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Sample records for pipeline technology volume

  1. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: freight pipeline technology. Volume II. First year final report. [Slurry, pneumatic, pneumo-capsule, and hydro-capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, I.; Gimm, K.K.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of pipeline as an intercity freight transportation mode, it was necessary to examine its technological feasibility and reliability. This report describes the technology of the major generic freight pipelines in terms of both historical and current trends and operations. Additionally, it presents a state-of-the-art review of calculating energy requirements of various generic freight pipelines. It was concluded that slurry and pneumatic pipelines are technologically feasible and reliable. There are many commercial installations of both types operating around the world. Based on European experience with pneumo-capsule pipelines for mail delivery and Russian gravel- and sand-transport installations, it appears that a pneumo-capsule pipeline is a technologically feasible and operationally reliable mode for transport of solids. Since no commercial pneumo-capsule pipeline installations yet exist in the U.S., it seems desirable that a service demonstration of the advantages and feasibility of this mode of transport be undertaken to attract the shippers' confidence. Hydro-capsule pipelines are technologically feasible, but its reliability within a commercial environment remains to be tested.

  2. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  3. Advances in riser and pipeline technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction

  4. Full-Scale Testing of Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - NuVision's Fluidic Wave-Action Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokaltun, S.; McDaniel, D.; Varona, J.; Patel, R.; Awwad, A.; Roelant, D.; Keszler, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technical evaluation of a pipeline unplugging method that can be used as a feasible tool to clean fouled pipes at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The unplugging method depends on running water against the plugged section in the pipeline for multiple times and breaking the mechanical bonds of the material that hold the plug together. The working principles of the method are similar to beach erosion since a water wave is generated using the suction and drive mechanisms caused by the system in the pipeline that erodes the plug from one end. The technology tested also is capable of creating an external force on the plug that helps the unplugging process however this characteristic of the technology was not tested during the testing reported in this work. More focus was given to the erosion capability of the technology and how wave characteristics affected that. Results obtained demonstrated that there is a correlation between the suction and drive characteristics of the wave generated in the pipeline with the maximum pressures attained in the plug region, the velocity of the wave prior to colliding with the plug and the erosion. It was found that the technology was most effective in unplugging Phosphate based chemical plugs and Kaolin clay based plugs while it took more time to erode Aluminum based plugs for the same pipeline test layouts. (authors)

  5. Pipeline integrity evaluation of oil pipelines using free-swimming acoustic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariaratnam, Samuel T. [Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (United States); Chandrasekaran, Muthu [Pure Technologies Limited, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In the United States, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) funded a joint academy-industry research project, which developed and refined a free-swimming tool called SmartBall. The tool swims through the pipeline and gives results at a much lower cost than current leak detection methods, and it can detect leaks as small as 0.03 gpm of oil. GPS-synchronized above-ground loggers capture acoustic signals and record the passage of the tool through the pipeline. The tool is spherical and smaller than the pipe, through which it rolls silently; it can overcome obstacles that could otherwise make a pipeline unpiggable. SmartBall uses the great potential of acoustic detection, because when a pressurized product leaks from a pipe, it produces a distinctive acoustic signal that travels through the product; at the same time, it overcomes the problem caused by the very limited range of this signal. This technology can prevent enormous economic consequences such as a 50,000-gallon gasoline spill that happened in 2003 between Tucson and Phoenix.

  6. Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

  7. Monitoring of deposits in pipelines using pressure pulse technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, Jon S.; Celius, Harald K.

    2005-07-01

    The basis of pressure pulse technology is presented in terms of the water hammer equation, the pipeline pressure drop equation and the equation for speed of sound in multiphase mixtures. The technology can be used for a range of applications, from on-line monitoring of flowing conditions to on-demand measurements and analysis to locate and quantify deposits in wells and pipelines. While pressure pulse measurements are low-cost and easy to implement, the commercial use of pressure pulse technology has resulted from extensive field experience and substantial in-house software development. Simulation tools were used to illustrate the effect of a 2 mm thick deposit, 500 m long and located 375 m from a quick-acting valve. The simulation conditions used are typical for multiphase gas-oil flow along a horizontal 2 km long pipeline from wellhead to manifold. (Author)

  8. Proceedings of the 5. biennial international pipeline conference, IPC 2004 : the power of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, K.; Kraft, H.; Hopkins, P.

    2004-01-01

    The fifth international pipeline conference provided a forum for experts in the pipeline industry, academia and governments to discuss new technologies and approaches to pipeline transport. Presentations focused on a wide range of issues related to pipeline engineering. The conference was divided into 16 main sessions: (1) compression and pump technologies, (2) corrosion protection and analysis techniques, (3) pipeline design and construction, (4) environmental issues, (5) database development, (6) emerging issues and innovative projects, (7) inspection techniques, (8) integrity management, (9) joining, (10) materials, (11) offshore issues, (12) operations and maintenance, (13) pipeline automation and measurement, (14) pipelining in northern environments, (15) risk and reliability, (16) standards and regulations. The presentations provided up-to-date information related to future technology trends as well as recent innovations and practices. Pipeline design standards and new pipeline materials using high strength steels and reinforced composite plastic coatings were also reviewed. Other sessions discussed emerging technologies for inspection, quality control, ultrasonic testing, and the use of remote sensors. The conference also included a student paper competition. A total of 339 peer reviewed presentations were given at the conference, all of which were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., fig.

  9. Remote volume rendering pipeline for mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhao, Xin; Park, Ji Hwan; Kaufman, Arie; Cha, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel remote volume rendering pipeline for medical visualization targeted for mHealth (mobile health) applications. The necessity of such a pipeline stems from the large size of the medical imaging data produced by current CT and MRI scanners with respect to the complexity of the volumetric rendering algorithms. For example, the resolution of typical CT Angiography (CTA) data easily reaches 512^3 voxels and can exceed 6 gigabytes in size by spanning over the time domain while capturing a beating heart. This explosion in data size makes data transfers to mobile devices challenging, and even when the transfer problem is resolved the rendering performance of the device still remains a bottleneck. To deal with this issue, we propose a thin-client architecture, where the entirety of the data resides on a remote server where the image is rendered and then streamed to the client mobile device. We utilize the display and interaction capabilities of the mobile device, while performing interactive volume rendering on a server capable of handling large datasets. Specifically, upon user interaction the volume is rendered on the server and encoded into an H.264 video stream. H.264 is ubiquitously hardware accelerated, resulting in faster compression and lower power requirements. The choice of low-latency CPU- and GPU-based encoders is particularly important in enabling the interactive nature of our system. We demonstrate a prototype of our framework using various medical datasets on commodity tablet devices.

  10. Technology assessment of long distance liquid natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    This document contains phases 7, 8, and 9 of a review on the technology assessment of long distance liquefied natural gas (LNG) pipelines. Phase 7 contains 6 papers describing novel applications for LNG pipelines. Phase 8 contains a summary of material relating to cold utilization and rural service. Phase 9 presents a listing of materials and equipment used to construct an LNG pipeline. Separate abstracts for each phase of the study have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  11. Puncturing the pipeline: Do technology companies alienate women in recruiting sessions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Alison T; Correll, Shelley J

    2018-02-01

    A 'chilly' environment limits women's advancement through the educational pipeline leading to jobs in science and technology. However, we know relatively little about the environment women encounter after making it through the educational pipeline. Do technology companies create environments that may dampen women's interest at the juncture when they are launching their careers? Using original observational data from 84 recruiting sessions hosted by technology companies at a prominent university on the US West Coast, we find that company representatives often engage in behaviors that are known to create a chilly environment for women. Through gender-imbalanced presenter roles, geek culture references, overt use of gender stereotypes, and other gendered speech and actions, representatives may puncture the pipeline, lessening the interest of women at the point of recruitment into technology careers.

  12. Surface electromagnetic technology for the external inspection of oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Delgado, O.; Flores, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Nakamura, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present a surface electromagnetic technology for the non-destructive pipeline coating inspection (SEMPI). This technology allows: determination of the depth and plane position of pipelines, quantitative evaluation of the insulation resistance and delimitation of zones with coating damages, estimation of the performance of the cathodic protection system (CPS) and detection of its connections to out-of-service pipes and other grounded constructions, and assessment of the soil aggressively. The SEMPI technology is based on the approximation of pipelines by heterogeneous transmission lines with variable leakage conductance and pipe impedance to represent insulation coating and wall thickness damages. Based on the result of simulations, we have optimized the field measurements and developed the interpretation procedure of experimental data. The field operations include surface measurements of magnetic field, voltage on the control posts of the CPS and soil resistivity. In zones with coating damages the detailed measurements can be performed using magnetic or electric field to increase the resolution in localizing and evaluating the insulation damages. The SEMPI technology has been applied for inspections of pipelines with different technical characteristics in complicated environmental conditions. The examples presented in this work confirm the high efficiency of the developed technology for external integrity evaluation of pipelines. (author)

  13. Method for Stereo Mapping Based on Objectarx and Pipeline Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Chen, T.; Lin, Z.; Yang, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Stereo mapping is an important way to acquire 4D production. Based on the development of the stereo mapping and the characteristics of ObjectARX and pipeline technology, a new stereo mapping scheme which can realize the interaction between the AutoCAD and digital photogrammetry system is offered by ObjectARX and pipeline technology. An experiment is made in order to make sure the feasibility with the example of the software MAP-AT (Modern Aerial Photogrammetry Automatic Triangulation), the experimental results show that this scheme is feasible and it has very important meaning for the realization of the acquisition and edit integration.

  14. Pipeline technology. Petroleum oil - long-distance pipelines. Pipelinetechnik. Mineraloelfernleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krass, W; Kittel, A; Uhde, A

    1979-01-01

    All questions and concerns of pipeline technique are dealt with in detail. Some chapters can be applied for petroleum pipelines only or partly, for example the importance of petroleum pipelines, projecting, calculation, and operation. The sections of pipes and formings, laying, rights of way, and corrosion protection, accessories and remote effect technique, however, are of general interest, for example also for gas pipelines. In the chapter on working material, a very good summary of today's pipe working material including the thermomechanically treated steels is given. Besides methods of improving the toughness, the problems of the corrosion caused by strain cracking and the ways of avoiding it are pointed out. The pipe producing methods and, in the end of the chapter, the tests in the factory are explained. The section of laying deals with the laying methods being applied for years in pipeline construction, a big part referring to welding methods and tests. Active and passive corrosion protection are explained with all details. In addition to the solidity calculation presented with special regard to concerns of petroleum pipelines, theoretical fundaments and calculation methods for pressure are dealt with. Beside general questions of pumps, accessories, and drives, there is a section dealing with measurement and control techniques. Furthermore, remote effect and transmission techniques and news systems are explained in detail. Here, problems are referred to which are applicable not only to the operation of mineral oil pipelines. The book is completed by indications as to pipeline operation emphasizing general operation control, maintenance, repair methods and damage and their elimination. The last chapter contains a collection of the legal fundaments and the technical rules.

  15. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, Sviatoslav

    2016-01-01

    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  16. Pipeline cost reduction through effective project management and applied technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A. [TransCanada Pipeline Ltd., Alberta (Canada); Babuk, T. [Empress International Inc., Westwood, NJ (United States); Mohitpour, M. [Tempsys Pipeline Solutions Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Murray, M.A. [National Energy Board of Canada (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Pipelines are regarded by many as passive structures with the technology involved in their construction and operation being viewed as relatively simple and stable. If such is the case how can there be much room for cost improvement? In reality, there have been many technological and regulatory innovations required within the pipeline industry to meet the challenges posed by ever increasing consumer demand for hydrocarbons, the effects of aging infrastructure and a need to control operating and maintenance expenditures. The importance of technology management, as a subset of overall project management, is a key element of life cycle cost control. Assurance of public safety and the integrity of the system are other key elements in ensuring a successful pipeline project. The essentials of best practise project management from an owner/ operator's perspective are set out in the paper. Particular attention is paid to the appropriate introduction of new technology, strategic procurement practice and material selection, indicating that capital cost savings of up to 15% are achievable without harming life cycle cost. The value of partnering leading to technical innovation, cost savings and improved profitability for all the participants is described. Partnering also helps avoid duplicated effort through the use of common tools for design, planning schedule tracking and reporting. Investing in appropriate technology development has been a major source of cost reduction in recent years and the impact of a number of these recently introduced technologies in the areas of materials, construction processes and operation and maintenance are discussed in the paper. (author)

  17. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  18. SPADOCK: Adaptive Pipeline Technology for Web System using WebSocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries RICHI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As information technology grows to the era of IoT(Internet of Things and cloud computing, the performance ofweb application and web service which acts as the informationgateway becomes an issue. Horizontal quality of serviceimprovement through system performance escalation becomesan issue pursued by engineers and scientists, giving birth toBigPipe pipeline technology which was developed by Facebook.We make SPADOCK, an adaptive pipeline system which is builtunder distributed system architecture with the utilization ofHTML5 WebSocket, then measure its performance. Parametersused for the measurement includes latency, workload, andbandwidth. The result shows that SPADOCK could reduceserving latency by 68.28% compared with the conventional web,and it is 20.63% faster than BigPipe.

  19. Application and numerical simulation research on biomimetic drag-reducing technology for gas pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Deyuan; Luo Yuehao; Chen Huawei [Beihang Univ., Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation

    2011-06-15

    For the purpose of increasing the transmission capacity of gas pipelines, the internal coating technology has been vastly put into application, and a remarkable benefit has been achieved so far. However, with the reduction of wall roughness, the small convex parts are all completely submerged in the viscous sublayer, the gas pipeline becomes a 'hydraulic smooth pipe', even by smoothing the coating surface further, it is difficult to reduce wall friction. Therefore, in order to increase the transportation capacity on the basis of internal coating, the new methods and technologies should be researched and investigated, and perhaps, the biomimetic drag-reducing technology is a good approach. In this paper, according to the planning parameters of the second pipeline of the West-to-East gas transmission project, the best drag reducing effect grooves are calculated and designed, and based on the characteristics and properties of internal coating (AW-01 epoxy resin), the Pre-Cured Micro- Rolling Technology (PCMRT) is discussed and presented, the rolling equipment is also designed and analyzed, the rolling process can be easily added on the available production line. Aiming at the field operating parameters of the gas pipeline in China, and the drag-reducing effect of the grooved surface is analyzed and discussed comprehensively. In addition, the economic benefit of adopting the biomimetic drag reduction technology is investigated. (orig.)

  20. Technology and equipment to improve reliability of pipeline transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimanov, D. F.; Shulayev, N. S.; Bondar, K. E.; Laponov, S. V.; Uzinger, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article is dedicated to development of technology and hardware design of method pipeline transport reliability improving by improving the isolated coating properties modified by microwave radiation. The article describes the technology of the modification process of the coating and instrumentation production, which allows improving operational properties not only in stationary conditions in the manufacture of the insulation coating, but also during its replacement in the field.

  1. Bulletin 2005-12 : revised Alberta pipeline regulation issued

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-31

    A revised Pipeline Regulation has been issued and is currently available on the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) website. Changes to the regulation reflect bothchanges in EUB regulatory policy and processes and technological improvements. Goals of the revision include improvements in overall pipeline performance, and the implementation of recommendations derived from the Public Safety and Sour Gas Committee concerning sour gas pipeline safety. The regulation was re-organized for greater clarity, and structured into 11 parts. Issues concerning the transition to the revised regulation were presented. The summary of notable administrative changes included clarifications of when a pipeline application is not required; when ABSA approval is required for steam lines; situations for which low-pressure natural gas lines must be licensed; and emergency response requirements. Technical clarifications include requirements for pipeline operations and maintenance manuals; composite materials; limitations on amounts of H{sub 2}S in polymeric pipe; pressure mismatches; approval for testing with gaseous media; venting of small volumes of raw gas; right-of-way surveillance; inspection of surface construction activities; annual corrosion evaluations; registering of pipelines and excavators in controlled areas with Alberta One-Call; ground disturbance training; restoration and signage maintenance on abandoned pipelines; sour service steel pipelines; unused pipelines and abandoned pipelines; and remediation of stub ends in operating pipelines.

  2. Evaluation of satellite technology for pipeline route surveillance and the prevention of third party interference damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil [Penspen Integrity, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.palmer-jones@penspen.com; p.hopkins@penspen.com; Fraser, Andy [Integrated Statistical Solutions (United States)]. E-mail: andy@issquared.co.uk; Dezobry, Jerome [Gas de France, Paris (France)]. E-mail: jerome.dezobry@gazdefrance.com; Merrienboer, Hugo Van [Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: H.A.M.van.Merrienboer@gasunie.nl

    2003-07-01

    The damage caused by Third Party Interference (TPI) is one of the major causes of pipeline failures. Consequently, new technologies for identifying activities that may cause damage to our pipelines are constantly being developed. A recently completed project sponsored by a number of pipeline operators has investigated the use of high-resolution satellites for the integrity management of onshore transmission pipelines. The sponsors were BG Technology (on behalf of Transco), Dansk Olie NatureGas, Gasunie, BP, Gaz de France, Distrigas, and the Health and Safety Executive. The project started with a general review of the satellite technologies available and their potential. The study was then focussed on the identification of activities that might result in damage to the pipeline and the potential of high-resolution optical satellites in identifying hazardous activities. A key element of the study was a comparison with existing surveillance systems, which generally involve regular aerial patrols of the pipeline route. To achieve this a survey was carried out to try and evaluate the costs and benefits of existing systems. In addition a simple model for analysing the cost benefit of pipeline surveillance was constructed, and a functional specification for a surveillance system drafted. Finally the performance of the IKONOS 2 high-resolution satellite system was tested in a controlled experiment using targets placed along a pipeline route. The results of this test were compared with a similar test of helicopter-based surveillance carried out by one of the sponsors. (author)

  3. High-throughput bioinformatics with the Cyrille2 pipeline system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Groot Joost CW

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern omics research involves the application of high-throughput technologies that generate vast volumes of data. These data need to be pre-processed, analyzed and integrated with existing knowledge through the use of diverse sets of software tools, models and databases. The analyses are often interdependent and chained together to form complex workflows or pipelines. Given the volume of the data used and the multitude of computational resources available, specialized pipeline software is required to make high-throughput analysis of large-scale omics datasets feasible. Results We have developed a generic pipeline system called Cyrille2. The system is modular in design and consists of three functionally distinct parts: 1 a web based, graphical user interface (GUI that enables a pipeline operator to manage the system; 2 the Scheduler, which forms the functional core of the system and which tracks what data enters the system and determines what jobs must be scheduled for execution, and; 3 the Executor, which searches for scheduled jobs and executes these on a compute cluster. Conclusion The Cyrille2 system is an extensible, modular system, implementing the stated requirements. Cyrille2 enables easy creation and execution of high throughput, flexible bioinformatics pipelines.

  4. Federal regulation of the pipeline industry: a summary review. [Effects on use of energy-conservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-05-31

    The principal purposes of this report are: (1) identification of the jurisdiction areas of the Federal pipeline-regulating agencies, and (2) examination of the amenability of the regulatory system to the introduction of energy-conservative new technology into the pipeline industry. The history, scope, and agency structure of state and Federal regulation are recounted and some gaps, overlaps, and ambiguities are identified. The only significant inhibitory effects upon technological innovation are found to derive from the FPC and ICC limits upon profit, the 1941 Justice Department consent decree limiting dividends to shipper-owned pipelines, and the income tax rules governing recovery of investment credits and startup losses. Effects of these limits are explored by simulation studies using the Systems, Science and Software pipeline economic model (PEM). Two new concepts of regulation are proposed which would neutralize the inhibitory effect of the present regulatory system and would motivate pipeline operators to conserve energy: (1) use of a ''national equivalent value'' in the economic tradeoff analyses which justify entry of a technological innovation into the rate base (valuation), and (2) a ''valuation allowance'' which would reverse the presently often-existing situation and insure that the pipeline operator would realize a greater profit from saving energy than from wasting it.

  5. Pipelines. Economy's veins; Pipelines. Adern der Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizlmayr, Adolf; Goestl, Stefan [ILF Beratende Ingenieure, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    According to the existing prognoses more than 1 million km of gas pipelines, oil pipelines and water pipelines are built up to the year 2030. The predominant portion is from gas pipelines. The safe continued utilization of the aging pipelines is a large challenge. In addition, the diagnostic technology, the evaluation and risk assessment have to be developed further. With the design of new oil pipelines and gas pipelines, aspects of environmental protection, the energy efficiency of transport and thus the emission reduction of carbon dioxide, the public acceptance and the market strategy of the exporters gain in importance. With the offshore pipelines one soon will exceed the present border of 2,000 m depth of water and penetrate into larger sea depths.

  6. Application of pre-stressed technology in the crossing construction of the China–Myanmar Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete structure is commonly used in the anchorages of a large cable-suspended pipeline crossing construction. With the increase of span and load, the stress on the concrete anchorages may rise rapidly. In case of traditional anchoring structure fixed by anchor rods, concrete cracking will occur, thereby reducing the anchorage life. To solve this problem, the pre-stressed structure was designed to effectively improve the efficiency of anchoring and reduce engineering cost. In the crossing construction of China–Myanmar Gas Pipeline, the pre-stressed technology was used to establish an effective pre-stressed anchoring system, which integrates the pre-stressed structures (e.g. tunnel anchorages in the anchors and the optimization measures (e.g. positioning mode, anchorage structure, concrete placement, pre-stressed, and medium injection, in line with the crossing structure and load features of this project. The system can delay the occurrence of concrete cracking and enhance the stress durability of the structure and anchoring efficiency. This technology has been successfully applied in the crossing construction of China–Myanmar Gas Pipeline, with good economic and social benefits, indicating that this technology is a new effective solution to the optimization of suspended pipeline anchorage structures, providing technical support for the development of pipeline crossing structure.

  7. Powers of detection : technology companies vie to capture leak survey business for natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2005-09-01

    ITT Industries Inc., Physical Sciences Inc., and LaSen Inc. are 3 American companies leading the way to find more efficient methods for identifying leaks from natural gas pipelines. Edmonton-based Synodon Inc. has recently joined the leaders with its newly developed and more sensitive equipment that it hopes to have on the market by the summer of 2006. Leak detection technology was first developed in 1993 in response to concerns about the reliability of aging pipeline infrastructure. In addition to safety concerns, there are concerns over global warming. Methane is a potential greenhouse gas and the United states Environmental Protection Agency estimates that 300 billion cubic feet escape into the atmosphere every year from pipeline leaks. The 2002 Pipeline Safety Improvement Bill in the United States stipulates that leak inspections must be conducted up to 4 times per year in densely populated areas. Violators face fines as high as $1 million. In response to the pipeline safety bill, Synodon raised private equity financing to commercialize an airborne leak detection technology stemming from Canada's space program. In the United States, leak detection technologies that appear likely to take 5 to 20 years for commercialization have been been financed by the Department of Energy and the Office of Pipeline Safety. This paper summarized 5 leak detection prototypes, including ITT's Airborne Natural Gas Emission LiDAR (ANGEL) system which targets high-pressure, long-distance pipelines in North America, LaSen's Airborne LiDAR Pipeline Inspection System (ALPIS) based on DIAL Technology, and a hand-held remote methane leak detector developed jointly by Physical Sciences Inc. of Massachusetts and Houston-based Heath Consultants Inc. Synodon claims that hand-held detectors are too slow and that LiDAR systems still aren't reliable for detection of leaks much below 500 scf/h. Synodon's realSens technology may be more difficult to develop, but it detects

  8. 77 FR 6857 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID... installed to lessen the volume of natural gas and hazardous liquid released during catastrophic pipeline... p.m. Panel 3: Considerations for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection Systems 3:30 p.m. Break 3:45 p...

  9. Technology assessment of long distance liquid natural gas pipelines. Phase 9. Available and/or required equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    This phase of the technology assessment of liquid natural gas pipelines assembles a listing of the materials and equipment which might be used to mechanically build an LNG pipeline. It lists material and equipment which practically could be used in such a pipeline either at a present state of the art, or by adaptation in terms of materials or techniques, or after some development work. Other than that the material and equipment is proposed for use in an LNG pipeline, no new real concept of pipeline or refrigeration plant equipment is proposed. Rather the equipment has been selected so as to conform as closely as possible to established pipeline practice.

  10. The local heat treatment equipment and technology of the pipelines welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol'kov, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The principal methods and equipment for local treatment of the pipe-lines weld joints in different industry branches is described. Recommendations about heat treatment equipment and technology application are given

  11. Literature Review: Theory and Application of In-Line Inspection Technologies for Oil and Gas Pipeline Girth Weld Defection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qingshan; Li, Rui; Nie, Baohua; Liu, Shucong; Zhao, Lianyu; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Girth weld cracking is one of the main failure modes in oil and gas pipelines; girth weld cracking inspection has great economic and social significance for the intrinsic safety of pipelines. This paper introduces the typical girth weld defects of oil and gas pipelines and the common nondestructive testing methods, and systematically generalizes the progress in the studies on technical principles, signal analysis, defect sizing method and inspection reliability, etc., of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection, liquid ultrasonic inspection, electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) inspection and remote field eddy current (RFDC) inspection for oil and gas pipeline girth weld defects. Additionally, it introduces the new technologies for composite ultrasonic, laser ultrasonic, and magnetostriction inspection, and provides reference for development and application of oil and gas pipeline girth weld defect in-line inspection technology. PMID:28036016

  12. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  13. Snow as building material for construction of technological along-the-route roads of main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdanov, S. M.; Egorov, A. L.; Kostyrchenko, V. A.; Madyarov, T. M.

    2018-05-01

    The article deals with the process of compacting snow in a closed volume with the use of vacuum processing for the construction of technological along-the-route roads of main pipelines. The relevance of the chosen study is substantiated; methods and designs for snow compaction are considered. The publication activity and defenses of doctoral and candidate dissertations on the research subject are analyzed. Patent analysis of existing methods and equipment for snow compaction with indication of their disadvantages is carried out. A design calculation was carried out using computer programs in which a strength calculation was performed to identify the most stressed places in the construction of a vibrating hydraulic tyre-type roller. A 3D model of the experimental setup was developed.

  14. Pipeline four-dimension management is the trend of pipeline integrity management in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohua, Dong; Feifan; Zhongchen, Han [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline integrity management is essential for today's operators to operate their pipelines safety and cost effectively. The latest developments of pipeline integrity management around the world are involved with change of regulation, industry standard and innovation of technology. And who know the trend of PIM in the future, which can be answered in the paper. As a result, the concept of P4DM was set up firstly in the world. The paper analyzed the pipeline HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM), the problem of management was produced, and also the Pipeline 4-dimension Management (P4DM) theory was brought forward. According to P4DM, from the hierarchy of P4DM, the management elements, fields, space and time was analyzed. The main content is P4DM integrate the space geography location and time, control and manage the pipeline system in whole process, anywhere and anytime. It includes the pipeline integrity, pipeline operation and emergency, which is integrated by IT system. It come true that the idea, solution, technology, organization, manager alternately intelligently control the process of management. What the paper talks about included the definition of pipeline 4D management, the research develop of P4DM, the theory of P4DM, the relationship between P4DM and PIM, the technology basis of P4DM, how to perform the P4DM and conclusion. The P4DM was produced, which provide the development direction of PIM in the future, and also provide the new ideas for PetroChina in the field of technology and management. (author)

  15. The trans-Alaska pipeline controversy: Technology, conservation, and the frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline was the object of perhaps the most passionately fought conservation battle in the U.S. Although numerous authors documented the pipeline construction during its construction, there is, surprisingly, no previous scholarly treatment of this event written by an historian. Coates is an environmental historian who views the most interesting aspect of the controversy to be open-quote its relationship to earlier engineering projects and technological innovations in Alaska and the debates that accompanied them.close quotes Thus, he describes how the conservationist and environmental ideas arose during numerous earlier major Alaskan projects and controversies, including the Alaska Highway (1938-41), Canol Pipeline (1943-45), exploration of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number Four (Pet 4, 1944-1953), DEWline (1953-57), oil development in the Kenai National Moose Range (1957-58), statehood (1958), the creation of the Arctic Wildlife Refuge (1960), Project Chariot (1958-63), and Rampart Dam (1959-67). The history starts with the acquisition of Alaska in 1867 and finishes about the time of the Valdez oil spill in 1989

  16. On-line internal corrosion monitoring and data management for remote pipelines: a technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wold, Kjell; Stoen, Roar; Jenssen, Hallgeir [Roxar Flow Measurement AS, Stavanger (Norway); Carvalho, Anna Maria [Roxar do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Internal corrosion monitoring of remote pipelines can be costly and demanding on resources. Online and non-intrusive monitoring directly on the pipe wall can improve the quality of measurements, make installation more convenient and allow more efficient communication of data. The purpose of this paper is to describe a non-intrusive technology, and show examples on field installations of the system. Furthermore, the non-intrusive technology data can be stored, interpreted and combined with conventional (intrusive) system information, in order to get a full picture of internal corrosion profile, corrosion rate and trends regarding the pipeline being monitored. (author)

  17. Applicability of interferometric SAR technology to ground movement and pipeline monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivas, Dimitri A.; Bhagvati, Chakravarthy; Schultz, B. C.; Trigg, Alan; Rizkalla, Moness

    1998-03-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of a cooperative effort between NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd. (NGTL), the Italian Natural Gas Transmission Company (SNAM), and Arista International, Inc., to determine whether current remote sensing technologies can be utilized to monitor small-scale ground movements over vast geographical areas. This topic is of interest due to the potential for small ground movements to cause strain accumulation in buried pipeline facilities. Ground movements are difficult to monitor continuously, but their cumulative effect over time can have a significant impact on the safety of buried pipelines. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR or SARI) is identified as the most promising technique of those considered. InSAR analysis involves combining multiple images from consecutive passes of a radar imaging platform. The resulting composite image can detect changes as small as 2.5 to 5.0 centimeters (based on current analysis methods and radar satellite data of 5 centimeter wavelength). Research currently in progress shows potential for measuring ground movements as small as a few millimeters. Data needed for InSAR analysis is currently commercially available from four satellites, and additional satellites are planned for launch in the near future. A major conclusion of the present study is that InSAR technology is potentially useful for pipeline integrity monitoring. A pilot project is planned to test operational issues.

  18. Development and Applications of Pipeline Steel in Long-Distance Gas Pipeline of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunyong, Huo; Yang, Li; Lingkang, Ji

    In past decades, with widely utilizing of Microalloying and Thermal Mechanical Control Processing (TMCP) technology, the good matching of strength, toughness, plasticity and weldability on pipeline steel has been reached so that oil and gas pipeline has been greatly developed in China to meet the demand of strong domestic consumption of energy. In this paper, development history of pipeline steel and gas pipeline in china is briefly reviewed. The microstructure characteristic and mechanical performance of pipeline steel used in some representative gas pipelines of china built in different stage are summarized. Through the analysis on the evolution of pipeline service environment, some prospective development trend of application of pipeline steel in China is also presented.

  19. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  20. Optimal valve location in long oil pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoriev, A.; Grigorieva, N.V.

    2007-01-01

    We address the valve location problem, one of the basic problems in design of long oil pipelines. Whenever a pipeline is depressurized, the shutoff valves block the oil flow and seal the damaged part of the pipeline. Thus, the quantity of oil possibly contaminating the area around the pipeline is determined by the volume of the damaged section of the pipeline between two consecutive valves. Then, ecologic damage can be quantified by the amount of leaked oil and the environmental characteristi...

  1. Regulation, characterization and treatment of discharge waters from pipelines. Volume 1. Topical report, January 1989-April 1992. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallon, J.T.; Fillo, J.P.

    1992-04-01

    The report examines environmental issues related to hydrostatic testing of discharge waters generated from integrity testing of natural gas pipelines. Hydrostatic testing, and proper environmental management of the discharge waters, can be required by DOT regulations. However, disposal of water used to conduct a hydrostatic pipeline test is regulated on a state-by-state basis. State-specific requirements vary widely, ranging from an authorization letter to a complete NPDES permit. Monitoring may be required before and during discharge, include a variety of analyses, have varying protocols for obtaining samples, and may be required either to obtain data or to ascertain compliance with stipulated discharge limits. The composition of the discharge and state-specific discharge limitations dictate treatment needs on a case-by-case basis. The volume consists of the Executive Summary of a five-volume report series

  2. Contemporary methods of emergency repair works on transit pipelines. Repair works on in-service pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olma, T.; Winckowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents modern methods and relevant technologies of pipeline failure repairs, basing on TD Williamson technique for hermetic plugging of gas pipelines without interrupting service. Rules for management of emergency situations on the Polish Section of Yamal - Europe Transit Gas Pipeline are being discussed as well. (author)

  3. Deciding between compensated volume balance and real time transient models for pipeline leak detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Renan Martins [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao]. E-mail: renan@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a technical procedure to assess a software based leak detection system (LDS), by deciding between a simpler low cost, less effective product, having a fast installation and tuning, and a complex one with high cost and efficiency, which however takes a long time to be properly installed. This is a common decision among the pipeline operating companies, considering that the majority of the lines are short, with single phase liquid flow (which may include batches), basic communication system and instrumentation. Service companies offer realistic solutions for liquid flow, but usually designed to big pipeline networks, flowing multiple batches and allowing multiple fluid entrances and deliveries. Those solutions are sometimes impractical to short pipelines, due to its high cost, as well as long tuning procedures, complex instrumentation, communication and computer requirements. It is intended to approach here the best solution according to its cost. In a practical sense, it means to differentiate the various LDS techniques. Those techniques are available in a considerable number, and they are still spreading, according to the different scenarios. However, two most known and worldwide implemented techniques hold the majority of the market: the Compensated Volume Balance (CVB), which is less accurate, reliable and robust, but cheaper, simpler and faster to install, and the Real Time Transient Model (RTTM), which is very reliable, accurate and robust, but expensive and complex. This work will describe a way to define whether one can use or not a CVB in a pipeline. (author)

  4. Challenges faced on Cacimbas-Catu gas pipeline (Gascac) construction and the technologies applied to achieve success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschi, Allan; Cardos, Celina; Soares, Felipe; Mariot, Guilherme; Loureiro, Regis R [Petroleo Brasileiro S/A, Petrobras Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/ RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The GASENE project is the largest gas pipeline constructed in Brazil in the past 10 years, it interconnects the southeast to the northeast of Brazil. The Cacimbas Catu Gas Pipeline (GASCAC) is a part of the project; it has a 28 inch diameter and is 958 km long. The aim of this paper is to present the construction and assembly process undertaken to meet the deadline and complete the GASCAC to a high quality standard. The main challenges of this project were its length, the short period for completion and the numerous geological and man-made features along the pipeline route. To overcome these difficulties, technologies that had never been used in Brazil before were employed, such as vacuum pipe lifting, bag weights and automatic welding. The GASCAC project was completed in time and with to a high standard of quality, demonstrating that strategic planning and the use of new technologies can increase productivity, quality and safety.

  5. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-02-29

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.

  6. APPHi: Automated Photometry Pipeline for High Cadence Large Volume Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, E.; Castro, J.; Silva, J.; Hernández, J.; Reyes, M.; Hernández, B.; Alvarez, F.; García T.

    2018-04-01

    APPHi (Automated Photometry Pipeline) carries out aperture and differential photometry of TAOS-II project data. It is computationally efficient and can be used also with other astronomical wide-field image data. APPHi works with large volumes of data and handles both FITS and HDF5 formats. Due the large number of stars that the software has to handle in an enormous number of frames, it is optimized to automatically find the best value for parameters to carry out the photometry, such as mask size for aperture, size of window for extraction of a single star, and the number of counts for the threshold for detecting a faint star. Although intended to work with TAOS-II data, APPHi can analyze any set of astronomical images and is a robust and versatile tool to performing stellar aperture and differential photometry.

  7. Oil pipeline performance review 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 : Technical/statistical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    This document provides a summary of the pipeline performance and reportable pipeline failures of liquid hydrocarbon pipelines in Canada, for the years 1995 through 1998. The year 1994 was the last one for which the Oil Pipeline Performance Review (OPPR) was published on an annual basis. The OPPR will continue to be published until such time as the Pipeline Risk Assesment Sub-Committee (PRASC) has obtained enough pipeline failure data to be aggregated into a meaningful report. The shifts in the mix of reporting pipeline companies is apparent in the data presented, comparing the volumes transported and the traffic volume during the previous ten-year period. Another table presents a summary of the failures which occurred during the period under consideration, 1995-1998, allowing for a comparison with the data for the previous ten-year period. From the current perspective and from an historical context, this document provides a statistical review of the performance of the pipelines, covering refined petroleum product pipelines, clean oil pipelines and High Vapour Pressure (HVP) pipelines downstream of battery limits. Classified as reportable are spills of 1.5 cubic metre or more of liquid hydrocarbons, any amount of HVP material, any incident involving an injury, a death, a fire, or an explosion. For those companies that responded to the survey, the major items, including number of failures and volumes released are accurate. Samples of the forms used for collecting the information are provided within the document. 6 tabs., 1 fig

  8. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PRESSURE PULSING PIPELINE UNPLUGGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servin, M. A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Garfield, J. S. [AEM Consulting, LLC (United States); Golcar, G. R. [AEM Consulting, LLC (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The ability to unplug key waste transfer routes is generally essential for successful tank farms operations. All transfer lines run the risk of plugging but the cross site transfer line poses increased risk due to its longer length. The loss of a transfer route needed to support the waste feed delivery mission impacts the cost and schedule of the Hanford clean up mission. This report addresses the engineering feasibility for two pressure pulse technologies, which are similar in concept, for pipeline unplugging.

  9. Feasibility Study Of Pressure Pulsing Pipeline Unplugging Technologies For Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servin, M. A.; Garfield, J. S.; Golcar, G. R.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to unplug key waste transfer routes is generally essential for successful tank farms operations. All transfer lines run the risk of plugging but the cross site transfer line poses increased risk due to its longer length. The loss of a transfer route needed to support the waste feed delivery mission impacts the cost and schedule of the Hanford clean up mission. This report addresses the engineering feasibility for two pressure pulse technologies, which are similar in concept, for pipeline unplugging

  10. Design of Submarine Pipeline With Respect to Corrosion and Material Selection

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mogi, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology : subsea technology Pipelines are an essential part of the oil and gas industry as they are the main means of transportation. As the offshore technology advances, subsea pipelines are being operated in more demanding environments. For the pipelines to operate efficiently, they have to be carefully designed. One of the main threats to the integrity of the pipeline is corrosion, which has caused many failures. Corrosion in subsea pipelines has different...

  11. Repair methods for damaged pipeline beyond diving depth

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Keramat

    2011-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore Technology Mechanical damage of a subsea pipeline is found as one of the most severe concern in management of pipeline integrity. The need to reach and bring the hydrocarbons from the fields located in deep and ultra-deep waters, imposes the need to improve the technologies and techniques in order to repair any unacceptable damage in pipeline. The main objective of this work is to investigate various methods for repairing a subsea pipeline that has been damaged ...

  12. Methane emissions from natural gas pipelines - current estimates, technologies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, M.C.; Crook, L.

    1997-01-01

    Methane is the major component of natural gas. World-wide methane emissions from gas systems is estimated to be between 50 and 25 tera grams or about 5 percent of the world-wide total of anthropogenic methane emissions. Technologies and practices are described that are currently being used or are planned to be used in the US to both measure and/or reduce methane emissions from natural gas pipelines. One of the technologies that is described includes a high flow sampling instrument. One of the practices that is described is the current voluntary program conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency called the Natural Gas Star program. This program supports research into best management practices, information sharing and technology transfer to promote methane emissions reductions profitably. (R.P.)

  13. Applications of ZigBee Technology in the Safety Monitoring System of Low Gas Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing safety monitoring system of low gas pipeline transportation establishes a wired communication network monitoring system mainly on the basis of industrial bus. It has problems such as large transmission signal attenuation, complex wiring, high-labor intensity, inconvenient installation and maintenance, high maintenance cost, and so on. Featuring low cost, power-saving, reliability, stability and flexibility, the wireless sensor network established by ZigBee wireless communication technology can realize the real-time all-dimensional dynamic monitoring on parameters of low gas pipeline transportation system and overcome the shortcomings and deficiencies of wired network system.

  14. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  15. A Finite-Volume approach for compressible single- and two-phase flows in flexible pipelines with fluid-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daude, F.; Galon, P.

    2018-06-01

    A Finite-Volume scheme for the numerical computations of compressible single- and two-phase flows in flexible pipelines is proposed based on an approximate Godunov-type approach. The spatial discretization is here obtained using the HLLC scheme. In addition, the numerical treatment of abrupt changes in area and network including several pipelines connected at junctions is also considered. The proposed approach is based on the integral form of the governing equations making it possible to tackle general equations of state. A coupled approach for the resolution of fluid-structure interaction of compressible fluid flowing in flexible pipes is considered. The structural problem is solved using Euler-Bernoulli beam finite elements. The present Finite-Volume method is applied to ideal gas and two-phase steam-water based on the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) in conjunction with a tabulated equation of state in order to demonstrate its ability to tackle general equations of state. The extensive application of the scheme for both shock tube and other transient flow problems demonstrates its capability to resolve such problems accurately and robustly. Finally, the proposed 1-D fluid-structure interaction model appears to be computationally efficient.

  16. Prospects for coal slurry pipelines in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The coal slurry pipeline segment of the transport industry is emerging in the United States. If accepted it will play a vital role in meeting America's urgent energy requirements without public subsidy, tax relief, or federal grants. It is proven technology, ideally suited for transport of an abundant energy resource over thousands of miles to energy short industrial centers and at more than competitive costs. Briefly discussed are the following: (1) history of pipelines; (2) California market potential; (3) slurry technology; (4) environmental benefits; (5) market competition; and (6) a proposed pipeline.

  17. Location of leaks in pressurized underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, E.G.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Millions of underground storage tanks (UST) are used to store petroleum and other chemicals. The pressurized underground pipelines associated with USTs containing petroleum motor fuels are typically 2 in. in diameter and 50 to 200 ft in length. These pipelines typically operate at pressures of 20 to 30 psi. Longer lines, with diameters up to 4 in., are found in some high-volume facilities. There are many systems that can be used to detect leaks in pressurized underground pipelines. When a leak is detected, the first step in the remediation process is to find its location. Passive-acoustic measurements, combined with advanced signal-processing techniques, provide a nondestructive method of leak location that is accurate and relatively simple, and that can be applied to a wide variety of pipelines and pipeline products

  18. Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribanic, T.; Awwad, A.; Varona, J.; McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Crespo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that provides visual feedback of the conditions inside the pipeline. Visual feedback allows the crawler to be used as a pipeline unplugging and inspection tool. Tests conducted previously demonstrated a significant reduction of the crawler speed with increasing length of tether. Current improvements include the positioning of a pneumatic valve manifold system that is located in close proximity to the crawler, rendering tether length independent of crawler speed. Additional improvements to increase the crawler's speed were also investigated and presented. Descriptions of the test beds, which were designed to emulate possible scenarios present on the Department of Energy (DOE) pipelines, are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the systems are provided. (authors)

  19. LPG in large pipelines; Operacao com GLP em oleodutos de grande extensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Celio Pereira dos; Agostineti, Antonio [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    OSBRA Pipeline is the largest pipeline of the Brazil. It has its beginning in the Refinery REPLAN, in Sao Paulo and it is going to Brasilia, in the Distrito Federal traveling 980 kilometers through three states and Distrito Federal. Flow rate inferior to one of the project, alterations in the specification of the quality for sale and operational deficiencies contributed to the difficulty of maintenance of the quality of LPG with relationship to the oleaginous residue. A Batch Test was idealized to trace of the possible points of contamination along the pipeline under controlled conditions. Pig separator was used in the interface among the gasoline and LPG, and adopted new procedure, for the operator of the control center, to avoid the start of the pumps that were with its internal lines filled with other product. The results showed viability of the operation with LPG in the OSBRA pipeline, even without need of alterations in the current physical facilities. Some improvements in facilities, as well as, new technologies of pig separator can improve the maintenance of the quality of LPG reducing possibilities of contamination, and also reducing the volume of the interface. (author)

  20. Software development to estimate the leaked volume from ruptured submarine pipelines; Desenvolvimento de um software para estimativa do volume vazado a partir de dutos submarions rompidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri, Marintho B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Nogueira, Andre L.; Lopes, Toni J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Baptista, Renan M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The considerable increasing in the world petroleum consumption as the exhaustion of onshore reserves in the last decades leads the companies to exploit petroleum in offshore reserves (both shallow and deep water). As in onshore operations, accidents may also occur in submarine exploration. Leaking from submarine pipelines arises from corrosion pit and from axial or radial breakage. In all these three situations, the leaking is divided in three steps: pipeline depressurization until the internal pressure becomes equal to the external one; advective migration in which the driven force is the difference in the physical properties of the fluids; oil spill movement in the sea surface. A great number of mathematical models are Also available for the first and third steps. For the second one and theoretically, the most important situation, there is a restricted number of works respected to the oil volume leaked. The present study presents a software that is capable to accurate simulate a leakage through the advective migration phenomena. The software was validated for situations for different holes radii located in the upper side of a horizontal pipeline. Model results presented very good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  1. Permanent cathodic protection monitoring systems for offshore pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jim [Deepwater Corrosion Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Historically offshore pipeline cathodic protection monitoring has relied on the use of portable survey techniques. This has typically relied on ROV assisted or surface deployed survey methods. These methods have been shown to have technical as well as economic shortcomings, this is particularly true of buried offshore pipelines where accuracy is always questionable. As more focus is being placed on offshore pipeline integrity, it was time for a new method to emerge. The technology discussed involves the retro-placement of permanent clamp-on monitors onto the pipeline which can measure pipeline to seawater potential as well as current density. The sensors can be interrogated locally using light powered subsea voltage readouts. Application of the technology can be either during pipeline construction, during installation of life extension CP systems, or during routine subsea pipeline interventions. The new method eliminates the need for long cables or expensive acoustic or modulated data transfer and provides all the information required to fully verify CP system performance, thus eliminating the need for expensive close-interval surveys. Some deployment case histories will be presented along with feasibility of application on deep water pipelines and comparative economics. (author)

  2. Geospatial informatics applications for assessment of pipeline safety and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roper, W. [George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Infrastructure

    2005-07-01

    A variety of advanced technologies are available to enhance planning, designing, managing, operating and maintaining the components of the electric utility system. Aerial and satellite remote sensing represents one area of rapid development that can be leveraged to address some of these challenges. Airborne remote sensing can be an effective technology to assist pipeline risk management to assure safety in design, construction, operation, maintenance, and emergency response of pipeline facilities. Industrial and scientific advances in airborne and satellite remote sensing systems and data processing techniques are opening new technological opportunities for developing an increased capability of accomplishing the pipeline mapping and safety needs of the industry. These technologies have significant and unique potential for application to a number of cross cutting energy system security issues. This paper addresses some of the applications of these technologies to pipeline and power industry infrastructure, economics and relative effectiveness of these technologies and issues related to technology implementation and diffusion. (Author)

  3. Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

  4. Flooding simulation of hilly pipeline commisionning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Zhang [China National Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Corporation and China University of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Jing, Gong [China University of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Baoli, Zhu [China National Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Corporation, Beijing (China); Lin, Zheng [CNPC Oil and Gas Control Center, Beijing (China)

    2010-07-01

    When the construction of a pipeline has been completed, the pipeline flooding is done as part of the pipeline commissioning process. This method consists of filling the empty pipe with water or oil. In a pipeline situated in hilly terrain, air entrapped in the fluid causes problems with the flooding process and it is necessary to discharge the accumulated air to address this issue. The aim of this paper is to provide a model for predicting the location and volume of air pockets in a pipeline. This model was developed based on the fundamentals of mass balance and momentum transfer in multiphase flow and was then applied to a pipeline in China and compared with the SCADA data. Results showed a good match between the model's predictions of hydraulic movement and the real data from SCADA. The two flow model developed can predict hydraulic movement during pipeline flooding in a hilly area and thus it can be used to predict water front location and air pocket movement in the pipe.

  5. An Initial Evaluation of Characterization and Closure Options for Underground Pipelines within a Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank Farm - 13210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badden, Janet W.; Connelly, Michael P. [Washington River Protection Services, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Seeley, Paul N. [Cenibark International, Inc., 104318 Nicole Drive, Kennewick, Washington, 99338-7596 (United States); Hendrickson, Michelle L. [Washington State Department of Ecology, 3100 Port of Benton Blvd, Richland, Washington, 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Site includes 149 single-shell tanks, organized in 12 'tank farms,' with contents managed as high-level mixed waste. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order requires that one tank farm, the Waste Management Area C, be closed by June 30, 2019. A challenge to this project is the disposition and closure of Waste Management Area C underground pipelines. Waste Management Area C contains nearly seven miles of pipelines and 200 separate pipe segments. The pipelines were taken out of service decades ago and contain unknown volumes and concentrations of tank waste residuals from past operations. To understand the scope of activities that may be required for these pipelines, an evaluation was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to identify what, if any, characterization methods and/or closure actions may be implemented at Waste Management Area C for closure of Waste Management Area C by 2019. Physical and analytical data do not exist for Waste Management Area C pipeline waste residuals. To develop estimates of residual volumes and inventories of contamination, an extensive search of available information on pipelines was conducted. The search included evaluating historical operation and occurrence records, physical attributes, schematics and drawings, and contaminant inventories associated with the process history of plutonium separations facilities and waste separations and stabilization operations. Scoping analyses of impacts to human health and the environment using three separate methodologies were then developed based on the waste residual estimates. All analyses resulted in preliminary assessments, indicating that pipeline waste residuals presented a comparably low long-term impact to groundwater with respect to soil, tank and other ancillary equipment residuals, but exceeded Washington State cleanup requirement values. In addition to performing the impact analyses, the assessment evaluated available sampling technologies

  6. An Initial Evaluation Of Characterization And Closure Options For Underground Pipelines Within A Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank Farm-13210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badden, Janet W.; Connelly, Michael P.; Seeley, Paul N.; Hendrickson, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Site includes 149 single-shell tanks, organized in 12 'tank farms,' with contents managed as high-level mixed waste. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order requires that one tank farm, the Waste Management Area C, be closed by June 30, 2019. A challenge to this project is the disposition and closure of Waste Management Area C underground pipelines. Waste Management Area C contains nearly seven miles of pipelines and 200 separate pipe segments. The pipelines were taken out of service decades ago and contain unknown volumes and concentrations of tank waste residuals from past operations. To understand the scope of activities that may be required for these pipelines, an evaluation was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to identify what, if any, characterization methods and/or closure actions may be implemented at Waste Management Area C for closure of Waste Management Area C by 2019. Physical and analytical data do not exist for Waste Management Area C pipeline waste residuals. To develop estimates of residual volumes and inventories of contamination, an extensive search of available information on pipelines was conducted. The search included evaluating historical operation and occurrence records, physical attributes, schematics and drawings, and contaminant inventories associated with the process history of plutonium separations facilities and waste separations and stabilization operations. Scoping analyses of impacts to human health and the environment using three separate methodologies were then developed based on the waste residual estimates. All analyses resulted in preliminary assessments, indicating that pipeline waste residuals presented a comparably low long-term impact to groundwater with respect to soil, tank and other ancillary equipment residuals, but exceeded Washington State cleanup requirement values. In addition to performing the impact analyses, the assessment evaluated available sampling technologies and

  7. Vibrational methods of the overhead gas-pipelines technological equipment diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhezin, A.M.; Malysheva, T.V.

    2001-01-01

    The diagnostic methods of overhead gas-pipelines of the technical equipment of gas-compressor station are considered in this article by carrying out registration certification documentation. Some faults of overhead technical gas-pipelines have been proposed. This paper is devoted to the diagnostic methods of the whole gas- pipelines and their parts for some faults during expert checking fulfillment and carrying out registration certification documentation. The analysis of all defects allows to determine a 'between-repairs interval', to develop some operations to avoid these faults and to estimate the repair operation quality, to reduce failure probability. As an example of the effectiveness of technical condition service of vibrational methods by expertise fulfillment have been considered for some defects of the overhead pipelines. (author)

  8. Determination of Erosion/Corrosion Rates in Hanford Tank Farms Radioactive Waste Transfer System Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Girardot, C. L.; Wilson, E. R.; Page, J. A.; Engeman, J. K.; Gunter, J. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Baide, D. G.; Cooke, G. A.; Larson, J. D.; Castleberry, J. L.; Boomer, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    The twenty-eight double-shell underground radioactive waste storage tanks at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, WA are interconnected by the Waste Transfer System network of buried steel encased pipelines and pipe jumpers in below-grade pits. The pipeline material is stainless steel or carbon steel in 51 mm to 152 mm (2 in. to 6 in.) sizes. The pipelines carry slurries ranging up to 20 volume percent solids and supernatants with less than one volume percent solids at velocities necessary to prevent settling. The pipelines, installed between 1976 and 2011, were originally intended to last until the 2028 completion of the double-shell tank storage mission. The mission has been subsequently extended. In 2010 the Tank Operating Contractor began a systematic evaluation of the Waste Transfer System pipeline conditions applying guidelines from API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 (2007), Fitness-For-Service. Between 2010 and 2014 Fitness-for-Service examinations of the Waste Transfer System pipeline materials, sizes, and components were completed. In parallel, waste throughput histories were prepared allowing side-by-side pipeline wall thinning rate comparisons between carbon and stainless steel, slurries and supernatants and throughput volumes. The work showed that for transfer volumes up to 6.1E+05 m"3 (161 million gallons), the highest throughput of any pipeline segment examined, there has been no detectable wall thinning in either stainless or carbon steel pipeline material regardless of waste fluid characteristics or throughput. The paper describes the field and laboratory evaluation methods used for the Fitness-for-Service examinations, the results of the examinations, and the data reduction methodologies used to support Hanford Waste Transfer System pipeline wall thinning conclusions.

  9. Determination of Erosion/Corrosion Rates in Hanford Tank Farms Radioactive Waste Transfer System Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Girardot, C. L.; Wilson, E. R.; Page, J. A.; Engeman, J. K.; Gunter, J. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Baide, D. G.; Cooke, G. A.; Larson, J. D.; Castleberry, J. L.; Boomer, K. D.

    2015-11-05

    The twenty-eight double-shell underground radioactive waste storage tanks at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site near Richland, WA are interconnected by the Waste Transfer System network of buried steel encased pipelines and pipe jumpers in below-grade pits. The pipeline material is stainless steel or carbon steel in 51 mm to 152 mm (2 in. to 6 in.) sizes. The pipelines carry slurries ranging up to 20 volume percent solids and supernatants with less than one volume percent solids at velocities necessary to prevent settling. The pipelines, installed between 1976 and 2011, were originally intended to last until the 2028 completion of the double-shell tank storage mission. The mission has been subsequently extended. In 2010 the Tank Operating Contractor began a systematic evaluation of the Waste Transfer System pipeline conditions applying guidelines from API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 (2007), Fitness-For-Service. Between 2010 and 2014 Fitness-for-Service examinations of the Waste Transfer System pipeline materials, sizes, and components were completed. In parallel, waste throughput histories were prepared allowing side-by-side pipeline wall thinning rate comparisons between carbon and stainless steel, slurries and supernatants and throughput volumes. The work showed that for transfer volumes up to 6.1E+05 m3 (161 million gallons), the highest throughput of any pipeline segment examined, there has been no detectable wall thinning in either stainless or carbon steel pipeline material regardless of waste fluid characteristics or throughput. The paper describes the field and laboratory evaluation methods used for the Fitness-for-Service examinations, the results of the examinations, and the data reduction methodologies used to support Hanford Waste Transfer System pipeline wall thinning conclusions.

  10. Development of ecologically safe method for main oil and gas pipeline trenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmedov Asvar Mikdadovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Constructive, technical and technological reliability of major pipeline ensures ecological safety on different stages of life circle - beginning with project preparation activities up to the end of major pipeline operation. Even in the process of transition into new life circle stage, no matter if the pipeline needs major repairs or reconstruction, such technical and technological solutions should be found, which would preserve ecological stability of nature-anthropogenic system. Development of ecology protection technologies of construction, reconstruction and major repairs of main pipelines is of great importance not only for a region, but ensures ecological safety across the globe. The article presents a new way of trenching the main oil and gas pipeline, preservation and increase of ecological safety during its service. The updated technological plan is given in the paper for overhaul of the main oil and gas pipeline using the new technology of pipeline trenching. The suggested technical solution contributes to environment preservation with the help of deteriorating shells - the shells’ material decomposes into environment-friendly components: carbon dioxide, water and humus. The quantity of polluting agents in the atmosphere decreases with the decrease of construction term and quantity of technical equipment.

  11. US DOE Pipeline Unplugging Requirements Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, J.; McDaniel, D.

    2009-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) sites around the country have an ongoing effort to transport and process several tons of radioactive waste in the form of slurry (liquids and solids) from storage tanks to processing facilities. The system of pipes used for the transportation of this waste needs technology for maintenance and for the prevention (and correction) of pipeline plugging. The unplugging technologies that have been tested and evaluated at Florida International University include ones from NuVision Engineering, AIMM and AquaMiser. NuVision's technology acts as an ocean wave does on beach erosion. It can operate on a long pipeline that has drained down below a blockage. AIMM Technology's Hydrokinetic TM process uses a sonic resonance with a cleaning water stream. This sonic resonance travels through the water stream and transfers vibration to both the pipe and the blockage. The AquaMiser line of water blasting equipment combines 15,000- to 40,000-psi water injection technology to unplug pipelines. Some sites cannot allow this level of pressure in their pipes. After reviewing the results of every test, including the benefits, advantages and disadvantages of each technology, requirements were developed for pressure, personnel training, environmental concerns, safety, and compatibility with current systems, operability, reliability, maintainability and cost. (authors)

  12. Some technological aspects for functioning of crude oil pipeline Solun-OKTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikovski, Toni

    2005-01-01

    Crude oil pipeline Solun-Okta was built according to international technical, ecological and safety standards and enables quick, optimal and continuity supply of OKTA Refinery with crude oil. The building of the pipeline began in 1999 and finished in 2002 with official start-up operation by pumping of first quantity crude oil. After the activation, human environment protection has an important place. A lot of instructions and procedures are prepared specially for this purpose. With a total length about 212 km, pipeline enables transport of crude oil from ECO Refinery to OKTA with a capacity of 2.5 million tons per year. The pipeline is designed for transport of few types crude oil and their mixtures. The pipeline system has been equipped with sophisticated and modern equipment, which will enable quality of the work by controlling and monitoring of the system. (Author)

  13. Some technological aspects for functioning of crude oil pipeline Solun-Okta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikovski, Toni

    2005-01-01

    Crude oil pipeline Solun-Okta was built according to international technical, ecological and safety standards and enables quick, optimal and continuity supply of OKTA Refinery with crude oil. The building of the pipeline began in 1999 and finished in 2002 with official start-up operation by pumping of first quantity crude oil. After the activation, human environment protection has an important place. A lot of instructions and procedures are prepared specially for this purpose. With a total length about 212 km, pipeline enables transport of crude oil from ECO Refinery to OKTA with a capacity of 2.5 million tons per year. The pipeline is designed for transport of few types crude oil and their mixtures. The pipeline system has been equipped with sophisticated and modern equipment, which will enable quality of the work by controlling and monitoring of the system. (Author)

  14. An Overview of New Progresses in Understanding Pipeline Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, M. YJ; Varela, F.; Huo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Abreu, D.; Mahdavi, F.; Hinton, B.; Forsyth, M. [Deakin University, Victoria (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    An approach to achieving the ambitious goal of cost effectively extending the safe operation life of energy pipeline to 100 years is the application of health monitoring and life prediction tools that are able to provide both long-term remnant pipeline life prediction and in-situ pipeline condition monitoring. A critical step is the enhancement of technological capabilities that are required for understanding and quantifying the effects of key factors influencing buried steel pipeline corrosion and environmentally assisted materials degradation, and the development of condition monitoring technologies that are able to provide in-situ monitoring and site-specific warning of pipeline damage. This paper provides an overview of our current research aimed at developing new sensors and electrochemical cells for monitoring, categorising and quantifying the level and nature of external pipeline and coating damages under the combined effects of various inter-related variables and processes such as localised corrosion, coating cracking and disbondment, cathodic shielding, transit loss of cathodic protection.

  15. optimization for trenchless reconstruction of pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhmakov Gennadiy Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the technologies of trenchless reconstruction of pipelines are becoming and more widely used in Russia and abroad. One of the most perspective is methods is shock-free destruction of the old pipeline being replaced with the help of hydraulic installations with working mechanism representing a cutting unit with knife disks and a conic expander. A construction of a working mechanism, which allows making trenchless reconstruction of pipelines of different diameters, is optimized and patented and its developmental prototype is manufactured. The dependence of pipeline cutting force from knifes obtusion of the working mechanisms. The cutting force of old steel pipelines with obtuse knife increases proportional to the value of its obtusion. Two stands for endurance tests of the knifes in laboratory environment are offered and patented.

  16. Emissions of polluting substances in the atmosphere at construction of the pipeline Bolshoy Chagan - Atyrau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilazhov, E.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : The main pipelines of Kazakhstan represent the most complicated mechanized and the automated hydraulic system which has been very branched out and long. It is equipped by powerful pump stations, lines and constructions of technological communication, telemechanics and automatics, fire-prevention devices, on occasion - furnaces of heating. Construction Oil and gas pipeline Bolschoy Chagan - Atyrau is intended for transportation of a mix of oil, acting on NPS Bolschoy Chagan with Karachaganak Oil and gas deposits (KNGKM), up to Atyrau for pumping in pipeline system of the Caspian pipeline consortium. The maximal volume of a transported product from Bolschoy Chagan up to pipeline KTK will make 10 million tons a year at full projected volume from KNGKM up to Atyrau - 11 million tons/years. The line Oil and gas pipeline Bolschoy Chagan - Atyrau is covered by a network of highways - soil, rural, with a covering and with the improved covering. The largest settlements located in a strip of passage of a line the following: Bolschoy Chagan, Kushum, Budarino, Chapaev, Mergenevo, Lbishchenskoe, Tajpak, Eltaj, Kulagino, Orlik, Green, Mahambet, Sarajshyk. The line Oil and gas pipeline represents a broken line in length of 455,25 km, stretched with the north on the south. The Earth, allocated under construction Oil and gas pipeline now are used for an agricultural production, mainly pasturable cattle breeding, and also in a small degree for cultivation grain, vegetable and agro cultures. According to influence of the equipment used at construction and operation Oil and gas pipeline on atmospheric air, inventory of sources of emissions is lead to an atmosphere in view of duration of work during which sources of emissions have been revealed all, total and as much as possible single emissions from stationary sources are calculated. It has been revealed, that here take place, both stationary sources of emissions, and mobile to which all motor transport concerns, and also

  17. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  18. Arctic pipeline planning design, construction, and equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Utilize the most recent developments to combat challenges such as ice mechanics. The perfect companion for engineers wishing to learn state-of-the-art methods or further develop their knowledge of best practice techniques, Arctic Pipeline Planning provides a working knowledge of the technology and techniques for laying pipelines in the coldest regions of the world. Arctic Pipeline Planning provides must-have elements that can be utilized through all phases of arctic pipeline planning and construction. This includes information on how to: Solve challenges in designing arctic pipelines Protect pipelines from everyday threats such as ice gouging and permafrost Maintain safety and communication for construction workers while supporting typical codes and standards Covers such issues as land survey, trenching or above ground, environmental impact of construction Provides on-site problem-solving techniques utilized through all phases of arctic pipeline planning and construction Is packed with easy-to-read and under...

  19. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  20. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  1. A computational genomics pipeline for prokaryotic sequencing projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyuk, Andrey O; Katz, Lee S; Agrawal, Sonia; Hagen, Matthew S; Conley, Andrew B; Jayaraman, Pushkala; Nelakuditi, Viswateja; Humphrey, Jay C; Sammons, Scott A; Govil, Dhwani; Mair, Raydel D; Tatti, Kathleen M; Tondella, Maria L; Harcourt, Brian H; Mayer, Leonard W; Jordan, I King

    2010-08-01

    New sequencing technologies have accelerated research on prokaryotic genomes and have made genome sequencing operations outside major genome sequencing centers routine. However, no off-the-shelf solution exists for the combined assembly, gene prediction, genome annotation and data presentation necessary to interpret sequencing data. The resulting requirement to invest significant resources into custom informatics support for genome sequencing projects remains a major impediment to the accessibility of high-throughput sequence data. We present a self-contained, automated high-throughput open source genome sequencing and computational genomics pipeline suitable for prokaryotic sequencing projects. The pipeline has been used at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the analysis of Neisseria meningitidis and Bordetella bronchiseptica genomes. The pipeline is capable of enhanced or manually assisted reference-based assembly using multiple assemblers and modes; gene predictor combining; and functional annotation of genes and gene products. Because every component of the pipeline is executed on a local machine with no need to access resources over the Internet, the pipeline is suitable for projects of a sensitive nature. Annotation of virulence-related features makes the pipeline particularly useful for projects working with pathogenic prokaryotes. The pipeline is licensed under the open-source GNU General Public License and available at the Georgia Tech Neisseria Base (http://nbase.biology.gatech.edu/). The pipeline is implemented with a combination of Perl, Bourne Shell and MySQL and is compatible with Linux and other Unix systems.

  2. Pipeline Bending Strain Measurement and Compensation Technology Based on Wavelet Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines may lead to instability of the pipeline and failure of materials, which seriously deteriorates the transportation security of oil and gas. To locate the position of the bending strain for maintenance, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU is usually adopted in a Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG. The attitude data of the IMU is usually acquired to calculate the bending strain in the pipe. However, because of the vibrations in the pipeline and other system noises, the resulting bending strain calculations may be incorrect. To improve the measurement precision, a method, based on wavelet neural network, was proposed. To test the proposed method experimentally, a PIG with the proposed method is used to detect a straight pipeline. It can be obtained that the proposed method has a better repeatability and convergence than the original method. Furthermore, the new method is more accurate than the original method and the accuracy of bending strain is raised by about 23% compared to original method. This paper provides a novel method for precisely inspecting bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines and lays a foundation for improving the precision of inspection of bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines.

  3. Basic Block of Pipelined ADC Design Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kledrowetz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes design requirements of a basic stage (called MDAC - Multiplying Digital-to- Analog Converter of a pipelined ADC. There exist error sources such as finite DC gain of opamp, capacitor mismatch, thermal noise, etc., arising when the switched capacitor (SC technique and CMOS technology are used. These non-idealities are explained and their influences on overall parameters of a pipelined ADC are studied. The pipelined ADC including non-idealities was modeled in MATLAB - Simulink simulation environment.

  4. Health, safety and environment risk assessment in gas pipelines by indexing method:case of Kermanshah Sanandaj oil pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hamidi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and AimsUsing pipelines for oil products transportation involves ranges of safety, health and environmental risks, this option however, is dominant with numerous  advantages. The purpose of this study was; relative risk assessment of abovementioned risk in Kermanshah-Sanandaj Oil Pipeline.MethodsThe method used in this study was Kent Muhlbauer method in which relative risk was assessed using third-party damage, corrosion, design, incorrect operations and leak impact  factor.ResultsOnce applying this method, collection of required data and performing needed experiments, scoring results showed 96 risk segments along the pipeline length in which lengths 100+860, 101+384 and 103+670 had relative risk scores 9.74, 9.82 and 9.91 respectively and therefore these segments were identified as focal risk points and priority for improvement actions.ConclusionRegarding importance of pipeline failure, inspection and regular patrol along the pipeline route, precise control of cathodic protection of pipeline and using communication technologies such as SCADA or optical fibers along the pipeline route were amongst the mostimportant control action suggested by the study.

  5. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1, Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. This Volume, Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This volume is divided into ten chapters. The first chapter is a brief introduction, and the second chapter details the technical approach of the TLD. These categories are the work activities necessary for successful decontamination and decommissioning, waste management, and remedial action of the K-25 Site. The categories are characterization, decontamination, dismantlement, robotics and automation, remedial action, and waste management. Materials disposition is addressed in Chap. 9. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning.

  6. Distributed fiber optic sensing enhances pipeline safety and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frings, Jochen; Walk, Tobias [ILF Consulting Engineers, Munich (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Pipelines are efficient, highly reliable and safe means of transportation. However, despite intensive right of way surveillance by foot, car and out of the air, pipeline leaks and illegal tappings are a reality - sometimes with catastrophic results. These events show a gap in real-time monitoring caused by the highly distributed nature of pipelines. Parts of this gap now can be closed with distributed fiber optic sensing technology. Using various physical effects this technology is apt to detect temperature, strain, vibrations and sound with very good localization over spans up to 50 km with a single sensor cable. Various field tested applications like leakage detection, third party activity monitoring and intrusion detection or ground movement detection as well as integrity monitoring proof that distributed fiber optic sensing can enhance pipeline safety and security. (orig.)

  7. Some technological aspects of the functioning of the Thessalonica-OKTA oil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikovski, Toni

    2004-01-01

    Crude oil pipeline Solun-Okta was built according to international technical, ecological and safety standards and enables quick, optimal and continuity supply of OKTA Refinery with crude oil. The building of the pipeline began in 1999, and finished in 2002 with official start-up operation by pumping of first quantity crude oil. After the activation, human environment protection has an important place. A lot of instructions and procedures are prepared especial for this purpose. With a total length about 212 km, pipeline enables transport of crude oil from ECO Refinery to OKTA with a capacity of 2.5 million tons per year. Pipeline is designed for a transport of few types crude oil and their mixtures. Pipeline system has been equipped with sophistic and modern equipment, which will enable quality of the work by controlling and monitoring of the system. (Author)

  8. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-10-01

    Oil spills due to oil pipelines is a very frequent problem in Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has been developing inspection and correction plans for zones around oil pipelines pumping stations and pipeline right-of-way. These stations are located at regular intervals of kilometres along the pipelines. In this study, two sections of an oil pipeline and two pipeline pumping stations zones are characterized in terms of the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study comprehends sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils regarding TPHs content and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the contamination levels and the localization of contaminants.

  9. Increase of ecological safety of the pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr Movsumov, Sh.N.; Prof Aliyev, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : For increase of ecological safety of the pipeline, necessary decrease of damage (risk) rendered by the pipeline on surrounding natural environment which depends: on the frequency of damage of the pipeline; on the volume poured oil; on the factor of sensitivity of an environment where flood of oil was. Frequency of damage of the pipeline depends on physico-chemical properties of a material of the pipeline, from its technical characteristics (thickness of a wall, length of a pipe, working pressure), on the seismic area of the district where the pipeline passed and also on the way of lining of the pipeline (underground or overground). The volume poured oil depends on diameter of the received damage, from stability of the pipeline mechanical and other external actions, from an ambient temperature, from capacity of the pipeline, from distance between the latches established in the pipeline, and also from time, necessary for their full closing. The factor of sensitivity of environment depends on geological structure and landscapes of district (mountain, the river, settlements) where passed the pipeline. At designing the pipeline, in report is shown questions of increase of ecological safety of the pipeline are considered at his construction and exploitation. For improvement of ecological safety of the pipeline is necessary to hold the following actions: Ecological education of the public, living near along a line of the oil pipeline; carrying out ecological monitoring; working of the public plan of response to oil spills; For ecological education of the public is necessary: carrying out informing of the public for all (technical, ecological, social and economic and legal) questions connected to an oil pipeline, and also on methods of protection of the rights at participation in acceptance of ecological significant decisions; Creation of public groups for realization of activity on observance of the legislation and to prevention of risks; Exposure of hot

  10. Distributed acoustic sensing for pipeline monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, David; McEwen-King, Magnus [OptaSense, QinetiQ Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Optical fibre is deployed widely across the oil and gas industry. As well as being deployed regularly to provide high bandwidth telecommunications and infrastructure for SCADA it is increasingly being used to sense pressure, temperature and strain along buried pipelines, on subsea pipelines and downhole. In this paper we present results from the latest sensing capability using standard optical fibre to detect acoustic signals along the entire length of a pipeline. In Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) an optical fibre is used for both sensing and telemetry. In this paper we present results from the OptaSense{sup TM} system which has been used to detect third party intervention (TPI) along buried pipelines. In a typical deployment the system is connected to an existing standard single-mode fibre, up to 50km in length, and was used to independently listen to the acoustic / seismic activity at every 10 meter interval. We will show that through the use of advanced array processing of the independent, simultaneously sampled channels it is possible to detect and locate activity within the vicinity of the pipeline and through sophisticated acoustic signal processing to obtain the acoustic signature to classify the type of activity. By combining spare fibre capacity in existing buried fibre optic cables; processing and display techniques commonly found in sonar; and state-of-the-art in fibre-optic distributed acoustic sensing, we will describe the new monitoring capabilities that are available to the pipeline operator. Without the expense of retrofitting sensors to the pipeline, this technology can provide a high performance, rapidly deployable and cost effective method of providing gapless and persistent monitoring of a pipeline. We will show how this approach can be used to detect, classify and locate activity such as; third party interference (including activity indicative of illegal hot tapping); real time tracking of pigs; and leak detection. We will also show how an

  11. On-Shore Pipeline Emergency Repair Center; Centro de Reparos Emergenciais de Dutos Terrestres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Byron Goncalves de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    After the accidents happened on years 2000 and 2001, in TRANSPETRO's operated pipelines, appeared a common conscientiousness about the necessity for the creation of a basic infrastructure for emergency and contingency pipeline repair that centralize equipment, procedures and technologies applied to pipeline maintenance. Then, it was planned the creation of the On-Shore Pipeline Emergency Center (CRE-DUT), following the model of the Off-Shore Pipelines Repair Group from PETROBRAS/EP, (Exploration and Production) and other similar centers of pipeline transport companies worldwide (Canada, Colombia, Mexico, Argentina). The CRE-DUT has the Mission of offering contingency; emergency and specials on-shore pipelines repair services, with safety, quality and at the less possible time, seeking for the leadership on applying new technologies and the excellency in repair activities. (author)

  12. Modeling and monitoring of pipelines and networks advanced tools for automatic monitoring and supervision of pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lizeth

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the analysis and design of advanced techniques for on-line automatic computational monitoring of pipelines and pipe networks. It discusses how to improve the systems’ security considering mathematical models of the flow, historical flow rate and pressure data, with the main goal of reducing the number of sensors installed along a pipeline. The techniques presented in the book have been implemented in digital systems to enhance the abilities of the pipeline network’s operators in recognizing anomalies. A real leak scenario in a Mexican water pipeline is used to illustrate the benefits of these techniques in locating the position of a leak. Intended for an interdisciplinary audience, the book addresses researchers and professionals in the areas of mechanical, civil and control engineering. It covers topics on fluid mechanics, instrumentation, automatic control, signal processing, computing, construction and diagnostic technologies.

  13. Design of Flow Big Data System Based on Smart Pipeline Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As telecom operators to build intelligent pipe more and more, analysis and processing of big data technology to deal the huge amounts of data intelligent pipeline generated has become an inevitable trend. Intelligent pipe describes operational data, sales data; operator’s pipe flow data make the value for e-commerce business form and business model in mobile e-business environment. Intelligent pipe is the third dimension of 3 D pipeline mobile electronic commerce system. Intelligent operation dimensions make the mobile e-business three-dimensional artifacts. This paper discusses the smart pipeline theory, smart pipeline flow big data system, their system framework and core technology.

  14. Condition Monitoring Of Operating Pipelines With Operational Modal Analysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries, great attention is being paid to safety, reliability and maintainability of equipment. There are a number of technologies to monitor, control, and maintain gas, oil, water, and sewer pipelines. The paper focuses on operational modal analysis (OMA application for condition monitoring of operating pipelines. Special focus is on the topicality of OMA for definition of the dynamic features of the pipeline (frequencies and mode shapes in operation. The research was conducted using two operating laboratory models imitated a part of the operating pipeline. The results of finite-element modeling, identification of pipe natural modes and its modification under the influence of virtual failure are discussed. The work considers the results of experimental research of dynamic behavior of the operating pipe models using one of OMA techniques and comparing dynamic properties with the modeled data. The study results demonstrate sensitivity of modal shape parameters to modification of operating pipeline technical state. Two strategies of pipeline repair – with continuously condition-based monitoring with proposed technology and without such monitoring, was discussed. Markov chain reliability models for each strategy were analyzed and reliability improvement factor for proposed technology of monitoring in compare with traditional one was evaluated. It is resumed about ability of operating pipeline condition monitoring by measuring dynamic deformations of the operating pipe and OMA techniques application for dynamic properties extraction.

  15. Australia's changing natural gas and pipeline industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The future is bright for continued development of Australia's natural gas pipeline infrastructure, as well as for privatization and private energy infrastructure growth. Gas demands are growing and the development of open access principles for all natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines heralds a much more market focused industry. Within the next few years gas-on-gas competition will apply to supply, pipelines, and retail marketing. No longer will operators be able to pass on high costs resulting from inefficiencies to their customers. This article describes the changing Australian gas industry, evaluates the drivers for change and looks at ways the industry is responding to new regulatory regimes and the development and use of new pipeline technology

  16. Long term pipeline monitoring in geomechanically sensitive environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir-Jones, I.; Sun, M. [Weir-Jones Engineering Consultants Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, monitoring pipeline structural integrity is necessary for both regulatory and environmental purposes. Weir-Jones Engineering Consultants developed an automated structural integrity monitoring (SIM) system, data on strain, displacement and temperature are continuously acquired and automatically transmitted to the monitoring personnel. The aim of this paper is to present this technology and its implementation on one of Inter Pipeline Fund's lines as well. The automated SIM equipment was installed on a new 42'' line at the crossing of the Clearwater River close to Fort McMurray. Results showed that this technology is a good way to monitor pipelines in remote locations, environmentally sensitive areas, river and embankment crossings and in locations where external forces can put the pipeline at risk; but it should not be used otherwise as that would not be cost effective. This paper described the developed automated SIM and showed that it should only be used in specific locations to be cost effective.

  17. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  18. The development of pipeline integrity management in the world and practice in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohua, Dong; Qing, Wang; Feifan [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    The paper analyzed the pipeline integrity management latest development, and the relationship among HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM). CNPC is a pioneer of China industry on implementation of pipeline integrity management by using latest developed technologies such as in-line inspection, GIS, Risk assessment and advanced repair technologies, and it is typical model of PIM in China pipeline who supply the gas to whole Beijing city. With smart pigging inspection and implementation of GIS and EAM(enterprise assets management) system on two thousand kilometers of Shaanxi-Beijing gas pipeline BHGC is able to manage pipeline integrity in five areas which include pipe materials safety, nature and geotechnical hazards management, coating and corrosion protection, stationing and associated facilities maintenance, and underground gas storage integrity. This paper presents latest achievement of BHGC in their pipeline integrity programs. (author)

  19. Commissioning of long subsea pipelines - environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, C.; Kleppe, T.; Maribu, J.

    1997-01-01

    Discharges to air and sea are inevitable during precommissioning and commissioning of long subsea pipelines. Large quantities of water is pumped through the pipeline during these operations. This water is normally treated with corrosion inhibiting chemicals to minimise internal corrosion of the pipeline. Chemicals like methanol or glycol may be used to prevent hydrate formation, and will normally be discharged to sea during commissioning. In order to minimise the environmental impact of these operations, while maintaining corrosion protection, the Norwegian Statoil has been working for several years along three main routes such as to develop concepts and methods that minimise the discharged volumes, the use of the most environmentally friendly chemicals available, and to monitor and identify the effects of discharges to various marine species. 3 refs., 4 figs

  20. Pipeline risk management manual ideas, techniques, and resources

    CERN Document Server

    Muhlbauer, W Kent

    2004-01-01

    Here's the ideal tool if you're looking for a flexible, straightforward analysis system for your everyday design and operations decisions. This new third edition includes sections on stations, geographical information systems, ""absolute"" versus ""relative"" risks, and the latest regulatory developments. From design to day-to-day operations and maintenance, this unique volume covers every facet of pipeline risk management, arguably the most important, definitely the most hotly debated, aspect of pipelining today.Now expanded and updated, this widely accepted standard reference guide

  1. Alliance Pipeline : the new kid on the block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelson, D.

    1998-01-01

    An update on progress of Alliance Pipelines, comments on issues facing gas transporters from western Canada, some discussion of gas supply in general, and the prospects for future expansion of the natural gas industry are provided. According to industry insiders, North American gas demand is expected to increase by 1.5 per cent per year. In order for Canadian gas to participate in this growth additional pipeline capacity is needed. The Alliance Pipeline capacity represents about 20 per cent of this demand growth over the next 5 years. The Alliance Pipeline development will create an opportunity to deliver western Canadian gas to Chicago, a point where North American market competition exists and the market volume and liquidity is large. This presentation also provides an update on the current regulatory status and construction timing. Currently, Alliance has over C$8 billion in firm shipping commitments and up to C$5 billion in financing in place. Pipeline construction will begin in the spring of 1999; it is expected to be operational by the fall of 2000. tabs., figs

  2. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  3. Pipeline capacity and heavy oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    Aspects of transporting heavy crude to markets from Canadian sources are discussed, with reference to pipeline expansion, western Canadian crude supply, and exports to various Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) in the USA. Pipeline expansions have been proposed by Interprovincial Pipeline, Trans Mountain Pipeline, Rangeland, and Wascana, and some of these proposals are in the review stage. Western Canadian crude supply is expected to peak at 1.9 million bbl/d in 1996. An increase in heavy crude supply is expected but this increase will not be sufficient to offset a decline in light crude supply. Adequate pipeline capacity should exist with the Interprovincial expansion volume of 170,000 bbl/d and the Trans Mountain expansion of 38,000 bbl/d forecast to be in place by 1995. Canadian crude exports to the USA have steadily increased since 1989, and heavy crude exports have grown an average of 20,000 bbl/d each year. In PADD Region IV, oil production is declining and ca 20,000 bbl/d of heavy crude will be needed by the year 2000; additional pipeline capacity will be required. In PADD Region II, Canadian heavy crude imports are ca 390,000 bbl/d and further market opportunities exist, after the Interprovincial expansion is complete. When the various combinations of possible pipeline expansions or reversals are considered, a range of heavy crude near-term growth potentials is obtained in which Canadian heavy oil would displace offshore heavy oil supplied to USA refineries. This potential is seen to range from 35,000 bbl/d to 200,000 bbl/d. 7 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beushausen, R.; Tornow, S.; Borchers, H. [Nord-West Oelleitung, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Murphy, K.; Zhang, J. [Atmos International Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Nord-West Oelleitung (NWO) operates 2 crude oil pipelines from Wilhemshaven to Koln and Hamburg respectively. German regulations for transporting flammable substances stipulate that 2 independent continuously working procedures be used to detect leaks. Leak detection pigs are used routinely to complement the surveillance system. This paper described the specific issues of transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines. It was noted that traditional methods have failed to detect leaks that occur immediately after pumps are turned on or off because the pressure wave generated by the transient dominates the pressure wave that results from the leak. Frequent operational changes in a pipeline are often accompanied by an increased number of false alarms and failure to detect leaks due to unsteady operations. NWO therefore decided to have the Atmos statistical pipeline leak detection (SPLD) system installed on their pipelines. The key to the SPLD system is the sequential probability ratio test. Comprehensive data validation is performed following reception of pipeline data from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The validated data is then used to calculate the corrected flow imbalance, which is fed into the SPRT to determine if there is an increase in the flow imbalance. Pattern recognition is then used to distinguish a leak from operational changes. The SPLD is unique because it uses 3 computational pipeline monitoring methods simultaneously, namely modified volume balance, statistical analysis, and pressure and flow monitoring. The successful installation and testing of the SPLD in 2 crude oil pipelines was described along with the main difficulties associated with transient leaks. Field results were presented for both steady-state and transient conditions. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  5. Volume totalizers analysis of pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO National Operational Control Center; Analise de totalizadores de volume em oleodutos operados pelo Centro Nacional de Controle e Operacao da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, Thiago Lessa; Montalvao, Antonio Filipe Falcao [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marques, Thais Carrijo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to present the results and methodology in the analysis of differences in volume totals used in systems such as batch tracking and leak detection of pipelines operated by the National Center for Operational Control (CNCO) at TRANSPETRO. In order to optimize this type of analysis, software was developed to acquisition and processing of historical data using the methodology developed. The methodology developed takes into account the particularities encountered in systems operated by TRANSPETRO, more specifically, by CNCO. (author)

  6. In line inspection of multi-diameter and high-pressure pipelines in Brazil using combined technologies: magnetic flux leakage and ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginten, Markus; Brockhaus, Stephan; Bouaoua, Nourreddine; Klein, Stefan [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany); Bruening, Franz [ROSEN Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The simultaneous use of the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method and the ultrasonic testing (UT) method on a single in line inspection (ILI) tool has been identified as a versatile and accurate solution for liquid pipelines. The combination of the two methods is complementary to the restrictions of each other. Also, the overall scope of the inspection is enlarged. General wall thinning and largely corroded areas are accurately and reliably scanned with the UT unit, while very detailed information about pitting corrosion is obtained from the MFL measurement. Blind spots of echo loss, as occasionally observed for the UT channels is compensated by the more robust measurement from the MFL sensors. Consequently, this technology has been the method of choice in an in line inspection project of an onshore long distance pipeline in Brazil, facing a variety of corrosion threats. The pipeline consists of several multi-diameter sections of 18/20 inches and 20/22 inches. Furthermore, the high gravity of product in combination with a height profile, an altitude of 1152 m MSL (Mean Sea Level) had to be crossed, leads to a maximum pressure of 220 bar. These boundary conditions had to be considered during the design of the ILI-tool. The paper discusses the experience made so far with the combined technology MFL and UT. The effective use of the inspection tool for the above mentioned pipeline as well as field results from a previous inspection are described. (author)

  7. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average

  8. Phased-array technology for automatic pipeline inspection; Phased Array-Technologie fuer automatisierte Pipeline-Inspektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, J.; Hugger, A.; Franz, J. [GE Energy, PII Pipetronix GmbH, Stutensee (Germany); Falter, S.; Oberdoerfer, Y. [GE Inspection Technology Systems, Huerth (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Pipeline inspection pigs with individual test probes are limited in their function due to the fixed arrangement of sensors on the support. In contrast, the phased-array technology enables multitasking of tests, e.g. stress and corrosion testing which formerly required two different test runs with different sensor set-ups. The angles of inclination can be adapted to the test medium, and virtual sensors can be matched in size and overlap so that, e.g., small pittings will be detected. The sensor set-up presented here enables higher test speed and improved flaw detection. The contribution describes the measuring principle, the inspection pig (UltraScan DUO), and some results of prototype measurements. [German] Pruefmolche fuer die Pipelinepruefung mit Einzelpruefkoepfen sind in ihrem Funktionsumfang aufgrund der festliegenden Anordnung der Sensoren im Sensortraeger eingeschraenkt. Die Phased-Array-Technologie gestattet die simultane Durchfuehrung verschiedener Pruefaufgaben, wie beispielsweise der Rissund der Korrosionspruefung, die vorher zwei Prueflaeufe mit verschiedenen Sensortraegern erforderten. Die Einfallswinkel koennen auf das jeweilige Medium angepasst werden, und es besteht die Moeglichkeit, virtuelle Sensoren bezueglich ihrer Groesse und der gegenseitigen Ueberlappung so anzupassen, dass beispielsweise kleine Pittings gefunden werden koennen. Die ausgefuehrte Form gestattet hoehere Pruefgeschwindigkeit und verbesserte Fehlerauffindung. In diesem Artikel werden das Messprinzip und der Inspektionsmolch (UltraScan DUO) beschrieben sowie einige Prototyp-Messergebnisse vorgestellt.

  9. New possibilities for non-destructive testing of pipelines with intelligent pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, H.; Jaskolla, B.; Barbian, O.A. [NDT Systems and Services, Stutensee (Germany); Niese, F. [Institut fuer zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Pipelines are considered to be the safest way for transportation of large amounts of liquid and gas over large distances. In the course of the lifetime of a pipeline, however, many effects can lead to damages affecting the integrity of the line, e.g. manufacturing-related anomalies, operationally induced anomalies or third-party damage. In order to avoid pipeline failures with potentially catastrophic consequences so-called intelligent pigs (or smart pigs) were developed during the last decades: These tools allow for the internal inspection (In-Line Inspection, ILI) of pipelines using non-destructive testing technologies for the early detection and sizing of defects. Most common are magnetic flux leakage (MFL) and ultrasonic techniques for corrosion inspection and the latter also for crack inspection. While the ultrasonic techniques offer superior sizing capabilities they are limited to the inspection of liquid pipelines where the medium itself provides the necessary coupling between the (piezoelectric) ultrasonic transducers and the pipe wall. However, this limitation can be overcome by recent developments using EMAT (Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer) technology. By a special sensor design, the EMAT inspection is combined with eddy current (EC) inspection and MFL inspection at the same time. As a result, this new multi-technology approach offers improved sizing as well as enhanced feature identification for wall thickness inspection of gas pipelines. (orig.)

  10. Structural health monitoring of pipelines rehabilitated with lining technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhidzadeh, Alireza; Dehghan-Niri, Ehsan; Salamone, Salvatore

    2014-03-01

    Damage detection of pipeline systems is a tedious and time consuming job due to digging requirement, accessibility, interference with other facilities, and being extremely wide spread in metropolitans. Therefore, a real-time and automated monitoring system can pervasively reduce labor work, time, and expenditures. This paper presents the results of an experimental study aimed at monitoring the performance of full scale pipe lining systems, subjected to static and dynamic (seismic) loading, using Acoustic Emission (AE) technique and Guided Ultrasonic Waves (GUWs). Particularly, two damage mechanisms are investigated: 1) delamination between pipeline and liner as the early indicator of damage, and 2) onset of nonlinearity and incipient failure of the liner as critical damage state.

  11. Treatment of discharge water from hydrostatic testing of natural gas pipelines. Volume 4. Topical report, January 1989-June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallon, J.T.; Lee-Ryan, P.B.; Volpi, K.A.; Fillo, J.P.

    1992-06-01

    The report presents results developed from bench- and full-scale treatment testing conducted on discharge water from hydrostatic testing of natural gas pipelines. Bench-scale testing examined sedimentation with and without chemical coagulants for reducing iron and total suspended solids, aeration for removal of volatile organics, and activated carbon adsorption for removal of organic constituents. Treatment results are provided for a full-scale treatment process, which utilized a hay bale structure and adsorbent booms for removing suspended solids and oil from the discharge water. Detailed characterization results are presented for test water collected before and after treatment. Results developed from an economic analysis of other potential treatment/disposal alternatives are also presented. A total of eight approaches that may be applied for managing constituents present in hydrostatic test waters are examined. The report is Volume 4 of a five-volume report series

  12. Research on prognostics and health management of underground pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangdi; Yang, Meng; Yang, Fan; Ni, Na

    2018-04-01

    With the development of the city, the construction of the underground pipeline is more and more complex, which has relation to the safety and normal operation of the city, known as "the lifeline of the city". First of all, this paper introduces the principle of PHM (Prognostics and Health Management) technology, then proposed for fault diagnosis, prognostics and health management in view of underground pipeline, make a diagnosis and prognostics for the faults appearing in the operation of the underground pipeline, and then make a health assessment of the whole underground pipe network in order to ensure the operation of the pipeline safely. Finally, summarize and prospect the future research direction.

  13. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0203] Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. [[Page...

  14. JGI Plant Genomics Gene Annotation Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Shengqiang; Rokhsar, Dan; Goodstein, David; Hayes, David; Mitros, Therese

    2014-07-14

    Plant genomes vary in size and are highly complex with a high amount of repeats, genome duplication and tandem duplication. Gene encodes a wealth of information useful in studying organism and it is critical to have high quality and stable gene annotation. Thanks to advancement of sequencing technology, many plant species genomes have been sequenced and transcriptomes are also sequenced. To use these vastly large amounts of sequence data to make gene annotation or re-annotation in a timely fashion, an automatic pipeline is needed. JGI plant genomics gene annotation pipeline, called integrated gene call (IGC), is our effort toward this aim with aid of a RNA-seq transcriptome assembly pipeline. It utilizes several gene predictors based on homolog peptides and transcript ORFs. See Methods for detail. Here we present genome annotation of JGI flagship green plants produced by this pipeline plus Arabidopsis and rice except for chlamy which is done by a third party. The genome annotations of these species and others are used in our gene family build pipeline and accessible via JGI Phytozome portal whose URL and front page snapshot are shown below.

  15. Oil pipeline performance review, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental performance of Canadian oil pipelines in spill prevention and control in 1990 and compares it with that in 1989. In 1990, in-service length of the systems reporting increased to 34,907 km. Traffic volume was 235 million m 3 . Failures dropped 16% from 1989 to 36. Equipment failures accounted for 47%, corrosion for 22% and operational error for 19% of the failures. Repair, damage and clean-up costs were considerably higher at $5,302,000, of which one external corrosion failure contributed $4,500,000. The average spill size was 130 m 3 with 72 m 3 recovered for a 55.4% recovery rate. No injuries resulted from the failures. An 11 year statistical summary of oil pipeline performance data is included. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Virtual Instrumentation Corrosion Controller for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, J.; Agnihotri, G.; Deshpande, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Corrosion is an electrochemical process. Corrosion in natural gas (methane) pipelines leads to leakages. Corrosion occurs when anode and cathode are connected through electrolyte. Rate of corrosion in metallic pipeline can be controlled by impressing current to it and thereby making it to act as cathode of corrosion cell. Technologically advanced and energy efficient corrosion controller is required to protect natural gas pipelines. Proposed virtual instrumentation (VI) based corrosion controller precisely controls the external corrosion in underground metallic pipelines, enhances its life and ensures safety. Designing and development of proportional-integral-differential (PID) corrosion controller using VI (LabVIEW) is carried out. When the designed controller is deployed at field, it maintains the pipe to soil potential (PSP) within safe operating limit and not entering into over/under protection zone. Horizontal deployment of this technique can be done to protect all metallic structure, oil pipelines, which need corrosion protection.

  17. Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

    2003-07-01

    The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

  18. Condition Monitoring Of Operating Pipelines With Operational Modal Analysis Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mironov Aleksey; Doronkin Pavel; Priklonsky Aleksander; Kabashkin Igor

    2015-01-01

    In the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries, great attention is being paid to safety, reliability and maintainability of equipment. There are a number of technologies to monitor, control, and maintain gas, oil, water, and sewer pipelines. The paper focuses on operational modal analysis (OMA) application for condition monitoring of operating pipelines. Special focus is on the topicality of OMA for definition of the dynamic features of the pipeline (frequencies and mode shapes) i...

  19. Defining indicators to motorize block valves aiming to reduce potential leakage applied to OSBRA pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.F.G. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Sousa, A.G.; Castro, N.C.; Spagnolo, R. [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The discussion about motorizing block valves is a constant point being brought up when it is intended to control or reduce the amount of liquid leaking in the event of a pipe rupture. During the pipeline's project stage the installation of blocking valves along the pipeline must be taken into consideration to meet the operation and maintenance requirements as well as to reduce the potential amounts of volume being leaked. In existing pipelines, the main concern is the definition of which valves are candidates to be motorized. In both situations criteria should be established to define this choice. A math algorithm was developed to define the potential leakage due to gravity along the pipeline profile where the influence of a valve over another is verified, as well as the contribution of the check valves existing in the pipeline. The present work defines a parameter based on the extension protected by the valve and the reduction of the potential leakage. This parameter is then fed to a worksheet where the efficiency indicators are calculated to each valve eligible to be motorized. It also takes into consideration factors relative to the valve location, such as the environmental sensitivity, risk assessment, social diagnosis and device's proximity to contingency resources. Finally, after considering all the above aspects, it's possible to come up with a final classification, recommending specific valves to be prioritized on an eventual process of motorization adequacies. This methodology was applied, experimentally on a pipe segment of TRANSPETRO's Sao Paulo-Brasilia pipeline - OSBRA , where it proved to be an important technological and management tool. (author)

  20. Public perceptions of CO2 transportation in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, Clair; O'Keefe, Laura; Mander, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the response by members of the lay public to the prospect of an onshore CO 2 pipeline through their locality as part of a proposed CCS development and presents results from deliberative Focus Groups held along a proposed pipeline route. Although there is a reasonable level of general knowledge about CO 2 across the lay public, understanding of its specific properties is more limited. The main concerns expressed around pipelines focused on five areas: (i) safe operation of the pipeline; (ii) the risks to people, livestock and vegetation arising from the leakage of CO 2 from the pipeline; (iii) the innovative and ‘first of its kind' nature of the pipeline and the consequent lack of operational CO 2 pipelines in the UK to demonstrate the technology; (iv) impacts on coastal erosion at the landfall site; and (v) the potential disruption to local communities during pipeline construction. Participants expressed scepticism over the motivations of CO 2 pipeline developers. Trust that the developer will minimise risk during the route selection and subsequent construction, operation and maintenance of the pipeline is key; building trust within the local community requires early engagement processes, tailored to deliver a variety of engagement and information approaches. - Highlights: • Lay publics express good general knowledge of CO 2 but not of its specific properties. • Key concerns relate to risk and safety and ‘first of a kind' nature of CO 2 pipeline. • Group participants are sceptical about motivations of CO 2 pipeline developers. • Communities' trust in developer is a major element of their risk assessment

  1. High-speed hierarchical pipeline for radiological projection data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Kejun; Wang Jingjin; Xu Qichun; Gao Wenhuan; Fu Changqing

    1993-01-01

    Modern radiological imaging system needs fast data acquisition technology of high density projection acquiring. For this reason, a new type of pipeline, which has multi-stage and hierarchical structure, was developed. By this pipeline, the dead time of the data acquisition system was greatly reduced, and then the throughput of the whole system was increased

  2. Status of mapping for pre-detailing and projects of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Fabio Vinicius Fontoura; Paoletto, Bonatto Silvia M. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Considering the ever growing need for widening and supplying of the national energy matrix, ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos SA presents its participation in the Pipeline area, through Cartography activities, pointing out the performance on strips yet to be implanted, with activities as aerial survey, laser surveys, creation of orthophotomap, tracing definition, rivers crossing, geotechnical surveys, cadaster, creation of cadaster maps, strips, basic project drawings, imagery maps, as well as activities for existing strips, such as: aerial survey, laser surveys, strips enlargements, new property surveys, detection of pipelines through PCM technology, planimetric survey of equipment, besides activities for Pipeline Strips Geometry - FEED - pointing out the detailing of the areas which will be used for the dumping of the digging material and definition of accesses to the pipeline strips. We shall also present the technological evolution and consequent product improvements, considering surveys performed with conventional and digital aerial survey cameras, besides laser data. (author)

  3. Pipesworld : applying planning systems to pipeline transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milidiu, R.L.; Santos Liporace, F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica

    2004-07-01

    This paper explored issues facing the complex task of managing pipelines that transport large volumes of petroleum products over long distances. Since oil pipelines are generally a few inches wide and several miles long, reasonable amounts of distinct products can be transported with very small loss due to the mixing at liquid boundaries. Optimizing the transportation through oil pipelines in terms of maintenance and environmental safety is a high priority for pipeline operators. This paper presented the Pipesworld model which takes into account features such as product interface constraints, limited product storage capacities and due dates for product delivery. It has been benchmarked as a start-of-art general purpose artificial planning system. This paper also reported the results derived by general purpose artificial intelligence planning systems when applied to the Pipesworld model. It demonstrated how various modelling techniques can be used to enhance the planners performance. Current work in developing Plumber was also presented. This dedicated solver that addresses operational situations uses both general purpose planning techniques as well as domain specific knowledge. When Plumber was incorporated into Pipesworld, its outperformed Fast-Forward, one of the best available general purpose planning systems, suggesting that improved versions of Plumber have the potential to deal with various problem scenarios in pipeline operations. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Integrated diagnostics of northern gas pipelines; Diagnostic integre des gazoducs septentrionaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volsky, E.; Dedikov, E.; Ananenkov, A.; Salchov, Z.; Yakupov, Z. [Joint-Stock Company, Gazprom (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The main part of gas joint - stock company 'Gazprom' extracts from the northern deposits, which are situated in the permafrost zone. Ensuring of gas transporting pipeline's safety operation is a very complex and priority problem. On the basis of usage of this complex of methods the problem to ensure the safety operation is solved systematically: gas-mine - plant IV - derivation pipelines (condensate pipeline Yamburg Novy Urengoy, gas pipeline IV - GCS with negative temperature of transported products) taking into account 'co-ordination' dynamics of changes in pipeline GTS and technological modes of equipment operation. All researches was executed on the high professional level. (authors)

  5. Oil and gas pipeline construction cost analysis and developing regression models for cost estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaduri, Ravi Kiran

    In this study, cost data for 180 pipelines and 136 compressor stations have been analyzed. On the basis of the distribution analysis, regression models have been developed. Material, Labor, ROW and miscellaneous costs make up the total cost of a pipeline construction. The pipelines are analyzed based on different pipeline lengths, diameter, location, pipeline volume and year of completion. In a pipeline construction, labor costs dominate the total costs with a share of about 40%. Multiple non-linear regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of pipelines for various cross-sectional areas, lengths and locations. The Compressor stations are analyzed based on the capacity, year of completion and location. Unlike the pipeline costs, material costs dominate the total costs in the construction of compressor station, with an average share of about 50.6%. Land costs have very little influence on the total costs. Similar regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of compressor station for various capacities and locations.

  6. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section

  7. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section.

  8. Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Todd C.; McCauliff, Sean; Cote, Miles T.; Girouard, Forrest R.; Wohler, Bill; Allen, Christopher; Middour, Christopher; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission is designed to continuously monitor up to 170,000 stars at a 30 minute cadence for 3.5 years searching for Earth-size planets. The data are processed at the Science Operations Center (SOC) at NASA Ames Research Center. Because of the large volume of data and the memory and CPU-intensive nature of the analysis, significant computing hardware is required. We have developed generic pipeline framework software that is used to distribute and synchronize the processing across a cluster of CPUs and to manage the resulting products. The framework is written in Java and is therefore platform-independent, and scales from a single, standalone workstation (for development and research on small data sets) to a full cluster of homogeneous or heterogeneous hardware with minimal configuration changes. A plug-in architecture provides customized control of the unit of work without the need to modify the framework itself. Distributed transaction services provide for atomic storage of pipeline products for a unit of work across a relational database and the custom Kepler DB. Generic parameter management and data accountability services are provided to record the parameter values, software versions, and other meta-data used for each pipeline execution. A graphical console allows for the configuration, execution, and monitoring of pipelines. An alert and metrics subsystem is used to monitor the health and performance of the pipeline. The framework was developed for the Kepler project based on Kepler requirements, but the framework itself is generic and could be used for a variety of applications where these features are needed.

  9. Seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzano, Giovanni; Salzano, Ernesto; Santucci de Magistris, Filippo; Fabbrocino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the analysis of the interaction of earthquakes with pipelines transporting and distributing natural gas for industrial and civil use. To this aim, a new large data-set of seismic information classified on the basis of selected seismological, geotechnical and structural parameters is presented and analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to continuous pipelines under strong ground shaking, which is the geotechnical effect due to passage of waves in soil. Results are provided in terms of the likelihood of the loss of containment with respect to Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), a seismic intensity parameter which may be easily retrieved either from local authorities and public databases or from site dependent hazard analysis. Fragility functions and seismic intensity threshold values for the failure and for the loss of containment of gas from pipeline systems are also given. The obtained functions can be easily implemented in existing codes and guidelines for industrial risk assessment, land-use planning, and for the design of public distribution network, with specific reference to Natural—Technological interaction (Na-Tech). -- Highlights: • The seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines is analyzed. • A collection of data for pipelines damaged by earthquake is given. • Damage states and risk states for pipelines are defined. • Consequence-based fragility formulations for the loss of containment are given • Seismic threshold values for public authority, risk assessment and gas distribution are shown

  10. Twelve-bit 20-GHz reduced size pipeline accumulator in 0.25 μm SiGe:C technology for direct digital synthesiser applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Khafaji, M. M.; Johansen, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    /Fmax of 180/220 GHz. The accumulator architecture omits the pre-skewing registers of the pipeline, thereby lowering both power consumption and circuit complexity. Some limitations to this design are discussed and the necessary equations for determining the phase jump encountered each time the control word...... (synthesised frequency) is changed are presented. For many applications employing signal processing after detection, this phase shift can then be corrected for. Compared to a full pipeline architecture (omitting the input circuitry for the most significant bit, as is customary for such designs......This article presents a 20 GHz, 12-bit pipeline accumulator with a reduced number of registers, suitable for direct digital synthesiser (DDS) applications. The accumulator is implemented in the IHP SG25H1 (0.25 μm) SiGe:C technology featuring heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with Ft...

  11. Twelve-bit 20-GHz reduced size pipeline accumulator in 0.25 µm SiGe:C technology for direct digital synthesiser applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Khafaji, M. Mahdi; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2012-01-01

    /Fmax of 180/220 GHz respectively. The accumulator architecture omits the pre-skewing registers of the pipeline, thereby lowering both power consumption and circuit complexity. Some limitations to this design are discussed and the necessary equations for determining the phase jump encountered each time......This article presents a 20 GHz, 12-bit pipeline accumulator with a reduced number of registers, suitable for direct digital synthesizer (DDS) applications. The accumulator is implemented in the IHP SG25H1 (0.25um) SiGe:C technology featuring heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) with Ft...... the control word (synthesized frequency) is changed are presented. For many applications employing signal processing after detection, this phase shift can then be corrected for. Compared to a full pipeline architecture, the implemented 12-bit accumulator reduces the number of registers by 55% and the power...

  12. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Yoji

    2015-10-22

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  13. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Yoji; Yasuike, Motoshige; Nishiki, Issei; Iwasaki, Yuki; Fujiwara, Atushi; Kawato, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshihiro; Nagai, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Gojobori, Takashi; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  14. 78 FR 55775 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... important tool for identifying safety trends in the hazardous liquid pipeline industry. In a Federal... reference of American Petroleum Institute (API) API 1130 (the industry standard on leak detection) which... requests that volume exiting a system during a controlled event not be reported. PHMSA Response: PHMSA does...

  15. Pipeline mapping and strain assessment using ILI (In-line Inspection) tolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, Brian [GE PII Pipeline Solutions, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Huewener, Thomas [E.ON Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    GE PII IMU Mapping inspection system measures pipeline location coordinates (x, y, z) and provides data for determining pipeline curvature and consequential pipeline bending strain. The changes in strain can be used in the application of structural analyses and integrity evaluation of pipeline systems. This paper reviews the Inertia Measuring Unit (IMU) system and field investigation works performed on a high-pressure gas pipeline for E.ON Ruhrgas AG. The Inertial Measuring Unit of the pipeline inspection tool provides continuous measurement of the pipeline centreline coordinates. More than one inspection run was performed which allowed a more accurate strain comparison to be made. Repeatability is important to establish the reasons for increasing strain values detected at specific pipeline sections through in-line inspection surveys conducted in regular intervals over many years. Moreover, the flexibility resulting from a combination of different sensor technologies, makes it possible to provide a more complete picture of the overall situation. This paper reviews the work involved in detecting, locating and determining the magnitude and type of strain corresponding to the pipeline movement in field. (author)

  16. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0023] RIN 2137-AE72 Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation (DOT...

  17. A Review of Fatigue Crack Growth for Pipeline Steels Exposed to Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanninga, N; Slifka, A; Levy, Y; White, C

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen pipeline systems offer an economical means of storing and transporting energy in the form of hydrogen gas. Pipelines can be used to transport hydrogen that has been generated at solar and wind farms to and from salt cavern storage locations. In addition, pipeline transportation systems will be essential before widespread hydrogen fuel cell vehicle technology becomes a reality. Since hydrogen pipeline use is expected to grow, the mechanical integrity of these pipelines will need to be validated under the presence of pressurized hydrogen. This paper focuses on a review of the fatigue crack growth response of pipeline steels when exposed to gaseous hydrogen environments. Because of defect-tolerant design principles in pipeline structures, it is essential that designers consider hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth behavior in these applications.

  18. Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle

    2005-12-30

    The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

  19. Alberta benefits : economic impacts of northern gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylska, N.L.; Graebeiel, J.E.; Mirus, R.K.; Janzen, S.S.; Frost, R.J.

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the potential economic impact and benefits to Alberta from the proposed development of the Alaska Highway Pipeline (AHP) and the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline (MVP). It also includes a planning framework for business and industry in the province. Each proposed pipeline was evaluated separately. The paper includes a list of Alberta companies that stand to benefit from the construction of one or both pipelines. The main findings indicate that northern pipeline development will bring opportunities to Alberta business in design, construction and management. There will be a secondary impact on petrochemical industries and infrastructure. Both pipeline developments will increase employment and yield billions of dollars in gross domestic product. The existing oil and gas industry in Alberta will receive value-added opportunities in areas of specialized expertise such as natural gas and natural gas liquid storage, natural gas liquid processing, and gas to liquid technology projects. The industry will also benefit from power generation and cogeneration. The northern pipelines have the potential to improve the role of First Nations in economic development. Gas consumers in Alberta should benefit from a secure supply of gas and lower prices. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Discrete pre-processing step effects in registration-based pipelines, a preliminary volumetric study on T1-weighted images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncy, Nathan M; Hedges-Muncy, Ariana M; Kirwan, C Brock

    2017-01-01

    Pre-processing MRI scans prior to performing volumetric analyses is common practice in MRI studies. As pre-processing steps adjust the voxel intensities, the space in which the scan exists, and the amount of data in the scan, it is possible that the steps have an effect on the volumetric output. To date, studies have compared between and not within pipelines, and so the impact of each step is unknown. This study aims to quantify the effects of pre-processing steps on volumetric measures in T1-weighted scans within a single pipeline. It was our hypothesis that pre-processing steps would significantly impact ROI volume estimations. One hundred fifteen participants from the OASIS dataset were used, where each participant contributed three scans. All scans were then pre-processed using a step-wise pipeline. Bilateral hippocampus, putamen, and middle temporal gyrus volume estimations were assessed following each successive step, and all data were processed by the same pipeline 5 times. Repeated-measures analyses tested for a main effects of pipeline step, scan-rescan (for MRI scanner consistency) and repeated pipeline runs (for algorithmic consistency). A main effect of pipeline step was detected, and interestingly an interaction between pipeline step and ROI exists. No effect for either scan-rescan or repeated pipeline run was detected. We then supply a correction for noise in the data resulting from pre-processing.

  1. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 [Docket ID PHMSA-2011-0023] RIN 2137-AE72 Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Advance notice of...

  2. Transient flow assurance for determination of operational control of heavy oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejo, Victor [TransCanada Pipelines Ltd, (Canada); Mohitpour, Mo [Tempsys Pipeline Solutions Inc., (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Pipeline transmission systems have been designed traditionally using steady state simulations. Steady state simulation provided sufficient values for simple systems, but is limited in dealing with surges in flow rates, loss of facilities and facility operation. A dynamic approach is required to test the capacity of a system for various fluids. This paper investigated the use of transient analysis of liquid pipelines in order to improve the design of these pipelines and to achieve operational benefits. The transient method and its use are discussed. Dynamic analysis was applied to the Keystone Pipeline Project. The purpose of the study was first to determine the system capacity and data for transportation of Heavy DilBit, and then to implement batch transportation of a volume of synthetic crude oil. It was found that the use of transient modeling in design and operational assessment of a liquid pipeline ensures system capability, control, safety and integrity.

  3. Influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H. [ESIME Zacatenco, SEPI Electronica Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [DIM-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perez-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Statistical studies performed in Mexico indicate that leakage due to external pitting corrosion is the most likely cause of failure of buried pipelines. When pipelines are inspected with the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology, which is routinely used, the magnetization level of every part of the pipeline changes as the MFL tool travels through it. Remanent magnetization stays in the pipeline wall after inspection, at levels that may differ from a point to the next. This paper studies the influence of the magnetic field on pitting corrosion. Experiments were carried out on grade 52 steel under a level of remanent magnetization and other laboratory conditions that imitated the conditions of a pipeline after an MLF inspection. Non-magnetized control samples and magnetized samples were subjected to pitting by immersion in a solution containing chlorine and sulfide ions for seven days, and then inspected with optical microscopy. Results show that the magnetic field in the pipeline wall significantly increases pitting corrosion.

  4. A Reliability Assessment of the Hydrostatic Test of Pipeline with 0.8 Design Factor in the West–East China Natural Gas Pipeline III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of 0.8 design factor in Chinese pipeline industry is a breakthrough with the success of the test pipe section in the west–east China gas pipeline III. For such a design factor, the traditional P-V (Pressure-Volume curve based pressure test control cannot describe the details of the process, and the 0/1 type failure is not an efficient index to show the safety level of the pipeline. In this paper, a reliability based assessment method is proposed to monitor the real-time failure probability of the pipeline during the hydrostatic test process. The reliability index can be used as the degree of risk. Following the actual hydrostatic testing of a test pipe section with 0.8 design factor in the west–east China gas pipeline III, reliability analysis was performed using Monte Carlo technique. The basic values of input parameters of the limit state equations are based on the data collected from either the tested section or the recommended value in the codes. The analysis of limit states, i.e., the yielding deformation and the excessive plastic deformation of pipeline, proceeded based on these distributions. Finally, it is found that the gradually increased water pressure makes the failure probability increase accordingly. A reliability assessment method was proposed and illustrated with the practical pressure test process.

  5. Development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romashko, N.I.; Moshnin, E.N.; Timokhin, V.S.; Bryukhanov, Yu.V.; Lebedev, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP high-pressure pipelines are presented. The main experimental data characterizing technological possibilities of the process are given. The technological process and design of the stamp assure production of laterals from ovalized bars per one heating of the bar and per one running of the press cronnhead. Introduction of new technology decreased labour input of lateral production, reliability and serviceability of pipelines increased in this case. Introduction of this technology gives a considerable benefit

  6. Pipeline monitoring with interferometry in non-arid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCardle, Adrian; Rabus, Bernhard; Ghuman, Parwant [MacDonald Dettwiler, Richmond, BC (Canada); Freymueller, Jeff T. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Interferometry has become a proven technique for accurately measuring ground movements caused by subsidence, landslides, earthquakes and volcanoes. Using space borne sensors such as the ERS, ENVISAT and RADARSAT satellites, ground deformation can be monitored on a millimeter level. Traditionally interferometry has been limited to arid areas however new technology has allowed for successful monitoring in vegetated regions and areas of changing land-cover. Analysis of ground movement of the Trans-Alaskan pipeline demonstrates how these techniques can offer pipeline engineers a new tool for observing potential dangers to pipeline integrity. Results from Interferometric Point Target Analysis were compared with GPS measurements and speckle tracking interferometry was demonstrated to measure a major earthquake. (author)

  7. Pipeline external corrosion direct assessment methodology: lessons learned - part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Angel R. [DNV Columbus, Inc., OH (United States)

    2009-07-01

    DNV Columbus (Former CC Technologies) played a key role in the development of Direct Assessment (DA) methodologies, providing leadership in the NACE technical committees charged with development of DA standards. Since the first publication of NACE Standard RP-0502-2002, External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) has been successfully applied over a great number of pipelines to evaluate the impact of external corrosion on the pipeline integrity. This paper summarizes the results of applying ECDA over a selected number of underground pipelines and presents interesting facts about the methodology. (author)

  8. Pressure Transient Model of Water-Hydraulic Pipelines with Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient pressure investigation of water-hydraulic pipelines is a challenge in the fluid transmission field, since the flow continuity equation and momentum equation are partial differential, and the vaporous cavitation has high dynamics; the frictional force caused by fluid viscosity is especially uncertain. In this study, due to the different transient pressure dynamics in upstream and downstream pipelines, the finite difference method (FDM is adopted to handle pressure transients with and without cavitation, as well as steady friction and frequency-dependent unsteady friction. Different from the traditional method of characteristics (MOC, the FDM is advantageous in terms of the simple and convenient computation. Furthermore, the mechanism of cavitation growth and collapse are captured both upstream and downstream of the water-hydraulic pipeline, i.e., the cavitation start time, the end time, the duration, the maximum volume, and the corresponding time points. By referring to the experimental results of two previous works, the comparative simulation results of two computation methods are verified in experimental water-hydraulic pipelines, which indicates that the finite difference method shows better data consistency than the MOC.

  9. Worldwide natural gas pipeline situation. Sekai no tennen gas pipeline jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, T [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1993-03-01

    Constructing natural gas pipelines in wide areas requires investments of a huge amount. Many countries are building natural gas supply infrastructures under public support as nations' basic policy of promoting use of natural gas. This paper describes the present conditions of building pipelines in Western Europe, the U.S.A., Korea and Taiwan. In Western Europe, transporting companies established in line with the national policy own trunk pipelines and storage facilities, and import and distribute natural gas. The U.S.A. has 2300 small and large pipeline companies bearing transportation business. Pipelines extend about 1.9 million kilometers in total, with trunk pipelines accounting for about 440,000 kilometers. The companies are given eminent domain for the right of way. Korea has a plan to build a pipeline network with a distance of 1600 kilometers in around 2000. Taiwan has completed trunk pipelines extending 330 kilometers in two years. In Japan, the industry is preparing draft plans for wide area pipeline construction. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Real-Time Location-Based Rendering of Urban Underground Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concealment and complex spatial relationships of urban underground pipelines present challenges in managing them. Recently, augmented reality (AR has been a hot topic around the world, because it can enhance our perception of reality by overlaying information about the environment and its objects onto the real world. Using AR, underground pipelines can be displayed accurately, intuitively, and in real time. We analyzed the characteristics of AR and their application in underground pipeline management. We mainly focused on the AR pipeline rendering procedure based on the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS and simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM technology. First, in aiming to improve the spatial accuracy of pipeline rendering, we used differential corrections received from the Ground-Based Augmentation System to compute the precise coordinates of users in real time, which helped us accurately retrieve and draw pipelines near the users, and by scene recognition the accuracy can be further improved. Second, in terms of pipeline rendering, we used Visual-Inertial Odometry (VIO to track the rendered objects and made some improvements to visual effects, which can provide steady dynamic tracking of pipelines even in relatively markerless environments and outdoors. Finally, we used the occlusion method based on real-time 3D reconstruction to realistically express the immersion effect of underground pipelines. We compared our methods to the existing methods and concluded that the method proposed in this research improves the spatial accuracy of pipeline rendering and the portability of the equipment. Moreover, the updating of our rendering procedure corresponded with the moving of the user’s location, thus we achieved a dynamic rendering of pipelines in the real environment.

  11. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections

  12. Automated Laser Ultrasonic Testing (ALUT) of Hybrid Arc Welds for Pipeline Construction, #272

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    One challenge in developing new gas reserves is the high cost of pipeline construction. Welding costs are a major component of overall construction costs. Industry continues to seek advanced pipeline welding technologies to improve productivity and s...

  13. 30 CFR 254.47 - Determining the volume of oil of your worst case discharge scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... break. You must calculate this volume as follows: (1) Add the pipeline system leak detection time to the... the total volume of oil that would leak from the pipeline after it is shut in. Calculate this volume... lines on the facility. Flow line volume may be estimated; and (2) The volume of oil calculated to leak...

  14. ASEAN--USAID Buildings Energy Conservation Project final report. Volume 2, Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.

    1992-06-01

    This volume reports on research in the area of energy conservation technology applied to commercial buildings in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. Unlike Volume I of this series, this volume is a compilation of original technical papers prepared by different authors in the project. In this regard, this volume is much like a technical journal. The papers that follow report on research conducted by both US and ASEAN researchers. The authors representing Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand, come from a range of positions in the energy arena, including government energy agencies, electric utilities, and universities. As such, they account for a wide range of perspectives on energy problems and the role that technology can play in solving them. This volume is about using energy more intelligently. In some cases, the effort is towards the use of more advanced technologies, such as low-emittance coatings on window glass, thermal energy storage, or cogeneration. In others, the emphasis is towards reclaiming traditional techniques for rendering energy services, but in new contexts such as lighting office buildings with natural light, or cooling buildings of all types with natural ventilation. Used in its broadest sense, the term ``technology`` encompasses all of the topics addressed in this volume. Along with the more customary associations of technology, such as advanced materials and equipment and the analysis of their performance, this volume treats design concepts and techniques, analysis of ``secondary`` impacts from applying technologies (i.e., unintended impacts, or impacts on parties not directly involved in the purchase and use of the technology), and the collection of primary data used for conducting technical analyses.

  15. PipelineDog: a simple and flexible graphic pipeline construction and maintenance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anbo; Zhang, Yeting; Sun, Yazhou; Xing, Jinchuan

    2018-05-01

    Analysis pipelines are an essential part of bioinformatics research, and ad hoc pipelines are frequently created by researchers for prototyping and proof-of-concept purposes. However, most existing pipeline management system or workflow engines are too complex for rapid prototyping or learning the pipeline concept. A lightweight, user-friendly and flexible solution is thus desirable. In this study, we developed a new pipeline construction and maintenance tool, PipelineDog. This is a web-based integrated development environment with a modern web graphical user interface. It offers cross-platform compatibility, project management capabilities, code formatting and error checking functions and an online repository. It uses an easy-to-read/write script system that encourages code reuse. With the online repository, it also encourages sharing of pipelines, which enhances analysis reproducibility and accountability. For most users, PipelineDog requires no software installation. Overall, this web application provides a way to rapidly create and easily manage pipelines. PipelineDog web app is freely available at http://web.pipeline.dog. The command line version is available at http://www.npmjs.com/package/pipelinedog and online repository at http://repo.pipeline.dog. ysun@kean.edu or xing@biology.rutgers.edu or ysun@diagnoa.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Mathematical modeling of non-stationary gas flow in gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, V. G.; Nikolaev, A. K.; Lykov, Y. V.; Duchnevich, L. N.

    2018-03-01

    An analysis of the operation of the gas transportation system shows that for a considerable part of time pipelines operate in an unsettled regime of gas movement. Its pressure and flow rate vary along the length of pipeline and over time as a result of uneven consumption and selection, switching on and off compressor units, shutting off stop valves, emergence of emergency leaks. The operational management of such regimes is associated with difficulty of reconciling the operating modes of individual sections of gas pipeline with each other, as well as with compressor stations. Determining the grounds that cause change in the operating mode of the pipeline system and revealing patterns of these changes determine the choice of its parameters. Therefore, knowledge of the laws of changing the main technological parameters of gas pumping through pipelines in conditions of non-stationary motion is of great importance for practice.

  17. Effects of C and Si on strain aging of strain-based API X60 pipeline steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyo Kyung; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Sunghak; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Young-Woon; Yoo, Jang Yong; Hwang, Byoungchul; Shin, Sang Yong

    2017-05-01

    Four types of strain-based API X60 pipeline steels were fabricated by varying the C and Si contents, and the effects of C and Si on strain aging were investigated. The 0.05 wt% C steels consisted mainly of polygonal ferrite (PF), whereas the 0.08 wt% C steels consisted of acicular ferrite (AF). The volume fraction of AF increased with increasing C content because C is an austenite stabilizer element. The volume fractions of bainitic ferrite (BF) of the 0.15 wt% Si steels were higher than those of the 0.25 wt% Si steels, whereas the volume fractions of the secondary phases were lower. From the tensile properties before and after the aging process of the strainbased API X60 pipeline steels, the yield strength increased and the uniform and total elongation decreased, which is the strain aging effect. The strain aging effect in the strain-based API X60 pipeline steels was minimized when the volume fraction of AF was increased and secondary phases were distributed uniformly. On the other hand, an excessively high C content formed fine precipitates, and the strain aging effect occurred because of the interactions among dislocations and fine precipitates.

  18. United States petroleum pipelines: An empirical analysis of pipeline sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, L. L.

    1980-12-01

    The undersizing theory hypothesizes that integrated oil companies have a strong economic incentive to size the petroleum pipelines they own and ship over in a way that means that some of the demand must utilize higher cost alternatives. The DOJ theory posits that excess or monopoly profits are earned due to the natural monopoly characteristics of petroleum pipelines and the existence of market power in some pipelines at either the upstream or downstream market. The theory holds that independent petroleum pipelines owned by companies not otherwise affiliated with the petroleum industry (independent pipelines) do not have these incentives and all the efficiencies of pipeline transportation are passed to the ultimate consumer. Integrated oil companies on the other hand, keep these cost efficiencies for themselves in the form of excess profits.

  19. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  20. Dynamic modelling and real-time leak detection for NGL pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, B.R.; Svrcek, W.Y. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Cooke, J.G.; Daye, R.E. [Rangeland Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presented newly developed steady-state and dynamic models commissioned for natural gas liquids (NGL) pipelines near Empress, Alberta. The work demonstrates a unique university-industry collaboration for solving the challenge of reliable pipeline leak detection. The flexible, custom real-time leak detection system was tested on the dynamic simulation. It was successfully used to replace a volume balance system for NGL pipelines at Empress in March 2003. A custom pipeline monitoring system was also developed to integrate with the existing pipeline supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. Simulation results enabled a change in the control scheme of the pipelines that resulted in less transient operation. The premise of the leak detection system is a rigorous thermodynamics and dynamic mass balance calculation based on real-time information from field flow, pressure and temperature sensors. The application of the system makes it possible to minimize or eliminate false or nuisance alarms, which is critical to the confidence of the monitoring system. The volumetric and mass imbalance formulae permit the system to cross check the calculation and then make important decisions regarding the sounding of alarms. The custom solution offers flexibility for use in a wide variety of conditions and applications. In addition, it is cost effective and locally supported. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  1. Pipelines from the north : a U.S. perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, J.

    2003-01-01

    The United States will continue to look to Canada and Alaska for a significant part of its natural gas supply in an effort to meet its growing demand for energy. The United States depends on Canadian gas as a reliable and secure supply of energy, and is therefore examining natural gas markets and the wide range of supply opportunities. This presentation highlighted changes in cross border natural gas trade in North America and noted that 94 per cent of natural gas going to the United States from Canada is shipped via pipeline. On the liquefied natural gas (LNG) front, U.S. exports to Mexico now exceed imports, but import volumes from Trinidad and Nigeria are increasing as expected. Total import volumes in 2001 surpassed the previous year. A look at the infrastructure of LNG in the United States was also presented along with the advantages and limitations of each option. Cost comparisons were also presented. It was noted that any import or LNG project would result in unique economics. LNG projects are now cheaper because of better engineering, economies of scale and better pipeline economics. The U.S. National Energy Policy recommends that the pipeline to bring Alaskan gas to U.S. markets should be constructed as soon as possible. It was emphasized that any project to ship natural gas from Alaska to the lower 48 will need to work closely with Canada in order to be successful. 15 figs

  2. Focus on safety : a comparative analysis of pipeline safety performance 2000-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) is responsible for the promotion of safety, environmental protection and economic efficiency in the Canadian public interest in regulating the design, construction, operation and abandonment of interprovincial and international pipelines within Canada. This second annual report provides a review of the safety performance of oil and gas pipeline companies that are regulated by the NEB. The data used to prepare this report originates from two sources: incident reports submitted under the Onshore Pipeline Regulations, 1999, and from information voluntarily provided by pipeline companies under the Safety Performance Indicators (SPI) initiative. Data comparisons with external reference organizations were included. Six key indicators have been identified to provide comprehensive measures of safety performance for pipeline companies: fatalities, ruptures, injury frequencies, liquid releases, gas releases, and unauthorized activities on the right of way. The safety performance of the federally regulated pipeline industry within Canada was satisfactory during this reporting period (2000-2002). The contractor injury frequency rates reported in 2002 were lower than those reported in 2001, and exhibited more consistency with the levels reported in 2000. The NEB is of the opinion that the elevated number of liquid hydrocarbon spills reported in 2000 were a result of elevated construction levels. No fatalities were reported. There was an increase to three from two in the number of ruptures, due in large part to metal loss (corrosion) and cracking, and external interference (third party damage). The number of spills increased to 76 in 2002 from 55 in 2001, which appears to be more in line with industry averages. The volume of hydrocarbon liquid released in 2002 represented one third the volume released in 2001. refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs

  3. Removable pipeline plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassalotti, M.; Anastasi, F.

    1984-01-01

    A removable plugging device for a pipeline, and particularly for pressure testing a steam pipeline in a boiling water reactor, wherein an inflatable annular sealing member seals off the pipeline and characterized by radially movable shoes for holding the plug in place, each shoe being pivotally mounted for self-adjusting engagement with even an out-of-round pipeline interior

  4. Pipeline integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyt, J.; Macara, C.

    1997-12-31

    This paper focuses on some of the issues necessary for pipeline operators to consider when addressing the challenge of managing the integrity of their systems. Topics are: Definition; business justification; creation and safeguarding of technical integrity; control and deviation from technical integrity; pipelines; pipeline failure assessment; pipeline integrity assessment; leak detection; emergency response. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID... natural gas distribution construction. Natural gas distribution pipelines are subject to a unique subset... distribution pipeline construction practices. This workshop will focus solely on natural gas distribution...

  6. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A, Characterization, decontamination, dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

  7. Hierarchical Leak Detection and Localization Method in Natural Gas Pipeline Monitoring Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Yu; Renjian Feng; Jiangwen Wan; Yinfeng Wu; Yang Yu

    2011-01-01

    In light of the problems of low recognition efficiency, high false rates and poor localization accuracy in traditional pipeline security detection technology, this paper proposes a type of hierarchical leak detection and localization method for use in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. In the signal preprocessing phase, original monitoring signals are dealt with by wavelet transform technology to extract the single mode signals as well as characteristic parameters. In the initia...

  8. Pipeline oil fire detection with MODIS active fire products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbuyi, M. G.; Martinez, P.; Eckardt, F. D.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate 85 129 MODIS satellite active fire events from 2007 to 2015 in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The region is the oil base for Nigerian economy and the hub of oil exploration where oil facilities (i.e. flowlines, flow stations, trunklines, oil wells and oil fields) are domiciled, and from where crude oil and refined products are transported to different Nigerian locations through a network of pipeline systems. Pipeline and other oil facilities are consistently susceptible to oil leaks due to operational or maintenance error, and by acts of deliberate sabotage of the pipeline equipment which often result in explosions and fire outbreaks. We used ground oil spill reports obtained from the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) database (see www.oilspillmonitor.ng) to validate MODIS satellite data. NOSDRA database shows an estimate of 10 000 spill events from 2007 - 2015. The spill events were filtered to include largest spills by volume and events occurring only in the Niger Delta (i.e. 386 spills). By projecting both MODIS fire and spill as `input vector' layers with `Points' geometry, and the Nigerian pipeline networks as `from vector' layers with `LineString' geometry in a geographical information system, we extracted the nearest MODIS events (i.e. 2192) closed to the pipelines by 1000m distance in spatial vector analysis. The extraction process that defined the nearest distance to the pipelines is based on the global practices of the Right of Way (ROW) in pipeline management that earmarked 30m strip of land to the pipeline. The KML files of the extracted fires in a Google map validated their source origin to be from oil facilities. Land cover mapping confirmed fire anomalies. The aim of the study is to propose a near-real-time monitoring of spill events along pipeline routes using 250 m spatial resolution of MODIS active fire detection sensor when such spills are accompanied by fire events in the study location.

  9. Pipeline politics—A study of India′s proposed cross border gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle; Kulkarni, Sanket Sudhir; Ahuja, Dilip R.

    2013-01-01

    India′s energy situation is characterized by increasing energy demand, high fossil fuel dependency, large import shares, and significant portion of population deprived of modern energy services. At this juncture, natural gas, being the cleanest fossil fuel with high efficiency and cost effectiveness, is expected to play an important role. India, with only 0.6% of proven world reserves, is not endowed with adequate natural gas domestically. Nevertheless, there are gas reserves in neighbouring regions which gives rise to the prospects of three cross border gas pipeline projects, namely, Iran–Pakistan–India, Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India, and Myanmar–Bangladesh–India. This study is a political analysis of these pipeline projects. First, it provides justification on use of natural gas and promotion of cross border energy trade. Then it examines these three pipeline projects and analyses the security concerns, role of different actors, their positions, shifting goals, and strategies. The study develops scenarios on the basis of changing circumstances and discusses some of the pertinent issues like technology options for underground/underwater pipelines and role of private players. It also explores impact of India′s broader foreign relations and role of SAARC on the future of pipelines and proposes energy induced mutually assured protection (MAP) as a concept for regional security. -- Highlights: •We justify the need for cross border energy trade through gas pipelines for India. •We examine prospective pipeline projects—IPI, TAPI, MBI and their security issues. •We develop scenarios and analyze role of actors, their positions, and strategies. •We discuss technology and policy options for realizing these gas pipelines. •We propose energy induced mutually assured protection (MAP) for regional security

  10. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1998-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  11. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  12. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-04-21

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  13. Pollution from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines

  14. 75 FR 63774 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of... Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-481, delegated to DOT the authority to develop...

  15. 77 FR 61825 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID... program performance measures for gas distribution, gas transmission, and hazardous liquids pipelines. The... distribution pipelines (49 CFR 192.1007(e)), gas transmission pipelines (49 CFR 192.945) and hazardous liquids...

  16. Analysis of the changes in the consumption profile of the system use gas in Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline after integration with the Campinas-Rio Gas Pipeline; Analise das alteracoes do perfil de consumo de gas de sistema no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil apos a interligacao deste gasoduto com o Campinas-Rio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir Beserra dos; Bisaggio, Helio da Cunha; Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The natural gas pipeline transport is carried out by one or more compression stations. Each station possesses one or more compressors. The compressor's fuel is usually natural gas itself. The amount of natural gas consumed by the compressors fluctuates daily according to the demand at the city-gates. The daily operational result of a pipeline is known as imbalance. The imbalance is the difference between the natural gas entering into a in a pipeline and the volume delivered in the city-gates added to system use gas. The imbalance analyses in a pipeline that uses natural gas powered compressors requires the analyses of the system use gas. The aim of this work is to study the system use gas in the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline using the available data from the Superintendencia de Comercializacao e Movimentacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados e Gas Natural - ANP and compare the change of the volume consumed before and after the entry into operation of the Campinas-Rio gas pipeline. (author)

  17. A New Detecting Technology for External Anticorrosive Coating Defects of Pipelines Based on Ultrasonic Guided Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujun; Zuo, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    The external anticorrosive coating is the shelter for preventing steel pipelines from Corrosive damage. A number of pipelines face severe corrosive problems for the performance decrease of the coating, especially during long-term services, which usually led to safety accidents. To solve the detection problem about the defect of anticorrosive layer for pipeline, a new detection method for anticorrosive layer of pipelines based on Ultrasonic Guided Wave was proposed in the paper. The results from the investigation show a possibility of using the Ultrasonic Guided Wave method for detecting the damage of pipeline’s External Anticorrosive Coating.

  18. Pipelines 'R' us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1997-01-01

    The geopolitical background to the export of oil and gas from Kazakhstan by pipeline is explored with particular reference to the sensitivities of the USA. There are now a number of pipeline proposals which would enable Kazakhstan to get its hydrocarbons to world markets. The construction of two of these formed part of a major oil deal signed recently with China in the face of stiff competition from major US companies. The most convenient and cost effective route, connecting up with Iran's existing pipeline network to the Gulf, is unlikely to be developed given continuing US sanctions against Iran. Equally unlikely seems to be the Turkmenistan to Pakistan pipeline in the light of the political volatility of Afghanistan. US companies continue to face limits on export capacity via the existing Russian pipelines from Kazakhstan. A temporary solution could be to carry some oil in the existing pipeline from Azerbaijan to Georgia which has been upgraded and is due to become operational soon, and later in a second proposed pipeline on this route. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium, consisting of three countries and eleven international companies, is building a 1500 km pipeline from the Tergiz field to Novorossiysk on the Black Sea with a view to completion in 2000. An undersea pipeline crossing the Caspian from Azerbaijan is being promoted by Turkey. There is an international perception that within the next five years Kazakhstan could be in a position to export its oil via as many as half a dozen different routes. (UK)

  19. Digitally assisted pipeline ADCs theory and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Murmann, Boris

    2007-01-01

    List of Figures. List of Tables. Acknowledgements. Preface. 1: Introduction. 1. Motivation. 2. Overview. 3. Chapter Organization. 2: Performance Trends. 1. Introduction. 2. Digital Performance Trends. 3. ADC Performance Trends. 3: Scaling Analysis. 1. Introduction. 2. Basic Device Scaling from a Digital Perspective. 3. Technology Metrics for Analog Circuits. 4. Scaling Impact on Matching-Limited Circuits. 5. Scaling Impact on Noise-Limited Circuits. 4: Improving Analog Circuit Efficiency. 1. Introduction. 2. Analog Circuit Challenges. 3. The Cost of Feedback. 4. Two-Stage Feedback Amplifier vs. Open-Loop Gain Stage. 5. Discussion. 5: Open-Loop Pipelined ADCs. 1. A Brief Review of Pipelined ADCs. 2. Conventional Stage Implementation. 3. Open-Loop Pipeline Stages. 4. Alternative Transconductor Implementations. 6: Digital Nonlinearity Correction. 1. Overview. 2. Error Model and Digital Correction. 3. Alternative Error Models. 7: Statistics-Based Parameter Estimation. 1. Introduction. 2. Modulation Approach. 3. R...

  20. 76 FR 44985 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    .... PHMSA-2011-0177] Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding AGENCY... liquid pipelines to communicate the potential for damage to pipeline facilities caused by severe flooding... pipelines in case of flooding. ADDRESSES: This document can be viewed on the Office of Pipeline Safety home...

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Dismantlement, Remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  2. Gathering pipeline methane emissions in Fayetteville shale pipelines and scoping guidelines for future pipeline measurement campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Zimmerle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gathering pipelines, which transport gas from well pads to downstream processing, are a sector of the natural gas supply chain for which little measured methane emissions data are available. This study performed leak detection and measurement on 96 km of gathering pipeline and the associated 56 pigging facilities and 39 block valves. The study found one underground leak accounting for 83% (4.0 kg CH4/hr of total measured emissions. Methane emissions for the 4684 km of gathering pipeline in the study area were estimated at 402 kg CH4/hr [95 to 1065 kg CH4/hr, 95% CI], or 1% [0.2% to 2.6%] of all methane emissions measured during a prior aircraft study of the same area. Emissions estimated by this study fall within the uncertainty range of emissions estimated using emission factors from EPA’s 2015 Greenhouse Inventory and study activity estimates. While EPA’s current inventory is based upon emission factors from distribution mains measured in the 1990s, this study indicates that using emission factors from more recent distribution studies could significantly underestimate emissions from gathering pipelines. To guide broader studies of pipeline emissions, we also estimate the fraction of the pipeline length within a basin that must be measured to constrain uncertainty of pipeline emissions estimates to within 1% of total basin emissions. The study provides both substantial insight into the mix of emission sources and guidance for future gathering pipeline studies, but since measurements were made in a single basin, the results are not sufficiently representative to provide methane emission factors at the regional or national level.

  3. Detection test of wireless network signal strength and GPS positioning signal in underground pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Yunwei; Chen, Ling

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of selecting positioning technology for inspection robot in underground pipeline environment, the wireless network signal strength and GPS positioning signal testing are carried out in the actual underground pipeline environment. Firstly, the strength variation of the 3G wireless network signal and Wi-Fi wireless signal provided by China Telecom and China Unicom ground base stations are tested, and the attenuation law of these wireless signals along the pipeline is analyzed quantitatively and described. Then, the receiving data of the GPS satellite signal in the pipeline are tested, and the attenuation of GPS satellite signal under underground pipeline is analyzed. The testing results may be reference for other related research which need to consider positioning in pipeline.

  4. New application technology for 'in situ' pipeline protection using pigging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretorius, Louis Charles [Corrocoat SA (PTY) Ltd., Durban (South Africa)

    2005-07-01

    Pigging of long pipelines is a technique for in situ (field) coating, creating seamless internal structural linings. Originally developed for cleaning pipes, the system was adapted to apply internal anti-corrosion protection to pipes using a thin epoxy layer, which had some problems in weld coverage, stress cracking, poor cold weather curing and the inability to fill pitting corrosion metal loss. New coating materials, revised application methods and modified pigging equipment have made it possible to apply in situ liquid film coatings up to 1 mm thick, as an internal corrosion barrier to pipes, in a single application (similar to continuous screeding) resulting in a bonded 'GRP pipe within a steel pipe'. The method can be used for new projects on fully welded pipe lines avoiding coating problems associated with flange joints and/or couplings, or for refurbishment of old pipelines, varying from 150-900 mm diameter, up to 12 km long. Pipes can be buried, submerged, continuously welded or flanged. Many different pipes, such as oil platform to shore based pipelines, can all be treated using this method. Thick film polymer pigging techniques create new possibilities for Engineers to extend the life of pipeline systems, with significant cost savings compared to replacement pipe. (author)

  5. Using the direct current voltage gradient technology as a quality control tool during construction of new pipelines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masilela, Z

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available pipelines. This technique is now increasingly gaining popularity as a good quality control tool when used on newly laid pipelines to detect coating damage, most of which could be attributed to construction work. On a recently built 50 km long gas pipeline...

  6. Fusion Technology 1996. Proceedings. Volume 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C.; Serra, F.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of these proceedings was to provide a platform for the exchange of information on the design, construction and operation of fusion experiments. The technology which is being developed for the next step devices and fusion reactors was also covered. Sections in volume 1 concern (A) first wall, divertors and vacuum systems; (B) plasma heating and control; (C) plasma engineering and control; and (D) experimental systems. The sections in volume 2 deal with (E) magnet and related power supplies; (F) fuel cycle and tritium processing systems; (G) blanket technology/materials; (H) assembly, remote handling and waste management and storage; and (I) safety and environment, and reactor studies

  7. 77 FR 34123 - Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0100] Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines AGENCY: Office of Pipeline Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION...

  8. Study on the petroleum recovery technology : Analysis of pipeline flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Joon; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, In Kee; Huh, Dae Gee [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The petroleum exploration activities have been performed by our own technology in the concession Block VI-I in Korean continental shelf for more than 10 years. Gas and gas condensate were discovered from several exploratory wells drilled in this block. This year, the news of another hit in the well of Gorae-V was very encouraging. Different from the previous gas discoveries, the reservoir properties and the productivity of Gorea-V well were excellent and the reserve estimate was very optimistic for the gas field development in this region. Gas consumption was very rapidly increased during recent years because of the image of cleaner fuel compared with other fossil fuels and convenience of usage. Korea is the fifth country in the world in terms of total quantity of petroleum consumption. This is the reason why the secure supply of oil and gas in the future is vital to our industry. The development of gas or gas condensate reservoir is different from that of oil reservoir. Especially sales contract must be made before the initiation of gas field exploitation. The production facilities including pipeline system must be selected and designed for further consideration. In this study, we have selected the 'K' offshore gas field where the water depth is 155 m and the distance from the shore is 50 km. The main purpose of this production system analysis is to select the optimum size and capacity of production facilities including pipeline in order to find the most appropriate production schedule. Production system analysis using nodal analysis includes deliverability calculation of the reservoir, production system optimization, recoverable reserve estimation, and performance forecast of the reservoir with three different production rate scenarios. The reservoir pressure is 4525 psia and the temperature is 248 deg.F. The OGIP of this reservoir was calculated as 24.64 BCF/well and the reservoir is expected to produce for up to 10 years. The porosity is 6% and the

  9. Northern gas fields and NGH technology. A feasibility study to develop natural gas hydrate technology for the international gas markets; Nordlige gassfelt and NGH-teknologi. En studie av muligheter for utvikling av naturgasshydratteknologi for det internasjonale gassmarked

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsland, Trond Ragnvald; Loy, Erik F.; Doesen, Sturle

    1997-12-31

    Two natural gas fields have been studied for three different technological solutions using two different economic theories. The aim was to examine whether a new technology for transporting natural gas, Natural Gas Hydrates (NGH), can compete with the existing technologies pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Natural gas can rarely be used immediately after production and the supply systems can be divided into four interrelated parts: 1) Exploration. 2) Development and production. 3) Transportation. 4) Distribution. The emphasis in the study is on production costs and transportation. Exploration is assumed carried out and thus viewed sunk cost. Distribution from landing point to consumers is not part of the study. Production can take place either onshore or offshore, the natural gas can be transported to the market either by pipeline or ship and the costs are becoming more important as the distance from the fields to the markets increase. Natural gas projects have long lead times and large capital requirements. New supplies will materialise then if there is confidence that demand for the gas exists at a profitable price. Therefore natural gas is generally sold on long term contracts. The conclusions are that economies of scale exist and that pipeline is the superior technology for high volumes but cannot compete for smaller volumes where the LNG technology has been the best alternative. However, the report concludes that the NGH can compete fully. The distance to the market where the natural gas is to be transported is crucial for choice of transportation mode. The shipping modes are superior for long transportation distances. NGH is superior to LNG also with regards to distance. Despite that the two economic models used for the evaluation have provided very different absolute project values, they have provided the same conclusions about the ranking of the different technologies. It is clear then that if NGH technology is developed further into a reliable and

  10. 75 FR 5244 - Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Regulations to require operators of gas distribution pipelines to develop and implement integrity management...

  11. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, J.L.; Kolpa, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines

  12. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines

  13. The JCSG high-throughput structural biology pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wooley, John; Wüthrich, Kurt; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The Joint Center for Structural Genomics high-throughput structural biology pipeline has delivered more than 1000 structures to the community over the past ten years and has made a significant contribution to the overall goal of the NIH Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) of expanding structural coverage of the protein universe. The Joint Center for Structural Genomics high-throughput structural biology pipeline has delivered more than 1000 structures to the community over the past ten years. The JCSG has made a significant contribution to the overall goal of the NIH Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) of expanding structural coverage of the protein universe, as well as making substantial inroads into structural coverage of an entire organism. Targets are processed through an extensive combination of bioinformatics and biophysical analyses to efficiently characterize and optimize each target prior to selection for structure determination. The pipeline uses parallel processing methods at almost every step in the process and can adapt to a wide range of protein targets from bacterial to human. The construction, expansion and optimization of the JCSG gene-to-structure pipeline over the years have resulted in many technological and methodological advances and developments. The vast number of targets and the enormous amounts of associated data processed through the multiple stages of the experimental pipeline required the development of variety of valuable resources that, wherever feasible, have been converted to free-access web-based tools and applications

  14. The Global Pipeline of GM crops: an outlook for 2020

    OpenAIRE

    PARISI CLAUDIA; TILLIE PASCAL; RODRIGUEZ CEREZO Emilio

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the worldwide pipeline of genetically modified (GM) crops that are likely to be commercialized and cultivated by farmers in the short to medium term. The database presented has been built by collecting information about the status of GM crops both in the regulatory pipeline of national biotechnology agencies and in the advanced phase of development by technology providers. Particular attention will be given to the 2020 outlook of new crops and traits, with a special fo...

  15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part C, Robotics/automation, Waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  16. Energy cost reduction in oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limeira, Fabio Machado; Correa, Joao Luiz Lavoura; Costa, Luciano Macedo Josino da; Silva, Jose Luiz da; Henriques, Fausto Metzger Pessanha [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the key questions of modern society consists on the rational use of the planet's natural resources and energy. Due to the lack of energy, many companies are forced to reduce their workload, especially during peak hours, because residential demand reaches its top and there is not enough energy to fulfill the needs of all users, which affects major industries. Therefore, using energy more wisely has become a strategic issue for any company, due to the limited supply and also for the excessive cost it represents. With the objective of saving energy and reducing costs for oil pipelines, it has been identified that the increase in energy consumption is primordially related to pumping stations and also by the way many facilities are operated, that is, differently from what was originally designed. Realizing this opportunity, in order to optimize the process, this article intends to examine the possibility of gains evaluating alternatives regarding changes in the pump scheme configuration and non-use of pump stations at peak hours. Initially, an oil pipeline with potential to reduce energy costs was chosen being followed by a history analysis, in order to confirm if there was sufficient room to change the operation mode. After confirming the pipeline choice, the system is briefly described and the literature is reviewed, explaining how the energy cost is calculated and also the main characteristics of a pumping system in series and in parallel. In that sequence, technically feasible alternatives are studied in order to operate and also to negotiate the energy demand contract. Finally, costs are calculated to identify the most economical alternative, that is, for a scenario with no increase in the actual transported volume of the pipeline and for another scenario that considers an increase of about 20%. The conclusion of this study indicates that the chosen pipeline can achieve a reduction on energy costs of up to 25% without the need for investments in new

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1, Technology Evaluation: Part B, Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the ranking os remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. The focus of Vol. 1, Pt. B, is RA, and it has been divided into six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which defines problems specific to the ER Program for ORNL. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of the TLD. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized into necessary subelement categories: RA, characterization, and robotics and automation. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning RA.

  18. A Pipelined and Parallel Architecture for Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Gothandaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA technology make reconfigurable computing using FPGAs an attractive platform for accelerating scientific applications. We develop a deeply pipelined and parallel architecture for Quantum Monte Carlo simulations using FPGAs. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations enable us to obtain the structural and energetic properties of atomic clusters. We experiment with different pipeline structures for each component of the design and develop a deeply pipelined architecture that provides the best performance in terms of achievable clock rate, while at the same time has a modest use of the FPGA resources. We discuss the details of the pipelined and generic architecture that is used to obtain the potential energy and wave function of a cluster of atoms.

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part B, Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.

  20. Pipeline system operability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Kjell [Det Norske Veritas (Norway); Davies, Ray [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline operators are continuously working to improve the safety of their systems and operations. In the US both liquid and gas pipeline operators have worked with the regulators over many years to develop more systematic approaches to pipeline integrity management. To successfully manage pipeline integrity, vast amounts of data from different sources needs to be collected, overlaid and analyzed in order to assess the current condition and predict future degradation. The efforts undertaken by the operators has had a significant impact on pipeline safety, nevertheless, during recent years we have seen a number of major high profile accidents. One can therefore ask how effective the pipeline integrity management systems and processes are. This paper will present one methodology 'The Pipeline System Operability Review' that can evaluate and rate the effectiveness of both the management systems and procedures, as well as the technical condition of the hardware. The result from the review can be used to compare the performance of different pipelines within one operating company, as well as benchmark with international best practices. (author)

  1. Pipeline system operability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Kjell [Det Norske Veritas (Norway); Davies, Ray [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline operators are continuously working to improve the safety of their systems and operations. In the US both liquid and gas pipeline operators have worked with the regulators over many years to develop more systematic approaches to pipeline integrity management. To successfully manage pipeline integrity, vast amounts of data from different sources needs to be collected, overlaid and analyzed in order to assess the current condition and predict future degradation. The efforts undertaken by the operators has had a significant impact on pipeline safety, nevertheless, during recent years we have seen a number of major high profile accidents. One can therefore ask how effective the pipeline integrity management systems and processes are. This paper will present one methodology 'The Pipeline System Operability Review' that can evaluate and rate the effectiveness of both the management systems and procedures, as well as the technical condition of the hardware. The result from the review can be used to compare the performance of different pipelines within one operating company, as well as benchmark with international best practices. (author)

  2. Virtual georeferencing : how an 11-eyed video camera helps the pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, C.

    2006-08-15

    Designed by Immersive Media Corporation (IMC) the new Telemmersion System is a lightweight camera system capable of generating synchronized high-resolution video streams that represent a full motion spherical world. With 11 cameras configured in a sphere, the system is portable and can be easily mounted on ground and air-borne vehicles for use in surveillance; integration; commanded control of interactive intelligent databases; scenario modelling; and specialized training. The system was recently used to georeference immersive video of existing and proposed pipeline routes. Footage from the system was used to supplement traditional data collection methods for environmental impact assessment; route selection and engineering; regulatory compliance; and public consultation. Traditionally, the medium used to visualize pipeline routes is a map overlaid with aerial photography. Pipeline routes are typically flown throughout the planning stages in order to give environmentalists, engineers and other personnel the opportunity to visually inspect the terrain, identify issues and make decisions. The technology has significantly reduced the costs during the planning stages of pipeline routes, as the remote footage can be stored on DVD, allowing various stakeholders and contractors to view the terrain and zoom in on particular land features. During one recent 3-day trip, 500 km of proposed pipeline was recorded using the technology. Typically, for various regulatory and environmental requirements, a half a dozen trips would have been required. 2 figs.

  3. New method for NPP sodium coolant pipeline austenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malashonok, V.A.; Rotshtejn, A.V.; Gotshalk, A.L.; Miryushchenko, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Heat treatment technology is considered for pipelines intended for the NPP cooling systems employing sodium coolant. Various techniques are discussed which are used for protecting the pipeline internal surfaces against oxidation in the process of heat treatment. It is noted that the austenite formation of welded joints of steel 12Kh18N9 and steel Kh16N11M3 at temperatures of 1050 and 1100 deg C releases welding-induced stresses and reduces a possibility of local damages. Evacuation down to 1 mm Hg appears to be the most rational protective technique. The considered procedure of the pipeline heat treatment has been utilized for mounting the equipment of the BN-600 reactor at the Beloyarskaya NPP. The economic gain resulting from the use of the procedure, owing to decrease in argon consumption and reduction of labour input, makes up 150 000 roubles

  4. Protective coating as a factor to ensure the strength and hydraulic performance of recoverable pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an analysis of various types of internal protective pipeline coatings to ensure the strength and hydraulic characteristics of a remodeled pipeline and related coating methods for effective trenchless renovation of engineering systems, water supply systems and sanitation. As protective coating the authors considered a round profile tube of a smaller diameter than of the old pipe, close to the old pipe, sprayed lining on the basis of inorganic and inorganic materials. The article analyzes the methods of trenchless renovation for applying protective coatings: routing in the old pipeline of new pipes made of polymeric materials or polymeric sleeves, centrifugal spraying on the inner surface of pipelines’ inorganic and organic protective coatings. Special attention was paid to bag technology, providing the required strength properties at specific values of the modulus of elasticity and a number of external factors such as the depth of the existing pipe, the existence and magnitude of the horizon groundwater over it. Also attention is paid to the application technology of tape coatings ribbed profile on the inner surface of pipelines. This technology has a unique feature, which is the ability of recoverable pipeline functioning during its renovation by winding an endless belt and the formation of a new pipe. The tape coating winding is carried out by different types of spiral winding machines. The thickness of the protective coating layer forming the tube remains minimal. Inorganic cement-sand and organic coatings were considered as alternative options for repair of pipelines, which allow to localize the defects in the form of a fistula, minor cracks and other damages. However it is noted that a cement-sandy covering is inferior to organic, because it does not provide the strength characteristics of the pipeline system. The main advantage of the organic coating is mudding fistula of a large diameter, making a high wear

  5. Recent changes in code requirements for repair of in-service pipelines by welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, W.A. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Corrosion damage on pipelines represents the second most important cause of damage to natural gas pipelines in the United States. The area containing the corrosion damage must be reinforced to prevent the pipeline to rupture and from bulging. The predominant method of reinforcing corrosion damage in cross-country pipelines is to install a full-encirclement repair sleeve. The recent up-date of American Petroleum Institute (API) code requirement for repair of in-service pipelines by welding was published to provide a recommended practice for pipeline maintenance welding. The recent changes to the code are explained. The appendix B to the up-date is intended to alleviate redundancy between API 1104 and API 1107 and the time lag between up-dates, and to address technological advances made in the area of in-service welding. An alternative repair method of deposited weld metal, or weld deposition repair is briefly explained. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Technological alternative on environmental management for pipeline installation in the Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frade, Amadeu Farage; Teixeira, Ivan Jose [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Riquena, Renata Maria; Freitas, Wanderleia Isabel P. de [CONCREMAT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Usually pipelines construction are located in isolated places which are difficult to access. Due this characteristic the logistical support services are not available as easily as it is in large centers. Even so these enterprises may not release these services mainly due to high demand from stakeholders and the commitment to quality that these pipelines are submitted. This work presents some alternatives in environmental management implemented during an installation of pipelines in the Amazon forest with emphasis on the quality of water bodies and correct effluents destination. Located in western Amazonia in a region with several restrictions like: logistics, low supply of skilled labor and high environmental requirements. The project aligned competence and creativity since from its planning until its delivery to overcome difficulties and meet the demands of stakeholders. Usual techniques to assist legal requirements such as effluent treatment and environmental monitoring had to be adapted to the Amazon reality, always seeking for balance between technical and alignment economic and respect for social and environmental aspects. Using the methodology of 'wetland' (system of alternative treatment of effluents, based on the use of regional plants - macrophytes), the reuse of sludge from sewage treatment station, floating sewage treatment system, was crucial to meet the challenge to deploy this product to work in Amazonia. The aim of this work is to disseminate the techniques used and help other enterprises with the same challenges. (author)

  7. 78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory... Gas and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems. Subject: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused...

  8. SNPhylo: a pipeline to construct a phylogenetic tree from huge SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Guo, Hui; Wang, Xiyin; Kim, Changsoo; Paterson, Andrew H

    2014-02-26

    Phylogenetic trees are widely used for genetic and evolutionary studies in various organisms. Advanced sequencing technology has dramatically enriched data available for constructing phylogenetic trees based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, massive SNP data makes it difficult to perform reliable analysis, and there has been no ready-to-use pipeline to generate phylogenetic trees from these data. We developed a new pipeline, SNPhylo, to construct phylogenetic trees based on large SNP datasets. The pipeline may enable users to construct a phylogenetic tree from three representative SNP data file formats. In addition, in order to increase reliability of a tree, the pipeline has steps such as removing low quality data and considering linkage disequilibrium. A maximum likelihood method for the inference of phylogeny is also adopted in generation of a tree in our pipeline. Using SNPhylo, users can easily produce a reliable phylogenetic tree from a large SNP data file. Thus, this pipeline can help a researcher focus more on interpretation of the results of analysis of voluminous data sets, rather than manipulations necessary to accomplish the analysis.

  9. Development of reliability-based design and assessment standards for onshore gas transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Joe; Rothwell, Brian [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Nessim, Maher; Zhou, Wenxing [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Onshore pipelines have traditionally been designed with a deterministic stress based methodology. The changing operating environment has however imposed many challenges to the pipeline industry, including heightened public awareness of risk, more challenging natural hazards and increased economic competitiveness. To meet the societal expectation of pipeline safety and enhance the competitiveness of the pipeline industry, significant efforts have been spent for the development of reliability-based design and assessment (RBDA) methodology. This paper will briefly review the technology development in the RBDA area and the focus will be on the progresses in the past years in standard development within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) organizations. (author)

  10. 78 FR 41496 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0156] Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of advisory committee...

  11. Regional risk assessment of environmental contamination from oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelmulder, S.D.; Eguchi, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the risk of environmental contamination from oil pipeline leaks due to earthquakes. Risk is measured both as volume of oil released and remediation cost. The methodology was developed for use on a regional scale and thus relies on a limited amount of input data. Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate earthquake events, while a deterministic model is used to estimate the volume of oil released at a particular site. A library of cost models is used to estimate the contamination and resulting remediation cost based on the volume of oil released and the general site conditions. This methodology has been implemented in a computer program, OILOSS, and the results are presented as annual frequency of exceedence curves for volume of oil released and cost of remediation

  12. Overview of slurry pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, R L

    1982-01-01

    Slurry pipelines have proven to be a technically feasible, environmentally attractive and economic method of transporting finely divided particles over long distances. A pipeline system normally consists of preparation, pipeline and utilization facilities and requires optimization of all three components taken together. A considerable amount of research work has been done to develop hydraulic design of a slurry pipeline. Equipment selection and estimation of corrosion-erosion are considered to be as important as the hydraulic design. Future applications are expected to be for the large-scale transport of coal and for the exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits such as iron ore and copper. Application of slurry pipelines for the exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits is illustrated by the Kudremukh iron concentrate slurry pipeline in India.

  13. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part B, Remedial action, robotics/automation, waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WN) problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remediation, decontamination, and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This volume 3 B provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (Remedial Action Robotics and Automation, Waste Management) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than each technology in Vol. 2. The TEDS are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each data sheet. Volume 3 can be used in two ways: (1) technologies that are identified from Vol. 2 can be referenced directly in Vol. 3 by using the TEDS codes, and (2) technologies and general technology areas (alternatives) can be located in the index in the front of this volume.

  14. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  15. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  16. Liquid Metal Engineering and Technology. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings of the fourth international conference on liquid metal engineering and technology volume 1, are devided into 3 sections bearing on: - Apparatus and components for liquid metal (29 papers) - Liquid metal leaks, fires and fumes (10 papers) - Cleaning, decontamination, waste disposal (14 papers) [fr

  17. PLUGGING AND UNPLUGGING OF WASTE TRANSFER PIPELINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This project, which began in FY97, involves both the flow loop research on plugging and unplugging of waste transfer pipelines, and the large-scale industrial equipment test of plugging locating and unplugging technologies. In FY98, the related work was performed under the project name ''Mixing, Settling, and Pipe Unplugging of Waste Transfer Lines.'' The mixing, settling, and pipeline plugging and unplugging are critical to the design and maintenance of a waste transfer pipeline system, especially for the High-Level Waste (HLW) pipeline transfer. The major objective of this work is to recreate pipeline plugging conditions for equipment testing of plug locating and removal and to provide systematic operating data for modification of equipment design and enhancement of performance of waste transfer lines used at DOE sites. As the waste tank clean-out and decommissioning program becomes active at the DOE sites, there is an increasing potential that the waste slurry transfer lines will become plugged and unable to transport waste slurry from one tank to another or from the mixing tank to processing facilities. Transfer systems may potentially become plugged if the solids concentration of the material being transferred increases beyond the capability of the prime mover or if upstream mixing is inadequately performed. Plugging can occur due to the solids' settling in either the mixing tank, the pumping system, or the transfer lines. In order to enhance and optimize the slurry's removal and transfer, refined and reliable data on the mixing, sampling, and pipe unplugging systems must be obtained based on both laboratory-scale and simulated in-situ operating conditions

  18. Current status and future potential for advanced volume reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, L.; Naughton, M.D.; Papaiya, N.C.

    1984-01-01

    With escalating costs for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) from nuclear power plants, and the possibility of unavailability of disposal space, some nuclear power utilities responded by commiting to implementing advanced volume reduction (VR) systems. This paper presents recent experience to implement advanced volume reduction technologies; their performance and typical operating and capital costs. This experience in the light of current economic conditions may enable us to predict the direction that future advanced VR technology commitments is taking

  19. Hollow-core fiber sensing technique for pipeline leak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, W. A.; Kasten, Matthias A.; Karp, Jason; Choudhury, Niloy

    2018-02-01

    Recently there has been increased interest on the part of federal and state regulators to detect and quantify emissions of methane, an important greenhouse gas, from various parts of the oil and gas infrastructure including well pads and pipelines. Pressure and/or flow anomalies are typically used to detect leaks along natural gas pipelines, but are generally very insensitive and subject to false alarms. We have developed a system to detect and localize methane leaks along gas pipelines that is an order of magnitude more sensitive by combining tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLAS) with conventional sensor tube technology. This technique can potentially localize leaks along pipelines up to 100 km lengths with an accuracy of +/-50 m or less. A sensor tube buried along the pipeline with a gas-permeable membrane collects leaking gas during a soak period. The leak plume within the tube is then carried to the nearest sensor node along the tube in a purge cycle. The time-to-detection is used to determine leak location. Multiple sensor nodes are situated along the pipeline to minimize the time to detection, and each node is composed of a short segment of hollow core fiber (HCF) into which leaking gas is transported quickly through a small pressure differential. The HCF sensing node is spliced to standard telecom solid core fiber which transports the laser light for spectroscopy to a remote interrogator. The interrogator is multiplexed across the sensor nodes to minimize equipment cost and complexity.

  20. The PREP Pipeline: Standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima eBigdelys Shamlo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode/.

  1. The PREP pipeline: standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Kothe, Christian; Su, Kyung-Min; Robbins, Kay A

    2015-01-01

    The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP) and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode.

  2. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  3. 76 FR 303 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... leak detection requirements for all pipelines; whether to require the installation of emergency flow... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 195 [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0229] RIN 2137-AE66 Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid...

  4. GRI testing facility available for pipeline inspection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to help improve detection and characterization of defects that may occur in pipelines, the Gas Research Institute has announced the completion of the first phase of a testing facility for the evaluation of new and existing pipeline inspection technologies. GRI is a private, not-for-profit membership organization based in Chicago. The first phase of the facility consists of a pull rig which includes four 300-foot lengths of pipe with diameters of 12, 24, 30, and 36 inches. NDE inspection devices can be pulled through these pipe segments by a winch at speeds up to 25 miles per hour

  5. Upgrading Algeria-Italy trans-Mediterranean natural gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, G.

    1992-01-01

    The first trans-Mediterranean pipeline system, which went into service in 1983, had to be doubled in capacity in order to meet increased European demand for Algerian natural gas. After a brief review of the contractual, planning and construction history of the first pipeline, this paper discusses the strategies taken which led to the decision to double the line's capacity. Descriptions are then given of the different construction phases realized in Tunisia, the Sicilian Channel and Italian mainland. Focus is on construction schedules, problems and solutions. The report comes complete with details of project financing, organizing, materials supply programs, innovative technology applications, design philosophy and construction techniques

  6. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  7. A Pipeline for 3D Digital Optical Phenotyping Plant Root System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. W.; Shaw, N. M.; Schneider, D. J.; Shaff, J. E.; Larson, B. G.; Craft, E. J.; Liu, Z.; Kochian, L. V.; Piñeros, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a new pipeline for digital optical phenotyping the root system architecture of agricultural crops. The pipeline begins with a 3D root-system imaging apparatus for hydroponically grown crop lines of interest. The apparatus acts as a self-containing dark room, which includes an imaging tank, motorized rotating bearing and digital camera. The pipeline continues with the Plant Root Imaging and Data Acquisition (PRIDA) software, which is responsible for image capturing and storage. Once root images have been captured, image post-processing is performed using the Plant Root Imaging Analysis (PRIA) command-line tool, which extracts root pixels from color images. Following the pre-processing binarization of digital root images, 3D trait characterization is performed using the next-generation RootReader3D software. RootReader3D measures global root system architecture traits, such as total root system volume and length, total number of roots, and maximum rooting depth and width. While designed to work together, the four stages of the phenotyping pipeline are modular and stand-alone, which provides flexibility and adaptability for various research endeavors.

  8. Integration of a neuroimaging processing pipeline into a pan-canadian computing grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie-Courchesne, S; Chouinard-Decorte, F; Doyon, J; Bellec, P; Rioux, P; Sherif, T; Rousseau, M-E; Das, S; Adalat, R; Evans, A C; Craddock, C; Margulies, D; Chu, C; Lyttelton, O

    2012-01-01

    The ethos of the neuroimaging field is quickly moving towards the open sharing of resources, including both imaging databases and processing tools. As a neuroimaging database represents a large volume of datasets and as neuroimaging processing pipelines are composed of heterogeneous, computationally intensive tools, such open sharing raises specific computational challenges. This motivates the design of novel dedicated computing infrastructures. This paper describes an interface between PSOM, a code-oriented pipeline development framework, and CBRAIN, a web-oriented platform for grid computing. This interface was used to integrate a PSOM-compliant pipeline for preprocessing of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging into CBRAIN. We further tested the capacity of our infrastructure to handle a real large-scale project. A neuroimaging database including close to 1000 subjects was preprocessed using our interface and publicly released to help the participants of the ADHD-200 international competition. This successful experiment demonstrated that our integrated grid-computing platform is a powerful solution for high-throughput pipeline analysis in the field of neuroimaging.

  9. Considerations about the Urucu-Manaus gas pipeline design; Consideracoes sobre o projeto do gasoduto Urucu-Manaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, Claudio Henrique Lobianco G.; Correia, Luiz de Carvalho Dias [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The main purpose of this job is to present the characteristics that influenced the elaboration of the Urucu-Manaus Gas Pipeline Project and the difference between this pipeline and other pipelines already installed on the Amazon region. In this project were emphasized the aspects related to the route definition, mapping technologies that had not been utilized in our pipeline projects, the crossing of vast flooded areas, requiring specific studies, as well the minimization of the environment impacts, in this case the existence of animal species present only in this region. Other differential factor was the Rio Negro crossing, where the pipeline will be installed in the riverbed. The know-how attained with this project consolidates ever so the activity of building pipelines in tropical forest regions. (author)

  10. 76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under...

  11. PRODUT - a pipeline technological program to face the challenges in the oil and gas transportation in Brazil; PRODUT - um programa tecnologico de dutos para enfrentar os desafios do transporte de oleo e gas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Ney Goncalves [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    Following the international tendency of the pipeline companies, PETROBRAS has been investing relevant resources in new technologies, with the objective of increasing reliability and life span, and decreasing the cost and the risk of leakage. PETROBRAS created in 1998 the pipeline technological program, PRODUT, to be responsible for coordinating the development of the company R and D projects. This paper will present PRODUT and the good results obtained in order to increase reliability and competitiveness of transportation systems, essential for global performance of the petroleum industry. (author)

  12. Optimization of pipeline transport for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.X.; Wang, G.X.; Massarotto, P.; Rudolph, V.

    2006-01-01

    Coal fired power generation will continue to provide energy to the world for the foreseeable future. However, this energy use is a significant contributor to increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration and, hence, global warming. Capture and disposal of CO 2 has received increased R and D attention in the last decade as the technology promises to be the most cost effective for large scale reductions in CO 2 emissions. This paper addresses CO 2 transport via pipeline from capture site to disposal site, in terms of system optimization, energy efficiency and overall economics. Technically, CO 2 can be transported through pipelines in the form of a gas, a supercritical fluid or in the subcooled liquid state. Operationally, most CO 2 pipelines used for enhanced oil recovery transport CO 2 as a supercritical fluid. In this paper, supercritical fluid and subcooled liquid transport are examined and compared, including their impacts on energy efficiency and cost. Using a commercially available process simulator, ASPEN PLUS 10.1, the results show that subcooled liquid transport maximizes the energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO 2 transport over long distances under both isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Pipeline transport of subcooled liquid CO 2 can be ideally used in areas of cold climate or by burying and insulating the pipeline. In very warm climates, periodic refrigeration to cool the CO 2 below its critical point of 31.1 o C, may prove economical. Simulations have been used to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of inlet pressure, environmental temperature and ground level heat flux conditions

  13. 77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts... Register (75 FR 72878) titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

  14. Inspection and monitoring techniques for un-bonded flexible risers and pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology Un-bonded flexible pipelines and risers are an alternative to conventional rigid steel pipes. The use of flexible pipes has enabled development of several offshore fields that seemed unfeasible with the use of rigid pipes due to extensive seabed preparation and large dynamic motions. The lack of knowledge and integrity management tools for flexible pipes is a limiting factor and cause pipelines and risers to be replaced before their service life has ...

  15. Design of Flow Big Data System Based on Smart Pipeline Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jianqing; Li Shuai; Liu Lilan

    2017-01-01

    As telecom operators to build intelligent pipe more and more, analysis and processing of big data technology to deal the huge amounts of data intelligent pipeline generated has become an inevitable trend. Intelligent pipe describes operational data, sales data; operator’s pipe flow data make the value for e-commerce business form and business model in mobile e-business environment. Intelligent pipe is the third dimension of 3 D pipeline mobile electronic commerce system. Intelligent operation...

  16. Leakage investigation in an underground cooling water pipeline at a thermal power station using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Din, U.G.; Gul, S.; Farooq, M.; Qureshi, R.M.

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to locate the leakage point(s) in an underground cooling water pipeline of a Thermal Power Station for pre-shutdown planning purposes. The internal diameter of the pipeline was 2240 mm with 12 mm with 12 (mild steel) wall thickness and it was buried under 1.0 meter reinforced concrete and 0.5-1.0 meter soil/sand cover. The volume flow rate of the pipeline was 29043 m/sup 3/hour at 2kg/cm/sup 2/ pressure. The linear speed of water flowing inside the pipeline was around 2 m/sec. This gave rise to a very high volume fast moving system. Radiotracer technique was used to investigate the problem under investigation. About 50 mCi of /sup 131/I radiotracer, in the form of NaI solution, was injected into the system and radiotracer evolution near suspected leakage point(s) was monitored using radiation detectors (NaI, 2 x 2 inch crystal size). Seven detectors were installed around three teeing off pipes (leakage area) inside the plant building and one at the injection point near the pump outlet. On line data acquisition system was used to acquire the radiotracer data. The leakage water was exiting from the floor just along the pipes carrying main flow of water. The time lag between the arrival, at detectors, of radiotracer flowing inside the pipeline and that present in the leakage water (outside the pipeline) was exploited to identify the position of leakage. The tracer test revealed that there was leakage at two points. The leakage at one point was small as compared at the other points. (author)

  17. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 4. Technology appendix. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Volume IV of the ISTUM documentation gives information on the individual technology specifications, but relates closely with Chapter II of Volume I. The emphasis in that chapter is on providing an overview of where each technology fits into the general-model logic. Volume IV presents the actual cost structure and specification of every technology modeled in ISTUM. The first chapter presents a general overview of the ISTUM technology data base. It includes an explanation of the data base printouts and how the separate-cost building blocks are combined to derive an aggregate-technology cost. The remaining chapters are devoted to documenting the specific-technology cost specifications. Technologies included are: conventional technologies (boiler and non-boiler conventional technologies); fossil-energy technologies (atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, low Btu coal and medium Btu coal gasification); cogeneration (steam, machine drive, and electrolytic service sectors); and solar and geothermal technologies (solar steam, solar space heat, and geothermal steam technologies), and conservation technologies.

  18. Advanced safety management systems for maintenance of pipeline integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Potempski, S.

    2005-01-01

    One of the duties of the pipeline's operator is to introduce means for protection of human safety and the environment. This should be reflected in preparation of comprehensive Risk Management System with its key element Activity Programme for Management of Pipeline Integrity. In the paper such programme has been described taking into account law regulations and practical activities undertaken in technologically advanced countries (mainly USA and EU), where such solutions are implemented in routine operations. Possible solutions of realization of all elements of the programme, as well as information on utilization of computer aided support have been also included. (authors)

  19. Applied methodology for replacement pipe arcs in integral pipelines TE 'Oslomej'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temelkoska Bratica K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The integral pipelines in thermal power plants present a linear spatial bearing construction with high operating parameters, complex static and dynamic load. The integral pipelines along its entire length are hanging on construction spring hangers from the boiler building, where the boiler is placed, next to the machine hall where the turbine is placed. Therefore, it is important to monitor the condition and to remove any possible defects from the applied methods. This paper describes the methodology of replacement of the pipe arch on one of the integral pipelines-the line for hot superheated steam. In addition, in this paper are given the method methods that led to this methodology for testing and evaluation of the condition of the pipe arch material that had been in exploitation and the new pipe arch that will be embedded. Furthermore the approach, the technology of replacement, anchoring of the steam line, technology of welding etc., as well as the preparation of the final design of constructed condition are also covered in this paper.

  20. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 2: Technology logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 2 has been divided into five sections: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Robotics/Automation, and Waste Management. Each section contains logical breakdowns of the Y-12 D and D problems by subject area and identifies technologies that can be reasonably applied to each D and D challenge.

  1. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 2: Technology logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 2 has been divided into five sections: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Robotics/Automation, and Waste Management. Each section contains logical breakdowns of the Y-12 D and D problems by subject area and identifies technologies that can be reasonably applied to each D and D challenge

  2. 75 FR 45591 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Technical Pipeline Safety Advisory Committee Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Committee Meetings AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION... safety standards, risk assessments, and safety policies for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous...

  3. Application of distributed optical fiber sensing technologies to the monitoring of leakage and abnormal disturbance of oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Xiaofei; Deng, Chi; Li, Junyi; Liu, Cheng; Yu, Wenpeng; Luo, Hui

    2017-10-01

    To improve the level of management and monitoring of leakage and abnormal disturbance of long distance oil pipeline, the distributed optical fiber temperature and vibration sensing system is employed to test the feasibility for the healthy monitoring of a domestic oil pipeline. The simulating leakage and abnormal disturbance affairs of oil pipeline are performed in the experiment. It is demonstrated that the leakage and abnormal disturbance affairs of oil pipeline can be monitored and located accurately with the distributed optical fiber sensing system, which exhibits good performance in the sensitivity, reliability, operation and maintenance etc., and shows good market application prospect.

  4. Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 3: EVA/Manned Systems/Fluid Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution 16-19 Jan. 1990 in Dallas, Texas. The purpose of this workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 3 consists of the technology discipline sections for Extravehicular Activity/Manned Systems and the Fluid Management System. For each technology discipline, there is a Level 3 subsystem description, along with the papers.

  5. LOWERING UNCERTAINTY IN CRUDE OIL MEASUREMENT BY SELECTING OPTIMIZED ENVELOPE COLOR OF A PIPELINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Saadat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowering uncertainty in crude oil volume measurement has been widely considered as one of main purposes in an oil export terminal. It is found that crude oil temperature at metering station has big effects on measured volume and may cause big uncertainty at the metering point. As crude oil flows through an aboveground pipeline, pick up the solar radiation and heat up. This causes the oil temperature at the metering point to rise and higher uncertainty to be created. The amount of temperature rise is depended on exterior surface paint color. In the Kharg Island, there is about 3 km distance between the oil storage tanks and the metering point. The oil flows through the pipeline due to gravity effects as storage tanks are located 60m higher than the metering point. In this study, an analytical model has been conducted for predicting oil temperature at the pipeline exit (the metering point based on climate and geographical conditions of the Kharg Island. The temperature at the metering point has been calculated and the effects of envelope color have been investigated. Further, the uncertainty in the measurement system due to temperature rise has been studied.

  6. Decontamination device for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harashina, Heihachi.

    1994-01-01

    Pipelines to be decontaminated are parts of pipelines contaminated with radioactive materials, and they are connected to a fluid transfer means (for example, a bladeless pump) and a ball collector by way of a connector. The fluid of a mixture of chemical decontaminating liquid and spheres is sent into pipelines to be decontaminated. The spheres are, for example, heat resistant porous hard or soft rubber spheres. The fluid discharged from the pipelines to be decontaminated are circulated by way of bypassing means. The inner surface of the pipelines is decontaminated by the circulation of the fluid. When the bypass means is closed, the fluid discharged from the pipelines to be decontaminated is sent to the ball collector, and the spheres are captured by a hopper. Further, the liquid is sent to the filtrating means to filter the chemical contaminating liquid, and sludges contained in the liquid are captured. (I.N.)

  7. High temperature pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenslade, J.G. [Colt Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada). Pipelines Dept.; Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dyck, D.W. [Stress Tech Engineering Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    It is impractical to transport bitumen and heavy oil by pipelines at ambient temperature unless diluents are added to reduce the viscosity. A diluted bitumen pipeline is commonly referred to as a dilbit pipeline. The diluent routinely used is natural gas condensate. Since natural gas condensate is limited in supply, it must be recovered and reused at high cost. This paper presented an alternative to the use of diluent to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil or bitumen. The following two basic design issues for a hot bitumen (hotbit) pipeline were presented: (1) modelling the restart problem, and, (2) establishing the maximum practical operating temperature. The transient behaviour during restart of a high temperature pipeline carrying viscous fluids was modelled using the concept of flow capacity. Although the design conditions were hypothetical, they could be encountered in the Athabasca oilsands. It was shown that environmental disturbances occur when the fluid is cooled during shut down because the ground temperature near the pipeline rises. This can change growing conditions, even near deeply buried insulated pipelines. Axial thermal loads also constrain the design and operation of a buried pipeline as higher operating temperatures are considered. As such, strain based design provides the opportunity to design for higher operating temperature than allowable stress based design methods. Expansion loops can partially relieve the thermal stress at a given temperature. As the design temperature increase, there is a point at which above grade pipelines become attractive options, although the materials and welding procedures must be suitable for low temperature service. 3 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  8. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... noted ``when the oil pipeline industry developed the survey for its voluntary spill reporting system...) [cir] The American Public Gas Association (APGA) [cir] The Association of Oil Pipelines (AOPL) [cir... the contrary, all 50 states in the United States have a law designed to prevent excavation damage to...

  9. A microscale protein NMR sample screening pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo; Swapna, G. V. T.; Huang, Yuanpeng J.; Aramini, James M. [State University of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers (United States); Anklin, Clemens [Bruker Biospin Corporation (United States); Conover, Kenith; Hamilton, Keith; Xiao, Rong; Acton, Thomas B.; Ertekin, Asli; Everett, John K.; Montelione, Gaetano T., E-mail: guy@cabm.rutgers.ed [State University of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers (United States)

    2010-01-15

    As part of efforts to develop improved methods for NMR protein sample preparation and structure determination, the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) has implemented an NMR screening pipeline for protein target selection, construct optimization, and buffer optimization, incorporating efficient microscale NMR screening of proteins using a micro-cryoprobe. The process is feasible because the newest generation probe requires only small amounts of protein, typically 30-200 {mu}g in 8-35 {mu}l volume. Extensive automation has been made possible by the combination of database tools, mechanization of key process steps, and the use of a micro-cryoprobe that gives excellent data while requiring little optimization and manual setup. In this perspective, we describe the overall process used by the NESG for screening NMR samples as part of a sample optimization process, assessing optimal construct design and solution conditions, as well as for determining protein rotational correlation times in order to assess protein oligomerization states. Database infrastructure has been developed to allow for flexible implementation of new screening protocols and harvesting of the resulting output. The NESG micro NMR screening pipeline has also been used for detergent screening of membrane proteins. Descriptions of the individual steps in the NESG NMR sample design, production, and screening pipeline are presented in the format of a standard operating procedure.

  10. Technology 2003: The Fourth National Technology Transfer Conference and Exposition, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michael (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Proceedings from symposia of the Technology 2003 Conference and Exposition, Dec. 7-9, 1993, Anaheim, CA, are presented. Volume 2 features papers on artificial intelligence, CAD&E, computer hardware, computer software, information management, photonics, robotics, test and measurement, video and imaging, and virtual reality/simulation.

  11. New technologies of the energy 1. The renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabonnadiere, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This book, devoted to the renewable energies, is the first of three volumes taking stock on the new technologies of the energy situation. The first part presents the solar energy (thermal photovoltaic and thermodynamic), completed by a chapter on the wind energy. An important part is devoted to new hydraulic energies with the sea energies and the very little hydroelectricity and in particular the exploitation of the energy of the drinking water and wastes water pipelines. (A.L.B.)

  12. Reliability evaluation of oil pipelines operating in aggressive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magomedov, R. M.; Paizulaev, M. M.; Gebel, E. S.

    2017-08-01

    In connection with modern increased requirements for ecology and safety, the development of diagnostic services complex is obligatory and necessary enabling to ensure the reliable operation of the gas transportation infrastructure. Estimation of oil pipelines technical condition should be carried out not only to establish the current values of the equipment technological parameters in operation, but also to predict the dynamics of changes in the physical and mechanical characteristics of the material, the appearance of defects, etc. to ensure reliable and safe operation. In the paper, existing Russian and foreign methods for evaluation of the oil pipelines reliability are considered, taking into account one of the main factors leading to the appearance of crevice in the pipeline material, i.e. change the shape of its cross-section, - corrosion. Without compromising the generality of the reasoning, the assumption of uniform corrosion wear for the initial rectangular cross section has been made. As a result a formula for calculation the probability of failure-free operation was formulated. The proposed mathematical model makes it possible to predict emergency situations, as well as to determine optimal operating conditions for oil pipelines.

  13. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  14. Recent developments in pipeline welding practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen chapters are included: overview of pipeline welding systems and quality assurance, CRC automatic welding system, H.C. Price Co. automatic welding system, semi-automatic MIG-welding process, partial penetration welding of steel pipes for gas distribution, construction procedures and quality control in offshore pipeline construction, welding in repair and maintenance of gas transmission pipelines, British Gas studies of welding on pressurized gas transmission pipelines, hot tapping pipelines, underwater welding for offshore pipelines and associated equipment, radial friction welding, material composition vs weld properties, review of NDT of pipeline welds, and safety assurance in pipeline construction. A bibliography of approximately 150 references is included, arranged according to subject and year.

  15. Laser-based gas sensors keep moisture out of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-15

    Natural gas often contains contaminants that cause corrosion, and long-term deterioration, and must be cleaned and brought to pipeline standards before it can be delivered to high-pressure, long-distance pipelines. Many older sensors produce false data that can result in contaminated gas getting through. This article presented details of the SpectraSensor, a new laser-based sensor technology used by the El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG). The SpectraSensor is comprised of a tunable diode laser (TDL) based technology developed by the National American Space Agency (NASA). The gas analyzer provides non-contact measurement of moisture, carbon dioxide, and other corrosives in natural gas pipelines, and the tunable laser-based gas sensors are fast, accurate, and flexible. Producers can monitor El Paso's gas analyzer readings by capturing the electronic signal from El Paso's unit via a SCADA system and view the readings from control rooms. While initial purchase price is higher than more problematic surface-based gas sensors, an evaluation of the technology has indicated that maintenance savings alone may provide an almost immediate return on investments. Unlike electrochemical and crystal gas sensors, laser-based gas analyzers do not come into direct contact with any substances, a fact which practically eliminates maintenance and operational costs. Studies have shown that the cost of operating conventional electrochemical sensors can result in a cumulative annual expense exceeding $50,000 per unit including labour; recalibration and rebuilding; back-up sensor heads; and gas dehydration and tariffs. 1 fig.

  16. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  17. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.210 Pipeline location. (a) Pipeline right-of-way must be selected to avoid, as...

  18. A Secure Test Technique for Pipelined Advanced Encryption Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Youhua; Togawa, Nozomu; Yanagisawa, Masao; Ohtsuki, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we presented a Design-for-Secure-Test (DFST) technique for pipelined AES to guarantee both the security and the test quality during testing. Unlike previous works, the proposed method can keep all the secrets inside and provide high test quality and fault diagnosis ability as well. Furthermore, the proposed DFST technique can significantly reduce test application time, test data volume, and test generation effort as additional benefits.

  19. Incidental electric heating of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonninskii, A V; Sirotin, A M; Vasiliev, Y N

    1981-04-01

    VNIIgaz has improved the conventional Japanese SECT pipeline-heating system, which uses a small steel tube that contains an insulated heater/conductor and is welded to the top of the pipeline. The improved version has two insulated electric heaters - one on the top and the other on the bottom of the pipeline - located inside steel angle irons that are welded to the pipeline. A comparison of experimental results from heating a 200-ft pipeline with both systems at currents of up to 470 A clearly demonstrated the better heating efficiency of the VNIIgaz unit. The improved SECT system would be suitable for various types of pipelines, including gas lines, in the USSR's far north regions.

  20. Pipeline heating method based on optimal control and state estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, F.L.V. [Dept. of Subsea Technology. Petrobras Research and Development Center - CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fvianna@petrobras.com.br; Orlande, H.R.B. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. POLI/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: helcio@mecanica.ufrj.br; Dulikravich, G.S. [Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Florida International University - FIU, Miami, FL (United States)], e-mail: dulikrav@fiu.edu

    2010-07-01

    In production of oil and gas wells in deep waters the flowing of hydrocarbon through pipeline is a challenging problem. This environment presents high hydrostatic pressures and low sea bed temperatures, which can favor the formation of solid deposits that in critical operating conditions, as unplanned shutdown conditions, may result in a pipeline blockage and consequently incur in large financial losses. There are different methods to protect the system, but nowadays thermal insulation and chemical injection are the standard solutions normally used. An alternative method of flow assurance is to heat the pipeline. This concept, which is known as active heating system, aims at heating the produced fluid temperature above a safe reference level in order to avoid the formation of solid deposits. The objective of this paper is to introduce a Bayesian statistical approach for the state estimation problem, in which the state variables are considered as the transient temperatures within a pipeline cross-section, and to use the optimal control theory as a design tool for a typical heating system during a simulated shutdown condition. An application example is presented to illustrate how Bayesian filters can be used to reconstruct the temperature field from temperature measurements supposedly available on the external surface of the pipeline. The temperatures predicted with the Bayesian filter are then utilized in a control approach for a heating system used to maintain the temperature within the pipeline above the critical temperature of formation of solid deposits. The physical problem consists of a pipeline cross section represented by a circular domain with four points over the pipe wall representing heating cables. The fluid is considered stagnant, homogeneous, isotropic and with constant thermo-physical properties. The mathematical formulation governing the direct problem was solved with the finite volume method and for the solution of the state estimation problem

  1. A proposed scalable design and simulation of wireless sensor network-based long-distance water pipeline leakage monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazyad, Abdulaziz S; Seddiq, Yasser M; Alotaibi, Ahmed M; Al-Nasheri, Ahmed Y; BenSaleh, Mohammed S; Obeid, Abdulfattah M; Qasim, Syed Manzoor

    2014-02-20

    Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

  2. A Proposed Scalable Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Long-Distance Water Pipeline Leakage Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz S. Almazyad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

  3. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  4. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements.'' The final rule...

  5. 77 FR 36606 - Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ...: Threat Prevention --Working Group 2: Leak Detection/Mitigation & Storage --Working Group 3: Anomaly... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2012-0146] Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public...

  6. Methodology for reducing energy and resource costs in construction of trenchless crossover of pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, V. S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper suggests a set of measures to select the equipment and its components in order to reduce energy costs in the process of pulling the pipeline into the well in the constructing the trenchless pipeline crossings of various materials using horizontal directional drilling technology. A methodology for reducing energy costs has been developed by regulating the operation modes of equipment during the process of pulling the working pipeline into a drilled and pre-expanded well. Since the power of the drilling rig is the most important criterion in the selection of equipment for the construction of a trenchless crossover, an algorithm is proposed for calculating the required capacity of the rig when operating in different modes in the process of pulling the pipeline into the well.

  7. Pipelines : moving biomass and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Moving biomass and energy through pipelines was presented. Field sourced biomass utilization for fuel was discussed in terms of competing cost factors; economies of scale; and differing fuel plant sizes. The cost versus scale in a bioenergy facility was illustrated in chart format. The transportation cost of biomass was presented as it is a major component of total biomass processing cost and is in the typical range of 25-45 per cent of total processing costs for truck transport of biomass. Issues in large scale biomass utilization, scale effects in transportation, and components of transport cost were identified. Other topics related to transportation issues included approaches to pipeline transport; cost of wood chips in pipeline transport; and distance variable cost of transporting wood chips by pipeline. Practical applications were also offered. In addition, the presentation provided and illustrated a model for an ethanol plant supplied by truck transport as well as a sample configuration for 19 truck based ethanol plants versus one large facility supplied by truck plus 18 pipelines. Last, pipeline transport of bio-oil and pipeline transport of syngas was discussed. It was concluded that pipeline transport can help in reducing congestion issues in large scale biomass utilization and that it can offer a means to achieve large plant size. Some current research at the University of Alberta on pipeline transport of raw biomass, bio-oil and hydrogen production from biomass for oil sands and pipeline transport was also presented. tabs., figs.

  8. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  9. Deployment Algorithms of Wireless Sensor Networks for Near-surface Underground Oil and Gas Pipeline Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ping YU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas pipelines are the infrastructure of national economic development. Deployment problem of wireless underground sensor networks (WUSN for oil and gas pipeline systems is a fundamental problem. This paper firstly analyzed the wireless channel characteristics and energy consumption model in near-surface underground soil, and then studied the spatial structure of oil and gas pipelines and introduced the three-layer system structure of WUSN for oil and gas pipelines monitoring. Secondly, the optimal deployment strategy in XY plane and XZ plane which were projected from three-dimensional oil and gas pipeline structure was analyzed. Thirdly, the technical framework of using kinetic energy of the fluid in pipelines to recharge sensor nodes and partition strategy for energy consumption balance based on the wireless communication technology of magnetic induction waveguide were proposed, which can effectively improve the energy performance and connectivity of the network, and provide theoretical guidance and practical basis for the monitoring of long oil and gas pipeline network, the city tap water pipe network and sewage pipe network.

  10. 78 FR 42889 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0097] Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION...

  11. Technology qualification of an ambient pressure subsea cryogenic pipeline for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Afzal; Viteri, Martha; D' Angelo, Luis [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Prescott, Neal; Zhang, Jeff [Fluor Corporation, Irving, TX (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A project that deploys new technologies need to be confident that the technology can be implemented successfully and will perform reliably as designed. New technology is critical to industry, especially where such technology is a project enable without the existence of a backup solution, but also for projects where such technologies bring potential benefits such as technical, economic, schedule, and environmental improvements. DNV developed and has been implementing for many years a systematic, risk based technology qualification process as described in DNV RP-A203, qualification procedures for new technology. One of the major objectives of a formal technology qualification process is to ensure that risks are properly addressed. The DNV process includes several levels of technology qualification and review, starting with a statement of feasibility and concluding with a Certificate of Fitness for Service. Fluor Corporation (Fluor) has developed a new subsea cryogenic pipe-in-pipe configuration for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals. The configuration uses a highly efficient thermal nano-porous insulation in the annular space between the inner and outer pipes. This material is kept in an ambient pressure environment, which is produced through sealing by metal bulkheads. The bulkheads transfer the contraction induced axial compression load on the inner cryogenic carrier pipe to the external jacket pipe. The resulting pipeline bundle is a structural element, which addresses the thermal contraction and expansion loads without the use of expansion bellows or ultra-low thermal contraction alloys. Fluor has followed the DNV technology qualification process to achieve the defined milestones therein which culminated in DNV issuing a certificate of fitness for service. Particular focus was put on the new aspects of the design. The certificate of fitness for service for the Fluor subsea LNG pipe technology provides project management with the confidence that this

  12. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  13. Rapid Large Scale Reprocessing of the ODI Archive using the QuickReduce Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopu, A.; Kotulla, R.; Young, M. D.; Hayashi, S.; Harbeck, D.; Liu, W.; Henschel, R.

    2015-09-01

    The traditional model of astronomers collecting their observations as raw instrument data is being increasingly replaced by astronomical observatories serving standard calibrated data products to observers and to the public at large once proprietary restrictions are lifted. For this model to be effective, observatories need the ability to periodically re-calibrate archival data products as improved master calibration products or pipeline improvements become available, and also to allow users to rapidly calibrate their data on-the-fly. Traditional astronomy pipelines are heavily I/O dependent and do not scale with increasing data volumes. In this paper, we present the One Degree Imager - Portal, Pipeline and Archive (ODI-PPA) calibration pipeline framework which integrates the efficient and parallelized QuickReduce pipeline to enable a large number of simultaneous, parallel data reduction jobs - initiated by operators AND/OR users - while also ensuring rapid processing times and full data provenance. Our integrated pipeline system allows re-processing of the entire ODI archive (˜15,000 raw science frames, ˜3.0 TB compressed) within ˜18 hours using twelve 32-core compute nodes on the Big Red II supercomputer. Our flexible, fast, easy to operate, and highly scalable framework improves access to ODI data, in particular when data rates double with an upgraded focal plane (scheduled for 2015), and also serve as a template for future data processing infrastructure across the astronomical community and beyond.

  14. The tightness of the globe valves in the exploitations practice of the gas pipe-lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrak, T.; Rudzki, Z.; Surmacz, W.

    2006-01-01

    Technological units of the Transit Gas Pipeline (i.e. Compressor Stations, Valve Stations, Stations or National Network Service Installations) have been fitted with Ball Valves as shut-off devices (block valves). Internal tightness of the valves' seat becomes major factor in securing proper service conditions during normal pipeline operation as well as for isolating of pipeline sections in emergency situations (loss of pipeline integrity or uncontrolled gas escape). Internal tightness of the valves is being inspected during scheduled maintenance of the pipeline units. Any leak revealed during inspection is being repaired, following instructions provided in the Manufacturer's Valve Manual. After a time, some cases have been identified, when repair of the revealed leak was found to be difficult, despite close following of the repair manuals. The paper presents analysis of the issue and corrective actions taken accordingly. (authors)

  15. Using Technology to Improve Student Learning. NCREL Viewpoints, Volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahala, Jan, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Viewpoints" is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a short, informative booklet. This volume of "Viewpoints" focuses on how technology can help improve student learning. The audio CDs provide the voices, or viewpoints, of various leaders from the education field who work closely with technology issues. Their…

  16. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  17. A Bioinformatic Pipeline for Monitoring of the Mutational Stability of Viral Drug Targets with Deep-Sequencing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravatsky, Yuri; Chechetkin, Vladimir; Fedoseeva, Daria; Gorbacheva, Maria; Kravatskaya, Galina; Kretova, Olga; Tchurikov, Nickolai

    2017-11-23

    The efficient development of antiviral drugs, including efficient antiviral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), requires continuous monitoring of the strict correspondence between a drug and the related highly variable viral DNA/RNA target(s). Deep sequencing is able to provide an assessment of both the general target conservation and the frequency of particular mutations in the different target sites. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable bioinformatic pipeline for the analysis of millions of short, deep sequencing reads corresponding to selected highly variable viral sequences that are drug target(s). The suggested bioinformatic pipeline combines the available programs and the ad hoc scripts based on an original algorithm of the search for the conserved targets in the deep sequencing data. We also present the statistical criteria for the threshold of reliable mutation detection and for the assessment of variations between corresponding data sets. These criteria are robust against the possible sequencing errors in the reads. As an example, the bioinformatic pipeline is applied to the study of the conservation of RNA interference (RNAi) targets in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) subtype A. The developed pipeline is freely available to download at the website http://virmut.eimb.ru/. Brief comments and comparisons between VirMut and other pipelines are also presented.

  18. Hydrocarbons pipeline transportation risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, A. V.; Milke, A. A.; Kvasov, I. N.

    2018-04-01

    The pipeline transportation applying risks assessment issue in the arctic conditions is addressed in the paper. Pipeline quality characteristics in the given environment has been assessed. To achieve the stated objective, the pipelines mathematical model was designed and visualized by using the software product SOLIDWORKS. When developing the mathematical model the obtained results made possible to define the pipeline optimal characteristics for designing on the Arctic sea bottom. In the course of conducting the research the pipe avalanche collapse risks were examined, internal longitudinal and circular loads acting on the pipeline were analyzed, as well as the water impact hydrodynamic force was taken into consideration. The conducted calculation can contribute to the pipeline transport further development under the harsh climate conditions of the Russian Federation Arctic shelf territory.

  19. An integrated system for pipeline condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Andrew P.; Lees, Gareth; Hartog, Arthur; Twohig, Richard; Kader, Kamal; Hilton, Graeme; Mullens, Stephen; Khlybov, Artem [Schlumberger, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sanderson, Norman [BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present the unique and innovative 'Integriti' pipeline and flow line integrity monitoring system developed by Schlumberger in collaboration with BP. The system uses optical fiber distributed sensors to provide simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature, strain and vibration for the detection, monitoring, and location of events including: Third Party Interference (TPI), including multiple simultaneous disturbances; geo-hazards and landslides; gas and oil leaks; permafrost protection. The Integriti technology also provides a unique means for tracking the progress of cleaning and instrumented pigs using existing optical telecom and data communications cables buried close to pipelines. The Integriti solution provides a unique and proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. It performs analysis of a combination of measurands to provide the pipeline operator with an event recognition and location capability, in effect providing a hazard warning system, and offering the operator the potential to take early action to prevent loss. Through the use of remote, optically powered amplification, an unprecedented detection range of 100 km is possible without the need for any electronics and therefore remote power in the field. A system can thus monitor 200 km of pipeline when configured to monitor 100 km upstream and downstream from a single location. As well as detecting conditions and events leading to leaks, this fully integrated system provides a means of detecting and locating small leaks in gas pipelines below the threshold of present online leak detection systems based on monitoring flow parameters. Other significant benefits include: potential reductions in construction costs; enhancement of the operator's existing integrity management program; potential reductions in surveillance costs and HSE risks. In addition to onshore pipeline systems this combination of functionality and range is available for practicable

  20. The Under-Representation of Women in Information Technology (IT) Leadership Positions--An Analysis of Why Women Opt out of the IT Pipeline at Mid-Career Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acholonu, Omogbemiboluwa I.

    2011-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in Information Technology (IT) leadership positions is a problem that has affected the industry since its onset. It is posited that women face various barriers in advancing through the IT pipeline. This study reviews the findings of other qualitative and quantitative studies to identify any recurring patterns that…

  1. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II (this volume) describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Specific INEL problem areas/contaminants are identified along with technology solutions, the status of the technologies, precise science and technology needs, and implementation requirements. Volume III provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are referenced by a TEDS codenumber in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II.

  2. The main causes of in situ internal pipeline painting failures; Fatores que podem implicar em falhas prematuras de pintura interna in situ de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintela, Joaquim P.; Vieira, Magda M.; Vieira, Gerson V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Fragata, Fernando de L.; Amorim, Cristina da C. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Resources in coating technology have been used to increase the useful life of pipelines, to guarantee the carried product quality, to increase the operational trustworthiness, to reduce the maintenance costs, the personal and patrimonial risks and environmental damages. Parallel, in virtue of the pipelines natural ageing and operational problems, more advanced technologies, as the internal coating process in situ, have become an important method of pipelines rehabilitation. The aim of this work is to study the main factors that may influence the performance of an internal coating project, allowing the premature damages occurrence in pipelines, used in gas, oil and derivatives transport. (author)

  3. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume III contains supporting materials not included in Volumes I and II.

  4. UBO Detector - A cluster-based, fully automated pipeline for extracting white matter hyperintensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiyang; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Wanlin; Koncz, Rebecca; Liu, Hao; Lee, Teresa; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wen, Wei

    2018-07-01

    We present 'UBO Detector', a cluster-based, fully automated pipeline for extracting and calculating variables for regions of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) (available for download at https://cheba.unsw.edu.au/group/neuroimaging-pipeline). It takes T1-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) scans as input, and SPM12 and FSL functions are utilised for pre-processing. The candidate clusters are then generated by FMRIB's Automated Segmentation Tool (FAST). A supervised machine learning algorithm, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), is applied to determine whether the candidate clusters are WMH or non-WMH. UBO Detector generates both image and text (volumes and the number of WMH clusters) outputs for whole brain, periventricular, deep, and lobar WMH, as well as WMH in arterial territories. The computation time for each brain is approximately 15 min. We validated the performance of UBO Detector by showing a) high segmentation (similarity index (SI) = 0.848) and volumetric (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.985) agreement between the UBO Detector-derived and manually traced WMH; b) highly correlated (r 2  > 0.9) and a steady increase of WMH volumes over time; and c) significant associations of periventricular (t = 22.591, p deep (t = 14.523, p < 0.001) WMH volumes generated by UBO Detector with Fazekas rating scores. With parallel computing enabled in UBO Detector, the processing can take advantage of multi-core CPU's that are commonly available on workstations. In conclusion, UBO Detector is a reliable, efficient and fully automated WMH segmentation pipeline. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Canary: an atomic pipeline for clinical amplicon assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Kenneth D; Ellul, Jason; Fellowes, Andrew; Thompson, Ella R; Ryland, Georgina; Blombery, Piers; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-12-15

    High throughput sequencing requires bioinformatics pipelines to process large volumes of data into meaningful variants that can be translated into a clinical report. These pipelines often suffer from a number of shortcomings: they lack robustness and have many components written in multiple languages, each with a variety of resource requirements. Pipeline components must be linked together with a workflow system to achieve the processing of FASTQ files through to a VCF file of variants. Crafting these pipelines requires considerable bioinformatics and IT skills beyond the reach of many clinical laboratories. Here we present Canary, a single program that can be run on a laptop, which takes FASTQ files from amplicon assays through to an annotated VCF file ready for clinical analysis. Canary can be installed and run with a single command using Docker containerization or run as a single JAR file on a wide range of platforms. Although it is a single utility, Canary performs all the functions present in more complex and unwieldy pipelines. All variants identified by Canary are 3' shifted and represented in their most parsimonious form to provide a consistent nomenclature, irrespective of sequencing variation. Further, proximate in-phase variants are represented as a single HGVS 'delins' variant. This allows for correct nomenclature and consequences to be ascribed to complex multi-nucleotide polymorphisms (MNPs), which are otherwise difficult to represent and interpret. Variants can also be annotated with hundreds of attributes sourced from MyVariant.info to give up to date details on pathogenicity, population statistics and in-silico predictors. Canary has been used at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne for the last 2 years for the processing of clinical sequencing data. By encapsulating clinical features in a single, easily installed executable, Canary makes sequencing more accessible to all pathology laboratories. Canary is available for download as source

  6. Information and Communication Technologies in Africa Volume 1 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Volume 1 looks at the introduction, adoption, and utilization of ICTs at the community level. In various contexts – geographical, technological, socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional – the book explores the questions of community participation. It looks at how communities in sub-Saharan Africa have reacted to the changes ...

  7. Pipeline monitoring using acoustic principal component analysis recognition with the Mel scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Chunfeng; Mita, Akira

    2009-01-01

    In modern cities, many important pipelines are laid underground. In order to prevent these lifeline infrastructures from accidental damage, monitoring systems are becoming indispensable. Third party activities were shown by recent reports to be a major cause of pipeline damage. Potential damage threat to the pipeline can be identified by detecting dangerous construction equipment nearby by studying the surrounding noise. Sound recognition technologies are used to identify them by their sounds, which can easily be captured by small sensors deployed along the pipelines. Pattern classification methods based on principal component analysis (PCA) were used to recognize the sounds from road cutters. In this paper, a Mel residual, i.e. the PCA residual in the Mel scale, is proposed to be the recognition feature. Determining if a captured sound belongs to a road cutter only requires checking how large its Mel residual is. Experiments were conducted and results showed that the proposed Mel-residual-based PCA recognition worked very well. The proposed Mel PCA residual recognition method will be very useful for pipeline monitoring systems to prevent accidental breakage and to ensure the safety of underground lifeline infrastructures

  8. Early leak detection in pipelines. The new generation of leak detection pigs. Higher safety with multi-channel spectrographic analysis; Leckfrueherkennung in Pipelines. Die neue Generation von Lecksuchmolchen. Mehr Sicherheit durch Multi-Spektral-Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottsberg, Ulf [GOTTSBERG Leak Detection GmbH und Co. KG, Oststeinbek (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Measurement methods that rely on pressure reduction or volume loss are not frequent or sensitive enough to find small leaks. With large leaks, however, they react immediately and lead to shutting down entire systems. The most sensitive measurement procedures, accomplished in various ways by intelligent pigs (PIGs, Pipeline Inspection Gauges), are very cost-intensive. These costs are caused by large material and personnel expenditures. Also, pipeline operation can be impaired or interrupted for several days. With this background, the Gottsberg team has pursued a clear goal: Manufacture and further development of a highly sensitive but still flexible procedure for early leak recognition. (orig.)

  9. LNG transport through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfund, P; Philipps, A

    1975-01-01

    LNG pipelines could help solve some peakshaving problems if operated in conjunction with other facilities that could use the LNG cold recovered during regasification. In some areas at present, LNG is delivered by tanker and regasified near the terminal for transmission through conventional gas pipelines. In other places, utilities liquefy natural gas for easy storage for later peakshaving use. The only chance to avoid the second expensive liquefaction step would be to convey imported LNG through a suitable designed LNG pipeline. The technical problems involved in LNG pipeline construction have basically been solved in recent years, but those pipelines actually constructed have been only short ones. To be economically justified, long-distance LNG lines require additional credit, which could be obtained by selling the LNG cold recovered during regasification to industrial users located in or near the points of gas consumption. Technical details presented cover the pipe material, stress relief, steel composition, pressure enthalpy, bellows-type expansion joints, and mechanical and thermal insulation.

  10. The vulnerability of oil collection pipelines to corrosion under conditions of stratified oil-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marichev, F N; Chernobay, L A; Teterina, O P; Yarmizin, V G

    1980-01-01

    Problems with oil industry equipment and pipeline corrosion have recently highlighted the problems of increased water content in oil and the presence of biogenic hydrogen sulphide in petroleum matter. These findings underscore the importance of taking these problems into consideration when formulating long-term production plans. A study of pipeline corrosion and its causes, as well as other factors, has permitted researchers to correlate hydrodynamic parameters for gas-fluid transportability and structural contour flows. The water phase simultaneously carries corrosion-active ions of dissolved hydrogen sulphide and material which interact to corrode metal in the lower sections of pipelines. In order to determine the susceptibility of pipelines to corrosion, it is necessary to establish the presence of stratified fluids in oil and water as well as the gas-fluid flow. Analysis has shown that those sections with stratified emulsion could be identified and that it is necessary to disclose the pipeline's ability to withstand such conditions. The proper selection of transport parameters permits the technological protection of the oil collection pipelines. Partially as a result of the increased flow speed guaranteeing an emulsion flow regime for the gas-water-oil flow, it was found that the operational service-life of pipelines could be prolonged by a reduction of corrosion in oil collection pipelines.

  11. Planning international transit oil pipeline projects in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekulic, G.; Vrbic, D.

    2004-01-01

    Planning and development of international oil pipeline projects are aimed primarily at enhancing the safety of crude oil supply. Pipeline development is affected by a variety of overlapping factors, such as energy - and environment-protection-related factors, as well as political, economic, legislative, social, technical and technological ones. The success of any pipeline planning, construction and operation in the present conditions will depend upon the degree to which the above factors have been brought in line with global trends. The government should create stable political, economic and legislative frameworks that will meet the global requirements of crude oil transport development. As regards (new) transportation companies, their function is to secure safe transport by providing competitive tariffs and granting environmental protection. A prerequisite for the pipeline planning is to have both major crude oil consumers and producers (as well as their economic and political integrations) consider any state or company as potential partners for crude oil transport and transit, respectively. Croatia and the JANAF transport company have been 'chosen' as one of priority routes for European supply with crude oil from the Caspian region and Russia and one of the directions for Russian crude oil export due to a number of advantages, opportunities and prospects for a successful development. Two international oil pipeline projects - the Druzba Adria Project and the Constanta-Pancevo-Omisalj-Trieste Project - are currently under consideration. The government commitment towards these projects has been documented by the Croatian Energy Development Strategy (April 2002) and by the Programme for its implementation (March 2004). JANAF has assumed the responsibility for carrying out the project preparation activities assigned to it by the Croatian Government and the pertinent ministries. Cooperation between JANAF and government institutions is an integral part of the procedure

  12. A Bioinformatic Pipeline for Monitoring of the Mutational Stability of Viral Drug Targets with Deep-Sequencing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kravatsky

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficient development of antiviral drugs, including efficient antiviral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, requires continuous monitoring of the strict correspondence between a drug and the related highly variable viral DNA/RNA target(s. Deep sequencing is able to provide an assessment of both the general target conservation and the frequency of particular mutations in the different target sites. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable bioinformatic pipeline for the analysis of millions of short, deep sequencing reads corresponding to selected highly variable viral sequences that are drug target(s. The suggested bioinformatic pipeline combines the available programs and the ad hoc scripts based on an original algorithm of the search for the conserved targets in the deep sequencing data. We also present the statistical criteria for the threshold of reliable mutation detection and for the assessment of variations between corresponding data sets. These criteria are robust against the possible sequencing errors in the reads. As an example, the bioinformatic pipeline is applied to the study of the conservation of RNA interference (RNAi targets in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 subtype A. The developed pipeline is freely available to download at the website http://virmut.eimb.ru/. Brief comments and comparisons between VirMut and other pipelines are also presented.

  13. Planned and proposed pipeline regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Research and Special Programs Administration administers the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (NGPSA) and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 (HLPSA). The RSPA issues and enforces design, construction, operation and maintenance regulations for natural gas pipelines and hazardous liquid pipelines. This paper discusses a number of proposed and pending safety regulations and legislative initiatives currently being considered by the RSPA and the US Congress. Some new regulations have been enacted. The next few years will see a great deal of regulatory activity regarding natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines, much of it resulting from legislative requirements. The office of Pipeline Safety is currently conducting a study to streamline its operations. This study is analyzing the office's business, social and technical operations with the goal of improving overall efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and job satisfaction to meet the challenges of the future

  14. Chechnya: the pipeline front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1999-11-01

    This article examines the impact of the Russian campaign against Chechnya on projects for oil and gas pipelines from the new Caspian republics, which are seeking financial support. Topics discussed include the pipeline transport of oil from Azerbaijan through Chechnya to the Black Sea, the use of oil money to finance the war, the push for non-Russian export routes, the financing of pipelines, the impact of the war on the supply of Russian and Turkmenistan gas to Turkey, the proposed construction of the Trans Caspian pipeline, the weakening of trust between Russia and its neighbours, and the potential for trans Caucasus republics to look to western backers due to the instability of the North Caucasus. (UK)

  15. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Volume III (this volume) provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are reference by a TEDS code number in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II. Data sheets are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each sheet.

  16. Pipelines in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oude-Hengel, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Since the end of the Sixties, steam-transporting pipelines are given great attention, as pipeline components often fail, partially even long before their designed operation time is over. Thus, experts must increasingly deal with questions of pipelines and their components. Design and calculation, production and operation of pipelines are included in the discussion. Within the frame of this discussion, planners, producers, operators, and technical surveillance personnel must be able to offer a homogenous 'plan for assuring the quality of pipelines' in fossil and nuclear power plants. This book tries to make a contribution to this topic. 'Quality assuring' means efforts made for meeting the demands of quality (reliability). The book does not intend to complete with well-known manuals, as for as a complete covering of the topic is concerned. A substantial part of its sections serves to show how quality assurance of pipelines can be at least partially obtained by surveillance measures beginning with the planning, covering the production, and finally accompanying the operation. There is hardly need to mention that the sort of planning, production, and operation has an important influence on the quality. This is why another part of the sections contain process aspects from the view of the planners, producers, and operators. (orig.) [de

  17. Shredder and incinerator technology for volume reduction of commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.

    1986-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating alternatives and developing technology for treatment of radioactive wastes generated during commercial nuclear activities. Transuranic wastes that require volume reduction include spent HEPA filters, sample and analytical cell waste, and general process trash. A review of current technologies for volume reduction of these wastes led to the selection and testing of several low-speed shredder systems and three candidate incineration processes. The incinerators tested were the electrically heated control-led-air, gas-heated controlled-air, and rotary kiln. Equipment tests were conducted using simulated commercial transuranic wastes to provide a data base for the comparison of the various technologies. The electrically driven, low-speed shredder process was selected as the preferred method for size reduction of the wastes prior to incineration. All three incinerators effectively reduced the waste volume. Based on a technical and economic evaluation on the incineration processes, the recommended system for the commercial waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment

  18. Thermal expansion absorbing structure for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya.

    1995-01-01

    A thermal expansion absorbing structure for a pipeline is disposed to the end of pipelines to form a U-shaped cross section connecting a semi-circular torus shell and a short double-walled cylindrical tube. The U-shaped longitudinal cross-section is deformed in accordance with the shrinking deformation of the pipeline and absorbs thermal expansion. Namely, since the central lines of the outer and inner tubes of the double-walled cylindrical tube deform so as to incline, when the pipeline is deformed by thermal expansion, thermal expansion can be absorbed by a simple configuration thereby enabling to contribute to ensure the safety. Then, the entire length of the pipeline can greatly be shortened by applying it to the pipeline disposed in a high temperature state compared with a method of laying around a pipeline using only elbows, which has been conducted so far. Especially, when it is applied to a pipeline for an FBR-type reactor, the cost for the construction of a facility of a primary systems can greater be reduced. In addition, it can be applied to a pipeline for usual chemical plants and any other structures requiring absorption of deformation. (N.H.)

  19. System of maintenance of sustainability of oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleskerov, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Development of the ecological science defining interrelation and interaction of system of an alive and lifeless matter, opens new opportunities and decisions of a problem of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines and other engineering constructions and devices of strategic purpose. In work the methodology of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines is resulted. It is known, that at transport of oil and gas a plenty of automatic and electronic devices, devices are applied to the control and the signal system of parameters of dangerous and harmful factors, a condition of the technological and test equipment, diagnostics and the control of pipelines. The control of parameters of safety of an oil pipeline over the operation, considering influence of heavy climatic conditions during all line, etc. (1, 2, 3) is carried out. Therefore stability of work of various parts of system of an oil pipeline depends on reliability and accuracy of work of devices and devices. However, thus influence of variations of geomagnetic fields and the geodynamic processes breaking the indications of devices and devices which lead to infringement reliability of all design of system of an oil pipeline is not considered. In turn, specified leads to failure, lost of human and natural resources. Now, according to the accepted methodology of a safety of working conditions, potential dangers of any activity, only person, with the subsequent development of measures of protection (4) are considered. Proceeding from it all surrounding material world shares on the following objects forming in aggregate working conditions: subjects of work.; means of production; products of work; the industrial environment; technology process; an environmental-climatic complex; fauna and flora; people (work of the person). Apparently from above resulted, in the accepted methodology potential dangers of any activity of the person and corresponding environmental -climatic conditions of the

  20. Hierarchical Leak Detection and Localization Method in Natural Gas Pipeline Monitoring Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiangwen; Yu, Yang; Wu, Yinfeng; Feng, Renjian; Yu, Ning

    2012-01-01

    In light of the problems of low recognition efficiency, high false rates and poor localization accuracy in traditional pipeline security detection technology, this paper proposes a type of hierarchical leak detection and localization method for use in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. In the signal preprocessing phase, original monitoring signals are dealt with by wavelet transform technology to extract the single mode signals as well as characteristic parameters. In the initial recognition phase, a multi-classifier model based on SVM is constructed and characteristic parameters are sent as input vectors to the multi-classifier for initial recognition. In the final decision phase, an improved evidence combination rule is designed to integrate initial recognition results for final decisions. Furthermore, a weighted average localization algorithm based on time difference of arrival is introduced for determining the leak point’s position. Experimental results illustrate that this hierarchical pipeline leak detection and localization method could effectively improve the accuracy of the leak point localization and reduce the undetected rate as well as false alarm rate. PMID:22368464

  1. Hierarchical leak detection and localization method in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiangwen; Yu, Yang; Wu, Yinfeng; Feng, Renjian; Yu, Ning

    2012-01-01

    In light of the problems of low recognition efficiency, high false rates and poor localization accuracy in traditional pipeline security detection technology, this paper proposes a type of hierarchical leak detection and localization method for use in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. In the signal preprocessing phase, original monitoring signals are dealt with by wavelet transform technology to extract the single mode signals as well as characteristic parameters. In the initial recognition phase, a multi-classifier model based on SVM is constructed and characteristic parameters are sent as input vectors to the multi-classifier for initial recognition. In the final decision phase, an improved evidence combination rule is designed to integrate initial recognition results for final decisions. Furthermore, a weighted average localization algorithm based on time difference of arrival is introduced for determining the leak point's position. Experimental results illustrate that this hierarchical pipeline leak detection and localization method could effectively improve the accuracy of the leak point localization and reduce the undetected rate as well as false alarm rate.

  2. Hierarchical Leak Detection and Localization Method in Natural Gas Pipeline Monitoring Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of the problems of low recognition efficiency, high false rates and poor localization accuracy in traditional pipeline security detection technology, this paper proposes a type of hierarchical leak detection and localization method for use in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. In the signal preprocessing phase, original monitoring signals are dealt with by wavelet transform technology to extract the single mode signals as well as characteristic parameters. In the initial recognition phase, a multi-classifier model based on SVM is constructed and characteristic parameters are sent as input vectors to the multi-classifier for initial recognition. In the final decision phase, an improved evidence combination rule is designed to integrate initial recognition results for final decisions. Furthermore, a weighted average localization algorithm based on time difference of arrival is introduced for determining the leak point’s position. Experimental results illustrate that this hierarchical pipeline leak detection and localization method could effectively improve the accuracy of the leak point localization and reduce the undetected rate as well as false alarm rate.

  3. Fishing intensity around the BBL pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Wageningen Marine Research was requested by ACRB B.V. to investigate the fishing activities around the BBL pipeline. This gas pipeline crosses the southern North Sea from Balgzand (near Den Helder) in the Netherlands to Bacton in the UK (230km). This pipeline is abbreviated as the BBL pipeline. Part

  4. Diagnosing in building main pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, L.G.; Gorelov, A.S.; Kurepin, B.N.; Orekhov, V.I.; Vasil' yev, G.G.; Yakovlev, Ye. I.

    1984-01-01

    General principles are examined for technical diagnosis in building main pipelines. A technique is presented for diagnosis during construction, as well as diagnosis of the technical state of the pipeline-construction machines and mechanisms. The survey materials could be used to set up construction of main pipelines.

  5. Pipeline integrity handbook risk management and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Based on over 40 years of experience in the field, Ramesh Singh goes beyond corrosion control, providing techniques for addressing present and future integrity issues. Pipeline Integrity Handbook provides pipeline engineers with the tools to evaluate and inspect pipelines, safeguard the life cycle of their pipeline asset and ensure that they are optimizing delivery and capability. Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Integrity Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day use in identifying key pipeline degradation mechanisms and threats to pipeline integrity. The book begins

  6. DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James E. Huebler

    2002-01-01

    Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage could be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected and identified before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with an optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachment. The work performed in the first quarter of the project includes development of the Research Management Plan, writing a paper assessing of the state-of-the-art in encroachment and third party damage detection, and development of factors for selecting the optical fiber sensors

  7. Social cost impact assessment of pipeline infrastructure projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, John C., E-mail: matthewsj@battelle.org [Battelle, 7231 Palmetto Dr, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Louisiana Tech University (United States); Sterling, Raymond L., E-mail: sterling@latech.edu [Louisiana Tech University (United States)

    2015-01-15

    A key advantage of trenchless construction methods compared with traditional open-cut methods is their ability to install or rehabilitate underground utility systems with limited disruption to the surrounding built and natural environments. The equivalent monetary values of these disruptions are commonly called social costs. Social costs are often ignored by engineers or project managers during project planning and design phases, partially because they cannot be calculated using standard estimating methods. In recent years some approaches for estimating social costs were presented. Nevertheless, the cost data needed for validation of these estimating methods is lacking. Development of such social cost databases can be accomplished by compiling relevant information reported in various case histories. This paper identifies eight most important social cost categories, presents mathematical methods for calculating them, and summarizes the social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects. The case histories are analyzed in order to identify trends for the various social cost categories. The effectiveness of the methods used to estimate these values is also discussed. These findings are valuable for pipeline infrastructure engineers making renewal technology selection decisions by providing a more accurate process for the assessment of social costs and impacts. - Highlights: • Identified the eight most important social cost factors for pipeline construction • Presented mathematical methods for calculating those social cost factors • Summarized social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects • Analyzed those projects to identify trends for the social cost factors.

  8. Social cost impact assessment of pipeline infrastructure projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, John C.; Allouche, Erez N.; Sterling, Raymond L.

    2015-01-01

    A key advantage of trenchless construction methods compared with traditional open-cut methods is their ability to install or rehabilitate underground utility systems with limited disruption to the surrounding built and natural environments. The equivalent monetary values of these disruptions are commonly called social costs. Social costs are often ignored by engineers or project managers during project planning and design phases, partially because they cannot be calculated using standard estimating methods. In recent years some approaches for estimating social costs were presented. Nevertheless, the cost data needed for validation of these estimating methods is lacking. Development of such social cost databases can be accomplished by compiling relevant information reported in various case histories. This paper identifies eight most important social cost categories, presents mathematical methods for calculating them, and summarizes the social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects. The case histories are analyzed in order to identify trends for the various social cost categories. The effectiveness of the methods used to estimate these values is also discussed. These findings are valuable for pipeline infrastructure engineers making renewal technology selection decisions by providing a more accurate process for the assessment of social costs and impacts. - Highlights: • Identified the eight most important social cost factors for pipeline construction • Presented mathematical methods for calculating those social cost factors • Summarized social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects • Analyzed those projects to identify trends for the social cost factors

  9. Internal corrosion control of northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S.

    2005-02-01

    The general causes of internal corrosion in pipelines were discussed along with the methods to control them. Efficient methods are needed to determine chemical efficiency for mitigating internal corrosion in transmission pipelines, particularly those used in environmentally sensitive regions in the Arctic where harsh environmental conditions prevail. According to the Office of Pipeline Safety, 15 per cent of pipeline failures in the United States from 1994 to 2000 were caused by internal corrosion. Since pipelines in the United States are slightly older than Canadian pipelines, internal corrosion is a significant issue from a Canadian perspective. There are 306,618 km of energy-related pipelines in western Canada. Between April 2001 and March 2002 there were 808 failures, of which 425 failures resulted from internal corrosion. The approach to control internal corrosion comprises of dehydrating the gases at production facilities; controlling the quality of corrosive gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide; and, using internal coatings. The approaches to control internal corrosion are appropriate, when supplemented by adequate integrity management program to ensure that corrosive liquids do not collect, over the operational lifetime of the pipelines, at localized areas. It was suggested that modeling of pipeline operations may need improvement. This paper described the causes, prediction and control of internal pitting corrosion. It was concluded that carbon steel equipment can continue to be used reliably and safely as pipeline materials for northern pipelines if the causes that lead to internal corrosion are scientifically and accurately predicted, and if corrosion inhibitors are properly evaluated and applied. 5 figs.

  10. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    to creating a more efficient shipping industry, and a number of critical issues are identified. These include that shipments depend on shipping information, that shipments often are delayed due to issues with documentation, that EDI messages account for only a minor part of the needed information......This thesis applies theoretical perspectives from the Information Systems (IS) research field to propose how Information Technology (IT) can improve containerized shipping. This question is addressed by developing a set of design principles for an information infrastructure for sharing shipping...... information named the Shipping Information Pipeline (SIP). Review of the literature revealed that IS research prescribed a set of meta-design principles, including digitalization and digital collaboration by implementation of Inter-Organizational Systems based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages...

  11. Trouble in the pipeline?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieckus, Darius

    2002-10-01

    The author provides a commentary on the political, economic, environmental and social problems facing the proposed 3 billion US dollars Baku-Ceyhan-Tbilisi export pipeline. The 1760 km long pipeline has been designed to carry 1 million b/d of crude oil from the Caspian Sea to Turkey's Mediterranean coast. The pipeline is being constructed by a BP-led consortium made up of Socar, Statoil, Unocal, TPAO, Eni, Itochu, Amerada Hess, TotalFinaElf and BP. (UK)

  12. Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

  13. Neutron backscattered application in investigation for Pipeline Intelligent Gauge (PIG) tracking in RAYMINTEX matrix pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fakarudin Badul Rahman; Ismail Mustapha; Nor Paiza Mohd Hasan; Pairu Ibrahim; Airwan Affandi Mahmood; Mior Ahmad Khusaini Adnan; Najib Mohammed Zakey

    2012-01-01

    The Radiation Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) process plants such RAYMINTEX, pipelines are used extensively to transfer a latex product from storage vessel and being irradiated to produce a high quality of latex. A hydraulically activated Pipeline Intelligent Gauge (PIG) was held back against the latex flow. Consequently, the stuck PIG in pipeline was subjected to interrupt plant operation. The investigation was carried out using the neutron backscattered technique scanner to track the stuck PIG in pipeline of RVNRL plant. The 50 mCi Americium Beryllium (AmBe 241 ) fast neutron emitter source in the range 0.5-11 MeV has been used and thermal neutrons in the 30 eV- 0.5 MeV was detected using Helium-3 (He 3 ) detector. It is observed that there is unambiguous relationship between vapour and RVNRL consequence of diverse hydrogen concentration in pipeline. Thus, neutron backscattered technique was capable to determine the location of stuck PIG in a RVNRL pipeline. (author)

  14. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... safety study on pipeline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems (NTSB/SS-05/02). The... indications of a leak on the SCADA interface was the impetus for this study. The NTSB examined 13 hazardous... pipelines, the line balance technique for leak detection can often be performed with manual calculations...

  15. Logistics at the Amazon forest: the challenge of Urucu-Manaus pipeline construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Magalhaes; Araujo, Jorge Marques de; Barbosa, Gilberto Rodrigues; Campos, Marcos Zeferino Teixeira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The predominant difficulties and logistics complexities at the Amazon Region, required of the technical body responsible for the construction of the Undertaking Urucu-Manaus Pipeline, technological knowledge and a profound background of the regional particularities, qualities that were determinants for the execution of this significant work. The logistics solutions, supported on an accurate and adequate planning for people, equipment and material mobilization for several front services, were planned considering the constant climatic variables, river flood and dry periods and with the monitoring daily routines of the communities located around the pipeline construction influence area. (author)

  16. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  17. Reliable pipeline repair system for very large pipe size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John N.; Sousa, Alexandre Barreto de [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas industry worldwide has been mainly depending on the long-term reliability of rigid pipelines to ensure the transportation of hydrocarbons, crude oil, gas, fuel, etc. Many other methods are also utilized onshore and offshore (e.g. flexible lines, FPSO's, etc.), but when it comes to the underwater transportation of very high volumes of oil and gas, the industry commonly uses large size rigid pipelines (i.e. steel pipes). Oil and gas operators learned to depend on the long-lasting integrity of these very large pipelines and many times they forget or disregard that even steel pipelines degrade over time and more often that that, they are also susceptible to various forms of damage (minor or major, environmental or external, etc.). Over the recent years the industry had recognized the need of implementing an 'emergency repair plan' to account for such unforeseen events and the oil and gas operators have become 'smarter' by being 'pro-active' in order to ensure 'flow assurance'. When we consider very large diameter steel pipelines such as 42' and 48' nominal pipe size (NPS), the industry worldwide does not provide 'ready-made', 'off-the-shelf' repair hardware that can be easily shipped to the offshore location and effect a major repair within acceptable time frames and avoid substantial profit losses due to 'down-time' in production. The typical time required to establish a solid repair system for large pipe diameters could be as long as six or more months (depending on the availability of raw materials). This paper will present in detail the Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems (EPRS) that Oceaneering successfully designed, manufactured, tested and provided to two major oil and gas operators, located in two different continents (Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. and Arabian Gulf, U.A.E.), for two different very large pipe sizes (42'' and 48'' Nominal Pipe Sizes

  18. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 2: Technology assessment and technology development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative LDR system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume presents thirteen technology assessments and technology development plans, as well as an overview and summary of the LDR concepts. Twenty-two proposed augmentation projects are described (selected from more than 30 candidates). The five LDR technology areas most in need of supplementary support are: cryogenic cooling; astronaut assembly of the optically precise LDR in space; active segmented primary mirror; dynamic structural control; and primary mirror contamination control. Three broad, time-phased, five-year programs were synthesized from the 22 projects, scheduled, and funding requirements estimated.

  19. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  20. Pigging the unpiggable: a total integrated maintenance approach of the Progreso Process Pipelines in Yucatan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Graciano, Luis [PEMEX Refinacion, Mexico, MX (Mexico); Gonzalez, Oscar L. [NDT Systems and Services, Stutensee (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Pemex Refinacion and NDT Systems and Services, executed a Total Integrated Maintenance Program of the Process Pipeline System in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, in order to modernize, enhance and bring the pipeline system up to the best industry standards and ensure the integrity, reliability and safe operation of the system. This approach consisted in using multi-diameter ultrasonic inspection technology to determine the current status of the pipelines, repair every 'integrity diminishing' feature present on the system and establish a Certified Maintenance Program to ensure the future reliability and safety of the pipelines. Due to the complex nature of the pipeline construction, dated from 1984, several special modifications, integrations and solutions were necessary to improve the in line inspection survey as for all traditionally unpiggable systems. The Progreso Pipeline System consists in 3 major pipelines which transport diesel, jet fuel and gasoline respectively. The outside diameter of two pipelines varies along its length between 12 inches - 14 inches - 16 inches, making the inspection survey more difficult and particularly demanding an Inspection Tool solution. It is located on the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, at the Mexican Caribbean, and its main purpose is to transport the product from the docked tanker ships to the Pemex Storage and Distribution Terminal. (author)

  1. Crude oil pipeline expansion summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has been working with producers to address issues associated with the development of new pipeline capacity from western Canada. This document presents an assessment of the need for additional oil pipeline capacity given the changing mix of crude oil types and forecasted supply growth. It is of particular interest to crude oil producers and contributes to current available information for market participants. While detailed, the underlying analysis does not account for all the factors that may come into play when individual market participants make choices about which expansions they may support. The key focus is on the importance of timely expansion. It was emphasized that if pipeline expansions lags the crude supply growth, then the consequences would be both significant and unacceptable. Obstacles to timely expansion are also discussed. The report reviews the production and supply forecasts, the existing crude oil pipeline infrastructure, opportunities for new market development, requirements for new pipeline capacity and tolling options for pipeline development. tabs., figs., 1 appendix

  2. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM and white matter (WM using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations.

  3. 77 FR 45417 - Pipeline Safety: Inspection and Protection of Pipeline Facilities After Railway Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Accidents AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. [[Page 45418

  4. Canadian pipeline contractors in holding pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caron, G [Pe Ben Pipelines Ltd.; Osadchuk, V; Sharp, M; Stabback, J G

    1979-05-21

    A discussion of papers presented at a Pipe Line Contractors Association of Canada convention includes comments by G. Caron (Pe Ben Pipelines Ltd.) on the continued slack in big-inch pipeline construction into 1980 owing mainly to delayed U.S. and Canadian decisions on outstanding Alaska Highway gas pipeline issues and associated gas export bids and on the use of automatic welding for expeditious construction of the northern sections of the Alaska Highway pipeline; by V. Osadchuk (Majestic Wiley Contract. Ltd.) on the liquidation of surplus construction equipment because of these delays; by M. Sharp (Can. North. Pipeline Agency) on the need for close U.S. and Canadian governmental and industrial cooperation to permit an early 1980 start for construction of the prebuild sections of the Alaska pipeline; and by J. G. Stabback (Can. Natl. Energy Board) on the Alaska oil pipeline applications by Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd., Trans Mountain Pipe Line Co. Ltd., and Kitimat Pipe Line Ltd.

  5. 76 FR 28326 - Pipeline Safety: National Pipeline Mapping System Data Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR 191... Reports AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Issuance of... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) published a final rule on November 26, 2010...

  6. Measures for security and supervision of pipelines; Massnahmen zur Pipeline-Sicherheit und -Ueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlacher, Hans-Burkhard [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau und Technische Hydromechanik; Giesecke, Juergen [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau

    2010-07-01

    In a previous publication, the two authors dealt with the hydraulic problems as regards mineral oil pipelines. The present report describes the measures mainly used to guarantee the safety of such pipelines. (orig.)

  7. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzias, F.A.; Siontorou, C.G.; Spanidis, P.-M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece.

  8. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzias, F.A., E-mail: fbatzi@unipi.gr [Univ. Piraeus, Dept. Industrial Management and Technology, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Siontorou, C.G., E-mail: csiontor@unipi.gr [Univ. Piraeus, Dept. Industrial Management and Technology, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Spanidis, P.-M.P., E-mail: pspani@asprofos.gr [Asprofos Engineering S.A, El. Venizelos 284, 17675 Kallithea (Greece)

    2011-02-15

    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece.

  9. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_vectors_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the lines of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  10. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_points_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the points of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  11. Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Kumar (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This is the second volume of papers presented at the Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition held at the Johnson Space Center February 1-3, 1994. Possible technology transfers covered during the conference were in the areas of information access; innovative microwave and optical applications; materials and structures; marketing and barriers; intelligent systems; human factors and habitation; communications and data systems; business process and technology transfer; software engineering; biotechnology and advanced bioinstrumentation; communications signal processing and analysis; medical care; applications derived from control center data systems; human performance evaluation; technology transfer methods; mathematics, modeling, and simulation; propulsion; software analysis and decision tools; systems/processes in human support technology; networks, control centers, and distributed systems; power; rapid development; perception and vision technologies; integrated vehicle health management; automation technologies; advanced avionics; and robotics technologies.

  12. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  13. Water level detection pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Yukinobu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Niizato, Masaru; Takagi, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    In the present invention, water levels of a feedwater heater and a drain tank in a nuclear power plant are detected at high accuracy. Detection pipeline headers connected to the upper and lower portions of a feedwater heater or a drain tank are connected with each other. The connection line is branched at appropriate two positions and an upper detection pipeline and a lower detection pipeline are connected thereto, and a gauge entrance valve is disposed to each of the detection pipelines. A diaphragm of a pressure difference generator is connected to a flange formed to the end portion. When detecting the change of water level in the feedwater heater or the drain tank as a change of pressure difference, gauge entrance valves on the exit side of the upper and lower detection pipelines are connected by a connection pipe. The gauge entrance valve is closed, a tube is connected to the lower detection pipe to inject water to the diaphragm of the pressure difference generator passing through the connection pipe thereby enabling to calibrate the pressure difference generator. The accuracy of the calibration of instruments is improved and workability thereof upon flange maintenance is also improved. (I.S.)

  14. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 1 of a 3-volume report, and is divided into the following sections: (1) Task A: Gas Sales; (2) Task B: Initial Economic Screening; (3) Task D: Project Cost Analysis

  15. Development of the updated system of city underground pipelines based on Visual Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxiong; Zhu, Yun; Li, Xiangdong

    2009-10-01

    Our city has owned the integrated pipeline network management system with ArcGIS Engine 9.1 as the bottom development platform and with Oracle9i as basic database for storaging data. In this system, ArcGIS SDE9.1 is applied as the spatial data engine, and the system was a synthetic management software developed with Visual Studio visualization procedures development tools. As the pipeline update function of the system has the phenomenon of slower update and even sometimes the data lost, to ensure the underground pipeline data can real-time be updated conveniently and frequently, and the actuality and integrity of the underground pipeline data, we have increased a new update module in the system developed and researched by ourselves. The module has the powerful data update function, and can realize the function of inputting and outputting and rapid update volume of data. The new developed module adopts Visual Studio visualization procedures development tools, and uses access as the basic database to storage data. We can edit the graphics in AutoCAD software, and realize the database update using link between the graphics and the system. Practice shows that the update module has good compatibility with the original system, reliable and high update efficient of the database.

  16. Stabilité des pipelines non ensouillés. Etude bibliographique Stability of Unburied Pipelines. Bibliographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alliot J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The integrity of an unburied subsea pipeline depends to a very large extent on its stability on the seabed along its entire length. Hence the determination of this stability is of great importance in the engineering design of pipelines. This article proposes to examine the principal problems raised by the stability of unburied pipelines in the field of soil mechanics. These problems mainly concern the reactions of the soil to pipelines and their assessment, i. e. the forces of soil resistance...

  17. Hydraulic Transients Caused by Air Expulsion During Rapid Filling of Undulating Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Apollonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main issues arising during the rapid filling of a pipeline is the pressure transient which originates after the entrapped air has been expelled at the air release valve. Because of the difference in density between water and air, a pressure transient originates at the impact of the water column. Many authors have analyzed the problem, both from the theoretical and the experimental standpoint. Nevertheless, mainly vertical or horizontal pipelines have been analyzed, whereas in real field applications, the pipe profile is a sequence of ascending and descending pipes, with air release/vacuum valves at high points. To overcome lack of knowledge regarding this latter case, laboratory experiments were carried out to simulate the filling of an undulating pipeline, initially empty at atmospheric pressure. The pipe profile has a high point where an orifice is installed for air venting, so as to simulate the air release valve at intermediate high point of a supply pipeline. In the experiments, the diameter of the orifice and the opening degree of both upstream and downstream valves were varied, in order to analyze their effect on the pressure transient. The experiments were also carried out with a longer descending pipe, in order to assess the effects on the pressure surge of the air volume downstream of the orifice.

  18. Generating pipeline networks for corrosion assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, J. [Cimarron Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Production characteristics and gas-fluid compositions of fluids must be known in order to assess pipelines for internal corrosion risk. In this study, a gathering system pipeline network was built in order to determine corrosion risk for gathering system pipelines. Connections were established between feeder and collector lines in order measure upstream production and the weighted average of the upstream composition of each pipeline in the system. A Norsok M-506 carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) corrosion rate model was used to calculate corrosion rates. A spreadsheet was then used to tabulate the obtained data. The analysis used straight lines drawn between the 'from' and 'to' legal sub-division (LSD) endpoints in order to represent pipelines on an Alberta township system (ATS) and identify connections between pipelines. Well connections were established based on matching surface hole location and 'from' LSDs. Well production, composition, pressure, and temperature data were sourced and recorded as well attributes. XSL hierarchical computations were used to determine the production and composition properties of the commingled inflows. It was concluded that the corrosion assessment process can identify locations within the pipeline network where potential deadlegs branched off from flowing pipelines. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. A system and approach for total pipeline integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd; Neidhardt, Dietmar [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Gonzalez, Oscar [Tuboscope Mexico S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline rehabilitation and maintenance decisions are made using a wide variety of data, criteria, and expertise. The goal is to arrive at an optimal plan that considers risk and best return on Repair and Maintenance (R and M) expenditures for aging pipeline systems in both regulated and non-regulated environments. In order to achieve these goals, historical, operations, and assessment data is gathered, aligned and integrated as part of a baseline assessment. Integrity threats are identified based on operations and industry experience, and combined with potential consequences to public safety, the environment, and business to clearly delineate high risk exposure segments in the system. Integrity assessments are conducted in a prioritized manner, using the most appropriate technology and methods to address the threats. These include In Line Inspection technologies: MFL, Deformation, UT, INS (combinations thereof), Direct Assessment for EC and SCC threats, Hydro testing, and other indirect methods. From these results, decisions are made and R and M plans developed. To arrive at an optimal R and M plan, proper use of existing data, new integrity assessment data, and decision risk models is required. This paper presentation will detail the tactical aspect of an effective integrity management platform. Experience in decision support, operations priorities and execution of a rehabilitation plan using LinaView Pro{sup TM} integrity management system with risk-based integrity tools and maintenance planning will be presented. A process overview, results, and benefits will be given using these examples from operating oil and gas transmission pipelines. (author)

  20. Calculation of NPP pipeline seismic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.P.; Ambriashvili, Yu.K.; Kaliberda, I.V.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified design procedure of seismic pipeline stability of NPP at WWER reactor is described. The simplified design procedure envisages during the selection and arrangement of pipeline saddle and hydraulic shock absorbers use of method of introduction of resilient mountings of very high rigidity into the calculated scheme of the pipeline and performance of calculations with step-by-step method. It is concluded that the application of the design procedure considered permits to determine strains due to seismic loads, to analyze stressed state in pipeline elements and supporting power of pipe-line saddle with provision for seismic loads to plan measures on seismic protection

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER CONSUMPTION FOR SOME OIL PIPE-LINE SECTIONS WITH POOR OPERATIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kolesnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of power consumption for technologically completed and non-completed oil pipe-line sections with poor operational stability has been developed on the basis of daily indices concerning oil transportation regimes. The model permits to take into account tendencies in power consumption under various time prediction cycles and ranges of oil freight turnover, changes in the bulk and characteristics of the transported oil, configuration and design parameters of oil pipe-line.

  2. Effect of Cooling Mode on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Pipeline Steel for Strain Based Design and Research on its Deformation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesong, Zhang; Yonglin, Kang

    With the rapid development of oil and gas industry long distance pipelines inevitably pass through regions with complex geological activities. In order to avoid large deformation the pipelines must be designed based on strain criteria. In this paper the alloy system of X80 high deformability pipeline steel was designed which was 0.25%Mo-0.05%C-1.75%Mn. The effect of controlled cooling process on microstructure and mechanical properties of X80 high deformability pipeline steel were systematically investigated. Through the two-stage controlled cooling process the microstructure of the X80 high deformability pipeline steel were ferrite, bainite and M/A island. There were two kinds of ferrite which were polygonal ferrite (PF) and quasi-polygonal ferrite (QF). The bainite was granular bainite ferrite (GF). Along with the decrease of the start cooling temperature, the volume fraction of ferrite and M/A both increased, the yield ratio (Y/T) decreased, the uniform elongation (uEl) increased firstly with the content of ferrite increased but then decreased with the content and size of M/A increased. When the finish cooling temperature decreasing, the size of M/A became finer. As the start cooling temperature was 690 °C and the finish cooling temperature was 450 °C the volume fraction of ferrite was 23%, the size of ferrite grain was 5μm, the size of M/A island was below 1μm and the structure uniformity was the best. The deformation mechanism of X80 high deformability pipeline steel was analyzed. The best way to improve the work hardening rate was reducing the size of M/A islands on the premise of a certain volume fraction. The decreasing path of instantaneous strain hardening index (n*-value) showed three stages in the deformation process. The n*-value kept stable in the second stage, the reason was that the retained austenite transformed into martensite and the phase transition improved the strain hardening ability of the microstructure. This phenomenon was called

  3. Lay Pipeline Abandonment Head during Some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... is very cruel to the structural integrity of the pipeline structure after ... and properties may be jeopardized should the pipeline structure be used for oil or gas transport when such ... pipelines under bending may alter the material.

  4. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 3 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Task C: Technical Feasibility and Preliminary Design; (3) Task F: Project Implementation Strategy

  5. 78 FR 53190 - Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0185] Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on Leak Repair Clamps Due to Defective Seal AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  6. Repairing method for reactor primary system pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Uetake, Naoto; Hara, Teruo.

    1997-01-01

    Pipelines after decontamination of radioactive nuclides deposited on the pipelines in a nuclear power plant during operation or pipelines to replace pipelines deposited with radioactive nuclide are connected to each system of the nuclear power plant. They are heated in a gas phase containing oxygen to form an oxide film on the surface of the pipelines. The thickness of the oxide film formed in the gas phase is 1nm or greater, preferably 100nm. The concentration of oxygen in the gas phase containing oxygen must be 0.1% or greater. The heating is conducted by circulating a heated gas to the inside of the pipelines or disposing a movable heater such as a high frequency induction heater inside of the pipelines to form the oxide film. Then, redeposition of radioactive nuclide can be suppressed and since the oxide film is formed in the gas phase, a large scaled facilities are not necessary, thereby enabling to repair pipelines of reactor primary system at low cost. (N.H.)

  7. U.S. interstate pipelines ran more efficiently in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    True, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Regulated US interstate pipelines began 1995 under the momentum of impressive efficiency improvements in 1994. Annual reports filed with the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) show that both natural-gas and petroleum liquids pipeline companies increased their net incomes last year despite declining operating revenues. This article discusses trends in the pipeline industry and gives data on the following: pipeline revenues, incomes--1994; current pipeline costs; pipeline costs--estimated vs. actual; current compressor construction costs; compressor costs--estimated vs. actual; US interstate mileage; investment in liquids pipelines; 10-years of land construction costs; top 10 interstate liquids pipelines; top 10 interstate gas pipelines; liquids pipeline companies; and gas pipeline companies

  8. The cotton farming pipeline of Malawi and South Africa: Management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Grundling

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: The purpose this paper is to identify and describe the characteristics and influences of the cotton farming pipeline in Malawi and South Africa. Problem investigated: A broad based approach was followed to investigate the cotton farming pipeline to identify the major driving forces of the cotton pipeline in each of the respective countries. Research approach: A qualitative field research approach was followed to compile data on cotton farming in Malawi and South Africa. Data was compiled upstream from input suppliers, downstream from ginners, cotton transport conveyors, cotton marketing managers and agricultural government officials as well as from farmers and agricultural organizations. Findings: In Malawi a family farming model is followed versus an industrial model of production in South Africa. Despite the differences in approach, the farmers in both countries are faced with similar problems. In this regard, an urgent rethinking of the technological conditions of production and the possibilities of technological change is needed. Recommendations: The research proposes that these countries can benefit from establishing institutions like agricultural co-operatives and mechanisms like the development of a free traffic mechanism of seed-cotton. Conclusion: The present research may assist in developing first layer managerial recommendations that could enhance the sustainability and co-existence of cotton farming in the two countries.

  9. Condition Assessment Technologies for Drinking Water and Wastewater Pipelines: State-of-the-Art Literature and Practice Review

    OpenAIRE

    Thuruthy, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    Aging and deteriorating drinking water and wastewater pipelines have become a major problem in the United States, warranting significant federal attention and regulation. Many utilities have begun or improved programs to manage the renewal of their water and wastewater pipes and are proactively managing their pipeline assets rather than reactively fixing them. However, the extensive size of drinking water and wastewater systems and the severity of the deterioration problem are such that it ...

  10. A quick guide to pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Alkazraji, D

    2008-01-01

    Pipeline engineering requires an understanding of a wide range of topics. Operators must take into account numerous pipeline codes and standards, calculation approaches, and reference materials in order to make accurate and informed decisions.A Quick Guide to Pipeline Engineering provides concise, easy-to-use, and accessible information on onshore and offshore pipeline engineering. Topics covered include: design; construction; testing; operation and maintenance; and decommissioning.Basic principles are discussed and clear guidance on regulations is provided, in a way that will

  11. Solving an unpiggable pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, James R. [GE Oil and Gas, PII Pipeline Solutions, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom); Kern, Michael [National Grid, New Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Technically, any pipeline can be retrofitted to enable in line inspection. Sensibly however, the expense of excavations and construction of permanent facilities have been, in many cases, exceedingly prohibitive. Even where traditional modifications are feasible from engineering perspectives, flow interruption may not be an option - either because they are critical supply lines or because the associated lost revenues could be nearly insurmountable. Savvy pipeline integrity managers know the safety issue that is at stake over the long term. They are also well aware of the accuracy benefits that high-quality in-line inspection data offer over potentially supply disruptive alternatives such as hydrostatic testing. To complicate matters further, many operators, particularly in the US, now face regulatory pressure to assess the integrity of their yet-uninspected pipelines located in highly populated areas. This paper describes an important project National Grid undertook that made use of a unique pipeline access method that did not require permanent installation of expensive facilities required for in line inspection of a pipeline previously considered 'unpiggable'. Since the pipeline was located in an urban area, flow disruption had to be minimized. This paper will define the project background, its challenges, outcomes and lessons learned for the future. (author)

  12. Fishing activity near offshore pipelines, 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    On the North Sea bottom lie numerous pipelines to link oil- or gas offshore drilling units, - platforms and processing stations on land. Although pipeline tubes are coated and covered with protective layers, the pipelines risk being damaged through man-made hazards like anchor dropping and fishing

  13. Pydpiper: A Flexible Toolkit for Constructing Novel Registration Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eFriedel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using neuroimaging technologies to elucidate the relationship between genotype and phenotype and brain and behavior will be a key contribution to biomedical research in the twenty-first century. Among the many methods for analyzing neuroimaging data, image registration deserves particular attention due to its wide range of applications. Finding strategies to register together many images and analyze the differences between them can be a challenge, particularly given that different experimental designs require different registration strategies. Moreover, writing software that can handle different types of image registration pipelines in a flexible, reusable and extensible way can be challenging. In response to this challenge, we have created Pydpiper, a neuroimaging registration toolkit written in Python. Pydpiper is an open-source, freely available pipeline framework that provides multiple modules for various image registration applications. Pydpiper offers five key innovations. Specifically: (1 a robust file handling class that allows access to outputs from all stages of registration at any point in the pipeline; (2 the ability of the framework to eliminate duplicate stages; (3 reusable, easy to subclass modules; (4 a development toolkit written for non-developers; (5 four complete applications that run complex image registration pipelines ``out-of-the-box.'' In this paper, we will discuss both the general Pydpiper framework and the various ways in which component modules can be pieced together to easily create new registration pipelines. This will include a discussion of the core principles motivating code development and a comparison of Pydpiper with other available toolkits. We also provide a comprehensive, line-by-line example to orient users with limited programming knowledge and highlight some of the most useful features of Pydpiper. In addition, we will present the four current applications of the code.

  14. Mixing volume determination in batch transfers through sonic detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Renan Martins [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: renan@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Rachid, Felipe Bastos de Freitas [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: rachid@mec.uff.br; Araujo, Jose Henrique Carneiro de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao]. E-mail: jhca@dcc.ic.uff.br

    2000-07-01

    An experimental methodology to evaluate mixing volumes in batch transfers by means of sonic detectors has been reported in this paper. Mixing volumes have then been computed in a transfer of diesel/gasoline carried out through a pipeline operated by Petrobras for different interface points. It has been shown that an adequate choice of the interface points is crucial for keeping the mixing volume uncertainty within acceptable limits. (author)

  15. 76 FR 54531 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by the Passage of Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... prescribed in Sec. 195.452(h).'' Operators of shallow-water gas and hazardous liquid pipelines in the Gulf of... pipeline safety: 1. Identify persons who normally engage in shallow-water commercial fishing, shrimping... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...

  16. Living and working near pipelines : Landowner guide 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    The transportation of natural gas, oil and other commodities is effected by pipelines throughout most of the country. Safety in the vicinity of a pipeline is very important because damage to a pipeline could result in adverse conditions to public safety and/or the environment. Before digging, written approval must be obtained from the pipeline company. If a landowner is having difficulty negotiating an agreement with the pipeline company, they should call the National Energy Board. It is illegal to construct or excavate without authorization, and approval or denial of a request must be granted within 10 business days by the pipeline company. Three days are allowed to the pipeline company to locate its pipeline. A section dealing with pipeline right-of-way is included, as well as the safety zone and the restricted area. A 10-step checklist of safety tips assists the landowner in taking the appropriate measures in the vicinity of a pipeline. A brief overview of the responsibilities of the National Energy Board is provided, followed by a list of the main pipelines regulated by the National Energy Board. 2 figs

  17. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, F A; Siontorou, C G; Spanidis, P-M P

    2011-02-15

    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Submarine pipelines and the North Sea environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldane, D.; Paul, M.A.; Reuben, R.L.; Side, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The function and design of pipelines for use on the United Kingdom continental shelf are described. Environmental influences which can threaten the integrity of seabed pipelines in the North Sea include hydrodynamic forces due to residual, tidal and wave currents, the nature of seabed sediments and corrosion by seawater. Damage may be caused to pipelines by interaction with vessel anchors and with fishing gear. Special care has to be taken over the selection of the general area for the landfall of a pipeline and the engineering of the installation where the pipeline comes ashore. Trenching and other protection techniques for pipelines are discussed together with hydrostatic testing and commissioning and subsequent inspection, maintenance and repair. (UK)

  19. The Very Large Array Data Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.; Masters, Joseph S.; Chandler, Claire J.; Davis, Lindsey E.; Kern, Jeffrey S.; Ott, Juergen; Schinzel, Frank K.; Medlin, Drew; Muders, Dirk; Williams, Stewart; Geers, Vincent C.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Butler, Bryan J.; Nakazato, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Kanako

    2018-01-01

    We present the VLA Pipeline, software that is part of the larger pipeline processing framework used for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), and Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) for both interferometric and single dish observations.Through a collection of base code jointly used by the VLA and ALMA, the pipeline builds a hierarchy of classes to execute individual atomic pipeline tasks within the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) package. Each pipeline task contains heuristics designed by the team to actively decide the best processing path and execution parameters for calibration and imaging. The pipeline code is developed and written in Python and uses a "context" structure for tracking the heuristic decisions and processing results. The pipeline "weblog" acts as the user interface in verifying the quality assurance of each calibration and imaging stage. The majority of VLA scheduling blocks above 1 GHz are now processed with the standard continuum recipe of the pipeline and offer a calibrated measurement set as a basic data product to observatory users. In addition, the pipeline is used for processing data from the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), a seven year community-driven endeavor started in September 2017 to survey the entire sky down to a declination of -40 degrees at S-band (2-4 GHz). This 5500 hour next-generation large radio survey will explore the time and spectral domains, relying on pipeline processing to generate calibrated measurement sets, polarimetry, and imaging data products that are available to the astronomical community with no proprietary period. Here we present an overview of the pipeline design philosophy, heuristics, and calibration and imaging results produced by the pipeline. Future development will include the testing of spectral line recipes, low signal-to-noise heuristics, and serving as a testing platform for science ready data products.The pipeline is developed as part of the CASA software package by an

  20. Transmission pipeline calculations and simulations manual

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, E Shashi

    2014-01-01

    Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual is a valuable time- and money-saving tool to quickly pinpoint the essential formulae, equations, and calculations needed for transmission pipeline routing and construction decisions. The manual's three-part treatment starts with gas and petroleum data tables, followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide practical experience for problem solving. Topics in this book include pressure and temperature profile of natural gas pipelines, how to size pipelines for specified f

  1. Pipeline rehabilitation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

  2. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  3. Dynamic pressure measures for long pipeline leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likun Wang; Hongchao Wang; Min Xiong; Bin Xu; Dongjie Tan; Hengzhang Zhou [PetroChina Pipeline Company, Langfang (China). R and D Center

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline leak detection method based on dynamic pressure is studied. The feature of dynamic pressure which is generated by the leakage of pipeline is analyzed. The dynamic pressure method is compared with the static pressure method for the advantages and disadvantages in pipeline leak detection. The dynamic pressure signal is suitable for pipeline leak detection for quick-change of pipeline internal pressure. Field tests show that the dynamic pressure method detects pipeline leak rapidly and precisely. (author)

  4. Capsule Pipeline Research Center. 3-year Progress report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines so that this emerging technology can be developed for early use to transport solids including coal, grain, other agricultural products, solid wastes, etc. Important research findings and accomplishments during the first-three years include: success in making durable binderless coal logs by compaction, success in underwater extrusion of binderless coal logs, success in compacting and extruding coal logs with less than 3% hydrophobic binder at room temperature, improvement in the injection system and the pump-bypass scheme, advancement in the state-of-the-art of predicting the energy loss (pressure drop) along both stationary and moving capsules, demonstrated the effectiveness of using polymer for drag reduction in CLP, demonstrated the influence of zeta potential on coal log fabrication, improved understanding of the water absorption properties of coal logs, better understanding of the mechanism of coal log abrasion (wear), completed a detailed economic evaluation of the CLP technology and compared coal transportation cost by CLP to that by rail, truck and slurry pipelines, and completion of several areas of legal research. The Center also conducted important technology transfer activities including workshops, work sessions, company seminars, involvement of companies in CLP research, issuance of newsletters, completion of a video tape on CLP, and presentation of research findings at numerous national and international meetings.

  5. Capsule Pipeline Research Center. 3-year Progress report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines so that this emerging technology can be developed for early use to transport solids including coal, grain, other agricultural products, solid wastes, etc. Important research findings and accomplishments during the first-three years include: success in making durable binderless coal logs by compaction, success in underwater extrusion of binderless coal logs, success in compacting and extruding coal logs with less than 3% hydrophobic binder at room temperature, improvement in the injection system and the pump-bypass scheme, advancement in the state-of-the-art of predicting the energy loss (pressure drop) along both stationary and moving capsules, demonstrated the effectiveness of using polymer for drag reduction in CLP, demonstrated the influence of zeta potential on coal log fabrication, improved understanding of the water absorption properties of coal logs, better understanding of the mechanism of coal log abrasion (wear), completed a detailed economic evaluation of the CLP technology and compared coal transportation cost by CLP to that by rail, truck and slurry pipelines, and completion of several areas of legal research. The Center also conducted important technology transfer activities including workshops, work sessions, company seminars, involvement of companies in CLP research, issuance of newsletters, completion of a video tape on CLP, and presentation of research findings at numerous national and international meetings

  6. Oil pipeline energy consumption and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of energy consumption and efficiency of oil pipelines in the US in 1978. It is based on a simulation of the actual movement of oil on a very detailed representation of the pipeline network, and it uses engineering equations to calculate the energy that pipeline pumps must have exerted on the oil to move it in this manner. The efficiencies of pumps and drivers are estimated so as to arrive at the amount of energy consumed at pumping stations. The throughput in each pipeline segment is estimated by distributing each pipeline company's reported oil movements over its segments in proportions predicted by regression equations that show typical throughput and throughput capacity as functions of pipe diameter. The form of the equations is justified by a generalized cost-engineering study of pipelining, and their parameters are estimated using new techniques developed for the purpose. A simplified model of flow scheduling is chosen on the basis of actual energy use data obtained from a few companies. The study yields energy consumption and intensiveness estimates for crude oil trunk lines, crude oil gathering lines and oil products lines, for the nation as well as by state and by pipe diameter. It characterizes the efficiency of typical pipelines of various diameters operating at capacity. Ancillary results include estimates of oil movements by state and by diameter and approximate pipeline capacity utilization nationwide.

  7. Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mica, Isabella; Polignano, Maria Luisa; Marco, Cinzia De

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes

  8. Economic evaluation: wood stave pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rook, M.E.

    The spray of leakage from the wood stave water supply pipeline serving the New England Power Company's (NEPCO) Searsburg hydroelectric development had caused this facility to be dubbed ''The Searsburg Car Wash.'' In July, 1982, excessive leakage from this pipeline prompted NEPCO to perform a technical inspection which would inform the company's decision to replace, repair, or abandon the pipeline. The inspection indicated that a combination of interrelated factors has led to rapid deterioration. The feasibility study, which included a benefit -cost analysis of a times replacement with a continued repair program weighed annually by a risk factor representing the probability of pipeline failure during the replacement period, determined that direct replacement was most advantageous. 4 figures, 1 figures.

  9. Acoustic system for communication in pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, II, Louis Peter; Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2008-09-09

    A system for communication in a pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid. The system includes an encoding and transmitting sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes that transmits a signal in the frequency range of 3-100 kHz into the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid, and a receiver and processor sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid that receives said signal and uses said signal for a desired application.

  10. Pipelines, inexpensive and safe mode of transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, D D

    1979-01-01

    Pipelines are the leading bulk commodity transporter and should play an even more important role in the future of energy transportation and distribution. As fossil fuel and low-cost uranium resources become depleted, it will be economical to produce hydrogen by electrolysis and transport it through underground pipelines to points of consumption. The cost would be only two to three times that of transporting natural gas per unit of heat energy and substantially less than the cost of transporting electric energy in overhead, extra-high-voltage transmission lines. Pipeline design, including economic pipe diameter; pipe material; operation by remote control and automation; cathodic protection; pipeline construction; and pipeline maintenance, particularly as regards the 1157 km long Oil India Pipeline, are discussed.

  11. Leak detection systems as a central component of pipeline safety concepts; Leckueberwachungssysteme als zentrale Bestandteile von Pipeline-Sicherheitskonzepten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Daniel [KROHNE Oil and Gas B.V., Breda (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    The transport of materials in pipelines is continuously increasing worldwide. Pipelines are one of the most economic and safe transport systems in all directions. In order to ensure this, not only new pipelines but also existing pipelines have to be kept up to date technically. Leakages are a possible safety risk. Leaks are manifold and range from earth quakes, corrosion or material fatigue up to open-up by drilling by thieves. A specific leakage detection often is used in order to limit the risks. The minimization of the consequences of accidents, downtimes and product losses as well as regulatory procedures is the reason for the detection of leakages. Leaks in pipelines can be detected on different kinds - from a simple visual inspection during the inspection up to computer-assisted systems monitoring certain states also in underground and submarine pipeline.

  12. Stress analysis and mitigation measures for floating pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenpeng, Guo; Yuqing, Liu; Chao, Li

    2017-03-01

    Pipeline-floating is a kind of accident with contingency and uncertainty associated to natural gas pipeline occurring during rainy season, which is significantly harmful to the safety of pipeline. Treatment measures against pipeline floating accident are summarized in this paper on the basis of practical project cases. Stress states of pipeline upon floating are analyzed by means of Finite Element Calculation method. The effectiveness of prevention ways and subsequent mitigation measures upon pipeline-floating are verified for giving guidance to the mitigation of such accidents.

  13. Inquiry into the Alaska road pipeline. Enquete sur le pipeline de la route de l'Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, P

    1977-01-01

    This report is addressed to the Minister of Indian Affairs and to the Canadian North in Ottawa and deals with the social and economic impacts of a proposed gas pipeline in the South of Yukon and with the attitudes of the Yukonnese people with respect to this project. Many public hearings were held. The report discusses the Yukon people (Indians and non-Indians) and the consequences of the projected pipeline on the environment, the economics of the region and the way of life of its people. The report also presents the claims of the Indians pertaining to the land. It is advocated that an advance payment of $50M be made to the Indians and that the pipeline corporation pay a compensation of at least $200M to a fund administered by the Yukon. An organization for planning and regulating the pipeline should be establised. It is advised to delay constructing the pipeline until August 1981. Other recommendations are made. Many witnesses supported a layout following roughly the Tintina groove, but none supported the Dawson deviation. Most witnesses opposed constructing the lateral Dempster pipeline for the moment. The report is illustrated with numerous colour photographs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Methodology for environmental audit of execution in gas-pipelines and pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado Palomino, Maria Patricia; Vargas Bejarano, Carlos Hernando

    1999-01-01

    In first instance the constructive aspects and the environmental impact related with the gas-pipes and pipelines construction are presented; then a methodology to make the environmental audit of execution in gas-pipes and pipelines, is showed. They contemplate four stages basically: planning, pre-auditory, execution and analysis, and post-auditory with their respective activities. Also, it is given to know, generalities of the practical case, to evaluate the applicability of the proposed methodology

  15. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 2 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework; (3) Assessment of Alternatives; (4) Baseline Conditions in the Project Area; (5) Potential (Unmitigated) Environment, Health and Safety Impacts; (6) Proposed Environmental Prevention and Mitigation; (7) Projected Net Environmental Impacts; (8) Bibliography

  16. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  17. Best practices for the abandonment of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackean, M; Reed, R; Snow, B [Nabors Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Abandonrite Service

    2006-07-01

    Pipeline regulations implemented in 2006 require that licensees register all pipelines. Training must also be provided for ground disturbance supervisors. In addition, signage must be maintained on abandoned pipelines, and discontinued pipelines must be properly isolated. Corrosion control and internal inhibition is required for discontinued lines. However, pipelines are often neglected during the well abandonment process. This presentation provided recommendations for coordinating well and pipeline abandonment processes. Pipeline ends can be located, depressurized, flushed and purged while wells are being abandoned. Contaminated soils around the wells can also be identified prior to reclamation activities. Administrative reviews must be conducted in order to provide accurate information on pipeline location, reclamation certification, and line break history. Field operation files must be reviewed before preliminary field work is conducted. Site inspections should be used to determine if all ends of the line are accessible. Landowners and occupants near the line must also be notified, and relevant documentation must be obtained. Skilled technicians must be used to assess the lines for obstructions as well as to cut and cap the lines after removing risers. The presentation also examined issues related to pressure change, movement, cold tapping, and live dead legs. tabs., figs.

  18. Robotic inspection technology-process an toolbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, Markus [ROSEN Group (United States). R and D Dept.

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline deterioration grows progressively with ultimate aging of pipeline systems (on-plot and cross country). This includes both, very localized corrosion as well as increasing failure probability due to fatigue cracking. Limiting regular inspecting activities to the 'scrapable' part of the pipelines only, will ultimately result into a pipeline system with questionable integrity. The confidence level in the integrity of these systems will drop below acceptance levels. Inspection of presently un-inspectable sections of the pipeline system becomes a must. This paper provides information on ROSEN's progress on the 'robotic inspection technology' project. The robotic inspection concept developed by ROSEN is based on a modular toolbox principle. This is mandatory. A universal 'all purpose' robot would not be reliable and efficient in resolving the postulated inspection task. A preparatory Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis is performed prior to the decision about the adequate robotic solution. This enhances the serviceability and efficiency of the provided technology. The word 'robotic' can be understood in its full meaning of Recognition - Strategy - Motion - Control. Cooperation of different individual systems with an established communication, e.g. utilizing Bluetooth technology, support the robustness of the ROSEN robotic inspection approach. Beside the navigation strategy, the inspection strategy is also part of the QFD process. Multiple inspection technologies combined on a single carrier or distributed across interacting container must be selected with a clear vision of the particular goal. (author)

  19. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 2: Fiber optic technology and long distance networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    The study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  20. Comparisons of sediment losses from a newly constructed cross-country natural gas pipeline and an existing in-road pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Bridget M. Harrison; Daniel J. Holz; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2014-01-01

    Sediment loads were measured for about one year from natural gas pipelines in two studies in north central West Virginia. One study involved a 1-year-old pipeline buried within the bed of a 25-year-old skid road, and the other involved a newly constructed cross-country pipeline. Both pipelines were the same diameter and were installed using similar trenching and...

  1. 77 FR 27279 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... collections relate to the pipeline integrity management requirements for gas transmission pipeline operators... Management in High Consequence Areas Gas Transmission Pipeline Operators. OMB Control Number: 2137-0610...

  2. 75 FR 53733 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0246] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous... liquefied natural gas, hazardous liquid, and gas transmission pipeline systems operated by a company. The...

  3. 77 FR 46155 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... collections relate to the pipeline integrity management requirements for gas transmission pipeline operators... Management in High Consequence Areas Gas Transmission Pipeline Operators. OMB Control Number: 2137-0610...

  4. Leakproof control of technological installations and underground pipelines using radioactive tracers as a contribution to the protection of the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kras, J.; Walis, L.; Myczkowski, S.; Panczyk, E.

    2004-01-01

    The radioisotope method of leakproof control and leak localization has the following advantages: simplicity, short time of duration of experiment, low cost, short time need for adaptation of the object for the control, high sensitivity of measurements. Owing the application of the isotope technique is possible to carry out the expertise at low pressure, which permits to avoid strength effort of the construction materials. Through the radioisotope method is not a strength test it is complementary to pressure test (hydraulic or pneumatic). It should be noted that the hydraulic test cannot be applied to some technological objects despite the need of their leakproof control. The presentation deals with principles of application of the radioactive tracer - methyl bromide with Br-82, its preparation and ways of injecting the tracer and carrying out radiometric measurements in dependence on the kind of the object examined. The radioisotope tracer method for leakproof control of technological objects and underground pipelines as well as the apparatus used for this control have been developed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology and have been routinely used. (author)

  5. Diagnosing plant pipeline system performance using radiotracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasban, H.; Ali, Elsayed H.; Arafa, H. [Engineering Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas (Egypt)

    2017-02-15

    This study presents an experimental work in a petrochemical company for scanning a buried pipeline using Tc{sup 99m} radiotracer based on the measured velocity changes, in order to determine the flow reduction along a pipeline. In this work, Tc{sup 99m} radiotracer was injected into the pipeline and monitored by sodium iodide scintillation detectors located at several positions along the pipeline. The flow velocity has been calculated between every two consecutive detectors along the pipeline. Practically, six experiments have been carried out using two different data acquisition systems, each of them being connected to four detectors. During the fifth experiment, a bypass was discovered between the scanned pipeline and another buried parallel pipeline connected after the injection point. The results indicate that the bypass had a bad effect on the volumetric flow rate in the scanned pipeline.

  6. 78 FR 46560 - Pipeline Safety: Class Location Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... class location requirements for gas transmission pipelines. Section 5 of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory... and, with respect to gas transmission pipeline facilities, whether applying IMP requirements to...

  7. 77 FR 15453 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... information collection titled, ``Gas Pipeline Safety Program Certification and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline... collection request that PHMSA will be submitting to OMB for renewal titled, ``Gas Pipeline Safety Program...

  8. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes

  9. 77 FR 51848 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines. DATES: Interested persons are invited to submit comments on or.... These regulations require operators of hazardous liquid pipelines and gas pipelines to develop and...

  10. 77 FR 26822 - Pipeline Safety: Verification of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0068] Pipeline Safety: Verification of Records AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... issuing an Advisory Bulletin to remind operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities to verify...

  11. 77 FR 74275 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No.... These regulations require operators of hazardous liquid pipelines and gas pipelines to develop and... control room. Affected Public: Operators of both natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline systems. Annual...

  12. Rehabilitation of underwater pipeline with liner; Reabilitacao de aqueduto submarino com liner: multiplas vantagens e aplicacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Jose N. de; Urtiga, Rogerio L.; Witt, R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The system of water injection in XAREU oil production field has an water pipeline sizing 4'' of diameter, between the offshore platform PXA-1 and another PXA-2, that it transfers 165 m{sup 3}/d of salt water for pressurization of the reservoir through the injection well Xareu-23. This water pipeline always presented high degree of corrosion needing frequently installation of cramps to eliminate leakages. After evaluating the costs we conclude that the more attractive it would be the installation of a liner than the launching of a new water pipeline. For the installation of a new water pipeline we would need the approval of IBAMA and of a great number of resources for the substitution of that pipeline. In spite of treating of an unpublished service between two offshore platforms we chose for the installation of a liner, because we had a great technological domain in this service in onshore oil production facilities with many pipelines recovered with this technique. We had to revise all of the procedures so that there was not any surprise to make unfeasible this service. The installation of the system liner, consisted of an internal coating 'in situ' through the insert of plastic tubes(high density polyethylene-HDPE), that it forms a barrier between the pipeline and the transported fluid. (author)

  13. Volume and mass measurements of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, M.

    1987-12-01

    The report comprises the 10 lectures given at the 74th PTB seminar, which represent the state of the art in the field of liquid flow measurement. The lectures deal with the overflow-pipette as the primary volume standard of PTB, gas elimination devices (compulsory in measuring assemblies with volume meters), measuring assemblies for the reception of milk, electromagnetic flowmeters, vortex-shedding meters, indirect mass measurement from volume and density, direct mass measurement (coriolis flowmeters), pipeline-measurements, level measurement at storage tanks with conventional and optical methods and a development aid project for the set up of test rigs in India. (orig.) [de

  14. Use of pipe saks on pipeline construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghio, Alberto F.M.; Caciatori, Angelo [Galvao Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ruschi, Allan A.; Santos, Felipe A. dos; Barros, Horacio B. de; Loureiro, Regis R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of new technologies applied to pipeline construction and assembling, aimed at enhancing productivity has been searched by PETROBRAS, throughout its subcontractors, assemblers, by transference in the mentioned constructions. Along the construction of Cacimbas Catu Pipeline, Spread 1 A, placed between the Cacimbas Gas Treatment Station (Linhares, ES) and the future Compression Station of Sao Mateus (ES), one, by means of surveys, noticed that the length of flooded or prone to flooding areas was way superior to the ones foreseen in the basic design. One of the broadly used methods for assuring buoyancy control is concreting the pipes. Such method deeply impacts work's logistics in for instance, the pipe stringing work; in this one, a maximum load of two pipes can be transported until the area to applied, what leads to lower productivity and higher risk due to the increase of trips by heavy load trucks. As an alternative to regular concrete, the Pipe Sak System was adopted and such method improved productivity and decreased discontinuities. (author)

  15. Pipeline monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkova, L. I.

    2018-05-01

    Pipeline leakage during transportation of combustible substances leads to explosion and fire thus causing death of people and destruction of production and accommodation facilities. Continuous pipeline monitoring allows identifying leaks in due time and quickly taking measures for their elimination. The paper describes the solution of identification of pipeline leakage using unmanned aerial vehicles. It is recommended to apply the spectral analysis with input RGB signal to identify pipeline damages. The application of multi-zone digital images allows defining potential spill of oil hydrocarbons as well as possible soil pollution. The method of multi-temporal digital images within the visible region makes it possible to define changes in soil morphology for its subsequent analysis. The given solution is cost efficient and reliable thus allowing reducing timing and labor resources in comparison with other methods of pipeline monitoring.

  16. 75 FR 73160 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...-Related Conditions on Gas, Hazardous Liquid, and Carbon Dioxide Pipelines and Liquefied Natural Gas... Pipelines and Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities.'' The Pipeline Safety Laws (49 U.S.C. 60132) require each...

  17. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  18. Engineered pipeline field joint coating solutions for demanding conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lwemuchi, Andre L.; Gudme, Carl C.; Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, OT (Canada)

    2009-12-19

    Trends in the oil and gas pipeline industry see that the demand for new technologies and engineered solutions for pipeline external coatings are increasing. In general, superior mechanical resistance and long term performance are being required in addition to operating at higher temperatures. This demand for more robust coatings has been created because of factors such as more remote fields, deep onshore reservoirs, deep water offshore fields and heavy oil that must be pumped at higher temperatures. The development of new techniques for pipeline construction is also exposing the coatings to more aggressive construction conditions. Because of this, the use of three layer and multi-layer polypropylene mainline coating systems have been growing considerably. Following this trend, the field joint coating manufacturers developed polypropylene systems and more recently had to work on engineered solutions required for recent offshore projects in Europe where very thick polypropylene field joint heat-shrinkable systems were provided. In addition, projects in remote locations such as the recently completed projects in the Brazilian Amazon required special logistics and field services. The growth of the mining industry in South America with slurry pipelines constructed in the recent years also demanded thicker, more robust coatings. The popularization of directional drilling and shore approach applications moved the industry to develop improved abrasion resistant coating systems such as using sacrificial elements to protect the primary coating integrity after the pipeline pull. PETROBRAS plans to replace existing thermally insulated pipelines crossing Great Sao Paulo. Therefore, pumping heavy oil at high temperatures created the need to develop improved mainline and field joint coatings to avoid having the same sort of problems they are facing in existing thermally insulated lines. Due to these needs, the field joint coating manufactures have been challenged to provide

  19. Integrating pipeline data management application and Google maps dataset on web based GIS application unsing open source technology Sharp Map and Open Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisianto, Arie; Sania, Hidayatus [PT PERTAMINA GAS, Bontang (Indonesia); Gumilar, Oki [PT PERTAMINA GAS, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    PT Pertamina Gas operates 3 pipe segments carrying natural gas from producers to PT Pupuk Kaltim in the Kalimantan area. The company wants to build a pipeline data management system consisting of pipeline facilities, inspections and risk assessments which would run on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) platforms. The aim of this paper is to present the integration of the pipeline data management system with GIS. A web based GIS application is developed using the combination of Google maps datasets with local spatial datasets. In addition, Open Layers is used to integrate pipeline data model and Google Map dataset into a single map display on Sharp Map. The GIS based pipeline data management system developed herein constitutes a low cost, powerful and efficient web based GIS solution.

  20. Pipelines inspection robots; Robos para inspecao de linhas de servico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archila Diaz, John Faber; Dutra, Max Suell [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Robotica

    2008-07-01

    One of the problems existing in the area of maintenance of systems for the transport of mass and / or energy is to examine the integrity of the lines of service in the basic infrastructure of cities and industries. For the development of maintenance, whether predictive, preventive or corrective is necessary to conduct the inspection of these lines. To carry out this task is necessary count on help of appropriate technological tools. The main tools for inspection of service lines come from the area of external inspection of pipelines and are also in development, the problem happens when we need to achieve internal or external failures in places of difficult access, and move the inspection equipment to places where it's going to fail. In these cases it is necessary to the use of mechatronic systems, more specifically robotic systems, which may be developed for inspection. This paper aims to present the main robotic systems used for inspection, especially for internal inspection of pipelines. These systems have been developed by the research groups in Brazil, Japan, and Belgium among others, giving up a classification of robots for inspection of pipelines and the main features necessary for its project. (author)

  1. Pipelines inspection robots; Robos para inspecao de linhas de servico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archila Diaz, John Faber; Dutra, Max Suell [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Robotica

    2008-07-01

    One of the problems existing in the area of maintenance of systems for the transport of mass and / or energy is to examine the integrity of the lines of service in the basic infrastructure of cities and industries. For the development of maintenance, whether predictive, preventive or corrective is necessary to conduct the inspection of these lines. To carry out this task is necessary count on help of appropriate technological tools. The main tools for inspection of service lines come from the area of external inspection of pipelines and are also in development, the problem happens when we need to achieve internal or external failures in places of difficult access, and move the inspection equipment to places where it's going to fail. In these cases it is necessary to the use of mechatronic systems, more specifically robotic systems, which may be developed for inspection. This paper aims to present the main robotic systems used for inspection, especially for internal inspection of pipelines. These systems have been developed by the research groups in Brazil, Japan, and Belgium among others, giving up a classification of robots for inspection of pipelines and the main features necessary for its project. (author)

  2. Beyond the pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, J.; Ellis, D.; McIntosh, J.

    1979-12-01

    A study was conducted on the lives of women and their families in Fort Nelson, British Columbia, and Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, two communities which are to be affected by the proposed construction of the Alaska Highway gas pipeline. The womens' socio-economic concerns resulting from the proposed construction were examined by means of interviews with samples of women living in the two communities. Results from the study include descriptions of the communities and their basic services, community planning and housing, women's work in the home and for wages, and the perceived impact of the pipeline on such matters as employment, social services, living costs, business, housing, crime, and the overall community. Recommendations are made to improve the planning process for the pipeline to include the taking into account of womens' needs in such areas as training, health care, housing, and community services. 213 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 6: SPS technology requirements and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Volume 6 of the SPS Concept Definition Study is presented and also incorporates results of NASA/MSFC in-house effort. This volume includes a supporting research and technology summary. Other volumes of the final report that provide additional detail are as follows: (1) Executive Summary; (2) SPS System Requirements; (3) SPS Concept Evolution; (4) SPS Point Design Definition; (5) Transportation and Operations Analysis; and Volume 7, SPS Program Plan and Economic Analysis.

  4. Pipeline operators training and certification using thermohydraulic simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Claudio V.; Plasencia C, Jose [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Montalvao, Filipe; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous pipeline operators training and certification of the TRANSPETRO's Pipeline National Operations Control Center (CNCO) is an essential task aiming the efficiency and safety of the oil and derivatives transport operations through the Brazilian pipeline network. For this objective, a hydraulic simulator is considered an excellent tool that allows the creation of different operational scenarios for training the pipeline hydraulic behavior as well as for testing the operator's responses to normal and abnormal real time operational conditions. The hydraulic simulator is developed based on a pipeline simulation software that supplies the hydraulic responses normally acquired from the pipeline remote units in the field. The pipeline simulation software has a communication interface system that sends and receives data to the SCADA supervisory system database. Using the SCADA graphical interface to create and to customize human machine interfaces (HMI) from which the operator/instructor has total control of the pipeline/system and instrumentation by sending commands. Therefore, it is possible to have realistic training outside of the real production systems, while acquiring experience during training hours with the operation of a real pipeline. A pilot Project was initiated at TRANSPETRO - CNCO targeting to evaluate the hydraulic simulators advantages in pipeline operators training and certification programs. The first part of the project was the development of three simulators for different pipelines. The excellent results permitted the project expansion for a total of twenty different pipelines, being implemented in training programs for pipelines presently operated by CNCO as well as for the new ones that are being migrated. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the implementation process and the development of a training environment through a pipe simulation environment using commercial software. This paper also presents

  5. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume II contains the proceedings for the Short Course on Seismic Base Isolation held in Berkeley, California, August 10-14, 1992.

  6. Crude oil growth impact on pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, O.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of crude oil production and supply in Canada. Details of oil sands projects in Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River were presented. A chart of oil sands growth by major project was provided. A list of new emerging oil sands crude types was also presented along with details of a synthetic bitumen blending synergy. Maps of Western Canadian crude oil markets were provided, along with details of refinery and market demand by crude type. Various pipeline alternatives to new markets were examined, with reference to Enbridge Pipeline's supply and capacity. Details of the Hardisty to U.S Gulf Coast Pipeline and the Edmonton to Prince Rupert Pipeline and its terminal and dock facilities were presented. It was concluded that pipeline capacity and seasonal factors will influence market demand, while linefill, crude types and the quality of the product will influence operational strategies. tabs., figs

  7. Hydrogeological considerations in northern pipeline development. [Permafrost affected by hot or chilled pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan, R L

    1974-11-01

    Some of the hydrogeological implications of construction and operation of oil and gas pipelines in northern regions of Canada are considered in relation to their potential environmental impacts and those factors affecting the security of the pipeline itself. Although the extent to which water in permafrost participates in the subsurface flow regime has not been fully demonstrated, the role of liquid as well as vapor transport in frozen earth materials can be shown from theory to be highly significant; water movement rates in frozen soil are on the same order as those in unsaturated, unfrozen soil. Below 0/sup 0/C, the unfrozen water content in a fine-grained porous medium is dependent on temperature but independent of the total water content. The thermal gradient controls the rate and direction of water movement in permafrost. The groundwater stabilizes the streamflow and in the absence of large lakes provides the main source of flow during the winter. As groundwater is frequently confined by the permafrost, degradation of the permafrost can have significant consequences. The thaw bulb formed around a hot oil pipeline can induce liquefactioned flow of the thawed material. A chilled pipeline could restrict groundwater movement, resulting in buildup of artesian conditions and icings. The liberation and absorption of latent heat on freezing and thawing affects the thermal regime in the ground surface. Recommendations are given for pipeline construction and areas for further study pointed out. (DLC)

  8. Analysis of a buried pipeline at WWER-440/213 Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    According to regulations, all safety structures of a NPP must be designed to withstand loads induced by earthquakes. This applies to safety related underground piping systems. These structures are typically embedded in about 2-3 m of layered soil, and sometimes protected by concrete slabs resting on the ground surface. A rigorous solution for the dynamic response of such a structure would require accounting for nonlinear and three dimensional effects. A non-linear analysis is possible by using specialized computer codes and material models to account for non-linear behaviour of the soil. The aim of this paper was to reanalyze the pipeline of Paks NPP in order to demonstrate its dynamic behaviour interacting with the soil and the connected buildings as well as to determine the dynamic responses and the stresses in typical regions of the pipeline. To perform the numerical analysis a three dimensional finite element code (SSASSI/S) based on 'flexible volume method' was applied

  9. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  10. Plugging of drinking water flow into horizontal high diameter pipeline with artificial ice plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, T.; Valeca, S.; Panaitescu, V. N.; Prisecaru, I.

    2013-01-01

    Local isolation of a pipeline section, placed horizontally into a loop of drinking water supply network, can be made with an ice plug resulting after controlled process inside of pipeline without stopping the consumer supply. The technique is applying in order to perform repairs or items replacement, without closing the drinking water supply network at the same time decreasing the fluid loss resulted after discharge of the affected loop. In facts, the technique is simple one and assumes to apply a special device sized for each case using a freezing liquid agent injected continuously. The paper contains a constructive description of the experimental technological facilities and of the experimental model for ice plugging device used. The test, the first results get and some conclusion are following. The paper is dedicated to the specialists working in the research and technological engineering. (authors)

  11. 49 CFR 192.627 - Tapping pipelines under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tapping pipelines under pressure. 192.627 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.627 Tapping pipelines under pressure. Each tap made on a pipeline under pressure must be performed by a crew qualified to make...

  12. A survey on the state-of-the-technique on software based pipeline leak detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Renan Martins [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao]. E-mail: renan@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a general technical survey on software based leak detection systems (LDS), approaching its main technological features, the operational situations where they are feasible, and the scenarios within the Brazilian pipeline network. The decision on what LDS to choose for a given pipeline is a matter of cost, suitability and feasibility. A simpler low cost, less effective product, but with a fast installation and tuning procedure, may be more suitable for a given operational site (pipeline configuration, kind of fluid, quality of instrumentation and communication), than a complex, high cost, efficient product, but taking a long time to be properly installed. Some other may really have a level of complexity that will require a more sophisticated system. A few number of them will simply not be suitable to have a LDS: it may be caused by the poor quality or absence of instrumentation, or, the worst case, due to the lack of technology to approach that specific case, e. g., multiphase flow lines, or those lines that commonly operates in slack condition. It is intended to approach here the general state-of-the-technique and make some initial comments on the costs. (author)

  13. The developing human connectome project: A minimal processing pipeline for neonatal cortical surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, Antonios; Robinson, Emma C; Schuh, Andreas; Wright, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Sean; Bozek, Jelena; Counsell, Serena J; Steinweg, Johannes; Vecchiato, Katy; Passerat-Palmbach, Jonathan; Lenz, Gregor; Mortari, Filippo; Tenev, Tencho; Duff, Eugene P; Bastiani, Matteo; Cordero-Grande, Lucilio; Hughes, Emer; Tusor, Nora; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Hutter, Jana; Price, Anthony N; Teixeira, Rui Pedro A G; Murgasova, Maria; Victor, Suresh; Kelly, Christopher; Rutherford, Mary A; Smith, Stephen M; Edwards, A David; Hajnal, Joseph V; Jenkinson, Mark; Rueckert, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    The Developing Human Connectome Project (dHCP) seeks to create the first 4-dimensional connectome of early life. Understanding this connectome in detail may provide insights into normal as well as abnormal patterns of brain development. Following established best practices adopted by the WU-MINN Human Connectome Project (HCP), and pioneered by FreeSurfer, the project utilises cortical surface-based processing pipelines. In this paper, we propose a fully automated processing pipeline for the structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the developing neonatal brain. This proposed pipeline consists of a refined framework for cortical and sub-cortical volume segmentation, cortical surface extraction, and cortical surface inflation, which has been specifically designed to address considerable differences between adult and neonatal brains, as imaged using MRI. Using the proposed pipeline our results demonstrate that images collected from 465 subjects ranging from 28 to 45 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) can be processed fully automatically; generating cortical surface models that are topologically correct, and correspond well with manual evaluations of tissue boundaries in 85% of cases. Results improve on state-of-the-art neonatal tissue segmentation models and significant errors were found in only 2% of cases, where these corresponded to subjects with high motion. Downstream, these surfaces will enhance comparisons of functional and diffusion MRI datasets, supporting the modelling of emerging patterns of brain connectivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated surface management for pipeline construction: The Mid-America Pipeline Company Four Corners Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria L. Sonett

    1999-01-01

    Integrated surface management techniques for pipeline construction through arid and semi-arid rangeland ecosystems are presented in a case history of a 412-mile pipeline construction project in New Mexico. Planning, implementation and monitoring for restoration of surface hydrology, soil stabilization, soil cover, and plant species succession are discussed. Planning...

  15. Pipeline dreams face up to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Orla

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of two gas pipelines which are expected to be built in Turkey to meet the estimated demand for gas. The Bluestream joint ENI/Gasprom project pipeline will convey Russian gas across the Black Sea to Turkey, and the PSG joint Bechtel/General Electric venture will bring gas from Turkmenistan to Turkey across the Caspian Sea. Construction of the pipelines and financing aspects are discussed. (uk)

  16. Cost reducing factors in effective pipeline piling structure design and construction in Alberta's thermal SAGD gathering pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrokhzad, M.A. [IMV Projects, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Oil sands steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) gathering pipeline systems are typically arranged so that above-ground steam pipeline and production pipelines lay next to each other on the same steel structure. Longitudinal and lateral loads build up in the pipeline supports, and the loads are consistently changing until pipeline temperatures reach a steady state condition. SAGD pipelines are required to have enough flexibility to absorb thermal expansion or contraction movements. However, most pipeline engineers only consider upper and lower temperature limits in the design of steel structures and pilings. This paper examined the effect of considering both the thermal gradient and time factor in designing supports for pipelines. The study examined how the factors impacted on standard load calculations and pile sizings. Sixteen stress analysis models for steam and production lines were prepared and designated thermal gradients were introduced to each model. Longitudinal and lateral loads caused by thermal gradient movements were calculated for all supports. The models were analyzed and absolute values for longitudinal and lateral loads were recorded. Results of the study showed that engineers do not necessarily need to rely on maximum temperatures as the condition that results in maximum longitudinal and lateral loads on supports. It was concluded that costs related to pipeline construction can be significantly reduced by considering the effects of thermal gradients in stress analyses and load calculations. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  17. Security of pipeline facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.C. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Van Egmond, C.; Duquette, L. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This working group provided an update on provincial, federal and industry directions regarding the security of pipeline facilities. The decision to include security issues in the NEB Act was discussed as well as the Pipeline Security Management Assessment Project, which was created to establish a better understanding of existing security management programs as well as to assist the NEB in the development and implementation of security management regulations and initiatives. Amendments to the NEB were also discussed. Areas of pipeline security management assessment include physical safety management; cyber and information security management; and personnel security. Security management regulations were discussed, as well as implementation policies. Details of the Enbridge Liquids Pipelines Security Plan were examined. It was noted that the plan incorporates flexibility for operations and is integrated with Emergency Response and Crisis Management. Asset characterization and vulnerability assessments were discussed, as well as security and terrorist threats. It was noted that corporate security threat assessment and auditing are based on threat information from the United States intelligence community. It was concluded that the oil and gas industry is a leader in security in North America. The Trans Alaska Pipeline Incident was discussed as a reminder of how costly accidents can be. Issues of concern for the future included geographic and climate issues. It was concluded that limited resources are an ongoing concern, and that the regulatory environment is becoming increasingly prescriptive. Other concerns included the threat of not taking international terrorism seriously, and open media reporting of vulnerability of critical assets, including maps. tabs., figs.

  18. Estimation of efficiency of hydrotransport pipelines polyurethane coating application in comparison with steel pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, V. I.; Vasilyeva, M. A.; Pomeranets, I. B.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents analytical calculations of specific pressure loss in hydraulic transport of the Kachkanarsky GOK iron ore processing tailing slurry. The calculations are based on the results of the experimental studies on specific pressure loss dependence upon hydraulic roughness of pipelines internal surface lined with polyurethane coating. The experiments proved that hydraulic roughness of polyurethane coating is by the factor of four smaller than that of steel pipelines, resulting in a decrease of hydraulic resistance coefficients entered into calculating formula of specific pressure loss - the Darcy-Weisbach formula. Relative and equivalent roughness coefficients are calculated for pipelines with polyurethane coating and without it. Comparative calculations show that hydrotransport pipelines polyurethane coating application is conductive to a specific energy consumption decrease in hydraulic transport of the Kachkanarsky GOC iron ore processing tailings slurry by the factor of 1.5. The experiments were performed on a laboratory hydraulic test rig with a view to estimate the character and rate of physical roughness change in pipe samples with polyurethane coating. The experiments showed that during the following 484 hours of operation, roughness changed in all pipe samples inappreciably. As a result of processing of the experimental data by the mathematical statistics methods, an empirical formula was obtained for the calculation of operating roughness of polyurethane coating surface, depending on the pipeline operating duration with iron ore processing tailings slurry.

  19. Development of high productivity pipeline girth welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapp, David; Liratzis, Theocharis

    2010-01-01

    The trend for increased oil and gas consumption implies a growth of long-distance pipeline installations. Welding is a critical factor in the installation of pipelines, both onshore and offshore, and the rate at which the pipeline can be laid is generally determined by the speed of welding. This has resulted in substantial developments in pipeline welding techniques. Arc welding is still the dominant process used in practice, and forge welding processes have had limited successful application to date, in spite of large investments in process development. Power beam processes have also been investigated in detail and the latest laser systems now show promise for practical application. In recent years the use of high strength steels has substantially reduced the cost of pipeline installation, with X70 and X80 being commonly used. This use of high strength pipeline produced by thermomechanical processing has also been researched. They must all meet three requirments, high productivity, satisfactory weld properties, and weld quality

  20. Sea water pipeline for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Ken-ichi.

    1992-01-01

    Heating coils, for example, are wound around sea water pipelines as a heater. The outer wall surface of the sea water pipelines is heated by the heating coils. The inner wall surfaces of the sea water pipelines can be warmed to higher than a predetermined temperature by heating the outer wall surfaces to die out marine organisms deposited at the inner surfaces. Further, thermocouples for the external wall and the internal wall are disposed so that the temperature at the inner wall surface of the sea water pipelines can be controlled. Further, a temperature keeping material is disposed at the external surface of the sea water system pipelines. With such a constitution, the marine organisms deposited on the internal wall surface of the sea water system pipelines are died out to suppress the deposition amount of the marine organisms. Accordingly, the maintenance and the operation reliability is improved after maintenance. (I.N.)

  1. Electrochemical Noise Sensors for Detection of Localized and General Corrosion of Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines. Final Report for the Period July 2001-October 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Jr., Bernard S.; Russell, James H.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory funded a Natural Gas Infrastructure Reliability program directed at increasing and enhancing research and development activities in topics such as remote leak detection, pipe inspection, and repair technologies and materials. The Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy was funded to study the use of electrochemical noise sensors for detection of localized and general corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines. As part of this, ARC entered into a collaborative effort with the corrosion sensor industry to demonstrate the capabilities of commercially available remote corrosion sensors for use with the Nation's Gas Transmission Pipeline Infrastructure needs. The goal of the research was to develop an emerging corrosion sensor technology into a monitor for the type and degree of corrosion occurring at key locations in gas transmission pipelines.

  2. Black powder removal in a Mexico gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, John R. [TDW Services, Inc., New Castle, DE (United States); Drysdale, Colin; Warterfield, Bob D. [T.D.Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper focuses on the cleaning methodology and operational constrains involved with the removal of black powder in a high pressure natural gas transmission pipeline. In this case, the accumulation of black powder along the pipeline system over the seven year period since it was put into service was creating significant problems in the areas of maintenance, customer relations, and cost to the pipeline operator due to clogging of filters, reduced gas flow, and penalties as result of non-compliant delivery contracts. The pipeline cleaning project consisted of running cleaning pigs or scrappers with batches of cleaning solution through each section of the pipeline while dealing with such factors as three (3) pipeline section lengths in excess of 160 kms (100 miles), gas flow velocity fluctuations, shutdowns, and gas delivery schedule requirements. The cleaning program for the entire pipeline system included the use of chemical and diesel based cleaning solution, running multiple cleaning pigs, liquid injection and separation system, mobile storage tanks, various equipment and personnel for logistical support. Upon completion of the cleaning program, the level of black powder and other solids in all pipeline sections was reduced to approximately 0.5% liquid/solid ratio and the pipeline system returned to normal optimum operation. (author.

  3. New territory for NGL pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.L.; Billings, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    Even though the NGL pipeline industry appears mature, new geographic territory exists for expansion of NGL pipelines. However, the most fertile territory that must be pursued is the collective opportunities to better link the existing NGL industry. Associations like the Gas Processors Association can not perform the role demanded by a need to share information between the links of the chain on a more real time basis. The Association can not substitute for picking up the phone or calling a meeting of industry participants to discuss proposed changes in policies and procedures. All stakeholders must participate in squeezing out the inefficiencies of the industry. Some expansion and extension of NGL pipelines will occur in the future without ownership participation or commitments from the supply and demand businesses. However, significant expansions linking new supply sources and demand markets will only be made as the supply and demand businesses share long-term strategies and help define the pipeline opportunity. The successful industries of the twenty-first century will not be dominated by a single profitable sector, but rather by those industries which foster cooperation as well as competition. A healthy NGL industry will be comprised of profitable supply businesses and profitable demand businesses, linked together by profitable pipeline businesses

  4. Retrofit of a liquid pipeline pump station at TRANSPETRO using VFD - Variable Frequency Drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, Adilson [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Maddarena, Eduardo [Siemens Ltd., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the main operational factors motivating the application of variable frequency drives (VFD) in oil pipeline operations and a real case under way at TRANSPETRO. A brief theoretical introduction on driving centrifugal pumps with variable speed is presented and the available VFD technologies are compared. A practical case using electronic VFD is described concerning a retrofit of a pipeline pump station in the REVAP Refinery in Sao Paulo State. The case encompasses the main aspects considered in the technical and financial feasibility analysis of the retrofit project and describes the operational modes that were changed. (author)

  5. Pipeline transportation of emerging partially upgraded bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhning, R.W.; Anand, A.; Blackmore, T.; Lawson, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The recoverable reserves of Canada's vast oil deposits is estimated to be 335 billion barrels (bbl), most of which are in the Alberta oil sands. Canada was the largest import supplier of crude oil to the United States in 2001, followed by Saudi Arabia. By 2011, the production of oil sands is expected to increase to 50 per cent of Canada's oil, and conventional oil production will decline as more production will be provided by synthetic light oil and bitumen. This paper lists the announced oil sands projects. If all are to proceed, production would reach 3,445,000 bbl per day by 2011. The three main challenges regarding the transportation and marketing of this new production were described. The first is to expand the physical capacity of existing pipelines. The second is the supply of low viscosity diluent (such as natural gas condensate or synthetic diluent) to reduce the viscosity and density of the bitumen as it passes through the pipelines. The current pipeline specifications and procedures to transport partially upgraded products are presented. The final challenge is the projected refinery market constraint to process the bitumen and synthetic light oil into consumer fuel products. These challenges can be addressed by modifying refineries and increasing Canadian access in Petroleum Administration Defense District (PADD) II and IV. The technology for partial upgrading of bitumen to produce pipeline specification oil, reduce diluent requirements and add sales value, is currently under development. The number of existing refineries to potentially accept partially upgraded product is listed. The partially upgraded bitumen will be in demand for additional upgrading to end user products, and new opportunities will be presented as additional pipeline capacity is made available to transport crude to U.S. markets and overseas. The paper describes the following emerging partial upgrading methods: the OrCrude upgrading process, rapid thermal processing, CPJ process for

  6. Feasibility study on application of volume acid fracturing technology to tight gas carbonate reservoir development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianyin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively develop tight-gas carbonate reservoir and achieve high recovery is always a problem for the oil and gas industry. To solve this problem, domestic petroleum engineers use the combination of the successful experiences of North American shale gas pools development by stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing with the research achievements of Chinese tight gas development by acid fracturing to propose volume acid fracturing technology for fractured tight-gas carbonate reservoir, which has achieved a good stimulation effect in the pilot tests. To determine what reservoir conditions are suitable to carry out volume acid fracturing, this paper firstly introduces volume acid fracturing technology by giving the stimulation mechanism and technical ideas, and initially analyzes the feasibility by the comparison of reservoir characteristics of shale gas with tight-gas carbonate. Then, this paper analyzes the validity and limitation of the volume acid fracturing technology via the analyses of control conditions for volume acid fracturing in reservoir fracturing performance, natural fracture, horizontal principal stress difference, orientation of in-situ stress and natural fracture, and gives the solution for the limitation. The study results show that the volume acid fracturing process can be used to greatly improve the flow environment of tight-gas carbonate reservoir and increase production; the incremental or stimulation response is closely related with reservoir fracturing performance, the degree of development of natural fracture, the small intersection angle between hydraulic fracture and natural fracture, the large horizontal principal stress difference is easy to form a narrow fracture zone, and it is disadvantageous to create fracture network, but the degradable fiber diversion technology may largely weaken the disadvantage. The practices indicate that the application of volume acid fracturing process to the tight-gas carbonate

  7. Millennium Pipeline Presentation : a new northeast passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolnik, J.

    1997-01-01

    Routes of the proposed Millennium Pipeline project were presented. The pipeline is to originate at the Empress gas field in Alberta and link up to eastern markets in the United States. One of the key advantages of the pipeline is that it will have the lowest proposed rates from Empress to Chicago and through links via affiliates to New York and other eastern markets. It will include 380 miles of new 36-inch pipeline and have a capacity of 650 million cubic feet per day. In many instances it will follow existing rights-of-way. The pipeline is expected to be in service for the 1999 winter heating season. The project sponsors are Columbia Gas Transmission, CMS Energy, MCN Energy, and Westcoast Energy. 6 figs

  8. Accuracy Limitations of Pipelined ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, P.J.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the key characteristics of the main errors which affect the performance of a switched capacitor pipelined ADC are presented and their effects on the ADC transfer characteristics demonstrated. Clear and concise relationships are developed to aid optimized design of the pipeline ADC and

  9. Managing the market risk in pipeline capacity positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    Managing the risk involved in adding new pipeline capacity was explored in this presentation. Topics discussed included: (1) pipeline capacity positions as basis swaps, (2) physical capacity versus basis transactions, (3) managing the market price risk in a capacity position, and (4) sharing of pipeline market risk. Pipeline owners were advised to recognize that pipeline capacity carries significant market price risk, that basis markets can sometimes be more volatile than outright markets, and to treat physical capacity market risk the same way as one would treat a financial basis position. 2 figs

  10. The Bakou-Ceyhan pipeline: paradoxes and coherence of the USA strategy of pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafalian, A.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the construction of the Bakou-Ceyhan pipeline, from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, is begun, in spite of the the controversies of industrialists against politicians and experts. The diplomatic USA activity in favor this pipeline largely contributes to the problems solution. The author presents the USA policy and strategy in the region, the economic constraints and the negotiations. (A.L.B.)

  11. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume I contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Seismic Base Isolation for Department of Energy Facilities held in Marina Del Rey, California, May 13-15, 1992.

  12. 77 FR 32631 - Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. OR12-13-000] Lion Oil... of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.202 (2011), Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline Company, collectively, Lion Companies...

  13. The blind faith deep water horizontal pipeline tie-in project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John Nicos [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    This presentation will concentrate on the design challenges, experience and learning from the SIT and offshore installation of two deepwater pipeline tie-ins using first-of-its-kind subsea technology and installation methodologies on the 'Blind Faith' project. The Blind Faith Subsea Tie-Ins join the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines with the Canyon Chief gas pipeline and the Mountaineer oil pipeline in 5100 feet of water. Both of the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines are terminated with conventional PLEMs providing a horizontal connector for the tie-in and a vertical connector for a future tie-in connection point. The connectors are ROV operable/installable clamp style connectors. The method of joining to the Canyon Chief oil and gas pipelines and the type of jumper employed are unique to the tie-in. An ROV operable / installable mechanical pipe end connector connects the bare ends of the Canyon Chief and Mountaineer pipelines. The mechanical pipe end connector is fitted with an integral clamp connector hub and rests on an ROV installed mud mat. After installation of the mechanical connector, metrology was performed to create a neutral state horizontal jumper for joining the mechanical connector hub and the Blind Faith PLEM. The neutral state horizontal jumper is a compliant 'Z-Bend' design. During installation the jumper was elastically pre-deformed using a bowstring system. Pre-deformation of the jumper provided installation clearances and facilitated the neutral stress state after installation. Once landed the jumper bowstring was relaxed, allowing the jumper to expand to fit between the hubs. After expansion and make-up, the clamp connectors were tightened via an ROV operated hydraulic torque wrench. A seal test verified the integrity of the connections. After installation the jumper remains in a minimal residual stress state atypical of most horizontal jumpers. The horizontal jumper was chosen over the vertical jumper because it provides a

  14. Pipeline investigation report : crude oil pipeline-third party damage : Trans Mountain Pipeline LP 610 millimetre-diameter crude oil pipeline : kilometre post 3.10, Westridge dock transfer line, Burnaby, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    This report discussed an oil spill which occurred in July 2007 when a contractor's excavator bucket punctured a pipeline during the excavation of a trench for a new storm sewer line at a location in Burnaby, British Columbia (BC). The puncture caused the release of approximately 234 cubic meters of crude oil, which flowed into Burrard Inlet Bay via a storm sewer system. Eleven houses were sprayed with crude oil, and many other properties required restoration. Approximately 250 residents left their homes. While emergency workers and firefighters responding to the incident were sprayed with crude oil, no explosions, fires, or injuries occurred. The report provided details of studies conducted to determine the placement of the sewer line, as well as attempts made by the contractors to determine the lateral connection of the crude oil pipeline. Discrepancies between the location of the pipeline design drawing and its actual location on other construction drawings were also noted by the contractor. Twenty-four minutes after the rupture, the terminal was fully isolated and the drain-down of the pipeline was completed within an hour. The cause of the accident was attributed to inaccurate construction drawings and inadequate communications between contractors and consulting companies. 3 figs

  15. Impedance Method for Leak Detection in Zigzag Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Vergallo, P.; Trotta, A.

    2010-01-01

    Transportation of liquids is a primary aspect of human life. The most important infrastructure used accordingly is the pipeline. It serves as an asset for transporting different liquids and strategic goods. The latter are for example: chemical substances, oil, gas and water. Thus, it is necessary to monitor such infrastructures by means of specific tools. Leakage detection methods are used to reveal liquid leaks in pipelines for many applications, namely, waterworks, oil pipelines, industry heat exchangers, etc. The configuration of pipelines is a key issue because it impacts on the effectiveness of the method to be used and, consequently, on the results to be counterchecked. This research illustrated an improvement of the impedance method for zigzag pipeline by carrying out an experimental frequency analysis that has been compared with other methods based on frequency response. Hence, the impedance method is generally used for simple (straight) pipeline configurations because complicated pipelines with many curves introduce difficulties and major uncertainties in the calculation of characteristic impedance and in the statement of boundary conditions. The paper illustrates the case of a water pipeline where the leakage is acquired thanks to pressure transducers.

  16. Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Shi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV, WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.

  17. Assessing and preparing a pipeline for in line inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Larry [T.D. Williamson Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2003-07-01

    In today's pipeline environment, operators around the world face new and emerging state and federal regulations requiring validation of their pipelines' integrity. In line inspection, or smart pigging, is generally the preferred methodology used to investigate metal loss and corrosion in pipelines. Although many pipelines can accommodate smart pigging, there are many pipelines that cannot, for various reasons. Those reasons can vary from not having pig launchers and receivers installed on the line to impassable bends or restrictions and general cleanliness of the pipeline itself. Pipeline cleanliness, more times than not, is one of the main reasons for inaccurate in line inspection data gathering or failed smart pig runs. (author)

  18. The Dangers of Pipeline Thinking: How the School-to-Prison Pipeline Metaphor Squeezes out Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Ken McGrew critically examines the "school-to-prison pipeline" metaphor and associated literature. The origins and influence of the metaphor are compared with the origins and influence of the competing "prison industrial complex" concept. Specific weaknesses in the "pipeline literature" are examined.…

  19. 78 FR 5866 - Pipeline Safety: Annual Reports and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2012-0319] Pipeline Safety: Annual Reports and Validation AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... 2012 gas transmission and gathering annual reports, remind pipeline owners and operators to validate...

  20. Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongjie; Wang Zhe; Sun Jining; Zhang Lili; Li Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO 2 pipeline for CCS application. ► We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ► We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ► We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ► We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO 2 mitigation and an optimized CO 2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO 2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO 2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO 2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO 2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO 2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO 2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO 2 /year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO 2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO 2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO 2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

  1. 77 FR 2606 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2012-0004] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must select and test a percentage of covered...

  2. 75 FR 9018 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0034] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must select and test a percentage of covered...

  3. 77 FR 34458 - Pipeline Safety: Requests for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0112] Pipeline Safety: Requests for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... BreitBurn Energy Company LP, two natural gas pipeline operators, seeking relief from compliance with...

  4. 78 FR 14877 - Pipeline Safety: Incident and Accident Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2013-0028] Pipeline Safety: Incident and Accident Reports AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... PHMSA F 7100.2--Incident Report--Natural and Other Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems and...

  5. Regulatory reform for natural gas pipelines: The effect on pipeline and distribution company share prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie

    1997-08-01

    The natural gas shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural gas industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural gas pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of gas. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural gas pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural gas industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural gas pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural gas pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in

  6. Monitoring device for the reactor pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Akira.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid and accurate operator's monitoring for the state of pipelines in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: Specific symbols are attached respectively to a fluid supply source constituting the pipelines of a nuclear reactor facility, a plurality of fluid passing points and equipments to be supplied with the fluid, and a symmetrical matrix comprising these symbols in rows and columns is constituted. Then, a matrix is prepared based on detection signals for the states of the liquid supply source, equipments to be supplied with fluid and pipeline equipments by rendering the matrix elements between the signals expressing the state capable of passing the fluid as 1 and the matrix elements between the signals expressing the state incapable of passing the fluid as 0 . The matrix thus prepared in a signal procession circuit and a matrix in a memory circuit previously storing the matrix expressing the normal state of the pipelines are compared to judge the state of the pipelines in a short time and with no misjudging. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  8. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  9. World pipeline work set for rapid growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on international pipeline construction which has entered a fast-growth period, accelerated by the new political and economic realities around the world and increasing demand for natural gas, crude oil and refined petroleum products. Many projects are under way or in planning for completion in the mid- to late 1990s in Europe, South America, Asia and the Middle East. Pipeline And Gas Journal's projection calls for construction or other work on 30,700 miles of new natural gas, crude oil and refined products pipelines in the 1992-93 period outside Canada and the U.S. These projects will cost an estimated $30 billion-plus. Natural gas pipelines will comprise most of the mileage, accounting for almost 23,000 miles at an estimated cost of $26.3 billion. Products pipelines, planned or under construction, will add another 5,800 miles at a cost of $2.8 billion. Crude oil pipelines, at a minimum, will total 1,900 new miles at a cost of slightly under $1 billion

  10. Navigating the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics pipeline: How social capital impacts the educational attainment of college-bound female students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca Elizabeth

    Despite the proliferation of women in higher education and the workforce, they have yet to achieve parity with men in many of the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors and careers. The gap is even greater in the representation of women from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. This study examined pre-college intervention strategies provided by the University of Southern California's Math, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) program, as well as the relationships and experiences that contributed to the success of underrepresented female high school students in the STEM pipeline. A social capital framework provided the backdrop to the study. This qualitative study takes an ethnographic approach, incorporating 11 interviews, 42 hours of observation, and document analysis to address the research questions: How does involvement in the MESA program impact female students' decisions to pursue a mathematics or science major in college? What is the role of significant others in supporting and encouraging student success? The findings revealed a continuous cycle of support for these students. The cycle started in the home environment, where parents were integral in the early influence on the students' decisions to pursue higher education. Relationships with teachers, counselors, and peers provided critical networks of support in helping these students to achieve their academic goals. Participation in the MESA program empowered the students and provided additional connections to knowledge-based resources. This study highlights the interplay among family, school, and the MESA program in the overall support of underrepresented female students in the STEM pipeline.

  11. Remotely operated closure device for a pipeline with a fixed pipeline flange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westendorf, H.

    1987-01-01

    The remotely operated closure is set by suspension centring on the circumference of a blank flange on the fixed pipeline flange to be closed. By operating a central actuating mechanism at the closure, the clamping levers are adjusted so that the blank flange is clamped to the pipeline flange and the two flanges are pressed together. The spring-loaded clamping levers are particularly suitable for actuating the closure with the pliers of a manipulator of a large cell. (DG) [de

  12. 76 FR 11853 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0027] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... a 24-inch mainline natural gas pipeline, 595 feet in length. The first segment of the special permit...

  13. 78 FR 65429 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0041] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...-0041 Williams Gas Pipeline 49 CFR 192.150........ To authorize the extension Company, LLC (WGP). of a...

  14. Making carbon dioxide sequestration feasible: Toward federal regulation of CO2 sequestration pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, Joel; Endemann, Buck

    2010-01-01

    As the United States moves closer to a national climate change policy, it will have to focus on a variety of factors affecting the manner in which the country moves toward a future with a substantially lower carbon footprint. In addition to encouraging renewable energy, smart grid, clean fuels and other technologies, the United States will need to make substantial infrastructure investments in a variety of industries. Among the significant contributors to the current carbon footprint in the United States is the use of coal as a major fuel for the generation of electricity. One of the most important technologies that the United States can employ to reduce its carbon footprint is to sequester the carbon dioxide ('CO 2 ') from coal-fired power plants. This article focuses on the legal and policy issues surrounding a critical piece of the necessary sequestration infrastructure: CO 2 pipelines that will carry CO 2 from where it is removed from fuel or waste gas streams to where it will be sequestered. Ultimately, this article recommends developing a federally regulated CO 2 pipeline program to foster the implementation of carbon sequestration technology.

  15. Lessons Learned from Developing and Operating the Kepler Science Pipeline and Building the TESS Science Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    The experience acquired through development, implementation and operation of the KeplerK2 science pipelines can provide lessons learned for the development of science pipelines for other missions such as NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, and ESA's PLATO mission.

  16. 78 FR 77484 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Officer, Office of Information Technology (OIT), TSA-11, Transportation Security Administration, 601 South... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security Information AGENCY... Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of...

  17. 75 FR 49943 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Joanna Johnson, Office of Information Technology, TSA-11, Transportation Security... Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security Information AGENCY: Transportation... System Operator Security Information. Type of Request: New collection. OMB Control Number: Not yet...

  18. determination of area and volume from dredged geodata set

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    or volume of dredged materials can be determined for the purpose of costing and extent of the dredging. Therefore, ... To excavate pipeline, cable and tunnel trenches. ❖ To mine ores or ... depends, in part, on the sediment properties[9].An.

  19. Gas-liquid two-phase flow behavior in terrain-inclined pipelines for gathering transport system of wet natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Jingbo; Wang, Shuli

    2018-01-01

    The Volume of Fluid method and Re-Normalisation Group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model were employed to predict the gas-liquid two-phase flow in a terrain-inclined pipeline with deposited liquids. The simulation was carried out in a 22.5 m terrain-inclined pipeline with a 150 mm internal diameter...... on the liquid level under the suction force which caused by the negative pressure around the elbow, and then it touched to the top of the pipe. When the liquid blocked the pipe, the pressure drop between the upstream and downstream of the elbow increased with the increase of the gas velocity. At larger gas...

  20. 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Nuclear energy, science and technology - Pacific partnership. Proceedings Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The theme of the 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear conference held in Sydney from 1-6 May 1994, embraced the use of the atom in energy production and in science and technology. The focus was on selected topics of current and ongoing interest to countries around the Pacific Basin. The two-volume proceedings include both invited and contributed papers. They have been indexed separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Pacific partnership; perspectives on nuclear energy, science and technology in Pacific Basin countries; nuclear energy and sustainable development; economics of the power reactors; new power reactor projects; power reactor technology; advanced reactors; radioisotope and radiation technology; biomedical applications

  1. 49 CFR 192.513 - Test requirements for plastic pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test requirements for plastic pipelines. 192.513 Section 192.513 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Test requirements for plastic pipelines. (a) Each segment of a plastic pipeline must be tested in...

  2. 75 FR 35516 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0147] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... with the Class 1 location portion of a 7.4 mile natural gas pipeline to be constructed in Alaska. This...

  3. Reasons for decision in the matter of Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline Management Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline Management Ltd. (M and NP) applied to the National Energy Board (NEB) for final tolls effective 1 December 1999 for the lateral natural gas pipeline from their mainline to Point Tupper, Nova Scotia. The application covered a ten-month test period. The initial application included the costs and volumes associated with the mainline and the Point Tupper lateral pipeline but was subsequently amended to remove the Point Tupper Lateral costs and volumes because it was doubtful that the lateral would be in service during the test period. The mainline went into service on 1 December 1999 and gas first flowed to market on 31 December 1999. This report presented the revenue requirements authorized by the NEB for the test period and summarized the applied-for rate base and the approved rate base for the test period. It also provided a detailed account of mainline construction costs, including project cost estimates, master construction agreement, governance and compensation structure, and incentive compensation plans. The applicant, M and NP, believes that the NEB should make its judgement according to the applied-for costs and not on the accuracy of the previous cost estimates. This report also presented the opposing views of the intervenors regarding just and reasonable tolls. The intervenors included the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the East Coast Producer Group, Shell, the province of New Brunswick, the Nova Scotia Petroleum Directorate and the NEB. The Board has made several decisions, many in favor of M and NP regarding rate base, debt financing costs, rate of return on rate base, operating and maintenance costs, deferral accounts, deferral of toll hearing costs, disposition of account balances and carrying charges, and tariff matters. The final 8 orders of the NEB were listed in Appendix 1 of this report as Order TG-5-2000. 3 tabs., 3 appendices

  4. 76 FR 21423 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0063] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... application is for two 30-inch segments, segments 3 and 4, of the TPL 330 natural gas pipeline located in St...

  5. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... is issuing an Advisory Bulletin to remind operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities... Gas Pipeline Systems. Subject: Emergency Preparedness Communications. Advisory: To further enhance the...

  6. 76 FR 65778 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...: 12,120. Frequency of Collection: On occasion. 2. Title: Recordkeeping for Natural Gas Pipeline... investigating incidents. Affected Public: Operators of natural gas pipeline systems. Annual Reporting and...

  7. The great pipeline debate : the Minister of everything

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This article described the challenges facing Trans-Canada Pipelines (TCPL) in the 1950s regarding the construction of a pipeline to deliver gas to central Canadian markets. Alberta had been granted gas export permits, and the proposed pipeline was financed primarily by American interests. In addition, TCPL had difficulties with several competing proposals to move gas east from Alberta. There was also opposition to TCPL's original route which was through American territory. When the pipeline was rerouted through rugged Precambrian Shield, private-sector financiers balked at the additional costs. During the Great Pipeline debate in 1956, federal Minister C.D. Howe encouraged TCPL and its competitors to merge and put a bill before Parliament to create a Crown corporation to build and own the Canadian Shield portion of the line, leasing it back to TCPL. The first president of TCPL was Eldon Tanner, member of Alberta's Legislative Assembly. He remained at the helm until the pipeline was completed. Industrialist Frank McMahon who participated in drilling activities in British Columbia and at Turner Valley, Alberta, also promoted a plan to complete the construction of the Westcoast Transmission pipeline from the Peace River, Canada's first large natural-gas pipeline. 4 figs

  8. The Independence Pipeline project : ANR's supply link - Independence Pipeline, Transco's market link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persells, T.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the Independence Pipeline project was presented. The project offers access from Chicago to the U.S. Midwest market, as well as to Ontario via MichCon, Consumers Power, Great Lakes and Panhandle. The project has three components: ANR's Supply Link, the Independence Pipeline and Transco's MarketLink. The three components are budgeted at $ 1.332 billion dollars and projected for completion between Nov 1999 and Nov 2000. Each component (services, access advantages, market links, rates, storage services, etc ) are described separately. figs

  9. 76 FR 45904 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... at U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, 1200...: On Occasion. Title: Record Keeping for Natural Gas Pipeline Operators. OMB Control Number: 2137-0049...

  10. 75 FR 13807 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE...: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements (One Rule). The Notice of Proposed...

  11. Multi-Criteria Decision Making Models for Water Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    El Chanati, Hisham; El-Abbasy, Mohammed S.; Mosleh, Fadi; Senouci, Ahmed; Abouhamad, Mona; Gkountis, Iason; Zayed, Tarek; Al-Derham, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The deterioration of water pipelines leads to impaired water quality, increased breakage rate, and reduced hydraulic capacity. The planning of maintenance programs for water pipelines is essential to minimize health and safety concerns and ensure an adequate supply of water in a safe, cost-effective, reliable, and sustainable manner. It is essential to assess the performance of water pipelines to assist municipalities in planning inspection and rehabilitation programs for their pipelines. Sev...

  12. Corrosion behavior of API 5L-X80 Pipeline steel for natural gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Asyadi Azam Mohd Abid; Imai, Hachiro

    2007-01-01

    Natural energy problem, including the environmental aspects had changes into certain circumstances in recent years and natural gas has been a focus of constant attention from the viewpoint of energy efficiency and pollution free. From that kind of background, pipeline construction for petroleum and natural gas were considerate as energy infrastructure maintenance plan. Based on the clarification of Asian Pipeline Project (1997-2007) centered in Japan, international pipeline is needed as the natural gas is mainly transported from gas field in Russia and Middle East to consumer country such as Japan etc. It used in severe condition such as cold district and sea. In the meantime, pipeline steel is not just received damages by earth crust fluctuation and corrosion, but also suffered from the corrosion caused by anions that were dissolved in sea and groundwater. The diversification of dispersion and consumption structure of natural gas supply acceptance base are seen regarding, that made the needs of the storing are rising and dealt with the quantitative spatial expansion of the demand. By that, corrosion resistance, not only the hardness, tough, weldability, corrosiveness gas environment is extremely required. (author)

  13. Pipeline Structural Damage Detection Using Self-Sensing Technology and PNN-Based Pattern Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Gil; Park, Woong Ki; Park, Seung Hee

    2011-01-01

    In a structure, damage can occur at several scales from micro-cracking to corrosion or loose bolts. This makes the identification of damage difficult with one mode of sensing. Hence, a multi-mode actuated sensing system is proposed based on a self-sensing circuit using a piezoelectric sensor. In the self sensing-based multi-mode actuated sensing, one mode provides a wide frequency-band structural response from the self-sensed impedance measurement and the other mode provides a specific frequency-induced structural wavelet response from the self-sensed guided wave measurement. In this study, an experimental study on the pipeline system is carried out to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed structural health monitoring approach. Different types of structural damage are artificially inflicted on the pipeline system. To classify the multiple types of structural damage, a supervised learning-based statistical pattern recognition is implemented by composing a two-dimensional space using the damage indices extracted from the impedance and guided wave features. For more systematic damage classification, several control parameters to determine an optimal decision boundary for the supervised learning-based pattern recognition are optimized. Finally, further research issues will be discussed for real-world implementation of the proposed approach

  14. Pydpiper: a flexible toolkit for constructing novel registration pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Miriam; van Eede, Matthijs C; Pipitone, Jon; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Lerch, Jason P

    2014-01-01

    Using neuroimaging technologies to elucidate the relationship between genotype and phenotype and brain and behavior will be a key contribution to biomedical research in the twenty-first century. Among the many methods for analyzing neuroimaging data, image registration deserves particular attention due to its wide range of applications. Finding strategies to register together many images and analyze the differences between them can be a challenge, particularly given that different experimental designs require different registration strategies. Moreover, writing software that can handle different types of image registration pipelines in a flexible, reusable and extensible way can be challenging. In response to this challenge, we have created Pydpiper, a neuroimaging registration toolkit written in Python. Pydpiper is an open-source, freely available software package that provides multiple modules for various image registration applications. Pydpiper offers five key innovations. Specifically: (1) a robust file handling class that allows access to outputs from all stages of registration at any point in the pipeline; (2) the ability of the framework to eliminate duplicate stages; (3) reusable, easy to subclass modules; (4) a development toolkit written for non-developers; (5) four complete applications that run complex image registration pipelines "out-of-the-box." In this paper, we will discuss both the general Pydpiper framework and the various ways in which component modules can be pieced together to easily create new registration pipelines. This will include a discussion of the core principles motivating code development and a comparison of Pydpiper with other available toolkits. We also provide a comprehensive, line-by-line example to orient users with limited programming knowledge and highlight some of the most useful features of Pydpiper. In addition, we will present the four current applications of the code.

  15. A Modular Pipelined Processor for High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Alejandro; Grunfeld, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The design of a digital signal processor for gamma-ray applications is presented in which a single ADC input can simultaneously provide temporal and energy characterization of gamma radiation for a wide range of applications. Applying pipelining techniques, the processor is able to manage and synchronize very large volumes of streamed real-time data. Its modular user interface provides a flexible environment for experimental design. The processor can fit in a medium-sized FPGA device operating at ADC sampling frequency, providing an efficient solution for multi-channel applications. Two experiments are presented in order to characterize its temporal and energy resolution.

  16. Outlook '98 - Gas and oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, B.

    1998-01-01

    Due to rising North American demand, especially by the United States, by the end of 1997 there were plans to build 15 new pipelines over the next three years, at an estimated cost of $17 billion. Canada''s proximity to the United States, combined with huge Canadian reserves, and the fact that Canada already supplies some 15 per cent of U.S. requirements, makes Canada the obvious choice for filling future demand. This explains why most, if not all, current pipeline expansion projects are targeting markets in the U.S. Market forces will determine which of the projects will actually go forward. From the point of view of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association pipeline regulatory reform, pipeline safety, integrity and climate change will be the Association''s key concerns during 1998. To that end, the Association is cooperating with the National Energy Board in a multi-million dollar study of stress corrosion cracking. The Association has also developed a Manual of Recommended Practices for the use of member companies to assist them to tailor stress corrosion cracking practices to their own operations. Meeting Canada''s commitment at the Kyoto Conference for greenhouse gas emissions of six per cent below 1990 levels by the year 2008 to 2012 (in effect a 25 per cent reduction from the level anticipated in the year 2000), a very difficult task according to industry experts, is also among the high priority items on the pipeline industry''s agenda for 1998

  17. Pipeline modeling and assessment in unstable slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Carlos Nieves [Oleoducto Central S.A., Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia); Ordonez, Mauricio Pereira [SOLSIN S.A.S, Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia)

    2010-07-01

    The OCENSA pipeline system is vulnerable to geotechnical problems such as faults, landslides or creeping slopes, which are well-known in the Andes Mountains and tropical countries like Colombia. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pipe behaviour during the soil displacements of slow landslides. Three different cases of analysis are examined, according to site characteristics. The process starts with a simplified analytical model and develops into 3D finite element numerical simulations applied to the on-site geometry of soil and pipe. Case 1 should be used when the unstable site is subject to landslides impacting significant lengths of pipeline, pipeline is straight, and landslide is simple from the geotechnical perspective. Case 2 should be used when pipeline is straight and landslide is complex (creeping slopes and non-conventional stabilization solutions). Case 3 should be used if the pipeline presents vertical or horizontal bends.

  18. Validation of pig operations through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2005-07-01

    In the oil industry, pigging operations in pipelines have been largely applied for different purposes: pipe cleaning, inspection, liquid removal and product separation, among others. An efficient and safe pigging operation requires that a number of operational parameters, such as maximum and minimum pressures in the pipeline and pig velocity, to be well evaluated during the planning stage and maintained within stipulated limits while the operation is accomplished. With the objective of providing an efficient tool to assist in the control and design of pig operations through pipelines, a numerical code was developed, based on a finite difference scheme, which allows the simulation of two fluid transient flow, like liquid-liquid, gas-gas or liquid-gas products in the pipeline. Modules to automatically control process variables were included to employ different strategies to reach an efficient operation. Different test cases were investigated, to corroborate the robustness of the methodology. To validate the methodology, the results obtained with the code were compared with a real liquid displacement operation of a section of the OSPAR oil pipeline, belonging to PETROBRAS, with 30'' diameter and 60 km length, presenting good agreement. (author)

  19. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar

    2007-01-01

    With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do-Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this pipeline for India

  20. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar [Political Geography Division, Center for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-06-15

    With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do-Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this pipeline for India

  1. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar [Political Geography Division, Center for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)]. E-mail: vermajnu@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do-Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this

  2. ORAC-DR: A generic data reduction pipeline infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie

    2015-03-01

    ORAC-DR is a general purpose data reduction pipeline system designed to be instrument and observatory agnostic. The pipeline works with instruments as varied as infrared integral field units, imaging arrays and spectrographs, and sub-millimeter heterodyne arrays and continuum cameras. This paper describes the architecture of the pipeline system and the implementation of the core infrastructure. We finish by discussing the lessons learned since the initial deployment of the pipeline system in the late 1990s.

  3. East, West German gas pipeline grids linked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ruhrgas AG, Essen, has started up the first large diameter gas pipeline linking the gas grids of former East and West Germany. Ruhrgas last month placed in service a 40 in., 70 km line at Vitzeroda, near Eisenach, linking a new Ruhrgas pipeline in Hesse state with a 330 km gas pipeline built last year in Thuringia and Saxony states by Erdgasversorgungs GmbH (EVG), Leipzig. The new link enables pipeline operator EVG to receive 70 bcf/year of western European gas via Ruhrgas, complementing the 35 bcf/year of gas coming from the Commonwealth of Independent States via Verbundnetz Gas AG (VNG), Leipzig

  4. Managing changes of location classes of gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Sergio B; Sousa, Antonio Geraldo de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Most of the gas pipeline design codes utilize a class location system, where the design safety factor and the hydrostatic test factor are determined according to the population density in the vicinities of the pipeline route. Consequently, if an operator is requested or desires to maintain an existing gas pipeline in compliance with its design code, it will reduce the operational pressure or replace pipe sections to increase the wall thickness whenever a change in location class takes place. This article introduces an alternative methodology to deal with changes in location classes of gas pipelines. Initially, selected codes that utilize location class systems are reviewed. Afterwards, a model for the area affected by an ignition following a natural gas pipeline leak is described. Finally, a methodology to determine the MAOP and third part damage mitigation measures for gas transport pipelines that underwent changes in location class is presented. (author)

  5. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO 2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  6. Proof of pipeline strength based on measurements of inspection pigs; Festigkeitsnachweis von Pipelines aufgrund der Messergebnisse von Pruefmolchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Camp, H.J.; Feser, G.; Hofmann, A.; Wolf, B.; Schmidt, H. [TUeV Sueddeutschland Bau und Betrieb GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Herforth, H.E.; Juengling, K.H.; Schmidt, W. [TUeV Anlagentechnik GmbH, Berlin-Schoeneberg (Germany). Unternehmensgruppe TUeV Rheinland/Berlin-Brandenburg

    2002-01-01

    The report is aimed at collecting and documenting the state of the art and the extensive know how of experts and pipeline operators with regard to judging the structural integrity of pipelines. In order to assess the actual mechanical strength of pipelines based on measurement results obtained by inspection pigs, guidance is given for future processing, which eventually can be used as a basis for an industry standard. A literature study of the commercially available types of inspection pigs describes and synoptically lists the respective pros and cons. In essence the report comprises besides check lists of operating data for the pipeline and the pig runs mainly the evaluation of defects and respective calculating procedures. Included are recommendations regarding maintenance planning, verification of defects as well as repetition of pig runs. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Berichtes ist die Erfassung und Dokumentation zum derzeitigen Stand der Technik und des vorhandenen umfangreichen Know-how von Sachverstaendigen und Pipelinebetreibern auf dem Gebiet der sicherheitstechnischen Beurteilung von Pipelines. Fuer den Festigkeitsnachweis von Pipelines aufgrund der Messergebnisse von Pruefmolchen wurde ein Leitfaden als Basis fuer die zukuenftige Vorgehensweise erstellt, der eventuell die Grundlage eines normativen Regelwerkes bilden kann. In einer Literaturstudie wurden die auf dem Markt befindlichen Pruefmolchtypen zusammenfassend beschrieben und ihre Vor- und Nachteile tabellarisch gegenuebergestellt und bewertet. Neben der Erstellung von Checklisten fuer notwendige Daten zum Betrieb der Pipeline und der Molchlaeufe bildet die Fehlerbewertung mit entsprechenden Berechnungsverfahren den Hauptteil dieses Berichtes. Hinweise zur Instandhaltungsplanung (Fehlerverifikation und Molchlaufwiederholung) werden gegeben. (orig.)

  7. Leak Detection in Heat Exchangers and Underground Pipelines Using Radiotracers. Material for Education and On-The-Job Training for Practitioners of Radiotracer Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency plays a major role in facilitating the transfer of radiotracer technology to developing Member States. The use of radiotracer techniques is well established in many Member States; some hundred radiotracer and end user specialists have been trained in radiotracer techniques and their applications; nearly 50 radiotracer laboratories have been working in this field. The training of radiotracer practitioners is vital for the provision of quality services to industry. Leak detection using radiotracer techniques is probably one of the most widespread applications of radiotracers in industrial troubleshooting. Radiotracer techniques are the most competitive for online leak inspection of heat exchangers and buried pipelines. Radiotracers help in early detection of leaks in heat exchangers and underground transporting pipelines, thus saving money, reducing shutdown time, ensuring safe operation and protecting the environment from pollution. The training course series on leak detection in heat exchangers and underground pipelines using radiotracers addresses the needs of the radiotracer groups and their end users. Besides training purposes, this material will assist radiotracer groups in establishing their quality control and accreditation systems. This training course material is based on lecture notes and practical work delivered by many experts in IAEA-supported activities. In particular, the Technical Cooperation Projects implemented under the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) of the IAEA Member States in the Asia and the Pacific Region have been successful in transferring and implementing radiotracer techniques for leak detection to many end users from oil and gas production, oil refineries and the petrochemical industry. The experience obtained in the RCA Region is presented in the training material illustrated with many case studies carried out in several RCA Member States. Lectures and case studies were reviewed by a number

  8. Evaluation of stream crossing methods prior to gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.H.; Rogers, J.S.; Ricca, A.

    1995-01-01

    Stream surveys are conducted along proposed gas pipeline routes prior to construction to assess potential impacts to stream ecosystems and to recommend preferred crossing methods. Recently, there has been a high level of scrutiny from the Public Service Commission (PSC) to conduct these stream crossings with minimal effects to the aquatic community. PSC's main concern is the effect of sediment on aquatic biota. Smaller, low flowing or intermittent streams are generally crossed using a wet crossing technique. This technique involves digging a trench for the pipeline while the stream is flowing. Sediment control measures are used to reduce sediment loads downstream. Wider, faster flowing, or protected streams are typically crossed with a dry crossing technique. A dry crossing involves placing a barrier upstream of the crossing and diverting the water around the crossing location. The pipeline trench is then dug in the dry area. O'Brien and Gere and NYSEG have jointly designed a modified wet crossing for crossing streams that exceed maximum flows for a dry crossing, and are too wide for a typical wet crossing. This method diverts water around the crossing using a pumping system, instead of constructing a dam. The trench is similar to a wet crossing, with sediment control devices in place upstream and downstream. If streams are crossed during low flow periods, the pumping system will be able to reduce the majority of water flow and volume form the crossing area, thereby reducing ecological impacts. Evaluation of effects of this crossing type on the stream biota are currently proposed and may proceed when construction begins

  9. Europe's gas imports via pipelines. Projects and safety aspects; Europas Gasimporte durch Pipelines. Projekte und Sicherheitsaspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, R.

    2008-08-15

    By the year 2030 Europe's gas imports will have risen to approximately 200 bn m{sup 3}, necessitating the installation of new pipelines and LNG terminals. The largest growth in imports is not expected from Russia but from Africa and the Near East. An analysis of projected pipelines demonstrates these regions' contribution to securing Europe's gas supply. Because they help to establish market dominance or to fend off potential competitors these pipelines also serve corporate strategies. The most reliable supply will continue to come from Norway. By contrast, gas imports via pipelines from North Africa, Russia and the Persian Gulf all carry high risks of approximately the same degree. The greatest risks are associated with gas imports from the Caspian Sea.

  10. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE) - the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures

  11. Environmental audit guidelines for pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Environmental auditing is a form of management control which provides an objective basis by which a company can measure the degree of compliance with environmental regulations. Other benefits of this type of auditing include improved environmental management, furthering communication on environmental issues of concern within the company, and provision of documentation on environmental diligence. A series of environmental audit guidelines for pipelines is presented in the form of lists of questions to be asked during an environmental audit followed by recommended actions in response to those questions. The questions are organized into seven main categories: environmental management and planning; operating procedures; spill prevention; management of wastes and hazardous materials; environmental monitoring; construction of pipelines; and pipeline abandonment, decommissioning and site reclamation

  12. Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, North America, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline geospatial data layer contains gathering, interstate, and intrastate natural gas pipelines, crude and product oil pipelines, and...

  13. Sensor and transmitter system for communication in pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Burnham, Alan K.

    2013-01-29

    A system for sensing and communicating in a pipeline that contains a fluid. An acoustic signal containing information about a property of the fluid is produced in the pipeline. The signal is transmitted through the pipeline. The signal is received with the information and used by a control.

  14. Alliance Pipeline - The new kid on the block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgeworth, A.

    1998-01-01

    Alliance Pipeline has taken on as its primary role to improve the competitive position of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), to increase market access for WCSB production, to provide a link for North American gas pricing, and to increase the total gas supply available across North America to serve current and future requirements. A summary of the company's partnership structure and construction program is presented. Also discussed were issues facing Canadian transporters and producers such as: pricing dynamics, gas supplies, regulatory change, competition, convergence, pipeline integrity, land issues, environmental issues, aboriginal issues, cost structures and taxes. The potential impact of the Alliance Pipeline coming on-stream in October 2000 on existing pipelines, possible future pipelines and on the existing supply scene is also assessed. tabs., figs

  15. Environmental assessment on PETROBRAS pipeline projects: case study of Cacimbas-Catu gas pipeline; Engenharia de avaliacao ambiental no processo de concepcao de projetos de dutos da PETROBRAS - estudo de caso do Gasoduto Cacimbas (ES) - Catu (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Wilson Jose de; Pereira, Junior, Edson R; Fonseca, Renata A. Almeida; Rocha, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luis Felipe [PETROBRAS Engenharia, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia de Avaliacao Ambiental

    2005-07-01

    The environmental assessment process is one of the most important phases in the implementation of pipeline projects. For that reason, new technologies and work procedures are used to perform the environmental assessment of areas where pipeways will be implemented. Since the quality of environmental assessment studies influences the social acceptance of projects and, consequently, the time required to obtain the environmental permits, PETROBRAS (Engenharia/IETEG/ETEG/EAMB) applies advanced technological tools to acquire remote sensing data (conventional / digital aero-surveys and satellite images), as well as software for digital image processing and integration and spatial analysis of information. Information about the physical, biological and socioeconomic environments are further verified and complemented through field trips using helicopters. This process makes it possible to identify environmentally favorable corridors to develop guidelines for the implementation of the pipeline, assuring its environmental feasibility, and produces relevant data to support the Environmental Impact Assessment Study, the Environmental Impact Assessment Report and the Risk Analysis Study. As an example of the application of this methodology, this paper presents results of the assessment of the Cacimbas / Catu gas pipeline, which is currently being permitted and is planned to be implemented in areas of high environmental complexity. (author)

  16. Rupture detection device for pipeline in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakoshi, Toshinori; Kanamori, Shigeru; Shirasawa, Hirofumi.

    1991-01-01

    A difference between each of the pressures in a plurality of pipelines disposed in a shroud a reactor container and a pressure outside of the shroud is detected, thereby enabling safety and reliable detection even for simultaneous rapture and leakage of the pipelines. That is, a difference between the pressure of a steam phase outside of the shroud and a pressure in each of a plurality of low pressure injection pipelines in an emergency core cooling system opened to the inside of the shroud in the reactor container is detected by a difference pressure detector for each of them. Then, an average value for each of the pressure difference is determined, which is compared with the difference pressure obtained from each of the detectors in a comparator. Then, if openings should be caused by rupture, leakage or the like in any of the pipelines, the pressure in that pipeline is lowered to a vicinity of an atmospheric pressure and at the vapor phase pressure at the lowest. If the pressure is compared with the average value by the comparator, a negative difference is caused. Accordingly, an alarming unit generates an alarm based on the pressure difference signal, thereby enabling to specify the failed pipeline and provide an announce of the failure. (I.S.)

  17. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  18. Economic model of pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-07-29

    The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

  19. Pipeline inwall 3D measurement system based on the cross structured light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Da; Lin, Zhipeng; Xue, Lei; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Zichi

    2014-01-01

    In order to accurately realize the defect detection of pipeline inwall, this paper proposes a measurement system made up of cross structured light, single CCD camera and a smart car, etc. Based on structured light measurement technology, this paper mainly introduces the structured light measurement system, the imaging mathematical model, and the parameters and method of camera calibration. Using these measuring principles and methods, the camera in remote control car platform achieves continuous shooting of objects and real-time rebound processing as well as utilizing established model to extract 3D point cloud coordinate to reconstruct pipeline defects, so it is possible to achieve 3D automatic measuring, and verifies the correctness and feasibility of this system. It has been found that this system has great measurement accuracy in practice.

  20. A big data pipeline: Identifying dynamic gene regulatory networks from time-course Gene Expression Omnibus data with applications to influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michelle; Ramírez, Juan Camilo; Wu, Shuang; Wu, Hulin

    2018-07-01

    A biological host response to an external stimulus or intervention such as a disease or infection is a dynamic process, which is regulated by an intricate network of many genes and their products. Understanding the dynamics of this gene regulatory network allows us to infer the mechanisms involved in a host response to an external stimulus, and hence aids the discovery of biomarkers of phenotype and biological function. In this article, we propose a modeling/analysis pipeline for dynamic gene expression data, called Pipeline4DGEData, which consists of a series of statistical modeling techniques to construct dynamic gene regulatory networks from the large volumes of high-dimensional time-course gene expression data that are freely available in the Gene Expression Omnibus repository. This pipeline has a consistent and scalable structure that allows it to simultaneously analyze a large number of time-course gene expression data sets, and then integrate the results across different studies. We apply the proposed pipeline to influenza infection data from nine studies and demonstrate that interesting biological findings can be discovered with its implementation.