mosquitoes from the current research clearly demonstrated the potential of neem products as possible ovicides against Culex mosquitoes.

  3. The spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sogoba

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the biology and ecology and the high level of genetic polymorphism of malaria vectors in Africa highlight the value of mapping their spatial distribution to enhance successful implementation of integrated vector management. The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes in Mali, to assess their association with climate and environmental covariates, and to produce maps of their spatial distribution. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models were fitted to identify environmental determinants of the relative frequencies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis species and to produce smooth maps of their geographical distribution. The frequency of An. arabiensis was positively associated with the normalized difference vegetation index, the soil water storage index, the maximum temperature and the distance to water bodies. It was negatively associated with the minimum temperature and rainfall. The predicted map suggests that, in West Africa, An. arabiensis is concentrated in the drier savannah areas, while An. gambiae s.s. prefers the southern savannah and land along the rivers, particularly the inner delta of Niger. Because the insecticide knockdown resistance (kdr gene is reported only in An. gambiae s.s. in Mali, the maps provide valuable information for vector control. They may also be useful for planning future implementation of malaria control by genetically manipulated mo