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Sample records for piper nigrum

  1. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon- Natural Food Sources with Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants ha...

  2. Radiometric study on bioaccumulation of gold by an alkaloid extracted from fruits of Piper nigrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, K.; Lahiri, S.

    2007-01-01

    Piperine, an alkaloid derived from the fruits of Piper nigrum, has been tested as an extracting bioreagent for gold. It has been observed that piperine as well as the fruits of Piper nigrum itself can act as an efficient exchanger for gold both in trace and macro scale. The accumulation of gold by these bioreagents is highly pH dependent. (author)

  3. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon- Natural Food Sources with Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds. PMID:23519352

  4. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon- Natural Food Sourcewith Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ying Tan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds.

  5. Natural quartz TL property and similarity in Piper nigrum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman A, S.; Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C.; Brown, F.; Barboza F, M.

    2009-10-01

    Quartz is a mineral abundant in nature and can provide information thermoluminescent (TL), and also is located in the mineral fraction of some herbs and spices consumed. It is present the analysis of the TL properties of a sample of natural quartz rock and compared with those obtained from the fraction of Piper nigrum L. poly mineral when they were exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation. The poly minerals of Piper nigrum L. were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, where the quartz was found as a major component. They separated in different particle sizes (10, 53, 74 and 149 μm). The samples were irradiated at relatively low doses (1-500 Gy) and high (0.1-40 kGy) in order to determine the linearity of the TL emission as a function of the dose and the analysis of glow curves. Also there was the fading of the TL signal, the effect of ultra violet light. The reproducibility of the TL signal in the samples indicates that a smaller particle size gives better TL signal. (author)

  6. Testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory active constituents of Piper nigrum leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Noriko; Tokunaga, Masashi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2007-12-01

    Previously we reported that Piper nigrum leaf extract showed a potent stimulation effect on melanogenesis and that (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2) were isolated as active constituents. As a part of our continuous studies on Piper species for the development of cosmetic hair-care agents, testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of six Piper species, namely Piper nigrum, P. methysticum, P. betle, P. kadsura, P. longum, and P. cubeba, were examined. Among them, the extracts of P. nigrum leaf, P. nigrum fruit and P. cubeba fruit showed potent inhibitory activity. Activity-guided fractionation of P. nigrum leaf extract led to the isolation of 1 and 2. Fruits of P. cubeba contain 1 as a major lignan, thus inhibitory activity of the fruit may be attributable to 1. As a result of further assay on other known constituents of the cited Piper species, it was found that piperine, a major alkaloid amide of P. nigrum fruit, showed potent inhibitory activity, thus a part of the inhibitory activity of P. nigrum fruit may depend on piperine. The 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activities of 1 and piperine were found for the first time. In addition, the P. nigrum leaf extract showed in vivo anti-androgenic activity using the hair regrowth assay in testosterone sensitive male C57Black/6CrSlc strain mice.

  7. Physicochemical properties of black pepper (Piper nigrum) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Mojel, Reuben; Li, Guantian

    2018-02-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is among the most popular spices around the world. Starch is the major component of black pepper. However, little is known about functional properties of this starch. In this study, swelling, solubility, thermal properties, rheology, and enzyme susceptibility of 2 black pepper starches were studied and compared with those of maize starch. Pepper starch had lower water solubility and swelling power than maize starch. It had higher viscosity during pasting event. In dynamic oscillatory analysis, pepper starch had lower storage modulus. Thermal analysis showed that pepper starch had much higher gelatinization temperatures (e.g., conclusion temperature of 94°C) than maize starch. The susceptibility to α-amylolysis of pepper starch was not very different from that of maize starch. Overall, the differences in the physicochemical properties of the 2 pepper starches are non-significant. The relationships between structure (especially amylopectin internal molecular structure) and properties of starch components are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tissue culture of black pepper (piper nigrum l.) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Naz, S.; Nazir, H.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2011-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) the 'King of Spices' is a universal table condiment. It is extensively used in Pakistani cuisines and herbal medicines and imported in bulk from neighboring countries. The black pepper vine is generally cultivated by seed because other vegetative propagation methods are slow and time consuming. Therefore the tissue culture technique is considered more efficient and reliable method for rapid and mass propagation of this economically important plant. The present study was initiated to develop protocol for micro-propagation of black pepper vine. The stem, leaf and shoot tip explants from mature vine were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, BA, IBA). Best callus was produced on MS medium with 1.5 mg/l BA by shoot tip explant. Shoot regeneration was excellent on MS medium with 0.5 mg/l BA. The plantlets formed were rooted best on 1.5 mg/l IBA. The rooted plants were transplanted in soil medium and acclimatized in growth room. The plants raised were test planted under the local conditions of Hattar. (author)

  9. Histamine release inhibitory activity of Piper nigrum leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Noriko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Inaba, Kazunori; Itoh, Kimihisa; Tokunaga, Masashi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    Oral administration of a methanolic extract of Piper nigrum leaf (PN-ext, 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg) showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition of dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)] after and 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] after DNFB challenge in mice which were passively sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody. Ear swelling inhibitory effect of PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) on very late phase response (vLPR) in the model mice was significant but weaker than that on IPR. Oral administration of PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg for 7 d) inhibited picryl chloride (PC)-induced ear swelling in PC sensitized mice. PN-ext exhibited in vitro inhibitory effect on compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Two lignans of PN-ext, (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2), were identified as major active principles having histamine release inhibitory activity.

  10. Effectiveness and safety of botanical pesticides applied in black pepper (Piper nigrum) plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratno,

    2008-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L) is an important commodity of Indonesia, which has been cultivated since the 6th century. The plant plays an important role in local economies since 95% of the plantations are cultivated by smallholder farmers. Because of this important economic value, proper plant

  11. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon--natural food sources with anti-quorum sensing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-03-20

    Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds.

  12. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanorods using Piper nigrum extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Bandita; Kuriakose, Sini; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver nanorods were synthesized by photoreduction using Piper nigrum extract. • The morphological and structural properties were studied by XRD and AFM. • Silver nanoparticles were formed at lower AgNO 3 concentration. • Increase in AgNO 3 concentration resulted in formation of silver nanorods. - Abstract: We report sun light driven rapid green synthesis of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods at room temperature using photoreduction of silver ions with Piper nigrum extract. Silver nanoparticles were formed within 3 min of sun light irradiation following addition of Piper nigrum extract to the AgNO 3 solution. The effects of AgNO 3 concentration and irradiation time on the formation and plasmonic properties of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were studied using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles were well characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size of Ag nanoparticles increased with increase in irradiation time, leading to the formation of anisotropic nanostructures. Increasing the AgNO 3 concentration resulted in the formation of Ag nanorods. UV–visible absorption studies revealed the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks which red shift and broaden with increasing AgNO 3 concentration. We have demonstrated a facile, energy efficient and rapid green synthetic route to synthesize stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods

  13. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanorods using Piper nigrum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, Bandita [Multifunctional Nanomaterials Laboratory, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Kuriakose, Sini [Multifunctional Nanomaterials Laboratory, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Mohapatra, Satyabrata, E-mail: smiuac@gmail.com [Multifunctional Nanomaterials Laboratory, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanorods were synthesized by photoreduction using Piper nigrum extract. • The morphological and structural properties were studied by XRD and AFM. • Silver nanoparticles were formed at lower AgNO{sub 3} concentration. • Increase in AgNO{sub 3} concentration resulted in formation of silver nanorods. - Abstract: We report sun light driven rapid green synthesis of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods at room temperature using photoreduction of silver ions with Piper nigrum extract. Silver nanoparticles were formed within 3 min of sun light irradiation following addition of Piper nigrum extract to the AgNO{sub 3} solution. The effects of AgNO{sub 3} concentration and irradiation time on the formation and plasmonic properties of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were studied using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles were well characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size of Ag nanoparticles increased with increase in irradiation time, leading to the formation of anisotropic nanostructures. Increasing the AgNO{sub 3} concentration resulted in the formation of Ag nanorods. UV–visible absorption studies revealed the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks which red shift and broaden with increasing AgNO{sub 3} concentration. We have demonstrated a facile, energy efficient and rapid green synthetic route to synthesize stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods.

  14. Studies on bio-accumulation of 51Cr by Piper Nigrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Kalpita; Nayak, Dalia; Lahiri, Susanta

    2007-01-01

    The present study is performed to accumulate 51 Cr(III) and 51 Cr(VI) using the alkaloid piperine, derived from the fruits of Piper nigrum (Family Piperaceae) as well as by the fruit commonly known as black pepper by radiometric technique. The pH dependence and the effect of concentration of chromium on the accumulation have also been examined. The maximum accumulation (52%) of Cr(III) is found by black pepper at pH 4 whereas piperine shows slight accumulation at this condition. Accumulation of Cr(VI) by black pepper is negligible. (author)

  15. Double bypasses soxhlet apparatus for extraction of piperine from Piper nigrum

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, R.; Subbramaniyan, P.; Noorul Ameen, J.; Raj, V.

    2016-01-01

    A simple modified soxhlet extractor, double bypasses sidearm soxhlet apparatus (DBSA) was designed and employed for extraction of piperine from Piper nigrum. Total extraction time, time taken for a cycle and yield observed in the double bypass sidearm soxhlet apparatus was compared with the soxhlet apparatus. Extraction time, time taken for an extraction cycle and yield of crude piperine obtained in DBSA were 12 ± 1 h, 8 ± 1.00 min, and 3.90 ± 0.10 g whereas the results obtained in the soxhle...

  16. Protocols for Improvement of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Utilizing Biotechnological Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Yamuna, G; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper, Piper nigrum L., the "King of spices" is the most widely used spice growing in the South-Western region of India. The humid tropical evergreen forest bordering the Malabar Coast (Western Ghats is one of the hot spot areas of plant bio-diversity on earth) is its center of origin and diversity. However, the crop faces constraints like rampant fungal and viral diseases, lack of disease free planting material, hence biotechnological tools can be utilized to address these problems and strides have been made successfully. The standardization of micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, in vitro conservation, protoplast isolation, and genetic transformation protocols are described here. The protocols could be utilized to achieve similar goals in the related species of Piper too.

  17. Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustika, I.

    1990-01-01

    This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and

  18. Contribution of Polyphenol Oxidation, Chlorophyll and Vitamin C Degradation to the Blackening of Piper nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Huang, Feifei; Wu, Guiping; Zhu, Hongying

    2018-02-09

    Black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.) is the most widely used spice in the world. Blackening is considered to be beneficial and important in the processing of black pepper because it contributes to its color and flavor. The purpose of this paper is to investigate polyphenol oxidation as well as the chlorophyll and vitamin C (VC) degradation in the blackening of Piper nigrum L. Black pepper was produced by four methods, and changes in polyphenols, chlorophyll and VC were studied by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultraviolet-visible and visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry. The results show that polyphenol oxidase activity significantly decreased during the preparation of black pepper, and the concentrations of phenolic compounds, VC, and chlorophyll a and b also significantly decreased. Polyphenol oxidation and chlorophyll and VC degradation contribute to the blackening. A crude extract of phenolic compounds from black pepper was prepared by the system solvent method. The greater the polarity of the extraction solvent, the higher the extraction rates of the phenolic compounds and the total phenol content. Pepper phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC analysis.

  19. Contribution of Polyphenol Oxidation, Chlorophyll and Vitamin C Degradation to the Blackening of Piper nigrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Gu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is the most widely used spice in the world. Blackening is considered to be beneficial and important in the processing of black pepper because it contributes to its color and flavor. The purpose of this paper is to investigate polyphenol oxidation as well as the chlorophyll and vitamin C (VC degradation in the blackening of Piper nigrum L. Black pepper was produced by four methods, and changes in polyphenols, chlorophyll and VC were studied by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and ultraviolet-visible and visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The results show that polyphenol oxidase activity significantly decreased during the preparation of black pepper, and the concentrations of phenolic compounds, VC, and chlorophyll a and b also significantly decreased. Polyphenol oxidation and chlorophyll and VC degradation contribute to the blackening. A crude extract of phenolic compounds from black pepper was prepared by the system solvent method. The greater the polarity of the extraction solvent, the higher the extraction rates of the phenolic compounds and the total phenol content. Pepper phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC analysis.

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on medicinal plants and spices (2): Piper cubeba, piper nigrum, piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum, and myristica fragrans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chosdu, R; Hilmy, N; Bagiawati, S; Sudiro, S [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1983-12-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on essential oils of five medicinal plants i.e. dried seeds of piper cubeba(cubeb), piper nigrum(black pepper), piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum(cardamom) and myristica fragrans(mace), packed in low density polyethylene bag of 0.13 mm thickness have been investigated. After being irradiated at doses of 5 and 10 kGy, a part of the samples was analysed, and the rest were stored for six months at temperature of 30 +- 2 degC, and humidity ranging from 70 to 95%. The essential oil characteristics of control, irradiated and six month stored samples were analysed using infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometers, HPLC, GLC and refractometer. Other parameters observed were moisture content and essential oil content of the samples. Results showed that irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy do not give any significant effect on these parameters. Significant changes were only found in the essential oil content of piper cubeba, caused by storage treatment.

  1. The effects of gamma irradiation on medicinal plants and spices (2): Piper cubeba, piper nigrum, piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum, and myristica fragrans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chosdu, Rahayu; Hilmy, Nazly; Bagiawati, S.; Sudiro, S.

    1983-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on essential oils of five medicinal plants i.e. dried seeds of piper cubeba(cubeb), piper nigrum(black pepper), piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum(cardamom) and myristica fragrans(mace), packed in low density polyethylene bag of 0.13 mm thickness have been investigated. After being irradiated at doses of 5 and 10 kGy, a part of the samples was analysed, and the rest were stored for six months at temperature of 30+-2 degC, and humidity ranging from 70 to 95%. The essential oil characteristics of control, irradiated and six month stored samples were analysed using infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometers, HPLC, GLC and refractometer. Other parameters observed were moisture content and essential oil content of the samples. Results showed that irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy do not give any significant effect on these parameters (P<0.05). Significant changes were only found in the essential oil content of piper cubeba, caused by storage treatment. (author)

  2. Phosphate Solubilizers from the Rhizosphere of Piper nigrum L. in Karnataka, India Solubilizadores de Fosfatos desde la Rizósfera de Piper nigrum L. en Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Seshachala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is a climbing vine known for its pungent fruit used as a spice worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available P content in the native soils where pepper is grown as a crop plant. The native population of phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM was studied from the rhizosphere of P. nigrum plants grown in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. A variety of phosphate solubilising bacteria and fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere soil samples. Phosphate solubilising capacity of different isolates was studied on Pikovskaya's medium. The isolates were tested for their phosphate solubilising capacity in vitro with three different phosphate sources, tricalcium phosphate (TCP, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KHP, and rock phosphate (RP in the concentrations 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g L-1. The three phosphate sources were solubilised by the isolates in varying proportions. The dominant PSM flora obtained from the samples included Bacillus and Aspergillus. The study showed that PSM utilised the three phosphate sources TCP, KHP, and RP with considerable variability. The phosphatase activity of the isolates showed that the predominant microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (5.33 U mL-1 and Aspergillus (11.5 U mL¹. The predominant organisms were identified up to molecular level.La pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L. es una planta trepadora conocida por su fruto utilizado como especia en todo el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el contenido de P disponible en los suelos nativos donde se cultiva. La población nativa de microbios solubilizantes de fosfato (PSM fue estudiada en la rizósfera de plantas de P. nigrum cultivadas en los Ghats occidentales de Karnataka, India. Una variedad de hongos y bacterias solubilizantes de fosfato fueron aislados de muestras de suelo de la rizósfera. La capacidad solubilizadora de fosfato de diferentes aislamientos fue estudiada en medio de Pikovskaya. Los aislados fueron

  3. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro cytotoxic and in silico activity of piperine isolated from Piper nigrum fruits Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paarakh, Padmaa M; Sreeram, Dileep Chandra; D, Shruthi S; Ganapathy, Sujan P S

    2015-12-01

    Piper nigrum [Piperaceae], commonly known as black pepper is used as medicine fairly throughout the greater part of India and as a spice globally. To isolate piperine and evaluate in vitro cytotoxic [antiproliferative] activity and in silico method. Piperine was isolated from the fruits of P.nigrum. Piperine was characterized by UV,IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and Mass spectrum. Standardization of piperine was done also by HPTLC fingerprinting. In vitro cytotoxic activity was done using HeLa cell lines by MTT assay at different concentrations ranging from 20 to 100 μg/ml in triplicate and in silico docking studies using enzyme EGFR tyrosine kinase. Fingerprinting of isolated piperine were done by HPTLC method. The IC50 value was found to be 61.94 ± 0.054 μg/ml in in vitro cytotoxic activity in HeLa Cell lines. Piperine was subjected to molecular docking studies for the inhibition of the enzyme EGFR tyrosine kinase, which is one of the targets for inhibition of cancer cells. It has shown -7.6 kJ mol(-1) binding and 7.06 kJ mol(-1) docking energy with two hydrogen bonds. piperine has shown to possess in vitro cytotoxic activity and in silico studies.

  5. Melanogenesis stimulation in murine B16 melanoma cells by Piper nigrum leaf extract and its lignan constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Kawaguchi, Yoshiko; Yamazaki, Miho; Hirata, Noriko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Asanuma, Yusuke; Kaihatsu, Takayuki; Kubo, Michinori

    2004-10-01

    A methanolic extract from the leaves of Piper nigrum L. showed a significant stimulatory effect on melanogenesis in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract led to the isolation of two known lignans, (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2), together with a new lignan, (-)-3-desmethoxycubebinin (3). Among these lignans, 1 and 2 showed a significant stimulatory activity of melanogenesis without any significant effects on cell proliferation.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Piper nigrum L. and Cassia didymobotyra L. leaf extract on selected food borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Sayeed Akthar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Piper nigrum (P. nigrum and Cassia didymobotyra (C. didymobotyra (aqueous, methanol, ethanol and petroleum ether against the food borne pathogenic bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa] and fungi [Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans (C. albicans] and also to investigate the presence of various phytochemicals in the leaf extracts of tested plants. Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration were determined by serial dilution method. Results: Methanol leaf extract of test plants exhibited greater antimicrobial activity against the selected bacterial and fungal strains. The MIC results showed that ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL. While, ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of S. aureus at concentration of 6.25 mg/mL. The MIC values for ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of C. albicans at concentration of 25.0 mg/mL. While, it was reported that at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum was against the Aspergillus spp. The MIC values of methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of C. albicans and Aspergillus spp. at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration of ethanol, methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum for E. coli and ethanol, methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra for S. aureus was recorded at concentration 12.5 mg/mL. The minimum fungicidal concentration of ethanol and methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum and C. didymobotyra on C. albicans was recorded at concentration of 25.0 mg

  7. Structural and sensory characterization of key pungent and tingling compounds from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Henze, Andrea; Frank, Oliver; Glabasnia, Anneke; Rupp, Mathias; Büning, Kirsten; Orlikowski, Diana; Bader, Matthias; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-03-21

    To gain a more comprehensive knowledge on whether, besides the well-known piperine, other compounds are responsible for the pungent and tingling oral impression imparted by black pepper, an ethanol extract prepared from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was screened for its key sensory-active nonvolatiles by application of taste dilution analysis (TDA). Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impact, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments as well as synthesis, led to the structure determination of 25 key pungent and tingling phytochemicals, among which the eight amides 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,13Z)-N-isobutyl-octadeca-2,4,13-trienamide, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,12Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,15Z)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4,15-trienamide, and 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,14Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine were not yet reported in literature. Sensory studies by means of a modified half-tongue test revealed recognition thresholds ranging from 3.0 to 1150.2 nmol/cm² for pungency and from 520.6 to 2162.1 nmol/cm² for the tingling orosensation depending on their chemical structure.

  8. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Bandana; Singh, Gurdip; De Heluani, Carola S; De Lampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol and ethyl acetate) of Piper nigrum were extracted by using Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatus, respectively. GC-MS analysis of pepper essential oil showed the presence of 54 components representing about 96.6% of the total weight. beta-Caryophylline (29.9%) was found as the major component along with limonene (13.2%), beta-pinene (7.9%), sabinene (5.9%), and several other minor components. The major component of both ethanol and ethyl acetate oleoresins was found to contain piperine (63.9 and 39.0%), with many other components in lesser amounts. The antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric acid. Both the oil and oleoresins showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) but lower than that of propyl gallate (PG). In addition, their inhibitory action by FTC method, scavenging capacity by DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), and reducing power were also determined, proving the strong antioxidant capacity of both the essential oil and oleoresins of pepper.

  9. The Dynamic Microbiota Profile During Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Peeling by Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qisong; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Chuanbiao; Li, Congfa; Liu, Sixin

    2017-06-01

    White pepper (Piper nigrum L.), a well-known spice, is the main pepper processing product in Hainan province, China. The solid-state method of fermentation can peel pepper in a highly efficient manner and yield high-quality white pepper. In the present study, we used next-generation sequencing to reveal the dynamic changes in the microbiota during pepper peeling by solid-state fermentation. The results suggested that the inoculated Aspergillus niger was dominant throughout the fermentation stage, with its strains constituting more than 95% of the fungi present; thus, the fungal community structure was relatively stable. The bacterial community structure fluctuated across different fermentation periods; among the bacteria present, Pseudomonas, Tatumella, Pantoea, Acinetobacter, Lactococcus, and Enterobacter accounted for more than 95% of all bacteria. Based on the correlations among the microbial community, we found that Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were significantly positively related with A. niger, which showed strong synergy with them. In view of the microbial functional gene analysis, we found that these three bacteria and fungi were closely related to the production of pectin esterase (COG4677) and acetyl xylan esterase (COG3458), the key enzymes for pepper peeling. The present research clarifies the solid-state fermentation method of pepper peeling and lays a theoretical foundation to promote the development of the pepper peeling process and the production of high-quality white pepper.

  10. Double bypasses soxhlet apparatus for extraction of piperine from Piper nigrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Subramanian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple modified soxhlet extractor, double bypasses sidearm soxhlet apparatus (DBSA was designed and employed for extraction of piperine from Piper nigrum. Total extraction time, time taken for a cycle and yield observed in the double bypass sidearm soxhlet apparatus was compared with the soxhlet apparatus. Extraction time, time taken for an extraction cycle and yield of crude piperine obtained in DBSA were 12 ± 1 h, 8 ± 1.00 min, and 3.90 ± 0.10 g whereas the results obtained in the soxhlet method were 22 ± 1 h, 16 ± 1.00 min, and 3.80 ± 0.18 g, respectively. The results obtained in DBSA have demonstrated that this approach is as efficient as the soxhlet apparatus with drastic reduction of extraction time. On the basis of this result, we propose DBSA as the most efficient method and an alternative to the soxhlet extractor.

  11. Piper nigrum: micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina

    2013-04-01

    A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro

  12. SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE PIMENTA-DO-REINO (Piper nigrum L. DORMANCY OVERCOME IN BLACK PEPPER (Piper nigrum SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Curado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de superar a dormência das sementes de pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum, levou-se a efeito um ensaio com sementes colhidas em outubro de 2000 no horto de plantas medicinais do Hospital de Medicina Alternativa em Goiânia (GO e conduzidas ao Laboratório de Análise de Sementes da Escola de Agronomia de Universidade Federal de Goiás. Os tratamentos empregados no ensaio foram: (1 testemunha (sementes com casca; (2 sementes sem casca; (3 sementes sem casca e lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos; (4 sementes sem casca, lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos, imersas em solução 50% de detergente (Alquilbenzeno sulfonato de sódio e lavadas em água corrente por dois minutos; (5 sementes sem casca, lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos e imersas em hipoclorito de sódio a 20% por cinco minutos, e depois lavadas em água corrente por dois minutos. Depois de tratadas, as sementes foram submetidas ao teste-padrão de germinação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após o término do ensaio, aos 21 dias, observou-se que não houve germinação na testemunha. No tratamento 2 a germinação foi de 56%. Os tratamentos 3 e 5 apresentaram 58% e 60% de germinação, respectivamente, mas não foram diferentes, estatisticamente, do tratamento 2. A maior germinação (73% foi observada no tratamento 4, muito embora não tenha diferido estatisticamente dos tratamentos 3 e 5.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sementes; dormência; pimenta-do-reino.

    The black pepper fruits are largely used in culinary for its aroma but also useful for cosmetics, insect control and for its medicinal properties. Grafting has been used for propagation due to the period (six months and irregular seed germination. To overcome the

  13. Growth and survival of Salmonella in ground black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; VanDoren, Jane M; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A

    2013-05-01

    A four serovar cocktail of Salmonella was inoculated into ground black pepper (Piper nigrum) at different water activity (aw) levels at a starting level of 4-5 log cfu/g and incubated at 25 and at 35 °C. At 35 °C and aw of 0.9886 ± 0.0006, the generation time in ground black pepper was 31 ± 3 min with a lag time of 4 ± 1 h. Growth at 25 °C had a longer lag, but generation time was not statistically different from growth at 35 °C. The aw threshold for growth was determined to be 0.9793 ± 0.0027 at 35 °C. To determine survival during storage conditions, ground black pepper was inoculated at approximately 8 log cfu/g and stored at 25 and 35 °C at high (97% RH) and ambient (≤40% RH) humidity. At high relative humidity, aw increased to approximately 0.8-0.9 after approximately 20 days at both temperatures and no Salmonella was detected after 100 and 45 days at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. Under ambient humidity, populations showed an initial decrease of 3-4 log cfu/g, then remained stable for over 8 months at 25 and 35 °C. Results of this study indicate Salmonella can readily grow at permissive aw in ground black pepper and may persist for an extended period of time under typical storage conditions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Application of microwaves for microbial load reduction in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevitha, G Chengaiyan; Sowbhagya, H Bogegowda; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2016-09-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is exposed to microbial contamination which could potentially create public health risk and also rejection of consignments in the export market due to non-adherance to microbial safety standards. The present study investigates the use of microwave (MW) radiation for microbial load reduction in black pepper and analyses the effect on quality. Black pepper was exposed to MWs at two different power levels (663 and 800 W) at an intensity of 40 W g(-1) for different time intervals (1-15 min) and moisture content (110 and 260 g kg(-1) on a wet basis). The exposure of black pepper to MWs at 663 W for 12.5 min was found to be sufficient to reduce the microbial load to the permissible level suggested by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods and the European Spice Association. The retention of volatile oil, piperine and resin was 91.3 ± 0.03, 87.6 ± 0.02 and 90.7 ± 0.05%, respectively, in MW-treated black pepper. The final moisture content after MW treatment was found to be 100 ± 1 g kg(-1) for black pepper containing initial moisture of 260 ± 3 g kg(-1) . These results suggest that MW heating can be effectively used for microbial load reduction of black pepper without a significant loss in product quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of Piper longum, Piper nigrum, and Zingiber officinale extracts against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay K; Saini, S P S; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Sharma, S K; Rath, S S

    2017-03-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a major constraint for the sustainable cattle industry in the tropical and subtropical regions including the Indian subcontinent. The development of resistance to most of the commonly used acaricides leads to an attempt to screen plant extracts and their combinations for their possible acaricidal activity to develop an eco-friendly tick control alternative. An alcoholic and various aqueous extracts of Piper longum, Piper nigrum and Zingiber officinale and their combinations were evaluated for acaricidal activity against the three-host ixodid tick, Hyalomma anatolicum by larval immersion test using 14-21 days old unfed larvae. The efficacy was assessed by measuring larval mortality (%) and the lethal concentrations for 50% (LC 50 ) and 95% (LC 95 ) with their 95% confidence limits (CL) values were estimated by applying regression equation analysis to the probit transformed data of mortality. A concentration-dependent mortality response was recorded in all extracts prepared from seeds of P. longum and P. nigrum and their combinations. The highest acaricidal property was exhibited by the alcoholic extract of P. longum seeds with the minimum LC 50 and LC 95 (95% CL) values of 0.071% (0.07-0.072) and 0.135% (0.13-0.14), respectively, followed by alcoholic combinations. Interestingly, no acaricidal activity was recorded in extracts prepared from the rhizome of Z. officinale. The results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of P. longum and P. nigrum and their combinations can be used effectively for tick control in an integrated format.

  16. Development of dielectric barrier discharge for reducing microbial contamination in pepper (Piper nigrum) and sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn.) powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promping, J.; Prakongsil, P.; Picha, R.; Traikool, T.

    2017-09-01

    This research is designed to determine the efficacy of DBD plasma to reduce the microbial contamination of pepper and sesame powder. The AC high voltage power supply was used with voltages of up to 20 kV and the frequency of 5.5 kHz was applied to the DBD. The gap of DBD electrodes was set at 5 mm. In raw initial samples, the total aerobic count of pepper (Piper nigrum) was found at quite a high level at 5.40 × 105 CFU/g. Coliform bacteria was also found in both the sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn.) powder and pepper (Piper nigrum) powder. Both kinds of samples were treated with plasma for 2, 4, 6 and 10 minutes. Results indicated that plasma treatment at 2-10 minutes reduced the total aerobic count of pepper allowed to achieve the acceptable microbial level for spices. The plasma treatment times in this experiment were also effective in reducing faecal coliform bacteria in both pepper and sesame powders (MPN/g <3) as indicated in the standard. Plasma from dielectric barrier charge can reduce Staphylococcus epidermidis in sesame powder which was artificially contaminated with 3.50 × 102 CFU/g resulting in 0.15-0.5 log cycle reductions of microbial load.

  17. Hematological and histopathological changes in female albino rats after gamma irradiation and /or piper nigrum treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.E.; Hanna, L.S.; Khattab, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of whole body gamma irradiation, at dose level of 6.0 Gy (single dose), and or daily treatment with P. nigrum (black pepper) at doses of 160 and 320 mg/kg body weight up to 36, 71 and 99 days on some hematological aspects as well as histopathological changes in lung, kidney and brain tissues of female albino rats. The results revealed that whole body gamma irradiation significantly elevated the values of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hematocrit percentage (HC %) but hemoglobin level was significantly decreased. These changes were ameliorated after treatment with P. nigrum. Non-significant changes were obtained regarding the effect of both doses of P. nigrum on red and white blood cell counts throughout the three time intervals. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg body weight of P. nigrum significantly reduced the hemoglobin contents throughput the experimental period. Histopathological examination revealed that lung, kidney and brain tissues showed marked to moderate pathological changes after irradiation and/or P.nigrum treatments. However, treatment with P. nigrum showed positive effect against the harmful effects of gamma irradiation, concerning kidney and brain. Although no malignant transformation could be detected, the resultant marked alveolar inflammation, bronchial wall hyperplasia and reactive astrocytic proliferation are important pathological changes that should be considered as pre-neoplastic changes

  18. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjana Jaijoy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. A single oral administration of the extract at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality, changes on gross appearance or histopathological changes of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats (10 male, 10 female daily with the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight continuously for 90 days. The examinations of signs, animal behavior and health monitoring showed no abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. The test and control groups (on the 90th day and the satellite group (on the 118th day were analyzed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining hematology, blood clinical chemistry and histopathology. The results suggest that the water extract from the dried fruits of P. nigrum does not cause acute or subchronic toxicities in either male or female rats.

  19. Foliar diagnosis, nutrition and yield stability of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) in Sarawak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de P.W.F.

    1969-01-01

    Until 1942 cultivation of pepper P. nigrum L. in Sarawak produced relatively small but regular yields. High demands after 1945 and restricted use of "burnt earth" compelled farmers to abandon the application of this traditional fertilizer. Instead, "fool proof" manufactured fertilizers

  20. Ocorrência de Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis em Piper nigrum no estado de Alagoas Report of Fusariom solani f. sp. piperis in Piper nigrum in the state of Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Paiva Carnaúba

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum L. é uma planta trepadeira, pertencente à família Piperaceae. Ela é originária do Sudeste Asiático, sendo a mais comum e importante das especiarias. A fusariose, também conhecida por podridão do pé e podridão das raízes é a principal doença da cultura, de ocorrência restrita ao Brasil. Um isolado de Fusarium sp., encontrado infectando plantas de pimenta-do-reino cv. bragantina no município de União dos Palmares em Alagoas, foi caracterizado morfologicamente e teve sua patogenicidade confirmada em mudas deste hospedeiro. Os macroconídios apresentaram-se falcados, hialinos com três a cinco septos, com dimensões de 30,5 - 26,5 x 6,3 - 4,9 ìm, enquanto os microconídios apresentaram-se hialinos, unicelulares, elípticos ou alantóides medindo 16,6 - 4,9 x 6,5 - 3,3 ìm. Os clamidósporos foram abundantes em meio batata-dextrose-ágar. O isolado foi identificado como Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis Alb. tratando-se do primeiro relato deste patógeno em pimenta-do-reino no estado de Alagoas.The pepper-of the-kingdom (Piper nigrum L. it is a climbing plant, pertaining plant to the Piperaceae family. It is originary the southeastern Asian, being most common and important of the spices. Seedling death, also known for rottenness of the foot and rottenness of the root is the main illness of the culture, restricted occurrence to Brazil. Isolated of Fusarium sp., found contamined plants of bragantina pepper-do-kingdom cv. in the city of União dos Palmares in Alagoas, was characterized morphologycament and had its pathogenicity confirmed in changes of this host. The macroconidia slightly curved, typically canoe-shaped, hyaline with three the five septate, measuring 30,5 - 26,5 x 6,3 - 4,9 ìm. Microconidia hyaline, unicellulars, ellipticals or allantoises measuring 16,6 - 4,9 x 6,5 - 3,3 ìm. The chlamydospores had been abundant in half potato-dextrose-agar. The isolated one was identified as to Fusarium

  1. Secondary Metabolic Profiles of Two Cultivars of Piper nigrum (Black Pepper) Resulting from Infection by Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Shirlley F M; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Kato, Massuo J; de Lemos, Oriel F; Xavier, Luciana P; Maia, José Guilherme S; Ramos, Alessandra de R; Setzer, William N; da Silva, Joyce Kelly do R

    2017-12-07

    Bragantina and Cingapura are the main black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.) cultivars and the Pará state is the largest producer in Brazil with about 90% of national production, representing the third largest production in the world. The infection of Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis , the causal agent of Fusarium disease in black pepper, was monitored on the cultivars Bragantina (susceptible) and Cingapura (tolerant), during 45 days' post infection (dpi). Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the volatile concentrates of both cultivars showed that the Bragantina responded with the production of higher contents of α-bisabolol at 21 dpi and a decrease of elemol, mostly at 30 dpi; while Cingapura displayed an decrease of δ-elemene production, except at 15 dpi. The phenolic content determined by the Folin Ciocalteu method showed an increase in the leaves of plants inoculated at 7 dpi (Bragantina) and 7-15 dpi (Cingapura); in the roots, the infection caused a phenolic content decrease in Bragantina cultivar at 45 dpi and an increase in the Cingapura cultivar at 15, 30 and 45 dpi. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis of the root extracts showed a qualitative variation of alkamides during infection. The results indicated that there is a possible relationship between secondary metabolites and tolerance against phytopathogens.

  2. Recent Progress for the Utilization of Curcuma longa, Piper nigrum and Phoenix dactylifera Seeds against Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, T; Sarfraz, M; Ashraf, M A

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an important human disease afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. Even though modern medicines contribute a variety of effective treatment options, they can have several unfavourable effects. The intention of this review is to organize and discuss various studies that have been previously conducted on the effectiveness of these herbal plants in diabetes. By using various electronic search databases, a comprehensive English literature search was conducted. Different search terms were used by combining all the search fields in titles, abstracts and keywords. Curcuma longa, a spice, is commonly known as turmeric and belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. Piper nigrum is also a spice, commonly called black pepper, and belongs to the family Piperaceae. Phoenix dactylifera , commonly known as date fruit, belongs to the family Arecaceae. From ancient times, they have been traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases. Among various activities, regulation of hyperglycaemia is considered one of their important effects. One of the aetiological factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals. Antioxidant properties of antidiabetic compounds would be more beneficial. Extracts of these plants have shown hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects by the involvement of several mechanisms. In the future, further studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms involved in their hypoglycaemic potential and their active constituents as synthetic analogues. This review focusses on some medicinal plants that have antidiabetic effect, thus contributing to the reduction of risk factors associated with diabetes, and related beneficial effects are compiled.

  3. Potential use of Piper nigrum ethanol extract against pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae Utilização em potencial do extrato alcoólico de Piper nigrum como larvicida em Aedes aegypti resistente a piretróides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kato Simas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of Piper nigrum ethanol extract, biomonitored by assays on pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae yielded isolation of the larvicidal amides piperolein-A and piperine. Comparing LC50 values, the ethanol extract (0. 98 ppm was the most toxic, followed by piperolein-A (1. 46ppm and piperine (1. 53ppm.O fracionamento do extrato etanólico de Piper nigrum biomonitorado por ensaios em larvas de Aedes aegypti resistentes a piretróides resultou no isolamento das amidas larvicidas piperoleína-A e piperina. Comparando-se os valores de CL50, o extrato etanólico (0. 98ppm foi o mais tóxico, seguido pela piperoleína-A (1. 46ppm e piperina (1. 53ppm.

  4. Piper nigrum ethanolic extract rich in piperamides causes ROS overproduction, oxidative damage in DNA leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Grinevicius, Valdelúcia Maria Alves; Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; Santos Mota, Nádia Sandrini Ramos; Ourique, Fabiana; Porfirio Will Castro, Luiza Sheyla Evenni; Andreguetti, Rafaela Rafognato; Gomes Correia, João Francisco; Filho, Danilo Wilhem; Pich, Claus Tröger; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2016-08-02

    Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicine and tribal people use herbal preparations containing Piper nigrum fruits for the treatment of many health disorders like inflammation, fever, asthma and cancer. In Brazil, traditional maroon culture associates the spice Piper nigrum to health recovery and inflammation attenuation. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by Piper nigrum ethanolic extract and its antitumor activity. The plant was macerated in ethanol. Extract constitution was assessed by TLC, UV-vis and ESI-IT-MS/MS spectrometry. The cytotoxicity, proliferation and intracellular ROS generation was evaluated in MCF-7 cells. DNA damage effects were evaluated through intercalation into CT-DNA, plasmid DNA cleavage and oxidative damage in CT-DNA. Tumor growth inhibition, survival time increase, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress were assessed in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. Extraction yielded 64mg/g (36% piperine and 4.2% piperyline). Treatments caused DNA damage and reduced cell viability (EC50=27.1±2.0 and 80.5±6.6µg/ml in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells, respectively), inhibiting cell proliferation by 57% and increased ROS generation in MCF-7 cells (65%). Ehrlich carcinoma was inhibited by the extract, which caused reduction of tumor growth (60%), elevated survival time (76%), cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis. The treatment with extract increased Bax and p53 and inhibited Bcl-xL and cyclin A expression. It also induced an oxidative stress in vivo verified as enhanced lipid peroxidation and carbonyl proteins content and increased activities of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. GSH concentration was decreased in tumor tissue from mice. The ethanolic extract has cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect on MCF-7 cells and antitumor effect in vivo probably due to ROS overproduction

  5. Leishmanicidal activity of Piper nigrum bioactive fractions is interceded via apoptosis in vitro and substantiated by Th1 immunostimulatory potential in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima eChouhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available VL is a life-threatening protozoal infection chiefly impinging the rural and poor population in the tropical and sub-tropical countries. The deadly affliction is rapidly expanding after its association with AIDS, swiftly defying its status of a neglected disease. Despite successful formulation of vaccine against canine leishmaniasis, no licensed vaccine is yet available for human VL, chemotherapy is in appalling state, and the development of new candidate drugs has been painfully slow. In face of lack of proper incentives, immunostimulatory plant preparations owing antileishmanial efficacy bear potential to rejuvenate awful antileishmanial chemotherapy. We have earlier reported profound leishmanicidal activity of P. nigrum seeds hexane (PNH and P. nigrum ethanolic (PNE fractions derived from P. nigrum seeds against Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes. In the present study, we illustrate that the remarkable anti-promastigote activity exhibited by PNH and PNE is mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, arrest in sub G0/G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species. Further, P. nigrum bioactive fractions rendered significant protection to L. donovani infected BALB/c mice in comparison to piperine, a known compound present in Piper species. The substantial therapeutic potential of PNH and PNE was accompanied by elicitation of cell-mediated immune response. The bioactive fractions elevated the secretion of Th1 (INF-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 cytokines and declined IL-4 and IL-10. PNH and PNE enhanced the production of IgG2a, upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, augmented splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell population, induced strong lymphoproliferative and DTH responses and partially stimulated NO production. PNH and PNE were devoid of any hepatic or renal toxicity. These encouraging findings merit further exploration

  6. Studies on the effects of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in culture medium and in black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M F P M; Rezende, A C B; Benato, E A; Valentini, S R T; Furlani, R P Z; Tfouni, S A V

    2011-04-01

    The effect of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis inoculated in culture medium and in black pepper grains (Piper nigrum), as well as on the reduction of the microbial load of the dried and moisturized product, was verified. The postfumigation effect was verified in inoculated samples with 0.92 and 0.97 water activity (a(w)) exposed to 6 g/m(3) phosphine for 72 h, dried to 0.67 a(w), and stored for 24, 48, and 72 h. No decreases were observed in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in culture medium when fumigant concentrations up to 6 g/m(3) were applied for 48 h at 35°C. However, the colonies showed reductions in size and atypical coloration as the phosphine concentration increased. No reduction in Salmonella counts occurred on the inoculated dried samples after fumigation. On the other hand, when phosphine at concentrations of 6 g/m(3) was applied on moisturized black pepper for 72 h, decreases in Salmonella counts of around 80% were observed. The counts of total aerobic mesophilic bacterium populations of the dried and moisturized black pepper were not affected by the fumigant treatment. The results of the postfumigation studies indicated that Salmonella Enteritidis was absent in the fumigated grains after drying and storage for 72 h, indicating a promising application for this technique. It was concluded that for Salmonella Enteritidis control, phosphine fumigation could be applied to black pepper grains before drying and the producers should rigidly follow good agricultural practices, mainly during the drying process, in order to avoid product recontamination. Additional work is needed to confirm the findings with more Salmonella serotypes and strains.

  7. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of three terpene synthases from unripe fruit of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhehao; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Lee, Ah-Reum; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Kim, Soo-Un

    2018-01-15

    To identify terpene synthases (TPS) responsible for the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpenes that contribute to the characteristic flavors of black pepper (Piper nigrum), unripe peppercorn was subjected to the Illumina transcriptome sequencing. The BLAST analysis using amorpha-4,11-diene synthase as a query identified 19 sesquiterpene synthases (sesqui-TPSs), of which three full-length cDNAs (PnTPS1 through 3) were cloned. These sesqui-TPS cDNAs were expressed in E. coli to produce recombinant enzymes for in vitro assays, and also expressed in the engineered yeast strain to assess their catalytic activities in vivo. PnTPS1 produced β-caryophyllene as a main product and humulene as a minor compound, and thus was named caryophyllene synthase (PnCPS). Likewise, PnTPS2 and PnTPS3 were, respectively, named cadinol/cadinene synthase (PnCO/CDS) and germacrene D synthase (PnGDS). PnGDS expression in yeast yielded β-cadinene and α-copaene, the rearrangement products of germacrene D. Their k cat /K m values (20-37.7 s -1  mM -1 ) were comparable to those of other sesqui-TPSs. Among three PnTPSs, the transcript level of PnCPS was the highest, correlating with the predominant β-caryophyllene biosynthesis in the peppercorn. The products and rearranged products of three PnTPSs could account for about a half of the sesquiterpenes in number found in unripe peppercorn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of different in vitro culture extracts of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on toxic metabolites-producing strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Fazal, Hina

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the effect of different in vitro cultures (callus, in vitro shoots) and commercially available peppercorn extract was investigated for its activity against toxic metabolite-producing strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans). These in vitro cultures were extracted with ethanol, hexane, and chloroform, and the antipathogenic activity was determined by well-diffusion method. Hexane extract of callus showed 22 mm zone of inhibition against B. cereus, 23 mm against S. aureus, while regenerated shoots and seeds have shown 24.3 and 26 mm zones of inhibition. The ethanolic extracts of regenerated Piper shoots have shown 25 mm activity against S. aureus, 21 mm against B. cereus, and 16 mm in the case of C. albicans in comparison with standard antibiotics. Peppercorn extracts in chloroform and ethanol had shown activities against B. cereus (23.6 mm) and B. subtilis (23.5 mm). During in vitro organogenesis and morphogenesis, cells and tissues produced a comparable phytochemicals profile like mother plant. Morphogenesis is critically controlled by the application of exogenous plant-growth regulators. Such addition alters the hormonal transduction pathways, and cells under in vitro conditions regenerate tissues, which are dependant on the physiological state of cells, and finally enhance the production of secondary metabolites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to compare the antimicrobial potential of in vitro regenerated tissues and peppercorn with standard antibiotics. In conclusion, most of the extracts showed pronounced activities against all the pathogenic microbes. This is a preliminary work, and the minimum inhibitory concentration values needs to be further explored. Regenerated tissues of P. nigrum are a good source of biologically active metabolites for antimicrobial activities, and callus culture presented itself as

  9. In Vitro Evaluation of Essential Oils Derived from Piper nigrum (Piperaceae and Citrus limonum (Rutaceae against the Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelle Vinturelle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to study the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of Citrus limonum and Piper nigrum essential oils against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. GC-MS analysis of C. limonum essential oil showed limonene (50.3%, β-pinene (14.4%, and γ-terpinene (11.7% as the major components; P. nigrum oil was mainly composed of β-caryophyllene (26.2%, σ-ocymene (5.8%, and α-pinene (5.5%. Acaricide activity was evaluated at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% (v/v of each plant oil, as well as 1 : 1 combination of both oils (5% : 5%, 2.5% : 2.5%, and 1.25% : 1.25% each, by immersing engorged R. microplus females for one minute. The LC90 of oils from C. limonum, P. nigrum, and the combination were 4.9%, 14.8%, and 5.1%, respectively. C. limonum essential oil caused 100% mortality of engorged females at the highest concentration (10%. P. nigrum essential oil inhibited egg-laying by up to 96% in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting it reduces tick fecundity. When combined, the oils presented toxicity as to C. limonum oil alone, but with stronger inhibition of oviposition (5% : 5%, indicating a possible additive effect against R. microplus. The present data provide support for further investigation of novel natural products to control bovine tick infestations.

  10. De novo transcriptome sequencing of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and an analysis of genes involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism in response to Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chaoyun; Xia, Zhiqiang; Fan, Rui; Tan, Lehe; Hu, Lisong; Wu, Baoduo; Wu, Huasong

    2016-10-21

    Piper nigrum L., or "black pepper", is an economically important spice crop in tropical regions. Black pepper production is markedly affected by foot rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, and genetic improvement of black pepper is essential for combating foot rot diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism of anti- P. capsici in black pepper. The molecular mechanisms underlying foot rot susceptibility were studied by comparing transcriptome analysis between resistant (Piper flaviflorum) and susceptible (Piper nigrum cv. Reyin-1) black pepper species. 116,432 unigenes were acquired from six libraries (three replicates of resistant and susceptible black pepper samples), which were integrated by applying BLAST similarity searches and noted by adopting Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Gene Ontology (GO) genome orthology identifiers. The reference transcriptome was mapped using two sets of digital gene expression data. Using GO enrichment analysis for the differentially expressed genes, the majority of the genes associated with the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were identified in P. flaviflorum. In addition, the expression of genes revealed that after susceptible and resistant species were inoculated with P. capsici, the majority of genes incorporated in the phenylpropanoid metabolism pathway were up-regulated in both species. Among various treatments and organs, all the genes were up-regulated to a relatively high degree in resistant species. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidase enzyme activity increased in susceptible and resistant species after inoculation with P. capsici, and the resistant species increased faster. The resistant plants retain their vascular structure in lignin revealed by histochemical analysis. Our data provide critical information regarding target genes and a technological basis for future studies of black pepper genetic improvements, including transgenic breeding.

  11. Piperolein B and piperchabamide D isolated from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) as larvicidal compounds against the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ki Seon; Kim, Young Kook; Park, Kee Woong; Kim, Young Tae

    2017-08-01

    There is growing demand for the development of alternative pest control agents that are effective as well as non-toxic to human health and the environment. Plant protection products derived from plant extracts are an eco-friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides. The aim of this study was to identify larvicidal compounds isolated from a natural source against Plutella xylostella L. In a larvicidal activity assay, several solvent fractions from the methanol extract of Piper nigrum L. fruit showed larvicidal effects against P. xylostella. Screening results indicated that chloroform extract was the most effective against P. xylostella larvae. Two compounds with insecticidal activity in the chloroform fraction were identified as piperolein B and piperchabamide D by spectroscopic analyses, including mass spectrometry and NMR, and by comparison to published data. At applications of 0.1 mg mL -1 concentration, piperolein B and piperchabamide D, respectively, induced 96.7 ± 5.8% and 79.2 ± 16.6% mortality rates of P. xylostella larvae 4 days post-application. Our results demonstrate that piperolein B and piperchabamide D isolated from P. nigrum are the major constituents of the extract demonstrating insecticidal properties for the control of P. xylostella larvae. These plant-derived compounds should become useful alternatives to synthetic chemicals after studying their insecticidal mechanisms. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Antimicrobial synergism and cytotoxic properties of Citrus limon L., Piper nigrum L. and Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden and Betche) Cheel essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Miloš M; Jovanović, Katarina K; Marković, Tatjana Lj; Marković, Dejan Lj; Gligorijević, Nevenka N; Radulović, Siniša S; Kostić, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina M; Soković, Marina D

    2017-11-01

    The chemical composition, antimicrobial and synergistic effect, and cytotoxic activity of Citrus limon (lemon), Piper nigrum (green pepper) and Melaleuca alternifoila (tea tree) essential oils (EOs) were investigated. Chemical analyses of essential oils were tested by GC-FID and GC-MS spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity assay was conducted using microdilution method against several oral bacteria and Candida spp. originating from the humans with oral disorders. The synergistic antimicrobial activity was evaluated using checkerboard method. The cytotoxicity evaluation of EOs was assessed using MTT test. Limonene (37.5%) and β-pinene (17.9%) were the major compounds in C. limon oil, β-pinene (34.4%), δ-3-carene (19.7%), limonene (18.7%) and α-pinene (10.4%) in P. nigrum oil and terpinen-4-ol (38.6%) and γ-terpinene (21.7%) in M. alternifolia oil. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was achieved by tested three EOs, with C. limon oil being the strongest against bacteria and M. alternifolia oil strongest against fungi. The EOs demonstrated synergism; their combined application revealed an increase in antimicrobial activity. All tested essential oils showed lower cytotoxic activity in comparison with the positive control, and the obtained results confirmed a dose-dependent activity. The results of this study encourage use of tested EOs in development of a novel agent intended for prevention or therapy of corresponding oral disorders. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-07-06

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region.

  14. Controle do caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775 (Coleóptera: Bruchidae utilizando extratos de Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae pelo método de vapor Control of cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775(Coleóptera: Bruchidae using extracts of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae by the steam method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Alves de Almeida

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerando os prejuízos causados pelo inseto-praga Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775 ao feijão Vigna unguiculata Walp. armazenado, com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia de extratos de Piper nigrum L. na mortalidade de adultos daquela espécie. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições e arranjo fatorial 3 x 5, constituído por três concentrações do extrato e cinco períodos de exposições dos extratos (5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 minutos. Utilizaram-se frutos secos triturados de P. nigrum para extração em percolador com solvente álcool etílico (70, 50 e 30%. Os extratos foram aplicados na forma de vapor, por meio de um compressor adaptado, para dentro de recipiente contendo 100 insetos. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a mortalidade dos insetos aumenta com o aumento do período de exposição aos extratos, e que todas as concentrações se mostraram eficientes, embora, em termos de valores absolutos, o extrato com 70% de álcool etílico foi o mais eficaz.Considering the damage caused by the insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775 to stored Vigna unguiculata Walp beans, this work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of extracts of Piper nigrum L. in the control of adults of the referred species. The statistical outline used was made at random with four repetitions and factorial arrangement 3 x 5, formed by three concentrations of the extract and five periods of exposure to the extracts (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 minutes. P. nigrum grounded dry fruits were used for extraction , which was done with ethyl alcohol (70, 50 and 30%, using a percolator. The extracts were applied as steam, using an adapted compressor into a container having 100 insects. By the results it was possible to conclude that the mortality of the insects becomes higher as the period of exposure to the extracts is increased, and that all the concentrations were shown to be effective, although, in

  15. The larvicidal effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine against insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles malaria vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael; Oliver, Shüné V; Coetzee, Maureen; Brooke, Basil D

    2016-04-26

    Insecticide resistance carries the potential to undermine the efficacy of insecticide based malaria vector control strategies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new insecticidal compounds. Black pepper (dried fruit from the vine, Piper nigrum), used as a food additive and spice, and its principal alkaloid piperine, have previously been shown to have larvicidal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal effects of ground black pepper and piperine against third and fourth instar Anopheles larvae drawn from several laboratory-reared insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles arabiensis, An. coluzzii, An. gambiae, An. quadriannulatus and An. funestus. Larvae were fed with mixtures of standard larval food and either ground black pepper or piperine in different proportions. Mortality was recorded 24 h after black pepper and 48 h after piperine were applied to the larval bowls. Black pepper and piperine mixtures caused high mortality in the An. gambiae complex strains, with black pepper proving significantly more toxic than piperine. The An. funestus strains were substantially less sensitive to black pepper and piperine which may reflect a marked difference in the feeding habits of this species compared to that of the Gambiae complex or a difference in food metabolism as a consequence of differences in breeding habitat between species. Insecticide resistant and susceptible strains by species proved equally susceptible to black pepper and piperine. It is concluded that black pepper shows potential as a larvicide for the control of certain malaria vector species.

  16. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by derivatives of piperine, an alkaloid from the pepper plant Piper nigrum, for possible use in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baghdadi, Osamah B; Prater, Natalie I; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J; Geldenhuys, Werner J

    2012-12-01

    A series of compounds related to piperine and antiepilepsirine was screened in a monoamine oxidase A and B assay. Piperine is an alkaloid from the source plant of both black and white pepper grains, Piper nigrum. Piperine has been shown to have a wide range of activity, including MAO inhibitory activity. The z-factor for the screening assay was found to be greater than 0.8 for both assays. Notably, the compounds tested were selective towards MAO-B, with the most potent compound having an IC(50) of 498 nM. To estimate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, we used a PAMPA assay, which suggested that the compounds are likely to penetrate the BBB. A fluorescent bovine serum albumin (BSA) high-throughput screening (HTS) binding assay showed an affinity of 8 μM for piperine, with more modest binding for other test compounds. Taken together, the data described here may be useful in gaining insight towards the design of selective MAO-B inhibitory compounds devoid of MAO-A activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibitory effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts and compounds on human tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Yadev, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) are widely used in traditional medicines. Although hot Capsicum spp. extracts and its active principles, capsaicinoids, have been linked with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities, whether black pepper and its active principle exhibit similar activities is not known. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from black pepper by using proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, COX-1 and -2 enzymes, human tumor cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The capsaicinoids, the alkylamides, isolated from the hot pepper Scotch Bonnet were also used to compare the bioactivities of alkylamides and piperine from black pepper. All compounds derived from black pepper suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation, but alkyl amides, compound 4 from black pepper and 5 from hot pepper, were most effective. The human cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activities of piperine and alklyl amides in Capsicum and black pepper were dose dependant. The inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50) of the alklylamides were in the range 13-200 microg/mL. The extracts of black pepper at 200 microg/mL and its compounds at 25 microg/mL inhibited LPO by 45-85%, COX enzymes by 31-80% and cancer cells proliferation by 3.5-86.8%. Overall, these results suggest that black pepper and its constituents like hot pepper, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities.

  18. Endophytic bacterial flora in root and stem tissues of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) genotype: isolation, identification and evaluation against Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, R; Kumar, A; Eapen, S J; Ramana, K V

    2009-01-01

    To isolate and identify black pepper (Piper nigrum L) associated endophytic bacteria antagonistic to Phytophthora capsici causing foot rot disease. Endophytic bacteria (74) were isolated, characterized and evaluated against P. capsici. Six genera belong to Pseudomonas spp (20 strains), Serratia (1 strain), Bacillus spp. (22 strains), Arthrobacter spp. (15 strains), Micrococcus spp. (7 strains), Curtobacterium sp. (1 strain) and eight unidentified strains were isolated from internal tissues of root and stem. Three isolates, IISRBP 35, IISRBP 25 and IISRBP 17 were found effective for Phytophthora suppression in multilevel screening assays which recorded over 70% disease suppression in greenhouse trials. A species closest match (99% similarity) of IISRBP 35 was established as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas EF568931), IISRBP 25 as P. putida (Pseudomonas EF568932), and IISRBP 17 as Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium EU071712) based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Black pepper associated P. aeruginosa, P. putida and B. megaterium were identified as effective antagonistic endophytes for biological control of Phytophthora foot rot in black pepper. This work provides the first evidence for endophytic bacterial diversity in black pepper stem and roots, with biocontrol potential against P. capsici infection.

  19. Piper nigrum Leaf and Stem Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity Against Agricultural Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Paulkumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The observation of the peak at 460 nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7–50 nm and 9–30 nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology.

  20. Unravelling the complexity of microRNA-mediated gene regulation in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) using high-throughput small RNA profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Srinivasan; Sreekumar, Sweda; Soniya, E V

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of high-throughput small RNA deep sequencing data, in combination with black pepper transcriptome sequences revealed microRNA-mediated gene regulation in black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.). Black pepper is an important spice crop and its berries are used worldwide as a natural food additive that contributes unique flavour to foods. In the present study to characterize microRNAs from black pepper, we generated a small RNA library from black pepper leaf and sequenced it by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. MicroRNAs belonging to a total of 303 conserved miRNA families were identified from the sRNAome data. Subsequent analysis from recently sequenced black pepper transcriptome confirmed precursor sequences of 50 conserved miRNAs and four potential novel miRNA candidates. Stem-loop qRT-PCR experiments demonstrated differential expression of eight conserved miRNAs in black pepper. Computational analysis of targets of the miRNAs showed 223 potential black pepper unigene targets that encode diverse transcription factors and enzymes involved in plant development, disease resistance, metabolic and signalling pathways. RLM-RACE experiments further mapped miRNA-mediated cleavage at five of the mRNA targets. In addition, miRNA isoforms corresponding to 18 miRNA families were also identified from black pepper. This study presents the first large-scale identification of microRNAs from black pepper and provides the foundation for the future studies of miRNA-mediated gene regulation of stress responses and diverse metabolic processes in black pepper.

  1. Isolation, characterization and identification of pericarp-degrading bacteria for the production of off-odour-free white pepper from fresh berries of Piper nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, V; Kumar, A; Zachariah, T J

    2014-04-01

    To isolate, fermentatively evaluate and identify black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)-associated bacteria for the microbial decortication of fresh ripened berries and dried black pepper for preparation of off-odour-free white pepper. Among 45 bacterial isolates obtained from black pepper, seven of them were found to decorticate black pepper (>60%) and fresh pepper berries (98-100%) into white pepper within 5 days of immersion in bacterial suspension. The 16S rRNA genes (1500-bp amplicon) of these bacteria were sequenced, and species identity was established by closest match in GenBank. Superior-quality white pepper was obtained with Bacillus subtilis (IISR WP 33, 34, 38), Bacillus licheniformis (IISR WP 43), Acinetobacter baumanii (IISR WP 35), Klebsiella pneumoniae (IISR WP 19) and Microbacterium barkeri (IISR WP25). The bacterial isolates were found to secrete multiple hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase, pectinase, amylase, protease and xylanase. Bacterial cultures were deposited with International Depository Authority at Microbial Type Culture Collection, India, as patent deposits as prescribed in Budapest Treaty for microbial deposits. The white pepper, thus obtained from bacterial decortication process, was free from off-odour compound, especially skatole. Other biochemical constituents such as oleoresin, piperine and essential oils were found in the acceptable range. The bacterial decortication did not affect inherent constituents of pepper such as essential oil constituents, oleoresin and piperine content. One of the most significant findings of the work is identification of specific bacterial species for decortication of fresh berries or black pepper berries into value-added white pepper. This work paved way for developing a technological process for microbial decortication of fresh/black pepper for the production of superior-quality white pepper. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Trichoderma harzianum MTCC 5179 impacts the population and functional dynamics of microbial community in the rhizosphere of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, Palaniyandi; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy; Srivastav, Vivek; Benjamin, Sailas

    2017-11-29

    Employing Illumina Hiseq whole genome metagenome sequencing approach, we studied the impact of Trichoderma harzianum on altering the microbial community and its functional dynamics in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). The metagenomic datasets from the rhizosphere with (treatment) and without (control) T. harzianum inoculation were annotated using dual approach, i.e., stand alone and MG-RAST. The probiotic application of T. harzianum in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper impacted the population dynamics of rhizosphere bacteria, archae, eukaryote as reflected through the selective recruitment of bacteria [Acidobacteriaceae bacterium (p=1.24e-12), Candidatus koribacter versatilis (p=2.66e-10)] and fungi [(Fusarium oxysporum (p=0.013), Talaromyces stipitatus (p=0.219) and Pestalotiopsis fici (p=0.443)] in terms of abundance in population and bacterial chemotaxis (p=0.012), iron metabolism (p=2.97e-5) with the reduction in abundance for pathogenicity islands (p=7.30e-3), phages and prophages (p=7.30e-3) with regard to functional abundance. Interestingly, it was found that the enriched functional metagenomic signatures on phytoremediation such as benzoate transport and degradation (p=2.34e-4), and degradation of heterocyclic aromatic compounds (p=3.59e-13) in the treatment influenced the rhizosphere micro ecosystem favoring growth and health of pepper plant. The population dynamics and functional richness of rhizosphere ecosystem in black pepper influenced by the treatment with T. harzianum provides the ecological importance of T. harzianum in the cultivation of black pepper. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mycotoxin production and predictive modelling kinetics on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolates in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Vermeulen, An; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Mavromichali, Evangelia; De Saeger, Sarah; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-07-02

    The growth and mycotoxin production of three Aspergillus flavus isolates and an Aspergillus parasiticus isolate were studied in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L.) using a full factorial design with seven water activity (aw) (0.826-0.984) levels and three temperatures (22, 30 and 37°C). Growth rates and lag phases were estimated using linear regression. Diverse secondary models were assessed for their ability to describe the radial growth rate as a function of individual and combined effect of aw and temperature. Optimum radial growth rate ranged from 0.75±0.04 to 2.65±0.02mm/day for A. flavus and 1.77±0.10 to 2.50±0.10mm/day for A. parasiticus based on the Rosso cardinal estimations. Despite the growth failure of some isolates at marginal conditions, all the studied models showed good performance to predict the growth rates. Validation of the models was performed on independently derived data. The bias factors (0.73-1.03), accuracy factors (0.97-1.36) and root mean square error (0.050-0.278) show that the examined models are conservative predictors of the colony growth rate of both fungal species in black peppers. The Rosso cardinal model can be recommended to describe the individual aw effect while the extended Gibson model was the best model for describing the combined effect of aw and temperature on the growth rate of both fungal species in peppercorns. Temperature optimum ranged from 30 to 33°C, while aw optimum was 0.87-0.92 as estimated by multi-factorial cardinal model for both species. The estimated minimum temperature and aw for A. flavus and A. parasiticus for growth were 11-16°C and 0.73-0.76, respectively, hence, achieving these conditions should be considered during storage to prevent the growth of these mycotoxigenic fungal species in black peppercorns. Following the growth study, production of mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, sterigmatocystin and O-methyl sterigmatocystin (OMST)) was quantified using LC-MS/MS. Very small

  5. Effect of irradiation and storage post-irradiation of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on counts of microorganisms hygienic indicator using methods of conventional analysis and PETRIFILMTM plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaimes, Marcial Ibo Silva

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen samples of ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) purchased in Sao Paulo local stores, were submitted to irradiation in doses of 3, 6 and 10 kGy. All irradiated samples, including non-irradiated controls, were submitted to counts of yeasts and molds, aerobes (APC), coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers (MASC), using conventional plate count methods and PETRIFILM TM plates. For yeasts and molds count, acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) an PETRIFILM TM PFYM plates were used. For aerobes, plate count agar (PCA) and PETRIFILM TM PFAC plates were used. Violet red bile agar (VRBA) and PETRIFILM TM PFEC plates were employed for enumeration of coliforms. Counts of these groups of microorganisms obtained through the traditional plating procedures did not differ significantly from those using the corresponding PETRIFILM TM plates. In samples submitted to irradiation, a dose of 10 kGy caused a decrease of the yeasts and molds count from 10 4 -10 5 to less than 10 cfu/g. The same dose caused a decrease of the aerobic counts from 10 7 -10 8 to 10 2 -10 3 cfu/g, of coliforms from 10 4 -10 5 to less than 10 cfu/g and MASC from 10 6 -10 7 cfu/g to 10-10 2 cfu/g. The introduction of a injury repair step in the counting procedure resulted in a 32 to 89% increase in the number of coliforms. However, this additional step did not improve significantly the counts of MASC. After 270 days of storage of samples irradiated with 3 kGy, a decrease in the yeasts and molds population from 10 3 to 20 cfu/g was observed. The APC population in these samples was reduced from 5,0x10 6 to 2,4x10 4 cfu/g; in those irradiated with 6 kGy the reduction was from 4,0x10 4 to 5,0x10 3 cfu/g and in those irradiated with 10 kGy the counts were reduced from 30 to less than 10 cfu/g. After the same time of storage, the coliform population in non irradiated samples decreased from 2,8x10 5 to 1,5x10 4 cfu/g and from 9,1x10 3 to 20 cfu/g in those irradiated with 3 kGy. Similarly, the MASC

  6. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (ppepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  7. A new species of Piper (Piperaceae) from the Seychelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, Justin

    2002-01-01

    A new species of Piper (Piperaceae), P. silhouettanum, is described from the Anse Mondon river valley, Silhouette Island, Seychelles. This species is close to P. nigrum but distinguished by its different venation, glabrous leaves, persistent elongated stipules and reduced bracts. This species is

  8. [Identification of some Piper crude drugs based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Pei-Fu; Song, Heng; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2014-09-01

    The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of seven medicinal plants of Piper. The dual index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio was established, which showed the sibship of the medicinal plants. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. Piper laetispicum (C. DC.) was greater than 77%, and the variant peak ratio was less than 30%. The results showed the near sibship between the three drugs. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper nigrum L. and Piper boehmeriae folium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense (C. DC.) was about 61% which showed the farther sibship. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and Piper betle (Linn.) was only 44%, which showed the farthest sibship. Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its adulterants, such as Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand. -Mazz., Piper boehmeriaefolium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense C. DC. , Piper laetispicum C. DC., Piper nigrum L., could be identified by comparing their second order derivative IR spectrum of the samples. FTIR technique is a non-destructive analysis method which provides information of functional group, type and hydrogen bond without complex pretreatment procedures such as extraction and separatioin. FTIR method has some characteristics such as rapid and simple analysis procedure, good reproducibility, non-destructive testing, few amount of required sample and low cost and is environment-friendly. The method solved the problems of limit in resource of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, many fakes and difficulties in identification, and brought the security for the clinical medication. FTIR provides a new method for identification of Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its fakes and meets the requirement for comprehensive analy sis and global analysis of traditional Chinese medicine.

  9. Introducing Natural Farming in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L. Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Muyang Tawie Sulok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of Natural Farming as an ecological farming method to produce organically grown food of safe and high quality and at the same time improve soil quality and soil health. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the effects of Natural Farming approach on black pepper farms particularly in Sarawak, Malaysia. Previous studies on other crops had indicated positive outcome using the Natural Farming method. Thus, this paper discusses the essential role of effective microorganisms in Natural Farming and their potential in pepper cultivation. Through the action of effective microorganisms, this approach should be able to transform a degraded soil ecosystem into one that is fertile and has high nutrients availability. The mixed culture of effective microorganisms applied must be mutually compatible and coexist with one another to ensure its favorable establishment and interaction in the soil. Therefore, it is anticipated that introducing Natural Farming in black pepper cultivation can enhance the predominance of effective microorganisms in the soil, which in turn could lead to promising growth and yield of the crop.

  10. Piper species protect cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Akinfiresoye, Luli; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert; Vinson, Joe A

    2012-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies points to the use of antioxidants as an effective measure to reduce the progression of oxidative stress related disorders. The present study evaluate the effect of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) for the protection of cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters were classified into eight groups: a normal control, atherogenic control and six other experimental groups (fed atherogenic diet supplemented with different doses of P. nigrum, P. guineense and P. umbellatum (1 and 0.25 g/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding period the heart, liver and kidney from each group were analyzed for lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. Atherogenic diet induced a significant (PPiper species significantly inhibited the alteration effect of atherogenic diet on the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. The Piper extracts may possess an antioxidant protective role against atherogenic diet induced oxidative stress in cardiac, hepatic and renal tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Tel.: +55-16-3301-6660. Fax: +55-16-3322-7932. previously described the occurrence of trypanocidal chromenes in Piper aduncum, Piper gaudichaudianum and amides in Piper tuberculatum (Batista-Júnior et al.,. 2008; Cotinguiba et al., 2009). Additionally, hydroqui- nones and flavanones from leaves of ...

  12. Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of three Piper species on atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Vinson, Joe A; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Atherogenic diet is known to induce high plasma lipid concentration, oxidative stress and early atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have potentials to counter the effect of atherogenic diet. The present research aims at evaluating the antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) on atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters divided into 8 groups: normal control, atherosclerotic control and six test groups. The normal animals fed normal rodent chow, the atherosclerotic control animals fed the same rodent chow supplemented with 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (high cholesterol diet). The 6 test groups' animals fed same diet as the atherosclerotic control group but with additional supplementation of 2 graded doses (1 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight, o.p.) of plant extracts for 12 weeks. The atherogenic diet induced a collapse of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense system (significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). Atherogenic diet also induced an increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and accumulation of foam cells in the aorta a hall mark for atherosclerosis. Administration of the Piper species prevented the collapse of the antioxidant system and the increase of plasma parameters maintaining them towards normality. The Piper species also prevented LDL oxidation by increasing the time (lag time) for its oxidation. The results suggest that these Piper species have significant antioxidant and anti-atherogenic effect against atherogenic diet intoxication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Research work to obtain pepper (Piper negrum l.) mutants resistant to Fusarium disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, A.; Menten, J.O.M.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Albuquerque, F.C. de

    1984-01-01

    Cuttings of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) variety Singapore were irradiated at different doses (from 3.0-7.0 kR) of gamma radiation in the 60 Co source. After two successive prunings of surviving M 1 plants (from the irradiated cuttings), hundreds of vM 3 cuttings were planted separately in pots and artificially inoculated with Fusarium solani f. piperi. The surviving vM 3 plantlets were transplanted to an experimental field highly infested with this patogen. After two years in the infested field, only three UM 3 plants continue to grow. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Melanogenesis stimulation in murine B16 melanoma cells by Kava (Piper methysticum) rhizome extract and kavalactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Hirata, Noriko; Kawaguchi, Yoshiko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Takata, Takanobu; Oyama, Masayoshi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Kubo, Michinori

    2006-04-01

    Melanogenesis stimulation activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of five Piper species, namely Piper longum, P. kadsura, P. methysticum, P. betle, and P. cubeba, were examined by using cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. Among them, the extract of P. methysticum rhizome (Kava) showed potent stimulatory effect on melanogenesis as well as P. nigrum leaf extract. Activity-guided fractionation of Kava extract led to the isolation of two active kavalactones, yangonin (2) and 7,8-epoxyyangonin (5), along with three inactive kavalactones, 5,6-dehydrokawain (1), (+)-kawain (3) and (+)-methysticin (4), and a glucosylsterol, daucosterin (6). 7,8-Epoxyyangonin (5) showed a significant stimulatory effect on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. Yangonin (2) exhibited a weak melanogenesis stimulation activity.

  15. OPTIMASI PROSES PEMBUATAN BUBUK OLEORESIN LADA (Piper nigrum MELALUI PROSES EMULSIFIKASI DAN MIKROENKAPSULASI (Optimization Process Production Powder of Oleoresin Pepper (Piper nigrum by Process of Emulsification and Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Syafi'i

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the quality of pepper product by optimize process of emulsification and microencapsulation. The experimental design used in this study was Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The results showed that the selected emulsifier was arabic gum that had the highest solubility in water (99.78%. The optimum point of emulsification occured at 15% of concentration arabic gum and 4 minutes of homogenization time with the result was solubility in water 99.80%, and emulsion stability 97.78%. The optimum point of microencapsulation process occured at 3:1 of maltodextrin and sodium caseinate ratio, 10% of coating material concentration, and 180°C of drying temperature with the result was essential oil content 1.04%, solubility in water 98.18%, surface oil 0.20%, water content 2.45%, oil recovery 77.07%, and the yield of microcapsule 69.87% Keywords: Pepper oleoresin, RSM, emulsification, microencapsulation ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperbaiki kualitas mutu produk oleoresin lada melalui optimasi proses emulsifikasi dan mikroenkapsulasi. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahan pengemulsi yang terpilih adalah gum arab yang memiliki kelarutan tertinggi dalam air (99,78%. Titik optimum proses emulsifikasi terjadi pada konsentrasi gum arab 15% dan lama homogenisasi 4 menit yang memberikan nilai kelarutan dalam air 99,80% dan stabilitas emulsi 97,15%. Titik optimum proses mikroenkapsulasi terjadi pada rasio maltodekstrin dan natrium kaseinat (3:1, konsentrasi bahan penyalut 10%, dan suhu inlet pengeringan 180°C yang memberikan nilai kadar minyak atsiri 1,04%, kelarutan dalam air 98,18%, kadar surface oil 0,20%, kadar air 2,45%, oil recovery 77,07%, dan rendemen 69,87% Kata kunci: Oleoresin lada, RSM, emulsifikasi, mikroenkapsulasi

  16. 76 FR 18033 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA- 46-350P airplanes that are equipped with... information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960...

  17. PIPER and Polarized Galactic Foregrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David

    2009-01-01

    In addition to probing inflationary cosmology, PIPER will measure the polarized dust emission from the Galaxy. PIPER will be capable of full (I,0,U,V) measurement over four frequency bands ' These measurements will provide insight into the physics of dust grains and a probe of the Galactic magnetic field on large and intermediate scales.

  18. Insurance - Piper Alpha ''et al''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper opens with some brief information about the Piper Alpha loss, how the loss was handled and its final cost. More importantly, it discusses the effect of the Piper Alpha loss on the world insurance market including the oil insurance captives such as O.I.L Limited. Finally, the insurance market current status and prognosis for the future are considered. (Author)

  19. Relationship of species Piper based on morphological and leaf essential oils characters in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURNOMO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of Piper species were used for traditional medicines and condiments. The leaf essential oil (terpenoid of those Piper species usually were used as a main component in traditional medicine. The taxonomycal study was aimed to determined Piper species relationships based on morphological and leaf essential oils characters. The plants were obtained by exploring this province, and samples were collected for identification and leaf essential oils isolation purposes. Species identification were carried out based on identification key (Backer and Bakhuizen v.d. Brink, 1965; Heyne, 1987; Shaorong, 1982. The isolation of leaf essential oils was carried out using Stahl destillation method, and their composition were interpreted with liquid gas chromatography, using caryophyllene and -pinene as a standard of essential oils component. Dendrogram, which showed phenetic relationships among those species, were obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis method. Results of the research showed that there were 8 species found as cultivated plants in Yogyakarta, which were P. miniatum Bl., P. betle L., P. recurvum Bl., P. aduncum L., P. nigrum L., P. cubeba L.f., P. retrofractum Vahl., and P. sarmentosum Roxb. Ex Hunter. Relationship between species of Piper based on morphological character showed that P. aduncum and P. sarmentosum at the same cluster on 69.2% similarity level, and 40.4% similarity level to the other clusters. Relationsips between species of Piper based on leaf essential oils character resulted the difference cluster among the species, P. retrofractum separated from the other species at 45.5% similarity level, P. aduncum and P. cubeba indicated the higest similarity level (81.5%.

  20. Effect of acaricidal activity of Solanum nigrum on Tetranychus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of acaricidal activity of Solanum nigrum on Tetranychus urticae Koch under laboratory conditions. Stephanie Johana Numa Vergel, Lorena Rodríguez Coy, Daniel Rodríguez Caicedo, Ericsson Coy-Barrera ...

  1. Growth enhancement of black pepper (Piper nigrum) by a newly isolated Bacillus tequilensis NII-0943

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dastager, S.G.; Deepa, C.K.; Pandey, A.

    to IAA and siderophore attributes, strain NII-0943 also possessed the characteristics like Ca sub(3)(PO sub(4)) sup(2) solubilization and growth in nitrogen-free medium. Seed inoculation with the strain NII-0943 resulted in significantly higher root...

  2. Determination of drying kinetics and sorption isotherm of black pepper (Piper Nigrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Flordeliza C.; Atienza, Vanessa Bernadette B.; Capili, Jomicah B.; Sauli, Zaliman

    2017-11-01

    In the present study of food products, determination of the drying characteristics of black pepper using an oven is not yet completely established. This study aimed to determine the drying kinetics and sorption isotherm of black pepper using a convective oven at 30°C, 40°C and 50°C. The data gathered in this study were used to fit in selected mathematical models for drying kinetics and sorption isotherm. Among these models, the Midilli model (MR=0.5338exp(0.7273t-0.0551)+-0.0005t for 30°C, MR=0.5814exp(0.6293t-0.0764)+ -0.0008t for 40°C and MR=0.3187exp(1.1777t-0.0466)+ -0.0011t for 50°C) was the best fit to explain the moisture transfer in black pepper, while the GAB Model (m/0.1302=((0.1906)(0.7811)aw)/(1-(0.7811)aw)[1-(0.7811)aw+(0.1906)(0.7811)aw])) was for the equilibrium moisture content and water activity relationship. After evaluating the data, the drying characteristics of black pepper at 40°C yielded better results than 30°C and 50°C. XLSTAT and ANOVA Add-in of Microsoft Excel was the software used to compute for the necessary values in the assessment of the mathematical models for this study.

  3. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Fruit Transcriptome in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lisong; Hao, Chaoyun; Fan, Rui; Wu, Baoduo; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong

    2015-01-01

    Black pepper is one of the most popular and oldest spices in the world and valued for its pungent constituent alkaloids. Pinerine is the main bioactive compound in pepper alkaloids, which perform unique physiological functions. However, the mechanisms of piperine synthesis are poorly understood. This study is the first to describe the fruit transcriptome of black pepper by sequencing on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 56,281,710 raw reads were obtained and assembled. From these raw reads, 44,061 unigenes with an average length of 1,345 nt were generated. During functional annotation, 40,537 unigenes were annotated in Gene Ontology categories, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, Swiss-Prot database, and Nucleotide Collection (NR/NT) database. In addition, 8,196 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. In a detailed analysis of the transcriptome, housekeeping genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction internal control, polymorphic SSRs, and lysine/ornithine metabolism-related genes were identified. These results validated the availability of our database. Our study could provide useful data for further research on piperine synthesis in black pepper.

  4. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) essential oil demonstrates tissue remodeling and metabolism modulating potential in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesheng; Beaumont, Cody; Rodriguez, Damian; Bahr, Tyler

    2018-05-17

    Very few studies have investigated the biological activities of black pepper essential oil (BPEO) in human cells. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the biological activities of BPEO in cytokine-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts by analyzing the levels of 17 important protein biomarkers pertinent to inflammation and tissue remodeling. BPEO exhibited significant antiproliferative activity in these skin cells and significantly inhibited the production of Collagen I, Collagen III, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. In addition, we studied the effect of BPEO on the regulation of genome-wide expression and found that BPEO diversely modulated global gene expression. Further analysis showed that BPEO affected many important genes and signaling pathways closely related to metabolism, inflammation, tissue remodeling, and cancer signaling. This study is the first to provide evidence of the biological activities of BPEO in human dermal fibroblasts. The data suggest that BPEO possesses promising potential to modulate the biological processes of tissue remodeling, wound healing, and metabolism. Although further research is required, BPEO appears to be a good therapeutic candidate for a variety of health conditions including wound care and metabolic diseases. Research into the biological and pharmacological mechanisms of action of BPEO and its major active constituents is recommended. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Proteomics assisted profiling of antimicrobial peptide signatures from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, P; Soumya, M; George, Johnson K; Anandaraj, M

    2018-05-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides are the interesting source of studies in defense response as they are essential components of innate immunity which exert rapid defense response. In spite of abundant reports on the isolation of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from many sources, the profile of AMPs expressed/identified from single crop species under certain stress/physiological condition is still unknown. This work describes the AMP signature profile of black pepper and their expression upon Phytophthora infection using label-free quantitative proteomics strategy. The differential expression of 24 AMPs suggests that a combinatorial strategy is working in the defense network. The 24 AMP signatures belonged to the cationic, anionic, cysteine-rich and cysteine-free group. As the first report on the possible involvement of AMP signature in Phytophthora infection, our results offer a platform for further study on regulation, evolutionary importance and exploitation of theses AMPs as next generation molecules against pathogens.

  6. Key Microbiota Identification Using Functional Gene Analysis during Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiachao; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-01-01

    Pepper pericarp microbiota plays an important role in the pepper peeling process for the production of white pepper. We collected pepper samples at different peeling time points from Hainan Province, China, and used a metagenomic approach to identify changes in the pericarp microbiota based on functional gene analysis. UniFrac distance-based principal coordinates analysis revealed significant changes in the pericarp microbiota structure during peeling, which were attributed to increases in bacteria from the genera Selenomonas and Prevotella. We identified 28 core operational taxonomic units at each time point, mainly belonging to Selenomonas, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Anaerovibrio, and Clostridium genera. The results were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At the functional level, we observed significant increases in microbial features related to acetyl xylan esterase and pectinesterase for pericarp degradation during peeling. These findings offer a new insight into biodegradation for pepper peeling and will promote the development of the white pepper industry.

  7. Shoot regeneration of callus culture from irradiated sheed of piper nigrum L by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak; Hutabarat, D.

    1988-01-01

    Shoot regeneration was obtained from callus that induced by irradiated seed with 25 and 50 Gy of gamma-rays and then on M.S. medium containing NAA 1 ppm and 2-ip 0.5 ppm. Irradiated seed with a dose of 25 Gy produced normal root and failed to produce shoot, but rice callus. Irradiated seed with a dose of 50 Gy pruduce callus only. Shoot differentiation occured after the callus were cultured on M.S., medium containing 2-ip 1 ppm and Kinetin 2.5 ppm. (authors). 9 refs, 3 figs

  8. KOMPOSISI KIMIA MINYAK ATSIRI BUAH SIRIH HIJAU (PIPER BETLE L), KEMUKUS (PIPER CUBEBA L) DAN CABE JAWA (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Widyo Wartono; Ahmad Ainurofiq; Maya Ismaniar

    2014-01-01

    Tumbuhan genus Piper mempunyai kandungan minyak atsiri hampir disemua bagiannya, namun komposisi kimianya belum semua dilaporkan. Pada laporan ini kami melakukan isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa kimia minyak atsiri pada bagian buah tumbuhan Piper. Isolasi minyak atsiri buah Piper dilakukan dengan destilasi air menggunakan destilasi Stahl dan analisis komposisi kimia dengan kromatografi gas-spektroskopi masa (GC-MS). Kandungan minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (Piper betle) 1,4% (v/b), cabe jawa ...

  9. 77 FR 45979 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach...

  10. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and..., contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960; telephone: (772) 567-4361...

  11. Differential induction of chitinase in Piper colubrinum in response to inoculation with Phytophthora capsici, the cause of foot rot in black pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep Varma, R.; Johnson George, K.; Balaji, S.; Parthasarathy, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant chitinases have been of particular interest since they are known to be induced upon pathogen invasion. Inoculation of Piper colubrinum leaves with the foot rot fungus, Phytophthora capsici leads to increase in chitinase activity. A marked increase in chitinase activity in the inoculated leaves was observed, with the maximum activity after 60 h of inoculation and gradually decreased thereafter. Older leaves showed more chitinase activity than young leaves. The level of chitinase in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) upon inoculation was found to be substantially high when compared to P. colubrinum. RT–PCR using chitinase specific primers revealed differential accumulation of mRNA in P. colubrinum leaves inoculated with P. capsici. However, hyphal extension assays revealed no obvious differences in the ability of the protein extracts to inhibit growth of P. capsici in vitro. PMID:23961037

  12. Citogenética de Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum Cytogenetics of Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Dornellas Nunes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar diferenças entre duas espécies de pimenta-longa por meio de análise de cariótipos. Foram analisados cinco acessos de Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae C. DC. e Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae pertencentes à coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Acre, utilizando-se o método de esmagamento e coloração de Feulgen. As duas espécies apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 24 e cromossomos pequenos e metacêntricos com comprimento médio de 1,38 µm em P. hispidinervum e 1,32 µm em P. aduncum. Pelos descritores citogenéticos obtidos não há diferença entre as duas espécies.The aim of this work was to detect differences between two species of long pepper by karyotypic analysis. Five acessions of Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (Piperaceae and Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae, belonging to germplasm collection of Embrapa Acre, were analysed using squashing technique and Feulgen staining. The chromosome number observed for both species was 2n = 24 and karyotype presented small metacentric chromossomes, with average length of 1.38 µm in P. hispidinervum and 1.32 µm in P. aduncum. Karyotypic descriptions pointed out that the species are not different.

  13. Antifungal activity and computational study of constituents from Piper divaricatum essential oil against Fusarium infection in black pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2014-11-04

    Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that β-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis.

  14. 75 FR 82329 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ...-1295; Directorate Identifier 2010-CE-060-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc.) Models PA-46-310P, PA- 46-350P... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA-46-350P airplanes that are equipped with...

  15. 77 FR 14316 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-0251; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-002-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type...

  16. Impact of blanching, sweating and drying operations on pungency, aroma and color of Piper borbonense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, M; Shum Cheong Sing, A; Méot, J M; Boulanger, R; Bohuon, P

    2017-03-15

    Low pungency, high aromatic potential and red color, give to Piper borbonense its originality when compared to Piper nigrum. Effects of blanching, sweating and drying on these characteristics were assessed. The three operations had no impact on the concentration of piperine and essential oil but affected the composition of essential oil slightly and considerably affected the color of the pepper. The "wet process", including blanching, sweating and drying, had the largest impact on the composition of aroma, increasing para-cymene content by 89% and reducing safrole content by 33% in dried pepper compared to fresh. Blanching increased the drying rate thus reducing drying time. Drying had a major impact on color, which changed from red to brown. The biggest differences observed led to reductions of 2.2, 7.9 and 8.4units in L ∗ , a ∗ and b ∗ values, when chromatic values measured in fresh pepper were compared to those of dried pepper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Down-regulation of osmotin (PR5) gene by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) leads to susceptibility of resistant Piper colubrinum Link. to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anu, K; Jessymol, K K; Chidambareswaren, M; Gayathri, G S; Manjula, S

    2015-06-01

    Piper colubrinum Link., a distant relative of Piper nigrum L., is immune to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian that causes 'quick wilt' in cultivated black pepper (P. nigrum). The osmotin, PR5 gene homologue, earlier identified from P. colubrinum, showed significant overexpression in response to pathogen and defense signalling molecules. The present study focuses on the functional validation of P. colubrinum osmotin (PcOSM) by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) using Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV)-based vector. P. colubrinum plants maintained under controlled growth conditions in a growth chamber were infiltrated with Agrobacterium carrying TRV empty vector (control) and TRV vector carrying PcOSM. Three weeks post infiltration, viral movement was confirmed in newly emerged leaves of infiltrated plants by RT-PCR using TRV RNA1 and TRV RNA2 primers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of PcOSM gene in TRV-PcOSM infiltrated plant compared with the control plants. The control and silenced plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici which demonstrated that knock-down of PcOSM in P. colubrinum leads to increased fungal mycelial growth in silenced plants compared to control plants, which was accompanied by decreased accumulation of H2O2 as indicated by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that Piper colubrinum osmotin gene is required for resisting P. capsici infection and has possible role in hypersensitive cell death response and oxidative burst signaling during infection.

  18. Citogenética de Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes,Juliane Dornellas; Torres,Giovana Augusta; Davide,Lisete Chamma; Salgado,Caio Césio

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar diferenças entre duas espécies de pimenta-longa por meio de análise de cariótipos. Foram analisados cinco acessos de Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae) C. DC. e Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) pertencentes à coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Acre, utilizando-se o método de esmagamento e coloração de Feulgen. As duas espécies apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 24 e cromossomos pequenos e metacêntricos com comprimento médio de 1,38 µm em P. hispidinervum e ...

  19. Citogenética de Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum Cytogenetics of Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Dornellas Nunes; Giovana Augusta Torres; Lisete Chamma Davide; Caio Césio Salgado

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar diferenças entre duas espécies de pimenta-longa por meio de análise de cariótipos. Foram analisados cinco acessos de Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae) C. DC. e Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) pertencentes à coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Acre, utilizando-se o método de esmagamento e coloração de Feulgen. As duas espécies apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 24 e cromossomos pequenos e metacêntricos com comprimento médio de 1,38 µm em P. hispidinervum e ...

  20. KOMPOSISI KIMIA MINYAK ATSIRI BUAH SIRIH HIJAU (PIPER BETLE L, KEMUKUS (PIPER CUBEBA L DAN CABE JAWA (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Widyo Wartono

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumbuhan genus Piper mempunyai kandungan minyak atsiri hampir disemua bagiannya, namun komposisi kimianya belum semua dilaporkan. Pada laporan ini kami melakukan isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa kimia minyak atsiri pada bagian buah tumbuhan Piper. Isolasi minyak atsiri buah Piper dilakukan dengan destilasi air menggunakan destilasi Stahl dan analisis komposisi kimia dengan kromatografi gas-spektroskopi masa (GC-MS. Kandungan minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (Piper betle 1,4% (v/b, cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum 1% (v/b, dan buah kemukus (Piper cubeba 1,7% (v/b. Hasil analisis GC-MS menunjukan kandungan utama minyak atsiri adalah senyawa golongan monoterpen, seskuiterpen dan fenil propanoid. Kandungan utama minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (P. betle adalah eugenol (12,36%, isokaryofillena (9,55% dan β-selinena (8,09%, sedangkan komponen utama buah cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum adalah isokaryofilen (8,88%, β-bisabolen (7,01% dan zingiberen (6,32%, dan minyak atsiri buah kemukus (Piper cubeba adalah spathulanol (27,05%, sativen (8,73% dan germakren D (7,50%.

  1. Efficient DNA barcode regions for classifying Piper species (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveerach, Arunrat; Tanee, Tawatchai; Sanubol, Arisa; Monkheang, Pansa; Sudmoon, Runglawan

    2016-01-01

    Piper species are used for spices, in traditional and processed forms of medicines, in cosmetic compounds, in cultural activities and insecticides. Here barcode analysis was performed for identification of plant parts, young plants and modified forms of plants. Thirty-six Piper species were collected and the three barcode regions, matK , rbcL and psbA - trnH spacer, were amplified, sequenced and aligned to determine their genetic distances. For intraspecific genetic distances, the most effective values for the species identification ranged from no difference to very low distance values. However, Piper betle had the highest values at 0.386 for the matK region. This finding may be due to Piper betle being an economic and cultivated species, and thus is supported with growth factors, which may have affected its genetic distance. The interspecific genetic distances that were most effective for identification of different species were from the matK region and ranged from a low of 0.002 in 27 paired species to a high of 0.486. Eight species pairs, Piper kraense and Piper dominantinervium , Piper magnibaccum and Piper kraense , Piper phuwuaense and Piper dominantinervium , Piper phuwuaense and Piper kraense , Piper pilobracteatum and Piper dominantinervium , Piper pilobracteatum and Piper kraense , Piper pilobracteatum and Piper phuwuaense and Piper sylvestre and Piper polysyphonum , that presented a genetic distance of 0.000 and were identified by independently using each of the other two regions. Concisely, these three barcode regions are powerful for further efficient identification of the 36 Piper species.

  2. Efficient DNA barcode regions for classifying Piper species (Piperaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveerach, Arunrat; Tanee, Tawatchai; Sanubol, Arisa; Monkheang, Pansa; Sudmoon, Runglawan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Piper species are used for spices, in traditional and processed forms of medicines, in cosmetic compounds, in cultural activities and insecticides. Here barcode analysis was performed for identification of plant parts, young plants and modified forms of plants. Thirty-six Piper species were collected and the three barcode regions, matK, rbcL and psbA-trnH spacer, were amplified, sequenced and aligned to determine their genetic distances. For intraspecific genetic distances, the most effective values for the species identification ranged from no difference to very low distance values. However, Piper betle had the highest values at 0.386 for the matK region. This finding may be due to Piper betle being an economic and cultivated species, and thus is supported with growth factors, which may have affected its genetic distance. The interspecific genetic distances that were most effective for identification of different species were from the matK region and ranged from a low of 0.002 in 27 paired species to a high of 0.486. Eight species pairs, Piper kraense and Piper dominantinervium, Piper magnibaccum and Piper kraense, Piper phuwuaense and Piper dominantinervium, Piper phuwuaense and Piper kraense, Piper pilobracteatum and Piper dominantinervium, Piper pilobracteatum and Piper kraense, Piper pilobracteatum and Piper phuwuaense and Piper sylvestre and Piper polysyphonum, that presented a genetic distance of 0.000 and were identified by independently using each of the other two regions. Concisely, these three barcode regions are powerful for further efficient identification of the 36 Piper species. PMID:27829794

  3. 78 FR 51121 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ...-0742; Directorate Identifier 2013-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft...). SUMMARY: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Piper... identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960; telephone...

  4. 76 FR 60367 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are revising an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper...). ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive...

  5. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum

    OpenAIRE

    Navickiene, HMD; Morandim, ADA; Alecio, A. C.; Regasini, L. O.; Bergamo, DCB; Telascrea, M.; Cavalheiro, Alberto José [UNESP; Lopes, Márcia Nasser [UNESP; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP; Furlan, Maysa [UNESP; Marques, MOM; Young, MCM; Kato, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    The composition of essential oils from leaves, stems and fruits of Piper aduncum, P. arboreum and P. tuberculatum was examined by means of GC-MS and antifungal assay. There was a predominance of monoterpenes in P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum and of sesquiterpenes in P. arboreum. P. aduncum showed the richest essential oil composition, including linalool. The essential oils from fruits of P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum showed the highest antifungal activity with the MIC of 10 µg as determined ...

  6. Epicoccum nigrum the new pathogen of sorghum seed in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen samples of sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. 'Alba', 'Gold', 'Prima' and 'Reform' were analyzed in the localities of Bački Petrovac and Čantavir in the period 2009-2011. Tipresence of species belonging to the genera Epicoccum, Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium was established in single and mixed infections. From the infected sorghum seed, monosporial cultures identified as Epicoccum nigrum based on morphology, proved their pathogenicity on artificially inoculated sorghum seedlings. Molecular identification was performed by PCR and amplification of the ITS region of ribosomal DNA. Gene sequences of selected isolates 291-09 (JQ619838 and 315-09 (JQ619839 exhibited 99-100% nucleotide identity with the sequences of 31 isolates of E. nigrum deposited in the GenBank. It obtained results represent the first detailed characterization of E. nigrum in Serbia. The presence of a large number of phytopathogenic fungi on sorghum seed should be further investigated in order to clarify their relationships and relative significance.

  7. Chemical constituents from Piper wallichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ni; Yang, Lian; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Shi, Yi-Ming; Qu, Yan; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Li, Xing-Cong; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen known compounds including four triterpenoids (1-4), one sterol (5), one diketopiperazine alkaloid (6) and nine phenolics (7-15) were isolated from the stems of Piper wallichii. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis, and acidic hydrolysis in case of the 2-oxo-3β,19α,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1). The structure of compound 1 was fully assigned by 1D and 2D NMR experiments for the first time. All isolates were tested for their antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet aggregation bioactivities.

  8. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosana M. Debonsi Navickiene

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of essential oils from leaves, stems and fruits of Piper aduncum, P. arboreum and P. tuberculatum was examined by means of GC-MS and antifungal assay. There was a predominance of monoterpenes in P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum and of sesquiterpenes in P. arboreum. P. aduncum showed the richest essential oil composition, including linalool. The essential oils from fruits of P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum showed the highest antifungal activity with the MIC of 10 µg as determined against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. This is the first report of the composition of essential oils from P. tuberculatum.

  9. Strategies for enhancing the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated agricultural soils by Solanum nigrum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Puhui; Sun Tieheng; Song Yufang; Ackland, M. Leigh; Liu Yang

    2011-01-01

    Field trials contribute practical information towards the development of phytoremediation strategies that cannot be provided by laboratory tests. We conducted field experiments utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator plant Solanum nigrum L., on farmland contaminated with 1.91 mg kg -1 Cd in the soil. Our study showed that S. nigrum has a relatively high biomass. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and thus on overall Cd accumulation. For double harvesting, an optimal cutting position influenced the amount of Cd extracted from soils. Double cropping was found to significantly increase the amount of Cd extracted by S. nigrum. Fertilizing had no significant effect on plant biomass or on the Cd remediation of the soil over the short-term period. Our study indicates that S. nigrum can accumulate Cd from soils where the concentrations are relatively low, and thus has application for use in decontamination of slightly to moderately Cd-contaminated soil. - Research highlights: →S. nigrum L. is an effective phytoremediation plant for Cd-polluted soils. →Agronomy practices that increase harvested biomass improve bioremediation efficiency. →Double cropping of S. nigrum L. is an effective phytoremediation strategy. →Field experiments are necessary to effectively assess phytoremediation techniques. - Agronomic practice for the phytoremediation potential of Solanum nigrum L. for Cd uptake was demonstrated in field contaminated soils.

  10. Strategies for enhancing the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated agricultural soils by Solanum nigrum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Puhui [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun Tieheng [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Song Yufang, E-mail: jipuhui1983@163.com [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Ackland, M. Leigh [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood 3125, Melbourne (Australia); Liu Yang [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Field trials contribute practical information towards the development of phytoremediation strategies that cannot be provided by laboratory tests. We conducted field experiments utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator plant Solanum nigrum L., on farmland contaminated with 1.91 mg kg{sup -1} Cd in the soil. Our study showed that S. nigrum has a relatively high biomass. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and thus on overall Cd accumulation. For double harvesting, an optimal cutting position influenced the amount of Cd extracted from soils. Double cropping was found to significantly increase the amount of Cd extracted by S. nigrum. Fertilizing had no significant effect on plant biomass or on the Cd remediation of the soil over the short-term period. Our study indicates that S. nigrum can accumulate Cd from soils where the concentrations are relatively low, and thus has application for use in decontamination of slightly to moderately Cd-contaminated soil. - Research highlights: > S. nigrum L. is an effective phytoremediation plant for Cd-polluted soils. > Agronomy practices that increase harvested biomass improve bioremediation efficiency. > Double cropping of S. nigrum L. is an effective phytoremediation strategy. > Field experiments are necessary to effectively assess phytoremediation techniques. - Agronomic practice for the phytoremediation potential of Solanum nigrum L. for Cd uptake was demonstrated in field contaminated soils.

  11. PIPER Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Canavan, Edgar R.; James, Bryan L.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.

    2017-01-01

    We report upon the development and testing of a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) capable of continuous cooling at 0.100 Kelvin. This cooler is being built to cool the detector array aboard NASA's Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) observatory. The goal of this balloon mission is to measure the primordial gravitational waves that should exist if the theory of cosmological inflation is correct. At altitude, the ADR will hold the array of transition-edge sensors at 100 mK continuously while periodically rejecting heat to a 1.2 K pumped helium bath. During testing on ground, the array is held at the same temperature but heat is rejected to a 4.2 K helium bath indicating the flexibility in this coolers design.

  12. [Effects of illumination and seed-soaking reagent on seed germination of Solanum nigrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Jie; Wei, Shu-He; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Hu, Ya-Hu; Niu, Rong-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    To explore a rapid seed germination method for hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, a germination experiment with different illumination and seed-soaking treatments was conducted in constant temperature box and greenhouse, with filter as burgeon base. Under illumination, the germination rate was about 5 times high of that without illumination (P seed germination of S. nigrum. All test seed-soaking reagents could significantly improve the germination rate of S. nigrum (P seeds treated with H2O2 had the shortest germination time. The germination rate of seeds soaked but without cleaning was 2-3 times as high as that of seeds soaked and cleaned with water.

  13. 78 FR 41277 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T, and PA-46-500TP airplanes. This... through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper...

  14. 78 FR 7642 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44...

  15. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and PA-19 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by...

  16. 78 FR 26556 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and...

  17. 78 FR 56150 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... published in the Federal Register. AD 2013-13-01 applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P... nitrile parts are installed for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T...

  18. Circumscription of the anthracnose pathogens Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. nigrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Cai, Lei; Crous, Pedro W; Damm, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    The anthracnose pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is usually identified as Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, while anthracnose of potato (Solanum tuberosum), peppers (Capsicum annuum), tomato (S. lycopersicum) and several other crop plants is often attributed to C. coccodes. In order to study the phylogenetic relationships of these important pathogens, we conducted a multigene analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH) of strains previously identified as C. lindemuthianum, C. coccodes and other related species, as well as representative species of the major Colletotrichum species complexes. Strains of C. lindemuthianum belonged to a single clade; we selected an authentic specimen as lectotype, and an appropriate specimen and culture from the CBS collection to serve as epitype. Two clades were resolved within C. coccodes s. lat. One clade included the ex-neotype strain of C. coccodes on Solanum, while an epitype was selected for C. nigrum, which represents the oldest name of the second clade, which occurs on Capsicum, Solanum, as well as several other host plants. Furthermore, we recognized C. lycopersici as a synonym of C. nigrum, and C. biologicum as a synonym of C. coccodes.

  19. Pulverizing processes affect the chemical quality and thermal property of black, white, and green pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Pengzhan; Zeng, Fankui

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effects of different pulverizing methods on the chemical attributes and thermal properties of black, white and green pepper were evaluated. Cryogenic grinding minimally damaged the lipid, moisture, crude protein, starch, non-volatile ether extract, piperine, essential oil and the typical pepper essential oil compounds of the spices. The pulverizing methods and storage significantly affected the compositions of the fatty acid in the peppers, except for palmitic acid and lignoceric acid. The amino acid contents and the thermo-gravimetric analysis curve were hardly influenced by the grinding techniques. The use of cryogenic grinding to prepare pepper ensured the highest quality of pepper products. Regardless of grinding technique, the values of moisture, piperine, unsaturated fatty acids, essential oil, monoterpenes, and the absolute concentrations of typical pepper essential oil constituents (except caryophyllene oxide) decreased, whereas the amino acid, lipid, protein, starch, and non-volatile ether extract content as well as the thermal properties were insignificantly changed after storage at 4 °C for 6 months.

  20. The effect of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour quality of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zeng, Fankui; Wang, Qinghuang; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Lehe; Gu, Fenglin

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we compared the effects of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour attributes of black, white, and green pepper. The flavour attributes were analysed using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) analysis. Cryogenic grinding resulted in minimal damage to the colour, flavour, and sensory attributes of the spices. Cryogenic grinding was also better than hammer milling at preserving the main potent aroma constituents, but the concentrations of the main aroma constituents were dramatically reduced after storing the samples at 4 °C for 6 months. Pattern matching performed by the e-nose further supported our sensory and instrumental findings. Overall, cryogenic grinding was superior to hammer milling for preserving the sensory properties and flavour attributes of pepper without significantly affecting its quality. However, we found that the flavour quality of ground pepper was reduced during storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epicoccum nigrum P16, a Sugarcane Endophyte, Produces Antifungal Compounds and Induces Root Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza de Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, mainly because of its use in biofuel production. Recent studies have sought to determine the role of sugarcane endophytic microbial diversity in microorganism-plant interactions, and their biotechnological potential. Epicoccum nigrum is an important sugarcane endophytic fungus that has been associated with the biological control of phytopathogens, and the production of secondary metabolites. In spite of several studies carried out to define the better conditions to use E. nigrum in different crops, little is known about the establishment of an endophytic interaction, and its potential effects on plant physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings We report an approach based on inoculation followed by re-isolation, molecular monitoring, microscopic analysis, plant growth responses to fungal colonization, and antimicrobial activity tests to study the basic aspects of the E. nigrum endophytic interaction with sugarcane, and the effects of colonization on plant physiology. The results indicate that E. nigrum was capable of increasing the root system biomass and producing compounds that inhibit the in vitro growth of sugarcane pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum falcatum, Ceratocystis paradoxa, and Xanthomomas albilineans. In addition, E. nigrum preferentially colonizes the sugarcane surface and, occasionally, the endophytic environment. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that E. nigrum has great potential for sugarcane crop application because it is capable of increasing the root system biomass and controlling pathogens. The study of the basic aspects of the interaction of E. nigrum with sugarcane demonstrated the facultative endophytism of E. nigrum and its preference for the phylloplane environment, which should be considered in future studies of biocontrol using this species. In addition, this work contributes to the knowledge of the interaction of this ubiquitous endophyte

  2. Amides from Piper capense with CNS activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael Egebjerg; Metzler, Bjørn; Stafford, Gary Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Piper capense L.f. (Piperaceae) is used traditionally in South Africa as a sleep inducing remedy. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the roots of P. capense led to the isolation of piperine (1) and 4,5-dihydropiperine (2), which showed moderate affinity for the benzodiazepine site on the GABA...

  3. Cambial variations of Piper (Piperaceae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Zehn; Chen, Po-Hao

    2017-12-01

    Cambial variations in lianas of Piperaceae in Taiwan have not been studied previously. The stem anatomy of seven Piper species from Taiwan was examined to document cambial variations and better distinguish the species when leaves are absent. A key for the seven species is provided, based on the internal stem anatomy. The seven Piper species climb via adventitious roots, and in cross section, the stems were generally eccentric and oblate, although a transversely elliptic stem was found in P. kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and P. sintenense Hatus. A cambial variant with secondary growth of external primary vascular bundles and xylem in plates was observed in all species except Piper betle L., which developed another cambium variant with xylem furrowed deeply by parenchyma proliferation. The sclerenchymatous ring surrounding the medullary vascular bundles was always continuous except in P. betle, where it was discontinuous. Mucilage canals varied from absent to present in the center of the pith, or present in the pith and inner cortex. Different sizes of vessels dispersed throughout the stem were ring or diffuse porous. The numbers of medullary and peripheral vascular bundles were distinctive and the widths of rays were noticeably different in each species. Differences in the growth rate of the medullary vascular bundles produced two development types of vascular bundles, although in both types, the peripheral vascular bundles gradually lengthen and become separated from each other by wide rays. We documented the internal stem anatomy of six previously unstudied species of Piper, including three endemic species, P. kwashoense Hayata, P. sintenense, and P. taiwanense Lin and Lu, and found that P. betle had deeply furrowed xylem, which had not been reported for the species before. The descriptions and photographs of seven Piper species will also provide a basis for further morphological studies.

  4. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazear, Justin Scott; Ade, Peter A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinderks, James; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2 on approximately 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales theta ? = approximately 0.6 deg to 90 deg, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0.007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32×40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 milli-Kelvin. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variabledelay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I,Q,U,0V) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.

  5. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils by using Solanum nigrum: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Muhammad Zia Ur; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Ok, Yong Sik; Ishaque, Wajid; Saifullah; Nawaz, Muhammad Farrakh; Akmal, Fatima; Waqar, Maqsooda

    2017-09-01

    Heavy metals are among the major environmental pollutants and the accumulation of these metals in soils is of great concern in agricultural production due to the toxic effects on crop growth and food quality. Phytoremediation is a promising technique which is being considered as an alternative and low-cost technology for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. Solanum nigrum is widely studied for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils owing to its ability for metal uptake and tolerance. S. nigrum can tolerate excess amount of certain metals through different mechanism including enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and metal deposition in non-active parts of the plant. An overview of heavy metal uptake and tolerance in S. nigrum is given. Both endophytic and soil microorganisms can play a role in enhancing metal tolerance in S. nigrum. Additionally, optimization of soil management practices and exogenous application of amendments can also be used to enhance metal uptake and tolerance in this plant. The main objective of the present review is to highlight and discuss the recent progresses in using S. nigrum for remediation of metal contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Solanum nigrum grown in contaminated soil: Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on zinc accumulation and histolocalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Ana P.G.C. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: amarques@mail.esb.ucp.pt; Oliveira, Rui S. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: rsoliveira@mail.esb.ucp.pt; Samardjieva, Kalina A. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: kas@ibmc.up.pt; Pissarra, Jose [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Botanica, Rua do Campo Alegre, 1191, 4150-181 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jpissarr@fc.up.pt; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: arangel@esb.ucp.pt; Castro, Paula M.L. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: plcastro@esb.ucp.pt

    2007-02-15

    Zn tissue accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in a non-contaminated and a naturally contaminated Zn matrix and the effect of inoculation with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on metal uptake were assessed. S. nigrum grown in the contaminated soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, accumulating up to 1622 mg Zn kg{sup -1}. The presence of both Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices enhanced the uptake and accumulation of Zn by S. nigrum (up to 83 and 49% higher Zn accumulation, respectively). The main deposits of the metal were found in the intercellular spaces and in the cell walls of the root tissues, as revealed by autometallography, with the inoculation with different AMF species causing no differences in the location of Zn accumulation. These findings indicate that S. nigrum inoculated with selected heavy metal tolerant AMF presents extracting and accumulating capacities, constituting a potentially suitable remediation method for Zn polluted soils. - Zn accumulation by S. nigrum is enhanced by AMF and the metal storage in the tissues at the root level occurs mainly in the cell walls and in the intercellular spaces.

  7. Solanum nigrum grown in contaminated soil: Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on zinc accumulation and histolocalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Ana P.G.C.; Oliveira, Rui S.; Samardjieva, Kalina A.; Pissarra, Jose; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S.; Castro, Paula M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Zn tissue accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in a non-contaminated and a naturally contaminated Zn matrix and the effect of inoculation with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on metal uptake were assessed. S. nigrum grown in the contaminated soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, accumulating up to 1622 mg Zn kg -1 . The presence of both Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices enhanced the uptake and accumulation of Zn by S. nigrum (up to 83 and 49% higher Zn accumulation, respectively). The main deposits of the metal were found in the intercellular spaces and in the cell walls of the root tissues, as revealed by autometallography, with the inoculation with different AMF species causing no differences in the location of Zn accumulation. These findings indicate that S. nigrum inoculated with selected heavy metal tolerant AMF presents extracting and accumulating capacities, constituting a potentially suitable remediation method for Zn polluted soils. - Zn accumulation by S. nigrum is enhanced by AMF and the metal storage in the tissues at the root level occurs mainly in the cell walls and in the intercellular spaces

  8. Effect of fertilizer amendments on phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by a newly discovered hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Li Yunmeng; Zhou Qixing; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Chiu Siuwai; Zhan Jie; Wu Zhijie; Sun Tieheng

    2010-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective, simple and sustainable beneficiary technique to purify the polluted environment. Solanum nigrum L., a newly found cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, has shown the potential to remediate Cd-contaminated soils. Present study investigated the effects of fertilizer amendments on the Cd uptake by S. nigrum. Chicken manure and urea are usual agricultural fertilizers and more environmental friendly. The results showed that Cd concentrations in shoots of S. nigrum were significantly decreased (p -1 ) in shoot biomass of S. nigrum were significantly increased (p < 0.05) due to increased shoot biomass. In addition, available Cd concentration in soil significantly decreased due to addition of chicken manure. Thus, urea might be a better fertilizer for strengthening phytoextraction rate of S. nigrum to Cd, and chicken manure may be a better fertilizer for phytostabilization.

  9. Effect of Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. on natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthong, Sumalee; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Immune system is the most important system ofhuman body. Thaifolk doctors have used some medicinal plants as an adaptogenic drug or immunomodulatory agent. Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. are used by folk doctors to activate immune response in cancer patients. To investigate the effect on natural killer cell activity and on lymphocyte proliferation activity of water extract of P chaba Hunter P. sarmentosum Roxb. and P interruptum Opiz. MATERIAL ANDMETHOD: Plant materials were extracted by decoction method. All extracts were testedfor an immunomodulatory effect using PBMCs from twelve healthy donors by chromium release assay. Lymphocyte proliferation was also determined by 3H-thymidine uptake assay. The degree of activation was expressed as the stimulation index. The water extract of P chaba Hunter significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation at concentrations ofl ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml. P sarmentosum Roxb., and P interruptum Opiz. extracts at those concentrations significantly stimulated lymphocyteproliferation. P sarmentosum Roxb. extractsignificantly increased natural killer (NK) cell activity at a concentration of 100 μg/ml but P chaba Hunter and P interruptum Opiz. extracts did not significantly stimulate natural killer cell activity. P chaba Hunter, P interruptum Opiz. andP sarmentosum Roxb. have an immunomodulatory effect especially for P sarmentosum Roxb. extract which can activate both lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity.

  10. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum e Piper hispidinervum em Sitophilus zeamais Toxicity of essential oils of Piper aduncum and Piper hispidinervum against Sitophilus zeamais

    OpenAIRE

    Joelma Lima Vidal Estrela; Murilo Fazolin; Valdomiro Catani; Marcio Rodrigues Alécio; Marilene Santos de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum L. e Piper hispidinervum C.DC. (Piperaceae) foram avaliados quanto ao efeito inseticida em Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. por ação de contato, fumigação e tópica. Na determinação da DL50 e CL50, foi utilizada a análise de Probit. Médias porcentuais de mortalidade dos insetos foram comparadas por meio da análise de regressão linear e superposição das barras do erro padrão. S. zeamais foi mais suscetível ao efeito de contato do óleo de P. hispidinervum em relação a...

  11. 75 FR 61655 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-28-161 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...-1006; Directorate Identifier 2009-CE-057-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... airworthiness directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Piper) Model PA-28-161 airplanes equipped with.... Piper Model PA-28-161 airplanes modified by STC No. SA03303AT have a similar unsafe design feature that...

  12. 76 FR 29176 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...-0218; Directorate Identifier 2009-CE-006-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... (AD) that applies to Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 airplanes. The existing AD currently... Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper...

  13. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Philippine Islands: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2006-01-01

    Piper in the Philippine Islands is reviewed. Fifteen climbing species are recognized (many fewer than in previous treatments) and distinguished in a key. Most are widely distributed through Malesia, with ranges that end eastwards in the Solomon Islands or Australia. Piper myrmecophilum, the only

  14. Three new species of Piper (Piperaceae) from the Guianas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A.; Callejas Posada, R.

    2005-01-01

    Three new species of Piper from the Guianas and adjacent areas are described: Piper aulacospermum Callejas, P. ciliomarginatum Görts & Christenh. and P. remotinervium Görts. The differences between P. aulacospermum and P. bartlingianum (Miq.) C.DC., both belonging to subg. Ottonia, are given as well

  15. Strategies for enhancing the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated agricultural soils by Solanum nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Puhui; Sun, Tieheng; Song, Yufang; Ackland, M Leigh; Liu, Yang

    2011-03-01

    Field trials contribute practical information towards the development of phytoremediation strategies that cannot be provided by laboratory tests. We conducted field experiments utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator plant Solanum nigrum L., on farmland contaminated with 1.91 mg kg(-1) Cd in the soil. Our study showed that S. nigrum has a relatively high biomass. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and thus on overall Cd accumulation. For double harvesting, an optimal cutting position influenced the amount of Cd extracted from soils. Double cropping was found to significantly increase the amount of Cd extracted by S. nigrum. Fertilizing had no significant effect on plant biomass or on the Cd remediation of the soil over the short-term period. Our study indicates that S. nigrum can accumulate Cd from soils where the concentrations are relatively low, and thus has application for use in decontamination of slightly to moderately Cd-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic diversity of the African hexaploid species Solanum scabrum Mill. and S. nigrum L. (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manoko, M.L.K.; Berg, van den R.G.; Feron, R.M.C.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Mariani, C.

    2008-01-01

    Two hexaploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum are present in Africa: Solanum scabrum and S. nigrum. Solanum scabrum is a widely cultivated species and is used as a leafy vegetable, as a source of medicine and as a source of ink dye. In previous studies a wide range of morphological diversity has

  17. Enhanced bioremediation of lead-contaminated soil by Solanum nigrum L. with Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Cao, Xiufeng; Li, Min; Zhang, Xu; Li, Xinxin; Cui, Zhaojie

    2017-04-01

    Strain selected from mine tailings in Anshan for Pb bioremediation was characterized at the genetic level by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Results revealed that the strain belongs to Mucor circinelloides. Bioremediation of lead-contaminated soil was conducted using Solanum nigrum L. combined with M. circinelloides. The removal efficacy was in the order microbial/phytoremediation > phytoremediation > microbial remediation > control. The bioremediation rates were 58.6, 47.2, and 40.2% in microbial/phytoremediation, microbial remediation, and phytoremediation groups, respectively. Inoculating soil with M. circinelloides enhanced Pb removal and S. nigrum L. growth. The bioaccumulation factor (BF, 1.43), enrichment factor (EF, 1.56), and translocation factor (TF, 1.35) were higher than unit, suggesting an efficient ability of S. nigrum L. in Pb bioremediation. Soil fertility was increased after bioremediation according to change in enzyme activities. The results indicated that inoculating S. nigrum L. with M. circinelloides enhanced its efficiency for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with Pb.

  18. Cytotoxic and antibacterial dihydrochalcones from Piper aduncum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjala, J; Wright, A D; Behrends, H; Folkers, G; Sticher, O; Rüegger, H; Rali, T

    1994-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a CH2Cl2 extract from the leaves of Piper aduncum afforded three new dihydrochalcones, piperaduncins A [3], B [4], and C [5], as well as two known dihydrochalcones, 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone [1] and 2',6',4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone [2] (asebogenin), together with sakuranetin, anodendroic acid methyl ester, and the carotenoid lutein. The structures of the isolates were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D- and 2D nmr spectroscopy. The proposed stereochemistry for compound 4 was deduced by NOESY spectroscopy and the corresponding energy minimum was established by molecular modelling calculations and translated into a 3D structure.

  19. Proteomic profile of Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cotinguiba

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae is a species that accumulates especially amides as secondary metabolites and several biological activities was previously reported. In this article, we report a proteomic study of P. tuberculatum. Bidimensional electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF were used in this study. Over a hundred spots and various peptides were identified in this species and the putative functions of these peptides related to defense mechanism as biotic and abiotic stress were assigned. The information presented extend the range of molecular information of P. tuberculatum.

  20. Antimicrobial Effect of Leaves of Phyllanthus niruri and Solanum nigrum on Caries Causing Bacteria: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, J; Krishna, Swathy; Ananthalakshmi, R; Jeeva, J Sathiya; Girija, As Smiline; Jeddy, Nadeem

    2017-06-01

    Solanum nigrum and Phyllanthus niruri are common herbs which are indigeneous to India. Solanum nigrum commonly called 'manathakkali Keerai' in Tamil, forms an indispensable part of South Indian diet. Phyllanthus niruri (keezhanelli in Tamil) is a widely used medicinal plant, the leaves of which have been used extensively in Ayurveda and native medicine to cure various liver ailments. The herbs Solanum nigrum and Phyllanthus niruri have been found to be effective against numerous enteropathogens in various in vitro studies. To assess and compare the antibacterial efficacy of the crude alcoholic extract of the leaves of Solanum nigrum and Phyllanthus niruri against five cariogenic organisms. Standard strains of the micro-organisms were obtained from ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) and MTCC (Microbial Type Culture Collection) which comprised of Streptococcus mutans MTCC no. 890, Streptococcus oralis MTCC no 2696, Lactobacillus acidophillus MTCC no. 10307, Streptococcus sanguis ATCC no. 10556 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC no. 13419. The organisms obtained were revived and lawn cultured on Trypticase Soy Agar-Blood Agar (TSA-BA) and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar media. The antibacterial effect of the dried and powdered leaves of Solanum nigrum and Phyllanthus niruri was tested using agar well diffusion method. The zones of inhibition obtained after incubation were measured and tabulated. The antibacterial activity for the two herbs was compared using the Mann-Whitney test. The antibacterial zones of inhibition obtained for the herb Solanum nigrum was in the range of 12.3-14.6 mm and ranged from 9.7-11.6 mm for the herb Phyllanthus niruri . When the zones of inhibition were compared for the herbs, Solanum nigrum showed significantly greater zones of inhibition compared to Phyllanthus niruri for the organisms Streptococcus sanguis , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mutans (p-valuecariogenic organisms, with Solanum nigrum

  1. The variability of leaf anatomical characteristics of Solanum nigrum L. (Solana-les, Solanaceae) from different habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić Lana N.; Merkulov Ljiljana S.; Boža Pal P.

    2002-01-01

    In Europe on the whole as well as in Yugoslavia, the most widespread weed species from the genus Solanum is Solanum nigrum L. Since this species inhabits different habitats, it developed several ways of adaptation to environmental conditions. The influence of ecological factors on plant organism and resulting plant adaptations are most evident in leaf morphology and anatomy. Therefore, the anatomical structure of leaves and leaf epidermal tissue of S. nigrum was analyzed and compared among pl...

  2. Evaluation of the ability of black nightshade Solanum nigrum L. for phytoremediation of thallium-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Huang, Xuexia; Yao, Bo; Yuan, Xin; Ma, Jianhao; Guo, Shijia

    2015-08-01

    Thallium (Tl) pollution in agricultural areas can pose hidden danger to humans, as food consumption is the key exposure pathway of Tl. Owing to the extreme toxicity of Tl, removal of Tl from soil becomes necessary to minimize the Tl-related health effects. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective method to remove heavy metals from soil, but not all plants are appropriate for this purpose. Here, the ability of Solanum nigrum L., commonly known as black nightshade, to remediate Tl-contaminated soil was evaluated. The accumulation of Tl in different organs of S. nigrum was measured under both field and greenhouse conditions. Additionally, the growth and maximal quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) under different Tl concentrations (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg kg(-1)) were examined after 4-month pot culture. Under both field and greenhouse conditions, Tl accumulated in S. nigrum was positively correlated with Tl concentration in the soil. Thallium mostly accumulated in the root, and bioconcentration factor was greater than 1, indicating the good capability of S. nigrum to extract Tl. Nonetheless, the growth and Fv/Fm of S. nigrum were reduced at high Tl concentration (>10 mg kg(-1)). Given the good tolerance, fast growth, high accumulation, and global distribution, we propose that S. nigrum is a competent candidate to remediate moderately Tl-contaminated soil (<10 mg kg(-1)) without causing far-reaching ecological consequences.

  3. Volatile chemical constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rali, Topul; Wossa, Stewart W; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2007-03-09

    Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae) afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3%), beta-caryophyllene (8.2%), piperitione (6.7%) and alpha-humulene (5.1%), whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2%), with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6%) and alpha-pinene (6.5%).

  4. Volatile Chemical Constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Rali, Topul; Wossa, Stewart W; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2007-01-01

    Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae) afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3 %), β-caryophyllene (8.2 %), piperitione (6.7 %) and α-humulene (5.1 %), whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2 %), with the remaining major...

  5. Volatile Chemical Constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Waterman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3 %, β-caryophyllene (8.2 %, piperitione (6.7 % and α-humulene (5.1 %, whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2 %, with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6 % and α-pinene (6.5 %.

  6. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum e Piper hispidinervum em Sitophilus zeamais

    OpenAIRE

    Estrela,Joelma Lima Vidal; Fazolin,Murilo; Catani,Valdomiro; Alécio,Marcio Rodrigues; Lima,Marilene Santos de

    2006-01-01

    Óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum L. e Piper hispidinervum C.DC. (Piperaceae) foram avaliados quanto ao efeito inseticida em Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. por ação de contato, fumigação e tópica. Na determinação da DL50 e CL50, foi utilizada a análise de Probit. Médias porcentuais de mortalidade dos insetos foram comparadas por meio da análise de regressão linear e superposição das barras do erro padrão. S. zeamais foi mais suscetível ao efeito de contato do óleo de P. hispidinervum em relação a...

  7. Antifungal Amide Alkaloids from the Aerial Parts of Piper flaviflorum and Piper sarmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ni; Liu, Fang-Fang; Jacob, Melissa R; Li, Xing-Cong; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Sixty-three amide alkaloids, including three new, piperflaviflorine A ( 1 ), piperflaviflorine B ( 2 ), and sarmentamide D ( 4 ), and two previously synthesized ones, (1 E ,3 S )-1-cinnamoyl-3- hydroxypyrrolidine ( 3 ) and N -[7'-(4'-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-2-methoxybenzamide ( 5 ), were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper flaviflorum and Piper sarmentosum. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and, in case of 3 , by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Most of the isolates were tested for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. Ten amides ( 6 - 15 ) showed antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 90 113 with IC 50 values in the range between 4.7 and 20.0 µg/mL. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Comparative pesticidal activity of dichloromethane extracts of Piper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-12-18

    Dec 18, 2006 ... Full Length Research Paper. Comparative ... the compound in extract of P. nigrum on stored products insects found in maize and ... the viscous brown olive oil produced was allowed to cool in ice cold bath for two minutes ...

  9. Essential oil composition of different fractions of Piper guineense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mme ESTHER

    Essential oil fractions from dried seed powder of Piper guineense were analyzed by gas .... high frequency in an ultrasonic cell disruptor (Microson™). This process was to .... present on the control (Nc) and treated (Nt) areas of the discs was.

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Two Isomers of Asarone in Piper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simultaneous Determination of Two Isomers of Asarone in Piper sarmentosum Roxburgh (Piperaceae) Extracts using Different Chromatographic Columns. Mohd Shahrul Ridzuan Hamil, Abdul Hakeem Memon, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Zhari Ismail ...

  11. Cytotoxicity Screening of Plants of Genus Piper in Breast Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Laboratory of Cancer Molecular Biology, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90110, Thailand .... Stem. SKP 146161802. Piper betle L. Piperaceae. Leaf. SKP 146160201 ..... double-strand breaks that lead to apoptosis [18].

  12. Flavones, lignans and terpene from Piper umbellata (Piperaceae); Flavonas, lignanas e terpeno de Piper umbellata (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldoqui, Debora Cristina; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Furlan, Maysa [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: maysaf@iq.unesp.br; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Marques, Marcia O.M. [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Piper umbellata leaves yielded nine compounds including one terpenoid glucoside, five flavones (vitexin 2{sup -}O-{beta}-glucopyranoside, apigenin 8-C-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, orientin 8-C-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside,5-hydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxy-flavone and velutin), two lignans (sesamin and dihydrocubebin) and 4-nerolidylcathecol. Excepting 4-nerolidylcathecol, all compounds have not been described from this species yet (author)

  13. Essential Oils from Neotropical Piper Species and Their Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Trindade, Rafaela; Alves, Nayara Sabrina; Figueiredo, Pablo Luís; Maia, José Guilherme S.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality. The main volatile compounds identified in Piper EOs are monoterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and large amounts of phenylpropanoids. In this review, we are reporting the biological potential of Piper EOs from the Neotropical region. There are many reports of Piper EOs as antimicrobial agents (fungi and bacteria), antiprotozoal (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma spp.), acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity against different tumor cells lines (breast, leukemia, melanoma, gastric, among others). These studies can contribute to the rational and economic exploration of Piper species, once they have been identified as potent natural and alternative sources to treat human diseases. PMID:29240662

  14. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum e Piper hispidinervum em Sitophilus zeamais Toxicity of essential oils of Piper aduncum and Piper hispidinervum against Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Lima Vidal Estrela

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum L. e Piper hispidinervum C.DC. (Piperaceae foram avaliados quanto ao efeito inseticida em Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. por ação de contato, fumigação e tópica. Na determinação da DL50 e CL50, foi utilizada a análise de Probit. Médias porcentuais de mortalidade dos insetos foram comparadas por meio da análise de regressão linear e superposição das barras do erro padrão. S. zeamais foi mais suscetível ao efeito de contato do óleo de P. hispidinervum em relação ao de P. aduncum, obtendo-se CL50 de 0,51 e 2,87 mL cm- 2 de óleo, respectivamente. Mortalidade próxima a 100% foi obtida nas concentrações de 20 e 30% do óleo de P. hispidinervum. Quanto ao efeito fumigante, a susceptibilidade foi maior no óleo de P. aduncum do que no de P. hispidinervum. Houve diferença significativa entre os óleos somente nas concentrações de 0,1 e 1,0. A DL50 foi semelhante nos dois óleos essenciais por aplicação tópica. No entanto, a mortalidade foi maior com P. aduncum. Óleos essenciais de P. aduncum e P. hispidinervum possuem efeito inseticida em S. zeamais, mas as respostas dependem da concentração e do método de exposição a que o inseto seja submetido.Essential oils of Piper aduncum L. and Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (Piperaceae were tested against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Contact, fumigant toxicity and topical effect were tested. Probit analysis was employed in evaluating the LC50 and LD50 response. Linear regression analysis and superposition of the bars (means error standard were used for comparison of means percentage mortality. S. zeamais was more susceptible to the contact toxicity of the P. hispidinervum oil than P. aduncum oil with LC50 values of 0.51 and 2.87 mL cm-2 of the oil, respectively. The mortality rate was nearly 100% at P. hispidinervum oil concentrations of 20 and 30%. With respect to the fumigant action, the weevil was more susceptible to the P. aduncum oil than to P

  15. Detection of the polyphenolic components in[i] Ribes nigrum[/i] L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BUTNARIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The blackcurrant ([i]Ribes nigrum [/i]L. is a species of native currant which contains a lot of polyphenolic antioxidants which is used medicinally and has a fundamental role in the maintenance health. Materials, methods and objective. Ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry and ultraviolet range high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to characterize the polyphenolic content of common Ribes nigrum collected in the western part of the Banat Region in Romania. Results. UV–visible spectrophotometry was a reliable tool for identifying the phenolic compounds class. Polyphenols calibration curves from the methanolic extracts showed a good linearity (r2>0.984 within test ranges and generated a well–designed absorption band with a local maximum at 273.2 nm band, which can be attributed to thr electronic transition of the n–p* type. Chromatographic separation and analysis of the methanol extract was useful for the structural epigallocatechin (EGC and epigallocatechin–3–gallate (EGCG characterization of primary antioxidant compounds. Conclusions. The new, slightly modified, chromatographic system can serve for the development of a quantitative assessment methodology of epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin–3–gallate compounds, as well as for the comparative characterisation mand standardisation of the dominant polyphenolic components in [i]Ribes nigrum[/i] using EGC and EGCG standards.

  16. Chemical-assisted phytoremediation of CD-PAHs contaminated soils using Solanum nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanjie; Zhou, Qixing; Wei, Shuhe; Hu, Yahu; Bao, Yanyu

    2011-09-01

    A well-characterized cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plant Solanum nigrum was grown in Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) co-contaminated soil that was repeatedly amended with chemicals, including EDTA, cysteine (CY), salicylic acid (Sa), and Tween 80 (TW80), to test individual and combined treatment effects on phytoremediation of Cd-PAHs contaminated soils. Plant growth was negatively affected by exogenous chemicals except for EDTA. S. nigrum could accumulate Cd in tissues without assistant chemicals, while there was no visible effect on the degradation of PAHs. Cysteine had significant effects on phytoextraction of Cd and the highest metal extraction ratio (1.27%) was observed in 0.9 mmol/kg CY treatment. Both salicylic acid and Tween 80 had stimulative effects on the degradation of PAHs and there was the maximal degradation rate (52.6%) of total PAHs while 0.9 mmol/kg Sa was applied. Furthermore, the combined treatment T(0.1EDTA+0.9CY+0.5TW80) and T(0.5EDTA+0.9CY+03Sa) could not only increase the accumulation of Cd in plant tissues, but also promote the degradation of PAHs. These results indicated that S. nigrum might be effective in phytoextracting Cd and enhancing the biodegradation of PAHs in the co-contaminated soils with assistant chemicals.

  17. Genetic diversity of "Pimenta Longa" genotypes (Piper spp., Piperaceae) of the Embrapa Acre germplasm collection

    OpenAIRE

    Wadt, Lúcia Helena de Oliveira; Ehringhaus, Christiane; Kageyama, Paulo Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    The commonly known Pimenta longa is a commercially valuable natural resource found wild in Acre, Brazil. Specifically, three Piperaceae species with contested taxonomic status were studied, Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum, to assesses the inter- and intra-specific genetic relationship of 49 Piper genotypes kept in the Pimenta longa germplasm collection at Embrapa Acre, using sixty six Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The DNA polymorphism level detected w...

  18. A new species and three taxonomic changes in Piper (Piperaceae) from Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwanphakdee, C.; Chantaranothai, P.

    2011-01-01

    A new species, Piper chiangdaoense from Doi Chiangdao Wildlife Sanctuary, Chiang Mai province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. Piper trichostigma is raised to specific status and an epitype is selected. Piper maculaphyllum and P. rubroglandulosum are reduced to the synonymy of P. argyrites

  19. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was high, with the mean ...

  20. 75 FR 81417 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-28-161 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-28-161 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... new airworthiness directive (AD): 2010-26-04 Piper Aircraft, Inc: Amendment 39-16543; Docket No. FAA... times may be Airplane approved for this part. Maintenance Manual Piper PA28-161 TAE 125-01, Doc. No...

  1. In vitro competition between Fusarium graminearum and Epicoccum nigrum on media and wheat grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brita Dahl; Knorr, Kamilla; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    showed hyphae of F. graminearum and E. nigrum with many side branches when in close proximity, in contrast to pronounced apical hyphal growth when growing alone. Combinations of F. graminearum and E. nigrum on sterilised wheat grains were studied over time by qPCR. F. graminearum biomass...

  2. Effect of fertilizer amendments on phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by a newly discovered hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Shuhe, E-mail: shuhewei@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li Yunmeng [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Qixing, E-mail: zhouqx523@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Srivastava, Mrittunjai [North Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Quincy, FL 32351-5677 (United States); Chiu Siuwai [Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Zhan Jie [Department of Biotechnology, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang 110101 (China); Wu Zhijie; Sun Tieheng [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective, simple and sustainable beneficiary technique to purify the polluted environment. Solanum nigrum L., a newly found cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, has shown the potential to remediate Cd-contaminated soils. Present study investigated the effects of fertilizer amendments on the Cd uptake by S. nigrum. Chicken manure and urea are usual agricultural fertilizers and more environmental friendly. The results showed that Cd concentrations in shoots of S. nigrum were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) by 28.2-34.6%, as compared to that of without the addition of chicken manure, but not the case for urea treatment. However, Cd extraction capacities ({mu}g pot{sup -1}) in shoot biomass of S. nigrum were significantly increased (p < 0.05) due to increased shoot biomass. In addition, available Cd concentration in soil significantly decreased due to addition of chicken manure. Thus, urea might be a better fertilizer for strengthening phytoextraction rate of S. nigrum to Cd, and chicken manure may be a better fertilizer for phytostabilization.

  3. 76 FR 36395 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-24, PA-24-250, and PA-24-260 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...-0639; Directorate Identifier 2011-CE-016-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... identified in this proposed AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960... September 15, 2004. This SAIB alerted owners and operators of Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Piper) Models PA-23, PA...

  4. Antimalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Amran, Adel A; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-12-28

    The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50-400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  5. Bioactivities of Piper aduncum L. and Piper obliquum Ruiz & Pavon (Piperaceae) essential oils from Eastern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Rossi, Damiano; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Andreotti, Elisa; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Maldonado, Maria E; Bruni, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Piper aduncum (Matico) and Piper obliquum (Anis del Oriente) of ecuadorian origin were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and their biological and pharmacological activities were assessed. Chemical composition proved to be unusually different from previous reports for safrole-rich P. obliquum (45.8%), while P. aduncum main constituent was dillapiol (45.9%). No genotoxic activity was found in the Ames/Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) assay, either with or without S9 activation. Mutagen-protective properties, evaluated using sodium azide, 2-nitrofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene as mutagens/promutagens, was observed against promutagen 2-aminoanthracene, likely in consequence of microsomial deactivation. Antimicrobial assays have been performed on Gram+/Gram- bacteria, dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi and best results were provided by P. aduncum against fungal strains with complete inhibition at 500μg/ml. Preliminary analgesic and antithrombotic activities evidenced the absence of the former in hot plate and edema assays and a limited antiplatelet action against three different agonists (ADP, AA and U46619). Both oils have a very limited antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Amides from Piper as a Diuretic: Behind the Ethnopharmacological Uses of Piper glabratum Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruno Lima Prando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the genus Piper are known in Brazilian folk medicine as having diuretic activity. So, we propose to investigate the acute diuretic activity and the possible toxic effects of Piper glabratum Kunth, popularly known as false Jaborandi. Additionally, we propose to check whether there is any correlation between the biological activities of the crude extract (MEPG and its 2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-trans-cinnamoyl-pyrrolidine (MMCP in Wistar rats. The MEPG was fractioned by chromatography column and the MMCP was identified by analyses of 1H and 13C RMN spectral data and correlations. Both MEPG and MMCP were assayed for diuretic activity. The preparations obtained were orally administered in a single dose to rats. The urine excretion, pH, density, conductivity, and content of Na+, K+, Cl−, and HCO3- were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. Additionally, acute toxicity of the extract was also evaluated. MMCP at doses of 30 mg/kg was able to increase the urine volume, pH, and HCO3- excretion. Moreover, high dosage of MEPG showed important liver toxicity and elevated mortality when injected intraperitoneally. The results indicate that the MMCP shows important diuretic properties when administered in Wistar rats. Additionally, MEPG can induce important acute toxicity if given in high doses.

  7. Transfer RNA Derived Small RNAs Targeting Defense Responsive Genes Are Induced during Phytophthora capsici Infection in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Srinivasan; Soniya, Eppurath V

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs derived from transfer RNAs were recently assigned as potential gene regulatory candidates for various stress responses in eukaryotes. In this study, we report on the cloning and identification of tRNA derived small RNAs from black pepper plants in response to the infection of the quick wilt pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. 5'tRFs cloned from black pepper were validated as highly expressed during P. capsici infection. A high-throughput systematic analysis of the small RNAome (sRNAome) revealed the predominance of 5'tRFs in the infected leaf and root. The abundance of 5'tRFs in the sRNAome and the defense responsive genes as their potential targets indicated their regulatory role during stress response in black pepper. The 5'Ala(CGC) tRF mediated cleavage was experimentally mapped at the tRF binding sites on the mRNA targets of Non-expresser of pathogenesis related protein (NPR1), which was down-regulated during pathogen infection. Comparative sRNAome further demonstrated sequence conservation of 5'Ala tRFs across the angiosperm plant groups, and many important genes in the defense response were identified in silico as their potential targets. Our findings uncovered the diversity, differential expression and stress responsive functional role of tRNA-derived small RNAs during Phytophthora infection in black pepper.

  8. In vitro investigation of the potential immunomodulatory and anti-cancer activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Carr, Ronald I

    2010-04-01

    Although the immunomodulatory effects of many herbs have been extensively studied, research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of various spices is relatively scarce. Here, the potential immunomodulatory effects of black pepper and cardamom are investigated. Our data show that black pepper and cardamom aqueous extracts significantly enhance splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent, synergistic fashion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments reveal that black pepper and cardamom significantly enhance and suppress, respectively, T helper (Th)1 cytokine release by splenocytes. Conversely, Th2 cytokine release by splenocytes is significantly suppressed and enhanced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Experimental evidence suggests that black pepper and cardamom extracts exert pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. Consistently, nitric oxide production by macrophages is significantly augmented and reduced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Remarkably, it is evident that black pepper and cardamom extracts significantly enhance the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells, indicating their potential anti-cancer effects. Our findings strongly suggest that black pepper and cardamom exert immunomodulatory roles and antitumor activities, and hence they manifest themselves as natural agents that can promote the maintenance of a healthy immune system. We anticipate that black pepper and cardamom constituents can be used as potential therapeutic tools to regulate inflammatory responses and prevent/attenuate carcinogenesis.

  9. Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin; Schieberle, Peter

    2005-07-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of white pepper powder showing an intense fecal, cowshed-like off-flavor revealed 3-methylindole (fecal, swine-manure) and 4-methylphenol (fecal, horse-like) with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 22 odor-active compounds detected. In addition, high FD factors and/or undesirable odor qualities suggested 3-methylphenol (phenolic), butanoic acid (cheese-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (cheese-like) as well as pentanoic acid and hexanoic acid (cheese-like odors) as contributors to the malodor. Although the intensities of the off-note were clearly different in 50 commercial samples of white pepper, quantitation of 3-methylindole and 3- and 4-methylphenol as well as of the five short-chain acids by means of stable isotope dilution assays showed similar concentrations in most of the samples. Storage of a freshly ground white pepper powder for up to 7 months revealed a significant decrease in the typical odor qualities of white pepper and an increase in the fecal odor note with storage time. Because the concentrations of the odorants mentioned above were not much changed during storage, possibly very volatile odorants, such as alpha-pinene, which are able to mask the malodor, are lost during storage of, in particular, pepper powders. On the basis of odor activity values, which were calculated using breakthrough thresholds, in particular, 3-methylindole, 4-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, and butanoic acid could be suggested as the main sources of the fecal off-flavor.

  10. Comparative antioxidant and bioavailability studies of Vitamin C in Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and its combinations with Piper nigrum Linn. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Somasekhar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (amla is used in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine and its major constituent is vitamin C which has effective free radical scavenging property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity and the bioavailability profile of vitamin C in amla and its combinations with piperine and ginger in comparison to synthetic vitamin C using New Zealand rabbits. In vitro antioxidant activity studies of synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger were carried out using different models such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Nitric Oxide, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods, Total reductive capability and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity estimation. The study results showed that synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger possess significant in vitro antioxidant activity. For bioavailability studies, synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger 100 mg/kg, were administered orally and the serum samples were analyzed by HPLC at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. Bioavailability studies revealed that amla with piperine combination has higher concentration of vitamin C when compared to synthetic vitamin C. This is probably due to presence of piperine, which is a bioavailability enhancer. The present study supports the fact that amla with piperine combination can be an alternative to synthetic vitamin C.

  11. Alkaloids from piper: a review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez; Gonzalez, Adriana Maria Neira; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos

    2013-02-01

    Piper has been used for long timelike condiment and food, but also in traditional medicine around of the world. This work resumes the available and up to date work done on members of the Piperaceae family and their uses for therapeutic purposes. Information on Piper genus was gathered via internet using scientific databases such as Scirus, Google Scholar, CAB-abstracts, MedlinePlus, Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science. The largeleafed perennial plant Piper is used for its spicy aromatic scent and flavor. It has an important presence in the cuisine of different cultures. Another quality of these plants is their known medicinal properties. It has been used as emollient, antirheumatic, diuretic, stimulant, abortifacient, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antidermatophytic. A survey of the literature shows that the genus Piper is mainly known for its alkaloids with cytotoxic, chemopreventive, antimetastatic and antitumor properties in several types of cancer. Studies of its alkaloids highlight the existence of various potential leads to develop new anti-cancer agents. Modern pharmacology studies have demonstrated that its crude extracts and active compounds possess wide pharmacological activities, especially asantioxidant, anti-depressive, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-obesity, neuropharmacological, to treat cognitive disorders, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-feedant, cardioactive, immuno-enhancing, and anti-inflamatory. All this evidence supporting its traditional uses. This review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Piper together with its toxicology, and discusses the possible trend and scope for further research on Piper in the future.

  12. Isolation of Monoterpene Dihydrochalcones from Piper montealegreanum Yuncker (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Harley da Silva; Rocha, Wilma Raianny Vieira da; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Chaves, Maria Célia de Oliveira

    2017-06-09

    Four new compounds were isolated from the branches of Piper montealegreanum Yuncker, a shrub found in the Amazon rainforest, including two new dihydrochalcones named claricine ( 1 ) and maisine ( 2 ), a cinnamic acid derivative 3 and a phenylalkanoid 4 , along with a porphyrin identified as the known compound phaeophytin a ( 5 ). The structures were established using spectroscopic experiments, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments, performed on the two monoterpene dihydrochalcones and their monoacetyl derivatives. The structural diversity of these substances is very important for the Piper genus chemotaxonomy.

  13. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Solomon Islands: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2010-01-01

    Eleven climbing species of Piper in the Solomon Islands are recognized: P. abbreviatum, P. betle, P. bosnicanum, P. caninum, P. celtidiforme, P. fragile, P. insectifugum (syn. P. austrocaledonicum), P. interruptum, P. macropiper, P. majusculum, and, as the only endemic, P. sclerophloeum, for which a

  14. Two New Sphingolipids from the Leaves of Piper betle L.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Duo-Zhi; Xiong, Hua-Bin; Tian, Kai; Guo, Jun-Ming; Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Jiang, Zhi-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  15. Two new sphingolipids from the leaves of Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duo-Zhi; Xiong, Hua-Bin; Tian, Kai; Guo, Jun-Ming; Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Jiang, Zhi-Yong

    2013-09-12

    Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  16. Two New Sphingolipids from the Leaves of Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1 and B (2, were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  17. Effect of Piper betle on Giardia intestinalis infection in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecková, R.; Doležal, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kváč, Martin; Nurcahyo, W.; Foitová, I.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 184, JAN (2018), s. 39-45 ISSN 0014-4894 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1163 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Antigiardial activity * Drug of choice * Giardia intestinalis * Natural antiparasitics * Parasites * Piper betle Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.724, year: 2016

  18. Original Paper Efficacy of mixed powders of Piper guineense and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of mixed powders of Piper guineense (Piperaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) on Sitophilus zeamais population and seed weight loss percentage of stored maize. Experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions (26.94 ± 0.81 °C, 74.76 ± 4.51% r.h. and.

  19. Lignan profile of Piper cubeba, an Indonesian medicinal plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfahmi, [No Value; Ruslan, Komar; Batterman, Sieb; Bos, Rein; Kayser, Oliver; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Quax, Wim J.

    The lignan profile of the aerial part of Piper cubeba L. (Piperaceae) was determined using GC, GC-MS and HPLC. The number of lignans found in the leaves was 15, followed by berries and the stalks with respectively 13 and five lignans. This is the first investigation of lignans from the leaves and

  20. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen climbing Piper species are accepted for New Guinea. The three endemics, P. arfakianum, P. subcanirameum and P. versteegii, are fully described. Eight taxa of unclear circumscription are noted. A new variety of P. macropiper, endemic to Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea, is described. The

  1. Child Sacrifice: Black America's Price of Paying the Media Piper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange, Carolyn M.; George, Amiso M.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the sacrifice of African American children to the broadcast media and video games in terms of the players ("media pipers"), the messages ("piping"), and the consequences to children. Proposes some solutions for the problems associated with excessive television viewing and undesirable programming. (SLD)

  2. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the non-climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2003-01-01

    A taxonomic account is given of six Piper species of New Guinea: P. bolanicum spec. nov., P. gibbil­imbum, P. recessum spec. nov., P. subbullatum, P. triangulare and P. wabagense. These small shrubby trees are best represented in secondary growth and forest at 1300–2500 m altitude, with P.

  3. Mosquito repellent activity of piper guineense and xylopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of eucalyptus oil (positive control), a commercial repellent, at 30% was only able to protect for 2h. Both oils used could be applied as repellents where protection from mosquito bite is sought for, over a short period of time. Keywords: Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, volatile oils, Aedes aegypti, repellency

  4. 78 FR 54561 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... for Lycoming and Piper Exhaust System Parts, for the entry ``tail pipe assembly, top'' in the third...-31-350, tail pipe assembly, top. This document corrects that error. In all other respects, the... exhaust system, expanding the inspection scope to include the entirety of each airplane exhaust system...

  5. In vitro activity of Piper sarmentosum ethanol leaf extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Medicine and Health Sciences, Islamic Science University of Malaysia, 55100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ... Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Piper sarmentosum against ..... plant extracts affect Vero cell performance using the cytotoxicity ... No conflict of interest associated with this work.

  6. In vitro conservation of Piper aduncum and Piper hispidinervum under slow-growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Loureiro da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate in vitro storage of Piper aduncum and P. hispidinervum under slow-growth conditions. Shoots were stored at low temperatures (10, 20 and 25°C, and the culture medium was supplemented with osmotic agents (sucrose and mannitol - at 1, 2 and 3% and abiscisic acid - ABA (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg L-1. After six-months of storage, shoots were evaluated for survival and regrowth. Low temperature at 20ºC was effective for the in vitro conservation of P. aduncum and P. hispidinervum shoots. In vitro cultures maintained at 20ºC on MS medium showed 100% survival with slow-growth shoots. The presence of mannitol or ABA, in the culture medium, negatively affected shoot growth, which is evidenced by the low rate of recovered shoots.

  7. Composición fitoquímica de los tallos y hojas de la especie Solanum nigrum L. que crece en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Huerta, Lorenzo; Rosabal Carbonell, Yeisa; Morales León, José Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Solanum nigrum L. se emplea como antiséptico, expectorante, cardiotónico, digestivo diaforético y sedativo. Las hojas son usadas como emplastos para el reumatismo, enfermedades de la piel, y para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis. Se considera un potente antiinflamatorio. Objetivos: determinar la composición fitoquímica de los extractos etéreo, alcohólico y acuoso de tallos y hojas de la especie Solanum nigrum L. Métodos: se recolectaron tallos y hojas de Solanum nigrum L., se l...

  8. PENGARUH KETERSEDIAAN OKSIGEN PADA PRODUKSI EPIGLUKAN OLEH Epicoccum nigrum MENGGUNAKAN MEDIA MOLASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahul Choiron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The compound β-glucan is a polymer of glucose, which is polymerized through betaglycoside bond. The compound β-glucan has anti-tumor benefits, reducing the risk of heartdisease, lowering cholesterol and so forth. The compound β-glucan can be produced by thefungus in ukstraseluler. One of the molds that can produce compounds in the extracellular β-glucan is Epicoccum nigrum, often called epiglucan. The purpose of this study was to determinethe effect of aeration and oxygenation to the production epiglukan by Epicoccum nigrum inmolasses media. This research was conducted using descriptive method with 3 under controlledconditions : anaerobic, aeration and oxygenation in the Stired Continuous Tank Reactor (batchculture. The parameters observed were the biomass (g / L, epiglucan (g/L, reducing sugarcontent (% and pellet diameter are formed. Biomass and highest epiglikan obtained inoxygenated conditions which amounted to 7.074 g / L and 2.01 g / L. The resulting biomasspellet-shaped with the largest diameter occurs in conditions of oxygenation that is 0.37 mm.residual reducing sugar at the end of fermentation the greatest there is in the anaerobiccondition is 1.529%

  9. Nanoceria and bulk cerium oxide effects on the germination of asplenium adiantum-nigrum spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Gomez-Garay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The effect of cerium oxide engineered nanoparticles on the spore germination of the fern. Asplenium adiantum-nigrum. Area of study: France, Britanny Region, Finistére Department, Plougonvelin, in rocks near the sea. Material and methods: Asplenium spores were cultured in vitro on agar medium with Nano-CeO2 (less than 25 nm particle size and bulk-CeO2. The addition of each nano- and bulk particles ranged from 0 to 3000 mg L-1. Observations on rhizoidal and prothallial cells during first stages of gametophyte development were made. The No-Observed-Adverse-Effect concentration (NOAEC and Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Concentration (LOEC values for spore germination rate data were analyzed.  Main results: Germination was speeded up by 100 to 2000 mg L-1 nanoceria, while bulk cerium oxide had the same effect for 500 to 200 mg L-1 concentrations. Present results showed cellular damage in the protonema while rhizoid cells seemed not to be affected, as growth and membrane integrity remained. Research highlights: Both nanosized and bulk cerium oxide are toxic for the fern Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, although diverse toxicity patterns were shown for both materials. Diverse toxic effects have been observed: chloroplast membrane damage and lysis, cell wall and membrane disruption which leads to cell lysis; and alterations in morphology and development. Keywords: Nanoparticles; rhizoid; prothallus; chloroplast; fern.

  10. Nanoceria and bulk cerium oxide effects on the germination of asplenium adiantum-nigrum spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Garay, A.; Pintos, B.; Manzanera, J.A.; Prada, C.; Martin, L.; Gabriel y Galan, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The effect of cerium oxide engineered nanoparticles on the spore germination of the fern. Asplenium adiantum-nigrum. Area of study: France, Britanny Region, Finistére Department, Plougonvelin, in rocks near the sea. Material and methods: Asplenium spores were cultured in vitro on agar medium with Nano-CeO2 (less than 25 nm particle size) and bulk-CeO2. The addition of each nano- and bulk particles ranged from 0 to 3000 mg L-1. Observations on rhizoidal and prothallial cells during first stages of gametophyte development were made. The No-Observed-Adverse-Effect concentration (NOAEC) and Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Concentration (LOEC) values for spore germination rate data were analyzed. Main results: Germination was speeded up by 100 to 2000 mg L-1 nanoceria, while bulk cerium oxide had the same effect for 500 to 200 mg L-1 concentrations. Present results showed cellular damage in the protonema while rhizoid cells seemed not to be affected, as growth and membrane integrity remained. Research highlights: Both nanosized and bulk cerium oxide are toxic for the fern Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, although diverse toxicity patterns were shown for both materials. Diverse toxic effects have been observed: chloroplast membrane damage and lysis, cell wall and membrane disruption which leads to cell lysis; and alterations in morphology and development. (Author)

  11. An investigation of the vegetative anatomy of Piper sarmentosum, and a comparison with the anatomy of Piper betle (Piperaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (synonym, P. lolot C.DC.) is a southeast Asian medicinal plant valued for its medicinal and culinary uses. Hand-sections of the vegetative parts of P. sarmentosum were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Th...

  12. Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Hu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethnomedical uses of Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles.

  13. Peranan Air Daun Sirih (Piper Betle Linn.) Dalam Menjaga Kualitas Benih Sengon (Paraserianthes Falcataria)

    OpenAIRE

    Gusrandi, Yoghi; ', M. Mardhiansyah; Arlita, Tuti

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the effect of the role water immersion of Piper betle leaf. Protect Paraserianthes falcataria of seed quality and know the best dosage Piper betle leaf soaking in Paraserianthes falcataria maintain quality seed. The research method used in completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatment consisted of: S0=Paraserianthes falcataria soaking seeds without Piper betle leaves in 1 liter of water; S1=Paraserianthes falcataria soa...

  14. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Different Species of Piper from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Ana I; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of leaf essential oils from 11 species of Piper from Panama was analyzed by a combination GC-FID and GC-MS procedures. Six of them had sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as major constituents, three were characterized by monoterpene hydrocarbons, one by a diterpene, and one by a phenylpropanoid, dillapiole. The main components identified in each species were: cembratrienol (25.4 %) in Piper augustum; β-pinene (26.6 %) in Piper corrugatum; α-pinene (19.4 %) in Piper curtispicum; trans-β-farnesene (63.7 %) in Piper darienense; p-cymene (43.9 %) in Piper grande; dillapiole (57.7 %) in Piper hispidum; linalool (14.5 %), α-phellandrene (13.8 %), and limonene (12.2 %) in Piper jacquemontianum; β-caryophyllene (45.2 %) in Piper longispicum; linalool (16.5 %), α-phellandrene (11.8 %), limonene (11.4 %), and p-cymene (9.0 %) in Piper multiplinervium; β-selinene (19.0 %), β-elemene (16.1 %), and α-selinene (15.5 %) in Piper reticulatum; and germacrene D (19.7 %) in Piper trigonum. The essential oils of P. hispidum and P. longispicum at a concentration of 250 µg/mL showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, while the oils from P. curtispicum, P. multiplinervium, P. reticulatum, and P. trigonum were inactive (LC100 ≥ 500 µg/mL). The essential oils of P. grande, P. jacquemontianum, and P. multiplinervium showed no significant antifungal activity (MIC > 250 µg/mL) against several yeasts and filamentous fungal strains. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The underlying mechanism of action for various medicinal properties of Piper betle (betel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslan, H; Suhaimi, F H; Thent, Zar Chi; Das, S

    2015-01-01

    Piper betle (betel) plant belongs to the Piperaceae family. Piper. betle is widely known for its potent medicinal properties. Various active compounds are present in Piper. betle such as allylpyrocatechol, hydroxychavicol, piperbetol, ethylpiperbetol, piperol A, piperol B, chavibetol, and alkaloids which account for these beneficial medicinal properties. In the present narrative review, we looked into the various active compounds present in the Piper betle and attempted to understand their underlying mechanism of action. Proper understanding of the molecular biology involving the mechanism of action may help in better drug formulation and provide better therapeutic actions in the field of alternative and complementary medicine.

  16. Improvement of phytoextraction and antioxidative defense in Solanum nigrum L. under cadmium stress by application of cadmium-resistant strain and citric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yang, E-mail: gaoyang0898@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of Soil and Water Conservation and Desertification Control, College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Miao Chiyuan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Mao Liang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Zhou Pei [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai 200240 (China); Jin Zhiguo; Shi Wanjun [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Remediation of plant-microorganism-chelates synergy has been proposed as an effective remediation method for enhancing the removal efficiency of heavy metal. Manipulation of the antioxidative system increases plant tolerance, thereby potentially enhancing the uptake capacity to heavy metal. In this study, we investigated the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd and the antioxidative defense of Solanum nigrum L. by application of a new isolated strain (Paecilomyces lilacinus NH1) (PLNH1) and citric acid (CA). The results showed that application of CA or PLNH1 significantly promoted S. nigrum's growth under Cd stress, but the synergistic effect of CA and PLNH1 on S. nigrum's growth was more obvious. The coexistence of CA and PLNH1 could enhance about 30% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum compared to the treatment without the addition of CA and PLNH1, whereas single CA or PLNH1 added treatment only enhanced about 10-15% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum. The antioxidative defense in S. nigrum under Cd stress was significantly improved as result of application of CA and PLNH1. The responses of antioxidative enzymes to Cd stress significantly decreased following application of CA and PLNH1, and the oxidative stress experienced by the plant due to Cd in the soil was significantly alleviated.

  17. Improvement of phytoextraction and antioxidative defense in Solanum nigrum L. under cadmium stress by application of cadmium-resistant strain and citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yang; Miao Chiyuan; Mao Liang; Zhou Pei; Jin Zhiguo; Shi Wanjun

    2010-01-01

    Remediation of plant-microorganism-chelates synergy has been proposed as an effective remediation method for enhancing the removal efficiency of heavy metal. Manipulation of the antioxidative system increases plant tolerance, thereby potentially enhancing the uptake capacity to heavy metal. In this study, we investigated the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd and the antioxidative defense of Solanum nigrum L. by application of a new isolated strain (Paecilomyces lilacinus NH1) (PLNH1) and citric acid (CA). The results showed that application of CA or PLNH1 significantly promoted S. nigrum's growth under Cd stress, but the synergistic effect of CA and PLNH1 on S. nigrum's growth was more obvious. The coexistence of CA and PLNH1 could enhance about 30% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum compared to the treatment without the addition of CA and PLNH1, whereas single CA or PLNH1 added treatment only enhanced about 10-15% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum. The antioxidative defense in S. nigrum under Cd stress was significantly improved as result of application of CA and PLNH1. The responses of antioxidative enzymes to Cd stress significantly decreased following application of CA and PLNH1, and the oxidative stress experienced by the plant due to Cd in the soil was significantly alleviated.

  18. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89 pro...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....... protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...

  19. Antifungal derivatives from Piper mollicomum and P. lhotzkyanum (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades]. E-mail: joaolago@iq.usp.br; Young, Maria Claudia M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Reigada, Juliana B.; Soares, Marisi G.; Roesler, Bianca P.; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-09-15

    Bioguided fractionation of the extracts from leaves of Piper mollicomum and Piper lhotzkyanum against the fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum afforded seven bioactive compounds, four being chromenes: methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate, methyl 8-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate, 2-methyl-2-[4'-methyl-3'-pentenyl]-2H-1-benzopyrane-6-carboxylic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylic acid, one a dihydrochalcone: 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone, and two flavanones: 7-methoxy-5,4'-dihydroxy-flavanone and 7,4'-dimethoxy-5-hydroxy-flavanone. The structures of the bioactive isolated derivatives were elucidated by interpretation of their NMR data [{sup 1}H and {sup 13}C (BBD, DEPT 135 deg)], and mass spectral data as well as by comparison with data described in the literature. (author)

  20. A new furofuran lignan from Piper terminaliflorum Tseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Liang, Qian; Zhang, Xin-Min; Huang, Shen-Yang; Xu, Wen-Hui

    2018-02-01

    The chemical investigation of whole plants Piper terminaliflorum Tseng led to the isolation of one new furofuran lignan, 7-methoxyasarinin (1), along with three known amide alkaloids (2-4) as N-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamoylpyrrole (2), dihydropipercide (3) and 1-[(2E,4E,9E)-10-(3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4,9-undecatrienoyl]pyrrolidine (4). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D, 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS, and by comparison with the literature. Compounds (2-4) were isolated from Piper terminaliflorum Tseng for the first time. All isolated compounds (1-4) were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (including A-549, SMMC-7721, HL-60, MCF-7 and SW-480).

  1. Antifungal derivatives from Piper mollicomum and P. lhotzkyanum (Piperaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Young, Maria Claudia M.; Reigada, Juliana B.; Soares, Marisi G.; Roesler, Bianca P.; Kato, Massuo J.

    2007-01-01

    Bioguided fractionation of the extracts from leaves of Piper mollicomum and Piper lhotzkyanum against the fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum afforded seven bioactive compounds, four being chromenes: methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate, methyl 8-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate, 2-methyl-2-[4'-methyl-3'-pentenyl]-2H-1-benzopyrane-6-carboxylic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylic acid, one a dihydrochalcone: 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone, and two flavanones: 7-methoxy-5,4'-dihydroxy-flavanone and 7,4'-dimethoxy-5-hydroxy-flavanone. The structures of the bioactive isolated derivatives were elucidated by interpretation of their NMR data [ 1 H and 13 C (BBD, DEPT 135 deg)], and mass spectral data as well as by comparison with data described in the literature. (author)

  2. Origin of the subepidermal tissue in Piper L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A T; Simão, E; Silva, L; Torres, G A

    2015-05-01

    Studies on the anatomy of Piper leaves demonstrate the presence of a subepidermal tissue distinct from the adjacent epidermis, which cells show thin walls and hyaline contents. Some authors consider such cells a hypodermal tissue, while others refer to them as components of a multiple epidermis. In this study, the nature of this subepidermal tissue was investigated through the analysis of leaf ontogeny in three Piper species. The analysis showed that the referred tissue originates from the ground meristem and, thus, should be considered a hypodermis. The studied species suggests that the role of the hypodermis would be to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from excess light, regulating the intensity of light reaching the chlorophyll parenchyma.

  3. Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdip; Marimuthu, Palanisamy; de Heluani, Carola S; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2006-01-11

    In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and oleoresin of the seed from Carum nigrum obtained by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction using acetone, respectively, have been studied by GC and GC-MS techniques. The major component was dillapiole (29.9%) followed by germacrene B (21.4%), beta-caryophyllene (7.8%), beta-selinene (7.1%), and nothoapiole (5.8%) along with many other components in minor amounts. Seventeen components were identified in the oleoresin (Table 2) with dillapiole as a major component (30.7%). It also contains thymol (19.1%), nothoapiole (15.2.3%), and gamma-elemene (8.0%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and oleoresin was evaluated in mustard oil by monitoring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, and total carbonyl and p-anisidine values of the oil substrate. The results showed that both the essential oil and oleoresin were able to reduce the oxidation rate of the mustard oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C in comparison with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene at 0.02%. In addition, individual antioxidant assays such as linoleic acid assay, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and chelating effects have been used. The C. nigrum seed essential oil exhibited complete inhibition against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2000 and 3000 ppm, respectively, by agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was determined against a panel of foodborne fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium madriti, Acrophialophora fusispora, Penicillium viridicatum, and Aspergillus flavus. The fruit essential oil showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against P. purpurogenum and A. fusispora at 3000 ppm in the poison food method. Hence, both oil and oleoresin could be used as an additive in food and pharmaceutical preparations after screening.

  4. Chemical Constituents of Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bhattacharya

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Column chromatography of the alcoholic extract of Piper betle roots furnished aristololactam A-II and a new phenyl propene, characterized as 4-allyl resorcinol, while the petroleum-ether extract yielded a diketosteroid, viz. stigmast-4-en-3,6-dione. All these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic means. Isolation of these compounds from this source is being reported here for the first time.

  5. Chemical constituents of Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, K; Bhattacharya, T K

    2005-08-31

    Column chromatography of the alcoholic extract of Piper betle roots furnished aristololactam A-II and a new phenyl propene, characterized as 4-allyl resorcinol, while the petroleum-ether extract yielded a diketosteroid, viz. stigmast-4-en-3,6-dione. All these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic means. Isolation of these compounds from this source is being reported here for the first time.

  6. A new hydroxychavicol dimer from the roots of Piper betle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chien, Chun-Chien; Tu, Huei-Yu; Lay, Horng-Liang

    2013-02-26

    A new hydroxychavicol dimer, 2-(g'-hydroxychavicol)-hydroxychavicol (1), was isolated from the roots of Piper betle Linn. along with five known compounds, hydroxychavicol (2), aristololactam A II (3), aristololactam B II (4), piperolactam A (5) and cepharadione A (6). The structures of these isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anion and the release of elastase by human neutrophils.

  7. A New Hydroxychavicol Dimer from the Roots of Piper betle

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    Huei-Yu Tu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new hydroxychavicol dimer, 2-(g'-hydroxychavicol-hydroxychavicol (1, was isolated from the roots of Piper betle Linn. along with five known compounds, hydroxychavicol (2, aristololactam A II (3, aristololactam B II (4, piperolactam A (5 and cepharadione A (6. The structures of these isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anion and the release of elastase by human neutrophils.

  8. ARISTOLACTAMA Y ESTERÓLES DEL TALLO DE Piper chiadoense

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    Luz Angela Peña O.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto etanólico del tallo de Piper chiadoense Junker (Piperaceae fueron aislados por métodos cromatográficos la aristolactama identificada como lactama del ácido 10-amino-3,4-dimetoxifenantreno-l carboxílico (cepharanone B; campesterol; estigmasterol y B-sitosterol. Sus estructuras fueron determinadas por métodos espectroscópicos y por comparación con datos reportados en la literatura.

  9. Essential oil constituents of Piper cubeba L. fils. from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver; Quax, Wim J.; Ruslan, Komar; Elfami, [No Value

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of ripe berries (11.8% v/w) and leaves (0.9% v/w) of Piper cubeba L. fils. (Piperaceae) was investigated by GC and GUMS. Sabinene (9.1%), beta-elemene (9.4%), beta-caryophyllene (3.1%), epi-cubebol (4.3%), and cubebol (5.6%) were the main components of

  10. Flavones, lignans and terpene from Piper umbellata (Piperaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldoqui, Debora Cristina; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Furlan, Maysa

    2009-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Piper umbellata leaves yielded nine compounds including one terpenoid glucoside, five flavones (vitexin 2 - O-β-glucopyranoside, apigenin 8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside, orientin 8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside,5-hydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxy-flavone and velutin), two lignans (sesamin and dihydrocubebin) and 4-nerolidylcathecol. Excepting 4-nerolidylcathecol, all compounds have not been described from this species yet (author)

  11. Astronaut Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper During STS-115 Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Wearing a training version of the shuttle launch and entry suit, STS-115 astronaut and mission specialist, Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, puts the final touches on her suit donning process prior to the start of a water survival training session in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near Johnson Space Center. Launched on September 9, 2006, the STS-115 mission continued assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) with the installation of the truss segments P3 and P4.

  12. Antimalarial Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Piper betle L.

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    Adel A. Amran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50–400 mg/kg was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65 during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 schizonticidal activity in all three antimalarial evaluation models. Phytochemical screening showed that the leaf extract contains some vital antiplasmodial chemical constituents. The extract also exhibited a potent ability to scavenge the free radicals. The results of acute toxicity showed that the methanol extract of Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  13. Antioxidant, Antitubercular and Cytotoxic Activities of Piper imperiale

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    Sanjib Bhakta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in Nature and act as pharmacologically active constituents in many herbal medicines. They have multiple biological properties, most notably antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. In the present study an attempt to correlate the phenolic composition of leaf, flower and wood extracts of Piper imperiale, with antioxidant, antitubercular and cytotoxic activities was undertaken. The total phenol content ranged from 1.98 to 6.94 mg GAE/gDW among ethanolic extracts, and gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, ferulic acid, resveratrol and quercetin were identified and quantified by HPLC. DPPH and ABTS assays showed high antioxidant activity of the leaf extract (EC50ABTS = 15.6 µg/mL, EC50DPPH = 27.3 µg/mL with EC50 in the same order of magnitude as the hydroxyquinone (EC50ABTS = 10.2 µg/mL, EC50DPPH = 15.7 µg/mL. The flower extract showed strong antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. All the extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 cancer cells. This is the first time that a Piper extract has been found to be highly active against M. tuberculosis. This study shows the biological potential of Piper imperiale extracts and gives way to bio-guided studies with well-defined biological activities.

  14. Remediation and Safe Production of cd Contaminated Soil Via Multiple Cropping Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and Low Accumulation Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingfen; Wei, Shuhe; Bai, Jiayi; Wang, Siqi; Ji, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple crop experiment of hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. with low accumulation Chinese cabbage Fenyuanxin 3 were conducted in a cadmium (Cd) contaminated vegetable field. In the first round, the average removal rate of S. nigrum to Cd was about 10% without assisted phytoextraction reagent addition for the top soil (0-20 cm) with Cd concentration at 0.53-0.97 mg kg(-1) after its grew 90 days. As for assisted phytoextraction reagent added plots, efficiency of Cd remediation might reach at 20%. However, in the second round, Cd concentration in Chinese cabbage was edible, even in the plots with assisted phytoextraction reagent added. Thus, multiple cropping hyperaccumulator with low accumulation crop could normally remediate contaminated soil and produce crop (obtain economic benefit) in one year, which may be one practical pathway of phytoremediating heavy metal contaminated soil in the future.

  15. Genetic diversity of "Pimenta Longa" genotypes (Piper spp., Piperaceae of the Embrapa Acre germplasm collection

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    Lúcia Helena de Oliveira Wadt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly known Pimenta longa is a commercially valuable natural resource found wild in Acre, Brazil. Specifically, three Piperaceae species with contested taxonomic status were studied, Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum, to assesses the inter- and intra-specific genetic relationship of 49 Piper genotypes kept in the Pimenta longa germplasm collection at Embrapa Acre, using sixty six Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. The DNA polymorphism level detected was high (96.97%, but the marker frequencies for each species showed polymorphism levels of 79.4% for Piper hispidinervum and 5.3% for P. aduncum. The genetic similarity clustering analysis resulted in three distinct groups corresponding to Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum. Four and nine characteristic RAPD markers were identified for P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum, respectively, supporting the existence of two separate species. However, six genotypes collected in Tarauacá county formed a distinct subgroup within the P. hispidinervum group and may be considered as an ecotype of this species or an intermediate between the P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum groups. More extensive sampling of both P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum populations throughout the region are needed to further establish their relation and its implication for breeding efforts.

  16. The invasive shrub Piper aduncum in Papua New Guinea: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    HARTEMINK AE. 2010. The invasive shrub Piper aduneum in Papua New Guinea: a review. Piper aduncum is a shrub native to Central America. It is found in most Central and South American countries and also in the Caribbean and southern Florida (USA). In Asia and the Pacific, P aduncum occurs in

  17. Improvement in phytoremediation potential of Solanum nigrum under cadmium contamination through endophytic-assisted Serratia sp. RSC-14 inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdur Rahim; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdul Latif; Park, Gun-Seok; Waqas, Muhammad; Hong, Sung-Jun; Jung, Byung Kwon; Kwak, Yunyoung; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The growth of hyperaccumulator plants is often compromised by increased toxicity of metals like cadmium (Cd). However, extraction of such metals from the soil can be enhanced by endophytic microbial association. Present study was aimed to elucidate the potential of microbe-assisted Cd phytoextraction in hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum plants and their interactions under varied Cd concentrations. An endophytic bacteria Serratia sp. RSC-14 was isolated from the roots of S. nigrum. In addition to Cd tolerance up to 4 mM, the RSC-14 exhibited phosphate solubilization and secreted plant growth-promoting phytohormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (54 μg/mL). S. nigrum plants were inoculated with RSC-14 and were grown in different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, and 30 mg Cd kg(-1) sand). Results revealed that Cd treatment caused significant cessation in plant growth, biomass, and chlorophyll content, whereas significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte production in leaves were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, RSC-14 inoculation relived the toxic effects of Cd-induced stress by significantly increasing root/shoot growth, biomass production, and chlorophyll content and decreasing MDA and electrolytes contents. Ameliorative effects on host growth were also observed by the regulation of metal-induced oxidative stress enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, and polyphenol peroxidase. Activities of these enzymes were significantly reduced in RSC-14 inoculated plants as compared to control plants under Cd treatments. The lower activities of stress responsive enzymes suggest modulation of Cd stress by RSC-14. The current findings support the beneficial uses of Serratia sp. RSC-14 in improving the phytoextraction abilities of S. nigrum plants in Cd contamination.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Piper species: a perspective from screening to molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Malhotra, Shashwat; Prasad, Ashok K; Van der Eycken, Erik V; Bracke, Marc E; Stetler-Stevenson, William G; Parmar, Virinder S; Ghosh, Balaram

    2015-01-01

    Identifying novel therapeutic agents from natural sources and their possible intervention studies has been one of the major areas in biomedical research in recent years. Piper species are highly important - commercially, economically and medicinally. Our groups have been working for more than two decades on the identification and characterization of novel therapeutic lead molecules from Piper species. We have extensively studied the biological activities of various extracts of Piper longum and Piper galeatum, and identified and characterized novel molecules from these species. Using synthetic chemistry, various functional groups of the lead molecules were modified and structure activity relationship (SAR) studies identified synthetic molecules with better efficacy and lower IC50 values. Moreover, the mechanisms of actions of some of these molecules were studied at the molecular level. The objective of this review is to summarize experimental data published from our laboratories and others on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of Piper species and their chemical constituents.

  19. Slow growth of Empetrum nigrum in industrial barrens: Combined effect of pollution and age of extant plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zverev, Vitali E. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: vitzve@utu.fi; Zvereva, Elena L.; Kozlov, Mikhail V. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    We studied the impact of industrial pollution on population demography (age structure), growth and reproduction of crowberry, Empetrum nigrum L. Crowberry growing in severely polluted sites near non-ferrous smelters (at Harjavalta, Monchegorsk and Nikel) was on average twice as old as in unpolluted habitats, as indicated by the number of annual rings at root collar. Shoot length decreased both with plant ageing and due to pollution impact, while neither the proportion of generative plants nor berry production was affected by pollution or plant age. Our results suggest that death of the extant individuals of E. nigrum near the non-ferrous smelters is to a large extent explained by age-related damage of the main stem accelerated by pollution. Since vegetative propagation, seed germination and seedling establishment are hampered by soil toxicity, E. nigrum populations near the smelters continue to decline with ageing in spite of the gradual decline of emissions. - Both older age of crowberry in heavily polluted sites and pollution-induced environmental disturbance contributed to slower growth, but had no effect on fructification.

  20. The variability of leaf anatomical characteristics of Solanum nigrum L. (Solana-les, Solanaceae from different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Lana N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe on the whole as well as in Yugoslavia, the most widespread weed species from the genus Solanum is Solanum nigrum L. Since this species inhabits different habitats, it developed several ways of adaptation to environmental conditions. The influence of ecological factors on plant organism and resulting plant adaptations are most evident in leaf morphology and anatomy. Therefore, the anatomical structure of leaves and leaf epidermal tissue of S. nigrum was analyzed and compared among plants that originated from different habitats, in order to determine leaf structural adaptations. S. nigrum lamina has the mesomorphic structure with some xero-heliomorphic adaptations. The differences in stomata number, number of hairs, thickness of lamina, palisade and spongy tissue, as well as the size of mesophyll cells have been noticed. The highest values for most of the parameters have been recorded for the plants from cultivated soil. Largest variations of the examined characters were found for the leaves from ruderal habitats, where environmental conditions are most variable.

  1. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru

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    Eric Tepe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date.

  2. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Eric J; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-01

    We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date.

  3. Immunohistochemical, histopathological study and chemoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum in N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats

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    G. M. Akshatha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cancer is a devastating disease with a severe impact on the physical and psychological well-being of patients. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has been reported in various species of animals including dogs, cats, sheep, and pigs. The present study aimed to study the immunohistochemical and histopathological changes and chemoprotective effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Solanum nigrum on N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA-induced HCC rat model. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two male Wistar rats of 15 weeks of age weighing 200-250 g were selected for the experiment. They were randomly divided into ten groups. Group I served as normal control consisted of healthy rats. HCC was induced in Group II, IV, V, VI, VII, and X rats using NDEA as inducing agent followed by phenobarbitone as a promoter for 16 weeks. Group II rats were kept untreated as HCC control. Group III rats were kept as vehicle control (0.05% Sodium bicarbonate. Group IV and V rats were treated with aqueous extract of S. nigrum at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, respectively, and Group VI and VII rats were treated with an alcoholic extract of S. nigrum at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, respectively, daily orally for 28 days. Group X rats were treated with sorafenib as reference drug at a dose of 11.4 mg/kg daily orally for 28 days. Group VIII and IX rats were kept as aqueous and alcoholic extract control for studying the effect of the same on normal rats. Liver samples were collected to study the gross and histopathological lesions and the activity of cleaved caspase-3 and chemopreventive effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. nigrum on HCC. Results: The liver sections of rats from HCC control (Group II showed loss of lobular architecture, necrosis, fatty change, enlarged and darkened nuclei with variable size, dilatation of hepatic sinusoids with Kupffer cell hyperplasia, dilatation and proliferation of bile duct, and intranuclear vacuoles and also showed the presence

  4. An investigation to evaluate the analgesic and central nervous system depressant activities of Solanum nigrum (Linn. in Homoeopathic potencies in experimental animal models

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    Echur Natarajan Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: In Homoeopathy, Solanum nigrum is clinically used in the treatment of ergotism, meningitis, irritation during dentition and some of the symptoms of neurological disorders but its Central Nervous System (CNS potential has not been explored experimentally yet. Therefore, a preliminary study was conducted with an objective to evaluate the analgesic and CNS depressant effects of homoeopathic potencies of S. nigrum in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Wistar albino rats using a hot plate, ice plate and Randall-Selitto assay for analgesic; rota-rod and open field test for CNS depressant activities. The different potencies (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C of Solanum nigrum were administered orally (0.5 ml/rat/day for 30 days and response was assessed after 30 minutes of drug administration on 10 th , 20 th and 30 th day. Results: The result shows that all the four potencies of Solanum nigrum has increased the latency time required to raise and lick the paws for thermal sensation on hot plate test and for cold sensation on ice plate test and also increased the degree of threshold pressure to mechanically induced pain on Randall-Selitto assay but depressed the motor coordination and locomotor activities. Conclusion: The result obtained from this preliminary study suggests that homoeopathic preparation of Solanum nigrum in different potencies possess analgesic and CNS depressant activities. Further detailed investigations are required for its possible human use.

  5. Application of manure and compost to contaminated soils and its effect on zinc accumulation by Solanum nigrum inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Ana P.G.C.; Oliveira, Rui S.; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S.; Castro, Paula M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Zn accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in naturally contaminated soil in the presence of different types of organic amendments was assessed. Under the same conditions, the response of the plant to inoculation with two different isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices) was also evaluated. S. nigrum grown in the non-amended soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, with the addition of amendments inducing reductions of up to 80 and 40%, for manure and compost, respectively, and enhancing plant biomass yields. The establishment of S. nigrum in the Zn contaminated soil combined with the application of amendments led to a 70-80% reduction in the amount of Zn leached through the soil. The use of S. nigrum in combination with manure appeared as an effective method for reducing the effects of soil contamination, diminishing Zn transfer to other environmental compartments via percolation. - The use of S. nigrum in combination with manure appeared as an effective method for the stabilisation of a metal contaminated soil

  6. Efficient DNA barcode regions for classifying Piper species (Piperaceae

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    Arunrat Chaveerach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Piper species are used for spices, in traditional and processed forms of medicines, in cosmetic compounds, in cultural activities and insecticides. Here barcode analysis was performed for identification of plant parts, young plants and modified forms of plants. Thirty-six Piper species were collected and the three barcode regions, matK, rbcL and psbA-trnH spacer, were amplified, sequenced and aligned to determine their genetic distances. For intraspecific genetic distances, the most effective values for the species identification ranged from no difference to very low distance values. However, P. betle had the highest values at 0.386 for the matK region. This finding may be due to P. betle being an economic and cultivated species, and thus is supported with growth factors, which may have affected its genetic distance. The interspecific genetic distances that were most effective for identification of different species were from the matK region and ranged from a low of 0.002 in 27 paired species to a high of 0.486. Eight species pairs, P. kraense and P. dominantinervium, P. magnibaccum and P. kraense, P. phuwuaense and P. dominantinervium, P. phuwuaense and P. kraense, P. pilobracteatum and P. dominantinervium, P. pilobracteatum and P. kraense, P. pilobracteatum and P. phuwuaense and P. sylvestre and P. polysyphonum, that presented a genetic distance of 0.000 and were identified by independently using each of the other two regions. Concisely, these three barcode regions are powerful for further efficient identification of the 36 Piper species.

  7. Antifungal activity of natural and synthetic amides from Piper species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Joaquim V.; Oliveira, Alberto de; Kato, Massuo J., E-mail: majokato@iq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Raggi, Ludmila; Young, Maria C. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2010-07-01

    The antifungal leaves extract from Piper scutifolium was submitted to bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum yielding piperine, piperlonguminine and corcovadine as the active principles which displayed a detection limit of 1 {mu}g. Structure-activity relationships were investigated with the preparation of twelve analogs having differences in the number of unsaturations, aromatic ring substituents and in the amide moiety. Analogs having a single double-bond and no substituent in the aromatic ring displayed higher activity, while N,N,-diethyl analogs displayed higher dose-dependent activity. (author)

  8. Radioprotective property of the ethanolic extract of Piper betel leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Roychowdhury, S.; Bandyopadhyay, S.K.; Subramanian, M.; Bauri, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Kamat, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The radioprotective activity of Piper betel ethanolic extract (PE) has been studied using rat liver mitochondria and pBR 322 plasmid DNA as two model in vitro systems. The extract effectively prevented γ-ray induced lipid peroxidation as assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates, lipid hydroperoxide and conjugated diene. Likewise, it prevented radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in a concentration dependent manner. The radioprotective activity of PE could be attributed to its hydroxyl and superoxide radicals scavenging property along with its lymphoproliferative activity. The radical scavenging capacity of PE was primarily due to its constituent phenolics, which were isolated and identified as chevibetol and allyl pyrocatechol. (author)

  9. Three new compounds from Piper montealegreanum Yuncker (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Harley da S.; Souza, Maria de F.V. de; Chaves, Maria C. de O., E-mail: cchaves@ltf.ufpb.b [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2011-07-01

    Three new compounds: two flavonoids [(S)-8-formyl-3',5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6-methylflavanone (1) and 3'-formyl-3,4',6'-trihydroxy-2'-methoxy-5'-methylchalcone (2)] and one phenylpropanoid [ethyl 3,4-methylenedioxy-5-methoxy-7,8-dihydrocinnamate (3)] were isolated from dried branches of Piper montealegreanum. Their structures were established by UV, IR, MS, 1D and 2D ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) NMR spectroscopic techniques, besides interpretation of spectral data ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) of methylated derivatives of 1 and 2 compounds. (author)

  10. Analysis of genetic diversity of certain species of Piper using RAPD-based molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Utpal; Tanti, Bhaben; Rethy, Parakkal; Gajurel, Padma Raj

    2014-09-01

    The utility of RAPD markers in assessing genetic diversity and phenetic relationships of six different species of Piper from Northeast India was investigated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with four arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers applied to the six species produced a total of 195 marker bands, of which, 159 were polymorphic. On average, six RAPD fragments were amplified per reaction. In the UPGMA phenetic dendrogram based on Jaccard's coefficient, the different accessions of Piper showed a high level of genetic variation. This study may be useful in identifying diverse genetic stocks of Piper, which may then be conserved on a priority basis.

  11. The pied piper of Hamelin: Exploring the story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mury Bergmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article’s goal is to explore the story of The Pied Piper of Hamelin. In order to do so, social aspects of childhood in the (probable time when the story was created are presented, as well as some curiosities about the text. Furthermore, this paper brings a personal statement (by the authors of a storytelling activity in a public school nursery in Porto Alegre, based upon the version of the book The Pied Piper of Hamelin, by Tatiana Belinky. After some questions and informal conversation about the tale, the children’s verbal expositions were analyzed. The research brings, as a theoretical background, contributions of studies from authors connected, mainly, to the field of Children’s Literature and Education. It brought the conclusion that the piper’s story motivated representative interventions, since during the storytelling activity children used typical aspects of their culture and also showed their dominium of temporal arrangement of the text’s events, as well as their peculiar creativity – according to their age – of recreating in the situation of the so-called make-believe.

  12. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule.

  13. Antioxidative and antiplatelet effects of aqueous inflorescence Piper betle extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Daniel; Chan, Chiu-Po; Wang, Ying-Jan; Wang, Tong-Mei; Lin, Bor-Ru; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Chang, Mei-Chi

    2003-03-26

    Piper betle, belonging to the Piperaceae family, is a tropical plant, and its leaf and inflorescence are popularly consumed by betel quid (BQ) chewers in Taiwan and many other South and Southeast Asian countries. However, little is known about the biochemical properties of inflorescence Piper betle (IPB) toward reactive oxygen species (ROS) and platelet functions. In the present work, aqueous IPB extract was shown to be a scavenger of H(2)O(2), superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of about 80, 28, and 73 microg/mL, respectively. IPB extract also prevented the hydroxyl radical induced PUC18 plasmid DNA breaks at concentrations higher than 40 microg/mL. Since ROS are crucial for platelet aggregation, we further found that IPB extract also inhibited the arachidonic acid (AA) induced and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, with an IC(50) of 207 and 335 microg/mL, respectively. IPB extract also inhibited the AA-, collagen- (>100 microg/mL of IPB), and thrombin (>250 microg/mL of IPB)-induced thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) production by more than 90%. However, IPB extract showed little effect on thrombin-induced aggregation. These results indicated that aqueous components of IPB are potential ROS scavengers and may prevent the platelet aggregation possibly via scavenging ROS or inhibition of TXB(2) production.

  14. Quantitative structure-cytotoxicity relationship of piperic acid amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Chiyako; Uesawa, Yoshihiro; Ishihara, Mariko; Kagaya, Hajime; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Takao, Koichi; Miyashiro, Takaki; Sugita, Yoshiaki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    A total of 12 piperic acid amides, including piperine, were subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, based on their cytotoxicity, tumor selectivity and anti-HIV activity, in order to find new biological activities. Cytotoxicity against four human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and three human oral normal cells was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Tumor selectivity was evaluated by the ratio of the mean 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) against normal oral cells to that against OSCC cell lines. Anti-HIV activity was evaluated by the ratio of the CC50 to 50% HIV infection-cytoprotective concentration (EC50). Physicochemical, structural, and quantum-chemical parameters were calculated based on the conformations optimized by LowModeMD method followed by density functional theory method. All compounds showed low-to-moderate tumor selectivity, but no anti-HIV activity. N-Piperoyldopamine ( 8: ) which has a catechol moiety, showed the highest tumor selectivity, possibly due to its unique molecular shape and electrostatic interaction, especially its largest partial equalization of orbital electronegativities and vsurf descriptors. The present study suggests that molecular shape and ability for electrostatic interaction are useful parameters for estimating the tumor selectivity of piperic acid amides. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Epicoccum nigrum for growth, morphology and production of natural colorants in liquid media and on a solid rice medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Meyer, Anne S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    in M1 medium (unoptimized) containing 5 g/l yeast autolysate. The color hue of the crude pigment extracts ranged from 74 to 102 exhibiting dark orange to green-yellow color. Pelleted morphology was shown to have a positive influence on the pigment production by E. nigrum strain IBT 41028 in the liquid...... genera preferred rice but E. nigrum produced 4.6 folds higher pigment in the liquid unoptimized fermentation medium compared to M. ruber. Solid phase extraction and subsequently HPLC-DAD analysis of the crude pigment extracts showed qualitative as well as quantitative variation in the pigment composition...

  16. The Effect of Shoot/Root Competition of Black night shade (Solanum nigrum on Growth and Seed Yield of Mung Bean (Vigna radiate L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Goldani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the competition effects of Solanum nigrum on Vigna radiate yield, an additive experiment was conducts at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad experimental Greenhouse. The type of design was completely randomized block. Treatments included three density of Solanum nigrum (2, 4, and 6 plants m-2 and three types of competition (root, shoot and both of them planted at constant density of Vigna radiate plus weed free check in each block. The results indicated that competitions had significant effects (P

  17. Piper and Vismia species from Colombian Amazonia differentially affect cell proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizcano, Leandro J; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2014-12-30

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma.

  18. Secondary metabolites from the phloem of Piper solmsianum (Piperaceae) in the honeydew of Edessa meditabunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clécio S; Kato, Massuo J

    2012-01-01

    The phytochemistry of species of the genus Piper has been studied extensively, including Piper solmsianum. However, no studies have addressed the phytochemistry of the sap content of Piper species. To evaluate the transferring of secondary compounds from the saps of P. solmsianum to the honeydew of Edessa meditabunda. The honeydew of E. meditabunda and saps of P. solmsianum were analysed by GC-MS, (1) H-NMR and LC-MS. The lignan (-)-grandisin and the phenylpropanoid (E)-isoelemicin were detected in both saps of P. solmsianum and honeydew of E. meditabunda. Analysis of honeydew secreted by the sap-sucking insect E. meditabunda indicated that (-)-grandisin and (E)-isoelemicin are absorbed from the phloem of Piper solmsianum. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Ethnomedical uses and pharmacological activities of most prevalent species of genus Piper in Panama: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Santana, Ana I; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2018-05-10

    Piperaceae is the fifth largest family of plants in Panama. This review focuses on the ethnomedical uses of the most prevalent Panamanian species and biological activities of their extracts and/or constituents both in Panama and worldwide. Many species have a plethora of ethnomedical uses such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antiulcer, antiprotozoal, estrogenic, insecticidal, local anesthetic, diuretic, and for women's health conditions. The aim of this review is to compile all ethnomedical uses of most prevalent species of Piper in Panama, and their extracts or phytoconstituents worldwide, through a complete literature search, so that it may allow selection of potential unexplored Piper species for future research and development of phytotherapeuticals for important ailments. This review conducted a thorough search in books and databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Sci-Finder, Scopus, ACS publications, Science Direct, and Reaxys (Elsevier), until October of 2017. The information provided in this review is based on peer-reviewed papers only in English. The key words used to search were: "Piper", "Piperaceae", "Panama", "Pharmacological activity", "Chemistry," "Toxicity," and "Clinical studies". Scientific names of the plants were validated through www.tropicos.org. Potential full-texts of eligible papers, irrespective of database, were identified. Study selection and data extraction were conducted by one author (AIS) and confirmed by others (MPG, ADA). The extracted data were summarized in tabular form and a narrative description was used to provide a summary of updated information. The ethnomedical uses of most prevalent 23 Panamanian species of Piper both in Panama as well in the world are provided. Of these species only Piper arboreum, Piper auritum, Piper cordulatum, Piper hispidum, Piper dariense, Piper multiplinervium and Piper umbellatum have ethnomedical uses in Panama. Some of the

  20. Expression of an osmotin-like protein from Solanum nigrum confers drought tolerance in transgenic soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ricardo Luís Mayer; Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Bredemeier, Christian; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; de Brito, Giovani Greigh; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Bertagnolli, Paulo Fernando; de Sá, Maria Eugênia Lisei; Campos, Magnólia de Araújo; de Amorim, Regina Maria Santos; Beneventi, Magda Aparecida; Margis, Rogério; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2014-12-10

    Drought is by far the most important environmental factor contributing to yield losses in crops, including soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. To address this problem, a gene that encodes an osmotin-like protein isolated from Solanum nigrum var. americanum (SnOLP) driven by the UBQ3 promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana was transferred into the soybean genome by particle bombardment. Two independently transformed soybean lines expressing SnOLP were produced. Segregation analyses indicated single-locus insertions for both lines. qPCR analysis suggested a single insertion of SnOLP in the genomes of both transgenic lines, but one copy of the hpt gene was inserted in the first line and two in the second line. Transgenic plants exhibited no remarkable phenotypic alterations in the seven analyzed generations. When subjected to water deficit, transgenic plants performed better than the control ones. Leaf physiological measurements revealed that transgenic soybean plants maintained higher leaf water potential at predawn, higher net CO2 assimilation rate, higher stomatal conductance and higher transpiration rate than non-transgenic plants. Grain production and 100-grain weight were affected by water supply. Decrease in grain productivity and 100-grain weight were observed for both transgenic and non-transgenic plants under water deficit; however, it was more pronounced for non-transgenic plants. Moreover, transgenic lines showed significantly higher 100-grain weight than non-transgenic plants under water shortage. This is the first report showing that expression of SnOLP in transgenic soybeans improved physiological responses and yield components of plants when subjected to water deficit, highlighting the potential of this gene for biotechnological applications.

  1. Anatomia comparada de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC.) e pimenta de macaco (Piper aduncum L.) cultivadas in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Simone Alencar; Teixeira, Renata Beltrão; Raposo, Andrea; Fermino Junior, Paulo Cesar Poeta

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p11Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum contain the secondary metabolites safrole and dilapiol, and there is commercial interest in their essential oils. The study aimed to compare anatomical aspects related to physiological responses of leaves from P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum propagated in vitro, in vivo and during acclimatization. Paradermal sections and cross-sections of leaves from in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo culture, were obtained for ...

  2. A chromene and prenylated benzoic acid from Piper aduncum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoqui, D C; Kato, M J; Cavalheiro, A J; Bolzani, V da S; Young, M C; Furlan, M

    1999-08-01

    In addition to nerolidol, 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone, methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate, methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate and methyl 8-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate, two new natural products were isolated from the leaves of Piper aduncum, 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylic acid and 3-(3',7'-dimethyl-2',6'-octadienyl)-4-methoxybenzoic acid. The structures of the isolates were established based on analysis of spectroscopic data, including ES-MS. The DNA-damaging activity of the isolated compounds was also investigated against mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  3. [Alkaloids and lignans from stems of Piper betle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangzhong; Yin, Yan; Huang, Wenquan; Sun, Kuizong; Cheng, Chunmei; Bai, Lian; Dai, Yun

    2010-09-01

    Alkaloids and lignans from the stems of Piper betle were studied. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, reverse phase silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. From the ethyl acetate soluble fractions of the 70% acetone extract, ten compounds were isolated and identified as piperine (1), pellitorine (2), N-isobutyl-2E,4E-dodecadienamide (3), dehydropipernonaline (4), piperdardine (5), piperolein-B (6), guineensine (7), (2E,4E)-N-isobutyl-7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4-heptadienamide (8), syringaresinol-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9),pinoresinol (10). All Compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time, and compounds 9 and 10 were isolated firstly from the genus.

  4. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Kumaratunga, K G; Dissanayake, D S; Ratnasooriya, W D; Kumarasingha, S P

    2011-07-01

    Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka.

  5. Estudio químico de piper steerni1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Posso O.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto clorofórmico de las hojas de Piper steerni se aislaron por métodos cromatográficos 5,7-dihidroxyflavanona, 5-hidroxi-7-metoxinavona y P-sitosterol; cl extracto en acetato de etilo del tallo del mismo vegetal presentó iguales constituyentes que las hojas junto con bases nitrogenadas de las cuales se identificó N-(4-hidroxifcniletilen cinamamida como un nuevo compuesto en la familia Piperaceae. Los metabolitos secundarios mayoritarios del aceite esencial de las hojas de P. steerni fueron caracterizados como benzaldehido, alcohol bencílico y benzoato de etilo. Las estructuras de los compuestos fueron establecidas por métodos quimicos y espectroscópicos y por correlaciones con substancias conocidas.

  6. Amides and neolignans from the aerial parts of Piper bonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Duo-Duo; Wang, Yue-Hu; Chen, Ya-Hui; Mei, Ren-Qiang; Yang, Jun; Luo, Ji-Feng; Li, Yan; Long, Chun-Lin; Kong, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Six amides, piperbonamides A-F, three neolignans piperbonins A-C, and 11 known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper bonii (Piperaceae). The structures of piperbonamides A-F and piperbonins A-C were elucidated based on the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. Piperbonin A, (+)-trans-acuminatin, (+)-cis-acuminatin, (+)-kadsurenone, and pipernonaline showed weak activity against platelet aggregation with IC50 values of 118.2, 108.5, 90.02, 107.3, and 116.3 μM, respectively, as compared with the positive control, tirofiban, with an IC50 value of 5.24 μM. Piperbonamides A-F were inactive against five tumor cell lines at concentrations up to 40 μM. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effect of cadmium toxicity on nitrogen metabolism in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a newly found cadmium hyperaccumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Zhou Qixing; Ding Lingling; Sun Yuebing

    2008-01-01

    Hyperaccumulators are ideal plant species used for phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A full understanding of metal tolerance mechanisms of hyperaccumulators will facilitate enhancing their phytoremediation efficiency. However, how Cd affects N metabolism and which role plays the response of N metabolism to Cd toxicity in the tolerance of hyperaccumulators are still unknown. To clarify these questions, this study investigated the effects of various soil Cd levels on the concentrations of N forms and the activity of key enzymes involved in N metabolism in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L. The results showed that its growth and all N metabolism indicators were normal at low Cd exposure (≤12 mg kg -1 ). At 24 mg Cd kg -1 soil, nitrate assimilation indicators (nitrate concentration and activity of nitrate reductase) were reduced significantly, whereas most ammonia assimilation indicators (ammonium concentration and activity of glutamine synthetase) remained normal. However, when exposed to a higher Cd level (48 mg kg -1 ), growth and most N metabolism indicators were reduced significantly. Therefore, N metabolism in leaves of S. nigrum could be tolerant of Cd toxicity to a certain extent (soil Cd concentration ≤12 mg kg -1 ), and this might be involved in the Cd-tolerance of this Cd-hyperaccumulator

  8. Black Currant (Ribes nigrum L. and Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. Fruit Juices Inhibit Adhesion of Asaia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Antolak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of high-polyphenolic black currant (Ribes nigrum L. and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. juices against bacterial strains Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis isolated as spoilage of commercial soft drinks. The composition of fruit juices was evaluated using chromatographic techniques HPLC and LC-MS. The adhesion to glass, polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate in two different culture media was evaluated by luminometry and the plate count method. The major anthocyanins in the V. myrtillus were petunidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-glucoside, while in R. nigrum delphinidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were detected. The LC-MS analysis showed presence of anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives, phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, flavonols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and flavanols (procyanidin B2 and procyanidin type A2. Additionally, in the bilberry juice A type procyanidin trimer was detected. The adhesion of Asaia spp. cells depended on the type of medium, carbon sources, and the type of abiotic surfaces. We noted that the adhesion was significantly stronger in minimal medium containing sucrose. The addition of bilberry and black currant juices notably reduced bacterial growth as well as cell adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate surfaces.

  9. The Correlation between Chemical Composition, as Determined by UPLC-TOF-MS, and Acute Toxicity of Veratrum nigrum L. and Radix paeoniae alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianxie Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The eighteen incompatible medicaments is an important theory in traditional Chinese medicine. The theory suggests that drugs in the eighteen incompatible medicaments can be toxic when used together. Veratrum nigrum L. and Radix paeoniae alba belong to the eighteen incompatible medicaments and have been prohibited for thousands of years. This study offers preliminary insight into the mechanism and chemical constituents responsible for the incompatibility and toxicity of these two agents. Specifically, we performed toxicology studies to identify and quantify the constituent substances of the two agents. Experiments revealed that acute toxicity increases when the dose of V. nigrum L. is higher than, or equal to, RPA. UPLC-TOF-MS analysis showed that, although the volumes of V. nigrum L. were the same, the content of some veratrum alkaloids changed significantly and had a trend toward a highly positive correlation r≥0.8 with toxicity. This suggests that the increased toxicity of the V. nigrum L. and RPA combination was due mainly to increased content of the special veratrum alkaloids. The cytotoxicity of veratridine in SH-SY5Y cells was decreased with increasing paeoniflorin concentrations. This study provides insight into the mechanism behind the incompatibility theory of TCM.

  10. Alteration of the genomic composition of Solanum nigrum (+) potato backcross derivatives by somatic hybridisation: selection of fusion hybrids by DNA measurements and GISH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsman, K.; Gavrilenko, T.; Bergervoet, M.; Huigen, D.J.; Tjin Wong Joe, A.; Jacobsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Fusion experiments were performed with a first (BC1-6738) and a second (BC2-9017) generation backcross hybrid of 6x Solanum nigrum (+) 2x potato somatic hybrids with potato cultivars. Because no progeny was obtained from the BC2 genotypes, alternative approaches were sought to overcome the sexual

  11. Morphological and phytochemical characterization of Piper hispidinervum DC. and Piper aduncum L. populations in the state of Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacson Rondinelli da Silva Negreiros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing demand of the industry for the production of essential oils, studies highlight the genetic variability of Piper hispidinervum and P. aduncum species according to their patterns of spatial distribution, showing the Amazon region as the source of superior genetic material in the production of safrole and dillapiole. Thus, the objective this study was to characterize the morphology and the phytochemistry of Piper hispidinervum and P. aduncum populations in the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Acre to generate subsidies for the genetic improvement of these species. The results showed that the average values for leaf width and length were 141.67 and 48.04 mm, and petioles length and diameter measurements were 2.83 and 1.78 mm for P. hispidinervum and 189.22; 67.74; 6.03 and 2.22 mm for P. aduncum respectively. The average height and canopy volume measurements were 2.39 m and 6.30 m3 and 2.70 m and 7.78 m3 respectively for each species. For P. hispidinervum, the population with higher performance indried yield and content of safrole was population 02, with 3.9%, and the population 04 showed 94.3% safrole content, both with genetic material from the region of Acrelândia and Plácido de Castro. To P. aduncum, the populations with better performance were 207, 208 and 209, forming a homogeneous group with dried yield average of 3.8% and dillapiol content of 84-85%. Such populations are indicated for selection in breeding program of these species due to better performance.

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Piper [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Piper 名詞 一般 * * * * コショウ属 コショウゾク コショーゾク Thesaurus2015 200906052994671517 C LS06 UNKNOWN_1 Piper

  13. Piper sarmentosum enhances fracture healing in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats: a radiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdalla Estai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Osteoporotic fractures are common during osteoporotic states. Piper sarmentosum extract is known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVES: To observe the radiological changes in fracture calluses following administration of a Piper sarmentosum extract during an estrogen-deficient state. METHODS: A total of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i the sham-operated group; (ii the ovariectomized-control group; (iii the ovariectomized + estrogen-replacement therapy (ovariectomized-control + estrogen replacement therapy group, which was supplemented with estrogen (100 μg/kg/day; and (iv the ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum (ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum group, which was supplemented with a water-based Piper sarmentosum extract (125 mg/kg. Six weeks after an ovariectomy, the right femora were fractured at the mid-diaphysis, and a K-wire was inserted. Each group of rats received their respective treatment for 6 weeks. Following sacrifice, the right femora were subjected to radiological assessment. RESULTS: The mean axial callus volume was significantly higher in the ovariectomized-control group (68.2 + 11.74 mm³ than in the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups (20.4 + 4.05, 22.4 + 4.14 and 17.5 + 3.68 mm³, respectively. The median callus scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups had median (range, minimum - maximum value as 1.0 (0 - 2, 1.0 (1 - 2 and 1.0 (1 - 2, respectively, which were significantly lower than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (2 - 3. The median fracture scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups were 3.0 (3 - 4, 3.0 (2 - 3 and 3.0 (2 - 3, respectively, which were significantly higher than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (1 - 2 (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The Piper sarmentosum extract improved

  14. Piper sarmentosum enhances fracture healing in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats: a radiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estai, Mohamed Abdalla; Suhaimi, Farihah Haji; Das, Srijit; Fadzilah, Fazalina Mohd; Alhabshi, Sharifah Majedah Idrus; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are common during osteoporotic states. Piper sarmentosum extract is known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To observe the radiological changes in fracture calluses following administration of a Piper sarmentosum extract during an estrogen-deficient state. A total of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i) the sham-operated group; (ii) the ovariectomized-control group; (iii) the ovariectomized + estrogen-replacement therapy (ovariectomized-control + estrogen replacement therapy) group, which was supplemented with estrogen (100 μg/kg/day); and (iv) the ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum (ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum) group, which was supplemented with a water-based Piper sarmentosum extract (125 mg/kg). Six weeks after an ovariectomy, the right femora were fractured at the mid-diaphysis, and a K-wire was inserted. Each group of rats received their respective treatment for 6 weeks. Following sacrifice, the right femora were subjected to radiological assessment. The mean axial callus volume was significantly higher in the ovariectomized-control group (68.2 ± 11.74 mm³) than in the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups (20.4 ± 4.05, 22.4 ± 4.14 and 17.5 ± 3.68 mm³, respectively). The median callus scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups had median (range, minimum - maximum value) as 1.0 (0 - 2), 1.0 (1 - 2) and 1.0 (1 - 2), respectively, which were significantly lower than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (2 - 3). The median fracture scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups were 3.0 (3 - 4), 3.0 (2 - 3) and 3.0 (2 - 3), respectively, which were significantly higher than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (1 - 2) (pPiper sarmentosum extract improved fracture healing, as assessed by the reduced callus volumes and

  15. A Late Cretaceous Piper (Piperaceae) from Colombia and diversification patterns for the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Camila; Carvalho, Mónica R; Madriñán, Santiago; Jaramillo, Carlos A

    2015-02-01

    Documented fossil floras in the neotropics are sparse, yet their records provide evidence on the spatial and temporal occurrence of taxa, allowing for testing of biogeographical and diversification scenarios on individual lineages. A new fossil Piper from the Late Cretaceous of Colombia is described here, and its importance for assessing diversification patterns in the genus is addressed. Leaf architecture of 32 fossil leaf compressions from the Guaduas Formation was compared with that of 294 extant angiosperm species. The phylogenetic position of the fossil named Piper margaritae sp. nov. was established based on leaf traits and a molecular scaffold of Piper. The age of the fossil was independently used as a calibration point for divergence time estimations. Natural affinities of P. margaritae to the Schilleria clade of Piper indicate that the genus occurred in tropical America by the Late Cretaceous. Estimates of age divergence and lineage accumulation reveal that most of the extant diversity of the genus accrued during the last ∼30 Myr. The recent radiation of Piper is coeval with both the Andean uplift and the emergence of Central America, which have been proposed as important drivers of diversity. This pattern could exemplify a recurrent theme among many neotropical plant lineages. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  16. Profiling of Piper betle Linn. cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vikas; Sharma, Deepty; Kumar, Brijesh; Madhusudanan, K P

    2010-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. is a traditional plant associated with the Asian and southeast Asian cultures. Its use is also recorded in folk medicines in these regions. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proven. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols in betel leaves. These constituents vary in the different cultivars of Piper betle. In this paper we have attempted to profile eight locally available betel cultivars using the recently developed mass spectral ionization technique of direct analysis in real time (DART). Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART MS data of these betel cultivars. The results show that the cultivars of Piper betle could be differentiated using DART MS data. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Chemical analyses and in vitro and in vivo toxicity of fruit methanol extract of Sechium edule var. nigrum spinosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiñiga-Sánchez, Itzen; Cadena-Íñiguez, Jorge; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Gómez-García, Guadalupe; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rosado-Pérez, Juana; Ruíz-Ramos, Mirna; Cisneros-Solano, Víctor Manuel; Ledesma-Martínez, Edgar; Delgado-Bordonave, Angel de Jesus; Soto-Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2017-12-01

    Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) is used in ethnomedicine, but the diversity of the varietal groups of this species has not often been considered. This is important because we previously reported that different variety of species exhibit different activities across different tumor cell lines. This study investigates the chemical composition and biological activities of extracts obtained from S. edule var. nigrum spinosum. The leukemia P388 cell line and mononuclear bone marrow cells (MNCBMs) were treated with the extract at a concentration ranging from 40 to 2370 μg/mL for cytotoxicity and viability assays. CD-1 mice were treated with 8-5000 mg/kg extract and monitored every hour for the first 24 h and subsequently for seven days for signs of toxicity (LD 50 ). In addition, the chromatographic profile of the extract was determined by HPLC. The extract inhibits the proliferation of both P388 cells and MNCBMs, with IC 50 values of 927 and 1911 μg/mL, respectively, but reduced the viability and induced the apoptosis of only leukemia cells. The LD 50 was higher than 5000 mg/kg, and this concentration did not alter the blood chemistry or cell count but doubled the mitotic index in the bone marrow. The HPLC showed the presence of cucurbitacins, phloridzin, naringenin, phloretin, apigenin, and gallic, chlorogenic, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, and p-coumaric acids. Sechium edule var. nigrum spinosum contains bioactive compounds that explain the antiproliferative and nutraceutical activities, and its lack of physiological side effects constitutes an added value to a widely consumed vegetable.

  18. The isometric log-ratio (ilr)-ion plot: A proposed alternative to the Piper diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; Engle, Mark A.; Buccianti, Antonella; Blondes, Madalyn S.

    2018-01-01

    The Piper diagram has been a staple for the analysis of water chemistry data since its introduction in 1944. It was conceived to be a method for water classification, determination of potential water mixing between end-members, and to aid in the identification of chemical reactions controlling a sample set. This study uses the information gleaned over the years since the release of the Piper diagram and proposes an alternative to it, capturing the strengths of the original diagram while adding new ideas to increase its robustness. The new method uses compositional data analysis to create 4 isometric log-ratio coordinates for the 6 major chemical species analyzed in the Piper diagram and transforms the data to a 4-field bi-plot, the ilr-ion plot. This ilr-ion plot conveys all of the information in the Piper diagram (water mixing, water types, and chemical reactions) while also visualizing additional data, the ability to examine Ca2+/Mg2+ versus Cl-/SO42−. The Piper and the ilr-ion plot were also compared using multiple synthetic and real datasets in order to illustrate the caveats and the advantages of using either diagram to analyze water chemistry data. Although there are challenges with using the ilr-ion plot (e.g., missing or zero values zeros in the dataset must be imputed by positive real numbers), it appears that the use of compositional data analysis coupled with the ilr-ion plot provides a more in-depth and complete analysis of water quality data compared to the original Piper diagram.

  19. A comparison of leaf crystal macropatterns in the two sister genera Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Harry T; Wanke, Stefan; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2012-06-01

    This is the first large-scale study comparing leaf crystal macropatterns of the species-rich sister genera Piper and Peperomia. It focuses on identifying types of calcium oxalate crystals and their macropatterns in leaves of both genera. The Piper results are placed in a phylogenetic context to show evolutionary patterns. This information will expand knowledge about crystals and provide specific examples to help study their form and function. One example is the first-time observation of Piper crystal sand tumbling in chlorenchyma vacuoles. Herbarium and fresh leaves were cleared of cytoplasmic content and examined with polarizing microscopy to identify types of crystals and their macropatterns. Selected hydrated herbarium and fresh leaf punches were processed for scanning electron microscopy and x-ray elemental analysis. Vibratome sections of living Piper and Peperomia leaves were observed for anatomical features and crystal movement. Both genera have different leaf anatomies. Piper displays four crystal types in chlorenchyma-crystal sand, raphides, styloids, and druses, whereas Peperomia displays three types-druses, raphides, and prisms. Because of different leaf anatomies and crystal types between the genera, macropatterns are completely different. Crystal macropattern evolution in both is characterized by increasing complexity, and both may use their crystals for light gathering and reflection for efficient photosynthesis under low-intensity light environments. Both genera have different leaf anatomies, types of crystals and crystal macropatterns. Based on Piper crystals associated with photosynthetic tissues and low-intensity light, further study of their function and association with surrounding chloroplasts is warranted, especially active crystal movement.

  20. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Piper spp using RAPD and SRAP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Liu, J-P

    2011-11-29

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) analysis were applied to 74 individual plants of Piper spp in Hainan Island. The results showed that the SRAP technique may be more informative and more efficient and effective for studying genetic diversity of Piper spp than the RAPD technique. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp in Hainan was relatively high, with the mean Shannon diversity index being 0.2822 and 0.2909, and the mean Nei's genetic diversity being 0.1880 and 0.1947, calculated with RAPD and SRAP data, respectively. The ranges of the genetic similarity coefficient were 0.486-0.991 and 0.520-1.000 for 74 individual plants of Piper spp (the mean genetic distance was 0.505 and 0.480) and the within-species genetic distance ranged from 0.063 to 0.291 and from 0.096 to 0.234, estimated with RAPD and SRAP data, respectively. These genetic indices indicated that these species are closely related genetically. The dendrogram generated with the RAPD markers was topologically different from the dendrogram based on SRAP markers, but the SRAP technique clearly distinguished all Piper spp from each other. Evaluation of genetic variation levels of six populations showed that the effective number of alleles, Nei's gene diversity and the Shannon information index within Jianfengling and Diaoluoshan populations are higher than those elsewhere; consequently conservation of wild resources of Piper in these two regions should have priority.

  1. Lignans and aromatic glycosides from Piper wallichii and their antithrombotic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ni; Shi, Yi-Ming; Yang, Lian; Li, Xing-Cong; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Qu, Yan; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2015-03-13

    Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. is a medicinal plant used widely for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory diseases, cerebral infarction and angina in China. Previous study showed that lignans and neolignans from Piper spp. had potential inhibitory activities on platelet aggregation. In the present study, we investigated the chemical constituents of Piper wallichii and their antithrombotic activities, to support its traditional uses. The methanolic extract of the air-dried stems of Piper wallichii was separated and purified using various chromatographic methods, including semi-preparative HPLC. The chemical structures of the isolates were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and acidic hydrolysis in case of the new glycoside 2. Determination of absolute configurations of the new compound 1 was facilitated by calculated electronic circular dichroism using time-dependent density-functional theory. All compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor (PAF) in rabbits׳ blood model, from which the active ones were further evaluated the in vivo antithrombotic activity in zebrafish model. A new neolignan, piperwalliol A (1), and four new aromatic glycosides, piperwalliosides A-D (2-5) were isolated from the stems of Piper wallichii, along with 25 known compounds, including 13 lignans, six aromatic glycosides, two phenylpropyl aldehydes, and four biphenyls. Five known compounds (6-10) showed in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activities. Among them, (-)-syringaresinol (6) was the most active compound with an IC50 value of 0.52 mM. It is noted that in zebrafish model, the known lignan 6 showed good in vivo antithrombotic effect with a value of 37% at a concentration of 30 μM, compared with the positive control aspirin with the inhibitory value of 74% at a concentration of 125μM. This study demonstrated that lignans, phenylpropanoid and biphenyl found in Piper wallichii may be

  2. Seed Germination and Cuttings Growth of Piper Aduncum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, D.; Sudrajat; Suwinarti, W.; Amirta, R.

    2018-04-01

    Sirih hutan (Piper aduncum L) is one of group shurbs tropical species, has potential to be developed as raw material of biomass based electricity. The aim of this research was to know seed germination and cuttings growth of P. aduncum plant as the first step in cultivation of this plant. Observation of flowers and fruits were done in secondary forest, while seed germination and growth of shoot cuttings were done in the laboratory. The results showed that P. aduncum seeds can be germinated in a relatively short time of 17 to 25 days with a fairly high germination percentage of 90 ± 8.16% and germination rate of 4.7 ± 0.34%. The growth of seedlings at 2 months old was 4.78 ± 0.42 cm, plant height 3.97 ± 0.27 cm, and relative growth rate 0.33 ± 0.14%. The treatment of synthetic growth regulator had significant effect on shoot growth and root number on the plant stem cuttings. Preparation of seedlings ready to plant in a generative and vegetative for cultivation of these plants in the experimental plot.

  3. Bioactive phenylpropanoid analogues from Piper betle L. var. birkoli leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Lal, Uma Ranjan

    2017-11-01

    Phytochemical analyses of the chloroform extract of Piper betle L. var. birkoli, Piperaceae, leaves led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoid analogues: bis-chavicol dodecanoyl ester (2) and bis-hydroxychavicol dodecanoyl ester (3), along with one known compound: allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D ( 1 H- 1 H COSY and HMBC) NMR, as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR, HR-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited excellent antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC 50 values of 12.67 μg/mL and 1.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC 50 value of 6.60 μg/mL. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against two human oral cancer cell lines (AW13516 and AW8507) showed significant effect with GI 50 values of 19.61 and 23.01 μg/mL for compound 2 and 10.25 and 13.12 μg/mL for compound 3, compared to Doxorubicin ® as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI 50 value of < 10 μg/mL.

  4. New chemical constituents from the Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Ranjan Lal, Uma

    2018-05-01

    The phytochemical investigation of chloroform extract from Piper betle var. haldia, Piperaceae, leaves has resulted in the isolation of two new chemical constituents which were identified as 1-n-dodecanyloxy resorcinol (H1) and desmethylenesqualenyl deoxy-cepharadione-A (H4), on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D NMR ( 1 H- 1 H COSY and HMBC) as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR and HR-ESI-MS analyses. Compounds H1 and H4 showed excellent antioxidant DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC 50 values of 7.14 μg/mL and 8.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC 50 value of 2.52 μg/mL, respectively. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against human hepatoma cell line (PLC-PRF-5) showed moderate effect with the GI 50 values of 35.12 μg/mL for H1, 31.01 μg/mL for H4, compared to Doxorubicin ® as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI 50 value of 18.80 μg/mL.

  5. Piper betle-mediated green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punuri, Jayasekhar Babu; Sharma, Pragya; Sibyala, Saranya; Tamuli, Ranjan; Bora, Utpal

    2012-08-01

    Here, we report the novel use of the ethonolic leaf extract of Piper betle for gold nanoparticle (AuNP) synthesis. The successful formation of AuNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, and different parameters such as leaf extract concentration (2%), gold salt concentration (0.5 mM), and time (18 s) were optimized. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized with different biophysical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM experiments showed that nanoparticles were of various shapes and sizes ranging from 10 to 35 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that AuNPs were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group -NH2, carbonyl group, -OH groups, and other stabilizing functional groups. EDX showed the presence of the elements on the surface of the AuNPs. FT-IR and EDX together confirmed the presence of biomolecules bounded on the AuNPs. Cytotoxicity of the AuNPs was tested on HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cell lines, and they were found to be nontoxic, indicating their biocompatibility. Thus, synthesized AuNPs have potential for use in various biomedical applications.

  6. Piper betle extracts exhibit antitumor activity by augmenting antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Badrul; Majumder, Rajib; Akter, Shahina; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL) and its organic fractions with regard to antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and to confirm their antioxidant activities. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells into mice, extracts were administered at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for nine consecutive days. The antitumor effects of the extracts were then assessed according to tumor volume, packed cell count, viable and non-viable tumor cell count, median survival time and increase in life span of EAC-bearing mice. Next, hematological profiles and serum biochemical parameters were calculated, and antioxidant properties were assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. MPBL and the ethylacetate fraction (EPBL) at a dose of 100 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and increased the life span of the EAC-bearing mice (PPiper betle extracts exhibit significant antitumor activity, which may be attributed to the augmentation of endogenous antioxidant potential.

  7. ALCALOIDES BENCILISOQUINOLÍNICOS DEL TALLO DE Piper augustum Rudge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilman Delgado A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto etanólico del tallo de P. augustum Rudge se aislaron: 3beta-hidroxi- 24-etil-delta5.22colestadieno (estigmasterol I ; l,2-metilendioxi-6-metil-4H-dibenzo(deg quinolina-4,5(6Hdiona (Cepharadione A II; lactama del ácido lO-amino-3,4- dimetoxifenantreno-1-carboxílico (Cepharanone B n i y el nuevo compuesto natural: lactama del ácido N-metil-lO-amino- 4-hidroxi-2,3-dimetoxifenantreno-1 –carboxílico IV, Todos los compuestos fueron identificados mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (EM, RMN 'H y "C, IR y UV y comparación con datos reportados en la literatura; adicionalmente I y II fueron identificados por comparación con muestras auténticas (CCF, pf, y pf, mixto. El extracto etanólico del tallo de Piper augustum Rudge presentó una moderada actividad biológica (DL50 = 350 ppm según el ensayo de mortalidad de Artemia salina Leach (Brine Shrimp Lethality.

  8. Chemical constituents from Piper hainanense and their cytotoxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ni; Xin, Ying; Ling, Yi; Li, Xing-Cong; Hao, Chao-Yun; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Two new compounds, (Z,R)-1-phenylethylcinnamate (1) and (1R,2R,3R,6S)-pipoxide (2) were isolated from the aerial part of Piper hainanense, along with 12 known compounds, including nine benzene derivatives (4-11), one isobutylamide (12), and two polyoxygenated cyclohexene derivatives (13-14). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of the HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, and ECD in cases of 2 and 3. The absolute configuration of ellipeiopsol B (3) was determined for the first time. All these compounds 1-14 were reported from the titled plant for the first time. Most of the isolates were tested for their cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines. Four of which, 2, 3, 9, 14 showed moderate bioactivities. Among them, the new compound 2 showed potential cytotoxicity against SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480 with IC50 values of 9.7, 15.0, and 13.2 μM, respectively.

  9. Antioxidant activity of piper betel leaf extract and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Jitesh S; Patro, Birija S; Mula, Soumyaditya; Gamre, Sunita; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2006-11-29

    The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay of the ethanol extracts of three varieties (Bangla, sweet, and Mysore) of Piper betel (pan) revealed the Bangla variety to possess the best antioxidant activity that can be correlated with the total phenolic content and reducing powers of the respective extracts. Column chromatography of the extract of the Bangla variety led to the isolation of chevibetol (CHV), allylpyrocatechol (APC), and their respective glucosides. The HPTLC analyses of the extracts revealed similar chemical profiles in all three P. betel varieties, although the concentrations of CHV and APC were significantly less in the sweet and Mysore varieties. Among the isolated compounds, APC showed the best results in all the in vitro experiments. It could prevent Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liposomes and rat brain homogenates as well as gamma-ray-induced damage of pBR322 plasmid DNA more efficiently than CHV. The superior anti-LPO and radioprotective activities of APC vis-à-vis those of CHV could not be explained by their respective Fe(II) chelation and .OH radical scavenging capacities. The better ability of APC to scavenge O2-. radicals and H2O2 might account for the results.

  10. Phytotoxicity of sarmentine isolated from long pepper (Piper longum) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huazhang; Morgan, Christy M; Asolkar, Ratnakar N; Koivunen, Marja E; Marrone, Pamela G

    2010-09-22

    Discovery of novel natural herbicides has become crucial to overcome increasing weed resistance and environmental issues. In this article, we describe the finding that a methanol extract of dry long pepper (Piper longum L.) fruits is phytotoxic to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings. The bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the crude extract led to isolation of sarmentine (1), a known compound, as the active principle. Phytotoxicity of 1 was examined with a variety of seedlings of field crops and weeds. Results indicated that 1 was a contact herbicide and possessed broad-spectrum herbicidal activity. Moreover, a series of sarmentine analogues were then synthesized to study the structure-activity relationship (SAR). SAR studies suggested that phytotoxicity of sarmentine and its analogues was specific due to chemical structures, i.e., the analogues of the acid moiety of 1 were active, but the amine and its analogues were inactive; the ester analogues and amide analogues with a primary amine of 1 were also inactive. In addition, quantification of 1 from different resources of the dry P. longum fruits using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed a wide variation, ranging from almost zero to 0.57%. This study suggests that 1 has potential as an active lead molecule for synthesized herbicides as well as for bioherbicides derived from natural resources.

  11. Benzoquinona e hidroquinona preniladas y otros constituyentes aislados de Piper Bogotense C. DC.

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Angela Peña; Eliseo Avella; Aura María Puentes de Díaz

    2010-01-01

    Dos compuestos, que innovan la química conocida del género Piper, (2'E,6'E)-2- famesilhidroquinona, (2'E,6'E)-2-famesil- 1,4-benzoquinona, y a-D-glucosa fueron aislados de los frutos de Piper bogotense C. DC; los tallos y las hojas presentaron, como constimyentes mayoritarios, lactama del ácido 10-amino-4-hidroxi-2,3-dimetoxifenantreno carboxílico, 1,2-metilendioxi- 6-metil-4H-dibenzo lde,g] quinolina- ,5(6H)-diona (Cefaradiona A), estigmasterol y sitosterol. Adicionalmente de las ho...

  12. Benzoquinona e hidroquinona preniladas y otros constituyentes aislados de piper bogotense c. dc.

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Luz Angela; Avella, Eliseo; Puentes de Díaz, Aura María

    2010-01-01

    Dos compuestos, que innovan la química conocida del género Piper, (2'E,6'E)-2- famesilhidroquinona, (2'E,6'E)-2-famesil- 1,4-benzoquinona, y a-D-glucosa fueron aislados de los frutos de Piper bogotense C. DC; los tallos y las hojas presentaron, como constimyentes mayoritarios, lactama del ácido 10-amino-4-hidroxi-2,3-dimetoxifenantreno carboxílico, 1,2-metilendioxi- 6-metil-4H-dibenzo lde,g] quinolina- ,5(6H)-diona (Cefaradiona A), estigmasterol y sitosterol. Adicionalmente de las ho...

  13. An Overview of Neolignans of the Genus Piper L.: Isolation Methods and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Arthur Ladeira; Dos Santos, Thais Carvalho Costa; Valverde, Alessandra Leda; Moreira, Davyson de Lima; Vasconcelos, Thatyana Rocha Alves

    2017-01-01

    The genus Piper L. has the shikimic acid pathway predominantly expressed, biosynthesizing many cinnamic acid derivatives (CAD). Neolignans comprise an important class of CAD that exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antitumor, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, smooth muscle relaxant, neuroprotective, antiprotozoal and against platelet aggregation factor. These substances have been extracted and isolated from Piper species using different technics. The present review aims to summarize extraction and isolation methods and biological activities of the different types of neolignans covering the period from 1968 to January 2016. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Occurrence, biological activities and 13C NMR data of amides from Piper (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson C. do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes an update review with up to 285 references concerning the occurrence of amides from a variety of species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae. Besides addressing occurrence, this review also describes the biological activities attributed to extracts and pure compounds, a compiled 13C NMR data set, the main correlations between structural and NMR spectroscopic data of these compounds, and employment of hyphened techniques such as LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR for analysis of amides from biological samples and crude Piper extracts.

  15. Occurrence, biological activities and 13C NMR data of amides from Piper (Piperaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Jeferson C. do; Paula, Vanderlucia F. de; David, Jorge M.; David, Juceni P.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes an update review with up to 285 references concerning the occurrence of amides from a variety of species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae). Besides addressing occurrence, this review also describes the biological activities attributed to extracts and pure compounds, a compiled 13 C NMR data set, the main correlations between structural and NMR spectroscopic data of these compounds, and employment of hyphened techniques such as LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR for analysis of amides from biological samples and crude Piper extracts. (author)

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia catappa, Manilkara zapota and Piper betel Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, R; Chanda, Sumitra

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L., Manilkara zapota L. and Piper betel L. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 Gram positive, 12 Gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, Candida tropicalis. Piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. The three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. The methanolic extract was considerably more effective than aqueous extract in inhibiting the investigated microbial strains. The most active antimicrobial plant was Piper betel.

  17. Occurrence, biological activities and {sup 13}C NMR data of amides from Piper (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Jeferson C. do; Paula, Vanderlucia F. de [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Exatas; David, Jorge M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; David, Juceni P., E-mail: jmdavid@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia

    2012-07-01

    This manuscript describes an update review with up to 285 references concerning the occurrence of amides from a variety of species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae). Besides addressing occurrence, this review also describes the biological activities attributed to extracts and pure compounds, a compiled {sup 13}C NMR data set, the main correlations between structural and NMR spectroscopic data of these compounds, and employment of hyphened techniques such as LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR for analysis of amides from biological samples and crude Piper extracts. (author)

  18. Juodojo serbento (Ribes nigrum L.) vaistinės augalinės žaliavos fenolinių junginių ir antioksidantinio aktyvumo tyrimas.

    OpenAIRE

    Elijošiutė, Edita

    2016-01-01

    Black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) – a common garden medicinal plant of Grossulariaceae family. It accumulates biologically active substances – phenolic compounds, which mainly consist of flavonoids. Black currant raw materials increases urine output, sweating, inhibits inflammation, slows dow the development of bacteria and germs. The leaves have traditionally been used for arthritis, the berries have many vitamins. Leaves recently recognized as medicinal plant raw material and was included in...

  19. Chromium toxicity tolerance of Solanum nigrum L. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. plants with reference to ion pattern, antioxidation activity and root exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    UdDin, Islam; Bano, Asghari; Masood, Sajid

    2015-03-01

    Chromium (Cr), being a highly toxic metal, adversely affects the mineral uptake and metabolic processes in plants when present in excess. The current study was aimed at investigating the Cr accumulation in various plant tissues and its relation to the antioxidation activity and root exudation. Plants were grown in soil spiked with different concentrations of Cr for three weeks in pots and analysed for different growth, antioxidants and ion attributes. Furthermore, plants treated with different concentrations of Cr in pots were shifted to rhizobox-like system for 48h and organic acids were monitored in the mucilage dissolved from the plant root surface, mirroring rhizospheric solution. The results revealed that the Cr application at 1mM increased the shoot fresh and dry weight and root dry weight of Solanum nigrum, whereas the opposite was observed for Parthenium hysterophorus when compared with lower levels of Cr (0.5mM) or control treatment. In both plant species, Cr and Cl concentrations were increased while Ca, Mg and K concentrations in root, shoot and root exudates were decreased with increasing levels of Cr. Higher levels of Cr treatments enhanced the activities of SOD, POD and proline content in leaves of S. nigrum, whereas lower levels of Cr treatment were found to have stimulatory effects in P. hysterophorus. P. hysterophorus exhibited highest exudation of organic acid contents. With increasing levels of Cr treatments, citric acid concentration in root exudates increased by 35% and 44% in S. nigrum, whereas 20% and 76% in P. hysterophorus. Cr toxicity was responsible for the shoot growth reduction of S. nigrum and P. hysterophorus, however, shoot growth response was different at different levels of applied Cr. Consequently, Cr stress negatively altered the plant physiology and biochemistry. However, the enhanced antioxidant production, Cl uptake and root exudation are the physiological and biochemical indicators for the plant adaptations in biotic systems

  20. Inhibición de Botrytis cinerea en rosas a base de extractos alcohólicos y acuoso de hierba mora ( Solanum Nigrum)

    OpenAIRE

    Fiallos Montalvo, Henry Edison

    2011-01-01

    During the period 2009-2010 research was done on "The Inhibition of Botrytis cinerea on alcoholic and aqueous based extracts of black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) roses." The variable evaluated in Laboratory: Control percentage of Botrytis cinerea in petri dish, whereas the statistical design was evaluated in the variable field: control percentage of Botrytis cinerea on flower buds in Freedom roses variety. This work investigated the inhibition of Botrytis cinerea on roses by apply...

  1. Comparative leaf anatomy of long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. and spiked pepper (Piper aduncum L. cultured in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Alencar Maciel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum contain the secondary metabolites safrole and dilapiol, and there is commercial interest in their essential oils. The study aimed to compare anatomical aspects related to physiological responses of leaves from P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum propagated in vitro, in vivo and during acclimatization. Paradermal sections and cross-sections of leaves from in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo culture, were obtained for the measurement of anatomical structures using a light microscope. The thickness of the epidermis and hypodermis of P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum underwent changes in the transition from in vitro to ex vitro. Mesophyll tissues and stomatal pore opening of both species were inluenced by the environment in vitro. Different cultivation environments promote the plasticity of the cellular structures of the leaf blade and underlie the success of micropropagation of both species.

  2. Piper Ornatum and Piper Betle as Organic Dyes for TiO2 and SnO2 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Azwar; Putra, A. Erwin E.; Amaliyah, Novriany; Hayase, Shuzi; Pandey, Shyam. S.

    2018-03-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) mimics the principle of natural photosynthesis are now currently investigated due to low manufacturing cost as compared to silicon based solar cells. In this report, we utilized Piper ornatum (PO) and Piper betle (PB) as sensitizer to fabricate low cost DSSCs. We compared the photovoltaic performance of both sensitizers with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Tin dioxide (SnO2) semiconductors. The results show that PO and PB dyes have higher Short circuit current (Jsc) when applied in SnO2 compared to standard TiO2 photo-anode film even though the Open circuit voltage (Voc) was hampered on SnO2 device. In conclusion, from the result, higher electron injections can be achieved by choosing appropriate semiconductors with band gap that match with dyes energy level as one of strategy for further low cost solar cell.

  3. Supplementation of Red Betel Leaf (Piper Crocatum) in Dairy Cattle Feed on Fermentation Characteristics by in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Prayitno, Caribu Hadi; Suwarno, Suwarno; Sarwanto, Doso; Hidayatun, Dinar; Solihah, Ma'ratul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact and efficiency of red betel leaf’s extract supplementation in the diet of dairy cattle on fermentation characteristics by in vitro.  The research method was experiment by using completely randomized design.  The treatments that were tested were R1: basal feed, R2:  R1 + 15 ppm of  red betel  leaf (Piper crocatum) extract, R3: R1 + 30 ppm of  red betel leaf (Piper crocatum) extract, R4: R1 + 45 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum) extract, R5: R...

  4. Comparative anatomy of the leaves of Piper lepturum(Kunth) C.DC. var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (C.DC.) Yunck.

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nelson Santana de Oliveira; Pereira, Flaviane Gomes; Santos, Paulo Roberto Dias dos; Costa, Cecília Gonçalves; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This study showed anatomical differences related to Piper lepturumvar. lepturum and P. lepturum var. angustifolium species, sometimes considered varieties and in other cases synonyms. For histological analysis, fully expanded leaves were collected and for analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fragments from the midrib were fixed on both leaf surfaces. The two species revealed differences in plant anatomy and it was observed that the stem of P. lepturum var. lepturum showed persisten...

  5. Efektivitas antibakteri ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn)terhadap bakteri Enterococcus faecalis (Antibacterial effectiveness of betel leaf extract (Piper Betle Linn) to Enterococcus faecalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Armianty Armianty; Indrya Kirana Mattulada

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of bacteria which have resistance against the pulp tissue defense mechanism and often found in endodontic infections. This bacterial is may hold good colonization, can survive in the root canal without other bacteria, and is capable of producing toxins directly or through the induction of inflammation. Betel leaf (Piper betle Linn)contain essential oils, as the main components of the essential oils are phenols and compounds, among other derivate such a...

  6. Potential of Piper betle extracts on inhibition of oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phumat, Pimpak; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Wanachantararak, Phenphichar; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, antimicrobial activity of Piper betle crude ethanol extract against 4 strains of oral pathogens; Candida albicans DMST 8684, C. albicans DMST 5815, Streptococcus gordonii DMST 38731 and Streptococcus mutans DMST 18777 was compared with other medicinal plants. P. betle showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. Fractionated extracts of P. betle using hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol, respectively, were subjected to antimicrobial assay. The result revealed that the fractionated extract from ethyl acetate (F-EtOAc) possessed the strongest antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. Its inhibition zones against those pathogens were 23.00 ± 0.00, 24.33 ± 0.58, 12.50 ± 0.70 and 11.00 ± 0.00 mm, respectively and its minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.50, 1.00, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, the minimum concentration to completely kill those pathogens was the same for all strains and found to be 2.00 mg/mL. Killing kinetic study revealed that the activity of F-EtOAc was dose dependent. HPLC chromatograms of P. betle extracts were compared with its antimicrobial activity. An obvious peak at a retention time of 4.11 min was found to be a major component of F-EtOAc whereas it was a minor compound in the other extracts. This peak was considered to be an active compound of P. betle as it was consistent with the antimicrobial activity of F-EtOAc, the most potential extract against the tested pathogens. It is suggested that F-EtOAc is a promising extract of P. betle for inhibition of oral pathogens. Separation and structure elucidation of the active compound of this extract will be further investigated.

  7. Quantitative HPLC analysis of some marker compounds of hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper aduncum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.P.; Nunomura, Sergio M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: smnunomu@inpa.gov.br; Mause, Robert [Siema Eco Essencias da Amazonia Ltda., Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2005-11-15

    High performance liquid chromatography is one of the major analytical techniques used in the quality control of phytotherapics. This work describes a HPLC method used to determine the major components present in different hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Piper aduncum. (author)

  8. Effectiveness of Piper betle leaf infusion as a palpebral skin antiseptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnun Amalia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of an antiseptic is to eliminate or greatly reduce the number of microorganisms in the surgical field at the time of the surgery. The objective of this study was to verify the effectiveness of 20% Piper betle leaf infusion as an antiseptic solution in pre-surgery cataract patients. A clinical trial with partner-matching design was conducted on 31 pairs of eyelids. From each pair of eyelids, one eyelid was asigned to the Piper betle infusion group and the opposite one to the povidone-iodine group. The microorganisms were collected by swab from the patient’s palpebral skin, inoculated on nutrient agar, and incubated at 37oC for 20 hours. The antiseptic effectiveness was measured by counting the microbial colonies before and after administration of the antiseptic solutions. This study demonstrates that the mean colony counts after application of 20% Piper betle leaf infusion showed a significant reduction of 27-100% compared with those before administration (p=0.001. Mean colony counts after 10% povidone-iodine administration showed a significant reduction of 88-100% compared with the mean counts before the solution was applied (p=0.000. The 20% Piper betle infusion has an antiseptic potential. Nevertheless, the 10% povidone-iodine solution has more effective antiseptic capability.

  9. Hydroxychavicol: a potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor obtained from the leaves of betel, Piper betle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Nakao, Kikuyo; Hirata, Noriko; Namba, Kensuke; Nomi, Takao; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Moriyama, Kenzo; Shintani, Takahiro; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    The screening of Piperaceous plants for xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity revealed that the extract of the leaves of Piper betle possesses potent activity. Activity-guided purification led us to obtain hydroxychavicol as an active principle. Hydroxychavicol is a more potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor than allopurinol, which is clinically used for the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  10. Effectiveness of Piper betle leaf infusion as a palpebral skin antiseptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnun Amalia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of an antiseptic is to eliminate or greatly reduce the number of microorganisms in the surgical field at the time of the surgery. The objective of this study was to verify the effectiveness of 20% Piper betle leaf infusion as an antiseptic solution in pre-surgery cataract patients. A clinical trial with partner-matching design was conducted on 31 pairs of eyelids. From each pair of eyelids, one eyelid was asigned to the Piper betle infusion group and the opposite one to the povidone-iodine group. The microorganisms were collected by swab from the patient’s palpebral skin, inoculated on nutrient agar, and incubated at 37oC for 20 hours. The antiseptic effectiveness was measured by counting the microbial colonies before and after administration of the antiseptic solutions. This study demonstrates that the mean colony counts after application of 20% Piper betle leaf infusion showed a significant reduction of 27-100% compared with those before administration (p=0.001. Mean colony counts after 10% povidone-iodine administration showed a significant reduction of 88-100% compared with the mean counts before the solution was applied (p=0.000. The 20% Piper betle infusion has an antiseptic potential. Nevertheless, the 10% povidone-iodine solution has more effective antiseptic capability.

  11. Caldensinic acid, a benzoic acid derivative and others compounds from Piper carniconnectivum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Harley da Silva; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de; Chaves, Maria Celia de Oliveira, E-mail: cchaves@ltf.ufpb.b [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2010-07-01

    A benzoic acid derivative - caldensinic acid, E-phythyl hexadecanoate, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture and phaeophytin a were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper carniconnectivum. The structures of these compounds were established unambiguously by IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. (author)

  12. Quantitative HPLC analysis of some marker compounds of hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper aduncum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.P.; Nunomura, Sergio M.

    2005-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography is one of the major analytical techniques used in the quality control of phytotherapics. This work describes a HPLC method used to determine the major components present in different hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Piper aduncum. (author)

  13. New megastigmane glycoside and aromadendrane derivative from the aerial part of Piper elongatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuoka, Chikako; Ono, Masateru; Ito, Yasuyuki; Okawa, Masafumi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2002-10-01

    A new megastigmane glycoside, called pipeloside A, and a new aromadendrane type sesquiterpenoid, pipelol A, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the aerial part of Piper elongatum VAHL. along with a known megastigmane glycoside, byzantionoside B. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence.

  14. REPELLENCY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF PIPER ADUNCUM AGAINST AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN THE LABORATORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Sulaiman, Sallehudin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

    2009-01-01

    The repellent activity of Piper aduncum essential oil against Aedes albopictus was investigated under laboratory conditions with human volunteers. The lowest median effective dose (ED(50)) value was 1.5 mu g/cm(2) at 60 sec of exposure when compared to 90 see (2.1 mu g/cm(2)) and 120 see (1.8 mu

  15. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; hide

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  16. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in ...

  17. Validation of a Criterion Referenced Test for Young Handicapped Children: PIPER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strum, Irene; Shapiro, Madelaine

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Prescriptive Instructional Program for Educational Readiness (PIPER) for utilization as a criterion referenced test (CRT) among learning disabled children. The program consisted of behavioral objectives and diagnostic and/or mastery tasks and activities for each objective in the area of gross motor…

  18. Genecology of Thurber’s needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum (Piper) Barkworth) in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber’s needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum (Piper) Barkworth) is a key restoration species in the Great Basin and surrounding areas, yet comprehensive studies of how climate relates to genetic variation and seed zones for restoration projects are lacking. Potentially adaptive phenotypic traits...

  19. Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub at Clover Airport. Photos include Engle turning propeller while his son sits in the cockpit (34323); both Engle and son examine propeller (34324); Engle works on engine while his son sits in cockpit (34325).

  20. Compositional analysis of the leaf, stem and rhizome oils of Piper lolot C. DC. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Thanh, L.; Khoi, Ta Thi; Leclercq, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fresh leaves, stems and rhizomes of Piper lolot C. DC. have been analyzed for the first time by a combination of GC and GC/MS. The oils contained more than 35 compounds, of which 25 constituents could be identified according to their

  1. Lifting the Curse of the Roman: Quintus Horatius Flaccus Meets the Pied Piper of Hamelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, William

    There are many similarities between Robert Browning's "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" and Lewis Carroll's "Alice in Wonderland" that are seldom noted by literary critics. Both works were begun for the amusement of specific children, both employ a strange subterranean journey as a central device, and both are works of nonsense…

  2. Mechanical Design of a 4-Stage ADR for the PIPER mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bryan L.; Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.; Jackson, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The four 1,280 bolometer detector arrays that will fly on the balloon borne PIPER mission will be cooled by a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). Two of the three mechanically independent ADR assemblies provide thermal isolation to their salt pills through Kevlar suspensions while the other provides thermal isolation to its salt pill through the use of bellows and Vespel material. The ADR integrates with the detector arrays and it sits in a large bucket Dewar containing superfluid liquid helium. This paper will describe the complex mechanical design of the PIPER ADR, and summarize the mechanical analysis done to validate the design.The four 1,280 bolometer detector arrays that will fly on the balloon borne PIPER mission will be cooled by a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). Two of the three mechanically independent ADR assemblies provide thermal isolation to their salt pills through Kevlar suspensions while the other provides thermal isolation to its salt pill through the use of bellows and Vespel material. The ADR integrates with the detector arrays and it sits in a large bucket Dewar containing superfluid liquid helium. This paper will describe the complex mechanical design of the PIPER ADR, and summarize the mechanical analysis done to validate the design.

  3. Short-term effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and Rosmarinus eriocalyx) on sustained attention and on energy and fatigue mood states in young adults with low energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindheimer, Jacob B; Loy, Bryan D; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose was to test whether a single dose of black pepper or rosemary produced short-term enhancements in sustained attention, motivation to perform cognitive tasks, or feelings of mental energy and fatigue. Outcomes were measured in 40 young adults with below average feelings of energy before and twice after they orally consumed capsules containing either black pepper (2.0 g), rosemary (1.7 g), or a placebo (3.1 g rice flour). Sustained attention was measured using a 16-min dual task, in which, single-digit numbers were presented every second on a screen and the participant performed both a primary task [detection of three successive, different odd digits] and a secondary task [detection of the number 6]. Feelings of energy and fatigue were measured using the vigor and fatigue subscales of the Profile of Mood States and visual analog scales (VAS). Analysis of variance showed nonsignificant condition (spice versus placebo)×time (T1, T2, & T3) effects for motivation, measured with a VAS, and the intensity of energy and fatigue feelings. Unadjusted effect sizes revealed that rosemary induced small, transient reductions in false alarm errors (d=0.21) and mental fatigue (d=0.40) at isolated time periods. Time-varying analysis of covariance, controlling for motivation to perform cognitive tasks, showed no significant effects on the primary or secondary task outcomes of correct responses (hits), errors (false alarms, misses), speed of response (reaction time), and signal detection sensitivity. It is concluded that black pepper and rosemary, consumed in a capsule form, in the doses used and while wearing a nose clip to block olfactory effects, do not induce consistent short-term improvements in sustained attention, motivation to perform cognitive tasks, or feelings of mental energy and fatigue in young adults with low energy.

  4. Fur-rubbing with Piper leaves in the San Martín titi monkey, Callicebus oenanthe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Huashuayo-Llamocca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report observations on fur-rubbing with leaves from Piper aduncum by a San Martín titi monkey, Callicebus oenanthe. Fur-rubbing occurred during the transition from the dry to the rainy season in a titi monkey group living in a forest fragment in the Moyobamba region of Peru. Since Piper leaves include very potent compounds that may affect ectoparasites, we tentatively interpret the observed fur-rubbing as self-medication.

  5. Pengaruh Lama Perendaman Biji Sengon (Paraserianthes Falcataria) Menggunakan Air Daun Sirih (Piper Betle Linn.) Terhadap Kualitas Benih

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkarnain, Tika; ', M. Mardhiansyah; Yoza, Defri

    2015-01-01

    Paraserianthes falcataria are fast growing trees in the tropical and has many benefits economically. In order to avoid seeds of Paraserianthes falcataria not decrease the quality of seeds during storage. Seed treatment is necessary to keep the seeds able to survive until the time of planting by using Piper betle Linn. leaf as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of submursion seeds in water Piper betle Linn. leaf on the quality of seed germination ...

  6. 75 FR 43397 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46- 350P airplanes. AD 2010-13-07... 23, 2010), which applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P airplanes...

  7. Polynyas and Ice Production Evolution in the Ross Sea (PIPERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, S. F.

    2017-12-01

    One focus of the PIPERS cruise into the Ross Sea ice cover during April-June 2017 was the Terra Nova Bay (TNB) polynya where joint measurements of air-ice-ocean wave interaction were conducted over twelve days. In Terra Nova Bay, measurements were made in three katabatic wind events each with sustained winds over 35 ms-1 and air temperatures below -15C. Near shore, intense wave fields with wave amplitudes of over 2m and 7-9 sec periods built and large amounts of frazil ice crystals grew. The frazil ice gathered initially into short and narrow plumes that eventually were added laterally to create longer and wider streaks or bands. Breaking waves within these wider streaks were dampened which appeared to enhance the development of pancake ice. Eventually, the open water areas between the streaks sealed off, developing a complete ice cover of 100 percent concentration (80-90 percent pancakes, 20-10 percent frazil) over a wide front (30km). The pancakes continued to grow in diameter and thickness as waves alternately contracted and expanded the ice cover, with the thicker larger floes further diminishing the wave field and lateral motion between pancakes until the initial pancake ice growth ceased. The equilibrium thickness of the ice was 20-30cm in the pancake ice. While the waves had died off however, katabatic wind velocities were sustained and resulted in a wide area of concentrated, rafted, pancake ice that was rapidly advected downstream until the end of the katabatic event. High resolution TerraSar-X radar satellite imagery showed the length of the ice area produced in one single event extended over 300km or ten times the length of the open water area during one polynya event. The TNB polynya is therefore an "ice factory" where frazil ice is manufactured into pancake ice floes that are then pushed out of the assembly area and advected, rafted (and occasionally piled up into "dragon skin" ice), until the katabatic wind dies off at the coastal source.

  8. Study on The Potency of Methanol Extracts From Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld As Natural Anti Oxidant by Thiobarbituric Acid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Ratnawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld (the Purple yam was selected as experimental material. This plant was collected from Rejang Lebong region, Bengkulu Province. Methanol extract 96% from stem of purple yam was studied its anti-oxidant activity in various concentrations with α-tocopherol (200 ppm as standard of antioxidant. Antioxidant activity was determined using Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA method. Linoleic acid was oxidized at 40 ºC for seven days with or without extract and the final product malondialdehyde (MDA was reacted with thiostembituric acid to be of red colored complex (MDA-TBA and was then measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometer at λ 532 nm. Stem extract of purple yam with concentration of 100 ppm, 150 ppm, 200 ppm and 300 ppm respectively had the inhibition of 19.32%, 21.85%, 29.47%, and 31.05%. α-Tocopherol as positive control which showed inhibition ability of 85.14% at 200 ppm. Based on the result obtained in this study, the stem’s extract of Purpel yam plant showed that antioxidant activity was lower than α-tocopherol.

  9. Effect of the Interaction of Veratrum Nigrum with Panax Ginseng on Estrogenic Activity In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Ding, Jie; An, Jin-na; Qu, Ya-kun; Li, Xin; Ma, Xiao-ping; Zhang, Yi-min; Dai, Guo-jing; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng (GS) and Veratrum nigrum (VN) are representative of incompatible pairs in “eighteen antagonistic medicaments” that have been recorded in the Chinese medicinal literature for over 2,000 years. However, evidence linking interference effects with combination use is scare. Based on the estrogen-like effect of GS described in our previous studies, we undertake a characterization of the interaction on estrogenic activity of GS and VN using in vivo models of immature and ovariectomized (OVX) mice and in vitro studies with MCF-7 cells for further mechanism. VN decreased the estrogenic efficacy of GS on promoting the development of the uterus and vagina in immature mice, and reversing the atrophy of reproductive tissues in OVX mice. VN interfered with the estrogenic efficacy of GS by decreasing the increase of the serum estradiol and the up-regulation of ERα and ERβ expressions by treatment with GS. And VN antagonized the estrogenic efficacy of GS on promoting the viability of MCF-7 cells and up-regulation of protein and gene expressions of ERs. In conclusion, this study provided evidence that GS and VN decreased effects on estrogenic activity, which might be related to regulation of estrogen secretion and ERs. PMID:27229740

  10. The molluscicidal effects of extracts of Capsicum annuum (Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum), black pepper (Piper nigrum) and scent leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were introduced to fresh water snail samples, the intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis, to test their molluscicidal effects. The materials were extracted using soxhlet extraction. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) was ...

  11. Perbedaan Daya Hambat Ekstrak Daun Sirih Hijau ( Piper betle L. dan Daun Sirih Merah ( Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav terhadap Pertumbuhan Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristika Aulia Syahrinastiti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSirih hijau (Piper betle L. dan sirih merah (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav dipercaya memiliki khasiat mencegah penyakit infeksi saluran kemih yang disebabkan oleh Escherichia coli. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan perbedaan daya hambat ekstrak daun sirih hijaudan daun sirih merah terhadap pertumbuhan Escherichia coli. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan desain post test only control group. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas. Hasil penelitian adalah: 1. Efek daya hambat ekstrak daun sirih merah pada konsentrasi 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10%, yaitu 0,6cm, 1,1cm, 1,2cm, dan 1,2cm; 2. Ekstrak daun sirih hijau tidak memiliki efek daya hambat pada konsentrasi 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10%. Kesimpulan eksperimen ini adalah ekstrak daun sirih merah memiliki efek daya hambat lebih baik daripada ekstrak daun sirih hijau.Kata kunci: ekstrak daun sirih hijau, ekstrak daun sirih merah, escherichia coli, daerah bebas hambat AbstractGreen betel (Piper betle L. and red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav are trusted of possessing an efficacy of preventing urinary tract infection caused by Eschericia coli. The objective of this study was to explain the difference of inhibition zones between the green betel and the red betel towards the growth of Eschericia coli. The type of this research was experimental study with post test only control group design. This research was carried out in Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Andalas University.The results of this research were: 1.The inhibition zones of red betel extract in concentration of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% were 0.6 cm, 1.1 cm, 1.2 cm, and 1.2 cm; 2. The extract of green betel had none of inhibition zones in concentration of of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. In conclusion, the red betel extract has better inhibition zones than the green betel extrac.Keywords: green betel extract, red betel extract, eschericia coli, inhibition zone

  12. Benzoquinona e hidroquinona preniladas y otros constituyentes aislados de Piper Bogotense C. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Angela Peña

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dos compuestos, que innovan la química conocida del género Piper, (2'E,6'E-2- famesilhidroquinona, (2'E,6'E-2-famesil- 1,4-benzoquinona, y a-D-glucosa fueron aislados de los frutos de Piper bogotense C. DC; los tallos y las hojas presentaron, como constimyentes mayoritarios, lactama del ácido 10-amino-4-hidroxi-2,3-dimetoxifenantreno carboxílico, 1,2-metilendioxi- 6-metil-4H-dibenzo lde,g] quinolina- ,5(6H-diona (Cefaradiona A, estigmasterol y sitosterol. Adicionalmente de las hojas de esta planta se aisló SC-P-D-glucopiranosil-4'-0-metilapigenina (4'-0-metilvitexina, Cytisosido o Trematina. Sus estructuras fueron determinadas por métodos espectroscópicos y comparación con datos de la literatura.

  13. Insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of metabolites isolated from the aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. and inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae); Actividad insecticida sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) de los compuestos aislados de la parte aerea de Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. y las inflorescencias de Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, Monica Constanza Avila; Suarez, Luis Enrique Cuca, E-mail: mcavilam@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Productos Naturales Vegetales, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Salamanca, Jairo Alonso Ceron [Laboratorio de Biopesticidas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-05-15

    The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. ) C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1), galangin (2), chrysin (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6), pinostrobin (7); one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4); one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3); one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8); and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC{sub 50} 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively). (author)

  14. Paying for the Piper. Capital and labour in Britain's offshore oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolfson, C.; Foster, J.; Beck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This book makes the first serious appraisal of the current offshore safety regulatory regime instituted after Piper Alpha, and of the oil industry's attempts to contain subsequent unwelcome regulatory interference. It concludes that, as yet, offshore safety is little or not at all improved. The fraught history of trade unionism in the offshore industry and the largely successful strategies of employers to sustain a virtually union-free environment is also examined. The conflict over health and safety offshore has been inextricably bound up with the sometimes brutal struggle over union rights as the workforce has attempted to achieve a collective voice in the reform of safety and production standards. Paying for the Piper shows how the offshore unions have attempted to alter the unfavourable balance of class forces shaped by some of the world's most powerful concerns. (author)

  15. Rapid purification of diastereoisomers from Piper kadsura using supercritical fluid chromatography with chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Huaxia; Dai, Zhuoshun; Cai, Jianfeng; Ke, Yanxiong; Shi, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-08-04

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with chiral stationary phases (CSPs) is an advanced solution for the separation of achiral compounds in Piper kadsura. Analogues and stereoisomers are abundant in natural products, but there are obstacles in separation using conventional method. In this paper, four lignan diastereoisomers, (-)-Galbelgin, (-)-Ganschisandrin, Galgravin and (-)-Veraguensin, from Piper kadsura were separated and purified by chiral SFC. Purification strategy was designed, considering of the compound enrichment, sample purity and purification throughput. Two-step achiral purification method on chiral preparative columns with stacked automated injections was developed. Unconventional mobile phase modifier dichloromethane (DCM) was applied to improve the sample solubility. Four diastereoisomers was prepared at the respective weight of 103.1mg, 10.0mg, 152.3mg and 178.6mg from 710mg extract with the purity of greater than 98%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of phytochemicals in piper betle linn leaf extract on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Le Thi; Tho, Nguyen Thi; Ha, Do Minh; Hang, Pham Luong; Nghia, Phan Tuan; Thang, Nguyen Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing has being extensively investigated over the world. Healing impairment is caused by many reasons including increasing of free-radicals-mediated damage, delaying in granulation tissue formation, reducing in angiogenesis and decreasing in collagen reorganization. These facts consequently lead to chronic wound healing. Piper betle Linn (Betle) leaves have been folklore used as an ingredient of drugs for cutaneous wound treatment. However, the effect of betle leaf on wound healing is not yet well elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the healing efficacy of methanol leaf extract of Piper betle Linn on proliferation of fibroblast NIH3T3 cells as well as full-thickness burn and excision wounds in swiss mice. Scratch wound healing assays were conducted to examine the effects of betle leaf extract on healing activity of fibroblast cells. Burn and excision wounds on swiss mouse skins were created for investigating the wound healing progress caused by the betle leaf extract. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was also evaluated to examine the products of lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) under conditions of with or without betle leaf extract treatment. The results of this study showed that Piper betle Linn leaf extract in methanol increased proliferation of NIH3T3 cells and promoted wound healing in vitro and in vivo with both burn wound and excision wound models. In addition, this extract significant decreased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver of treated-mice compared with that in non-treated mice. Our results suggest that Piper betle Linn can be used as an ingredient in developing natural origin drugs for treatment of cutaneous wounds.

  17. Scanning electron microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Thurairajah, Nalina

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1)); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1))]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (pPiper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL(-1) corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL(-1) of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved.

  18. Aristolactama y esteróles del tallo de Piper chiadoense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Angela Peña O.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto etanólico del tallo de Piper chiadoense Junker (Piperaceae fueron aislados por métodos cromatográficos la aristolactama identificada como lactama del ácido 10- mino-3,4-dimetoxifenantreno-l-carboxílico (cepharanone B; campesterol; estigmasterol y B-sitosterol. Sus estructuras fueron determinadas por métodos espectroscópicos y por comparación con datos reportados en la literatura.

  19. Aristolactama y esteróles del tallo de piper chiadoense

    OpenAIRE

    Peña O., Luz Angela; P. de Díaz, Aura M.

    2010-01-01

    Del extracto etanólico del tallo de Piper chiadoense Junker (Piperaceae) fueron aislados por métodos cromatográficos la aristolactama identificada como lactama del ácido 10- mino-3,4-dimetoxifenantreno-l-carboxílico (cepharanone B); campesterol; estigmasterol y B-sitosterol. Sus estructuras fueron determinadas por métodos espectroscópicos y por comparación con datos reportados en la literatura.

  20. In vitro anti-Leishmania infantum activity of essential oil from Piper angustifolium

    OpenAIRE

    Bosquiroli, Lauriane S.S.; Demarque, Daniel P.; Rizk, Yasmin S.; Cunha, Marillin C.; Marques, Maria Carolina S.; Matos, Maria de Fátima C.; Kadri, Mônica C.T.; Carollo, Carlos A.; Arruda, Carla C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Piper angustifolium Lam., Piperaceae, popularly known as "matito", "pimenta-de-macaco", "pimenta-longa" or "jagurandi" in Brazil, has been commonly used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis-associated lesions, but there are few studies on the activity against visceral leishmaniasis-associated species. This study demonstrates the first in vitro antileishmanial activity of the P. angustifolium essential oil, of which the phytochemical profile showed the presence of sesquiterpene...

  1. Hydrolysis of methyl benzoate from Piper arboreum by Naupactus bipes beetle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Clecio S.; Kato, Massuo J.

    2009-01-01

    A new natural product was isolated from Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) leaves, the methyl 3-geranyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (1). The metabolism of P. arboreum leaves by Naupactus bipes beetle (Germar, 1824 - Coleoptera: Curculionidae) led to the hydrolysis of 1 to 3-geranyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2). The structures of both compounds were determined based on spectroscopic analysis ( 1 H and 13 C NMR, MS, and IR). (author)

  2. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.T.Jayasree; Dr.Shaikh Ubedulla; Dr.Harini K; Dr.Shankar.J

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae) commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim...

  3. Hypolipidemic activity of Piper betel in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rat

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Ernest David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of Piper betel (P. betel) in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia rat. Methods: The methanol leaf extract was tested for hypolipidemic effect in the albino rats at the selected optimum dosage of 250 mg/kg body weight and administered orally. Adult male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken study and evaluated. Results: In group II animals, the activity levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low densi...

  4. Green Antibiotic Daun Sirih (Piper betle l.) Sebagai Pengganti Antibiotik Komersial untuk Penanganan Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gabby Lutviandhitarani; Dian Wahyu Harjanti; Fajar Wahyono

    2015-01-01

    (Green antibiotic betel leaf (Piper betle l.) as a substitute  for commercial antibiotic in mastitis treatment)  ABSTRACT. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible antibacterial activity of betel leaf on the amount and microscopic appearance of mastitis-causing bacteria. The randomized block design with 5 treatment groups were : K group (mastitis milk only as negative control), Ab group (mastitis milk + antibiotic penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin as positive control),  ...

  5. Potensi Pemberian Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper Betle L) sebagai Pengawet Alami Ikan Selar (Selaroides Leptolepis)

    OpenAIRE

    Mentari, Nona Lia

    2016-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian “Potensi Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper betle) sebagai Pengawet Alami Ikan Selar (Selaroides leptolepis)” di Kecamatan Syiah Kuala sejak bulan September 2015 sampai Mei 2016. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh daun sirih terhadap pengawetan ikan selar, rasa, warna, tekstur dan bau. Desain penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan 7 perlakuan dan 3 kali ulangan. Konsentrasi ekstrak daun sirih divariasi mulai dari 10% ekstrak daun sirih (S10), 20% ekstrak ...

  6. A New Hypoxia Inducible Factor-2 Inhibitory Pyrrolinone Alkaloid from Roots and Stems of Piper sarmentosum

    OpenAIRE

    BOKESCH, Heidi Rose; GARDELLA, Roberta Scott; RABE, Daniel Christopher; BOTTARO, Donald Paul; LINEHAN, William Marston; MCMAHON, James Brislin; MCKEE, Tawnya Carlene

    2011-01-01

    A new trimethoxycinnamoyl-2-pyrrolinone alkaloid, langkamide (1), along with the known compounds piplartine (2) and 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid (3) were isolated from the roots and stems of the shrub Piper sarmentosum Roxb. The structures were established by spectroscopic analyses and comparison of their spectral data with values reported in the literature. The compounds were tested for their ability to modulate hypoxia inducible factor-2 (HIF-2) transcription activity and all three showed ...

  7. Radio-sensitization by Piper longumine of human breast adenoma MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian-Xin; Yao, Zhi-Feng; Li, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Yong-Biao

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of Piper longumine on radio-sensitization of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and underlying mechanisms. Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in vitro and those in logarithmic growth phase were selected for experiments divided into four groups: control, X-ray exposed, Piper longumine, and Piper longumine combined with X-rays. Conogenic assays were performed to determine the radio-sensitizing effects. Cell survival curves were fitted by single-hit multi-target model and then the survival fraction (SF), average lethal dose (D0), quasi-threshold dose (Dq) and sensitive enhancement ratio (SER) were calculated. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM).Western blot assays were employed for expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bc1-2 and Bax) after treatment with Piper longumine and/or X-ray radiation. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was detected by FCM with a DCFH-DA probe. The cloning formation capacity was decreased in the group of piperlongumine plus radiation, which displayed the values of SF2, D0, Dq significantly lower than those of radiation alone group and the sensitive enhancement ratio (SER) of D0 was1.22 and 1.29, respectively. The cell apoptosis rate was increased by the combination treatment of Piper longumine and radiation. Piper longumine increased the radiation-induced intracellular levels of ROS. Compared with the control group and individual group, the combination group demonstrated significantly decreased expression of Bcl-2 with increased Bax. Piper longumine at a non-cytotoxic concentration can enhance the radio-sensitivity of MDA- MB-231cells, which may be related to its regulation of apoptosis-related protein expression and the increase of intracellular ROS level, thus increasing radiation-induced apoptosis.

  8. Antidiabetic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2005-11-14

    Leaves of Piper betle (Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in traditional medicinal systems. However, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Piper betle leaves. This was tested in normoglycaemic and strepozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats using oral administration of hot water extract (HWE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE). In normoglycaemic rats, both HWE and CEE significantly lowered the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. In glucose tolerance test, both extracts markedly reduced the external glucose load. The antidiabetic activity of HWE is comparable to that of CEE. Moreover, HWE failed to inhibit the glucose absorption from the small intestine of rats. Both extracts were found to be non-toxic and well tolerated after following chronic oral administration (no overt signs of toxicity, hepatotoxicity or renotoxicity). However, the weight of the spleen had increased in treated groups possibly indicating lymphoproliferative activity. It is concluded that HWE and CEE of Piper betle leaves possess safe and strong antidiabetic activity.

  9. Chemical Composition and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Essential Oils from Piper Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Cai-Peng; Han, Jia-Xin; Li, Xing-Cong; Li, Yun-Hui; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lin; Qu, Yan; Hao, Chao-Yun; Li, Hai-Zhou; Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhao, San-Jun; Xu, Min

    2017-05-10

    The essential oils (EOs) derived from aromatic plants such as Piper species are considered to play a role in alleviating neuronal ailments that are associated with inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The chemical compositions of 23 EOs prepared from 16 Piper spp. were analyzed by both gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 76 compounds were identified in the EOs from the leaves and stems of 19 samples, while 30 compounds were detected in the EOs from the fruits of four samples. Sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids were found to be rich in these EOs, of which asaricin, caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, isospathulenol, (+)-spathulenol, and β-bisabolene are the major constituents. The EOs from the leaves and stems of Piper austrosinense, P. puberulum, P. flaviflorum, P. betle, and P. hispidimervium showed strong AChE inhibitory activity with IC 50 values in the range of 1.51 to 13.9 mg/mL. A thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography assay was employed to identify active compound(s) in the most active EO from P. hispidimervium. The active compound was isolated and identified as asaricin, which gave an IC 50 value of 0.44 ± 0.02 mg/mL against AChE, comparable to galantamine with an IC 50 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL.

  10. Piper betle LEAVES EXTRACT PATCH: EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, RELEASE PROFILE OF EUGENOL, AND LOCAL TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufrod Mufrod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Piper betle leaf in extract form is more effective than crude drug. Eugenol is a component in the extract that has antibacterial activity but irritate. Patch of piper betle leaf extract was used on the mucosa to make oral cavity hygiene. Antibacterial activity was influenced by the release of eugenol from the patch. Release enhancer substances (RES such as glycerin, propylen glicol and tween 80 were added in patch formulation to increase the release of active substances. The aim of the research was to investigate the physicochemical properties, eugenol release profiles, and local tolerance test of the patch. Extract of piper betle leaf was made using infundation method. Patch was made according to the variation concentration of extract (1, 2 and 4% and RES (glycerine, propylen glycol and tween 80 using chitosan as vehicle. Patch produced solvent casting method. Patch obtained was tested for swelling index, folding endurance, surface pH, antibacterial activity, release of eugenol, and local tolerance. Data obtained were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the addition of RES did not affect the surface pH but increase the water absorption with in inconsistent way except patch with tween 80. The flexibility (folding endurance value increased, and the highest amount of eugenol released was achieved by patch using propylen glicol. Patch with tween 80 and glycerin for all extract concentration and patch with 1% extract concentration using propylen glycol showed medium sensation (local tolerance, and patch with 2 and 4% extract using propylen glycol showed severe sensation.

  11. Antidiabetic potential of methanol extracts from leaves of Piper umbellatum L. and Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Sedar Singor Njateng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine inhibitory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper umbellatum and Persea americana (P. americana (traditionally used in Cameroon against diabetes on α -glucosidase, β -glucosidase, maltase-glucoamylase, aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase activities, enzymes involved in starch digestion or diabetic complications. Methods: The methanol extracts from Piper umbellatum and P. americana were prepared by maceration. To assess relative efficacy of these extracts, the determination of concentrations that were needed to inhibit 50% of enzyme activity was done, whereas, gas chromatography-mass spectrum was used to identify components from extracts that may be responsible for the activities. Results: The tested extracts strongly inhibited α -glucosidase, maltase-glucoamylase, aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase activities with IC50 ranging from (1.07 ± 0.03 to (31.77 ± 1.17 μg/mL. Among the tested extracts, P. americana was the most active against sensitive enzymes (IC50 of 1.07 ± 0.03 to 15.63 ± 1.23. But, none of the extracts showed interesting inhibitory effect against β -glucosidase as their percentage inhibitions were less than 16%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrum analysis, 10 and 8 compounds were identified in Piper umbellatum and P. americana extracts respectively, using NIST library 2014. Conclusions: Results of this study provide the scientific credential for a prospective usage of these plants to treat diabetes.

  12. Chemical and Biological Analyses of the Essential Oils and Main Constituents of Piper Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Laura Leon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained from leaves of Piper duckei and Piper demeraranum by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main constituents found in P. demeraranum oil were limonene (19.3% and β-elemene (33.1% and in P. duckei oil the major components found were germacrene D (14.7% and trans-caryophyllene (27.1%. P. demeraranum and P. duckei oils exhibited biological activity, with IC50 values between 15 to 76 μg mL−1 against two Leishmania species, P. duckei oil being the most active. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils on mice peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant, compared with the toxicity of pentamidine. The main mono- and sesquiterpene, limonene (IC50 = 278 μM and caryophyllene (IC50 = 96 μM, were tested against the strains of Leishmania amazonensis, and the IC50 values of these compounds were lower than those found for the essential oils of the Piper species. The HET-CAM test was used to evaluate the irritation potential of these oils as topical products, showing that these oils can be used as auxiliary medication in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with less side effects and lower costs.

  13. Modeling the effect of climate change to the potential invasion range of Piper aduncum Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Paquit

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of invasive plant species on biodiversity is one of most important subject of inquiry at present. In many parts of the world, the alarming spread of these plants has been documented. Knowing that climate exerts a dominant control over the distribution of plant species, predictions can therefore be made to determine which areas the species would likely spread under a climate change scenario and that is what this study aims to tackle. In the current study, a total of 211 species occurrence points were used to model the current and projected suitability of Piper aduncum in Bukidnon, Philippines using Maxent. Results revealed that the suitability of the species was determined primarily by climatic factors with Bio 18 (precipitation of the warmest quarter as the strongest influencing variable with a mean percent contribution of 22.1%. The resulting model was highly accurate based on its mean test Area Under Curve that is equal to 0.917. Current prediction shows that suitable areas for Piper are concentrated along the southern portion of Bukidnon. Only 9% of the province is suitable for the species at present but is predicted to increase to 27% because of climate change. The central and southwestern parts of the province are the areas of high threat for invasion by Piper.

  14. Two potential uses for silver nanoparticles coated with Solanum nigrum unripe fruit extract: Biofilm inhibition and photodegradation of dye effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Jenifer, Anthonisamy Anthoni; Chitra, Ponnaiah; Prabhu, Narayanan Marimuthu; Kannapiran, Ethiraj

    2017-10-01

    Silver nanoparticle was green synthesized involving the unripe fruit extracts of Solanum nigrum (Sn-AgNPs). The synthesized Sn-AgNPs was bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV-Vis recorded the absorbance spectra at 443 nm. XRD analysis clearly demonstrated the crystalline nature of Sn-AgNPs with Bragg's reflection peaks at 111, 200, 220 and 311 lattice planes. The FTIR spectrum of Sn-AgNPs showed strong bands at 3432, 1555, 1455, 862 and 406 cm -1 which corresponds at O-H, C-H, C-C, C-OH and C-N groups respectively. TEM exhibited the spherical shape of Sn-AgNPs with particle size between 20 and 30 nm. The antibacterial effects of Sn-AgNPs were tested on clinically important biofilm forming Gram positive (Bacillus pumulis and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram negative (Proteus vulgaris and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) bacteria. The greater inhibition of B. pumulis and E. faecalis was observed at 100 μg mL -1 of Sn-AgNPs compared to P. vulgaris and V. parahaemolyticus. The biofilm inhibition potential of Sn-AgNPs was greater against Gram positive bacteria than that of Gram negative bacteria. Furthermore, Sn-AgNPs effectively degraded the industrial effluent methyl orange dye by photocatalysis. It is concluded that Sn-AgNPs could be used as an effective therapeutics against the biofilm of clinically important bacteria. The green synthesized Sn-AgNPs can be employed to degrade dye effluents and prevent environmental pollution as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solanum nigrum Protects against Hepatic Fibrosis via Suppression of Hyperglycemia in High-Fat/Ethanol Diet-Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jeng Tai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs signal through the receptor for AGE (RAGE, which can lead to hepatic fibrosis in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. We investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts from Solanum nigrum (AESN on AGEs-induced RAGE signaling and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and hyperglycemia induced by high-fat diet with ethanol. Methods: An animal model was used to evaluate the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of AESN in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 30% with ethanol (10%. Male Wistar rats (4 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6: (1 control (basal diet; (2 HFD (30% + ethanol (10% (HFD/ethanol; (3 HFD/ethanol + AESN (100 mg/kg, oral administration; and (4 HFD/ethanol + pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, oral administration and treated with HFD for 6 months in the presence or absence of 10% ethanol in dietary water. Results: We found that AESN improved insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and downregulated lipogenesis via regulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, PPARγ co-activator (PGC-1α, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and fatty acid synthase (FAS mRNA levels in the liver of HFD/ethanol-treated rats. In turn, AESN may delay and inhibit the progression of hepatic fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA inhibition and MMP-2 production. Conclusions: These results suggest that AESN may be further explored as a novel anti-fibrotic strategy for the prevention of liver disease.

  16. Anatomia comparada de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. e pimenta de macaco (Piper aduncum L. cultivadas in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Alencar Maciel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p11 Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum apresentam compostos metabólitos secundários como safrol e dilapiol de interesse comercial em seus óleos essenciais. O trabalho teve como objetivo comparar aspectos anatômicos, relacionados a respostas fisiológicas das folhas de P. hispidinervum e P. aduncum propagadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização. Secções paradérmicas e transversais da lâmina foliar do cultivo in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo, feitas à mão-livre foram realizadas para a medição das estruturas anatômicas em microscópio de luz. A espessura da epiderme e hipoderme de P. hispidinervum e P. aduncum sofrem alterações na transição de cultivo in vitro para o ex vitro. Os tecidos do mesofilo e a abertura do poro estomático de ambas as espécies são influenciados pelo ambiente in vitro. Diferentes ambientes de cultivo promovem a plasticidade das estruturas celulares da lâmina foliar e fundamentam o sucesso da micropropagação de ambas as espécies.

  17. Chemical composition of essential oils of Piper jacquemontianum and Piper variabile from Guatemala and bioactivity of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts

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    Sully M. Cruz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from two native species from Guatemala were studied for their chemical composition and the dichloromethane and methanol extracts for their biological activity. A GC-MS analysis of the essential oil from Piper jacquemontianum Kunth, Piperaceae, showed 34 constituents, consisting mainly of linalool (69.4%, while Piper variabile C. DC. essential oil had 36 constituents, camphor (28.4%, camphene (16.6% and limonene (13.9% being the major components. Dichloromethane extracts of both species were cytotoxic against MCF-7, H-460 and SF-268 cell lines (<7 µg/mL. Dichloromethane extract of P. jacquemontianum was slightly active against bacteria (0.5 mg/mL, was active against promastigotes of Leishmania (20.4-61.0 µg/mL, and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (51.9 µg/mL. The methanol extract of P. variabile showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum F32 (4.5 µg/mL, and the dichloromethane extract against Leishmania (55.8-76.3 µg/mL and T. cruzi (45.8 µg/mL. None of the extracts from the two species was active against Aedes aegypti larvae and Artemia salina nauplii.

  18. Essential oils of leaves of Piper species display larvicidal activity against the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    HT. SANTANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the vector of the dengue virus, an endemic arbovirus from tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The increasing resistance of mosquitoes to commercial insecticides impairs regular control programs; therefore, chemical prospecting originating from the Amazonian flora is promising for potential new insecticides. Several Piper species are, notably, rich in phenylpropanoids and terpenoids, substances with proven insecticidal activity. The composition and the larvicidal activity of three Piper species against A. aegypti were evaluated. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in Piper arboreum were germacrene D (31.83% and bicyclogermacrene (21.40%; in Piper marginatum: (E-methyl isoeugenol (27.08%, (E-anethole (23.98% and (Z-methyl isoeugenol (12.01%; and in Piper aduncum: (E-isocroweacin (29.52% and apiole (28.62% and elemicin (7.82%. Essential oils from the Piperaceae species studied resulted in Lethal Concentrations (LC50 of 34-55 ppm, while LC90 was higher than 100 ppm, except for P. marginatum (85 ppm.

  19. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper betle L. untuk Mengendalikan Damping-Off pada Tanaman Cabai Capsicum annum

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    Taufiq Hidayat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotium roflsii is the causal agent of damping-off disease on pepper which difficult to control. The use of chemical pesticides cause several damage to the environment. The used of Piper betle leaves extract which is contains antifungal compounds becomes one of the solution. The aim of this study to obtain the optimum concentration of piper betle leaves extract and dipping periode of chili seed in leaves extract to control damping off disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. The study consists of two experiments. The first experiment was isolation and multiplication of damping off disease in chilli, this stage was conducted in laboratorium. The second experiment was performed to investigate effectivity of piper betle leaf extract to control damping off using dipping method, this stage conducted in Greenhouse. The study arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with single factor experimental design consist of 13 treatment, namely consentration of 0%, 40%, 60% and 80% Piper betle leaves extract (v/v with 1 hour, 2 hour, and 3 hour dipping time. The result showed that Piper betle leaves extract of 60% with 1 hour dipping time had the best ability among the other treatment to control damping off disease cause of Sclerotium rolfsii in chili seedlings.

  20. Directed seed dispersal of Piper by Carollia perspicillata and its effect on understory plant diversity and folivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Diego; Kelm, Detlev H; Salazar, Diego

    2013-11-01

    Directed dispersal occurs when seeds are differentially deposited to sites where offspring survivorship is higher than at randomly chosen sites. Traditionally, characteristics of the dispersal target sites that could increase survivorship of the dispersed plants are thought to be intrinsic to the sites. If directed dispersal is constant over extended periods of time, however, it is likely that nonrandom patterns of dispersal could modify the ecological characteristics of the target site in ways that could increase survivorship and fitness of the dispersed plants. Here we report patterns of Piper diversity (richness, equitability, and similarity) and Piper folivory within plots near natural or artificial roosts of Carollia perspicillata vs. similar plots without bat roosts. Plots with bat roosts, both natural and artificial, had significantly higher Piper species diversity. Additionally, we found that plots with a higher Piper species diversity showed less specialist folivory, higher generalist folivory, and lower total herbivore leaf damage than plots with low Piper diversity. Finally, plots with bat roosts also showed less specialist folivory, lower generalist folivory, and lower total folivory when compared to plots without roosts. We propose that long-lasting nonrandom patterns of seed dispersal can change the local ecological characteristics of target sites via changes in plant diversity, and that these changes are likely to reduce the local rates of folivory and, therefore, increase seed and adult plant survivorship.

  1. Piper sarmentosum increases nitric oxide production in oxidative stress: a study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

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    Ugusman, Azizah; Zakaria, Zaiton; Hui, Chua Kien; Nordin, Nor Anita Megat Mohd

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) possesses multiple anti-atherosclerotic properties. Hence, enhanced expression of eNOS and increased Nitric oxide levels may protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper sarmentosum on the eNOS and Nitric oxide pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS: control, treatment with 180 microM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), treatment with 150 microg/mL aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum, and concomitant treatment with aqueous extract of PS and H(2)O(2) for 24 hours. Subsequently, HUVECs were harvested and eNOS mRNA expression was determined using qPCR. The eNOS protein level was measured using ELISA, and the eNOS activity and Nitric oxide level were determined by the Griess reaction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum showed a marked induction of Nitric oxide. Treatment with PS also resulted in increased eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS protein level and eNOS activity in HUVECs. Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum may improve endothelial function by promoting NO production in HUVECs.

  2. Piper sarmentosum increases nitric oxide production in oxidative stress: a study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells

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    Azizah Ugusman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS possesses multiple anti-atherosclerotic properties. Hence, enhanced expression of eNOS and increased Nitric oxide levels may protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper sarmentosum on the eNOS and Nitric oxide pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. METHODS: HUVECs were divided into four groups: control, treatment with 180 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, treatment with 150 μg/mL aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum, and concomitant treatment with aqueous extract of PS and H2O2 for 24 hours. Subsequently, HUVECs were harvested and eNOS mRNA expression was determined using qPCR. The eNOS protein level was measured using ELISA, and the eNOS activity and Nitric oxide level were determined by the Griess reaction. RESULTS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum showed a marked induction of Nitric oxide. Treatment with PS also resulted in increased eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS protein level and eNOS activity in HUVECs. CONCLUSION: Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum may improve endothelial function by promoting NO production in HUVECs.

  3. Potensi Serbuk Daun Sirih (piper betle, Linn Sebagai Larvasida Nyamuk Aedes aegypti

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    Betriyon Betriyon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Larvacide was compound/essence used to kill  larvae stadium. Many people used Piper betle to traditional medicine. Piper betle plant L,.has contents bioactive compound as flavonoid compound, atsiri volatile, polifenol, tannin, alkaloid and saponin which have quality as larvacide. Based on the case above, this research aim to put the experiment Piper betle of the Aedes aegypti mosquito instars IV. This was pure experiment research using complete random design. This research was done at laboratory . Larva used was  Aedes aegypti mosquito instars IV. Concentration used of this research was : 0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4; 05 percent b/v. This research has control (+ was temephos 0,0001 persen, control (- was aquades water not added anything. Observation done every hour up to all the larva death with the replication 5 times. Larva death cumulative data on 10th hour and 24 th used to calculate LC50 and LT50 used probit regression analysis than data analyzed using Levene’s test. The result of this research showed that the cost of LC50 piper betle plant L. on 10th hour was 0,54 ± 0,147 persen b/v, than on 24 hour LC50 on concentration 0,07 up to 0,28 percent b/v. the time needed to cross out 50 percent Aedes aegypti instar IV of the concentration 0,05 percent time needed 19. Based on a probit analysis of the relationship between the level of concentration with the number of larvae mortality, Piper betle have activities as larvacide of Aedes aegypti. Keywods: piper betle leaf powder, larvacide, Aedes aegyti AbstrakLarvasida adalah senyawa/zat yang digunakan untuk membunuh stadium larva. Tanaman Piper betle, Linn. (sirih hijau sudah banyak dimanfaatkan oleh kalangan masyarakat sebagai obat tradisional. Daun sirih hijau memiliki kandungan senyawa bioaktif seperti senyawa flavonoid, minyak atsiri, polifenol, tannin, alkaloid dan saponin yang dapat bersifat sebagai larvasida. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui manfaat daun sirih hijau yaitu

  4. Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Solanumn nigrum L. by HS/SPME method and calculation of the biochemical coefficients of the components

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    Avat (Arman Taherpour

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of the essential oil of wild Solanumn nigrum L. obtained from the Kurdistan of Iraq were extracted by head-space/solid-phase micro-extraction (HS/SPME and were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Of a total of twenty compounds in the oil, all of them were identified. The main components were as follows: Dillapiole (22.22%, α-Cadinol (16.47%, para-Cymene (10.01%, (E-1-(2,6,6-Trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadien-1-yl-2-buten-1-one or β-damascenone (9.08%, α-Phellandrene (8.48%, β-Pinene (5.93%, α-Bisabolol acetate (4.53%, (Z,E-4,6,8-Megastigmatriene (4.09%, Phytol (2.49%, Linalyl butanoate (2.13%, 8-methylene-tricyclo[3.2.1.0(2,4]octane (2.60% and Limonene (2.03%. Some physicochemical properties, such as the logarithm of calculated octanol–water partitioning coefficients (logKow and total biodegradation (TBd in mol/h were calculated for compounds 1–20 from S. nigrum L.

  5. VALUE OF CLINICAL PULMONARY INFECTION SCORE IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS: BETWEEN THE USE OF CHLORHEXIDINE AND PIPER BETLE LINN MOUTHWASH

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    Irfany Nurul Hamid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the complications of ventilator use in patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU is Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP. Oral hygienes is one of the methods to prevent VAP. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the value of clinical infection score (CPIS in critically ill patients after given oral hygiene using chlorhexidine and Piper betle Linn mouthwash. Methods: This was an observational study with cross-sectional study design, which consisted of two intervention groups. Thirty respondents were selected using total sampling, with 15 respondents randomly assigned in each group. Independent t-test was used for data analysis. Results: Findings showed that the mean of CPIS in the Piper betle Linn group was 3.80 and the mean of CPIS in the chlorhexidine group was 4.07. Conclusion: CPIS in the treatment group using Piper betle Linn mouthwash was lower than the mean of CPIS in the treatment group using clorhexidine.

  6. The difference of salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing Betel leaf (Piper Betle

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    Soo Ling Fu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long history of the use of plants to improve dental health and oral hygiene. The purpose of this research was to find out the difference of salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel. The type of research used was quasi-experimental. Data collected were analyzed by using a paired t-test. The result shows that there is an increase of salivary pH by an average of 0.48 after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel. In conclusion, there is the difference between the salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel.

  7. PELATIHAN MERAMU CAIRAN PEMBASMI JENTIK NYAMUK DARI DAUN SIRIH (Piper betle L. DI DESA TIBUBIU KECAMATAN KERAMBITAN TABANAN

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    I M. Sukadana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Community Service activity about the manner of making natural mosquito antilarvae liquids from Piper betle L leaf was conducted on the 24st of October 2010 to the mothers of PKK of Tibubiu village, Kerambitan subdistrict, Tabanan district. Making natural mosquito antilarvae liquids from Piper betle L leaf used the simple formulation technique. The liquids were made by using petroleum as a solvent and Piper betle L leaf as a antilarvae agent. The result of this activity and evaluation showed that the mosquito antilarvae liquids product is as good as chemical agent like “abate”. All participants showed enthusiastic during the activity and they will try to make these liquids. All participants, moreover understand about making liquids and they want to try at home. Such public service is interesting to because the peoples have improved knowledge, skill, and possibility to open of new entrepreneur in village so that it can be vacancy and increase income to community.

  8. Conservation systematics of the shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the nigrum-group (Mygalomorphae, Idiopidae, Idiosoma): integrative taxonomy reveals a diverse and threatened fauna from south-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G; Huey, Joel A; Cooper, Steven J B; Austin, Andrew D; Harvey, Mark S

    2018-01-01

    The aganippine shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the monophyletic nigrum -group of Idiosoma Ausserer s. l. are revised, and 15 new species are described from Western Australia and the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia: I. arenaceum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. corrugatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. clypeatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. dandaragan Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. gardneri Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. gutharuka Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. incomptum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. intermedium Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. jarrah Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. kwongan Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. mcclementsorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. mcnamarai Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , and I. schoknechtorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. Two previously described species from south-western Western Australia, I. nigrum Main, 1952 and I. sigillatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1870), are re-illustrated and re-diagnosed, and complementary molecular data for 14 species and seven genes are analysed with Bayesian methods. Members of the nigrum -group are of long-standing conservation significance, and I. nigrum is the only spider in Australia to be afforded threatened species status under both State and Commonwealth legislation. Two other species, I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. and I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , are also formally listed as Endangered under Western Australian State legislation. Here we significantly relimit I. nigrum to include only those populations from the central and central-western Wheatbelt bioregion, and further document the known diversity and conservation status of all known species.

  9. Conservation systematics of the shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the nigrum-group (Mygalomorphae, Idiopidae, Idiosoma: integrative taxonomy reveals a diverse and threatened fauna from south-western Australia

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    Michael G. Rix

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aganippine shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the monophyletic nigrum-group of Idiosoma Ausserer s. l. are revised, and 15 new species are described from Western Australia and the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia: I. arenaceum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. corrugatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. clypeatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. dandaragan Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. gardneri Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. gutharuka Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. incomptum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. intermedium Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. jarrah Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. kwongan Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. mcclementsorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. mcnamarai Rix & Harvey, sp. n., and I. schoknechtorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. Two previously described species from south-western Western Australia, I. nigrum Main, 1952 and I. sigillatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1870, are re-illustrated and re-diagnosed, and complementary molecular data for 14 species and seven genes are analysed with Bayesian methods. Members of the nigrum-group are of long-standing conservation significance, and I. nigrum is the only spider in Australia to be afforded threatened species status under both State and Commonwealth legislation. Two other species, I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. and I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., are also formally listed as Endangered under Western Australian State legislation. Here we significantly relimit I. nigrum to include only those populations from the central and central-western Wheatbelt bioregion, and further document the known diversity and conservation status of all known species.

  10. Conservation systematics of the shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the nigrum-group (Mygalomorphae, Idiopidae, Idiosoma): integrative taxonomy reveals a diverse and threatened fauna from south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G.; Huey, Joel A.; Cooper, Steven J.B.; Austin, Andrew D.; Harvey, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The aganippine shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the monophyletic nigrum-group of Idiosoma Ausserer s. l. are revised, and 15 new species are described from Western Australia and the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia: I. arenaceum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. corrugatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. clypeatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. dandaragan Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. gardneri Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. gutharuka Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. incomptum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. intermedium Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. jarrah Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. kwongan Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. mcclementsorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. mcnamarai Rix & Harvey, sp. n., and I. schoknechtorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. Two previously described species from south-western Western Australia, I. nigrum Main, 1952 and I. sigillatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1870), are re-illustrated and re-diagnosed, and complementary molecular data for 14 species and seven genes are analysed with Bayesian methods. Members of the nigrum-group are of long-standing conservation significance, and I. nigrum is the only spider in Australia to be afforded threatened species status under both State and Commonwealth legislation. Two other species, I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. and I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., are also formally listed as Endangered under Western Australian State legislation. Here we significantly relimit I. nigrum to include only those populations from the central and central-western Wheatbelt bioregion, and further document the known diversity and conservation status of all known species. PMID:29773959

  11. A study of the free radical scavenging effects of Piper betle leaf extract in patients with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sneha; Pati, Ayan Kumar; Manna, Alak; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Sen, Sumit; Chatterjee, Suparna; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2017-01-01

    Vitiligo is an idiopathic skin disease manifested by depigmented macules. It is characterised by melanocyte destruction, and redox imbalance is proposed to play a contributory role. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves on the generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes sourced from vitiligo patients. The effect of Piper betle on the generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes was measured by flow cytometry in patients with active and stable vitiligo versus healthy controls, using 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes was higher in patients with vitiligo (n = 23) compared to healthy controls (n = 18). The geometrical mean fluorescence channel was 23.05 ± 2.11 in patients versus 17.77 ± 1.79 in controls, P = 0.039. The levels of reactive oxygen species were higher in patients with active vitiligo. Treatment of erythrocytes with Piper betle in concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 μg/ml significantly decreased the baseline levels of reactive oxygen species by 31.7% in healthy controls, and 47.6% and 44.3% in patients with active vitiligo, respectively. Piper betle effectively scavenged hydrogen peroxide, which was evident by a decrease in the geometrical mean fluorescence channel by 52.4% and 62.9% in healthy controls, and 45.0% and 57.0% in patients with active vitiligo. The study had a small sample size. Future studies should focus on evaluation of the antioxidant role of Piper betle at the lesional site. This pilot study indicates that patients with active vitiligo demonstrate enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes, which was significantly reduced following ex vivo treatment with Piper betle.

  12. A study of the free radical scavenging effects of Piper betle leaf extract in patients with vitiligo

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    Sneha Mitra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is an idiopathic skin disease manifested by depigmented macules. It is characterised by melanocyte destruction, and redox imbalance is proposed to play a contributory role. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves on the generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes sourced from vitiligo patients. Methods: The effect of Piper betle on the generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes was measured by flow cytometry in patients with active and stable vitiligo versus healthy controls, using 5-(and-6-chloromethyl-2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Results: The generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes was higher in patients with vitiligo (n = 23 compared to healthy controls (n = 18. The geometrical mean fluorescence channel was 23.05 ± 2.11 in patients versus 17.77 ± 1.79 in controls, P = 0.039. The levels of reactive oxygen species were higher in patients with active vitiligo. Treatment of erythrocytes with Piper betle in concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 μg/ml significantly decreased the baseline levels of reactive oxygen species by 31.7% in healthy controls, and 47.6% and 44.3% in patients with active vitiligo, respectively. Piper betle effectively scavenged hydrogen peroxide, which was evident by a decrease in the geometrical mean fluorescence channel by 52.4% and 62.9% in healthy controls, and 45.0% and 57.0% in patients with active vitiligo. Limitations: The study had a small sample size. Future studies should focus on evaluation of the antioxidant role of Piper betle at the lesional site. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that patients with active vitiligo demonstrate enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes, which was significantly reduced following ex vivo treatment with Piper betle.

  13. Piper-PCA-Fisher Recognition Model of Water Inrush Source: A Case Study of the Jiaozuo Mining Area

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    Pinghua Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Source discrimination of mine water plays an important role in guiding mine water prevention in mine water management. To accurately determine water inrush source from a mine in the Jiaozuo mining area, a Piper trilinear diagram based on hydrochemical experimental data of stratified underground water in the area was utilized to determine typical water samples. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA was used for dimensionality reduction of conventional hydrochemical variables, after which mutually independent variables were extracted. The Piper-PCA-Fisher water inrush source recognition model was established by combining the Piper trilinear diagram and Fisher discrimination theory. Screened typical samples were used to conduct back-discriminate verification of the model. Results showed that 28 typical water samples in different aquifers were determined through the Piper trilinear diagram as a water sample set for training. Before PCA was carried out, the first five factors covered 98.92% of the information quantity of the original data and could effectively represent the data information of the original samples. During the one-by-one rediscrimination process of 28 groups of training samples using the Piper-PCA-Fisher water inrush source model, 100% correct discrimination rate was achieved. During the prediction and discrimination process of 13 samples, one water sample was misdiscriminated; hence, the correct prediscrimination rate was 92.3%. Compared with the traditional Fisher water source recognition model, the Piper-PCA-Fisher water source recognition model established in this study had higher accuracy in both rediscrimination and prediscrimination processes. Thus it had a strong ability to discriminate water inrush sources.

  14. The effective concentration of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion as root canal irrigant solution

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    Fani Pangabdian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smear layer is a debris consisting of organic and inorganic particles of calcified tissue, necrotic tissue, pulp tissue, and dentinoblast and microorganism processes that can close the entrance to the dentin tubuli. Smear layer, will not only inhibit the penetration of disinfection materials and sealers to the dentin tubuli, but will also reduce the attachment of root canal filling material so that root canal irrigation solution is needed to dissolve the smear layer. Red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion, on the other hand, contains saponin characterized as “surfactants” which can dissolve smear layer. Nevertheless, the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion has still not been known clearly. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion for cleaning root canal walls from smear layer. Methods: Fiveteen extracted human teeth with straight single roots were randomized into 5 groups (n=3. The specimens were then shaped by using rotary instruments up to a size of 25/.07. During instrumentation, each canal was irrigated with 10, 20, 30 and, 40% red betel leaf infusion for treatment groups, while another was irrigated with aquadest for the control group. Root canal cleanliness was observed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results: There were significant differences among treatment groups (p<0.05, except in the treatment groups irrigated with red betel leaf infusion with concentrations of 30% and 40% (p>0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that red betel leaf infusion with a concentration of 30% is effective for cleaning the root canal walls from the smear layer.Latar belakang: Smear layer adalah suatu debris yang mengandung partikel organik dan anorganik dari jaringan terkalsifikasi, jaringan nekrotik, proses dentinoblas, jaringan pulpa dan mikroorganisme yang dapat menutup jalan masuk ke tubuli dentin. Smear layer akan menghalangi penetrasi dari bahan

  15. Cytochalasin produced by Xylaria sp., a endophytic fungi of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae); Citocalasinas produzidas por Xylaria sp., um fungo endofitico de Piper aduncum (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Geraldo H.; Oliveira, Camila M. de; Teles, Helder L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R., E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pfenning, Ludwig H. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia; Young, Maria Claudia M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Costa-Neto, Claudio M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP/RP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Haddad, Renato; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    A chemical study on the EtOAc extract produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum, resulted in the isolation of a new cytochalasin 1, along with five known 19,20-epoxycytochalasin D (2), C (3), N (4), Q (5), and R (6). The 1-6 were evaluated against the fungi C. cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum and only 5 showed weak activity. The cytotoxicity in vitro against HeLA and CHO cells lines were investigated and the cytochalasins 2-4, and 6 showed a strong activity against HeLA. The DNA damaging activity of 1-6 were also investigated against mutant strains of S. cerevisiae. (author)

  16. Citocalasinas produzidas por Xylaria sp., um fungo endofítico de Piper aduncum (piperaceae Cytochalasins produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo H. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical study on the EtOAc extract produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum, resulted in the isolation of a new cytochalasin 1, along with five known 19,20-epoxycytochalasin D (2, C (3, N (4, Q (5, and R (6. The 1-6 were evaluated against the fungi C. cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum and only 5 showed weak activity. The cytotoxicity in vitro against HeLA and CHO cells lines were investigated and the cytochalasins 2-4, and 6 showed a strong activity against HeLA. The DNAdamaging activity of 1-6 were also investigated against mutant strains of S. cerevisiae.

  17. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  18. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle L TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Green Sirih (Piper betle L Extract towards Food Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliantari1

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Green sirih (Piper betle L extract were prepared using water, ethanol and ethyl acetate extraction of the dried materials. The extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. At concentrations 10-50% the extracts effectively inhibited the growth of all tested bacteria as shown by the clear zones which varied from 7 to 24 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC varied from 0.1 to 1 %. E. coli, S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were more resistance to the green sirih extracts than other tested bacteria. The results showed that in general, ethanol extraction produced the best extract with strong antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus. Analysis of the extract components with GC-MS revealed that sirih extract contained phenol, chavicol, eugenol, caryophylene, cylene, chalarene and others.

  19. Authentication of Piper betle L. folium and quantification of their antifungal-activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirasuta, I Made Agus Gelgel; Srinadi, I Gusti Ayu Made; Dwidasmara, Ida Bagus Gede; Ardiyanti, Ni Luh Putu Putri; Trisnadewi, I Gusti Ayu Arya; Paramita, Ni Luh Putu Vidya

    2017-07-01

    The TLC profiles of intra- and inter-day precision for Piper betle L . (PBL) folium methanol extract was studied for their peak marker recognition and identification. The Numerical chromatographic parameters (NCPs) of the peak markers, the hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and the principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to authenticate the PBL. folium extract from other Piper species folium extract and to ensure the antifungal activity quality of the PBL essential oil. The spotted extract was developed with the mobile phase of toluene: ethyl acetate; 93:7, (v/v). The eluted plate was viewed with the TLC-Visualizer, scanned under absorption and fluorescent mode detection, and on each sample the in-situ UV spectra were recorded between 190 to 400 nm. The NCPs profiles of intra- and inter-day precision results offered multi-dimensional chromatogram fingerprints for better marker peak pattern recognition and identification. Using the r -value fingerprints data series generated with this method allowed more precise discrimination the PBL. from other Piper species compared to the marker peak area fingerprint method. The cosine pair comparison was a simple method for authentication of two different fingerprints. The ward linkage clustering and the pair cross-correlation comparison were better chemometric methods to determine the consistency peak area ratio between fingerprints. The first component PCA-loading values of peak marker area fingerprints were correlated linearly to both the bio-marker concentration as well as the antifungal activity. This relationship could be used to control the quality and pharmacological potency. This simple method was developed for the authentication and quantification of herbal medicine.

  20. Chemical similarity and local community assembly in the species rich tropical genus Piper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Diego; Jaramillo, M Alejandra; Marquis, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Community ecologists have strived to find mechanisms that mediate the assembly of natural communities. Recent evidence suggests that natural enemies could play an important role in the assembly of hyper-diverse tropical plant systems. Classic ecological theory predicts that in order for coexistence to occur, species differences must be maximized across biologically important niche dimensions. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been recently suggested that, within a particular community, plant species that maximize the difference in chemical defense profiles compared to neighboring taxa will have a relative competitive advantage. Here we tested the hypothesis that plant chemical diversity can affect local community composition in the hyper-diverse genus Piper at a lowland wet forest location in Costa Rica. We first characterized the chemical composition of 27 of the most locally abundant species of Piper. We then tested whether species with different chemical compositions were more likely to coexist. Finally, we assessed the degree to which Piper phylogenetic relationships are related to differences in secondary chemical composition and community assembly. We found that, on average, co-occurring species were more likely to differ in chemical composition than expected by chance. Contrary to expectations, there was no phylogenetic signal for overall secondary chemical composition. In addition we found that species in local communities were, on average, more phylogenetically closely related than expected by chance, suggesting that functional traits other than those measured here also influence local assembly. We propose that selection by herbivores for divergent chemistries between closely related species facilitates the coexistence of a high diversity of congeneric taxa via apparent competition. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Cytochalasins produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Geraldo H.; Oliveira, Camila M. de; Teles, Helder L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R.; Pfenning, Ludwig H.; Young, Maria Claudia M.; Costa-Neto, Claudio M.; Haddad, Renato; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2010-01-01

    A chemical study on the EtOAc extract produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum, resulted in the isolation of a new cytochalasin 1, along with five known 19,20-epoxycytochalasin D (2), C (3), N (4), Q (5), and R (6). The 1-6 were evaluated against the fungi C. cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum and only 5 showed weak activity. The cytotoxicity in vitro against HeLA and CHO cells lines were investigated and the cytochalasins 2-4, and 6 showed a strong activity against...

  2. DART MS based chemical profiling for therapeutic potential of Piper betle landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vikas; Pandey, Renu; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh; Kumar, Nikhil; Kumar, Brijesh

    2012-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. leaves are traditionally used as a folk medicine in India and other Asiatic countries. Twenty-one P. betle landraces were analyzed using a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) mass spectral technique and evaluated on the basis of molecules detected in the leaves. Clustering of landraces based on three well known biologically active phenols (m/z 151,165,193) showed two broad groups with high and low phenol contents suggesting differences in their therapeutic potential. Findings of this study could be useful in rapid screening of the landraces for determining their medicinal potential and optimum utilization of the bioresource.

  3. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and hi...

  4. Age-dependent changes from allylphenol to prenylated benzoic acid production in Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia, Anderson M; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Kato, Massuo J

    2014-10-01

    HPLC-DAD and principal component analysis (PCA) of the (1)H NMR spectrum of crude plant extracts showed high chemical variability among seedlings and adult organs of Piper gaudichaudianum. While gaudichaudianic acid was the major compound in the adult leaves, apiole and dillapiole were the major compounds in their seedling leaves. By the 15th month of seedling growth, the levels of apiole and dillapiole decreased and gaudichaudianic acid appeared along with two compounds, biosynthetically related to gaudichaudianic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemodiversity Associated with Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Piper aduncum var. ossanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Yamilet; Montes, Rodny; Scull, Ramón; Sánchez, Arturo; Cos, Paul; Monzote, Lianet; Setzer, William N

    2016-12-01

    Chemical analysis, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oils (EOs) from leaves of Piper aduncum var. ossanum from two localities Bauta (EO-B) and Ceiba (EO-C), Artemisa Province, Cuba, were determined. EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. EO-B demonstrated higher activity against S. aureus and L. amazonensis; while a lower cytotoxicity on mammalian cells was observed. Both EOs displayed the same activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania infantum. Both EOs were inactive against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Akter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p

  7. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (pbetel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Red Piper Crocatum Leaves Extract Decrease TNF-α and IL-6 Levels in Wistar Rat with Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahjuni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research aims to find a cure for anti-inflammation, based on the utilization of red piper crocatum. The research was started with descriptive study to explore active components of red piper crocatum leaf and followed by experimental study to investigate red piper crocatum activity of the leaf extract in anti-inflammation induced Wistar rat. In this research observed three dominant components: caryophyllene bicyclo [5.2.0] none,2 methylene-4,8,8-trimethyl-4-vinyl; phytol; 5,9-propano-5H-benzocycloheptene,6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-7,11-bis(methylene; 4,4-ethynedioxy-2-hexadecen-15-15 olide 1,4,9-trioxaspiro [4,15] eic os-6-en-8-one, 10 methyl; 1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(H-thione,4-allyl-3-(3-furyl; Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-7-phenyl which are possibly active to inhibit anti-inflammation to atherosclerosis. Bad eating habits also can cause various health problems, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, inflammation to atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to investigate of red piper crocatum leaves extract as an anti-inflammation through decrease of biochemistry markers TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Method: This is a true experimental with randomized pre-test and post-test control group design, using 50 Wistar rats that are divided into 5 groups: control group using 0 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 1 using 50 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 2 using 100 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 3 using 150 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, and treatment group 4 200mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract. Results: It was observed that intake of 150 mg/BW red piper crocatum leaves extract results in the highest significance decrease of 45.63% of TNF-α levels from (28.62 ± 1.25 to 15.56 ± 7.20 рg/mL and a significance decrease of 15.42% of IL-6 level from (134.64 ± 1.98 to 113.87 ± 4.30 рg/mL. Conclusion: It can be concluded that intake of red piper crocatum

  9. Soil seed banks and growth rates of an invasive species, Piper aduncum, in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, H.R.; Hartemink, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Secondary fallow vegetation in parts of the Papua New Guinea lowlands is dominated by the shrub Piper aduncum L. that originates from South America. Here we report on its seed bank, growth rate and biomass accumulation. P. aduncum accounted for 69 % (408 m[minus sign]2) of the seed bank in the

  10. Kamahouse'i asutamise pöörane lugu / Kadri Jakobson ; vahendanud Ursula Zimmermann ; kommenteerinud William Piper

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Kadri, 1970-

    2012-01-01

    Kunsti ja äri ühendamisest: kobarärist Koplis, kuhu kuuluvad Kamahouse Galerii, Eero Kotli Tellisstuudio, Unique Home Art, William Piper konsultatsioonibüroo, Meeskonnakoolituse ja Arenduse OÜ, kauplus-stuudio Õnneküpsis, kohvik Kamahouse'i Köök

  11. EXTRACTION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES OF DIASTASE-LIKE ENZYME FROM PIPER BETLE PETIOLES: PART 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasarma, G.V.S; Dutta, Sadhan Kumar

    1995-01-01

    Petioles of the plant piper betle-bengal variety have been subjected for extraction employing standard procedure and the crude extract obtained has been evaluated for its diastase like activity and other physico-chemical properties to investigate further its possible biological and pharmacological activities. PMID:22556729

  12. 75 FR 43809 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44 Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA), Barry Rogers, Bruce Chien, and Harry Cook commented that... Absorbed by Piper John Witosky, Thomas McIntosh, Claude Dalrymple, Jr., M. Hefter, and George Haffey..., Barry Rogers, Matt Gunsch, Thomas McIntosh, and four other commenters stated that the FAA needs to...

  13. Composition of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Piper pierrei C.DC. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Genderen, van M.H.P.; Thanh, L.; Khien, P.V.; Dung, N.X.

    1997-01-01

    The oil of Piperpierrei C.DC. (local name Teau nlii, Tieu pierrei - Piper grown on the mountain) was isolated from its aerial parts by hydrodistillation. The oil was analyzed for the first time by high resolution GC, GC/MS and 13C-NMR. It contained more than 80 constituents of which 67 compounds

  14. Compositional analysis of the leaf oils of Piper callosum Ruiz & Pav. from Peru and Michelia montana Blume from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, van M.H.P.; Leclercq, P.A.; Delgado, H.S.; Kanjilal, P.B.; Singh, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    The leaf oils of Piper callosum from Peruvian Amazon and Michelia montana from Assam, India, were prepared by hydrodistillation and analyzed by a combination of GC and GC/MS. Twenty five and thirty components have been identified, representing 96.3 and 100.0% of the respective oils. The major

  15. "A New Kind of Rule": The Subversive Narrator in "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" and "The Pied Piper of Hamelin."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, William

    1986-01-01

    Compares "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" to "The Pied Piper of Hamelin," noting that both: (1) were begun for the amusement of specific children; (2) use a subterranean journey as a device; (3) are critical of social authority; and (4) have problematic endings. (SRT)

  16. Invasion of Piper aduncum in the shifting cultivation systems of Papua New Guinea: Foreword by David Pimentel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Piper aduncum, a shrub native to Central America, arrived in Papua New Guinea before the mid-1930s possibly from West Papua. From the 1970s it started to dominate the secondary fallow vegetation in many parts of the humid lowlands. It invaded grassland areas and it also appeared in the highlands up

  17. Leaf litter decomposition of Piper aduncum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; O'Sullivan, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    No information is available on the decomposition and nutrient release pattern of Piper aduncum and Imperata cylindrica despite their importance in shifting cultivation systems of Papua New Guinea and other tropical regions. We conducted a litter bag study (24 weeks) on a Typic Eutropepts in the

  18. Cadmium-induced oxidative damage and protective effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine against cadmium toxicity in Solanum nigrum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiaopeng; Xia Yan; Hu Wei; Zhang Hongxiao; Shen Zhenguo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and antioxidant enzyme activities in roots of Solanum nigrum L. and the role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as a cysteine (Cys) donor against Cd toxicity were investigated. Cd at 50 and 200 μM significantly increased the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the production of H 2 O 2 and superoxide anion (O 2 · - ), and the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase. Experiments with diphenylene iodonium as an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and NaN 3 as an inhibitor of peroxidase showed that the major source of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species in the roots may include plasma membrane-bound NADPH oxidase and peroxidase. In addition, the effects of NAC on plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, and non-protein thiol content were analyzed. Under Cd stress, the addition of 500 μM NAC decreased the contents of TBARS and production of H 2 O 2 and O 2 · - , but increased levels of Cys and reduced glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins, and activity of GSH-Px in roots. These results suggest that NAC could protect plants from oxidative stress damage, and this protection seems to be performed via increased GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, NAC treatment also increased the contents of protein thiols in S. nigrum roots. By using size-exclusion chromatography, we found involvement of NAC in the Cd tolerance mechanism through increased biosynthesis of Cd-binding proteins.

  19. Cadmium-induced oxidative damage and protective effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine against cadmium toxicity in Solanum nigrum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xiaopeng; Xia Yan; Hu Wei [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zhang Hongxiao, E-mail: hxzhang@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shen Zhenguo, E-mail: zgshen@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and antioxidant enzyme activities in roots of Solanum nigrum L. and the role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as a cysteine (Cys) donor against Cd toxicity were investigated. Cd at 50 and 200 {mu}M significantly increased the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}), and the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase. Experiments with diphenylene iodonium as an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and NaN{sub 3} as an inhibitor of peroxidase showed that the major source of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species in the roots may include plasma membrane-bound NADPH oxidase and peroxidase. In addition, the effects of NAC on plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, and non-protein thiol content were analyzed. Under Cd stress, the addition of 500 {mu}M NAC decreased the contents of TBARS and production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, but increased levels of Cys and reduced glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins, and activity of GSH-Px in roots. These results suggest that NAC could protect plants from oxidative stress damage, and this protection seems to be performed via increased GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, NAC treatment also increased the contents of protein thiols in S. nigrum roots. By using size-exclusion chromatography, we found involvement of NAC in the Cd tolerance mechanism through increased biosynthesis of Cd-binding proteins.

  20. Acaricidal activity and repellency of essential oil from Piper aduncum and its components against Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mário J C; Câmara, Cláudio A G; Born, Flávia S; Moraes, Marcílio M; Badji, César A

    2012-06-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil of leaves of Piper aduncum L., growing wild in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in northeastern Brazil, was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acaricidal activity and repellency of the essential oil and its components [dillapiole (0.28 g/ml), α-humulene (0.016 g/ml), (E)-nerolidol (0.0007 g/ml) and β-caryophyllene (0.0021 g/ml)] were evaluated in the laboratory against adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The mites were more susceptible to the oil in fumigation tests (LC(50) = 0.01 μl/l of air) than in contact test with closed Petri dish (LC(50) = 7.17 μl/ml); mortality was reduced by approximately 50 % in the latter test. The repellent action of the oil and toxicity by fumigation and contact did not differ significantly from the positive control (eugenol). The repellent activity was attributed to the components (E)-nerolidol, α-humulene and β-caryophyllene, whereas toxicity by fumigation and contact was attributed to β-caryophyllene. The effect of Piper oil and the role of its components regarding host plant preference with a two-choice leaf disk test are also discussed.

  1. An ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper betle (Paan) Linn mediates its antileishmanial activity via apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Avijit; Sen, Rupashree; Saha, Piu; Ganguly, Sudipto; Mandal, Goutam; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2008-05-01

    An unprecedented increase in the incidence of unresponsiveness to antimonial compounds has highlighted the urgent need to develop new antileishmanial agents. The leaves of Piper betle (locally known as Paan) have long been in use in the Indian indigenous system of medicine for its antimicrobial properties but its antileishmanial potential has not been studied. Accordingly, an ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper betle (PB) was tested for its antileishmanial activity that was evidenced in both promastigotes and amastigotes, with IC50 values of 9.8 and 5.45 microg/ml, respectively; importantly, it was accompanied by a safety index of >12-fold. This leishmanicidal activity of PB was mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by morphological changes, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, in situ labeling of DNA fragments by terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling, and cell-cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. Taken together, the data indicate that PB has promising antileishmanial activity that is mediated via programmed cell death and, accordingly, merits consideration and further investigation as a therapeutic option for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  2. Effect of Piper betle on Giardia intestinalis infection in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecková, Radka; Doležal, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kváč, Martin; Nurcahyo, Wisnu; Foitová, Ivona

    2018-01-01

    Piper betle has been used as a medicinal plant in traditional medical systems throughout South and South East Asia. Experimental studies have revealed its wide and diverse biological and pharmacological effects. In this study, antigiardial activity of Piper betle was tested using experimental infections of Giardia intestinalis, the most common cause of protozoal diarrhoea worldwide, in Mongolian gerbils. Plants were extracted in water, methanol and methanol:tetrahydrofuran. Gerbils were treated for ten days intragastrically twice a day, with the dose of 40 mg of the extract per 100 g of body weight. Drug metronidazole was used as a negative control. Gerbils' faeces were taken every day and examined by flotation method, the number of shed cysts were counted using a haemocytometer. After gerbils' sacrifice and dissection, their duodena were then processed for examination using histological sectioning and scanning electron microscopy. The antigiardial activity was evaluated by the course of cyst shedding throughout the entire experiment. A significant decline in cyst shedding, evaluated by linear regression was found in gerbils treated with the aqueous extract. Our results indicate that the aqueous extract of P. betle shows giardicidal effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation.

  4. Aplikasi Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper Betle Linn dalam Menghambat Oksidasi Lemak Jambal Patin (Pangasius hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Ariyani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian aplikasi ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn untuk menghambat proses oksidasi jambal patin telah dilakukan. Percobaan dilakukan dengan penambahan ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn dalam larutan garam yang digunakan untuk penggaraman ikan. Perbandingan ekstrak daun sirih dan larutan garam yang digunakan adalah 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 (v/v, sedangkan larutan garam tanpa penambahan ekstrak daun sirih digunakan sebagai kontrol. Selesai perendaman dalam campuran larutan garam dan ekstrak sirih (48 jam, patin asin dikeringkan di bawah sinar matahari selama 4–5 hari, selanjutnya disimpan pada suhu ruang (25-32oC selama 8 minggu. Perubahan mutu jambal patin dimonitor secara organoleptik dan kimiawi (angka Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/TBARS, angka anisidin, dan produk berfluoresen, sebelum jambal patin kering disimpan dan setiap 2 minggu selama penyimpanan. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan ekstrak daun sirih pada larutan garam selama penggaraman mampu menghambat oksidasi lemak jambal patin selama penyimpanan 8 minggu tercermin dari rendahnya angka TBARS, anisidin, dan produk berfluoresen jambal patin yang diperlakukan dengan daun sirih dibanding dengan kontrol. Berdasarkan hasil uji sensori, jambal patin yang diberi ekstrak air daun sirih tidak berbau tengik, walaupun warna dan rasa jambal patin sedikit berubah. Perlakuan ekstrak sirih yang mampu menghambat oksidasi lemak jambal patin dengan nilai sensori terbaik adalah kelompok perlakuan ekstrak daun sirih dengan perbandingan 1:5 (v/v.

  5. Assessment of antinociceptive, antipyretic and antimicrobial activity of Piper cubeba L. essential oil in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothana, Ramzi; Alsaid, Mansour; Khaled, Jamal M; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Alatar, Abdulrahman; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Ahamad, Syed Rizwan

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possible antiniciceptive, antipyretic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of Piper Cubeba (L.). To assess the antinociceptive and antipyretic activities, three doses (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, tail flick reaction and hot-plate and Brewer's yeast-induced hyperpyrexia test models in animals. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity was examined using agar diffusion method and broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The Piper Cubeba essential oil (PCEO) showed a marked antinociception (17, 30 and 54%) and an increase in reaction time in mice in the flick tailed and hot-plate tests. The brewer's yeast induced hyperpyrexia was decreased in a dose dependent manner. PCEO also exhibited a strong antimicrobial potential. These findings confirm the traditional analgesic indications of P. cubeba oil and provide persuasive evidence and support its use in Arab traditional medicine.

  6. Flavonoids from Piper delineatum modulate quorum-sensing-regulated phenotypes in Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rodríguez, Alberto J; Ticona, Juan C; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Flores, Ninoska; Fernández, José J; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2015-09-01

    Quorum sensing (QS), or bacterial cell-to-cell communication, is a key process for bacterial colonization of substrata through biofilm formation, infections, and production of virulence factors. In an ongoing investigation of bioactive secondary metabolites from Piper species, four new flavonoids (1-4), along with five known ones (5-9) were isolated from the leaves of Piper delineatum. Their stereostructures were established by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and comparison with data reported in the literature. The compounds were screened for their ability to interfere with QS signaling in the bacterial model Vibrio harveyi. Four compounds from this series (2, 3, 6, and 7) exhibited remarkable activity in the micromolar range, being compounds 3 and 7 particularly attractive since they did not affect bacterial growth. The results suggest that these flavonoids disrupt QS-mediated bioluminescence by interaction with elements downstream LuxO in the QS circuit of V. harveyi, and also, they exhibited a strong dose-dependent inhibition of biofilm formation. The present findings shed light on the QS inhibition mechanisms of flavonoids, underlining their potential applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Morfoanatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Piper hispidum Sw. (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana L.M. Albiero

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo o estudo morfoanatômico dos órgãos vegetativos de Piper hispidum, visando a estabelecer características marcantes para a sua identificação e auxiliar estudos taxonômicos e farmacobotânicos. O material vegetal fresco e fixado foi estudado segundo as técnicas usuais de corte e coloração, incluindo análise em MEV. Piper hispidum é um arbusto com caule cilíndrico, nodoso, verde claro, com folhas alternas, ovadas, de cor verde-escura na face adaxial e verde claro na abaxial. Dentre as características anatômicas importantes para sua identificação destacam-se: parênquima cortical da raiz apresentando grupos de esclereídes. Córtex caulinar com faixas descontínuas de colênquima do tipo angular e tecido vascular organizado em dois círculos descontínuos de feixes colaterais. A folha é dorsiventral, hipoestomática, com estômatos tetracíticos. Hipoderme adaxial descontínua e abaxial frouxa com número variável de camadas; tricomas tectores e glandulares ocorrem nas duas faces. Epiderme uniestratificada e idioblastos oleíferos ocorrem em todos os órgãos.

  8. [Determination of the healing effect of Piper aduncum (spiked pepper or matico) on human fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paco, Karen; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Lopez-Ilasaca, Marco; Aguilar, José L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the healing effect of a Piper aduncum ethanol-water extract on an adult human dermal fibroblast cell line (hDFa). After obtaining the extract via solid-liquid extraction, concentration, and lyophilization, extract proteins were purified using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, identified using tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides, and analyzed using MALDI-TOF-TOF on an ABSciex4800 mass spectrometer. Half maximum effective concentration values (EC50), half maximum inhibiting concentration (IC50), and percentages of cell proliferation were determined using tetrazolium salt assays. Cell migration was evaluated using a "scratch assay". Growth factor expression in cells was analyzed via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Against the hDFa cell line, the extract had an IC50 of 200 μg/mL and EC50 of 103.5 µg/mL. In the proliferation assay, protein K2 (obtained from the extract) exhibited increased proliferative activity relative to other treatments (1 µg/mL); this agent also exhibited increased activity (50 µg/mL) in the fibroblast migration assay.Furthermore, the relative expression of platelet-derived growth factor increased by 8.6-fold in the presence of K2 protein relative to the control. The hydroethanolic extract of Piper aduncum and its component proteins increased the proliferation and migration of hDFa and increased the expression of growth factors involved in the healing process.

  9. Multidrug resistance-selective antiproliferative activity of Piper amide alkaloids and synthetic analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Goto, Masuo; Wang, Li-Ting; Hsieh, Kan-Yen; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Tang, Gui-Hua; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-10-15

    Twenty-five amide alkaloids (1-25) from Piper boehmeriifolium and 10 synthetic amide alkaloid derivatives (39-48) were evaluated for antiproliferative activity against eight human tumor cell lines, including chemosensitive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines. The results suggested tumor type-selectivity. 1-[7-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)heptanoyl]piperidine (46) exhibited the best inhibitory activity (IC50=4.94 μM) against the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing KBvin MDR sub-line, while it and all other tested compounds, except 9, were inactive (IC50 >40 μM) against MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) indicated that (i) 3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl substitution is critical for selectivity against KBvin, (ii) the 4-methoxy group in this pattern is crucial for antiproliferative activity, (iii) double bonds in the side chain are not needed for activity, and (iv), in arylalkenylacyl amide alkaloids, replacement of an isobutylamino group with pyrrolidin-1-yl or piperidin-1-yl significantly improved activity. Further study on Piper amides is warranted, particularly whether side chain length affects the ability to overcome the MDR cancer phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HSCCC separation and enantiomeric distribution of key volatile constituents of Piper claussenianum (Miq.) C. DC. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, André M; Fingolo, Catharina E; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2017-11-01

    High Speed Countercurrent Chromatography (HSCCC) technique was used for the preparative isolation of the major leishmanicidal compounds from the essential oils of Piper claussenianum species in Brazil. The essential oils from inflorescences of P. claussenianum were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The enantiomeric ratio of the major constituents of the P. claussenianum essential oils were determined using a Rt-DEXsm chiral capillary column by GC-FID analysis. It was found an enantiomeric excess of (+)-(E)-nerolidol in the leaves, and (+)-linalool and (+)-(E)-nerolidol in the inflorescences essential oil. The major volatile terpenes alcohols were isolated in preparative scale from inflorescences: linalool (320.0 mg) and nerolidol (95.0 mg) in high purity level. The HSCCC, a support-free liquid-liquid partition chromatographic technique, proved to be an effective and useful method for fast isolation and purification of hydrophobic and similarly structured bioactive components from essential oils of Piper species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Comparative metabolism of three amide alkaloids from Piper longum in five different species of liver microsomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huan; Guo, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Wu, Xia

    2016-08-01

    Piperine, piperlonguminine and pellitorine are three major amide alkaloids from Piper longum, showing a variety of pharmacological activities. In order to investigate the different metabolism pathways of these compounds in five species of liver microsomes in vitro, the data of full mass spectrum, and MS2, MS3 spectra of these three alkaloids were collected and analyzed by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a LTQ-orbitrap mass spectrometer (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS); gragment ion information was collected and combined with fragmentation regularities of mass spectra and accurate mass spectrometry data of metabolites, to compare the metabolism difference of three amide alkaloids in liver microsomes of human, rhesus monkey, Beagle dogs, rats and mice. 3 metabolites of piperine, 2 metabolites of piperlonguminine and 1 metabolite of pellitorine were identified quickly. The results showed that the major metabolic pathways of these amide alkaloids in liver microsomes were methylenedioxy group demethylation and oxidation reaction, and metabolic rates were different between species. This study provides basis for further research on in vivo metabolism of piperine analogues from Piper longum. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Chemical composition of essential oils from four Vietnamese species of piper (piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Le D; Thang, Tran D; Hoi, Tran M; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils from four Piper species, Piper retrofractum Vahl., P. boehmeriaefolium (Miq.) C. DC., P. sarmentosum Roxb., and P. maclurei Merr., were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen to sixty-four compounds representing 92.0%-98.4% of the total contents were identified in the oil samples. The major constituents identified in P. retrofractum leaf oil were benzyl benzoate (14.4%), myrcene (14.4%), bicycloelemene (9.9%), bicyclogermacrene (7.0%) and β-caryophyllene (5.3%). On the other hand, the main constituents of P. boehmeriaefolium were α-copaene (28.3%), α-pinene (7.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.7%). P. sarmentosum showed a very different chemical profile characterized mainly by aromatic compounds and devoid of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The major constituents were benzyl benzoate (49.1%), benzyl alcohol (17.9%), 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid phenylmethyl ester (10.0%) and 2-butenyl-benzene (7.9%). The leaf of P. maclurei was characterized by higher amount of (E)-cinnamic acid (37.4%) and (E)-nerolidol (19.4%). Moreover, (Z)-9-octadecanoic acid methyl ester (28.0%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (17.2%), phytol (12.2%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (8.8%) were the major compounds identified in the stem oil.

  13. PIPER: Performance Insight for Programmers and Exascale Runtimes: Guiding the Development of the Exascale Software Stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-10-20

    The PIPER project set out to develop methodologies and software for measurement, analysis, attribution, and presentation of performance data for extreme-scale systems. Goals of the project were to support analysis of massive multi-scale parallelism, heterogeneous architectures, multi-faceted performance concerns, and to support both post-mortem performance analysis to identify program features that contribute to problematic performance and on-line performance analysis to drive adaptation. This final report summarizes the research and development activity at Rice University as part of the PIPER project. Producing a complete suite of performance tools for exascale platforms during the course of this project was impossible since both hardware and software for exascale systems is still a moving target. For that reason, the project focused broadly on the development of new techniques for measurement and analysis of performance on modern parallel architectures, enhancements to HPCToolkit’s software infrastructure to support our research goals or use on sophisticated applications, engaging developers of multithreaded runtimes to explore how support for tools should be integrated into their designs, engaging operating system developers with feature requests for enhanced monitoring support, engaging vendors with requests that they add hardware measure- ment capabilities and software interfaces needed by tools as they design new components of HPC platforms including processors, accelerators and networks, and finally collaborations with partners interested in using HPCToolkit to analyze and tune scalable parallel applications.

  14. Propriedade inseticida dos óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum C. DC.; Piper aduncum L. e Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum sobre Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 Insecticidal properties of essential oils of Piper hispidinervum C. DC.; Piper aduncum L. and Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum against Tenebrio molitor L., 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Fazolin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Óleos essenciais das piperáceas Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C. DC. e da bignoniácea Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum foram avaliados para o controle de larvas de Tenebrio molitor L., 1758. Para a avaliação do efeito por contato em superfície contaminada, foram utilizados papéis-filtro impregnados com diferentes quantidades dos óleos essenciais. Para a avaliação do efeito tópico foram aplicados 5 mL de soluções com diferentes concentrações dos óleos sobre larvas de quinto instar do inseto. A taxa de mortalidade foi a variável utilizada para avaliar os experimentos. Todos os óleos essenciais apresentaram efeito inseticida sobre larvas de T. molitor, sendo que as respostas variaram em função da concentração utilizada, assim como do método de exposição do inseto. A toxicidade dos óleos essenciais foi elevada apresentando os seguintes valores de CL50: 0,045; 0,033 e 1,515 mL de óleo cm-2 para exposição por contato (papel filtro aos óleos de P. hispidinervum,P. aduncum e T. nocturnum, respectivamente. Para a aplicação tópica, os valores da DL50 foram de: 0,000025; 0,009 e 0,000015 mL de óleo mg de inseto -1 para os óleos essenciais de P. hispidinervum,P. aduncum e T. nocturnum, respectivamente. Resultados promissores para o emprego desses óleos essenciais como inseticidas foram obtidos utilizando-se concentrações acima de 3,0% (v v-1 para P. hispidinervum e 2,5% (v v-1 para P. aduncum e T. nocturnum.Essential oils from Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (Piperaceae and Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur.& K. Shum (Bignoniaceae were tested against Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 larvaes. Filter paper with different amounts of oils were employed for contact toxicity effects study. For topical effect study, aliquots of 5 mL of oils at different concentrations were applied on larvaes of the fifth instar. Mortality rate was used to evaluate the assays. All essential oils possessed

  15. Insecticidal activity of Piper essential oils from the Amazon against the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, R N P; Harada, A Y; Andrade, E H A; Maia, J G S

    2012-12-01

    Pepper plants in the genus Piper (Piperales: Piperaceae) are common in the Brazilian Amazon and many produce compounds with biological activity against insect pests. We evaluated the insecticidal effect of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper marginatum (chemotypes A and B), Piper divaricatum and Piper callosum against workers of the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), as well as their chemical composition by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The lowest median lethal concentration (LC50) in 48 h was obtained with the oil of P. aduncum (58.4 mg/L), followed by the oils of P. marginatum types A (122.4 mg/L) and B (167.0 mg/L), P. divaricatum (301.7 mg/L), and P. callosum (312.6 mg/L). The major chemical constituents were dillapiole (64.4%) in the oil of P. aduncum; p-mentha-1(7),8-diene (39.0%), 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone (19.0%), and (E)-β-ocimene (9.8%) in P. marginatum chemotype A and (E)-isoosmorhizole (32.2%), (E)-anethole (26.4%), isoosmorhizole (11.2%), and (Z)-anethole (6.0%) in P. marginatum chemotype B; methyleugenol (69.2%) and eugenol (16.2%) in P. divaricatum; and safrole (69.2%), methyleugenol (8.6%), and β-pinene (6.2%) in P. callosum. These chemical constituents have been previously known to possess insecticidal properties.

  16. Sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10% povidone iodine towards recurrent apthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral ulceration often becomes the main reason for the patients to see a dentist. Therapy of the oral ulceration is by giving the palliative therapy with topical antiseptic. Nowadays, there are many researches concerning with the traditional medicines as alternative therapy. One of them is Piper betle linn which contains the antiseptic agent. Purpose: This research is aimed to observe the sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10%povidone iodine. Methods: This laboratory research was conducted by the post test only design with random complete design. The research sampel is Streptococcus viridans culture that was scrapped from the ulcer of the recurrent aphthous stomatitis patient, then it was replicated by using the Federer theory. Results: Inhibitory zone of 35% Piper betle linn extract is bigger than 10% povidone iodine. Conclusion: Streptococcus viridans are more sensitive to 35% Piper bittle linn extract than 10% povidone iodine. 35% Piper betle linn extract has more antibacterial effect than 10% povidone iodine.Latar belakang: Ulserasi rongga mulut seringkali menjadi alasan utama bagi pasien untuk memeriksakan diri ke dokter gigi. Terapi ulserasi rongga mulut adalah pemberian terapi paliatif kepada penderita, seperti: pemberian obat topikal yang mengandung antiseptik. Saat ini banyak penelitian dalam pengembangan obat tradisional yang dapat dijadikan sebagai obat alternatif. Salah satu diantaranya adalah daun sirih yang mengandung zat antiseptik. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui perbedaan sensitivitas Streptococcus viridans terhadap ekstrak daun sirih 35% jika dibandingkan dengan povidone iodine 10%. Metode: Penelitian laboratoris yang dilakukan dengan post test only design dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Sampel penelitian adalah kultur Streptococcus viridans yang diambil melalui swab dari hapusan ulser pada pasien yang menderita stomatitis aftosa rekuren, kemudian dilakukan

  17. Karakterisasi Simplisia, Skrining Fitokimia dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun dari Dua Varietas Sirih (Piper betle L.) Terhadap Bakteri Streptococcus mutans Penyebab Karies Gigi

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Sulastri

    2010-01-01

    Leaf of betle (Piper betle L) has beeen used traditionally as medicine, for example as mouthwash, prevent caries and wound curing. This betle have many varieties which was differented by it colour, form and taste. Part of betle are different from colour, form, taste. Part of betle are red betle, Malay betel, black betel, silver betle, forest betle and prawn, but some people more used to sirih Melayu. It happened because almost people do not recordnice varieties of Piper betle. This observat...

  18. PENGARUH LAMA DAN SUHU PENYIMPANAN EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle linn) DENGAN AQUADES TERHADAP DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptococcus agalactiae PENYEBAB MASTITIS PADA SAPI PERAH

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Sanjaya Kusuma; Tri Eko Susilorini; Puguh Surjowardojo

    2017-01-01

    Green betle leaf (Piper betle L.) is one of the plants used by the people of Indonesia for tradisional medicine. Green betle leaf contains antibacterial compounds consisting of phenol and its derivatives. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of green betle leaf (Piper betle L.) againt the bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae caused mastitis in dairy cows. Bacterial inhibition test by paper disc method. Data analysis using ANOVA by Nested design with 6 treatment and 6 repetitio...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9530 - Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal. 721.9530 Section 721.9530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9530 Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester...

  20. Isomerização do óleo essencial de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC para a obtenção de isosafrol Isomerization of essential oil of (Piper hispidinervium C. DC to obtain isosafrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Cremasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As piperáceas brasileiras apresentam propriedades para serem utilizadas, entre outras aplicações, como inseticidas e antifúngicos. Dentre as piperáceas, pode-se citar a Piper hispidinervum C. DC. De suas folhas e dos talos finos extrai-se um óleo essencial rico em safrol, que é utilizado pela indústria como matéria-prima na manufatura, por exemplo, do piperonal. A sequência natural do processo para a obtenção do piperonal é o de submeter o safrol obtido da concentração do óleo essencial à isomerização para seu correspondente isômero estável chamado isosafrol. Apresenta-se neste artigo, por sua vez, a síntese do isosafrol diretamente do óleo essencial de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. Este óleo essencial apresenta o safrol como constituinte majoritário, possibilitando a sua isomerização para a produção de isosafrol, que é empregado nas indústrias farmacêuticas e de fragrâncias. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de apresentar a obtenção do isosafrol sem a necessidade da etapa de separação do safrol do óleo essencial de pimenta-longa. Para tanto, foram realizados ensaios de isomerização do óleo essencial, obtendo-se uma solução contendo 79,4 % da mistura cis, trans-isosafrol. Ressalte-se que o óleo essencial continha 86,4 % de safrol, resultando em alto rendimento na sua conversão a cis, trans-isosafrol de 97,1 %.The Brazilian peppers present proprieties that can be used in fragrance and pharmaceutical industries, for example. One these pepper is long pepper (Piper hispidinervium C. DC., who its essential oil is rich in safrole. Safrole is an important compound with application in several industries, such as pharmaceutics, cosmetics. After its chemical conversion, for example, it is possible to obtain heliotropin, a fixative agent for fragrances. The sequence to obtain the heliotropin is by safrole isomerization, that, initially, produce isosafrole. In this work, however, presents the synthesis

  1. Evaluation of Piper aduncum Linn. Essential Oil (Fam:Piperaceae against Periplaneta americana(L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ling A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of Piper aduncum essential oil was evaluated against Periplaneta americana adults and nymphs in the laboratory."nMethods: The plant essential oil at varying concentrations ranging between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm were placed inside glass beakers, rolled horizontally to ensure the essential oil covers all sides of the beakers and exposed to adults and nymphs of P. americana. Resigen (R 1ppm was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. The LT50 and LT90 was obtained using Log Probit programme."nResults: Exposure of essential oil to females P. americana at concentrations between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm indicated the LT50 and LT90 values between 5.31 h-189.19 h and 14.90 h-2105.31 h, respectively. Treatment with the same con­centrations against males P. americana ,the LT50 and LT90 were 2.08 h-181.73 h and 5.4 h-8460.51 h, respectively. Treatment against the nymphal stage with the same range of concentrations indicated the LT50 and LT 90 of 4.68 h-381.02 h and 28.71 h-5313.36 h, respectively.The nymphs and males were more susceptible than the females cock­roaches. Treatment with Resigen (R at 1ppm indicated much lower LT 50 and LT 90 values of 2.54 h-9.47 h for the fe­males, 1.47 h-4.22 h for the males and 4.69 h-8.92 h for the nymphs.The negative control indicated no mortality for all stages of the cockroach."nConclusion: Piper aduncum essential oil can be used as an alternative natural product for controlling the cockroach Peri­patetic americana. "nKeywords: Piper aduncum essential oil, Periplaneta americana, Adults, Nymphs

  2. Authentication of Piper betle L. folium and quantification of their antifungal-activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Agus Gelgel Wirasuta

    2017-07-01

    The NCPs profiles of intra- and inter-day precision results offered multi-dimensional chromatogram fingerprints for better marker peak pattern recognition and identification. Using the r-value fingerprints data series generated with this method allowed more precise discrimination the PBL. from other Piper species compared to the marker peak area fingerprint method. The cosine pair comparison was a simple method for authentication of two different fingerprints. The ward linkage clustering and the pair cross-correlation comparison were better chemometric methods to determine the consistency peak area ratio between fingerprints. The first component PCA-loading values of peak marker area fingerprints were correlated linearly to both the bio-marker concentration as well as the antifungal activity. This relationship could be used to control the quality and pharmacological potency. This simple method was developed for the authentication and quantification of herbal medicine.

  3. Astronauts Stefanyshyn-Piper, Lindsey and Currie greet First Lady Hillary Clinton at the Skid Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton is greeted by Astronauts (from left) Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, Steven W. Lindsey, and Nancy Jane Currie upon Mrs. Clinton's arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. She and her daughter, Chelsea (far right) are here to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS- 93, scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  4. Circadian rhythm of anti-fungal prenylated chromene in leaves of Piper aduncum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandim, Andreia de A; Bergamo, Débora Cristina B; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Cavalheiro, Alberto José; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S; Furlan, Maysa

    2005-01-01

    Leaves of Piper aduncum accumulate the anti-fungal chromenes methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (1) and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (2). The enzymatic formation of 2 from dimethylallyl diphosphate and 1 was investigated using cell-free extracts of the title plant. An HPLC assay for the prenylation reaction was developed and the enzyme activity measured in the protein extracts. The prenyltransferase that catalyses the transfer of the dimethylallyl group to C-2' of 1 was soluble and required dimethylallyl diphosphate as the prenyl donor. In the leaves, the biosynthesis of the prenylated chromene 2 was time-regulated and prenyltransferase activity depended upon circadian variation. Preliminary characterisation and purification experiments on the prenyltransferase from P. aduncum have been performed.

  5. Biosynthetic origin of the isoprene units in chromenes of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Ana C.; Lopes, Adriana A.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Furlan, Maysa [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: maysaf@iq.unesp.br; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    Metabolic studies involving the incorporation of [1-{sup 13}C]-D-glucose into intact leaves of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) have indicated that both the mevalonate (MVA) and the pyruvate-triose (MEP) non-mevalonate pathways are implicated in the biosynthesis of isoprene moieties present in methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (1) and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3'-methyl- 2'-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (2). The pattern of incorporation of label from [1- {sup 13}C]-D-glucose into these chromenes was determined by quantitative {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. The results confirmed that biosynthetic compartment of 1 and 2 could either be the plastid and/ or the cytosol or, possibly, an additional compartment such as the plastid inter-membrane space. (author)

  6. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  7. Ethanolic extract of Piper betle Linn. leaves reduces nociception via modulation of arachidonic acid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Soumita; Maroo, Niteeka; Saha, Piu; Hazra, Samik; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the peripheral analgesic effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) along with establishing its putative mechanism of action. Male Swiss albino mice after pre-treatment (1 h) with different doses of PBE were injected 0.8% (v/v) acetic acid i.p.; the onset and number of writhes were noted up to 15 min. To evaluate the mechanism of action, the murine peritoneal exudate was incubated with PBE for 1 h, followed by exposure to arachidonic acid (AA) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. PBE in a dose dependent manner significantly reduced acetic acid induced writhing response in mice (P < 0.001). In peritoneal exudates, PBE significantly inhibited AA induced generation of ROS, P < 0.01. The present study indicates that PBE has promising analgesic activity, worthy of future pharmacological consideration.

  8. [Studies on the chemical constituents of the stems of Piper betle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yan; Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Wang, Jiong; Dai, Jian-Hui; Liang, Hui; Dai, Yun

    2009-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the stems of Piper betle. Various chromatographic techniques were used to isolate and purify the constituents. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. Nine compounds were isolated from the petroleum ester and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of the 70% acetone extract and their structures were identified as 6beta-hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one (1), beta-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), oleanolic acid (4), 23-hydroxyursan-12-en-28-oic acid (5), beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside-6'-O-palmitate (6), beta-daucosterol (7), (2S) -4'-hydroxy- 2,3-dihydroflavonone-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (8) and alpha-ethyl glucoside (9). Among these compounds, 1, 3 -9 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  9. Effect of Piper betle leaf extract on alcoholic toxicity in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, R; Rajendra Prasad, N; Pugalendi, K V

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of Piper betle, a commonly used masticatory, has been examined in the brain of ethanol-administered Wistar rats. Brain of ethanol-treated rats exhibited increased levels of lipids, lipid peroxidation, and disturbances in antioxidant defense. Subsequent to the experimental induction of toxicity (i.e., the initial period of 30 days), aqueous P. betle extract was simultaneously administered in three different doses (100, 200, and 300 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days along with the daily dose of alcohol. P. betle coadministration resulted in significant reduction of lipid levels (free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids) and lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides. Further, antioxidants, like reduced glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were increased in P. betle-coadministered rats. The higher dose of extract (300 mg kg(-1)) was more effective, and these results indicate the neuroprotective effect of P. betle in ethanol-treated rats.

  10. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin. Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water. The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  11. Improving the knowledge on Piper betle: targeted metabolite analysis and effect on acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentão, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Rui F; Belo, Cristóvão; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico

    2010-10-01

    Piper betle is a species growing in South East Asia, where its leaves are economically and medicinally important. To screen the highest possible number of volatile and semivolatile components, the leaves were subjected to headspace solid-phase microextraction, hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction, prior to analysis by GC/MS. Fifty compounds (identified by comparison with standard compounds or tentatively by National Institute of Standards and Technology database) were determined, 23 being described for the first time in this matrix. An aqueous extract was also analysed, in which only seven compounds were characterized. The organic acids' composition of this extract was determined by HPLC/UV and eight compounds are reported for the first time in P. betle. This extract also displayed acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity.

  12. Piper betle leaf extract affects the quorum sensing and hence virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Siraj; Jana, Debanjan; Maity, Tilak Raj; Samanta, Aveek; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2016-06-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, blocking of QS ability are viewed as viable antimicrobial chemotherapy and which may prove to be a safe anti-virulent drug. Bioactive components from Piper betle have been reported to possess antimicrobial ability. This study envisages on the anti-QS properties of ethanolic extract of P. betle leaf (PbLE) using P. aeruginosa PAO1 as a model organism. A marked reduction in swarming, swimming, and twitching ability of the bacteria is demonstrated in presence of PbLE. The biofilm and pyocyanin production also shows a marked reduction in presence of PbLE, though it does not affect the bacterial growth. Thus, the studies hint on the possible effect of the bioactive components of PbLE on reducing the virulent ability of the bacteria; identification of bioactive compounds should be investigated further.

  13. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrul Alam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities ofthe methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL. Materials and Methods: MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO- as well as  inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. Results: The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p

  14. Piper betle-mediated synthesis, characterization, antibacterial and rat splenocyte cytotoxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praburaman, Loganathan; Jang, Jum-Suk; Muthusamy, Govarthanan; Arumugam, Sengottaiyan; Manoharan, Koildhasan; Cho, Kwang-Min; Min, Cho; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Byung-Taek, Oh

    2016-09-01

    The study reports a simple, inexpensive, and eco-friendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) using Piper betle leaf extract. Formation of CuONPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy at 280 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the CuONPs were spherical, with an average size of 50-100 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) peak was observed approximately at 1 and 8 keV. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicated that the particles were crystalline in nature. CuONPs effectively inhibited the growth of phytopathogens Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas axonopodis. The cytotoxic effect of the synthesized CuONPs was analyzed using rat splenocytes. The cell viability was decreased to 94% at 300 μg/mL.

  15. FLAVONOIDES AISLADOS DE LAS INFLORESCENCIAS DE Piper hispidum Kunth (PIPERACEAE Y DERIVADOS ACETILADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir del extracto etanólico de las inflorescencias de la especie Piper hispidum Kunth (Piperaceae fueron aislados tres flavonoides: 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona, 5-hidroxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona y 2’,4’,6’-trimetoxidihidrochalcona. De las flavanonas aisladas fueron obtenidos los  derivados acetilados: 5-acetoxi-7-metoxiflavanona y  5-acetoxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona. Las estructuras fueron elucidadas empleando técnicas espectroscópicas y por comparación con datos de literatura. Los compuestos naturales y sus derivados fueron sometidos al bioensayo de letalidad frente a Artemia salina. El flavonoide 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona presenta la mayor actividad tóxica frente a los microcrustaceos CL50 1.8 µg/ml.

  16. Biosynthetic origin of the isoprene units in chromenes of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Ana C.; Lopes, Adriana A.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Furlan, Maysa; Kato, Massuo J.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic studies involving the incorporation of [1- 13 C]-D-glucose into intact leaves of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) have indicated that both the mevalonate (MVA) and the pyruvate-triose (MEP) non-mevalonate pathways are implicated in the biosynthesis of isoprene moieties present in methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (1) and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3'-methyl- 2'-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (2). The pattern of incorporation of label from [1- 13 C]-D-glucose into these chromenes was determined by quantitative 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The results confirmed that biosynthetic compartment of 1 and 2 could either be the plastid and/ or the cytosol or, possibly, an additional compartment such as the plastid inter-membrane space. (author)

  17. Antileishmanial activities of dihydrochalcones from piper elongatum and synthetic related compounds. Structural requirements for activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Alicia; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Mamani, Zulma A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Piñero, José E; Ravelo, Angel G; Valladares, Basilio

    2003-09-01

    Two dihydrochalcones (1 and 2) were isolated from Piper elongatum Vahl by activity-guided fractionation against extracellular promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis in vitro. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments. Derivatives 3-7 and 20 synthetic related compounds (8-27) were also assayed to establish the structural requirements for antileishmanial activity. Compounds 1-11 that proved to be more active that ketoconazol, used as positive control, were further assayed against promastigotes of Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum. Compounds 7 and 11, with a C(6)-C(3)-C(6) system, proved to be the most promising compounds, with IC(50) values of 2.98 and 3.65 microg/mL, respectively, and exhibited no toxic effect on macrophages (around 90% viability). Correlation between the molecular structures and antileishmanial activity is discussed in detail.

  18. Cyclo-(trp-phe diketopiperazines from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from Piper aduncum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R. Gubiani

    Full Text Available Six known compounds, three peptide derivatives: cyclo-(tryptophyl-phenylalanyl (2, diketopiperazine dimer WIN 64821 (3 and 3-hydroxy-15H-tryptophenaline (4, one adenine derivative: 2-hydroxy-6-N-isopentenyl-adenine (5, one phtalide derivative: 4-methoxyphtalide (1 and one benzoic acid derivative: 3-hydroxy-4-(1-hydroxy-1,5-dimethyl-hexyl benzoic acid (6, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor associated with the Piper aduncum plant. Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 1 D and 2D NMR spectra and in comparison with works reported in the literature. This paper, in effect, deals with the first report of these compounds in A. versicolor.

  19. Cytochalasin produced by Xylaria sp., a endophytic fungi of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Geraldo H.; Oliveira, Camila M. de; Teles, Helder L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R.; Pfenning, Ludwig H.; Young, Maria Claudia M.; Costa-Neto, Claudio M.; Haddad, Renato; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2010-01-01

    A chemical study on the EtOAc extract produced by Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus from Piper aduncum, resulted in the isolation of a new cytochalasin 1, along with five known 19,20-epoxycytochalasin D (2), C (3), N (4), Q (5), and R (6). The 1-6 were evaluated against the fungi C. cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum and only 5 showed weak activity. The cytotoxicity in vitro against HeLA and CHO cells lines were investigated and the cytochalasins 2-4, and 6 showed a strong activity against HeLA. The DNA damaging activity of 1-6 were also investigated against mutant strains of S. cerevisiae. (author)

  20. Spermicidal activity of the hexane extract of Piper longum: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Abu Hasnath Md Golam; Nirala, Ranjeet Kumar; Arif, Mohammed; Khillare, Beena; Thakur, Sonu Chand

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the spermicidal action of hexane extract from the fruits of Piper longum Linn. The sperm immobilisation studies showed that 20 mg/mL of hexane extract was able to immobilise sperms completely within 20 s. The sperm revival test revealed that the effects were spermicidal as sperm immobilisation effect was irreversible. There was also a significant reduction in sperm viability in the treated group in comparison to the control. The hypo-osmotic swelling of these sperms was significantly reduced, indicating that the hexane extract may probably cause injury to the sperm plasma membrane. Hence, this study showed that the hexane extract of P. longum possesses potential contraceptive spermicidal activity in vitro.

  1. Eupomatenoid-5 Isolated from Leaves of Piper regnellii Induces Apoptosis in Leishmania amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Pelegrin Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania spp. are protozoa responsible for leishmaniasis, a neglected disease that kills up to 50,000 people every year. Current therapies mainly rely on antimonial drugs that are inadequate because of their poor efficacy and safety and increased drug resistance. An urgent need exists to find new and more affordable drugs. Our previous study demonstrated the antileishmanial activity of eupomatenoid-5, a neolignan obtained from leaves of Piper regnellii var. pallescens. The aim of the present study was to clarify the mode of action of eupomatenoid-5 against L. amazonensis. We used biochemical and morphological techniques and demonstrated that eupomatenoid-5 induced cell death in L. amazonensis promastigotes, sharing some phenotypic features observed in metazoan apoptosis, including increased reactive oxygen species production, hypopolarization of mitochondrial potential, phosphatidylserine exposure, decreased cell volume, and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest.

  2. A review of the use of Piper betel in oxidative stress disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C Y; Nurul Zaidah, A S; Nur Amalina, G; Muhammad Azree, Ema; Das, S; Zar, C T

    2014-01-01

    Increase in prevalence of disease related oxidative stress disorders have been on the rise in the entire world since the past decades. Significant positive effects with few antioxidant properties in the modern drugs pave for the alternative medicines in managing the disease. Piper betel (P. betel), a herb, is known to possess high anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-cancer and neuroprotective property. This review focused on the effect of P. betel on diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease, Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer. P. betel proved to show positive effects with specific outcomes towards these diseases. Moreover, the promising effect of P. betel in vitro studies was also highlighted in the present review. It is believed that the findings obtained in this review will draw the attention of the medical professionals and general public towards P. betel and it will open the door for further detailed research.

  3. Efek Penambahan Jus dan Daun Sirih (Piper bettle linn Sebagai Aditif Pakan Terhadap Peforma Ayam Petelur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Haryun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan unggas telah dilakukan dalam hal perkembangbiakan, pemberian pakan dan manajemen. Namun, implementasinya masih menghadapi banyak tantangan seperti masalah penurunan produksi. Salah satu penyebab penurunan produksi adalah gangguan kesehatan yang disebabkan oleh bakteri patogen (Salmonella sp dan Escherichia coli. Salah satu cara untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah penggunaan bettle linn Juice sebagai pakan tambahan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh bettle linn Juice sebagai pakan tambahan terhadap kinerja ayam petelur. Metode yang digunakan adalah uji biologis ayam petelur umur 69 minggu Isa Brown Strain dari 250 ayam petelur, menggunakan Completely Randomized Design (RAL dengan 5 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Piper bettle linn Juice tidak memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan (P> 0,05 terhadap konsumsi pakan dan angka kematian. Mempengaruhi secara signifikan (P <0,01 terhadap Hen Day Production (HDP, berat telur dan Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR.

  4. Chemical constituents from three medicinal plants: Piper renitens, Siparuna guianensis and Alternanthera brasiliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir A. Facundo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical study of three medicinal plants: from leaves of Piper renitens (Miq. Yunck, Piperaceae, and Siparuna guianensis Aubl., Siparunaceae, and from flowers of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae, resulted in isolation of nine compounds: three steroids, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol from P. renitens and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from A. brasiliana, the diterpene kaurane ent-kauran-16α,17-diol from P. renitens, two derivatives kaempferol-methylether, kumatakenine (kaempferol-3,7-dimethylether and kaempferol-3,7,3'-trimethylether from S. guianensis and three flavones, crysoeriol (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone, tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone and 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone from A. brasiliana. Compounds structures were determinate using 1D and 2D ¹H NMR and 13C spectral data, mass and IR spectra, comparing with literature data.

  5. Chemical constituents from three medicinal plants: Piper renitens, Siparuna guianensis and Alternanthera brasiliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir A. Facundo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical study of three medicinal plants: from leaves of Piper renitens (Miq. Yunck, Piperaceae, and Siparuna guianensis Aubl., Siparunaceae, and from flowers of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae, resulted in isolation of nine compounds: three steroids, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol from P. renitens and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from A. brasiliana, the diterpene kaurane ent-kauran-16α,17-diol from P. renitens, two derivatives kaempferol-methylether, kumatakenine (kaempferol-3,7-dimethylether and kaempferol-3,7,3'-trimethylether from S. guianensis and three flavones, crysoeriol (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone, tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone and 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone from A. brasiliana. Compounds structures were determinate using 1D and 2D ¹H NMR and 13C spectral data, mass and IR spectra, comparing with literature data.

  6. Kavalactones and benzoic acid derivatives from leaves of Piper fuligineum Kunth (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeu, Bruna F.; Felippe, Lidiane G.; Furlan, Maysa, E-mail: maysaf@iq.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Cotinguiba, Fernando [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPPN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Química

    2018-05-01

    The known kavalactones (E)-4-methoxy-6-styryl-2H-pyran-2-one, 4-methoxy6-(3-phenyloxiran-2-yl)-2H-pyran-2-one, 6-(1,2-dihydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran2-one, the three benzoic acid derivatives methyl-4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)benzoate and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-4-oxochroman-6-carboxylate, and a new methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut2-enoyl)benzoate were isolated from the ethanolic extract of Piper fuligineum. The structures of these compounds were determined by using a combination of spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. This is the first report of the chemical study of P. fuligineum, and the methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut2-enoyl)benzoate is described as a new natural product. (author)

  7. Insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of metabolites isolated from the aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. and inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo, Monica Constanza Avila; Suarez, Luis Enrique Cuca; Salamanca, Jairo Alonso Ceron

    2014-01-01

    The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. ) C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1), galangin (2), chrysin (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6), pinostrobin (7); one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4); one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3); one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8); and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC 50 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively). (author)

  8. Evaluation of Piper aduncum Linn. Essential Oil (Fam:Piperaceae against Periplaneta americana(L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ling A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of Piper aduncum essential oil was evaluated against Periplaneta americana adults and nymphs in the laboratory.Methods: The plant essential oil at varying concentrations ranging between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm were placed inside glass beakers, rolled horizontally to ensure the essential oil covers all sides of the beakers and exposed to adults and nymphs of P. americana. Resigen (R 1ppm was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. The LT50 and LT90 was obtained using Log Probit programme.Results: Exposure of essential oil to females P. americana at concentrations between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm indicated the LT50 and LT90 values between 5.31 h-189.19 h and 14.90 h-2105.31 h, respectively. Treatment with the same con­centrations against males P. americana ,the LT50 and LT90 were 2.08 h-181.73 h and 5.4 h-8460.51 h, respectively. Treatment against the nymphal stage with the same range of concentrations indicated the LT50 and LT 90 of 4.68 h-381.02 h and 28.71 h-5313.36 h, respectively.The nymphs and males were more susceptible than the females cock­roaches. Treatment with Resigen (R at 1ppm indicated much lower LT 50 and LT 90 values of 2.54 h-9.47 h for the fe­males, 1.47 h-4.22 h for the males and 4.69 h-8.92 h for the nymphs.The negative control indicated no mortality for all stages of the cockroach.Conclusion: Piper aduncum essential oil can be used as an alternative natural product for controlling the cockroach Peri­patetic americana.

  9. Evaluation of Piper aduncum Linn. Essential Oil (Fam:Piperaceae) against Periplaneta americana (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling A, I; Sulaiman, S; Othman, H

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of Piper aduncum essential oil was evaluated against Periplaneta americana adults and nymphs in the laboratory. The plant essential oil at varying concentrations ranging between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm were placed inside glass beakers, rolled horizontally to ensure the essential oil covers all sides of the beakers and exposed to adults and nymphs of P. americana. Resigen (R) 1ppm was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. The LT50 and LT90 was obtained using Log Probit programme. Exposure of essential oil to females P. americana at concentrations between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm indicated the LT50 and LT90 values between 5.31 h-189.19 h and 14.90 h-2105.31 h, respectively. Treatment with the same concentrations against males P. americana ,the LT50 and LT90 were 2.08 h-181.73 h and 5.4 h-8460.51 h, respectively. Treatment against the nymphal stage with the same range of concentrations indicated the LT50 and LT 90 of 4.68 h-381.02 h and 28.71 h-5313.36 h, respectively.The nymphs and males were more susceptible than the females cockroaches. Treatment with Resigen (R) at 1ppm indicated much lower LT 50 and LT 90 values of 2.54 h-9.47 h for the females, 1.47 h-4.22 h for the males and 4.69 h-8.92 h for the nymphs.The negative control indicated no mortality for all stages of the cockroach. Piper aduncum essential oil can be used as an alternative natural product for controlling the cockroach Peripatetic americana.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and toxicological evaluation of essential oil from Piper glabratum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branquinho, Lidiane Schultz; Santos, Joyce Alencar; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Mota, Jonas da Silva; Junior, Ubirajara Lanza; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2017-02-23

    Although some of the species of the genus Piper exhibit interesting biological properties, studies on Piper glabratum Kunth are very limited. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and the toxicological profile of the essential oil from P. glabratum leaves (OEPG) in mice. The acute toxicity of OEPG was evaluated by oral administration to female mice as single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 or 5000mg/kg/body weight. In the subacute toxicity test, the females received 500 or 1000mg/kg/body weight of OEPG for 28 days. The anti-inflammatory potential of OEPG was evaluated using four models including pleurisy, edema, mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia models in mouse paws. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in animals after acute treatment, which suggested that the LD 50 is greater than 5000mg/kg. The subacute exposure to OEPG produced no significant changes in the hematological or biochemical parameters. Similarly, the histology of the organs and the estrus cycle displayed no marked alterations. OEPG exhibited anti-inflammatory activity as indicated by inhibition of the leukocyte migration (100, 300, 700mg/kg) and the protein extravasation into the pleural exudates (700mg/kg). After intraplantar injection of carrageenan, it was observed that the 700mg/kg dose of OEPG reduced edema formation and decreased the sensitivity to mechanical stimulation and cold. These results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory potential of the essential oil of P. glabratum leaves in the absence of toxicity in female mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulatory Effect of Methanol Extract of Piper guineense in CCl₄-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Osunsanmi, Foluso Oluwagbemiga; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2017-08-24

    This study seeks to investigate the possible protective role of the methanol extract of Piper guineense seeds against CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in an animal model. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering oral doses of CCl₄ (1.2 g/kg bw) three times a week for three weeks. Group 1 (Control) and Group 2 (CCl₄) were left untreated; Piper guineense (PG; 400 mg/kg bw) was administered to Group 3 (T₁) by oral gavage for 14 days prior to the administration of CCl₄ and simultaneously with CCl₄; PG (400 mg/kg bw) was administered simultaneously with CCl₄ in Group 4 (T₂); and Livolin forte (20 mg/kg bw) was administered simultaneously with CCl₄ in Group 5 (T₃), the standard drug group. The administration of CCl₄ induces histopathological alteration in the liver, with concomitant increased activities of serum hepatic marker enzymes associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Similarly, there was decrease in non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione) and enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione S-transferase), superoxide dismutase, and catalase. An elevation in serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels was noticed along with decreased levels of serum total protein. Treatment with PG 400 mg/kg bw exhibited excellent modulatory activity with respect to the different parameters studied by reversing all the above-mentioned biochemical changes significantly in the experimental animals. These results suggest that PG offered protection comparable to that of Livolin forte with better efficacy when pre-treated with 400 mg/kg bw 14 days prior to CCl₄-exposure.

  12. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  13. PEMBERIAN AIR REBUSAN DAUN SIRIH MERAH (Piper crocatum Ruiz &Pav TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DAN KOLESTEROL DARAH MENCIT PUTIH JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Yudiana Shinta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find of the effect of the water decoction of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav on blood glucose levels and cholesterol male white mice. The method used in this study deskripstif exploration using betel leaf stew and given to a white male mice are sonde at a dose of 0.13 ml / 20gBB, 0.13 to 0.39 ml / 20gBB 0.13 and 0.26 ml / 20gBB during seven days and examined glucose and cholesterol levels of the mice. Research results show that the water decoction of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav can lower blood glucose levels of male white mice were significantly (p <0.05 by ANOVA statistical analysis.

  14. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-08-26

    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans.

  15. Supplementation of Red Betel Leaf (Piper crocatum in Dairy Cattle Feed on Fermentation Characteristics by in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caribu Hadi Prayitno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact and efficiency of red betel leaf’s extract supplementation in the diet of dairy cattle on fermentation characteristics by in vitro.  The research method was experiment by using completely randomized design.  The treatments that were tested were R1: basal feed, R2:  R1 + 15 ppm of  red betel  leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R3: R1 + 30 ppm of  red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R4: R1 + 45 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R5: R1 + 60 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract. The parameters measured in this study were (1Dry MatterDigestibility (DMD,(2Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD  (3 total gas production  (4 methane production (CH4 and (5  total Volatille Fatty Acid (VFA.  The data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed Orthogonal Polynomial Test.The results showed that the suplementation red batel extract in the diet of dairy cow was significant (P < 0.01 on DMD, OMD, total gas production, methane production (CH4  and total VFA.Orthogonal Polynomial test showed the effect of treatment on Dry MatterDigestibility (DMD, total gas and CH4 gas production were in the form of cubic curve, as well as Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD and Volatille Fatty Acid (VFA in the form of quadrate curvewith supplementation of red betel leaf.

  16. UJI AKTIVITAS EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH (Piper betle L.) SECARA IN VIVO TERHADAP SCABIES PADA KAMBING KACANG (Capra hircus)

    OpenAIRE

    -, NUR SRIANI REZKI

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRAK Nur Sriani Rezki. O111 12 110, Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper betle L.) Secara In Vivo terhadap Scabies pada Kambing Kacang (Capra hircus). Di bawah bimbingan ABDUL WAHID JAMALUDDIN dan MUHAMMAD FADHLULLAH MURSALIM. Kehidupan ternak kambing sering diganggu oleh beberapa penyakit. Salah satu yang disebabkan oleh parasit terutama ektoparasit yang sering dijumpai adalah scabies. Penyakit ini umumnya disebabkan oleh Sarcoptes scabiei. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menguji akt...

  17. PIPER-ONE: an experimental apparatus to evaluate thermal-hydraulic transients in BWRs after small breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, M.; D'Auria, F.; Vigni, P.

    1981-01-01

    This paper deals with the state of art of the research performed at the Instituto di Impianti Nucleari of Pisa University, aiming at construction of PIPER-ONE experimental facility. PIPER-ONE program is devoted to acquire direct experience on some basic phenomena, arising in BWR plants subsequently to small breaks, and on the use of the main thermal-hydraulic codes. The research has been planned taking into consideration recent trends of the studies all over the world of small LOCA thermal-hydraulics and particular needs of nuclear safety in Italy. Cost limitations and availability of some components, already installed at the Institute Laboratory, have influenced the design of the loop. The development steps of PIPER-ONE project are presented. Particularly, the overall flowsheet of the apparatus is reported. Some results of preliminary calculation, executed by RELAP4-Mod 6 code concerning both the experimental loop and the reference BWR are shown, too. A comparison with similar facilities in the world closes the paper

  18. Effects of PEG-Induced Water Deficit in Solanum nigrum on Zn and Ni Uptake and Translocation in Split Root Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Feller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought strongly influences root activities in crop plants and weeds. This paper is focused on the performance of the heavy metal accumulator Solanum nigrum, a plant which might be helpful for phytoremediation. The water potential in a split root system was decreased by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000. Rubidium, strontium and radionuclides of heavy metals were used as markers to investigate the uptake into roots, the release to the shoot via the xylem, and finally the basipetal transport via the phloem to unlabeled roots. The uptake into the roots (total contents in the plant was for most makers more severely decreased than the transport to the shoot or the export from the shoot to the unlabeled roots via the phloem. Regardless of the water potential in the labeling solution, 63Ni and 65Zn were selectively redistributed within the plant. From autoradiographs, it became evident that 65Zn accumulated in root tips, in the apical shoot meristem and in axillary buds, while 63Ni accumulated in young expanded leaves and roots but not in the meristems. Since both radionuclides are mobile in the phloem and are, therefore, well redistributed within the plant, the unequal transfer to shoot and root apical meristems is most likely caused by differences in the cell-to-cell transport in differentiation zones without functional phloem (immature sieve tubes.

  19. Range shifts and global warming: ecological responses of Empetrum nigrum L. to experimental warming at its northern (high Arctic) and southern (Atlantic) geographical range margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buizer, Bert; Weijers, Stef; Van Bodegom, Peter M; Van Breda, Johan; De Korte, Maarten; Van Rijckevorsel, Jaap; Rozema, Jelte; Alsos, Inger Greve; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken

    2012-01-01

    Global change is expected to lead to range shifts of plant species. The ecological mechanisms underpinning these shifts are currently not well understood. Here, we compared ecological responses possibly underlying southern range contraction and northern range expansion of Empetrum nigrum, a key species in northern heathlands, which may be related to global change. We hypothesized a negative response to warming in the ‘south’ (i.e. the Netherlands) and a positive response at the northern range margin (the tundra on Svalbard). Open top chambers (OTCs) were used to simulate global warming. In the ‘south’, OTC warming caused enhanced shoot growth and growth rate, biomass increment, advanced phenology, larger and heavier berries of Empetrum, while its growing season was extended by 75 days. Under OTC warming co-occurring Calluna vulgaris also showed an increased growing season length (by 98 days) as well as increased shoot growth rate and biomass growth, plant cover and height. Still, we found no evidence for increased competitiveness relative to Empetrum. In the ‘north’, Empetrum responded with increased shoot and biomass growth, enhanced berry development and ripening to warming. These responses exceeded those of co-occurring Cassiope tetragona with the exception of its biomass response. The direct and indirect ecological responses found do not readily explain the observed northward retreat of Empetrum at the southern range margin. The direct ecological responses found at its northern range margin are, on the other hand, in line with the increased occurrences of this species on Svalbard. (letter)

  20. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extracts of Clitoria ternatea and Solanum nigrum and Study of Its Antibacterial Effect against Common Nosocomial Pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krithiga, N.; Rajalakshmi, A.; Jayachitra, A.

    2015-01-01

    Bionanotechnology has emerged up as integration between biotechnology and nano technology for developing biosynthetic and environmental friendly technology for synthesis of nano materials. Silver has been known to have effective bactericidal properties for centuries. Nowadays, silver based topical dressings have been widely used as a treatment for infection in burns, open wounds, and chronic ulcer. As the pathogenic organisms are getting evolved day by day due to mutation and gaining antibiotic resistance, an important industrial sector of nano science deals with the preparation and study of nanoparticles in antibacterial clothing, burn ointments, and coating for medical device. The size of nano materials is much smaller than that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nano materials can be useful in both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research application. The purpose of the study is to synthesize and characterize the plant mediated silver nanoparticles using Clitoria ternatea and Solanum nigrum. Further investigation of the shape and size of nanoparticle was done by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies. A silver nanoparticle at different concentration was assessed for its antibacterial effect, against various nosocomial pathogens.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark (ID 2750) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States...... or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. The Panel considers that anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “eye health”. The target population is assumed to be the general...... population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to an improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The Panel considers that improvement of visual adaptation to the dark is a beneficial physiological effect. No human studies were provided from which...

  2. PENGARUH LAMA DAN SUHU PENYIMPANAN EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle linn DENGAN AQUADES TERHADAP DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptococcus agalactiae PENYEBAB MASTITIS PADA SAPI PERAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sanjaya Kusuma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Green betle leaf (Piper betle L. is one of the plants used by the people of Indonesia for tradisional medicine. Green betle leaf contains antibacterial compounds consisting of phenol and its derivatives. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of green betle leaf (Piper betle L. againt the bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae caused mastitis in dairy cows. Bacterial inhibition test by paper disc method. Data analysis using ANOVA by Nested design with 6 treatment and 6 repetitions. The results of this study green betle leaf (Piper betle L. extract inhibiting the growth of bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae was significantly different (P<0,01. The conclusion were the extract of green betel leaf (Piper betle L. can inhibit the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae and storage temperature has no effect, but storage periode gives effect the quality of green betel leaf extract (Piper betle L., so that the leaf extract storage green betel with distilled solvent recommended on 2nd days at refrigerator.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Piper Betel Leaf Oil, Origanum vulgare Essential Oil and Fluconazole Suspension on Candida albicans − An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Makkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is an opportunistic mucosal infection caused by Candida albicans. It usually responds to topical treatments such as clotrimazole troches, topical fluconazole, chlorhexidine mouthwash and nystatin suspension. Piper betel leaf oil and Origanum vulgare essential oil have shown some topical antifungal activity. Aim: To determine and compare the antifungal efficacy of piper betel leaf oil, O. vulgare essential oil and fluconazole suspension against C. albicans. Materials and Methods: The zone of inhibition was measured by the cup–plate diffusion method using 100 μl volume of piper betel leaf oil, O. vulgare essential oil and fluconazole suspension, which were pipetted into the wells of the inoculated Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plates. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimetres using Vernier calliper. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by the broth macro-dilution test by pouring 1 ml of the respective concentrations of the test material to the individual test tubes along with 10 μl of the diluted test organism inoculum. Finally, MIC was calculated using a reflective viewer. Results: The zone of inhibition for O. vulgare essential oil (>40 mm was more than fluconazole suspension (>35 mm. MIC of O. vulgare essential oil, piper betel leaf oil and fluconazole suspension was 1.6%, 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively. Conclusion: O. vulgare essential oil was found to be a more effective antifungal agent than piper betel leaf oil and fluconazole suspension.

  4. Nigerian Food Journal - Vol 28, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Encapsulation of Essential Oils of Piper Nigrum and Monodora myristica from ... volatiles using gas chromatography · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a powered soy-gari mixer ...

  5. Propagação vegetativa de estacas de Piper hispidumSw. em diferentes substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.B. CUNHA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Piper hispidum é uma espécie pioneira pertencente à família Piperaceae, com importância na medicina popular e na obtenção de óleo essencial. Assim como outras espécies da família, possui poucas informações sobre técnicas de cultivo. O objetivo foi avaliar a propagação via estaquia de Piper hispidum em função do tipo de substrato e estaca em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 (estacas x 5 (substratos, com três repetições de 12 estacas, sendo as estacas (apical, mediana e basal e os substratos (areia lavada, substrato comercial, solo + esterco de aves, solo + casca de guaraná e fibra de coco. Foram avaliadas: enraizamento (%, número de brotações, comprimento da maior brotação (cm, número de folhas, comprimento da maior raiz (cm, massa seca da raiz (g e massa seca das brotações (g. Foi realizada análise de variância pelo teste F a 5% de probabilidade e para as médias foi realizado o teste Tukey ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Recomenda-se utilizar estacas apicais e basais, nesta ordem. Ocorreu interação entre os fatores substrato e tipos de estaca somente para variável número de brotações. Os substratos areia lavada e substrato comercial são indicados para maiores porcentagens de enraizamento com 81,56% e 81,33%, respectivamente. O enraizamento foi superior nas estacas apicais (85,67% e basais (74,47%. Porém, para esta espécie os substratos solo + esterco de aves e/ou solo + casca de guaraná foram mais indicados quando o objetivo é obter estacas de qualidade.

  6. Determinación del efecto cicatrizante de Piper aduncum (matico en fibroblastos humanos

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    Karen Paco

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto cicatrizante del extracto hidroetanólico de Piper aduncum, en una línea celular de fibroblastos Dermales Adultos Humanos (hDFa. Materiales y métodos. El extracto se obtuvo mediante extracción sólido-líquido, fue concentrado y liofilizado. Se purificaron las proteínas del extracto mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia de fase reversa (RP-HPLC; las proteínas fueron identificadas por espectrometría de masas en tándem de péptidos trípticos y se analizaron por MALDI-TOF-TOF en un espectrómetro de masa ABSciex4800. Los valores de concentración efectiva media (EC50, concentración inhibitoria media (IC50, y el porcentaje de proliferación celular; fueron determinados por ensayos con sales de tetrazolio (MTT . La migración celular se evaluó mediante la "técnica de rayado" . Se analizó la expresión de factores de crecimiento mediante el ensayo de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa reversa a tiempo real (RT- qPCR. Resultados. La línea hDFa evidenció un IC50 de 200 µg/mL con el extracto, el valor de EC50 fue 103,5 µg/mL. En el ensayo de proliferación, la proteína K2; mostró mayor actividad en la proliferación respecto de otros tratamientos (1 µg/mL. En el ensayo de migración de fibroblastos, la proteína K2 mostró mayor actividad (50 µg/mL. La expresión relativa del factor de crecimiento derivado de plaquetas (PDGF se incrementó 8,6 veces respecto al control, en presencia de la proteína K2. Conclusiones. El extracto hidroetanólico, de Piper aduncum, así como las proteínas que contiene, incrementaron la proliferación y migración de fibroblastos dermales humanos (hDFa; así mismo, aumentaron la expresión de factores de crecimiento que intervienen en el proceso de cicatrización.

  7. Isolation And Identification Of Antioxidant Compounds Leaf Betel Seating (Piper sarmentosum Roxb. Ex Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiwi Diastutia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirih duduk or Piper sarmentosum Roxb. ex Hunter have been long used the people in Indonesia for traditional medicine to cure various diseases. This research was aimed to isolate and identify antioxidant compounds from P. sarmentosum leaves. The isolation bioactive compounds of P. sarmentosum leaves was performed by extraction the powder of P. sarmentosum leaves using methanol. The methanol extract was fractionated using n-hexane and ethylacetate in their various composition.  The fractions respectively was examined their antioxidant activity. The most active extract was fractionated again performed by coloumn chromatography Identification of the bioactive compounds was carried out using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectrometry, infra red (IR spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS. The result showed that the methanol extract of  P. sarmentosum leaves have antioxidant activity. The fractionation was performed by coloumn chromatography using n-hexane-ethylacetate (4:6 eluent, a bioactive compound of sinamic acid derivative was 4-ethoxy-2-hidroxy-3,5-dimethoxy sinamic acid could be purely isolated. Keywords: Piper sarmentosum, antioxidant, sinamic acid derivative. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  8. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliahmat, Nor Syahida; Noor, Mohd Razman Mohd; Yusof, Wan Junizam Wan; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (18 months old). Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil) and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight), tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg), and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg). The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes activity during aging.

  9. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice

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    Nor Syahida Aliahmat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. METHOD: One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old, middle-aged (12 months old, and old (18 months old. Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight, tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg, and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg. The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. RESULTS: Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. CONCLUSION: We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes

  10. Piperamides from Piper ottonoides by NMR and GC-MS based mixture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Thiago; Valente, Ligia M.M.; Magalhães, Alvicler; Guimarães, Elsie F.

    2015-01-01

    The species Piper ottonoides Yuncker (Piperaceae), known as 'joão-brandim', is a shrub that occurs in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. Its roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine as local anesthetic to treat toothache and sore throat. In this study, the structural characterization in mixture of isobutyl amides present in semi-purified fractions from fruits, leaves, stems and roots of P. ottonoides was achieved by employing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques ( 1 H, 1 H- 1 H COSY, 1 H- 13 CHSQC, 1 H- 13 CHMBC, TOCSY and 1 H- 1 H J-RES). The MS fragmentation patterns and the NMR chemical shifts, multiplicities, coupling constants and the signal correlations in the two-dimensional spectra were carefully analyzed also taking into account some key elements of differentiation among the compounds. The data set allowed identifying unequivocally the new amide N-isobutyl-7-(4'- methoxyphenyl)-2E,4E-heptadienamide, which we named ottonoidenamide as well as piperovatine and chingchengenamide A in all parts of the plant, the additional presence of pipercallosine and pipercallosidine in roots and of dihydropiperlonguminine in fruits and leaves. The presence of piperovatine and pipercallosine in P. ottonoides should be associated to its traditional use. (author)

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Piper gaudichaudianum Kuntze and Its Synergism with Different Antibiotics

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    Benedito Prado Dias Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the oldest forms of medical practice is the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of diseases that affect humans. We have studied the antimicrobial activity and synergism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kuntze with different antibiotics. The crude extract from the leaves of P. gaudichaudianum was submitted to chromatographic separation, resulting in five fractions. Fraction F3 contained a chromone (2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxycroman-4-one, and fraction F2 contained isomers that are prenylated derivatives of benzoic acid [4-hydroxy-(3',7'-dimethyl-1'-oxo-octa-E-2'-6'-dienylbenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-(3',7'-dimethyl-1'-oxo-octa-2'-Z-6'-dienyl benzoic acid]. The chemical structures of both compounds were determined by analysis of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COZY, DEPT, HMQC, and HMBC spectral data, and by comparison with data in the literature. The crude extract, fraction F2, and fraction F3 showed good activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida tropicalis. The two benzoic acid derivatives only showed activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis. The bioauthographic analysis showed an inhibition zone only in fraction F2. Fractions F2 and F3 showed synergism in combination with ceftriaxone, tetracycline, and vancomycin. Morphological changes in form and structure were found by scanning electron microscopy in S. aureus treated with the combination of fraction F2 with vancomycin.

  12. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle. PMID:21716924

  13. Chemical variation in Piper aduncum and biological properties of its dillapiole-rich essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Roseli R P; Souto, Raimundo N P; Bastos, Cleber N; da Silva, Milton H L; Maia, José G S

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils of the specimens of Piper aduncum that occur in deforested areas of Brazilian Amazon, North Brazil, are rich in dillapiole (35-90%), a derivative of phenylpropene, to which are attributed biological properties. On the other hand, the oils of the specimens with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest, and Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil, do not contain dillapiole, but only terpene compounds such as (E)-nerolidol and linalool. One specimen existing in the Amazon was hydrodistilled. The obtained oil was fractioned on a silica chromatographic column, resulting in fractions rich in dillapiole (95.0-98.9%) utilized for analyses by GC and GC/MS, structural characterization by NMR, confirmation of their biological properties, and to obtain the isomer isodillapiole. Dillapiole showed a fungicide action against the fungus Clinipellis perniciosa (witches' broom) by inhibition of its basidiospores, in concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 ppm. The larvicide and insecticide actions of dillapiole were tested against the larvae and the adult insects of Anopheles marajoara and Aedes aegypti (malaria and dengue mosquitoes), resulting in mortality of the larvae (48 h, 100%) at a concentration of 100 ppm, and mortality of the insects (30 min, 100%) at a concentration of 600 ppm. The isomeric isodillapiole showed no significant activity in the same biological tests.

  14. Selective effect of 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone isolated from Piper aduncum on Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Santos, E C; Moreira, D L; Kaplan, M A; Meirelles, M N; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    1999-05-01

    2',6'-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (DMC) was purified from the dichloromethane extract of Piper aduncum inflorescences. DMC showed significant activity in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with 50% effective doses of 0.5 and 24 micrograms/ml, respectively. Its inhibitory effect on amastigotes is apparently a direct effect on the parasites and is not due to activation of the nitrogen oxidative metabolism of macrophages, since the production of nitric oxide by both unstimulated and recombinant gamma interferon-stimulated macrophages was decreased rather than increased with DMC. The phagocytic activity of macrophages was functioning normally even with DMC concentrations as high as 80 micrograms/ml, as seen by electron microscopy and by the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled beads. Ultrastructural studies also showed that in the presence of DMC the mitochondria of promastigotes were enlarged and disorganized. Despite destruction of intracellular amastigotes, no disarrangement of macrophage organelles were observed, even at 80 micrograms of DMC/ml. These observations suggest that DMC is selectively toxic to the parasites. Its simple structure may well enable it to serve as a new lead compound for the synthesis of novel antileishmanial drugs.

  15. Protective Effect of Piper aduncum Capsule on DMBA-induced Breast Cancer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Acevedo, J; Chávez-Asmat, R J; Anampa-Guzmán, A; Donaires, R; Ráez-Gonzáles, José

    2015-01-01

    The possible protective effect of Piper aduncum capsule on DMBA (dimethylbenz[α]anthracene)-induced breast cancer in rats was assessed by monitoring the tumor and lung metastases incidence and recording hematological and biochemical parameters and frequency of micronuclei. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced in 36 female Holtzman rats by providing a single subcutaneous injection of DMBA. Oral administration of P. aduncum capsule lowered adenocarcinoma and lymph node metastases incidence. Pulmonary metastasis was significantly lowered (P < 0.05). Hematological indicators showed that the triglyceride level was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (P < 0.01). Also, P. aduncum capsule significantly lowered the C reactive protein (CRP) level (P < 0.01) and malondialdehyde level (P < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the frequency of DMBA-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (P < 0.01). Considering the antitumorigenic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic properties of P. aduncum capsule, we conclude that it has a protective effect on DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats.

  16. Piper aduncum against Haemonchus contortus isolates: cross resistance and the research of natural bioactive compounds

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    Yousmel Alemán Gaínza

    Full Text Available Abstract The anthelminthic activity of the essential oil (EO of Piper aduncum L. was tested in vitro on eggs and larvae of resistant (Embrapa2010 and susceptible (McMaster isolates of Haemonchus contortus. The EO was obtained by steam distillation and its components identified by chromatography. EO concentrations of 12.5 to 0.02 mg/mL were used in the egg hatch test (EHT and concentrations of 3.12 to 0.01 mg/mL in the larval development test (LDT. Inhibition concentrations (IC were determined by the SAS Probit procedure, and significant differences assessed by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test. In the EHT, the IC50 for the susceptible isolate was 5.72 mg/mL. In the LDT, the IC50 and IC90 were, respectively, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.34 mg/mL for the susceptible isolate, and 0.22 mg/mL and 0.51 mg/mL for the resistant isolate. The EO (dillapiole 76.2% was highly efficacious on phase L1. Due to the higher ICs obtained for the resistant isolate, it was raised the hypothesis that dillapiole may have a mechanism of action that resembles those of other anthelmintic compounds. We further review and discuss studies, especially those conducted in Brazil, that quantified the major constituents of P. aduncum-derived EO.

  17. Piper aduncum against Haemonchus contortus isolates: cross resistance and the research of natural bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaínza, Yousmel Alemán; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Esteves, Sérgio Novita; Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza

    2016-01-01

    The anthelminthic activity of the essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum L. was tested in vitro on eggs and larvae of resistant (Embrapa2010) and susceptible (McMaster) isolates of Haemonchus contortus. The EO was obtained by steam distillation and its components identified by chromatography. EO concentrations of 12.5 to 0.02 mg/mL were used in the egg hatch test (EHT) and concentrations of 3.12 to 0.01 mg/mL in the larval development test (LDT). Inhibition concentrations (IC) were determined by the SAS Probit procedure, and significant differences assessed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. In the EHT, the IC50 for the susceptible isolate was 5.72 mg/mL. In the LDT, the IC50 and IC90 were, respectively, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.34 mg/mL for the susceptible isolate, and 0.22 mg/mL and 0.51 mg/mL for the resistant isolate. The EO (dillapiole 76.2%) was highly efficacious on phase L1. Due to the higher ICs obtained for the resistant isolate, it was raised the hypothesis that dillapiole may have a mechanism of action that resembles those of other anthelmintic compounds. We further review and discuss studies, especially those conducted in Brazil, that quantified the major constituents of P. aduncum-derived EO.

  18. Chemical study and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of essential oil of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gisele L; Cardoso, Sheila K; Lara, Célio R; Vieira, Thallyta M; Guimarães, Elsie F; Figueiredo, Lourdes S; Martins, Ernane R; Moreira, Davyson L; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2013-01-01

    Piper aduncum L. is used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from leaves of P. aduncum collected in the Brazilian Cerrado, North of Minas Gerais, as well as to evaluate the larvicidal activity of this oil and of its major constituent. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 23 compounds (monoterpenes: 90.4%; sesquiterpenes: 7.0%). The major component was 1,8-cineole (53.9%). This oil showed to be very different from those obtained from the same species. Larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oil and 1,8-cineole. The mortality rate of 100% was obtained after 24 h of treatment with the oil at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ppm. After 48 h of treatment, the mortality rate was 80% and 50% for concentrations of 250 and 100 ppm, respectively. The LC₅₀ obtained after 24h was estimated in 289.9 ppm and after 48 h was 134.1 ppm. The major compound 1,8-cineole showed no larvicidal activity.

  19. Essential Oil from Piper aduncum: Chemical Analysis, Antimicrobial Assessment, and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The challenge in antimicrobial chemotherapy is to find safe and selective agents with potency that will not be compromised by previously developed resistance. Terrestrial plants could provide new leads to antibacterial, antifungal, or antiprotozoal activity. Methods: The essential oil (EO of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae from Cuba was analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A cluster analysis of P. aduncum EO compositions reported in the literature was carried out. The EO was screened against a panel of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasitic protozoa as well as for cytotoxicity against human cells. In addition, a review of scientific literature and a bibliometric study was also conducted. Results: A total of 90 compounds were identified in the EO, of which camphor (17.1%, viridiflorol (14.5%, and piperitone (23.7% were the main components. The cluster analysis revealed at least nine different chemotypes. The EO did not show notable activity against bacteria or fungi, but was active against parasitic protozoa. Conclusions: The results from this study indicate P. aduncum from Cuba is a unique chemotype, support the importance of P. aduncum EOs as medicines, and demonstrate the promise of Cuban P. aduncum EO as a chemotherapeutic agent against parasitic protozoal infections.

  20. The effect of Piper aduncum invasion on soil in tropical ecosystems of Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Jaroslav; Frouz, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Piper aduncum is successful Neotropical invasive species in Papua New Guinea. Despite its interaction with aboveground part of ecosystem has been extensively studied little is known about its effect on soil. Here we report two studies, in first we compare soil chemistry and soil biota in sites invaded and non-invaded by P. aduncum near Wanang village. In other study we use benefit of previous experiment when P. aduncum was experimentally removed near Ohu village. Here we compare soil chemistry and chemistry of plant leaves growing in garden originating by slashing and burning two adjacent patches with and without P. aduncum. Soil under P. aduncum had significantly less phosphorus in 0-5 cm soil layer and less nitrates, nitrogen and carbon in 5-10 cm soil layer than soil in old gardens uninvaded by P. aduncum. P. aduncum soil also harbors fewer microfloras than uninvaded soil as shown by PLFA analysis. No difference was found in fauna communities. Gardens created on patches where old P. aduncum was removed did not differ in soil chemistry from plots which were overgrown by P. aduncum, but leaves of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) in gardens where P. aduncum was previously removed contained more nitrogen. Results suggest that P. aduncum invasion may affect some chemical and microbial properties in invaded soil. P. aduncum has negative effect on traditional shifting agriculture.

  1. Essential Oil from Piper aduncum: Chemical Analysis, Antimicrobial Assessment, and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Cos, Paul; Setzer, William N

    2017-07-02

    Background: The challenge in antimicrobial chemotherapy is to find safe and selective agents with potency that will not be compromised by previously developed resistance. Terrestrial plants could provide new leads to antibacterial, antifungal, or antiprotozoal activity. Methods: The essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) from Cuba was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A cluster analysis of P. aduncum EO compositions reported in the literature was carried out. The EO was screened against a panel of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasitic protozoa) as well as for cytotoxicity against human cells. In addition, a review of scientific literature and a bibliometric study was also conducted. Results: A total of 90 compounds were identified in the EO, of which camphor (17.1%), viridiflorol (14.5%), and piperitone (23.7%) were the main components. The cluster analysis revealed at least nine different chemotypes. The EO did not show notable activity against bacteria or fungi, but was active against parasitic protozoa. Conclusions: The results from this study indicate P. aduncum from Cuba is a unique chemotype, support the importance of P. aduncum EOs as medicines, and demonstrate the promise of Cuban P. aduncum EO as a chemotherapeutic agent against parasitic protozoal infections.

  2. [Gastroprotective and antisecretory effect of a phytochemical made from matico leaves (Piper aduncum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Jorge; Bonilla, Pablo; Moreno-Exebio, Luis; Ronceros, Gerardo; Tomás, Gloria; Huamán, Juana; Raez, Ernesto; Quino, Mariano; Rodriguez-Calzado, Javier

    2013-01-01

    To determine the gastroprotective and antisecretory effect of ethanol extract from matico leaves (Piper aduncum) in animal models. To evaluate the gastroprotective effect, 220 mice of the Balb C57 strain were used. They were randomized in 22 groups of ten animals each, in which the formation of gastric ulcers was induced with indomethacin. Gastroprotection was determined by evaluating three aspects: inflammation, number of hemorrhagic shocks and number of ulcers. To evaluate the antisecretory effect, 64 white male Holtzman rats were used, which were randomized in eight groups of eight animals, one control and seven groups of treatment with one extract dose level and two phytochemical dose levels. Antisecretion was obtained through the pylorus ligation. Regarding gastroprotection, dichloromethane, chloroform, hexane and methanol extracts decreased inflammation to over 66% (p<0,05). The ethanolic extract shows 100% activity in reducing the number of hemorrhagic bands (p<0,05). The chloroform extract shows antiulcer activity at 75% (p<0,05). In terms of antisecretion, the phytochemical in capsules containing the ethanolic extract achieved 72% reduction of the gastric secretion volume (p<0,01) and 104,3% (p<0,01) PH increase. In experimental conditions, ethanolic extracts, their fractions and phytochemicals have a gastroprotective effect in mice and antisecretory effect in rats.

  3. Antifungal activity of Piper aduncum and Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract against Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, Utami Sri; Ummah, Yunita Putri Irsadul; Khasanah, Henny Nurul

    2017-05-01

    This research was done to 1) examine the effect of Piper aduncum leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations against Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) examine the effect of Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations toward Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 3) determine the most effective concentration of P. aduncum and P. pellucida leaves ethanol extract against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro. These plant extracts were prepared by the maceration technique using 95% ethanol, and then sterile filtered and evaporated to obtain the filtrate. The filtrate was diluted with sterile distilled water at certain concentrations, i.e.: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 405, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%. The antifungal effect of each leaf extract concentration was examined by the agar diffusion method on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. The research results are: 1) the P.aduncum leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) the P.pellucida leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 3) the P. aduncum leaf ethanol extract at 80% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 4) the P. pellucida leaf ethanol extract at 70% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro.

  4. Repellency of essential oil of Piper aduncum against Aedes albopictus in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Sulaiman, Sallehudin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

    2009-12-01

    The repellent activity of Piper aduncum essential oil against Aedes albopictus was investigated under laboratory conditions with human volunteers. The lowest median effective dose (ED50) value was 1.5 microg/cm2 at 60 sec of exposure when compared to 90 sec (2.1 microg/cm2) and 120 sec (1.8 microg/cm2) of exposure. At 0.4 g, the essential oil gave a high protection (95.2%) against Ae. albopictus bites or landing at 2 h postapplication. The percentage of protection was reduced to 83.3% after 4 h, 64.5% after 6 h, and 51.6% after 8 h postapplication. As a comparison, treatment with 10% deet gave 100% protection against mosquito biting/landing for 4 h postapplication. There was no significant difference in percentage protection reduction between the plant extract and the commercial product deet, respectively (P = 0.739). The essential oil, which was not as good as deet, still gave moderate protection against Ae. albopictus biting even until 4 h postapplication. In conclusion, the P. aduncum essential oil has the potential to be used as a repellent against the dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever vector, Ae. albopictus.

  5. Characteristic differences in metabolite profile in male and female plants of dioecious Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vikas; Pandey, Renu; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh; Bindu, K Hima; Kumar, Nikhil; Kumar, Brijesh

    2012-12-01

    Piper betle is a dioecious pan-Asiatic plant having cultural and medicinal uses. It belongs to the family Piperaceae and is a native of the tropics although it is also cultivated in subtropical areas. Flowering in P. betle occurs only in tropical regions. Due to lack of inductive floral cycles the plant remains in its vegetative state in the subtropics. Therefore, due to lack of flowering, gender distinction cannot be made the in the subtropics. Gender distinction in P. betle in vegetative state can be made using Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectroscopy (DARTMS), a robust highthroughput method. DARTMS analysis of leaf samples of two male and six female plants showed characteristic differences in the spectra between male and female plants. Semi-quantitative differences in some of the identified peaks in male and female landraces showed gender-based differences in metabolites. Cluster analysis using the peaks at m/z 151, 193, 235 and 252 showed two distinct clusters of male and female landraces. It appears that male and female plants besides having flowers of different sexes also have characteristic differences in the metabolites representing two metabolic types.

  6. Piper betle Induced Cytoprotective Genes and Proteins via the Nrf2/ARE Pathway in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliahmat, Nor Syahida; Abdul Sani, Nur Fathiah; Wan Hasan, Wan Nuraini; Makpol, Suzana; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the underlying antioxidant mechanism of aqueous extract of Piper betle (PB) in aging rats. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/ARE pathway involving phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes plays an important role in the antioxidant system by reducing electrophiles and reactive oxygen species through induction of phase II enzymes and proteins. Genes and proteins of phase II detoxifying antioxidant enzymes were analyzed by QuantiGenePlex 2.0 Assay and Western blot analysis. PB significantly induced genes and proteins of phase II and antioxidant enzymes, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, and catalase in aging mice (p < 0.05). The expression of these enzymes were stimulated via translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus, indicating the involvement of ARE, a cis-acting motif located in the promoter region of nearly all phase II genes. PB was testified for the first time to induce cytoprotective genes through the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, thus unraveling the antioxidant mechanism of PB during the aging process. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Antihyperglycemic activity of Piper betle leaf on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhakumari, P; Prakasam, A; Pugalendi, K V

    2006-01-01

    Piper betle, an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk (Siddha and Ayurvedha) reputation in the rural southern India. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of P. betle on glucose metabolism since it is consumed as betel-quid after meals. Plasma levels of glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin and activities of liver hexokinase and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in control and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats were assayed. Oral administration of leaf suspension of P. betle (75 and 150 mg/kg of body weight) for 30 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose (from 205.00 +/- 10.80 mg/dL to 151.30 +/- 6.53 mg/dL) and glycosylated hemoglobin and decreased activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, while liver hexokinase increased (P betle at a dose of 75 mg/kg of body weight exhibited better sugar reduction than 150 mg/kg of body weight. In addition, protection against body weight loss of diabetic animals was also observed. The effects produced by P. betle were compared with the standard drug glibenclamide. Thus, the present study clearly shows that P. betle intake influences glucose metabolism beneficially.

  8. Inhibition of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by phenolic compounds extracted of Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Darab; Mior Ahmad, Zainal Abidin; Yee How, Tan; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Shahnazi, Sahar

    2013-12-01

    Food contamination by aflatoxins is an important food safety concern for agricultural products. In order to identify and develop novel antifungal agents, several plant extracts and isolated compounds have been evaluated for their bioactivities. Anti-infectious activity of Piper betle used in traditional medicine of Malaysia has been reported previously. Crude methanol extract from P. betel powdered leaves was partitioned between chloroform and water. The fractions were tested against A. flavus UPMC 89, a strong aflatoxin producing strain. Inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis were tested by disk diffusion and macrodillution techniques, respectively. The presence of aflatoxin was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques using AFB1 standard. The chloroform soluble compounds were identified using HPLC-Tandem mass spectrometry technique. The results, evaluated by measuring the mycelial growth and quantification of aflatoxin B1(AFLB1) production in broth medium revealed that chloroform soluble compounds extract from P. betle dried leaves was able to block the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway at concentration of 500μg/ml without a significant effect on mycelium growth. In analyzing of this effective fractions using HPLC-MS(2) with ESI ionization technique, 11 phenolic compounds were identified. The results showed that the certain phenolic compounds are able to decline the aflatoxin production in A. flavus with no significant effect on the fungus mycelia growth. The result also suggested P. betle could be used as potential antitoxin product.

  9. HEMOSTATIC EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Piper betle, Linn LEAVES TO MALE MICE

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    Sadakata Sinulingga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage occurs in most of the dental care. Untreated hemorrhage could cause excessive blood loss, hypotension, and cyanosis. A Natural resource that reported has an hemostatic effect is ethanol extract of betel leaves (Piper betel, Linn.The aim of this study is to find the minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice. The experimental study used pretest-posttest with control group design was conducted on 35 mice that divided into 7 group which are negative control, positive control (feracrylum 1%, the ethanol extract of betel leaves 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. All mice were injected heparin intravenously. Mice’s tail was cut at diameter 3 mm and pretest bleeding time was counted. Mice’s tail was recut at diameter 4 mm, given treatment for 5 seconds and posttest bleeding time was counted. Results of paired t-test showed that reduction of bleeding time between pretest and posttest was significant (p<0,050. The enhancement of ethanol extract of betel leaves concentration leads to better hemostatic effect. Results of ANOVA test showed that comparison of posttest bleeding time among groups was significant (p<0,050. The minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice is 5%.

  10. Bacteriostatic effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on dental plaque bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathilah, A R; Rahim, Z H A; Othman, Y; Yusoff, M

    2009-03-15

    In this study, the bacteriostatic effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on selected early dental plaque bacteria was investigated based on changes in the doubling time (g) and specific growth rates (micro). Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis and Actinomyces sp. were cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) in the presence and absence of the extracts. The growth of bacteria was monitored periodically every 15 min over a period of 9 h to allow for a complete growth cycle. Growth profiles of the bacteria in the presence of the extracts were compared to those in the absence and deviation in the g and micro were determined and analyzed. It was found that the g and mu were affected by both extracts. At 4 mg mL(-1) of P. betle the g-values for S. sanguinis and S. mitis were increased by 12.0- and 10.4-fold, respectively (p betle and P. guajava extracts have bacteriostatic effect on the plaque bacteria by creating a stressed environment that had suppressed the growth and propagation of the cells. Within the context of the dental plaque, this would ensure the attainment of thin and healthy plaque. Thus, decoctions of these plants would be suitable if used in the control of dental plaque.

  11. Piper betle L. Modulates Senescence-Associated Genes Expression in Replicative Senescent Human Diploid Fibroblasts

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    Lina Wati Durani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piper betle (PB is a traditional medicine that is widely used to treat different diseases around Asian region. The leaf extracts contain various bioactive compounds, which were reported to have antidiabetic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. In this study, the effect of PB aqueous extracts on replicative senescent human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs was investigated by determining the expressions of senescence-associated genes using quantitative PCR. Our results showed that PB extracts at 0.4 mg/ml can improve cell proliferation of young (143%, presenescent (127.3%, and senescent (157.3% HDFs. Increased expressions of PRDX6, TP53, CDKN2A, PAK2, and MAPK14 were observed in senescent HDFs compared to young and/or presenescent HDFs. Treatment with PB extracts modulates the transcriptional profile changes in senescent HDFs. By contrast, expressions of SOD1 increased, whereas GPX1, PRDX6, TP53, CDKN2A, PAK2, and MAPK14 were decreased in PB-treated senescent HDFs compared to untreated senescent HDFs. In conclusion, this study indicates the modulation of PB extracts on senescence-associated genes expression of replicative senescent HDFs. Further studies warrant determining the mechanism of PB in modulating replicative senescence of HDFs through these signaling pathways.

  12. Chlorophyllase in Piper betle L. has a role in chlorophyll homeostasis and senescence dependent chlorophyll breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Supriya; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Sane, Aniruddha P; Kumar, Nikhil

    2012-06-01

    Total chlorophyll content and chlorophyllase (chlorophyll-chlorophyllido hydrolase EC 3.1.1.14) activity in fresh leaves of Piper betle L. landrace KS was, respectively, twofold higher and eight fold lower than KV, showing negative correlation between chlorophyll and chlorophyllase activity. Specific chlorophyllase activity was nearly eightfold more in KV than KS. ORF of 918 nt was found in cloned putative chlorophyllase cDNAs from KV and KS. The gene was present as single copy in both the landraces. The encoded polypeptide of 306 amino acids differed only at two positions between the KV and KS; 203 (cysteine to tyrosine) and 301 (glutamine to glycine). Difference in chlorophyllase gene expression between KV and KS was evident in fresh and excised leaves. Up regulation of chlorophyllase gene by ABA and down regulation by BAP was observed in both the landraces; however, there was quantitative difference between KV and KS. Data suggests that chlorophyllase in P. betle is involved in chlorophyll homeostasis and chlorophyll loss during post harvest senescence.

  13. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-04-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle.

  14. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arawwawala, L D A M; Arambewela, L S R; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2014-01-01

    Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF HAE AND CEE PROVIDED MARKED DOSE DEPENDENT (HAE: r (2) = 0.97; CEE: r (2) = 0.96) and significant (P ≤ 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity.

  15. Pengaruh Suplementasi Infusa Daun Sirih (Piper betle L. terhadap Kualitas Telur Puyuh

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    Fensa Eka Widjaya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural feed additive supplementation could lead to higher production performance of quails on many occasions. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Piper betle L. (betel leaf infuse supplementation on egg characteristics of quails. Quails were raised in Slamet Quail Farm, Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia for 3 months. Quails had been fed adlibtum using a commercial diet. Betel leaf supplementation in different concentration had been given to replace drinking water. The treatments were P0: 0% supplementation, P1: 10% supplementation was given since day old quail (DOQ, P2: 20% supplementation was given since DOQ, P3: 30% supplementation was given since DOQ, P4: 10% supplementation was given since laying phase, P5: 20% supplementation was given since laying phase, P6: 30% supplementation was given since laying phase. The results showed that betel leaf infuse supplementation reduced the weight of egg shell, increasing the weight of egg albumin and increased egg weight significantly (P0.05 on another egg quality variables. It could be concluded that betel leaf infuses supplementation could affect the egg shell, albumin, and egg weight without affecting other egg quality traits. Overall, betel leaf supplementation could be applicated because it could increase egg albumin quality and egg weight. Even though additional handling is needed because betle leaf infuses supplementation could reduce egg shell quality and the egg could break easily.

  16. Piper betle L. Modulates Senescence-Associated Genes Expression in Replicative Senescent Human Diploid Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durani, Lina Wati; Khor, Shy Cian; Tan, Jen Kit; Chua, Kien Hui; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Makpol, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Piper betle (PB) is a traditional medicine that is widely used to treat different diseases around Asian region. The leaf extracts contain various bioactive compounds, which were reported to have antidiabetic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. In this study, the effect of PB aqueous extracts on replicative senescent human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) was investigated by determining the expressions of senescence-associated genes using quantitative PCR. Our results showed that PB extracts at 0.4 mg/ml can improve cell proliferation of young (143%), presenescent (127.3%), and senescent (157.3%) HDFs. Increased expressions of PRDX6 , TP53 , CDKN2A , PAK2 , and MAPK14 were observed in senescent HDFs compared to young and/or presenescent HDFs. Treatment with PB extracts modulates the transcriptional profile changes in senescent HDFs. By contrast, expressions of SOD1 increased, whereas GPX1 , PRDX6 , TP53 , CDKN2A , PAK2 , and MAPK14 were decreased in PB-treated senescent HDFs compared to untreated senescent HDFs. In conclusion, this study indicates the modulation of PB extracts on senescence-associated genes expression of replicative senescent HDFs. Further studies warrant determining the mechanism of PB in modulating replicative senescence of HDFs through these signaling pathways.

  17. Effects of Piper hispidinervum on spermatogenesis and histochemistry of ovarioles of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, T J S; Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Teixeira, A A C; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Câmara, C A G; Cunha, F M

    2014-05-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), not only damages crops, but controlling its population also requires synthetic insecticides, which leads to selection of resistant populations and environmental contamination. Essential oils are an alternative for controlling this insect. There are few studies of the effects of these oils on the insect's reproductive system. We evaluated the effects of the long pepper, Piper hispidinervum, essential oil on the gonads of the armyworm and tested its possible influence on the fertility of this insect. Dosages of 30 and 50 mg/ml were tested in 3(rd) instar caterpillars using the leaf immersion method. Testes and ovarioles were collected, fixed with 10% formalin and embedded in Historesin. The sections were stained with toluidine blue and Mallory trichrome to detect connective tissue, periodic acid-Schiff to detect neutral carbohydrates, and bromophenol blue to detect proteins. We found that the long pepper essential oil affected negatively the spermatogenesis and altered the histochemistry of the ovarioles of S. frugiperda. The effects of long pepper oil suggest that it is a promising tool for controlling the armyworm pest.

  18. Proximate composition, nutritional values and phytochemical screening of Piper retrofractum vahl. fruits

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    Nurul Jadid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate and mineral composition of the Piper retrofractum (P. retrofractum vahl. Fruit and to evaluate its total alkaloids, phenol and flavonoid. Methods: The proximate composition of P. retrofractum fruit was ananlyzed using standard protocols according to Indonesian Standard and Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Meanwhile, mineral composition of the fruit was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Phytochemical screening and quantification were performed using standard protocols according to Harborn and spectrophotometric methods. Results: The results showed that P. retrofractum fruit contained carbohydrate (63.4%, crude protein (11.4%, total ash (4.29%, dietary fiber (28.8% and total fat (2.97%. The fruit also contained calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphor, potassium, sodium and zinc in different concentrations. Additionally, quinone, sterol, glycosides and alkaloid were detected in both n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. Moreover, tannin was presented also in ethylacetate and methanol extracts. Meanwhile, methanol extract contained sterol, glycosides, flavones, tannin and alkaloid. The results also revealed that methanol extract of the fruit contained highest phenol compared to other extract. Finally, small quantity of flavonoid (0.060 0%±0.000 2% was observed. Conclusions: The overall results show that P. retrofractum contains potential nutritional and phytochemicals values, which support their function for pharmaceutical purposes.

  19. Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth: Seasonal Characterization of the Essential Oil Chemical Composition of Leaves and Reproductive Organs

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    Bianca Schindler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes a comparative analysis of the essential oil (EO chemical composition of leaves and reproductive organs (inflorescences and fruits of Piper gaudichaudianum during the seasons of a year in order to determine the best collection time and the most suitable plant organ to obtain this extractive. The chemical composition of EO obtained from fresh leaves was compared to the dried ones, to verify if the drying process interferes in the extractive quality. The leaves were collected from a native population of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, twice in each season, in triplicate, while inflorescences and fruits were sampled when they were present. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation of the different plant organs for 3 h. The 20 EO samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC coupled to mass spectrometry and GC with flame ionization detector, in triplicate. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal components analysis (PCA were performed to verify a possible formation of chemical groups (CG and the cohesion among them. The phenylpropanoid dillapiole was the major constituent of the EO in all seasons and in all plant organs, and myristicin was observed only in reproductive organs. The EO samples of this population were divided into two CG by HCA and PCA, showing the variability in chemical composition between different plant organs, however there was no chemical variability due to seasonality and phenophases. Since the drying of the leaves did not alter the EO chemical composition, this post-harvest procedure can be used without compromising the extrative quality.

  20. Antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts of Piper retrofractum Vahl. using DPPH assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Nurul; Hidayati, Dewi; Hartanti, Sylviana Rosyda; Arraniry, Byan Arasyi; Rachman, Rizka Yuanita; Wikanta, Wiwi

    2017-06-01

    Piper retrofractum Vahl., which belongs to the family Piperaceae, is geographically dispersed in tropical region including Indonesia. They are well-known spice possessing high medicinal properties. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of P. retrofractum fruit, extracted with different solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. This research was carried out using different concentrations of methanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts, (0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60 ppm). Ascorbic acid was also used as positive antioxidant control. The percentage of inhibition and IC50 were measured. The results showed that the DPPH free radicals were scavenged by all plant extracts in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the IC50 values for DPPH radicals with methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extract of the P. retrofractum Vahl. were found to be 101.74; 66.12 and 57.66 ppm, respectively. Interestingly, the IC50 value of n-hexane extract (57.66 ppm) was lower than ascorbic acid (66.12 ppm), indicating that n-hexane extract was a more potent scavenger of free radicals than methanol and ethyl acetate extracts. Taken together, our results suggested that n-hexane extract of P. Retrofractum Vahl. might contain potential antioxidant compounds.

  1. In vitro anti-Leishmania infantum activity of essential oil from Piper angustifolium

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    Lauriane S.S. Bosquiroli

    Full Text Available Abstract Piper angustifolium Lam., Piperaceae, popularly known as "matito", "pimenta-de-macaco", "pimenta-longa" or "jagurandi" in Brazil, has been commonly used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis-associated lesions, but there are few studies on the activity against visceral leishmaniasis-associated species. This study demonstrates the first in vitro antileishmanial activity of the P. angustifolium essential oil, of which the phytochemical profile showed the presence of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes. The main compounds were spathulenol (23.8% and caryophyllene oxide (13.1%. P. angustifolium essential oil was highly active [the half maximum inhibitory concentration = 1.43 μg/ml] against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New and Old World. Activity was obtained 24 h after addition of the oil (6.25–50 μg/ml, with a reduction of 100% in the infection index at concentrations of 25 and 50 μg/ml. P. angustifolium essential oil showed low cytotoxicity for mammalian fibroblasts and macrophages (the half maximum inhibitory concentration values of 31.67 and 48.22 μg/ml, respectively, and it was 33 and 22 times more toxic to amastigotes than to mammalian cells, as indicated by selectivity indexes. The results demonstrated that P. angustifolium essential oil is a promising alternative for the study of potential drugs for visceral leishmaniasis.

  2. Toxicity Study of Antidiabetics Functional Drink of Piper crocatum and Cinnamomum burmannii

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    MEGA SAFITHRI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Piper crocatum and Cinnamomum burmannii formulations is known to be a new diabetes functional drink. Thus, its toxicological profile needs to be studied. At present, the formulation was evaluated for the repeated dose toxicity study. The Sprague dawley albino rats were treated with P. crocatum and C. burmannii formulations (0, 630, 1260, and 1890 mg/kg and administered orally for a period of 28 days in albino rats. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weight, hematology, clinical biochemistry as well as histology were studied. There were no significant differences in the body weight, organ weights and feeding habits between control and treated animals. Hematological analysis showed no marked differences in any of the parameters examined in either the control or treated groups. There were no significant changes that occurred in the blood chemistry analysis including glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, SGPT, and SGOT in experimental animals. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The formulation of P. crocatum and C. burmannii was found safe in repeated dose toxicity studies.

  3. Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Antileishmanial and Antituberculosis Activities of Essential Oils of Piper Species

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    Karine Zanoli Bernuci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from fresh Piperaceae leaves were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS, and a total of 68 components were identified. Principal components analysis results showed a chemical variability between species, with sesquiterpene compounds predominating in the majority of species analyzed. The composition of the essential oil of Piper mosenii was described for the first time. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils was evaluated in peritoneal macrophages and the oils of P. rivinoides, P. arboretum, and P. aduncum exhibited the highest values, with cytotoxic concentration at 50% (CC50 > 200 µg/mL. Both P. diospyrifolium and P. aduncum displayed activity against Leishmania amazonensis, and were more selective for the parasite than for the macrophages, with a selectivity index (SI of 2.35 and >5.52, respectively. These SI values were greater than the 1 for the standard drug pentamidine. The antileishmanial activity of the essential oils of P. diospyrifolium and P. aduncum was described for the first time. P. rivinoides, P. cernuum, and P. diospyrifolium displayed moderate activity against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv bacillus, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 125 µg/mL. These results are relevant and suggests their potential for therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, further studies are required to explain the exact mechanism of action of these essential oils.

  4. In vitro cytotoxicity of nonpolar constituents from different parts of kava plant (Piper methysticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Freeman, James P; Heinze, Thomas M; Moody, Joanna D; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Beger, Richard D; Dragull, Klaus; Tang, Chung-Shih; Ang, Catharina Y W

    2006-04-19

    Kava (Piper methysticum), a perennial shrub native to the South Pacific islands, has been used to relieve anxiety. Recently, several cases of severe hepatotoxicity have been reported from the consumption of dietary supplements containing kava. It is unclear whether the kava constituents, kavalactones, are responsible for the associated hepatotoxicity. To investigate the key components responsible for the liver toxicity, bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out in this study. Kava roots, leaves, and stem peelings were extracted with methanol, and the resulting residues were subjected to partition with a different polarity of solvents (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) for evaluation of their cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells based on the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme leakage assays. Organic solvent fractions displayed a much stronger cytotoxicity than water fractions for all parts of kava. The hexane fraction of the root exhibited stronger cytotoxic effects than fractions of root extracted with other solvents or extracts from the other parts of kava. Further investigations using bioassay-directed isolation and analysis of the hexane fraction indicated that the compound responsible for the cytotoxicity was flavokavain B. The identity of the compound was confirmed by (1)H and (13) C NMR and MS techniques.

  5. Toxicological analysis and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil from Piper vicosanum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff Brait, Débora Regina; Mattos Vaz, Márcia Soares; da Silva Arrigo, Jucicléia; Borges de Carvalho, Luciana Noia; Souza de Araújo, Flávio Henrique; Vani, Juliana Miron; da Silva Mota, Jonas; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Negrão, Fábio Juliano; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from Piper vicosanum leaves (OPV) and evaluated the toxicological potential of this oil through acute toxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity tests. The acute toxicity of OPV was evaluated following oral administration to female rats at a single dose of 2 g/kg b.w. To evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potential, male mice were divided into five groups: I: negative control; II: positive control; III: 500 mg/kg of OPV; IV: 1000 mg/kg of OPV; V: 2000 mg/kg of OPV. The anti-inflammatory activity of OPV was evaluated in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and paw edema models in rats. No signs of acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD50 of this oil is greater than 2000 mg/kg. In the comet assay, OPV did not increase the frequency or rate of DNA damage in groups treated with any of the doses assessed compared to that in the negative control group. In the micronucleus test, the animals treated did not exhibit any cytotoxic or genotoxic changes in peripheral blood erythrocytes. OPV (100 and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced edema formation and inhibited leukocyte migration analyzed in the carrageenan-induced edema and pleurisy models. These results show that OPV has anti-inflammatory potential without causing acute toxicity or genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical study and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of essential oil of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae

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    GISELE L. OLIVEIRA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Piper aduncum L. is used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from leaves of P. aduncum collected in the Brazilian Cerrado, North of Minas Gerais, as well as to evaluate the larvicidal activity of this oil and of its major constituent. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 23 compounds (monoterpenes: 90.4%; sesquiterpenes: 7.0%. The major component was 1,8-cineole (53.9%. This oil showed to be very different from those obtained from the same species. Larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oil and 1,8-cineole. The mortality rate of 100% was obtained after 24h of treatment with the oil at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ppm. After 48h of treatment, the mortality rate was 80% and 50% for concentrations of 250 and 100 ppm, respectively. The LC50 obtained after 24h was estimated in 289.9 ppm and after 48h was 134.1 ppm. The major compound 1,8-cineole showed no larvicidal activity.

  7. Antimicrobial effects of Piper hispidum extract, fractions and chalcones against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G M; Endo, E H; Cortez, D A G; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2016-09-01

    Three chalcones, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-tetramethoxychalcone, and 3,2'-dihydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, were isolated from the leaves of Piper hispidum in a bioguided fractionation of crude extract. The antimicrobial activity of crude extract of P. hispidum leaves was determined against bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. Fractions and chalcones were tested against C. albicans and S. aureus. The checkerboard assay was performed to assess synergic interactions between extract and antifungal drugs, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay was used to evaluate anti-biofilm effects of extract. The extract was active against yeasts, S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC values between 15.6 and 62.5μg/mL. Synergistic effects of extract associated with fluconazole and nystatin were observed against C. albicans, with fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.37 and 0.24, respectively. The extract was also effective against C. albicans and S. aureus biofilm cells at concentrations of 62.5 and 200μg/mL, respectively. Thus, P. hispidum may be a possible source of bioactive substances with antimicrobial properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Nerolidol, the main constituent of Piper aduncum essential oil, has anti-Leishmania braziliensis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceole, Ligia Fernanda; Cardoso, Maria DAS Graças; Soares, Maurilio José

    2017-08-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is a protozoan that causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which is an infectious disease that affects more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatment is limited, has side-effects or is inefficient. In a search for alternative compounds of natural origin, we tested the microbicidal activity of Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO) on this parasite. Our data showed that PaEO had an inhibitory effect on the growth of L. braziliensis promastigotes with an IC50/24 h=77·9 µg mL-1. The main constituent (nerolidol: 25·22%) presented a similar inhibitory effect (IC50/24 h = 74·3 µg mL-1). Ultrastructural observation of nerolidol-treated parasites by scanning and transmission electron microscopies revealed cell shrinkage and morphological alterations in the mitochondrion, nuclear chromatin and flagellar pocket. Flow cytometry analysis showed a reduction in the cell size, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine exposure and DNA degradation, which when associated with the morphological changes indicated that nerolidol induced incidental cell death in the L. braziliensis promastigotes. The results presented here indicate that nerolidol derivatives are promising compounds for further evaluation against Leishmania parasites.

  9. Antileishmanial activity evaluation of adunchalcone, a new prenylated dihydrochalcone from Piper aduncum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Picolo, Camilla R; Bezerra, Mariana P; Gomes, Kaio S; Passero, Luiz Felipe D; Laurenti, Marcia D; Martins, Euder Glendes A; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G

    2014-09-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of EtOH extract from the leaves of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) afforded a new dihydrochalcone, named adunchalcone. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data, primarily NMR and MS. Adunchalcone was evaluated against promastigote forms of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) shawi, and L. (L.) chagasi and displayed 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of 11.03, 26.70, and 11.26 μM, as well as selective indexes of 4.86, 2.01, 4.76 and 0.50, respectively. This compound was also tested against intracellular forms of L. (L.) amazonensis, displaying weak activity, in comparison to reference drug amphotericin B. However, despite reduced effect of adunchalcone against amastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis, this work opens the perspective to use this particular molecule as a scaffold for the design of novel and selective drug candidates for neglected diseases, mainly leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biocidal effects of Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae) essential oil and synergism among its main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, M F; Rossa, G E; Cassel, E; Vargas, R M F; Santana, O; Díaz, C E; González-Coloma, A

    2017-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a pressure gradient (1-2 atm) in the extraction and composition of the essential oil (EO) of Piper hispidinervum by steam distillation. We also evaluated the insect antifeedant effects (Spodoptera littoralis, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi) and nematicidal activity (Meloidogyne javanica) of the oils, their major components and their synergistic interactions. Safrole was the major component (78-81%) followed by terpinolene (5-9%). The EOs tested were effective insect antifeedants. Safrole, explained most of the insect antifeedant action of P. hispidinervum EOs. When safrole and terpinolene were tested in binary combinations, low ratios of safrole improved the antifeedant effects of terpinolene. P. hispidinervum EOs caused higher mortality of M. javanica juveniles than their major components. In binary combinations, low ratios of terpinolene increased the nematicidal effects of safrole. The EO treatment strongly suppressed nematode egg hatching and juvenile infectivity. P. hispidinervum EOs affected the germination of S. lycopersicum and L. sativa mostly at 24 h of treatment, being L. sativa the most sensitive. Safrole moderately affected germination and root growth of L. sativa, S. lycopersicum and L. perenne. Terpinolene only affected S. lycopersicum root growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Activity of the Extracts and Neolignans from Piper regnellii against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Benedito Prado Dias Filho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck (Piperaceae is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil to treat infectious diseases. The extracts obtained of the leaves from P. regnellii were investigated for their antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The ethyl acetate extract presented a good activity against MRSA, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of 16 μg/mL. Based on this finding, the ethyl acetate extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into nine fractions. The hexane fraction was active against MRSA (MIC at 4 μg/mL. Further column chromatography separation of the hexane fraction afforded the pure compound eupomatenoid-5. The structure of the compound was established by spectral data (1H and 13C NMR HSQC, HMBC, gNOE, IR and MS. Eupomatenoid-5 was the only compound active on the bacterium. The antibacterial property of P. regnellii extract provides preliminary scientific validation for the traditional medicinal use of this plant. The active compound eupomatenoid-5 should be further studied in animal models to verify in vivo efficacy and toxicity.

  12. Composition and biological activities of the essential oil of Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcelo Felipe Rodrigues; Bezerra-Silva, Patrícia Cristina; de Lira, Camila Soledade; de Lima Albuquerque, Bheatriz Nunes; Agra Neto, Afonso Cordeiro; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Maciel, Jefferson Rodrigues; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz

    2016-06-01

    Essential oil from fresh leaves of the shrub Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC was obtained in 0.21% (w/w) yield by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus. Thirty-one components, accounting for 96.61% of the leaf oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (30.62%), terpinolene (17.44%), trans -caryophyllene (6.27%), α-pinene (5.92%), δ-cadinene (4.92%), and Limonene (4.46%). Bioassays against larvae of the Dengue mosquito (Aedes aegypti) revealed that leaf oil (LC50 = 30.52 ppm), terpinolene (LC50 = 31.16 ppm), and pure 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (LC50 = 22.1 ppm) possessed larvicidal activities and are able to interfere with the activity of proteases from L4 gut enzymes. Additionally, the essential oil exhibited a strong oviposition deterrent activity at 50 and 5 ppm. This paper constitutes the first report of biological activities associated with the essential oil of leaves of P. corcovadensis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phylogenomics of 2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol-Producing Pseudomonas and Novel Antiglycation Endophytes from Piper auritum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-García, Karina; Neira-González, Adriana; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Rosa Martha; Granados-Ramírez, Giovana; Zarraga, Ramon; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Barona-Gómez, Francisco; Flores-Cotera, Luis B

    2017-07-28

    2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) (1) is a phenolic polyketide produced by some plant-associated Pseudomonas species, with many biological activities and ecological functions. Here, we aimed at reconstructing the natural history of DAPG using phylogenomics focused at its biosynthetic gene cluster or phl genes. In addition to around 1500 publically available genomes, we obtained and analyzed the sequences of nine novel Pseudomonas endophytes isolated from the antidiabetic medicinal plant Piper auritum. We found that 29 organisms belonging to six Pseudomonas species contain the phl genes at different frequencies depending on the species. The evolution of the phl genes was then reconstructed, leading to at least two clades postulated to correlate with the known chemical diversity surrounding DAPG biosynthesis. Moreover, two of the newly obtained Pseudomonas endophytes with high antiglycation activity were shown to exert their inhibitory activity against the formation of advanced glycation end-products via DAPG and related congeners. Its isomer, 5-hydroxyferulic acid (2), detected during bioactivity-guided fractionation, together with other DAPG congeners, were found to enhance the detected inhibitory activity. This report provides evidence of a link between the evolution and chemical diversity of DAPG and congeners.

  14. Bioactivity-guided isolation of laevicarpin, an antitrypanosomal and anticryptococcal lactam from Piper laevicarpu (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva A Maciel, Dayany; Freitas, Viviane P; Conserva, Geanne A Alves; Alexandre, Tatiana R; Purisco, Sonia U; Tempone, Andre G; Melhem, Márcia Souza C; Kato, Massuo J; Guimarães, Elsie F; Lago, João Henrique G

    2016-06-01

    Crude CH2Cl2 extract from leaves of Piper laevicarpu (Piperaceae) displayed antitrypanosomal activity against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain) and antimicrobial potential against Cryptococcus gattii (strain-type WM 178). Bioactivity-guided fractionation of crude extract afforded one new natural bioactive lactam derivative, named laevicarpin. The structure of isolated compound, which displayed a very rare ring system, was elucidated based on NMR, IR and MS spectral analysis. Using MTT assay, the trypomastigotes of T. cruzi demonstrated susceptibility to laevicarpin displaying IC50 value of 14.7μg/mL (49.6μM), about 10-fold more potent than the standard drug benznidazole. The mammalian cytotoxicity of laevicarpin was verified against murine fibroblasts (NCTC cells) and demonstrated a CC50 value of 100.3μg/mL (337.7μM-SI=7). When tested against Cryptococcus gattii, laevicarpin showed an IC50 value of 2.3μg/mL (7.9μM) and a MIC value of 7.4μg/mL (25μM). Based in the obtained results, laevicarpin could be used as a scaffold for future drug design studies against the Chagas disease and anti-cryptococosis agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protection effect of piper betel leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shun-Chieh; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lin, Jing-Jing; Peng, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2007-01-01

    Piper betel leaves (PBL) are used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. PBL has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antimutation. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of PBL extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in a rat model. Fibrosis and hepatic damage, as reveled by histology and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were induced in rats by an administration of CCl(4) (8%, 1 ml/kg body weight) thrice a week for 4 weeks. PBL extract significantly inhibited the elevated AST and ALT activities caused by CCl(4) intoxication. It also attenuated total glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST alpha isoform activity, and on the other hand, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The histological examination showed the PBL extract protected liver from the damage induced by CCl(4) by decreasing alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-sma) expression, inducing active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression though Ras/Erk pathway, and inhibiting TIMP2 level that consequently attenuated the fibrosis of liver. The data of this study support a chemopreventive potential of PBL against liver fibrosis.

  16. Piperamides from Piper ottonoides by NMR and GC-MS based mixture analysis

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    Wolff, Thiago; Valente, Ligia M.M., E-mail: valente@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Química; Santos, Priscila F.P. [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (UnED/CEFET), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Magalhães, Alvicler [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Química Inorgânica; Tinoco, Luzineide W. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais; Pereira, Rita C.A. [Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Guimarães, Elsie F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The species Piper ottonoides Yuncker (Piperaceae), known as 'joão-brandim', is a shrub that occurs in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. Its roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine as local anesthetic to treat toothache and sore throat. In this study, the structural characterization in mixture of isobutyl amides present in semi-purified fractions from fruits, leaves, stems and roots of P. ottonoides was achieved by employing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques ({sup 1}H, {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H COSY, {sup 1}H-{sup 13}CHSQC, {sup 1}H-{sup 13}CHMBC, TOCSY and {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H J-RES). The MS fragmentation patterns and the NMR chemical shifts, multiplicities, coupling constants and the signal correlations in the two-dimensional spectra were carefully analyzed also taking into account some key elements of differentiation among the compounds. The data set allowed identifying unequivocally the new amide N-isobutyl-7-(4'- methoxyphenyl)-2E,4E-heptadienamide, which we named ottonoidenamide as well as piperovatine and chingchengenamide A in all parts of the plant, the additional presence of pipercallosine and pipercallosidine in roots and of dihydropiperlonguminine in fruits and leaves. The presence of piperovatine and pipercallosine in P. ottonoides should be associated to its traditional use. (author)

  17. Efficacy of essential oil of Piper aduncum against nymphs and adults of Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Haroldo Xl; Fazolin, Murilo; Garcia, Rafael B; Magnani, Rodrigo F; Barbosa, José Carlos; Miranda, Marcelo P

    2016-06-01

    Insecticide application is the main way to control Diaphorina citri. However, it causes environmental contamination, has a negative impact on beneficial organisms and leads to psyllid resistance. The essential oil of Piper aduncum has low toxicity towards the environment and contains dillapiol, which has proven to be effective against several crop pests. Here, we studied its efficacy against nymphs and adults of D. citri under laboratory conditions. Oils with three concentrations of dillapiol (69.3, 79.9 and 85.4%) at 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0% dilutions plus 0.025% adjuvant were tested. All treatments caused 90-100% mortality in nymphs. Topical treatments with oil containing 79.9 and 85.4% dillapiol at 0.75% and 1% dilutions were effective (mortality ≥80%) in adults. However, the essential oil showed no residual activity against adults (mortality ≤30%). Dillapiol-rich oil is a promising compound for D. citri control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Shelter-building behavior and natural history of two pyralid caterpillars feeding on Piper stipulaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-03-15

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae) . A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  19. Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Antileishmanial and Antituberculosis Activities of Essential Oils of Piper Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernuci, Karine Zanoli; Iwanaga, Camila Cristina; Fernandez-Andrade, Carla Maria Mariano; Lorenzetti, Fabiana Brusco; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio; Faiões, Viviane Dos Santos; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; do Amaral, Wanderlei; Deschamps, Cícero; Scodro, Regiane Bertin de Lima; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Baldin, Vanessa Pietrowski; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2016-12-12

    Essential oils from fresh Piperaceae leaves were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and a total of 68 components were identified. Principal components analysis results showed a chemical variability between species, with sesquiterpene compounds predominating in the majority of species analyzed. The composition of the essential oil of Piper mosenii was described for the first time. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils was evaluated in peritoneal macrophages and the oils of P. rivinoides , P. arboretum , and P. aduncum exhibited the highest values, with cytotoxic concentration at 50% (CC 50 ) > 200 µg/mL. Both P. diospyrifolium and P. aduncum displayed activity against Leishmania amazonensis , and were more selective for the parasite than for the macrophages, with a selectivity index (SI) of 2.35 and >5.52, respectively. These SI values were greater than the 1 for the standard drug pentamidine. The antileishmanial activity of the essential oils of P. diospyrifolium and P. aduncum was described for the first time. P. rivinoides, P. cernuum , and P. diospyrifolium displayed moderate activity against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H 37 Rv bacillus, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 µg/mL. These results are relevant and suggests their potential for therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, further studies are required to explain the exact mechanism of action of these essential oils.

  20. Microscopic diagnosis of the leaf and stem of Piper solmsianum C.DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocco, A R P; Migacz, I P; Santos, V L P; Franco, C R C; Silva, R Z; Yunes, R A; Cechinel-Filho, V; Budel, J M

    2017-08-01

    Piper solmsianum C.DC., which is popularly known as pariparoba, is a shrub that measures 1-3 m in height and it inhabits areas with wet tropical soils. The objective of this study was to analyze the leaf and stem anatomy using light microscopy, scanning electron micrographs, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to provide information for species identification. The anatomical profile showed the following main microscopic markers: hypostomatic leaf; hypodermis layer on both sides; pearl glands; biconvex midrib shape; five collateral vascular bundles in open arc with the central bundle larger than the others; circular stem shape; collateral vascular bundles arranged in two rings; sinuous sclerenchymatic sheath in the pith; secretory idioblasts; and starch grains in the mesophyll, in the ground parenchyma of the midrib, petiole, and in the stem; and six morphotypes of calcium oxalate crystals (styloids, cuneiform, tabular crystal rosettes, cuneiform crystal rosettes, elongated square dipyramids, as well as very elongated square dipyramids). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.