WorldWideScience

Sample records for pipeline facilities

  1. 77 FR 45417 - Pipeline Safety: Inspection and Protection of Pipeline Facilities After Railway Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Pipeline Facilities After Railway Accidents AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... either during a railroad accident or other event occurring in the right-of-way. Further, the advisory... to identify and notify underground utilities that an incident has occurred in the vicinity of their...

  2. 76 FR 54531 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by the Passage of Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Facilities Caused by the Passage of Hurricanes AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... to pipeline facilities caused by the passage of Hurricanes. ADDRESSES: This document can be viewed on...-related issues that can result from the passage of hurricanes. That includes the potential for damage to...

  3. 78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... gallons of crude oil into the Yellowstone River. The rupture was caused by debris washing downstream in... structure and by impact and/or waterborne forces. Washouts and erosion may result in loss of support for both buried and exposed pipelines. The flow of water against an exposed pipeline may also result...

  4. Development of a full-scale laboratory testing facility for soil-pipeline interaction research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.; Wijewickreme, D. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of a new full-scale testing facility at the University of British Columbia to investigate soil-pipe interactions of common utility pipeline installations. The range of applications was also presented. The capacity to displace pipeline segments up to one meter in order to study the highly flexible behaviour of polyethylene pipelines was incorporated into the modular construction of the soil box. This system can study the response of a wide range of typical buried pipe configurations subjected to axial and transverse soil loadings corresponding to multiple applications. This test facility was used to study the performance of buried polyethylene (PE) gas distribution pipelines subjected to slow, axial permanent ground displacements. Axial load test results showed that mobilized axial soil resistance on the piping depends on the interface friction angle and the potential reduction of stress levels due to arching of the soil outside the interface shear zone. For polyethylene pipes, the axial soil resistance is affected by the associated reduction of the diameter of the pipeline due to tensile straining. Much more deformation occurred in polyethylene pipelines from direct strain measurements, compared to what might be expected in steel pipelines for a given level of loading. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  5. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to...

  6. Effects of morpho dynamics in shallow waters over pipeline facilities; Efeitos da morfodinamica em aguas rasas sobre instalacoes de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toldo Junior, Elirio E.; Gruber, Nelson L.S.; Zouain, Ricardo N. Ayup [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Centro de Estudos de Geologia Costeira e Oceanica; Almeida, Luiz E.S.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas

    2003-07-01

    The success in developing of the oil industry operating in offshore-onshore terminals, connected by pipelines with the facilities of the coastal zone, can be attributed partially to the beach morpho dynamic monitoring. This study represents a solution to the concerns of the technical operations in coastal zones because it minimizes the impact of the petroleum production and it assures the environmental protection associated to the risks of the pipelines breaking. This impact type results mainly of the vertical and horizontal displacements of the beach, from the coastal dunes to the shore face. The mobility of the profile is associated to the magnitude of the sedimentary processes, which reproduce naturally or not, in scale of time that can vary among few days, years or decades. For the monitoring and interpretation of the beach profile mobility the following methods are recommended: calculation of the closure depth with base in the wave data; bathymetric survey with sled; calculation of the equilibrium beach profile, and monitoring of the variations of the shoreline using satellite images, GPS or aerial photography. (author)

  7. Environmental assessment of the brine pipeline replacement for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Facility in Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0804, for the proposed replacement of a deteriorated brine disposal pipeline from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Bryan Mound storage facility in Brazoria County, Texas, into the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the ocean discharge outfall would be moved shoreward by locating the brine diffuser at the end of the pipeline 3.5 miles offshore at a minimum depth of 30 feet. The action would occur in a floodplain and wetlands; therefore, a floodplain/wetlands assessment has been prepared in conjunction with this EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 USC. 4321, et seg.). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This FONSI also includes a Floodplain Statement of Findings in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1022.

  8. Gasoline Distribution Facilities (Bulk Gasoline Terminals and Pipeline Breakout Stations) Air Toxics Rule Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a November 1994 fact sheet for the final NESHAP for Gasoline Distribution Facilities. This page also contains a December fact sheet with information regarding the final amendments to the 2003 final rule for the NESHAP.

  9. Noise impact assessment methodology for a crude oil pipeline's facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everton, Pascal [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. (Canada)], email: pascal.everton@hfpacoustical.com

    2011-07-01

    The paper focuses on the construction of a crude oil pipeline from Alberta, Canada, to Illinois, USA, and reviews the methodology used to quickly and easily assess the noise emission of each of the 47 pump stations relative to topography, weather, and local regulations, and to predict mitigation costs for each pump. Instead of creating a time-consuming and non-versatile computer noise model for each pump, a spreadsheet tool with graphic user interface was designed, incorporating source noise levels and sound propagation calculations. An order-ranked list of noise sources for each station and noise mitigation corrections were applied, resulting in an easy-to-use, versatile tool, capable of predicting rapidly what noise control corrections are needed for each site. The spreadsheet results were validated by comparing the results with noise model predictions for specific locations. Use of this tool increased flexibility and cost-efficiency and it can be easily reconfigured for similar projects.

  10. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  11. Experimental investigation for an isolation technique on conducting the electromechanical impedance method in high-temperature pipeline facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Wongi S.; Lee, Hyeonseok

    2016-11-01

    In general, the pipelines within a nuclear power plant facility may experience high temperatures up to several hundred degrees. Thus it is absolutely vital to monitor these pipes to prevent leakage of radioactive substances which may lead to a catastrophic outcome of the surrounding environment. Over the years, one of the structural health monitoring technique known as the electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique has been of great interests in various fields including civil infrastructures, mechanical and aerospace structures. Although it has one of the best advantages to be able for a single piezoelectric transducer to act as a sensor and an actuator, simultaneously, its low curie temperature makes it difficult for the EMI technique to be conducted at high temperature environment. To overcome this problem, this study shows a method to avoid attaching the piezoelectric transducer directly onto the target structure using a metal wire for damage detection at high temperature. By shifting the frequency to compensate the signature changes subjected to the variations in temperature, the experimental results indicate that damage identification is more successful above 200 oC, making the metal wire method suitable for the EMI technique at high temperature environment.

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-08-31

    The proposed action and three alternatives, including a No Build alternative, were evaluated along the existing RWIPL alignment to accommodate the placement of the proposed RWIPL. Construction feasibility, reasonableness and potential environmental impacts were considered during the evaluation of the four actions (and action alternatives) for the proposed RWIPL activities. Reasonable actions were identified as those actions which were considered to be supported by common sense and sound technical principles. Feasible actions were those actions which were considered to be capable of being accomplished, practicable and non-excessive in terms of cost. The evaluation process considered the following design specifications, which were determined to be important to the feasibility of the overall project. The proposed RWIPL replacement project must therefore: (1) Comply with the existing design basis and criteria, (2) Maintain continuity of operation of the facility during construction, (3)Provide the required service life, (4) Be cost effective, (5)Improve the operation and maintenance of the pipeline, and (6) Maintain minimal environmental impact while meeting the performance requirements. Sizing of the pipe, piping construction materials, construction method (e.g., open-cut trench, directional drilling, etc.) and the acquisition of new Right-of-Way (ROW) were additionally evaluated in the preliminary alternative identification, selection and screening process.

  13. Research on Pipeline Holdup Measurement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Wen-guang; XU; Zheng; CHENG; Yi-mei; SUI; Hong-zhi; YIN; Hong-he

    2012-01-01

    <正>Some of the nuclear material could be deposited in the pipeline system of the nuclear facilities in the operation process. That kind of nuclear materials in the pipeline are called holdup. The measurement of pipeline holdup is not only important for the nuclear material accounting and control of facilities, but also important for the safe operation of facilities.

  14. Decommissioning end of life oilfield facilities and pipelines : the first step to the safe and efficient remediation of oil and gas sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, J.; Thygesen, S. [JSK Consulting Ltd., Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2005-06-30

    Environmentally sound decommissioning practices in the remediation and reclamation process were reviewed, with reference to abandoned oil and gas facilities and pipelines. There are inherent dangers associated with aged infrastructure, and decommissioning companies should be the first service on site to ensure that all facilities have been located, removed and cleaned. All licensed, unlicensed and on-lease pipelines are required to be properly abandoned. Site research is needed to identify any industry or government regulated requirements that may impact the decommissioning process. Decommissioning companies are also responsible for recording all relevant site information so that it can be conveyed to remediation and reclamation companies. A knowledge of landowner sensitivities, weather affected access, unlicensed facilities and locations of historic contamination are crucial to all parties involved. Additional documentation, such as photographs and survey drawings, can assist remediation and reclamation companies in locating areas of concern. Once a well has been abandoned in Alberta, surface equipment, cement pads, debris and produced liquids associated with the well license must be removed within 12 months of the cutting and capping operation. Records of the removal and cleanup activities must be retained by the licensee. Many sites have been sitting dormant for several years and can be harboring dangerous production fluids, asbestos, Hantavirus and other hazardous materials. All equipment must be steam-cleaned by qualified personnel and all production fluids and contaminated water from the cleaning process must be captured and transported to a waste facility. All equipment that is deemed re-usable can be returned to inventory or re-used. Equipment that can not be salvaged is sold for recycling at a steel mill. All pipelines are required to be cleaned of hydrocarbons, purged and left with a medium of inert gas or atmospheric air. Residual fluids left in a

  15. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  16. Facile mutant identification via a single parental backcross method and application of whole genome sequencing based mapping pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Silas Allen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Forward genetic screens have identified numerous genes involved in development and metabolism, and remain a cornerstone of biological research. However to locate a causal mutation, the practice of crossing to a polymorphic background to generate a mapping population can be problematic if the mutant phenotype is difficult to recognise in the hybrid F2 progeny, or dependent on parental specific traits. Here in a screen for leaf hyponasty mutants, we have performed a single backcross of an Ethane Methyl Sulphonate (EMS generated hyponastic mutant to its parent. Whole genome deep sequencing of a bulked homozygous F2 population and analysis via the Next Generation EMS mutation mapping pipeline (NGM unambiguously determined the causal mutation to be a single nucleotide polymorphisim (SNP residing in HASTY, a previously characterised gene involved in microRNA biogenesis. We have evaluated the feasibility of this backcross approach using three additional SNP mapping pipelines; SHOREmap, the GATK pipeline, and the samtools pipeline. Although there was variance in the identification of EMS SNPs, all returned the same outcome in clearly identifying the causal mutation in HASTY. The simplicity of performing a single parental backcross and genome sequencing a small pool of segregating mutants has great promise for identifying mutations that may be difficult to map using conventional approaches.

  17. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  18. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  19. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ..., excavation, tunneling, or construction activity to establish the location of underground facilities in the demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction area; 2. Disregard location information or markings... construction activity; and 3. Fail to report excavation damage to a pipeline facility to the owner or operator...

  20. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  1. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  2. Oil and gas pipelines in nontechnical language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miesner, Thomas O; Leffler, William L

    2006-01-01

    Oil & Gas Pipelines in Nontechnical Language examines the processes, techniques, equipment, and facilities used to transport fluids such as refined products, crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids...

  3. Anchor Loads on Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Anchor hooking on a subsea pipeline has been investigated in this thesis. Anchor loads on pipelines is in general a rarely occurring event, however, the severity when it occurs could easily jeopardize the integrity of any pipeline. It is considered as an accidental load in the design of pipelines. Pipeline Loads, limit state criteria and anchor categories are defined by the DNV standards. For pipeline, DNV-OS-F101 (08.2012), Submarine Pipeline Systems is adopted. Offshore standard DNV-RP...

  4. Mitigating the consequences of extreme events on strategic facilities: evaluation of volcanic and seismic risk affecting the Caspian oil and gas pipelines in the Republic of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarè, F A; Tormey, D; Vezzoli, L; Okrostsvaridze, A; Tutberidze, B

    2011-07-01

    In this work we identify and quantify new seismic and volcanic risks threatening the strategic Caspian oil and gas pipelines through the Republic of Georgia, in the vicinity of the recent Abuli Samsari Volcanic Ridge, and evaluate risk reduction measures, mitigation measures, and monitoring. As regards seismic risk, we identified a major, NW-SE trending strike-slip fault; based on the analysis of fault planes along this major transcurrent structure, an about N-S trend of the maximum, horizontal compressive stress (σ1) was determined, which is in good agreement with data instrumentally derived after the 1986, M 5.6 Paravani earthquake and its aftershock. Particularly notable is the strong alignment of volcanic vents along an about N-S trend that suggests a magma rising controlled by the about N-S-directed σ1. The original pipeline design included mitigation measures for seismic risk and other geohazards, including burial of the pipeline for its entire length, increased wall thickness, block valve spacing near recognized hazards, and monitoring of known landslide hazards. However, the design did not consider volcanic risk or the specific seismic hazards revealed by this study. The result of our analysis is that the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline, as well as the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzerum South Caucasian natural gas pipeline (SCP) were designed in such a way that they significantly reduce the risk posed by the newly-identified geohazards in the vicinity of the Abuli-Samsari Ridge. No new measures are recommended for the pipeline itself as a result of this study. However, since the consequences of long-term shut-down would be very damaging to the economies of Western Europe, we conclude that the regionally significant BTC and SCP warrant greater protections, described in the final section of or work. The overall objective of our effort is to present the results in a matrix framework that allows the technical information to be used further in the decision

  5. Planning of a 54 km long GRP pipeline for the brine process of the Ruedersdorf gas storage facility in Brandenburg; Planung einer 54 km langen GfK-Rohrleitung fuer den Solprozess des Brandenburger Gasspeichers Ruedersdorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, T. [EWE AG, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    EWE Aktiengesellschaft is building a cavern storage facility in Ruedersdorf, 10 km east of Berlin, for the gas supply in Brandenburg. The creating of cavern volume is a result of the controlled solution mining process with water out of the watersystem in the neighbourhood of Ruedersdorf. For the transportation of the brine, which will be produced during the construction of the caverns, EWE will build up a pipeline from Ruedersdorf to Heckelberg with a total length of 54 km and an inside diameter of 17 inch. Pipes and fittings are made of glassfiber reinforced epoxy (GRE). In Heckelberg the brine will be injected into porous sandstone layers in a depth of nearly 1,000 m without any danger for the environment and for the underground water. The planning of the transportation pipeline with respect to the material options, alignment, technology and safety systems is described in the article. A buried leakage detection system is an important contribution to the safety of the pipeline. (orig.) [German] Die EWE Aktiengesellschaft baut fuer die Gasversorgung in Brandenburg einen Kavernenspeicher im Salzgebirge in Ruedersdorf, 10 km oestlich von Berlin. Die Erstellung des Kavernenvolumens erfolgt durch kontrolliertes Aussolen des Salzkissens mit Wasser aus dem Gewaessersystem um Ruedersdorf. Fuer den Transport der in der Bauphase des Speichers anfallenden Sole wird EWE eine 54 km lange Rohrleitung DN 450 aus glasfaserverstaerktem Kunststoffrohr (GfK-Rohr) von Ruedersdorf nach Heckelberg verlegen. Dort in Heckelberg wird die Sole in tiefen Sandsteinformationen im Untergrund in einer Teufe von etwa 1000 m ohne Gefaehrdung der Umwelt und des Grundwassers versenkt. Im Beitrag wird die Planung der Leitung im Hinblick auf Werkstoffwahl, Trasse, technische Daten und Sicherheitseinrichtungen beschrieben. Ein wesentlicher Beitrag zur Sicherheit der Leitung ist die Mitverlegung eines Leckortungs- und Ueberwachungssystems. (orig.)

  6. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  7. 77 FR 70543 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  8. Pipeline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariyawasam, S. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Weir, D. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    Risk assessments and risk analysis are system-wide activities that include site-specific risk and reliability-based decision-making, implementation, and monitoring. This working group discussed the risk management process in the pipeline industry, including reliability-based integrity management and risk control processes. Attendants at the group discussed reliability-based decision support and performance measurements designed to support corporate risk management policies. New developments and technologies designed to optimize risk management procedures were also presented. The group was divided into 3 sessions: (1) current practice, strengths and limitations of system-wide risk assessments for facility assets; (2) accounting for uncertainties to assure safety; and (3) reliability based excavation repair criteria and removing potentially unsafe corrosion defects. Presentations of risk assessment procedures used at various companies were given. The role of regulators, best practices, and effective networking environments in ensuring the success of risk assessment policies was discussed. Risk assessment models were also reviewed.

  9. 78 FR 23972 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... installing new computational pipeline monitoring (CPM) leak detection systems or replacing components of existing CPM systems to comply with section 4.2 of the American Petroleum Institute's recommended practice.... Section 195.444 requires operators of single-phase hazardous liquid pipeline facilities that use CPM...

  10. Pipeline design software and the simulation of liquid propane/butane-light oils pipeline operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J. [Monenco AGRA Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive and integrated suite of computer software routines has been developed to simulate the flow of liquids in pipelines. The fluid properties module accommodates Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids or mixtures including corrections for changes in properties with temperature and pressure. The hydraulic model calculates pressure drop in single or looped pipelines based on the diameter, route (length) and profile data provided. For multi-product pipelines the hydraulics module estimates energy loss for any sequence of batches given the size and fluid properties of each batch, and the velocity in the pipeline. When the characteristics of existing or proposed pipeline pumps are included, location and size of pumps can be optimized. The effect of heat loss on pressure drop is predicted by invoking the module which calculates the fluid temperature profile based on operating conditions, fluid properties, pipe and insulation conductivity and soil heat transfer data. Modules, created to simulate heater or cooler operations, can be incorporated to compensate for changes in temperature. Input data and calculated results can be presented in a format customized by the user. The simulation software has been successfully applied to multi-product, fuel oil, and non-Newtonian emulsion pipelines. The simulation and operation of a refinery products pipeline for the transportation of propane, butane, gasline, jet and diesel batches will be discussed. The impact of high vapor pressure batches (i.e., propane and butane) on the operation of the pipeline and on the upstream and downstream facilities will be examined in detail.

  11. Trace Software Pipelining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; AndreasKrall; 等

    1995-01-01

    Global software pipelining is a complex but efficient compilation technique to exploit instruction-level parallelism for loops with branches.This paper presents a novel global software pipelining technique,called Trace Software Pipelining,targeted to the instruction-level parallel processors such as Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) and superscalar machines.Trace software pipelining applies a global code scheduling technique to compact the original loop body.The resulting loop is called a trace software pipelined (TSP) code.The trace softwrae pipelined code can be directly executed with special architectural support or can be transformed into a globally software pipelined loop for the current VLIW and superscalar processors.Thus,exploiting parallelism across all iterations of a loop can be completed through compacting the original loop body with any global code scheduling technique.This makes our new technique very promising in practical compilers.Finally,we also present the preliminary experimental results to support our new approach.

  12. 75 FR 74697 - Questar Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... public convenience to construct and operate 24.6 miles of 24-inch diameter pipeline and related facilities in Uintah County, Utah (the Mainline 104 Extension Project), all as more fully set forth in...

  13. 76 FR 70217 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ..., for example, reflect a corporate re-branding or it can mean a more significant change in the operating... not be reported as TYPE D. Response: ``Pipeline facility'' is defined in both Parts 192 and 195 and...

  14. Green pipeline dreams; Gruene Pipeline-Traeume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2010-11-15

    In theory, Germany and the other EU states would be able to cover their natural gas demand completely with pipeline-supplied biomethane. But will this be really possible in practice? The contribution takes a closer look. (orig.)

  15. Ultrasound monitoring of pipelines; Ultraschallueberwachung an Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kircher, W.; Skerra, B.; Kobitsch-Meyer, S. [SONOTEC Ultraschallsensorik, Halle GmbH (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Pipelines are the most modern, effective and safest transport system, which is world widely spread in a network of millions km length and is annually enlarged about thousands of km. It is sure that these systems, if they should stay save and effective, must be maintained adequately. A technique, which provides accurate and reliable measurement data without interrupting the pipeline operation, ''through the wall'', is the ultrasonic technology. This non-intrusive technology provides data for pig detection as well as it is used for recognising products in pipelines, detecting levels or full/empty states and accomplishment of sediment measurement, distance measurements, position detections and leak search. The article gives a review and describes some applications of ultrasonic technology in pipeline technique. (orig.)

  16. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  17. Holdup Measurement of Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Wen-guang; XU; Zheng

    2015-01-01

    This research mainly adopts gamma spectroscopy to detect the pipeline retention.The calculation of retention of uranium has been obtained based on the intensity of gamma rays of 185.715 keV emitted by 235U,and the analysis method for the pipeline retention has been established.

  18. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, GasPipelines-This dataset represents the natural gas distribution facilities for portions of Davis, Salt Lake, and Utah Counties. These data were digitized as part of the State of Utah Comprehensive Emergency Management Earthquake Preparedness Program, 19, Published in 1990, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1990. It is described as...

  19. Slurry pipeline hydrostatic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Navarro Rojas, Luis Alejandro [BRASS Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    The transportation of concentrates and tailings through long distance pipeline has been proven in recent years to be the most economic, environmentally friendly and secure means of transporting of mine products. This success has led to an increase in the demand for long distance pipeline throughout the mining industry. In year 2007 alone, a total of over 500 km of pipeline has been installed in South America alone and over 800 km are in the planning stages. As more pipelines are being installed, the need to ensure its operating integrity is ever increasing. Hydrostatic testing of long distance pipeline is one of the most economical and expeditious way to proving the operational integrity of the pipe. The intent of this paper is to show the sound reasoning behind construction hydro testing and the economic benefit it presents. It will show how hydro test pressures are determined based on ASME B31.11 criteria. (author)

  20. Risk Analysis using Corrosion Rate Parameter on Gas Transmission Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikirono, B.; Kim, S. J.; Haryadi, G. D.; Huda, A.

    2017-05-01

    In the oil and gas industry, the pipeline is a major component in the transmission and distribution process of oil and gas. Oil and gas distribution process sometimes performed past the pipeline across the various types of environmental conditions. Therefore, in the transmission and distribution process of oil and gas, a pipeline should operate safely so that it does not harm the surrounding environment. Corrosion is still a major cause of failure in some components of the equipment in a production facility. In pipeline systems, corrosion can cause failures in the wall and damage to the pipeline. Therefore it takes care and periodic inspections or checks on the pipeline system. Every production facility in an industry has a level of risk for damage which is a result of the opportunities and consequences of damage caused. The purpose of this research is to analyze the level of risk of 20-inch Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline using Risk-based inspection semi-quantitative based on API 581 associated with the likelihood of failure and the consequences of the failure of a component of the equipment. Then the result is used to determine the next inspection plans. Nine pipeline components were observed, such as a straight pipes inlet, connection tee, and straight pipes outlet. The risk assessment level of the nine pipeline’s components is presented in a risk matrix. The risk level of components is examined at medium risk levels. The failure mechanism that is used in this research is the mechanism of thinning. Based on the results of corrosion rate calculation, remaining pipeline components age can be obtained, so the remaining lifetime of pipeline components are known. The calculation of remaining lifetime obtained and the results vary for each component. Next step is planning the inspection of pipeline components by NDT external methods.

  1. An Overview of Deepwater Pipeline Laying Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-gang; WANG Cong; HE Ning; ZHAO Dong-yan

    2008-01-01

    The technology and methods involved in pipeline laying in shallow water have evolved to the level of routine and commonplace. However, regarding the unexpected deepwater complexity, the traditional pipeline laying techniques have to confront many new challenges arisen from the increase of the water depth, diameter of the pipe and the welding difficulty, all of which should be modified and/or innovated based on the existed mature experiences. The purpose of this investigation is to outline the existing and new engineering laying techniques and the associated facilities, which can provide some significant information to the related research. In the context, the latest deepwater pipeline laying technology and pipe laying barges of the renowned companies from Switzerland, Norway, Italy etc., are introduced and the corresponding comparison and discussion are presented as well.

  2. Fiber optic accelerometer for pipeline surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Luiz C.G.; Cabral, Bruno S. [LUPATECH Monitoring Systems, Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Braga, Arthur M.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    The use of accelerometers for monitoring vibration due to impacts and other sources associated with pipeline operation is not new, but conventional electric accelerometers present practical problems to be deployed in the field. In this paper we evaluate the use of both commercially available and prototypes of new optical fiber accelerometers for this application. They all share the possibility of operating at long distances from the reading unit. All tests were performed at CTDUT facilities on free pipes as well as on a 14 pol-OD, 100 meters long pipeline loop. Using controlled impacts, several aspects of the application have been analyzed such as different ways of fixing the accelerometers to the pipeline wall, influence of barriers between impact and sensor, and signal propagation through buried sections of pipeline. Results of measurements performed during the operation of the loop are also presented. They include passing PIGs, pumping water out from the system, and working on the tubes to open the loop. Results indicate that the accelerometers can be placed at distances measuring hundreds of meters from the source of vibration, and that the difference in time and frequency behavior of signals measured by sensors placed in different locations along the pipeline may be used to locate and identify that source. (author)

  3. 75 FR 74705 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... the Natural Gas Act for a certificate of public convenience and necessity to construct, and operate certain pipeline and compression facilities to be located in Pennsylvania and New York to increase its... transportation service. In addition to the certificate authority for the facilities identified above,...

  4. 75 FR 51033 - ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed ETC Tiger Pipeline Expansion Project--Phase I and Request for Comments on... Tiger Pipeline Expansion Project--Phase I, involving construction and operation of facilities by...

  5. Natural Gas Liquid Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Natural gas interstate and intrastate pipelines in the United States. Based on a variety of sources with varying scales and levels of accuracy and therefore accuracy...

  6. BSEE_Pacific_Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the locations of oil and gas pipelines in the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Pacific OCS Region

  7. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic and critical care staff play a governing role in the comprehension of a ... complete central oxygen pipeline failure occurred throughout. Tygerberg Hospital. ..... emergency stations and at plant room emergency supply manifolds.

  8. Nearshore Pipeline Installation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    179. 5. Aldridge, R. G., and Bomba , J. G., "Deep Water Pipelines - Interdependence of Design and Construction", ASCE Paper. 6. American Society Civil...October 13, 1967. 24. Bomba , J. G. and Seeds, K. J., "Pipelining in 600 feet of water .... A Case Study of Washington Natural Gas Company’s Puget Sound...Crossing", Offshore Technology Conference, paper OTC 1188, 1970. 25. Bomba , J., "Submarine Pipe Construction Methods", Petroleum Engineer, Vol. 32

  9. Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory: Realtime Image Subtraction Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yi; Kasliwal, Mansi M

    2016-01-01

    A fast-turnaround pipeline for realtime data reduction plays an essential role in discovering and permitting follow-up observations to young supernovae and fast-evolving transients in modern time-domain surveys. In this paper, we present the realtime image subtraction pipeline in the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory. By using high-performance computing, efficient database, and machine learning algorithms, this pipeline manages to reliably deliver transient candidates within ten minutes of images being taken. Our experience in using high performance computing resources to process big data in astronomy serves as a trailblazer to dealing with data from large-scale time-domain facilities in near future.

  10. Pipeline coating comparison methods for northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection, Calgary, AB (Canada); Purves, G.A. [Cimarron Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Two high-quality pipe coatings designed for northern environments were compared for their relative costs and suitability for the conditions that will be encountered in the field. Coating selection should consider local conditions to achieve the optimum life-cycle costs for the system. Some of the key factors affecting the integrity of the protective coating on a pipe include the effects of cold temperature and soil types. In this study, both Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) and High Performance Composite Coatings (HPCC) were evaluated for an entire pipeline installation in a northern environment, from the coating plant to the pipe trench. The evaluation focused on the advantages of better abrasion resistance of the HPCC coating. This was compared against the incremental cost of HPCC coating over FBE on large diameter NPS 30 to NPS 48 pipelines. The following parameters influenced the choice of coating: storage, transportation and handling; bending ability under cold weather conditions; pipe installation and backfilling; weld joint coatings; coating repair and cathodic protection and pipeline integrity. Some of the construction costs that are indirectly affected by the choice of pipe coating include right-of-way preparation and restoration; trenching; supervision, service and downtime and specialist crossings. It was concluded that HPCC has better resistance to abrasion than FBE and is more flexible in extremely cold temperatures. Standard FBE is about 10 per cent less expensive than HPCC. In general HPCC will require less coating protection than FBE, depending on site conditions. 3 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

  11. Software for pipeline integrity administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soula, Gerardo; Perona, Lucas Fernandez [Gie SA., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martinich, Carlos [Refinaria do Norte S. A. (REFINOR), Tartagal, Provincia de Salta (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    A Software for 'pipeline integrity management' was developed. It allows to deal with Geographical Information and a PODS database (Pipeline Open database Standard) simultaneously, in a simple and reliable way. The premises for the design were the following: didactic, geo referenced, multiple reference systems. Program skills: 1.PODS+GIS: the PODS database in which the software is based on is completely integrated with the GIS module. 2 Management of different kinds of information: it allows to manage information on facilities, repairs, interventions, physical inspections, geographical characteristics, compliance with regulations, training, offline events, operation measures, O and M information treatment and importing specific data and studies in a massive way. It also assures the integrity of the loaded information. 3 Right of way survey: it allows to verify the class location, ROW occupation, sensitive areas identification and to manage landowners. 4 Risk analysis: it is done in a qualitative way, depending on the entered data, allowing the user to identify the riskiest stretches of the system. Either results from risk analysis, data and consultations made about the database, can be exported to standard formats. (author)

  12. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    . The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines

  13. Energy cost reduction in oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limeira, Fabio Machado; Correa, Joao Luiz Lavoura; Costa, Luciano Macedo Josino da; Silva, Jose Luiz da; Henriques, Fausto Metzger Pessanha [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the key questions of modern society consists on the rational use of the planet's natural resources and energy. Due to the lack of energy, many companies are forced to reduce their workload, especially during peak hours, because residential demand reaches its top and there is not enough energy to fulfill the needs of all users, which affects major industries. Therefore, using energy more wisely has become a strategic issue for any company, due to the limited supply and also for the excessive cost it represents. With the objective of saving energy and reducing costs for oil pipelines, it has been identified that the increase in energy consumption is primordially related to pumping stations and also by the way many facilities are operated, that is, differently from what was originally designed. Realizing this opportunity, in order to optimize the process, this article intends to examine the possibility of gains evaluating alternatives regarding changes in the pump scheme configuration and non-use of pump stations at peak hours. Initially, an oil pipeline with potential to reduce energy costs was chosen being followed by a history analysis, in order to confirm if there was sufficient room to change the operation mode. After confirming the pipeline choice, the system is briefly described and the literature is reviewed, explaining how the energy cost is calculated and also the main characteristics of a pumping system in series and in parallel. In that sequence, technically feasible alternatives are studied in order to operate and also to negotiate the energy demand contract. Finally, costs are calculated to identify the most economical alternative, that is, for a scenario with no increase in the actual transported volume of the pipeline and for another scenario that considers an increase of about 20%. The conclusion of this study indicates that the chosen pipeline can achieve a reduction on energy costs of up to 25% without the need for investments in new

  14. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamerson Pender... 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

  15. Pipeliners go regulator shopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    1996-12-09

    The weakening of Alberta`s regulatory grip on gas pipelines was discussed. Palliser Pipeline Limited has challenged Nova Corp`s monopoly by applying to the National Energy Board (NEB) for permission to build a 150-mile pipeline from Calgary to the Saskatchewan border. If the $350 million project proceeds, it would mean that gas would be flowing out of Alberta for the first time through a line that is not operated by Nova Corp. Palliser would operate with a lower shipping toll, set by the NEB rather than Alberta`s Energy and Utilities Board. Alliance Pipeline Ltd. will also apply to the NEB to build a 1850-mile pipeline that would originate in British Columbia, cross Alberta and terminate in Chicago. Nova Corp has implied that it might have to consider charging distance-based tolls if the Palliser bypass line proceeds. However, Palliser countered that it should not be necessary to change the postage stamp system for that small a fraction. Palliser suggested that Nova was simply reacting because it was facing competition for the first time. Final decision is in the hands of the federal government.

  16. Protecting a pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.H (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Garcia-Lopez, M. (Ingenieria y Geotecnia Ltda., Santafe de Bogota (Colombia))

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  17. Pipelines. Economy's veins; Pipelines. Adern der Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizlmayr, Adolf; Goestl, Stefan [ILF Beratende Ingenieure, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    According to the existing prognoses more than 1 million km of gas pipelines, oil pipelines and water pipelines are built up to the year 2030. The predominant portion is from gas pipelines. The safe continued utilization of the aging pipelines is a large challenge. In addition, the diagnostic technology, the evaluation and risk assessment have to be developed further. With the design of new oil pipelines and gas pipelines, aspects of environmental protection, the energy efficiency of transport and thus the emission reduction of carbon dioxide, the public acceptance and the market strategy of the exporters gain in importance. With the offshore pipelines one soon will exceed the present border of 2,000 m depth of water and penetrate into larger sea depths.

  18. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; establish an administrative process for making... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; and establish the adjudication process...

  19. The development of pipeline integrity management in the world and practice in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohua, Dong; Qing, Wang; Feifan [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    The paper analyzed the pipeline integrity management latest development, and the relationship among HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM). CNPC is a pioneer of China industry on implementation of pipeline integrity management by using latest developed technologies such as in-line inspection, GIS, Risk assessment and advanced repair technologies, and it is typical model of PIM in China pipeline who supply the gas to whole Beijing city. With smart pigging inspection and implementation of GIS and EAM(enterprise assets management) system on two thousand kilometers of Shaanxi-Beijing gas pipeline BHGC is able to manage pipeline integrity in five areas which include pipe materials safety, nature and geotechnical hazards management, coating and corrosion protection, stationing and associated facilities maintenance, and underground gas storage integrity. This paper presents latest achievement of BHGC in their pipeline integrity programs. (author)

  20. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  1. Pipeline rehabilitation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

  2. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under the Federal... Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0203] Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  3. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  4. The TROBAR pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanon, Mauro

    TROBAR is a 60cm robotic telescope installed at the Observatrio de Aras de los Olmos (OAO), approximately 100km north-west of Valencia (Spain). It is currently equipped with a 4K×4K optical camera covering a FoV of 30×30 arcmin^2. We are now implementing a pipeline for the automatic reduction of its data. In this paper we will present the main features of the pipeline, with particular care to some of the algorithms implemented to assess the quality of the produced data and showing their application to synthetic images.

  5. 78 FR 63560 - Notice of Receipt of an Application by Magellan Pipeline Company, L.P., for Issuance of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... carbon ] steel pipelines that extend from El Paso, Texas to the U.S. boundary with Mexico. Through... Permit To Operate and Maintain Existing Pipeline Facilities on the Border of the United States and Mexico... Facilities on the Border of the United States and Mexico. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the...

  6. Experience with two pipeline river crossings in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaremko, Eugene [Northwest Hydraulic Consultants (NHC), Edmonton (Canada); D' Agnillo, Pablo; Diaz, Jose A. [Minera Alumbrera XTRADA Copper S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bravo, Claudio

    2009-12-19

    The Alumbrera copper-gold mine located in the Province of Catamarca, northwest region of Argentina, commenced operation in October, 1997. Mine development included a 316 km long, 175 mm diameter slurry pipeline that conveys copper concentrate to a dewatering facility near the city of Tucuman, Province of Tucuman. It became apparent during the first few years of operation that, given the many potential risks of pipeline exposure associated with stream crossings, Minera Alumbrera would have to undertake an aggressive, formal program of risk management of crossings and risk mitigation. In this paper, the experience associated with two crossings is addressed: Rio Villavil; and, Rio Gastona. The original pipeline route through the 10 km length of pipeline connecting Pump Station (PS) 2 to PS 3 was directed along the bottom of the Rio Villavil valley, with most of it located within the flood way of the stream. The exposure of the pipeline at some locations and high risk of further pipeline exposures led to initiation of risk mitigation planning. Remediation work was completed by 2008. Rio Gastona, during the summer of 2001, experienced rapid shifting of the left bank at the crossing resulting in an undermined and unsupported length of pipeline. The subsequent risk mitigation method adopted in 2001 involved the planning and construction of groyne fields along both banks. (author)

  7. Sinopec: Pipeline Goes Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ye

    2002-01-01

    @@ Asia's largest refinery, Sinopec Corp, will proceed with a 1,600-kilometre oil pipeline across southern provinces of China, although speculation continues to linger that the company will scrap the plan due to a postponement of the multi-million-dollar project.

  8. PLUGGING AND UNPLUGGING OF WASTE TRANSFER PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This project, which began in FY97, involves both the flow loop research on plugging and unplugging of waste transfer pipelines, and the large-scale industrial equipment test of plugging locating and unplugging technologies. In FY98, the related work was performed under the project name ''Mixing, Settling, and Pipe Unplugging of Waste Transfer Lines.'' The mixing, settling, and pipeline plugging and unplugging are critical to the design and maintenance of a waste transfer pipeline system, especially for the High-Level Waste (HLW) pipeline transfer. The major objective of this work is to recreate pipeline plugging conditions for equipment testing of plug locating and removal and to provide systematic operating data for modification of equipment design and enhancement of performance of waste transfer lines used at DOE sites. As the waste tank clean-out and decommissioning program becomes active at the DOE sites, there is an increasing potential that the waste slurry transfer lines will become plugged and unable to transport waste slurry from one tank to another or from the mixing tank to processing facilities. Transfer systems may potentially become plugged if the solids concentration of the material being transferred increases beyond the capability of the prime mover or if upstream mixing is inadequately performed. Plugging can occur due to the solids' settling in either the mixing tank, the pumping system, or the transfer lines. In order to enhance and optimize the slurry's removal and transfer, refined and reliable data on the mixing, sampling, and pipe unplugging systems must be obtained based on both laboratory-scale and simulated in-situ operating conditions.

  9. Distributed acoustic sensing for pipeline monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, David; McEwen-King, Magnus [OptaSense, QinetiQ Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    existing buried optical cable can be extended to encircle facilities such as well heads and Block Valve Stations and be monitored to provide perimeter protection and condition monitoring. Out in the field, activity close to a buried pipeline can be significant with farming activity, roads, urban encroachment and rivers all creating significant noise. We will show how, through the use of a system with a high acoustic sensitivity, small spatial resolution and sophisticated signal processing we are able to differentiate between normal activity and unusual activity that can be a threat to the pipeline. Examples of the detection of people, vehicles and excavators at significant ranges laterally offset from a buried cable will be shown. The paper will refer to data recorded on field deployed systems and discuss the further enhancements to the technology including extending the range beyond 120 km and integration of the alert information into existing SCADA systems. Finally, this paper we will briefly discuss the use of Distributed Acoustic Sensing to monitor subsea pipelines and how the technology may also be used to listen to completion and production activity downhole. (author)

  10. The NOAO Pipeline Data Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiriart, R.; Valdes, F.; Pierfederici, F.; Smith, C.; Miller, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Data Manager for NOAO Pipeline system is a set of interrelated components that are being developed to fulfill the pipeline system data needs. It includes: (1) management of calibration files (flat, bias, bad pixel mask and xtalk calibration data.); (2) management of the pipeline stages' configuration parameters; and (3) management of the pipeline processing historic information, for each of the data products generated by the pipeline. The Data Manager components uses a distributed, CORBA based architecture, providing a flexible and extensible object oriented framework, capable of accommodating the present and future pipeline data requirements. The Data Manager communicates with the pipeline modules, with internal and external databases, and with other NOAO systems such as the NOAO Archive and the NOAO Data Transport System.

  11. Vulnerability of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-01

    Although pipelines may be damaged due to natural sources such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), most pipeline damages are a result of third-party interference, such as unauthorized construction in a right of way. Pipelines are also among the prime targets for sabotage because interruptions in energy distribution can render large segments of a population debilitated. The importance of protecting critical infrastructure was emphasized in this theme issue which disseminated information on vulnerability of pipelines due to third-party intrusions, both intentional and unintentional. It summarized the 10 presentations that were delivered at a pipelines security forum in Calgary, Alberta, addressing Canadian and U.S. government and industry approaches to oil and natural gas pipeline security. The opening keynote address remarked on the evolution of international terror networks, the targeting of the energy sector, and the terrorist threat and presence in Canada. Policies towards critical energy infrastructure protection (CIP) were then examined in light of these threats. A policy shift away from traditional defensive protective security towards an offensive intelligence-led strategy to forestall terrorist threats was advocated. Energy sector representatives agreed that Canada needs an effective national lead agency to provide threat assessments, alert notification, and coordination of information pertaining to CIP. It was agreed that early warning information must come from Canadian as well as U.S. sources in order to be pertinent. The conference session on information collection concentrated on defining what sort of threat information is needed by the energy sector, who should collect it and how should it be shared. It was emphasized that government leadership should coordinate threat reporting and disseminate information, set standards, and address the issues of terrorism risk insurance. Concern was raised about the lack of

  12. Pipeline and Regional Carbon Capture Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Chris; Wortman, David; Brown, Chris; Hassan, Syed; Humphreys, Ken; Willford, Mark

    2016-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) FutureGen 2.0 Program involves two projects: (1) the Oxy-Combustion Power Plant Project and (2) the CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project. This Final Technical Report is focused on the CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project. The FutureGen 2.0 CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project evolved from an initial siting and project definition effort in Phase I, into the Phase II activity consisting permitting, design development, the acquisition of land rights, facility design, and licensing and regulatory approvals. Phase II also progressed into construction packaging, construction procurement, and targeted early preparatory activities in the field. The CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project accomplishments were significant, and in some cases unprecedented. The engineering, permitting, legal, stakeholder, and commercial learnings substantially advance the nation’s understanding of commercial-scale CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers. Voluminous and significant information was obtained from the drilling and the testing program of the subsurface, and sophisticated modeling was performed that held up to a wide range of scrutiny. All designs progressed to the point of securing construction contracts or comfort letters attesting to successful negotiation of all contract terms and willing execution at the appropriate time all major project elements – pipeline, surface facilities, and subsurface – as well as operations. While the physical installation of the planned facilities did not proceed in part due to insufficient time to complete the project prior to the expiration of federal funding, the project met significant objectives prior to DOE’s closeout decision. Had additional time been available, there were no known, insurmountable obstacles that would have precluded successful construction and operation of the project. Due to the suspension of the project, site restoration activities were developed and the work was accomplished. The site restoration

  13. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  14. Pipeline ADC Design Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Demand for high-performance analog-to-digital converter (ADC) integrated circuits (ICs) with optimal combined specifications of resolution, sampling rate and power consumption becomes dominant due to emerging applications in wireless communications, broad band transceivers, digital-intermediate frequency (IF) receivers and countless of digital devices. This research is dedicated to develop a pipeline ADC design methodology with minimum power dissipation, while keeping relatively high speed an...

  15. Pipeline ADC Design Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Demand for high-performance analog-to-digital converter (ADC) integrated circuits (ICs) with optimal combined specifications of resolution, sampling rate and power consumption becomes dominant due to emerging applications in wireless communications, broad band transceivers, digital-intermediate frequency (IF) receivers and countless of digital devices. This research is dedicated to develop a pipeline ADC design methodology with minimum power dissipation, while keeping relatively high speed an...

  16. 77 FR 61826 - Pipeline Safety: Communication During Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ..., hazardous liquid, and liquefied natural gas pipeline facilities that operators should immediately and... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Federal regulations for gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and hazardous... Bulletin (ADB-2012-09) To: Operators of Gas, Hazardous Liquid, and Liquefied Natural Gas......

  17. The MIS Pipeline Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuben, Peter J.; Pound, M. W.; Storm, S.; Mundy, L. G.; Salter, D. M.; Lee, K.; Kwon, W.; Fernandez Lopez, M.; Plunkett, A.

    2013-01-01

    A pipeline toolkit was developed to help organizing, reducing and analyzing a large number of near-identical datasets. This is a very general problem, for which many different solutions have been implemented. In this poster we present one such solution that lends itself to users of the Unix command line, using the Unix "make" utility, and adapts itself easily to observational as well as theoretical projects. Two examples are given, one from the CARMA CLASSy survey, and another from a simulated kinematic survey of early galaxy forming disks. The CLASSy survey (discussed in more detail in three accompanying posters) consists of 5 different star forming regions, observed with CARMA, each containing roughly 10-20 datasets in continuum and 3 different molecular lines, that need to be combined in final data cubes and maps. The strength of such a pipeline toolkit shows itself as new data are accumulated, the data reduction steps are improved and easily re-applied to previously taken data. For this we employed a master script that was run nightly, and collaborators submitted improved script and/or pipeline parameters that control these scripts. MIS is freely available for download.

  18. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Lightfoot, J.; Kosugi, G.; Wilson, C.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.

    2007-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array / Atacama Compact Array (ALMA / ACA) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes such as single fields, mosaics or on-the-fly maps. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts using as the data processing engines the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA[PY]) libraries and the ATNF Spectral Analysis Package (ASAP). The interferometry heuristics scripts currently provide an end-to-end process for the single field mode comprising flagging, initial calibration, re-flagging, re-calibration, and imaging of the target data. A Java browser provides user-friendly access to the heuristics results. The initial single-dish heuristics scripts implement automatic spectral line detection, baseline fitting and image gridding. The resulting data cubes are analyzed to detect source emission spectrally and spatially in order to calculate signal-to-noise ratios for comparison against the science goals specified by the observer.

  19. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J.; Wyrowski, F.; Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.; Wilson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics system must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. Observing modes to be processed by the system include single field interferometry, mosaics and single dish `on-the-fly' maps, and combinations of these modes. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and single dish antennas. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts. For interferometry these use as data processing engines the CASA/AIPS++ libraries and their bindings as CORBA objects within the ALMA Common Software (ACS). Initial development has used VLA and Plateau de Bure data sets to build and test a heuristic script capable of reducing single field data. In this paper we describe the reduction datapath and the algorithms used at each stage. Test results are presented. The path for future development is outlined.

  20. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  1. Behavior of full-scale concrete segmented pipelines under permanent ground displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhee; O'Connor, Sean; Nadukuru, Srinivasa; Lynch, Jerome P.; Michalowski, Radoslaw; Green, Russell A.; Pour-Ghaz, Mohammed; Weiss, W. Jason; Bradshaw, Aaron

    2010-03-01

    Concrete pipelines are one of the most popular underground lifelines used for the transportation of water resources. Unfortunately, this critical infrastructure system remains vulnerable to ground displacements during seismic and landslide events. Ground displacements may induce significant bending, shear, and axial forces to concrete pipelines and eventually lead to joint failures. In order to understand and model the typical failure mechanisms of concrete segmented pipelines, large-scale experimentation is necessary to explore structural and soil-structure behavior during ground faulting. This paper reports on the experimentation of a reinforced concrete segmented concrete pipeline using the unique capabilities of the NEES Lifeline Experimental and Testing Facilities at Cornell University. Five segments of a full-scale commercial concrete pressure pipe (244 cm long and 37.5 cm diameter) are constructed as a segmented pipeline under a compacted granular soil in the facility test basin (13.4 m long and 3.6 m wide). Ground displacements are simulated through translation of half of the test basin. A dense array of sensors including LVDT's, strain gages, and load cells are installed along the length of the pipeline to measure the pipeline response while the ground is incrementally displaced. Accurate measures of pipeline displacements and strains are captured up to the compressive and flexural failure of the pipeline joints.

  2. Pipeline integrity : control by coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation provided background information on the history of cross-country pipelines in India. It discussed the major use of gas. The key users were described as being the power and fertilizer industries, followed by vehicles using compressed natural gas to replace liquid fuels and thereby reduce pollution. The presentation also addressed the integrity of pipelines in terms of high production, safety, and monitoring. Integrity issues of pipelines were discussed with reference to basic design, control of corrosion, and periodic health monitoring. Other topics that were outlined included integrity by corrosion control; integrity by health monitoring; coatings requirements; classification of UCC pipeline coatings; and how the pipeline integrity approach can help to achieve coatings which give design life without any failure. Surface cleanliness, coating conditions, and the relationship between temperature of Epoxy coating and the time of adhesive coating were also discussed. Last, the presentation provided the results of an audit of the HBJ pipeline conducted from 1999 to 2000. tabs., figs.

  3. Pipeline information system, a tool for making decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, R.P.; Betancourt, E.R. [Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Issues regarding the operation, maintenance, safety and inspection of the 11,000 km of pipeline located in 24 of the 32 Mexican states was discussed with focus on the technical information system that Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica established to integrate digitalized pipeline trajectory with several geographic maps and technical databases. The objective was to establish a means for technical consultation in decision-making processes. Most of the pipelines carry natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas or basic petrochemical products. Information managing and worker safety in surrounding populated areas requires an effective system to accurately locate transportation and distribution facilities. Pemex's technical information system makes use of a geographic positioning satellite (GPS) to show aboveground facilities and pipeline trajectory on digitized geographic maps. The system can also be used to manipulate technical databases, upgrade pipelines' cathodic protection values, plus measure and pinpoint regular or serious problems detected by internal surveillance inspection equipment. Some of the most important parameters that the system deals with is the integration of information on pipe construction codes, pipe thickness and diameter, design and construction year, and pipe maximum allowance pressure. The authors emphasized how important data transmission through digital media will be in the coming years. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  4. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  5. An integrated system for pipeline condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Andrew P.; Lees, Gareth; Hartog, Arthur; Twohig, Richard; Kader, Kamal; Hilton, Graeme; Mullens, Stephen; Khlybov, Artem [Schlumberger, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sanderson, Norman [BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    monitoring in a wide range of other applications such as: long sub sea flow lines; offshore riser systems; settlement in tank farms; facilities perimeter security. An important element of this system is a bespoke direct-bury optical sensor cable, designed to allow distributed strain measurement and hence enable monitoring of ground movement, whilst withstanding the rigors of the pipeline environment. The system can also be configured for detection of third-party interference and leaks with the majority of existing buried cables. In this paper, we outline the optical sensing methods employed in the system, and the results of the extensive field trials performed to fully evaluate and prove the system for use on long hydrocarbon transmission pipelines. Specifically, we will describe the detection of small gas releases, simulated ground movement and detection and recognition of a number of different types of third party interventions at the full 100 km target range. Finally, the tracking of a pig during pigging operations is demonstrated on a pilot installation. (author)

  6. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  7. Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjertveit, Erling

    2010-07-01

    On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

  8. Transportation of coal by pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Canada's coal resources, technology of long distance coal slurry pipelines, existing and planned coal slurry pipelines, their economics, liquid carbon dioxide, methanol and crude oil instead of water as carrier fluid, and coal slurry research in Canada.

  9. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system composing of pipes, pumps, valves and storage facilities used to transport different types of liquids. Typically, products delivered by pipelines are petroleum of different grades moving either from production facilities to refineries or from refineries to distributors. Time-windows, which are generally used in logistics and scheduling areas, are incorporated in this study. The distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows is modeled as multicommodity network flow structure and mathematically formulated. The main focus of this dissertation is the investigation of operating issues and problem complexity of single-source pipeline problems and also providing solution methodology to compute input schedule that yields minimum total time violation from due delivery time-windows. The problem is proved to be NP-complete. The heuristic approach, a reversed-flow algorithm, is developed based on pipeline flow reversibility to compute input schedule for the pipeline problem. This algorithm is implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. This dissertation also extends the study to examine some operating attributes and problem complexity of multiple-source pipelines. The multiple-source pipeline problem is also NP-complete. A heuristic algorithm modified from the one used in single-source pipeline problems is introduced. This algorithm can also be implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. Computational results are presented for both methodologies on randomly generated problem sets. The computational experience indicates that reversed-flow algorithms provide good solutions in comparison with the optimal solutions. Only 25% of the problems tested were more than 30% greater than optimal values and

  10. Simulation of pipeline in the area of the underwater crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, P.; Chernyavskiy, D.; Burkova, S.; Konan, E. C.

    2014-08-01

    The article studies stress-strain behavior of the main oil-pipeline section Alexandrovskoye-Anzhero-Sudzhensk using software system Ansys. This method of examination and assessment of technical conditions of objects of pipeline transport studies the objects and the processes that affect the technical condition of these facilities, including the research on the basis of computer simulation. Such approach allows to develop the theory, methods of calculations and designing of objects of pipeline transport, units and parts of machines, regardless of their industry and destination with a view to improve the existing constructions and create new structures, machines of high performance, durability and reliability, maintainability, low material capacity and cost, which have competitiveness on the world market.

  11. 75 FR 81602 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... emergency generator, hot water boiler and space heater, all fueled by natural gas. In order to connect the... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental... Expansion Project (Project) involving construction and operation of facilities by Tennessee Gas Pipeline...

  12. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  13. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  14. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  15. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-05-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  16. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  17. Pipeline clean-up : speed, environment drive pipelining equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2004-08-01

    Horizontal drilling technology is the single most important enhanced oil recovery technology which has resulted in a significant increase in pipeline utilization. Pipeline operators such as Calgary-based Denim Pipeline Construction Ltd. are responding by using the latest equipment, including excavation equipment, to avoid maintenance delays and downtime. The sales of Denim's horizontal pipe bending equipment have increased due to their attention to worker safety. Denim's horizontal bending machine does not require as much technical support, plus it is faster to install and speeds up production. The machine consists of 3 hydraulic jacks that move on a horizontal plate. Curved dies can be modified to accommodate various diameters of pipe. The bending operation is performed very near to the ground, thereby significantly reducing the risk of pipe injury. Environmental damage is minimized through the use of mechanized mulching which has replaced burning of unwanted trees and brush to clean for pipelines. 1 fig.

  18. RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FODOR Cosmin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

  19. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  20. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  1. Products pipeline network plans set out for North Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venus, C.

    1984-02-13

    The growth of oil-products demand in future years is leading the Yemen Arab Republic (Y.A.R.) to improve the distribution network for the products by constructing a pipeline system. Petroleum products are currently distributed by road tankers only between the receiving terminals and the main cities, which represent the most important consumption centers, together with new industrial plants such as cement factories, power plants, etc. The technical design and economic and financial feasibility study of the project was entrusted to Omnium Technique des Transports par Pipelines (OTP). The scope covers the setting up in the Y.A.R. of the basic equipment for the supply, storage, and land transportation of petroleum products with a view to: Meeting the national demand for the next 25 years. Providing an adequate strategic reserve of petroleum products with a total storage capacity amounting to 3 months of consumption. The only exception in the transportation of the petroleum products will involve heavy fuel oil which will continue to be transported by road tankers. This article describes the basic facilities which have to be installed before the start-up of the projected network. The project includes a marine terminal in Salif and a pipeline to Sana'a with the related storage, truck loading, and pumping facilities for white products and gas oil which will be transported by pipeline.

  2. 49 CFR 195.1 - Which pipelines are covered by this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the U.S. Coast Guard; (4) A low-stress pipeline that serves refining, manufacturing, or truck... manufacturing facilities or storage or in-plant piping systems associated with such facilities; (9) Transportation of a hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide: (i) By vessel, aircraft, tank truck, tank car, or other...

  3. 78 FR 23554 - Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... operation of facilities by Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC (Sierrita) in Pima County, Arizona (the project was... process to determine whether the Project is in the public convenience and necessity. The Commission staff... construction of two meter stations and various other appurtenant facilities in Pima County, Arizona....

  4. 75 FR 72877 - Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... collections from operators of natural gas pipelines, hazardous liquid pipelines, and liquefied natural......

  5. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  6. Pipeline integrity handbook risk management and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Based on over 40 years of experience in the field, Ramesh Singh goes beyond corrosion control, providing techniques for addressing present and future integrity issues. Pipeline Integrity Handbook provides pipeline engineers with the tools to evaluate and inspect pipelines, safeguard the life cycle of their pipeline asset and ensure that they are optimizing delivery and capability. Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Integrity Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day use in identifying key pipeline degradation mechanisms and threats to pipeline integrity. The book begins

  7. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  8. Nondestructive characterization of pipeline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Brady J.; Smart, Lucinda J.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing need to quantitatively and nondestructively evaluate the strength and toughness properties of pipeline steels, particularly in aging pipeline infrastructure. These strength and toughness properties, namely yield strength, tensile strength, transition temperature, and toughness, are essential for determining the safe operating pressure of the pipelines. For some older pipelines crucial information can be unknown, which makes determining the pressure rating difficult. Current inspection techniques address some of these issues, but they are not comprehensive. This paper will briefly discuss current inspection techniques and relevant literature for relating nondestructive measurements to key strength and toughness properties. A project is in progress to provide new in-trench tools that will give strength properties without the need for sample removal and destructive testing. Preliminary experimental ultrasonic methods and measurements will be presented, including velocity, attenuation, and backscatter measurements.

  9. VLT Instruments Pipeline System Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y.; Ballester, P.; Banse, K.; Hummel, W.; Izzo, C.; McKay, D. J.; Kiesgen, M.; Lundin, L. K.; Modigliani, A.; Palsa, R. M.; Sabet, C.

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the VLT operations in 1998, substantial effort has been put in the development of automatic data reduction tools for the VLT instruments. A VLT instrument pipeline is a complex system that has to be able to identify and classify each produced FITS file, optionally retrieve calibration files from a database, use an image processing software to reduce the data, compute and log quality control parameters, produce FITS images or tables with the correct headers, optionally display them in the control room and send them to the archive. Each instrument has its own dedicated pipeline, based on a common infrastructure and installed with the VLT Data Flow System (DFS). With the increase in the number and the complexity of supported instruments and in the rate of produced data, these pipelines are becoming vital for both the VLT operations and the users, and request more and more resources for development and maintenance. This paper describes the different pipeline tasks with some real examples. It also explains how the development process has been improved to both decrease its cost and increase the pipelines quality using the lessons learned from the first instruments pipelines development.

  10. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinbank, J.; Staley, T.; Molenaar, G.; Rol, E.; Rowlinson, A.; Scheers, L.H.A.; Spreeuw, H.; Bell, M.E.; Broderick, J.; Carbone, D.; Garsden, H.; Horst, A. van der; Law, C.J.; Wise, M.W.; Breton, R.P.; Cendes, Y.; Corbel, S.; Eisloeffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.P.; Griessmeier, J.-M.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Stappers, B.W.; Stewart, A.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wijnands, R.; Zarka, P.

    2015-01-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissione

  11. A study of processes for welding pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, J. (ed.)

    1991-07-01

    A review was made of exisiting and potential processes for welding pipelines: fusion welding (arc, electron beam, laser, thermit) and forge welding (friction, flash, magnetically impelled arc butt, upset butt, explosive, shielded active gas, gas pressure). Consideration of J-lay operations gave indications that were reflections of the status of the processes in terms of normal land and offshore S-lay operation: forge welding processes, although having promise require considerable development; fusion welding processes offer several possibilities (mechanized GMA welding likely to be used in 1991-2); laser welding requires development in all pipeline areas: a production machine for electron beam welding will involve high costs. Nondestructive testing techniques are also reviewed. Demand for faster quality assessment is being addressed by speeding radiographic film processing and through the development of real time radiography and automatic ultrasonic testing. Conclusions on most likely future process developments are: SMAW with cellulosic electrodes is best for tie-ins, short pip runs; SMAW continues to be important for small-diameter lines, although mechanized GMA could be used, along with mechanical joining, MIAB, radial fraction, and flash butt; mechanized GMA welding is likely to predominate for large diameter lines and probably will be used for the first J-lay line (other techniques could be used too); and welding of piping for station facilities involves both shop welding of sub-assemblies and on-site welding of pipe and sub-assemblies to each other (site welding uses both SMAW and GMAW). Figs, tabs.

  12. Uncertainties in pipeline water percentage measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bentley N.

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of the quantity, density, average temperature and water percentage in petroleum pipelines has been an issue of prime importance. The methods of measurement have been investigated and have seen continued improvement over the years. Questions are being asked as to the reliability of the measurement of water in the oil through sampling systems originally designed and tested for a narrow range of densities. Today most facilities sampling systems handle vastly increased ranges of density and types of crude oils. Issues of pipeline integrity, product loss and production balances are placing further demands on the issues of accurate measurement. Water percentage is one area that has not received the attention necessary to understand the many factors involved in making a reliable measurement. A previous paper1 discussed the issues of uncertainty of the measurement from a statistical perspective. This paper will outline many of the issues of where the errors lie in the manual and automatic methods in use today. A routine to use the data collected by the analyzers in the on line system for validation of the measurements will be described. (author) (tk)

  13. Uncertainties in pipeline water percentage measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bentley N.

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of the quantity, density, average temperature and water percentage in petroleum pipelines has been an issue of prime importance. The methods of measurement have been investigated and have seen continued improvement over the years. Questions are being asked as to the reliability of the measurement of water in the oil through sampling systems originally designed and tested for a narrow range of densities. Today most facilities sampling systems handle vastly increased ranges of density and types of crude oils. Issues of pipeline integrity, product loss and production balances are placing further demands on the issues of accurate measurement. Water percentage is one area that has not received the attention necessary to understand the many factors involved in making a reliable measurement. A previous paper1 discussed the issues of uncertainty of the measurement from a statistical perspective. This paper will outline many of the issues of where the errors lie in the manual and automatic methods in use today. A routine to use the data collected by the analyzers in the on line system for validation of the measurements will be described. (author) (tk)

  14. 75 FR 5244 - Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... implement integrity management programs. In addition to a minor correction in terminology, this document...: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  15. Local scour at submarine pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yee-Meng Chiew

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of offshore oil_fields has increased the number of submarine pipelines being constructed for the transport of crude oil to onshore refineries.Interactions between the pipeline and an erodible bed under the influence of current and waves often lead to local scouring around the structure.When this occurs, the pipeline may be suspended on the seabed resulting in the formation of a span.If the free span is long enough, the pipe may experience resonant flow-induced oscillations,leading to structural failure.This study examines the complex flow-structure-sediment interaction leading to the development of local scour holes around submarine pipelines.It reviews published literature in this area,which primarily is confined to the development of 2-dimensional scour holes.Despite the abundance of such research studies,pipeline-scour in the field essentially is 3-dimensional in nature.Hence, most of these studies have overlooked the importance of the transverse dimension of the scour hole,while emphasizing on its vertical dimension.This dearly is an issue that must be re-examined in light of the potential hazard and environmental disaster that one faces in the event of a pipeline failure.Recent studies have begun to recognize this shortcoming,and attempts have been made to overcome the deficiency.The study presents the state-of-the-art knowledge on local scour at submarine pipelines,both from a 2-dimensional as well as the 3-dimensional perspective.

  16. China Oil & Gas Pipeline Survey & Design Institute, Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bureau of CNPC; Zhao Surong

    1995-01-01

    @@ China Oil/Gas Pipeline Bureau(P.B) is the only professional organization in China specialized in oil/gas pipelines design and construction since 1980s. It has ever cooperated with certain number of well known companies from Japan,USA, Germany, Canada, as well as Italy in the designs of many large oil/gas pipeline projects, during the course of which, personnel from P.B accumulated much experience in international project designs. During the execution of each particular project, they strictly followed the common-use international codes and standards with computers as the auxiliary design system combined with the self-developed software. All its clients showed their trust in this organization and gave it high praise for its outstanding survey, design and technical service.

  17. Logistics aspects of pipeline transport in the supply of petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Pienaar

    2008-09-01

    activities are involved in the flow of goods between place of origin and place of consumption or application:Demand forecasting, Facility site selection, Procurement,Materials handling, Packaging, Warehouse management, Inventory management,Order processing, Logistics communications, Transport, Reverse logistics. Because cost is incurred without adding value each time goods are handled (activity 4 at a terminal or storage facility, a primary logistics objective is to eliminate handling wherever possible. With the carriage of crude oil and petroleum products by pipeline this objective is fully met. Commodity intake, haulage, and discharge are combined in one process, usually a remote-controlled operation. Pipeline transport is a non-containerised bulk mode of transport thereby obviating the need for packaging (activity 5 and returning empty containers. Pipelines provide a direct and long-term link between these origins and destinations. If necessary a continuous service can be provided with no need for a return trip or a reverse pumping process (activity 11.The elimination of handling, packaging and reverse logistics activities contribute substantially to the high measure of economies of scale that pipeline transport enjoys. The article provides adscription of each of the eleven logistics activities in the context of pipeline transport. Effective logistics service is a prerequisite to help ensure that customers receive the required products at the desired quality and quantity, where and when needed. The most pertinent determinants of logistics service performance aresuitability, accessibility, goods security, transit time, reliability and flexibility. The article offers a discussion of the extent to which pipeline transport conforms to each of these measures of effectiveness.

  18. Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

  19. Innovative project management techniques : major international pipeline project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, R.G.; Galatiuk, R.; Mensik, M. [TransCanada International, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The project management techniques used to manage the challenges of constructing the Gasoducto del Pacifico Pipeline from Argentina to Chile was discussed. The 543 km natural gas pipeline relied on experience of the GasAndes Pipeline Project to execute it in one year, from October 1998 to October 1999. The project management team met with success by using innovative techniques designed specifically to the following challenges: (1) fast track nature of the project, (2) contractual obligations imposed by the project management agreement between GasPacifico and TransCanada International which had the responsibility for the right-of-way acquisition, applying for regulatory approvals, design and construction of the project, (3) environmental constraints of a route through a national park in Chile and areas of high erosion and instability through the imposing Andes mountain range, (4) seasonal constraints, (5) two countries with two sets of laws and strict regulatory requirements, and (6) procurement and importation of major equipment, materials and pipe. The initial capacity of the pipeline without the addition of compression facilities was 3.7 million cubic metres per day. Total investment was in the order of $321 million US. It was emphasized that the risk associated with meeting the projects goals were minimized by critically evaluating all prospective bidders on the project. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  20. Products pipelines facing major operational changes. Lead phasedown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teel, H.L.

    1985-06-01

    This paper studies the impact which the US Environmental Protection Agency's new standards for lead in gasoline will have on petroleum products pipelines. The options that refiners may exercise in their approach to lead phasedown are examined. Although most refiners will have little trouble complying with the 0.1 gm/gal standard, the authors express concern in the area of handling gasoline at 0.1 gm/gal if EPA specifies a minimum lead content necessary to protect those engines that require lead. For those pipelines that operate loading terminals, the handling of sub-grades will tax existing facilities. Alcohol storage tanks must be designed to prevent water entry from rain and snow. Additional mainline monitoring will be required. The types of fuels that multi-product pipelines will be asked to handle as a result of lead phasedown is uncertain at this time. But the authors are certain that the products pipeline business is in for challenging, interesting, and perhaps, even revolutionary times.

  1. Method and system for pipeline communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson,; John, G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-01-29

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  2. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... practices in natural gas distribution pipeline construction management and quality control. This workshop... St. Louis at the Ballpark, 1 South Broadway, St. Louis, MO 63102. Hotel reservations under the ``U.S...-845-7354. A daily base rate of $110.00 is available. The meeting room will be posted at the hotel on...

  3. 78 FR 41496 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the...

  4. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  5. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Ting, Yen-Peng; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed.

  6. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Ting, Yen-Peng [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan [Sourashtra Coll., Madurai (India). Dept. of Biotechnology; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Biocorrosion Group; Rahman, Pattanathu K.S.M. [Teesside Univ., Tees Valley (United Kingdom). Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering Group

    2010-01-15

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Experimental Study on Vortex-Induced Vibrations of Submarine Pipeline near Seabed Boundary in Ocean Currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Unlike most previous studies on vortex-induced vibrations of a cylinder far from a boundary, this paper focuses on the influences of close proximity of a submarine pipeline to a rigid seabed boundary upon the dynamic responses of the pipeline in ocean currents. The effects of gap-to-diameter ratio and those of the stability parameter on the amplitude and frequency responses of a pipeline are investigated experimentally with a novel hydro-elastic facility. A comparison is made between the present experimental results of the amplitude and frequency responses for the pipes with seabed boundary effects and those for wall-free cylinders given by Govardhan and Williamson (2000) and Anand (1985). The comparison shows that the close proximity of a pipeline to seabed has much influence on the vortex-induced vibrations of the pipeline. Both the width of the lock-in ranges in terms of Vr and the dimensionless amplitude ratio Amax/D become larger with the decrease of the gap-to-diameter ratio e/D. Moreover, the vibration of the pipeline becomes easier to occur and its amplitude response becomes more intensive with the decrease of the stability parameter, while the pipeline frequency responses are affected slightly by the stability parameter.

  8. Rehabilitation of underwater pipeline with liner; Reabilitacao de aqueduto submarino com liner: multiplas vantagens e aplicacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Jose N. de; Urtiga, Rogerio L.; Witt, R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The system of water injection in XAREU oil production field has an water pipeline sizing 4'' of diameter, between the offshore platform PXA-1 and another PXA-2, that it transfers 165 m{sup 3}/d of salt water for pressurization of the reservoir through the injection well Xareu-23. This water pipeline always presented high degree of corrosion needing frequently installation of cramps to eliminate leakages. After evaluating the costs we conclude that the more attractive it would be the installation of a liner than the launching of a new water pipeline. For the installation of a new water pipeline we would need the approval of IBAMA and of a great number of resources for the substitution of that pipeline. In spite of treating of an unpublished service between two offshore platforms we chose for the installation of a liner, because we had a great technological domain in this service in onshore oil production facilities with many pipelines recovered with this technique. We had to revise all of the procedures so that there was not any surprise to make unfeasible this service. The installation of the system liner, consisted of an internal coating 'in situ' through the insert of plastic tubes(high density polyethylene-HDPE), that it forms a barrier between the pipeline and the transported fluid. (author)

  9. Detecting abnormalities in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smati, A. (Institut National des Hydrocarbures et de la Chimie, Bournerdes (Azerbaijan))

    1994-12-01

    The results of the measurement of the principal operating parameters can contain precious information on the condition of gas pipelines. This article explains how statistical tests may be useful in detecting anomalies that can occur on lines and in compressor stations. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Water Emptying Pipeline Using Different Air Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E. Coronado-Hernández

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The emptying procedure is a common operation that engineers have to face in pipelines. This generates subatmospheric pressure caused by the expansion of air pockets, which can produce the collapse of the system depending on the conditions of the installation. To avoid this problem, engineers have to install air valves in pipelines. However, if air valves are not adequately designed, then the risk in pipelines continues. In this research, a mathematical model is developed to simulate an emptying process in pipelines that can be used for planning this type of operation. The one-dimensional proposed model analyzes the water phase propagation by a new rigid model and the air pockets effect using thermodynamic formulations. The proposed model is validated through measurements of the air pocket absolute pressure, the water velocity and the length of the emptying columns in an experimental facility. Results show that the proposed model can accurately predict the hydraulic characteristic variables.

  11. Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Buksa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The pipeline production is one of major processes in shipbuilding industry. Quality improvement and risk assessment in this process can yield significant savings, both in terms of internal quality costs as well as in terms of customer satisfactions.Design/methodology/approach: Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement has been carried out by application of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis method. For the successful implementation of FMEA method it is necessary to identify process failure modes or possibility of the appearance of non-compliance, as well as their possible causes. For qualitative analysis of key input variables of the process, in the paper is used Ishikawa diagram and p-chart.Findings: It is shown that proposed approach to risk assessment in shipbuilding pipeline production is applicable to real casa scenario. The analysis has identified the points in the process with the highest probability of occurrence of nonconformities, or the highest risk for error.Research limitations/implications: As the experimenting has been conducted in shipyard, within production process, research schedule must have been set in accordance with production pace. Also, due to character of production process the data collecting was adopted to the production plan in that particular moment.Practical implications: Dealing with causes of potential nonconformities in the process can significantly contribute to the reliability and robustness of the process. Corrective actions that have been taken based on results of analysis significantly contributed to the level of quality in the pipeline production process.Originality/value: The pepper is dealing with a well known method applied in different production environment that are mostly conservative in production approach. It was shown that successful application of proposed approach can yield benefits especially in improved quality of produced pipelines within shipbuilding industry.

  12. Optical Fiber Pipeline Security Forewarning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Qishan; Ren Ruijun; Ren Peikui

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of China's economy,such incidents occurring to oil & gas pipelines as industrial and agricultural production,natural disasters,oil stealing,etc.have been prevailing and brought negative influences to the normal operation of pipelines.On account of all such destructive activities,firstly the soil around the pipeline should be vibrated,and then the cable laid in the pipe trench could respond to the vibration.Using this technology,the Department of Science & Technology of CNPC has embarked on the research of relevant equipment to monitor pipeline activities along the pipeline since 2001.

  13. Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

  14. Upstream pipelines : inspection, corrosion and integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, J.; Stephenson, M. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    Accurate inspection techniques are needed to ensure the integrity of pipelines. This working group discussed methods of reducing pipeline failures for a variety of pipes. A summary of recent pipeline performance statistics was presented, as well as details of third party damage and fiberglass pipe failures. A batch inhibitor joint industry project was described. The session demonstrated that integrity program need to be developed at the field-level as well as at the upper management level. Fiberglass pipeline failures are significant problem for pipeline operators. Corrosion monitoring, pigging and specific budgets are needed in order to ensure the successful management of pipeline integrity. New software developed to predict pipeline corrosion rates was discussed, and methods of determining mole fractions and flow regimes were presented. The sessions included updates from regulators and standards agencies as well as discussions of best practices, regulations, codes and standards related to pipeline integrity. The working group was divided into 4 sessions: (1) updates since 2007 with input from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and the Upstream Pipeline Integrity Management Association (UPIMA); (2) integrity of non-metallic pipelines; (3) upstream pipeline integrity issues; and (4) hot topics. tabs., figs.

  15. The MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrometer calibration pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Labiano, A; Bailey, J I; Beard, S; Dicken, D; García-Marín, M; Geers, V; Glasse, A; Glauser, A; Gordon, K; Justtanont, K; Klaassen, P; Lahuis, F; Law, D; Morrison, J; Müller, M; Rieke, G; Vandenbussche, B; Wright, G

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) is the only mid-IR Integral Field Spectrometer on board James Webb Space Telescope. The complexity of the MRS requires a very specialized pipeline, with some specific steps not present in other pipelines of JWST instruments, such as fringe corrections and wavelength offsets, with different algorithms for point source or extended source data. The MRS pipeline has also two different variants: the baseline pipeline, optimized for most foreseen science cases, and the optimal pipeline, where extra steps will be needed for specific science cases. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the MRS Calibration Pipeline from uncalibrated slope images to final scientific products, with brief descriptions of its algorithms, input and output data, and the accessory data and calibration data products necessary to run the pipeline.

  16. 77 FR 37032 - Questar Pipeline Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... and operation of facilities by Questar Pipeline Company (Questar) in Duchesne County, Utah. The... convenience and necessity. This notice announces the opening of the scoping process the Commission will use to... about the acquisition of an easement to construct, operate, and maintain the planned facilities....

  17. 77 FR 70429 - Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... operation of facilities by Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP (Gulf South) in Jasper, Forrest, Perry, Greene... its decision-making process to determine whether the project is in the public convenience and... an easement to construct, operate, and maintain the planned facilities. The company would seek...

  18. Russia: the pipeline diplomacy; Russie: la diplomatie du pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdillon, Y

    2005-01-15

    First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

  19. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  20. The life of hydrotransport pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchaninov, S.P.

    1973-01-01

    This book summarizes information on the hydroabrasive wear of pressurized pipes transporting bulk solid materials, such as coal. An analysis is presented of the operation of pipelines, and measures are recommended for their effective use. Methods of laboratory and production studies of hydroabrasive wear of pipes are described. The regularities of hydroabrasive wear of pipes are systematized as functions of the hydraulic characteristics of transportation and other operational factors. Methods are studied for increasing the durability of pipelines, and recommendations are given for determination of their throughput capacity through their entire service life. The book is designed for engineering and technical workers, planning-design and scientific research organizations, and may also be useful to university students. (87 refs.)

  1. 78 FR 933 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...-000 and Docket No. PF12-12-000] Cameron LNG, LLC; Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Applications Take notice that on December 7, 2012, Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron LNG), 101 Ash Street, San Diego... operate new liquefaction and export facilities in Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana (Liquefaction...

  2. 78 FR 62012 - Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    ... meter and regulating (M&R) facility to be built in the Borough of Brooklyn, Kings County, New York... than 0.1 mile of the pipeline would be built on land owned by the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel... Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11234. After the comments are reviewed, any significant new issues will be...

  3. STATUS AND PROSPECT OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the exploration and development of natural gas and the increase of crude oil import, the industry of China's Oil and Gas Pipelines has witnessed rapid development. Especially the gas pipeline industry is entering a peak period of development. Thanks to the completion and operation of large-scale pipeline projects including West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline project,Shanxi-Beijing Gas Pipeline Ⅱ, Ji-Ning Pipeline,Huaiyang-Wuhan Pipeline, Guangdong LNG Pipeline,Western Pipeline and Pearl River Delta Oil Product Pipeline, many trans-regional gas and oil pipeline networks with initial scale have been gradually established and improved in China. Meanwhile, the metallurgy,manufacturing and construction level of pipelines has been greatly developed, achieving world top level. The next five years is still a peak period of development for China's gas and oil pipeline industry which will enjoy a broader prospect.

  4. The MUSE Data Reduction Pipeline: Status after Preliminary Acceptance Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Weilbacher, Peter M; Urrutia, Tanya; Pécontal-Rousset, Arlette; Jarno, Aurélien; Bacon, Roland

    2015-01-01

    MUSE, a giant integral field spectrograph, is about to become the newest facility instrument at the VLT. It will see first light in February 2014. Here, we summarize the properties of the instrument as built and outline functionality of the data reduction system, that transforms the raw data that gets recorded separately in 24 IFUs by 4k CCDs, into a fully calibrated, scientifically usable data cube. We then describe recent work regarding geometrical calibration of the instrument and testing of the processing pipeline, before concluding with results of the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe and an outlook to the on-sky commissioning.

  5. FPGA Implementation of Wave Pipelining CORDIC Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Wei

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of the coordinate rotational digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm with wave pipelining technique on field programmable gate array (FPGA) is described. All data in FPGA-based wave pipelining pass through a number of logic gates, in the same way that all data pass through the same number of registers in a conventional pipeline. Moreover, all paths are routed using identical routing resources. The manual placement, timing driven routing and timing analyzing techniques are applied to optimize the layout for achieving good path balance. Experimental results show that a 256-LUT logic depth circuit mapped on XC4VLX15-12 runs as high as 330MHz, which is a little lower than the speed of 336MHz based on the conventional 16-stage pipelining in the same chip. The latency of the wave pipelining circuit is 30.3ns, which is 36.4% shorter than the latency of 16-stage conventional pipelining circuit.

  6. Optimization of the steady operation of Shaanxi to Beijing gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changchun Wu [China University of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Peng Zhang [Beijing Huayou Gas Company (China); Hongsheng Cui [PetroChina, Beijing (China)

    2005-07-01

    Shaanxi to Beijing gas pipeline is the first one with intermediate compressor stations in China. With one reciprocating compressor station and three centrifugal compressor stations, the pipeline has an annual capacity of about 36..10{sup 8}m{sup 3}. Increasing gas demand in Beijing and commissioning of the three underground gas storage facilities connected to the pipeline make it to operate near to the capacity for most time of a year, which can be approximately considered as steady state. With the goal to minimize the energy cost of the pipeline, a dynamic programming model was established for its optimal steady operation, in which outlet pressures of each compressor station were defined as state variables and compression ratios as decision variables. The optimal solutions of the model showed that the energy cost could be reduced to different extent by means of optimal operation for the different flow-rates of the pipeline, and that the savings of the energy cost from optimal operation may be over 20% compared to the operation schemes specified by traditional experience in some cases. Furthermore, the guidelines for the optimal operation of gas pipelines were revealed from the analysis of the optimal solutions of the model. (author)

  7. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  8. Solvepol: A Reduction Pipeline for Imaging Polarimetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Edgar A.; Magalhães, Antônio M.; Davidson, James W., Jr.; Pereyra, Antonio; Rubinho, Marcelo

    2017-05-01

    We present a newly, fully automated, data pipeline, Solvepol, designed to reduce and analyze polarimetric data. It has been optimized for imaging data from the Instituto de Astronomía, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas (IAG) of the University of São Paulo (USP), calcite Savart prism plate-based IAGPOL polarimeter. Solvepol is also the basis of a reduction pipeline for the wide-field optical polarimeter that will execute SOUTH POL, a survey of the polarized southern sky. Solvepol was written using the Interactive data language (IDL) and is based on the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) task PCCDPACK, developed by our polarimetry group. We present and discuss reduced data from standard stars and other fields and compare these results with those obtained in the IRAF environment. Our analysis shows that Solvepol, in addition to being a fully automated pipeline, produces results consistent with those reduced by PCCDPACK and reported in the literature.

  9. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  10. Transmission pipeline calculations and simulations manual

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, E Shashi

    2014-01-01

    Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual is a valuable time- and money-saving tool to quickly pinpoint the essential formulae, equations, and calculations needed for transmission pipeline routing and construction decisions. The manual's three-part treatment starts with gas and petroleum data tables, followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide practical experience for problem solving. Topics in this book include pressure and temperature profile of natural gas pipelines, how to size pipelines for specified f

  11. A quick guide to pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Alkazraji, D

    2008-01-01

    Pipeline engineering requires an understanding of a wide range of topics. Operators must take into account numerous pipeline codes and standards, calculation approaches, and reference materials in order to make accurate and informed decisions.A Quick Guide to Pipeline Engineering provides concise, easy-to-use, and accessible information on onshore and offshore pipeline engineering. Topics covered include: design; construction; testing; operation and maintenance; and decommissioning.Basic principles are discussed and clear guidance on regulations is provided, in a way that will

  12. 77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. This notice provides updates to the information... and liquefied natural gas (LNG) operators. New operators use the national registry to obtain...

  13. Addendum to the Environmental Assessment for the Armed Forces Reserve Center and Operational Maintenance Facility for the 63rd Regional Support Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-29

    proposed action. Selection of this alternative would require the relocation of two domestic water pipelines and pipeline easements crossing the ten...areas for retention ponds, while, at the same time, avoiding the existing water pipelines crossing the property. The Reserve center is sized to train...potable water pipelines south of the proposed site. This would allow for construction of the proposed facility without the need to install a water

  14. The CARMA Data Reduction Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, D. N.

    2013-10-01

    The Combined Array for Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) data reduction pipeline (CADRE) has been developed to give investigators a first look at a fully reduced set of their data. It runs automatically on all data produced by the telescope as they arrive in the data archive. CADRE is written in Python and uses Python wrappers for MIRIAD subroutines for direct access to the data. It applies passband, gain and flux calibration to the data sets and produces a set of continuum and spectral line maps in both MIRIAD and FITS format. CADRE has been in production for a year and this poster will discuss the current capabilities and planned improvements.

  15. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  16. 77 FR 51848 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...) Current expiration date; (4) Type of request; (5) Abstract of the information collection activity; (6... activity. PHMSA requests comments on the following information collections: Title: Pipeline Safety:...

  17. 75 FR 30099 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, PHMSA announces that the currently approved...

  18. Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, North America, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline geospatial data layer contains gathering, interstate, and intrastate natural gas pipelines, crude and product oil pipelines, and...

  19. 18 CFR 284.227 - Certain transportation by intrastate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Interstate Pipelines on Behalf of Others and Services by Local Distribution Companies § 284.227 Certain... interstate pipeline or local distribution company served by an interstate pipeline. (e) Pregrant...

  20. 49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of that facility. (a) The preferred method to... System (NPMS) in accordance with the NPMS “Standards for Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operator... the NPMS-required attributes, operators must submit the date of abandonment, diameter, method...

  1. Review of Oil and Gas Pipeline Construction in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's pipeline industry has developed for 50 years till 2008. In the past 10 years, more than 50,000 kilometers of long-distance oil and gas pipelines have been constructed,of which gas pipelines reached about 30,000 kilometers,crude oil pipelines about 17,000 kilometers, and product oil pipelines about 7,000 kilometers. Oil and gas pipeline networks across regions have taken shape.

  2. NCBI prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatusova, Tatiana; DiCuccio, Michael; Badretdin, Azat; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Nawrocki, Eric P; Zaslavsky, Leonid; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pruitt, Kim D; Borodovsky, Mark; Ostell, James

    2016-08-19

    Recent technological advances have opened unprecedented opportunities for large-scale sequencing and analysis of populations of pathogenic species in disease outbreaks, as well as for large-scale diversity studies aimed at expanding our knowledge across the whole domain of prokaryotes. To meet the challenge of timely interpretation of structure, function and meaning of this vast genetic information, a comprehensive approach to automatic genome annotation is critically needed. In collaboration with Georgia Tech, NCBI has developed a new approach to genome annotation that combines alignment based methods with methods of predicting protein-coding and RNA genes and other functional elements directly from sequence. A new gene finding tool, GeneMarkS+, uses the combined evidence of protein and RNA placement by homology as an initial map of annotation to generate and modify ab initio gene predictions across the whole genome. Thus, the new NCBI's Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP) relies more on sequence similarity when confident comparative data are available, while it relies more on statistical predictions in the absence of external evidence. The pipeline provides a framework for generation and analysis of annotation on the full breadth of prokaryotic taxonomy. For additional information on PGAP see https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/annotation_prok/ and the NCBI Handbook, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK174280/.

  3. Pipelined Viterbi Decoder Using FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayel Al-Zubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Convolutional encoding is used in almost all digital communication systems to get better gain in BER (Bit Error Rate, and all applications needs high throughput rate. The Viterbi algorithm is the solution in decoding process. The nonlinear and feedback nature of the Viterbi decoder makes its high speed implementation harder. One of promising approaches to get high throughput in the Viterbi decoder is to introduce a pipelining. This work applies a carry-save technique, which gets the advantage that the critical path in the ACS feedback becomes in one direction and get rid of carry ripple in the “Add” part of ACS unit. In this simulation and implementation show how this technique will improve the throughput of the Viterbi decoder. The design complexities for the bit-pipelined architecture are evaluated and demonstrated using Verilog HDL simulation. And a general algorithm in software that simulates a Viterbi Decoder was developed. Our research is concerned with implementation of the Viterbi Decoders for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA. Generally FPGA's are slower than custom integrated circuits but can be configured in the lab in few hours as compared to fabrication which takes few months. The design implemented using Verilog HDL and synthesized for Xilinx FPGA's.

  4. Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mica, Isabella [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy)]. E-mail: isabella.mica@st.com; Polignano, Maria Luisa [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Marco, Cinzia De [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2004-12-15

    Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes.

  5. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_points_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the points of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  6. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_vectors_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the lines of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  7. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  8. Testing the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Emily G.

    2017-01-01

    The School-to-Prison Pipeline is a social phenomenon where students become formally involved with the criminal justice system as a result of school policies that use law enforcement, rather than discipline, to address behavioral problems. A potentially important part of the School-to-Prison Pipeline is the use of sworn School Resource Officers…

  9. China Pins Hopes on Pipeline with Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China still has faith in the gigantic Sino-Russia oil pipeline, despite reports which said that Russia is inclined to build a competing pipeline in favor of Japan. CNPC, the company representing China to negotiate with Russia on the project, is reported to continue its preparation work to receive Russian crude.

  10. Maurer computers for pipelined instruction processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We model micro-architectures with non-pipelined instruction processing and pipelined instruction processing using Maurer machines, basic thread algebra and program algebra. We show that stored programs are executed as intended with these micro-architectures. We believe that this work provides a new

  11. Pipeline Protection Has Its Own Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines (hereinafter called "the Law") will be implemented officially on October 1 this year.This is the first time that oil and natural gas pipelines were protected and managed on legal basis.

  12. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  13. optimization for trenchless reconstruction of pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhmakov Gennadiy Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the technologies of trenchless reconstruction of pipelines are becoming and more widely used in Russia and abroad. One of the most perspective is methods is shock-free destruction of the old pipeline being replaced with the help of hydraulic installations with working mechanism representing a cutting unit with knife disks and a conic expander. A construction of a working mechanism, which allows making trenchless reconstruction of pipelines of different diameters, is optimized and patented and its developmental prototype is manufactured. The dependence of pipeline cutting force from knifes obtusion of the working mechanisms. The cutting force of old steel pipelines with obtuse knife increases proportional to the value of its obtusion. Two stands for endurance tests of the knifes in laboratory environment are offered and patented.

  14. Cartier Pipeline : tying it all together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brochu, S. [Enbridge Consumers Gas, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gaz Metropolitain, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The Cartier Pipeline is a proposed stand-alone pipeline involving equal partnership between Alberta's Enbridge Consumers Gas and Quebec's Gaz Metropolitain to bring offshore Atlantic gas to markets in eastern Canada and the New England states. The inservice date for the proposed pipeline is November 2004. The $270 million dollar project will require 262 km of pipeline in Quebec with an annual transportation capacity of 67 Bcf initially with a cost effective expandability to 125 Bcf. Contracted commitments so far include 30 Bcf/year from Gaz Metropolitain and the same from Enbridge. Cartier offers attractive, base load, long term, complementary market diversification for Atlantic production. It also provides producers with a competitive channel to Ontario storage. In addition, the pipeline will contribute to lower tolls in Canada and the overall path to Dracut (Boston). Several graphs depicting expected costs of delivered gas supplies to Montreal were also included with this power point presentation. tabs., figs.

  15. Technical progress in pipeline design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausken, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper considers the technical progress in offshore pipeline construction with limitation to some general subjects covering pipeline design, installation and start-up. In future the use of limit state pipeline design philosophy, may be implemented as an alternative to the stress based design commonly used to day giving a potential for further optimisation of the pipeline design and consequently reduction of the initial investment. Comprehensive research and development efforts in Norway in the second half of the 1970`s, made it technically feasible to cross the deep water Norwegian Trench in the 1980`s. In addition, the development of several offshore pipeline systems until to day including gas distribution systems to the European continent, have brought Norway to the forefront of technical expertise

  16. Pipeline modeling and assessment in unstable slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Carlos Nieves [Oleoducto Central S.A., Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia); Ordonez, Mauricio Pereira [SOLSIN S.A.S, Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia)

    2010-07-01

    The OCENSA pipeline system is vulnerable to geotechnical problems such as faults, landslides or creeping slopes, which are well-known in the Andes Mountains and tropical countries like Colombia. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pipe behaviour during the soil displacements of slow landslides. Three different cases of analysis are examined, according to site characteristics. The process starts with a simplified analytical model and develops into 3D finite element numerical simulations applied to the on-site geometry of soil and pipe. Case 1 should be used when the unstable site is subject to landslides impacting significant lengths of pipeline, pipeline is straight, and landslide is simple from the geotechnical perspective. Case 2 should be used when pipeline is straight and landslide is complex (creeping slopes and non-conventional stabilization solutions). Case 3 should be used if the pipeline presents vertical or horizontal bends.

  17. 76 FR 62818 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Critical Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... from TSA's Corporate Security Review (CSR) in that a CSR looks at corporate or company-wide security management plans and practices while the CFSR will look at individual pipeline facility security measures and... target for risk reduction strategies, pipeline industry implementation of the voluntary guidelines, and...

  18. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  19. Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

    2003-07-01

    The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

  20. 77 FR 17119 - Pipeline Safety: Cast Iron Pipe (Supplementary Advisory Bulletin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Cast Iron Pipe (Supplementary... operators of natural gas cast iron distribution pipelines and state pipeline safety representatives. Recent deadly explosions in Philadelphia and Allentown, Pennsylvania involving cast iron pipelines installed...

  1. Modelling of slug dissipation and generation in a hilly-terrain pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.-Q.; El-Safran, E.M.; Jayawardena, S.S.; Redus, C.L.; Brill, J.P. [University of Tulsa (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Hilly-terrain pipelines consist of interconnected horizontal, uphill and downhill sections. Slug flow experiences a transition from one state to another as the pipe inclination angle changes. Normally, slugs dissipate if the upward inclination becomes smaller or the downward inclination becomes larger, and slug generation occurs vice versa. Appropriate prediction of the slug characteristics is crucial for the design of pipeline and downstream facilities. In this study, slug dissipation and generation in a valley pipeline configuration (horizontal-downhill-uphill-horizontal) were modeled by use of the method proposed by Zhang et al. The method was developed from the unsteady continuity and momentum equations for slug flow by considering the entire film zone as the control volume. Computed results are compared with experimental measurements at different gas-liquid flow rate combinations. Good agreement is observed for the change of slug body length to slug unit length ratio. (author)

  2. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  3. An Initial Evaluation Of Characterization And Closure Options For Underground Pipelines Within A Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badden, Janet W. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Connelly, Michael P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Seeley, Paul N. [Cenibark International, Inc., Kennewick (United States); Hendrickson, Michelle L. [Washington State Univ., Richland (United States). Dept. of Ecology

    2013-01-10

    The Hanford Site includes 149 single-shell tanks, organized in 12 'tank farms,' with contents managed as high-level mixed waste. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order requires that one tank farm, the Waste Management Area C, be closed by June 30, 2019. A challenge to this project is the disposition and closure of Waste Management Area C underground pipelines. Waste Management Area C contains nearly seven miles of pipelines and 200 separate pipe segments. The pipelines were taken out of service decades ago and contain unknown volumes and concentrations of tank waste residuals from past operations. To understand the scope of activities that may be required for these pipelines, an evaluation was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to identify what, if any, characterization methods and/or closure actions may be implemented at Waste Management Area C for closure of Waste Management Area C by 2019. Physical and analytical data do not exist for Waste Management Area C pipeline waste residuals. To develop estimates of residual volumes and inventories of contamination, an extensive search of available information on pipelines was conducted. The search included evaluating historical operation and occurrence records, physical attributes, schematics and drawings, and contaminant inventories associated with the process history of plutonium separations facilities and waste separations and stabilization operations. Scoping analyses of impacts to human health and the environment using three separate methodologies were then developed based on the waste residual estimates. All analyses resulted in preliminary assessments, indicating that pipeline waste residuals presented a comparably low long-term impact to groundwater with respect to soil, tank and other ancillary equipment residuals, but exceeded Washington State cleanup requirement values. In addition to performing the impact analyses, the assessment evaluated available sampling technologies and

  4. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline... § 63.11087 What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk...

  5. 40 CFR 63.11088 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline... § 63.11088 What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk...

  6. Remote monitoring of pipeline operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bost, R.C. [ERM-Southwest, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); White, D. [Glenrose Systems, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The demands for monitoring of pipeline operations have recently increased greatly due to new regulatory requirements. Most companies rely upon conventional System Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system architecture to meet their needs. Current systems are often plagued by limited data conversion and processing capacity at the workstations. A state-of-the-art Data Acquisition Node (DAN) that relieves the workstation of much of its workload is described in this paper. Use of this DAN may eliminate the need for installing completely new systems. It facilitates marrying foreign devices to existing operation monitoring systems to satisfy new regulatory requirements. The DAN allows a system to utilize commercial communications satellites or other communication networks and real-time, object oriented programming and different devices and data requirements without the necessity of custom software development.

  7. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo di Procolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs, through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%, and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%, especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%, which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%, followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%, foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%. Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%, whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location

  8. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  9. The LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Alexov, A; Mol, J D; Stappers, B; van Leeuwen, J

    2010-01-01

    Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group (PWG) has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipelines to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipelines are being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computational capabilities (50Tflops) to process data streams of up to 23TB/hour. The LOFAR pipeline output will be using the Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) to efficiently store large amounts of numerical data, and to manage complex data encompassing a variety of data types, across distributed storage and processing architectures. We present the LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline overview, the pulsar beam-formed data format, the status of the pipeline processing as well as our future plans for developing the LOFAR Pulsar Search Pipeline. These LOFAR pipelines and software tools are being developed as the next gen...

  10. OPUS: the FUSE science data pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, James F.; Heller-Boyer, C.; Rose, M. A.; Swam, M.; Miller, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Oegerle, William R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes how the OPUS pipeline, currently used for processing science data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was used as the backbone for developing the science data pipeline for a much smaller mission. The far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer (FUSE) project selected OPUS for its data processing pipeline platform and selected the OPUS team at the STScI to write the FUSE pipeline applications. A total of 105 new modules were developed for the FUSE pipeline. The foundation of over 250 modules in the OPUS libraries allowed development to proceed quickly and with considerable confidence that the underlying functionality is reliable and robust. Each task represented roughly 90 percent reuse, and the project as a whole shows over 70 percent reuse of the existing OPUS system. Taking an existing system that is operational, and will be maintained for many years to come, was a key decision for the FUSE mission. Adding the extensive experience of the OPUS team to the task resulted in the development of a complete telemetry pipeline system within a matter of months. Reusable software has been the siren song of software engineering and object- oriented design for a decade or more. The development of inexpensive software systems by adapting existing code to new applications is as attractive as it has been elusive. The OPUS telemetry pipeline for the FUSE mission has proven to be a significant exception to that trend.

  11. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model.

  12. The impact of changing pipeline BS and W specifications : a survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, G.; Ranganathan, R.; Scoular, R.J.; Soveran, D. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The current situation in Canada and in the US regarding BS and W was presented. In Canada BS and W specifications are 0.5 per cent and are the same for light and heavy oils, while in the US, BS and W specifications range from 0.5 to 3 per cent. Some pipelines allow more relaxed specifications for heavy oil. A telephone survey was conducted in which 12 producers, 25 pipeline representatives and 18 upgrader facilities from 45 different sites in Canada and the US were contacted. Contacts were questioned on which components in crude oil most affected their operations and their reaction to changing pipeline BS and W specifications. The most troublesome component, according to the majority of contacts, were solids. Downstream users cannot accept any increase in solids within the crude. Many pipeline companies would like to see solids regulated separately from water. There are several advantages and disadvantages for producers, pipeliners, and refiners in relaxing water limits. Among the advantages, flash evaporation proved to provide the strongest case for relaxing water limits. 1 fig.

  13. Basic Block of Pipelined ADC Design Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kledrowetz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes design requirements of a basic stage (called MDAC - Multiplying Digital-to- Analog Converter of a pipelined ADC. There exist error sources such as finite DC gain of opamp, capacitor mismatch, thermal noise, etc., arising when the switched capacitor (SC technique and CMOS technology are used. These non-idealities are explained and their influences on overall parameters of a pipelined ADC are studied. The pipelined ADC including non-idealities was modeled in MATLAB - Simulink simulation environment.

  14. Suriname installing first crude-oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, E.W. (E.W. McAllister Engineering Services, Houston, TX (US))

    1992-04-27

    This paper reports that the first cross country crude-oil pipeline in the south American country of Suriname is currently under construction. The State Oil Co. of Suriname (Staatsolie) is building the 34.4-mile, 14-in. pipeline to deliver crude oil from the Catharina Sophia field (Tambaredjo) to the Tout Lui Faut terminal near the capital, Paramaribo. Crude oil from the Jossi Kreek field will be injected at mile point (MP) 3.4. Oil from these two fields is now being moved to tout Lui Faut by Staatsolie-owned motorized ocean barges. Increased production to meet requirements of a planned refinery near Tout Lui Faut prompted the pipeline.

  15. A Survey of Visual Analytic Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Meng Wang; Tian-Ye Zhang; Yu-Xin Ma; Jing Xia; Wei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Visual analytics has been widely studied in the past decade. One key to make visual analytics practical for both research and industrial applications is the appropriate definition and implementation of the visual analytics pipeline which provides effective abstractions for designing and implementing visual analytics systems. In this paper we review the previous work on visual analytics pipelines and individual modules from multiple perspectives: data, visualization, model and knowledge. In each module we discuss various representations and descriptions of pipelines inside the module, and compare the commonalities and the differences among them.

  16. Management of a multi-product pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettoli, R.; Iacovoni, A. [Nuovo Pignone S.p.A., Roma (Italy). Div. Sistemi Automazione; Holden, D. [LICconsult, Stockton-on-Tees (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    The paper describes the SCADA (System Control and Data Acquisition) Tele-supervisory System for the Kandla-Bhatinda (KBPL) multi-product pipeline. The KBPL pipeline is 1,443 km in length; it is to carry petroleum products, in a batch cycle organization, from the Kandla foreshore terminal to Bhatinda. It consists of two inlet stations, four pumping stations, five delivery stations, and two terminal stations, and is equipped with a total of 85 block valves. All the stations have the capability for launching and receiving scrapers. The SCADA system consists of 10 Station Control Centers (SCC) and one Master Control Center (MCC), all located along the pipeline.

  17. Python Bindings for the Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, O.; Weilbacher, P. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Common Pipeline Library is a set of routines written by ESO to provide a standard interface for VLT instrument data reduction tasks (“pipelines”). To control these pipelines from Python, we developed a wrapper called PYTHON-CPL that allows one to conveniently work interactively and to process data as part of an automated data reduction system. The package will be used to implement the MUSE pipeline in the AstroWISE data management system. We describe the features and design of the package.

  18. 49 CFR 192.513 - Test requirements for plastic pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test requirements for plastic pipelines. 192.513 Section 192.513 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Test requirements for plastic pipelines. (a) Each segment of a plastic pipeline must be tested...

  19. 75 FR 66425 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... the Federal Pipeline Safety Laws, PHMSA is publishing this notice of a special permit request we have received from Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP, a natural gas pipeline operator, seeking relief from compliance with certain requirements in the Federal Pipeline Safety Regulations. This notice seeks public...

  20. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.10 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in...

  1. Integrating pipeline data management application and Google maps dataset on web based GIS application unsing open source technology Sharp Map and Open Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisianto, Arie; Sania, Hidayatus [PT PERTAMINA GAS, Bontang (Indonesia); Gumilar, Oki [PT PERTAMINA GAS, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    PT Pertamina Gas operates 3 pipe segments carrying natural gas from producers to PT Pupuk Kaltim in the Kalimantan area. The company wants to build a pipeline data management system consisting of pipeline facilities, inspections and risk assessments which would run on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) platforms. The aim of this paper is to present the integration of the pipeline data management system with GIS. A web based GIS application is developed using the combination of Google maps datasets with local spatial datasets. In addition, Open Layers is used to integrate pipeline data model and Google Map dataset into a single map display on Sharp Map. The GIS based pipeline data management system developed herein constitutes a low cost, powerful and efficient web based GIS solution.

  2. LPG in large pipelines; Operacao com GLP em oleodutos de grande extensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Celio Pereira dos; Agostineti, Antonio [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    OSBRA Pipeline is the largest pipeline of the Brazil. It has its beginning in the Refinery REPLAN, in Sao Paulo and it is going to Brasilia, in the Distrito Federal traveling 980 kilometers through three states and Distrito Federal. Flow rate inferior to one of the project, alterations in the specification of the quality for sale and operational deficiencies contributed to the difficulty of maintenance of the quality of LPG with relationship to the oleaginous residue. A Batch Test was idealized to trace of the possible points of contamination along the pipeline under controlled conditions. Pig separator was used in the interface among the gasoline and LPG, and adopted new procedure, for the operator of the control center, to avoid the start of the pumps that were with its internal lines filled with other product. The results showed viability of the operation with LPG in the OSBRA pipeline, even without need of alterations in the current physical facilities. Some improvements in facilities, as well as, new technologies of pig separator can improve the maintenance of the quality of LPG reducing possibilities of contamination, and also reducing the volume of the interface. (author)

  3. 75 FR 63774 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... an operator's Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for controlling the pipeline... activation timing, or methods for integration of EFRD operation with an operator's SCADA and leak...

  4. Pipelines in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (1999) [pipelines_la_usgs_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset contains vector line map information of various pipelines throughout the State of Louisiana. The vector data contain selected base categories of...

  5. Pipeline rules of thumb handbook a manual of quick, accurate solutions to everyday pipeline engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    McAllister, EW

    2014-01-01

    Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day pipeline operations. For more than 35 years, the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook has served as the ""go-to"" reference for solving even the most day-to-day vexing pipeline workflow problems. Now in its 8th edition, this handbook continues to set the standard by which all other piping books are judged. Along with over 30% new or updated material regarding codes, construction processes, and equipment, this book continues to offer hundreds of ""how-to"" methods and ha

  6. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-04-21

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  7. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sahli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less. This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters’ accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs. The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  8. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  9. Communication systems vital to Colombian pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, E. [Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia); Mailloux, R. [Bristol Babcock Inc., Watertown, CT (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Construction of the Centro Oriente Gas Pipeline represents a major step in Colombia`s goal to strengthen the emerging natural gas business. With construction beginning in 1995, the Centro Oriente is scheduled to begin operation early this year transporting 150 MMcf/d. The 779-kilometer (484-mile) pipeline ranging in diameter from 22-inch to 12-inches, provides the central transportation link between major gas suppliers in both the northern and western regions of Colombia and new markets throughout their immediate regions as well as in the central and eastern regions. TransCanada, operating company for the Centro Oriente pipeline, will develop and manage the support organizations required to operate and maintain the system. The central control system for the CPC is the Gas SCADA system, ADACS, provided by Bristol Babcock Inc. (BBI). This control system provides the data acquisition and control capabilities necessary to operate the entire pipeline safely and efficiently from Burcaramanga.

  10. Citizenship program in near communities of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Carina R.; Vilas Boas, Ianne P. [TELSAN Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bourscheid, Pitagoras [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    During the construction of a pipeline, the IENE - Engineering Unit of PETROBRAS, responsible for the construction and erection of pipelines and related plants in northeastern Brazil, crossed more than 7 states and 250 counties, had implemented a social responsibility program, in special a citizenship program. This action was the result of community studies located near of the pipelines AID - Direct Influence Area (438 yards right and left of the pipeline) and through the evidence that those locations were poor and have no personal documents and citizen position in society. This paper intents to share the experience of IENE about its citizen program that worked in three big lines: community mobilization; citizenship qualification; and citizenship board. This last one, turns possible to people obtains theirs personal documents and exercise the plenitude of citizenship. (author)

  11. Sinopec Fuels Development of Pipelines in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuemei

    2004-01-01

    @@ Crude pipeline completed in Yangtze River Delta The Ningbo-Shanghai-Nanjing crude pipeline was recently wound up for construction following completion of the subsea segment in Hangzhou Bay,the last part of the pipeline. The 711 mm-diameter crude pipeline, designed and constructed by Sinopec, adopts the advanced SCADA system for full automation control. The pipeline is designed to have an annual crude transmission capacity of 20million tons.

  12. Developing Pipeline Transportation in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chenghan; Wang Wei

    1997-01-01

    @@ Since the late 1980s, focus of exploration and development for oil & gas has been diverted to thewest of China, resulting in the discovery and development of Shaanbei gas field followed by large-scale exploration and development of Tarim,Turpan and Hami basins. Responding to this situation, pipeline construction focus has also been transferred to west China where large-scale development of pipeline transportation, an opportunity as well as a challenge, is expected.

  13. Phylogenetic characterization of a corrosive consortium isolated from a sour gas pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan-Roblero, J; Romero, J M; Amaya, M; Le Borgne, S

    2004-06-01

    Biocorrosion is a common problem in oil and gas industry facilities. Characterization of the microbial populations responsible for biocorrosion and the interactions between different microorganisms with metallic surfaces is required in order to implement efficient monitoring and control strategies. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to separate PCR products and sequence analysis revealed the bacterial composition of a consortium obtained from a sour gas pipeline in the Gulf of Mexico. Only one species of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was detected in this consortium. The rest of the population consisted of enteric bacteria with different characteristics and metabolic capabilities potentially related to biocorrosion. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. The low abundance of the detected SRB was evidenced by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). In addition, the localized corrosion of pipeline steel in the presence of the consortium was clearly observed by ESEM after removing the adhered bacteria.

  14. 78 FR 79688 - Paiute Pipeline Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Center, 700 Moren Way, Elko, Nevada 89801. This public meeting is designed to provide you with more... underground natural gas pipeline and appurtenant facilities in Elko County, Nevada, extending from the Ruby... a result of blasting to remove existing surface and bedrock during Project construction....

  15. 78 FR 29201 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed Vantage Pipeline US...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... ethane from a source near Tioga, North Dakota, United States, northwest through Saskatchewan, Canada, to... Dakota to markets in Alberta, Canada. The entire proposed Vantage Pipeline in the United States would... construction, connection, operation, or maintenance at the borders of the United States, of facilities for the...

  16. Astronomical pipeline processing using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior

    In the past few years, pipelines providing astronomical data have been becoming increasingly important. The wide use of robotic telescopes has provided significant discoveries, and sky survey projects such as SDSS and the future LSST are now considered among the premier projects in the field astronomy. The huge amount of data produced by these pipelines raises the need for automatic processing. Astronomical pipelines introduce several well-defined problems such as astronomical image compression, cosmic-ray hit rejection, transient detection, meteor triangulation and association of point sources with their corresponding known stellar objects. We developed and applied soft computing algorithms that provide new or improved solutions to these growing problems in the field of pipeline processing of astronomical data. One new approach that we use is fuzzy logic-based algorithms, which enables the automatic analysis of the astronomical pipelines and allows mining the data for not-yet-known astronomical discoveries such as optical transients and variable stars. The developed algorithms have been tested with excellent results on the NightSkyLive sky survey, which provides a pipeline of 150 astronomical pictures per hour, and covers almost the entire global night sky.

  17. Consensus between pipelines in structural brain networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Parker

    Full Text Available Structural brain networks may be reconstructed from diffusion MRI tractography data and have great potential to further our understanding of the topological organisation of brain structure in health and disease. Network reconstruction is complex and involves a series of processesing methods including anatomical parcellation, registration, fiber orientation estimation and whole-brain fiber tractography. Methodological choices at each stage can affect the anatomical accuracy and graph theoretical properties of the reconstructed networks, meaning applying different combinations in a network reconstruction pipeline may produce substantially different networks. Furthermore, the choice of which connections are considered important is unclear. In this study, we assessed the similarity between structural networks obtained using two independent state-of-the-art reconstruction pipelines. We aimed to quantify network similarity and identify the core connections emerging most robustly in both pipelines. Similarity of network connections was compared between pipelines employing different atlases by merging parcels to a common and equivalent node scale. We found a high agreement between the networks across a range of fiber density thresholds. In addition, we identified a robust core of highly connected regions coinciding with a peak in similarity across network density thresholds, and replicated these results with atlases at different node scales. The binary network properties of these core connections were similar between pipelines but showed some differences in atlases across node scales. This study demonstrates the utility of applying multiple structural network reconstrution pipelines to diffusion data in order to identify the most important connections for further study.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-22:1 Pipelines and Associated Soils, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-042

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-12

    The 100-B-22:1 pipelines and associated soils were part of the 100-B Area water treatment facilities. The 100-B-22:1 waste site is limited to those pipelines that interconnected the 185-B Filter House, the 126-B-2 Clearwells, the 185-B Deaeration Plant, and the 190-B Process Pumphouse. None of the 100-B-22:1 pipelines carried environmentally significant contamination. In accordance with the historical information and field observations of this evaluation, the results support a reclassification of this site to No Action required to meet future rural-residential uses and be protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

  20. Automated pipelines for spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Gaia mission will have a profound impact on our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way. Gaia is providing an exhaustive census of stellar parallaxes, proper motions, positions, colors and radial velocities, but also leaves some glaring holes in an otherwise complete data set. The radial velocities measured with the on-board high-resolution spectrograph will only reach some 10 % of the full sample of stars with astrometry and photometry from the mission, and detailed chemical information will be obtained for less than 1 %. Teams all over the world are organizing large-scale projects to provide complementary radial velocities and chemistry, since this can now be done very efficiently from the ground thanks to large and mid-size telescopes with a wide field-of-view and multi-object spectrographs. As a result, automated data processing is taking an ever increasing relevance, and the concept is applying to many more areas, from targeting to analysis. In this paper, I provide a quick overview of recent, ongoing, and upcoming spectroscopic surveys, and the strategies adopted in their automated analysis pipelines.

  1. PGPB's pipeline integrity management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urencio, Claudio; Sanchez, Luis; Moreno, Carlos [PGPB - Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Pemex Gas has 12,134 km of natural gas transmission pipelines, 1,835 Km for LPG and 1,216 Km for basic petrochemicals. The must part of this infrastructure was built in the 70's and reaching their 35 years of operating life. To manage the integrity of the three systems, Pemex Gas has a portfolio of technological tools. This tools allow the Company to improves the decision taking, align the budget with their strategic goals, achieve efficient asset utilization, and increase the value generation. The process of integrity management starts with the risk evaluation on assets, with the use of a software called IAP (Integrity Assessment Program). This information is integrated to the SIIA (Assets Identification System). The results of both software are used to the construction of the Risk Atlas, which identifies graphically each pipeline segment, with their related risk and factors that influence their behavior. The Risk Atlas gives us information about the consequences to the people, environment and facilities, so we can design customized plans to prevent or mitigate emergencies. Finally a detailed analysis of the resulting information and scenarios simulations help us to determine the best investment projects that will minimize the risk through all our assets. (author)

  2. The Ruptured Pipeline: Analysis of the Mining Engineering Faculty Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, M.

    2011-12-01

    The booming commodities markets of the past seven years have created an enormous demand for economic geologists, mining engineers, and extractive metallurgists. The mining sector has largely been recession proof due to demand drivers coming from developing rather than developed nations. The strong demand for new hires as well as mid-career hires has exposed the weakness of the U.S. university supply pipeline for these career fields. A survey of mining and metallurgical engineering faculty and graduate students was conducted in 2010 at the request of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. The goals of the surveys were to determine the demographics of the U.S. faculty in mining and metallurgical engineering, the expected faculty turn over by 2010 and the potential supply of graduate students as the future professorate. All Mining Engineering and Metallurgical Engineering degrees in the U.S. are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) and the specific courses required are set by the sponsoring professional society, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. There are 13 universities in the U.S. that offer a degree in Mining Engineering accredited as Mining Engineering and 1 university that grants a Mining Engineering degree accredited under general engineering program requirements. Faculty numbers are approximately 87 tenure track positions with a total undergraduate enrollment of slightly over 1,000 in the 2008-2009 academic year. There are approximately 262 graduate students in mining engineering in the U.S. including 87 Ph.D. students. Mining Engineering department heads have identified 14 positions open in 2010 and 18 positions expected to be open in the next 5 years and an additional 21 positions open by 2020. The current survey predicts a 56% turn over in mining faculty ranks over the next 10 years but a retirement of 100% of senior faculty over 10 years. 63% of graduate students say they are interested in

  3. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  4. Redefining the Data Pipeline Using GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, C.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Packham, C.

    2013-10-01

    There are two major challenges facing the next generation of data processing pipelines: 1) handling an ever increasing volume of data as array sizes continue to increase and 2) the desire to process data in near real-time to maximize observing efficiency by providing rapid feedback on data quality. Combining the power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs), relational database management systems (RDBMSs), and extensible markup language (XML) to re-imagine traditional data pipelines will allow us to meet these challenges. Modern GPUs contain hundreds of processing cores, each of which can process hundreds of threads concurrently. Technologies such as Nvidia's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform and the PyCUDA (http://mathema.tician.de/software/pycuda) module for Python allow us to write parallel algorithms and easily link GPU-optimized code into existing data pipeline frameworks. This approach has produced speed gains of over a factor of 100 compared to CPU implementations for individual algorithms and overall pipeline speed gains of a factor of 10-25 compared to traditionally built data pipelines for both imaging and spectroscopy (Warner et al., 2011). However, there are still many bottlenecks inherent in the design of traditional data pipelines. For instance, file input/output of intermediate steps is now a significant portion of the overall processing time. In addition, most traditional pipelines are not designed to be able to process data on-the-fly in real time. We present a model for a next-generation data pipeline that has the flexibility to process data in near real-time at the observatory as well as to automatically process huge archives of past data by using a simple XML configuration file. XML is ideal for describing both the dataset and the processes that will be applied to the data. Meta-data for the datasets would be stored using an RDBMS (such as mysql or PostgreSQL) which could be easily and rapidly queried and file I/O would be

  5. Facility Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.

    2005-05-01

    Microgrids are receiving a considerable interest from the power industry, partly because their business and technical structure shows promise as a means of taking full advantage of distributed generation. This report investigates three issues associated with facility microgrids: (1) Multiple-distributed generation facility microgrids' unintentional islanding protection, (2) Facility microgrids' response to bulk grid disturbances, and (3) Facility microgrids' intentional islanding.

  6. 77 FR 6857 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... and Research 5:45 p.m. Wrap-Up/Next Steps 6 p.m. Adjournment Preliminary Agenda for the Public Meeting... Pipelines 12:30 p.m. Lunch 2 p.m. Panel 3: Valve Capabilities, Limitations and Research 4 p.m. Wrap-Up/Next... Administrator for Pipeline Safety. BILLING CODE 4910-60-P...

  7. The Dangers of Pipeline Thinking: How the School-to-Prison Pipeline Metaphor Squeezes out Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Ken McGrew critically examines the "school-to-prison pipeline" metaphor and associated literature. The origins and influence of the metaphor are compared with the origins and influence of the competing "prison industrial complex" concept. Specific weaknesses in the "pipeline literature" are examined.…

  8. 77 FR 66830 - LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company; Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company; Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Extension of Comment Period for the Oregon LNG Export and Washington Expansion Projects This notice announces the extension of the public scoping process and comment period for the Oregon...

  9. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... safety study on pipeline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems (NTSB/SS-05/02). The... indications of a leak on the SCADA interface was the impetus for this study. The NTSB examined 13 hazardous... large pipeline breaks. The line balance processes incorporating SCADA or other technology are geared...

  10. Marine Environmental Protection and Transboundary Pipeline Projects: A Case Study of the Nord Stream Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lott, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Nord Stream transboundary submarine pipeline, significant for its impact on the EU energy policy, has been a heav- ily debated issue in the Baltic Sea region during the past decade. This is partly due to the concerns over the effects that the pipeline might have on the Baltic Sea as a particular

  11. 76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... staff to assist in the creation of a pipeline safety report to the nation. The subcommittee is made up...) and the creation of a subcommittee to assist PHMSA in the preparation of a pipeline safety report to the nation. PHMSA will host a series of meetings with a newly formed subcommittee to review and...

  12. 77 FR 61825 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... (NAPSR) are sponsoring this public meeting to discuss how pipeline data is currently used by stakeholders... public meeting on pipeline data will be held on Monday, October 29, 2012, from 1 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. and... meeting are to: 1. Determine how stakeholders, including PHMSA, industry, and the public use the data....

  13. SCADA System for the Modeling and Optimization of Oil Collecting Pipeline Network: A Case Study of Hassi Messaoud Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aouadj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims are data acquisition, control and online modeling of an oil collection pipeline network using a SCADA «Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition» system, allowing the optimization of this network in real time by creating more exact models of onsite facilities. Indeed, fast development of computing systems makes obsolete usage of old systems for which maintenance became more and more expensive and their performances don’t comply any more with modern company operations. SCADA system is a telemetry and control system adapted for particular requirements of an oilfield management. Thanks to its different functions, we take advantage of this system to solve production problems especially those related to oil collecting pipeline network. In fact this network is confronted to some problems, in particular pressure losses which has significant effect on the production. This problem can be taken under control by the awareness of pipeline network operation and all its process data (especially junctions in real time. This will allow online creation of representative and accurate computerized models for the oil collecting pipeline network including producing wells, collecting pipelines, manifolds and others facilities.

  14. OPUS: A CORBA Pipeline for Java, Python, and Perl Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. W., III; Sontag, C.; Rose, J. F.

    With the introduction of the OPUS CORBA mode, a limited subset of OPUS Applications Programming Interface (OAPI) functionality was cast into CORBA IDL so that both OPUS applications and the Java-based OPUS pipeline managers were able to use the same CORBA infrastructure to access information on blackboards. Exposing even more of the OAPI through CORBA interfaces benefits OPUS applications in similar ways. Those applications not developed in C++ could use CORBA to interact with OPUS facilities directly, providing that a CORBA binding exists for the programming language of choice. Other applications might benefit from running `outside' of the traditional file system-based OPUS environment like the Java managers and, in particular, on platforms not supported by OPUS. The enhancements to OPUS discussed in this paper have been exercised in both Java and Python, and the code for these examples are available on the web.

  15. A streamlined approach for pipeline integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, T.R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Marr, J.E. [Marr and Associates, A Tuboscope Company, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    While regulations call for safe and reliable operation of pipelines, business calls for economic return and reduced liability. This paper presented a system that provides rapid, comprehensive and economic improvements for pipeline integrity decision support. The first phase of a pipeline integrity management plan (IMP) involves the identification of integrity threats to the pipeline. This may involve 22 root causes as defined by the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI), grouped into 9 categories of related failure types, further grouped into time related defect types. Time dependent defects include external corrosion, internal corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Stable defects include manufacturing related or welding defects, while time independent defects include mechanical damage, incorrect operations and outside forces. In designing an IMP, high consequence areas (HCAs) must be defined along with the integrity threats that could affect the pipeline. A baseline risk assessment is then performed using data from the integrity threat models to identify risks areas, individual lines, pipe segments or joints. Integrity management decisions are made based on the outcome of initial assessments, resulting in integrity assessment tools such as in line inspection (ILI) technologies, direct assessment (DA), and hydrostatic testing. Pipeline engineers benefit from having ILI, DA and other data integrated and interacting with geographic information system (GIS) data. This paper presented the LinaView PRO{sup TM} IMP tool developed by Tuboscope that enhances dig smart excavation decision making; remediation and mitigation planning; responding to one-call emergency response; implementation of government regulations; HCA identification; integration of a wide variety of data; comprehensive dynamic segmentation; and, data validation in support of risk assessment. The objective of an IMP is the safe and reliable delivery system for oil and gas product to markets. 9

  16. Pipeline four-dimension management is the trend of pipeline integrity management in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohua, Dong; Feifan; Zhongchen, Han [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline integrity management is essential for today's operators to operate their pipelines safety and cost effectively. The latest developments of pipeline integrity management around the world are involved with change of regulation, industry standard and innovation of technology. And who know the trend of PIM in the future, which can be answered in the paper. As a result, the concept of P4DM was set up firstly in the world. The paper analyzed the pipeline HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM), the problem of management was produced, and also the Pipeline 4-dimension Management (P4DM) theory was brought forward. According to P4DM, from the hierarchy of P4DM, the management elements, fields, space and time was analyzed. The main content is P4DM integrate the space geography location and time, control and manage the pipeline system in whole process, anywhere and anytime. It includes the pipeline integrity, pipeline operation and emergency, which is integrated by IT system. It come true that the idea, solution, technology, organization, manager alternately intelligently control the process of management. What the paper talks about included the definition of pipeline 4D management, the research develop of P4DM, the theory of P4DM, the relationship between P4DM and PIM, the technology basis of P4DM, how to perform the P4DM and conclusion. The P4DM was produced, which provide the development direction of PIM in the future, and also provide the new ideas for PetroChina in the field of technology and management. (author)

  17. Dedicated nuclear facilities for electrolytic hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foh, S. E.; Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced technology, fully dedicated nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen production facility is presented. This plant will produce hydrogen and oxygen only and no electrical power will be generated for off-plant use. The conceptual design was based on hydrogen production to fill a pipeline at 1000 psi and a 3000 MW nuclear base, and the base-line facility nuclear-to-shaftpower and shaftpower-to-electricity subsystems, the water treatment subsystem, electricity-to-hydrogen subsystem, hydrogen compression, efficiency, and hydrogen production cost are discussed. The final conceptual design integrates a 3000 MWth high-temperature gas-cooled reactor operating at 980 C helium reactor-out temperature, direct dc electricity generation via acyclic generators, and high-current density, high-pressure electrolyzers based on the solid polymer electrolyte approach. All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced and pipeline hydrogen is produced at 1000 psi. Hydrogen costs were about half of the conventional nuclear electrolysis process.

  18. Validation of pig operations through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2005-07-01

    In the oil industry, pigging operations in pipelines have been largely applied for different purposes: pipe cleaning, inspection, liquid removal and product separation, among others. An efficient and safe pigging operation requires that a number of operational parameters, such as maximum and minimum pressures in the pipeline and pig velocity, to be well evaluated during the planning stage and maintained within stipulated limits while the operation is accomplished. With the objective of providing an efficient tool to assist in the control and design of pig operations through pipelines, a numerical code was developed, based on a finite difference scheme, which allows the simulation of two fluid transient flow, like liquid-liquid, gas-gas or liquid-gas products in the pipeline. Modules to automatically control process variables were included to employ different strategies to reach an efficient operation. Different test cases were investigated, to corroborate the robustness of the methodology. To validate the methodology, the results obtained with the code were compared with a real liquid displacement operation of a section of the OSPAR oil pipeline, belonging to PETROBRAS, with 30'' diameter and 60 km length, presenting good agreement. (author)

  19. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  20. JGI Plant Genomics Gene Annotation Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Shengqiang; Rokhsar, Dan; Goodstein, David; Hayes, David; Mitros, Therese

    2014-07-14

    Plant genomes vary in size and are highly complex with a high amount of repeats, genome duplication and tandem duplication. Gene encodes a wealth of information useful in studying organism and it is critical to have high quality and stable gene annotation. Thanks to advancement of sequencing technology, many plant species genomes have been sequenced and transcriptomes are also sequenced. To use these vastly large amounts of sequence data to make gene annotation or re-annotation in a timely fashion, an automatic pipeline is needed. JGI plant genomics gene annotation pipeline, called integrated gene call (IGC), is our effort toward this aim with aid of a RNA-seq transcriptome assembly pipeline. It utilizes several gene predictors based on homolog peptides and transcript ORFs. See Methods for detail. Here we present genome annotation of JGI flagship green plants produced by this pipeline plus Arabidopsis and rice except for chlamy which is done by a third party. The genome annotations of these species and others are used in our gene family build pipeline and accessible via JGI Phytozome portal whose URL and front page snapshot are shown below.

  1. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, Sviatoslav

    2016-01-01

    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  2. Leakage Risk Assessment of CO{sub 2} Transportation by Pipeline at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project, Decatur, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoldi, A.; Oldenburg, C. M.

    2013-12-17

    The Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) is designed to confirm the ability of the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a major regional saline-water-bearing formation in the Illinois Basin, to store 1 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injected over a period of three years. The CO{sub 2} will be provided by Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) from its Decatur, Illinois, ethanol plant. In order to transport CO{sub 2} from the capture facility to the injection well (also located within the ADM plant boundaries), a high-pressure pipeline of length 3,200 ft (975 m) has been constructed, running above the ground surface within the ADM plant footprint. We have qualitatively evaluated risks associated with possible pipeline failure scenarios that lead to discharge of CO{sub 2} within the real-world environment of the ADM plant in which there are often workers and visitors in the vicinity of the pipeline. There are several aspects of CO{sub 2} that make its transportation and potential leakage somewhat different from other substances, most notable is its non-flammability and propensity to change to solid (dry ice) upon strong decompression. In this study, we present numerical simulations using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods of the release and dispersion of CO{sub 2} from individual hypothetical pipeline failures (i.e., leaks). Failure frequency of the various components of a pipeline transportation system over time are taken from prior work on general pipeline safety and leakage modeling and suggest a 4.65% chance of some kind of pipeline failure over the three-years of operation. Following the Precautionary Principle (see below), we accounted for full-bore leakage scenarios, where the temporal evolution of the mass release rate from the high-pressure pipeline leak locations was simulated using a state-of-the-art Pipe model which considers the thermodynamic effects of decompression in the entire pipeline. Failures have been simulated at four representative locations along

  3. HMI global helioseismology data analysis pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Tim; Schou, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The HMI global helioseismology data analysis pipeline is based largely on the MDI medium-l program. All of the modules that ran in the SOI Science Support Center have been ported for use in the SDO Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC) and given greater functionality. Many errors and approximations which are present in the standard MDI pipeline have been corrected and improvements have been added. Scripts have been written to automate the submission of compute jobs to our local cluster; it is now possible to go from dopplergrams to mode parameters with the push of a button. JSOC dataseries have been created to hold all intermediate data products, timeseries, window functions, and mode parameters. Here we discuss the operation of the pipeline, the structure of the data it generates, and access to the same.

  4. PLASTIC LIMIT LOAD ANALYSIS OF DEFECTIVE PIPELINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenGang; LiuYinghua; XuBingye

    2003-01-01

    The integrity assessment of defective pipelines represents a practically important task of structural analysis and design in various technological areas, such as oil and gas industry, power plant engineering and chemical factories. An iterative algorithm is presented for the kinematic limit analysis of 3-D rigid-perfectly plastic bodies. A numerical path scheme for radial loading is adopted to deal with complex multi-loading systems. The numerical procedure has been applied to carry out the plastic collapse analysis of pipelines with part-through slot under internal pressure, bending moment and axial force. The effects of various shapes and sizes of part-through slots on the collapse loads of pipelines are systematically investigated and evaluated. Some typical failure modes corresponding to different configurations of slots and loading forms are studied.

  5. Key Design Properties for Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    on paper, e-mail, phone and text message, and far too costly. This paper explores the design properties for a shared information infrastructure to exchange information between all parties in the supply chain, commercial parties as well as authorities, which is called a Shipping Information Pipeline...... Infrastructures. The paper argues why the previous attempts are inadequate to address the issues in the domain of international supply chains. Instead, a different set of key design properties are proposed for the Shipping Information Pipeline. The solution has been developed in collaboration with a network...... of representatives for major stakeholders in international trade, whom evaluate it positively and are willing to invest, develop and test the prototype of the Shipping Information Pipeline....

  6. Astronomical pipeline processing using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior; Nemiroff, Robert J. Nemiroff

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental astronomical questions on the composition of the universe, the abundance of Earth-like planets, and the cause of the brightest explosions in the universe are being attacked by robotic telescopes costing billions of dollars and returning vast pipelines of data. The success of these programs depends on the accuracy of automated real time processing of images never seen by a human, and all predicated on fast and accurate automatic identifications of known astronomical objects and new astronomical transients. In this paper the needs of modern astronomical pipelines are discussed in the light of fuzzy-logic based decision-making. Several specific fuzzy-logic algorithms have been develop for the first time for astronomical purposes, and tested with excellent results on a test pipeline of data from the existing Night Sky Live sky survey.

  7. Safety installation for preventing pollution by pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgenstein, G.F.

    1972-10-25

    A safety installation for preventing pollution by pipelines, particularly those used for transporting liquid hydrocarbons, is described. It is applicable to any pipeline, but particularly to underground or submarine pipelines, whether made of steel, plastics, or any other material. The 4 essential objects of the invention are to insure reliable prevention of pollution of the environment due to leakage of a hydrocarbon through cracks in the pipe; to evacuate the leakage flow without delay to a vessel; to signal almost instantaneously the existence of a leak; and to effect remote control of operations by which the dynamic pressure in the pipe is cancelled. Each equipped section consists of a fluid-type jacket of plastic material which surrounds the pipe, which at its ends is sealed off. It is these seals which delimit the sections. (7 claims)

  8. Digitally assisted pipeline ADCs theory and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Murmann, Boris

    2007-01-01

    List of Figures. List of Tables. Acknowledgements. Preface. 1: Introduction. 1. Motivation. 2. Overview. 3. Chapter Organization. 2: Performance Trends. 1. Introduction. 2. Digital Performance Trends. 3. ADC Performance Trends. 3: Scaling Analysis. 1. Introduction. 2. Basic Device Scaling from a Digital Perspective. 3. Technology Metrics for Analog Circuits. 4. Scaling Impact on Matching-Limited Circuits. 5. Scaling Impact on Noise-Limited Circuits. 4: Improving Analog Circuit Efficiency. 1. Introduction. 2. Analog Circuit Challenges. 3. The Cost of Feedback. 4. Two-Stage Feedback Amplifier vs. Open-Loop Gain Stage. 5. Discussion. 5: Open-Loop Pipelined ADCs. 1. A Brief Review of Pipelined ADCs. 2. Conventional Stage Implementation. 3. Open-Loop Pipeline Stages. 4. Alternative Transconductor Implementations. 6: Digital Nonlinearity Correction. 1. Overview. 2. Error Model and Digital Correction. 3. Alternative Error Models. 7: Statistics-Based Parameter Estimation. 1. Introduction. 2. Modulation Approach. 3. R...

  9. Sino-Kazakh Crude Pipeline Starts Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Sino-Kazakh Crude Oil Pipeline financed by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and KazMunaiGaz, the state oil company of Kazakhstan,was launched on December 15, 2005, thanks to the commitments and endeavors of governments and constructors of both countries. The pipeline, with diameter of 813 mm, the total length of 962.2 km running from the Kazakhstan Atasu in the west to China's Alashankou in the east, with the phase I designed annual capacity up to 10 million tons. The launch of the pipeline is a milestone of the China-Kazakhstan energy cooperation, having great importance to the countries' economic growths, China's energy security strategy and the diversification of Kazakh oil exports.

  10. Generic Data Pipelining Using ORAC-DR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Alasdair; Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie; Currie, Malcolm J.; Bly, Martin J.

    A generic data reduction pipeline is, perhaps, the holy grail for data reduction software. We present work which sets us firmly on the path towards this goal. ORAC-DR is an online data reduction pipeline written by the Joint Astronomy Center (JAC) and the UK Astronomy Technology Center (ATC) and distributed as part of the Starlink Software collection (SSC). It is intended to run with a minimum of observer interaction, and is able to handle data from many different instruments, including SCUBA, CGS4, UFTI, IRCAM and Michelle, with support for IRIS2 and UIST under development. Recent work by Starlink in collaboration with the JAC has resulted in an increase in the pipeline's flexibility, opening up the possibility that it could be used for truly generic data reduction for data from any imaging, and eventually spectroscopic, detector.

  11. Pipelined Two-Operand Modular Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Czyzak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipelined two-operand modular adder (TOMA is one of basic components used in digital signal processing (DSP systems that use the residue number system (RNS. Such modular adders are used in binary/residue and residue/binary converters, residue multipliers and scalers as well as within residue processing channels. The design of pipelined TOMAs is usually obtained by inserting an appriopriate number of latch layers inside a nonpipelined TOMA structure. Hence their area is also determined by the number of latches and the delay by the number of latch layers. In this paper we propose a new pipelined TOMA that is based on a new TOMA, that has the smaller area and smaller delay than other known structures. Comparisons are made using data from the very large scale of integration (VLSI standard cell library.

  12. A New Opportunity Facing the Pipeline Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Changpu

    2001-01-01

    @@ According to the State and CNPC programs for development,the nation's oil/gas pipeline sector is faced with an unprecedented historic opportunity, about to enter its golden period of development.The three major pipelines () SeNing-Lan (from Sebei of Qinghai Province to Lanzhou by way of Xining) for natural gas, LanCheng-Yu (from Lanzhou to Chengdu extending to Chongqing) for finished oils, and Zhong-Wu (from Zhongxian County of Chongqing to Wuhan)for natural gas, either under construction or planned to be constructed, have all been listed as the national priority projects of infrastructure construction. And the double-line project of the existing Shaan-Jing (Shaanxi Province to Beijing) gas pipeline has finished the procedure for establishment.

  13. Fuel consumption impact on gas pipeline projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matt [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    An optimized gas pipeline design requires not only a qualified management of good engineering and planning, but also accurate estimates of capital investment and O and M. Compressor stations play a very important role on the success of a gas pipeline design and a careful selection of centrifugal compressors and drivers are key aspects for the success of the project. The state of the art design available nowadays for these kind of equipment provides overall high thermodynamic performance and consequently minimizes installed power requirements and energy usage with expressive savings on operating expenses along the economic life of the project. This paper will present a guideline for proper station design and selection of its turbo-compressors giving emphasis on the impact of fuel consumption on the economics of a gas pipeline project. (author)

  14. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Yoji

    2015-10-22

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  15. Engineering critical assessment of PETROBRAS Camarupim pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J.R. [Microalloying International, Houston, TX (United States); Gatlin, R.W. [Global Industries, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zumpano Junior, P.; Kaspary, T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    This paper presents details of an Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA) performed to develop girth weld flaw acceptance criteria for the PETROBRAS Camarupim Pipeline which was installed in Espirito Santo Basin, ES, offshore Brazil in May 2008 by Global Industries. The pipeline was constructed using 24-inch diameter API Grade X65 pipe with wall thicknesses of 0.875-inch (22.2 mm) and 1.00 inch (25.4 mm). Although the Camarupim pipeline will initially transport sweet gas there is the potential for mildly sour service operation in mid to late life. To assess the effect of sour service on the material toughness properties a series of slow strain rate fracture toughness tests were performed in a Project representative sour service environment. In addition the results of sour service fatigue crack growth tests were analyzed to develop a conservative sour service fatigue crack growth law for the ECA analysis. (author)

  16. Experimental studies on resistance characteristics of high concentration red mud in pipeline transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing; QU Yuan-yuan; HU Wei-wei; CHEN Jie; ZHAO Xue-yi; WU Miao

    2008-01-01

    Red mud will flow in paste form under high pressure during pipeline transport. It belongs to a two-phase flow of materials with high viscosity and a high concentration of non-sedimentation, homogeneous solid-liquids. In pipeline transport, its resistance char-acteristics will be influenced by such factors as grain size, velocity, concentration, density,grain composition and pipe diameter etc.. With the independently developed small-sized tube-type pressure resistance test facility, studied the resistance characteristics of red mud concerning the three influencing factors, paste concentration, velocity and pipe diameter,which attract the most attention in projects. The fine grain size of the red mud is d50=13.02 μm. According to the experimental results, the pressure loss in transport will in-crease along with the increase of velocity and will fall along with the increase of pipe di-ameter. A 1% difference in paste concentration will result in a 50%~100% difference in pipeline resistance loss. These experimental data is hoped to be direct guidance to the design of high concentration and viscous material pipeline transport system.

  17. 78 FR 32010 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of... fitness for service processes. At this workshop, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  18. 77 FR 63309 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and Extension of Scoping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and Extension of Scoping Period for the Planned Constitution Pipeline Project On October 24, 2012, the Federal... Constitution Pipeline Company's (Constitution) Constitution Pipeline Project. This notice also extends...

  19. Progress with the LOFAR Imaging Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, George; Pizzo, Roberto; van Diepen, Ger; van Zwieten, Joris E; van Weeren, Reinout J; Rafferty, David; van der Tol, Sebastiaan; Birzan, Laura; Shulevski, Aleksandar; Swinbank, John; Orru, Emanuela; De Gasperin, Francesco; Ker, Louise; Bonafede, Annalisa; Macario, Giulia; Ferrari, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    One of the science drivers of the new Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is large-area surveys of the low-frequency radio sky. Realizing this goal requires automated processing of the interferometric data, such that fully calibrated images are produced by the system during survey operations. The LOFAR Imaging Pipeline is the tool intended for this purpose, and is now undergoing significant commissioning work. The pipeline is now functional as an automated processing chain. Here we present several recent LOFAR images that have been produced during the still ongoing commissioning period. These early LOFAR images are representative of some of the science goals of the commissioning team members.

  20. Multinational Gas Pipeline Hopeful on Schedule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Kovykta project, which will transport natural gas from Russia's Eastern Siberia to China and Republic of Korea, might come out ahead over the Sino-Russian oil pipeline project. China and Russia are negotiating the price of the piped gas and the result of negotiations will likely be seen in three to four months, TNK-BP President and Chief Executive Officer Robert Dudley recently said,adding that he is confident that natural gas from Kovykta will start flowing through the pipeline by the end of 2008 as planned.

  1. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  2. Submarine Pipeline Routing Risk Quantitative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 于莉; 胡云昌; 王金英

    2004-01-01

    A new method for submarine pipeline routing risk quantitative analysis was provided, and the study was developed from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis.The characteristics of the potential risk of the submarine pipeline system were considered, and grey-mode identification theory was used. The study process was composed of three parts: establishing the indexes system of routing risk quantitative analysis, establishing the model of grey-mode identification for routing risk quantitative analysis, and establishing the standard of mode identification result. It is shown that this model can directly and concisely reflect the hazard degree of the routing through computing example, and prepares the routing selection for the future.

  3. 75 FR 73160 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities... information collection activity. PHMSA requests comments on the following information collection: Title... information collection under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control No. 2137-0578, titled...

  4. 76 FR 33808 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities... collection; (2) OMB control number; (3) Type of request; (4) Abstract of the information collection activity... information collection activity. PHMSA requests comments on the following information collection:...

  5. 75 FR 13807 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities... information collection activity; (5) description of affected public; (6) estimate of total annual reporting... approval for each information collection activity. PHMSA requests comments on the following...

  6. 75 FR 76077 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities... information collection activity. PHMSA requests comments on the following information collection: Title... on an information collection under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control No....

  7. 78 FR 57455 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities... control number; (3) type of request; (4) abstract of the information collection activity; (5) description... activity. PHMSA requests comments on the following information collection: SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  8. 78 FR 36016 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities... information collection activity; (5) description of affected public; (6) estimate of total annual reporting... approval for each information collection activity. PHMSA requests comments on the following...

  9. 77 FR 15453 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...; (5) Abstract of the information collection activity; (6) Description of affected public; (7) Estimate... request a three- year term of approval for the information collection activity. PHMSA requests comments...

  10. 76 FR 81013 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities... request; (5) Abstract of the information collection activity; (6) Description of affected public; (7... request a three- year term of approval for the information collection activity. PHMSA requests comments...

  11. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.248 Cover over buried pipeline. (a) Unless specifically... (457) Any other area 30 (762) 18 (457) 1 Rock excavation is any excavation that requires blasting or...

  12. Diagnosing plant pipeline system performance using radiotracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasban, H.; Ali, Elsayed H.; Arafa, H. [Engineering Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas (Egypt)

    2017-02-15

    This study presents an experimental work in a petrochemical company for scanning a buried pipeline using Tc{sup 99m} radiotracer based on the measured velocity changes, in order to determine the flow reduction along a pipeline. In this work, Tc{sup 99m} radiotracer was injected into the pipeline and monitored by sodium iodide scintillation detectors located at several positions along the pipeline. The flow velocity has been calculated between every two consecutive detectors along the pipeline. Practically, six experiments have been carried out using two different data acquisition systems, each of them being connected to four detectors. During the fifth experiment, a bypass was discovered between the scanned pipeline and another buried parallel pipeline connected after the injection point. The results indicate that the bypass had a bad effect on the volumetric flow rate in the scanned pipeline.

  13. 75 FR 38799 - ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...] ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Application June 25, 2010. Take notice that on June 15, 2010, ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC (ETC Tiger), 711 Louisiana Street, Suite 900, Houston, Texas 77002, filed...

  14. QUANTITATIVE RISK MAPPING OF URBAN GAS PIPELINE NETWORKS USING GIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Azari; M. Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas is considered an important source of energy in the world. By increasing growth of urbanization, urban gas pipelines which transmit natural gas from transmission pipelines to consumers, will become a dense network...

  15. PetroChina Sees Gas Pipeline Profit in Four Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lu

    2002-01-01

    @@ Sebei-Xining- Lanzhou pipeline put into operation PetroChina, the nation's largest gas producer,recently said that the US$280-million gas pipeline in Northwest China would generate profits within four years.

  16. 78 FR 39721 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 13, 2013, Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC (Constitution), having its principal place of...\\ Constitution further requests that the Commission grant Constitution a blanket certificate...

  17. Multi-Criteria Decision Making Models for Water Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    El Chanati, Hisham; El-Abbasy, Mohammed S.; Mosleh, Fadi; Senouci, Ahmed; Abouhamad, Mona; Gkountis, Iason; Zayed, Tarek; Al-Derham, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The deterioration of water pipelines leads to impaired water quality, increased breakage rate, and reduced hydraulic capacity. The planning of maintenance programs for water pipelines is essential to minimize health and safety concerns and ensure an adequate supply of water in a safe, cost-effective, reliable, and sustainable manner. It is essential to assess the performance of water pipelines to assist municipalities in planning inspection and rehabilitation programs for their pipelines. Sev...

  18. Innovative Electromagnetic Sensors for Pipeline Crawlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bruce Nestleroth

    2006-05-04

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they encounter. Recent development efforts include a new generation of powered inspection platforms that crawl slowly inside a pipeline and are able to maneuver past the physical barriers that can limit inspection. At Battelle, innovative electromagnetic sensors are being designed and tested for these new pipeline crawlers. The various sensor types can be used to assess a wide range of pipeline anomalies including corrosion, mechanical damage, and cracks. Battelle is in the final year on a projected three-year development effort. In the first year, two innovative electromagnetic inspection technologies were designed and tested. Both were based on moving high-strength permanent magnets to generate inspection energy. One system involved translating permanent magnets towards the pipe. A pulse of electric current would be induced in the pipe to oppose the magnetization according to Lenz's Law. The decay of this pulse would indicate the presence of defects in the pipe wall. This inspection method is similar to pulsed eddy current inspection methods, with the fundamental difference being the manner in which the current is generated. Details of this development effort were reported in the first semiannual report on this project. The second inspection methodology is based on rotating permanent magnets. The rotating exciter unit produces strong eddy currents in the pipe wall. At distances of a pipe diameter or more from the rotating exciter, the currents flow circumferentially. These circumferential currents are deflected by pipeline defects such as corrosion and axially aligned cracks. Simple sensors are used to detect the change in current densities in the pipe wall. The second

  19. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2009,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 75×103 km.The pipelines include 38×103 km of gas pipelines,20×103km of crude oil pipelines and 17×103 km of oil product pipelines,framing a trans-regional pipeline network for the oil and gas delivery.

  20. 77 FR 46155 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0094] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline...) Current expiration date; (4) Type of request; (5) Abstract of the information collection activity; (6... activity. PHMSA requests comments on the following information collections: 1. Title: Pipeline...

  1. Optical fiber sensing technology in the pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, A.M.B.; Llerena, R.W.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: abraga@mec.puc-rio.br; roberan@mec.puc-rio.br; Valente, L.C.G.; Regazzi, R.D. [Gavea Sensors, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guedes@gaveasensors.com; regazzi@gaveasensors.com

    2003-07-01

    This paper is concerned with applications of optical fiber sensors to pipeline monitoring. The basic principles of optical fiber sensors are briefly reviewed, with particular attention to fiber Bragg grating technology. Different potential applications in the pipeline industry are discussed, and an example of a pipeline strain monitoring system based on optical fiber Bragg grating sensors is presented. (author)

  2. 77 FR 34458 - Pipeline Safety: Requests for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ..., Alaska. The pipeline is intended to transport natural gas from the oil and gas producers on the Alaskan... received from Norgasco, Inc., and BreitBurn Energy Company LP, two natural gas pipeline operators, seeking... permits from two natural gas pipeline operators, Norgasco, Inc., (``NI''), and BreitBurn Energy Company...

  3. 49 CFR 192.627 - Tapping pipelines under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tapping pipelines under pressure. 192.627 Section 192.627 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... under pressure. Each tap made on a pipeline under pressure must be performed by a crew qualified to make...

  4. Flexibility, savings chief returns of new pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, G.E.; Williams, T. (Pipelines Authority of South Australia, Glenside (AU))

    1990-04-30

    This paper reports on the development of an optimization system for operation of a gas-pipeline network. The system employs a steady-state model to predict pipeline compressor configurations and setpoints. The system allowed greater accuracy in operations of the pipeline network even when subject to highly transient flows. This article provides a detailed description of the system.

  5. Pipeline contribution to the Middle East oil trades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoja, B.A.

    1979-02-01

    The pipelines that physically exist in the Middle East are described. There are 7 pipelines in the Middle East that end in Mediterranean terminals with a total present capacity of 235 million tons annually. Three of the pipelines are out of service, three are being utilized only partially, and one is operating at full capacity. (MCW)

  6. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.755 Protecting cast-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge that the support for a segment of a buried...

  7. 76 FR 68828 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2011-0295] Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Forum. SUMMARY: PHMSA is co-sponsoring a one-day Emergency Responder Forum with the National Association of Pipeline Safety...

  8. Loading and stress analysis of gas pipeline structures; Analise de esforcos e tensoes em estruturas de gasodutos durante despressurizacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frota, Cristiane Souto [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Luis Fernando Figueira da; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Savi, Marcelo Amorim [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Pacheco, Pedro Manuel Calas Lopes [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Repairing and maintenance activities on Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline often need blow down lines. During the blow down process, the high speed of discharging gases imposes great efforts to the structures. A detailed analysis of this situation is essential for a safe operation. This paper describes two phases of a project, developed under TBG coordination. It consists in analyzing the stress and forces involved in this operation, in order to design facilities to blow down pipes and develop a safe blow down procedure for the gas pipeline. The first phase consists of a supersonic flowing simulation in the blow down gas pipeline device. The pressure behavior, mass flow and the speed at the device's ending point are calculated for different operational conditions. In the second phase, the equivalent loading caused by blow down operations is used as input in a stress analysis program to determine stress, critical sessions evaluation and material recommendations for blow down devices. (author)

  9. Modeling and monitoring of pipelines and networks advanced tools for automatic monitoring and supervision of pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lizeth

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the analysis and design of advanced techniques for on-line automatic computational monitoring of pipelines and pipe networks. It discusses how to improve the systems’ security considering mathematical models of the flow, historical flow rate and pressure data, with the main goal of reducing the number of sensors installed along a pipeline. The techniques presented in the book have been implemented in digital systems to enhance the abilities of the pipeline network’s operators in recognizing anomalies. A real leak scenario in a Mexican water pipeline is used to illustrate the benefits of these techniques in locating the position of a leak. Intended for an interdisciplinary audience, the book addresses researchers and professionals in the areas of mechanical, civil and control engineering. It covers topics on fluid mechanics, instrumentation, automatic control, signal processing, computing, construction and diagnostic technologies.

  10. Gas quality and pipeline flexibility study; Etude sur la qualite du gaz et la flexibilite des gazoducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preecha, Kaewpun [Petroleum Authority of Thailand, Natural gas bussiness (Thailand)

    2000-07-01

    The Petroleum authority of Thailand (PTT) operates onshore and offshore gas transmission system built in early 1980's power generating industry and increasingly, also the needs of other industrial users and retail customers. The current actual gas demand of 1,600 MMSCFD has a record of customer complaint due to inconsistent heating value of the gas systems. Working closely with specialist, we have conducted gas quality and pipeline flexibility study to examine the gas quality concerns of their existing and future pipeline system. Findings from Phase 1 of the gas quality and pipeline flexibility study were: 1. Low and inconsistent heating values of the gas streams due to the high content of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} in the streams: 2. Liquid carry- over in the gas streams to customers: 3. Demand will exceed the onshore existing and parallel pipeline capacity by the year 1999 unless facilities are implemented to reduce the CO{sub 2} content of the sales gas. Phase 2 of the Gas Quality and Pipeline Flexibility study concluded that based on the current gas composition and throughput of the Rayong Facilities, the maximum capacity of the onshore pipeline system is 333.9 trillion BTU's per annum, Based on this capacity and the demand for sales gas, the pipeline capacity will be exceeded by the year 1999 by 50.1 trillion BTU's. We developed 15 case studies which were evaluated based on the following: - Supply / demand criteria; - Technical merit; - Financial and economic merit. Phase 3 of the project is current status, A common header for mixing GSP1, GSP2, GSP3, DPCU and by pass gases prior to being compressed by OCS1 and OCS2 compressors is under construction, The project is undertaken by working closely with 140 customers to use new gas quality. Note: GSP = gas separation plant; OCS = on shore compressor; DPCU - dew point control unit. There are two main gas quality problems that exist in gas quality; PTT's pipeline system. One is an inconsistent

  11. The First Steps into a "Leaky Pipeline"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth; Larsen, Britt Østergaard

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that the higher the level of academic positions at universities the lower the percentage of women among employees also applies at Danish universities. This may be due to a historical backlog or merely to a 'Leaky pipeline', as earlier studies have revealed that an increasing...

  12. Comb to Pipeline: Fast Software Encryption Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Lauridsen, Martin Mehl; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    AES-NI, or Advanced Encryption Standard New Instructions, is an extension of the x86 architecture proposed by Intel in 2008. With a pipelined implementation utilizing AES-NI, parallelizable modes such as AES-CTR become extremely efficient. However, out of the four non-trivial NIST-recommended enc...

  13. Leadership Pipeline i den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molly-Søholm, Thorkil; Dahl, Kristian Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    Teorien Leadership Pipeline er de seneste ca. ti år vundet kraftigt frem som en deskriptiv ramme for ledelse og som et styrende paradigme for store internationale koncerners ledelsesinfrastruktur (Kaiser, 2011). Teorien beskriver bl.a. hvilke færdigheder, prioriteter og arbejdsværdier, der skal t...

  14. Security Support in Continuous Deployment Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Faheem; Raft, Adam Johannes; Shahin, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Continuous Deployment (CD) has emerged as a new practice in the software industry to continuously and automatically deploy software changes into production. Continuous Deployment Pipeline (CDP) supports CD practice by transferring the changes from the repository to production. Since most of the C...

  15. The Effect of Landslide on Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkovič Vojtech

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the calculation of stresses on the pipeline system embedded on a flexible substrate which is burdened by a landslide. As well as taking into account the probability of the influences acting on the pipe as wall thickness, and others.

  16. System Reliability Assessment of Offshore Pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustaffa, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The title of this thesis, System Reliability Assessment of Offshore Pipelines, portrays the application of probabilistic methods in assessing the reliability of these structures. The main intention of this thesis is to identify, apply and judge the suitability of the probabilistic methods in evalua

  17. Thermal Fatigue Analysis of Takeover Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This article uses the finite element analysis software ANSYS to analyze the fatigue life of the three links pipeline with different angles in the first level pipe of experimental fast reactor. The fatigue analysis is operated following the startup and shutdown process which has two load step,

  18. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  19. Remaining local buckling resistance of corroded pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qishi [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Khoo, Heng Aik [Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cheng, Roger [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Zhou, Joe [TransCanada Pipelines Limited, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Pipeline Research Council International has undertaken a multi-year research program to investigate the local buckling (or wrinkling) of onshore pipelines affected by corrosion. Local buckling resistance depends on wall thickness and seems to be considerably reduced by metal-loss defects. Experimental data were lacking, which led to the use of overly conservative assumptions. C-FER and the University of Alberta conducted research in three phases in order to develop local buckling criteria for pipelines with corrosion defects. In Phase 1, the influence of various corrosion defect features was assessed with finite element analysis, and the ranking of key parameters was determined. On this basis, Phase 2 consisted in developing a test matrix and carrying out 10 full-scale tests to collect data. In Phase 3, finite element models were used to analyze over 150 parametric cases and develop criteria for assessing maximum moment and compressive strain limit. These criteria were applied to in-service pipelines with general corrosion features.

  20. Economic optimization of CO2 pipeline configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M.M.J.; Ramirez, C.A.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an economic optimization tool is developed taking into account different steel grades, inlet pressure, diameter and booster stations for point-to-point pipelines as well as for simple networks. Preliminary results show that gaseous CO2 transport is cost effective for relatively smal

  1. Pipeline: An Employment and Training Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterly, Jean L.; Meyer, David P.

    This monograph is one of a series developed for curriculum in higher education which prepares personnel for employment in local, state, and regional levels of Employment and Training Administration programs of the U.S. Department of Labor. This publication describes a simulation game called "Pipeline" rather than a regular university course. The…

  2. Foreign Giants Take Gas Pipeline Stake Equally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ye

    2002-01-01

    @@ Oil giants Royal/Dutch, ExxonMobil and Russia's Gazprom have agreed to take 15 percent stakes each in China's US$5.6 billion natural gas pipeline project,clearing away the final obstacles blocking the kickoff of the repeatedly delayed project, according to the latest reports from news media in early July.

  3. Tow techniques for marine pipeline installation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Tow techniques for marine pipelines frequently offer competitive and commercially attactive solutions over other installation methods and, on occasion, may represent the only alternative to traditional techniques. An assessment is also made of where each tow method is applicable and technically feas

  4. An Initial Evaluation of Characterization and Closure Options for Underground Pipelines within a Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank Farm - 13210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badden, Janet W.; Connelly, Michael P. [Washington River Protection Services, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Seeley, Paul N. [Cenibark International, Inc., 104318 Nicole Drive, Kennewick, Washington, 99338-7596 (United States); Hendrickson, Michelle L. [Washington State Department of Ecology, 3100 Port of Benton Blvd, Richland, Washington, 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Site includes 149 single-shell tanks, organized in 12 'tank farms,' with contents managed as high-level mixed waste. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order requires that one tank farm, the Waste Management Area C, be closed by June 30, 2019. A challenge to this project is the disposition and closure of Waste Management Area C underground pipelines. Waste Management Area C contains nearly seven miles of pipelines and 200 separate pipe segments. The pipelines were taken out of service decades ago and contain unknown volumes and concentrations of tank waste residuals from past operations. To understand the scope of activities that may be required for these pipelines, an evaluation was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to identify what, if any, characterization methods and/or closure actions may be implemented at Waste Management Area C for closure of Waste Management Area C by 2019. Physical and analytical data do not exist for Waste Management Area C pipeline waste residuals. To develop estimates of residual volumes and inventories of contamination, an extensive search of available information on pipelines was conducted. The search included evaluating historical operation and occurrence records, physical attributes, schematics and drawings, and contaminant inventories associated with the process history of plutonium separations facilities and waste separations and stabilization operations. Scoping analyses of impacts to human health and the environment using three separate methodologies were then developed based on the waste residual estimates. All analyses resulted in preliminary assessments, indicating that pipeline waste residuals presented a comparably low long-term impact to groundwater with respect to soil, tank and other ancillary equipment residuals, but exceeded Washington State cleanup requirement values. In addition to performing the impact analyses, the assessment evaluated available sampling technologies

  5. St. James marine terminal facility description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  6. 78 FR 77444 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L... America LLC (Natural), 3250 Lacey Road, 7th Floor, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515-7918 and Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Stingray), 110 Louisiana Street, Suite 3300, Houston, Texas 77002, filed a...

  7. 78 FR 53190 - Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on Leak Repair Clamps Due to Defective Seal AGENCY: Pipeline... seal. Hazardous liquid and natural gas pipeline operators should ] verify if they have any TDW LRCs... and Flanged Fittings. These LRCs were manufactured for use on hazardous liquid and natural...

  8. Emergency gas pipeline transportation with computer documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-01

    Methods developed by the staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in cooperation with the natural gas industry to expedite the emergency transfer of natural gas are described. The majority of the United States' natural gas fields are concentrated in the south central region, comprised of Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas together with adjacent areas offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. This is the major source area for gas consumed in the northern, northeastern, southeastern, and far western population/industrial centers. The geographic pattern of gas flow through interstate pipelines emanates in gas producing areas and terminates in gas consuming areas. There are many other areas in the United States which produce gas but the amounts are comparatively small compared with Texas, Louisiana, and offshore Louisiana production. The various interconnections associated with a given pipeline for both receipts and deliveries are defined. The maximum volume capability in MMCFD and the volume being delivered in MMCFD are to be considered as estimated volumes. These volumes do not represent absolute volumes that are available but rather volumes for general planning purposes to define the magnitude of each interconnection. If an actual transportation route is desired, a routing may be derived from this report which then must be checked for actual volumes at a particular point in time. It is always possible that at the time of interest, there is no available capacity or deliveries.The data and information are arranged by pipeline company name followed by which companies supply gas to the named pipeline and to which companies the named pipeline delivers gas. Each receipt or delivery location is defined by the county and state.

  9. Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Todd C.; McCauliff, Sean; Cote, Miles T.; Girouard, Forrest R.; Wohler, Bill; Allen, Christopher; Middour, Christopher; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission is designed to continuously monitor up to 170,000 stars at a 30 minute cadence for 3.5 years searching for Earth-size planets. The data are processed at the Science Operations Center (SOC) at NASA Ames Research Center. Because of the large volume of data and the memory and CPU-intensive nature of the analysis, significant computing hardware is required. We have developed generic pipeline framework software that is used to distribute and synchronize the processing across a cluster of CPUs and to manage the resulting products. The framework is written in Java and is therefore platform-independent, and scales from a single, standalone workstation (for development and research on small data sets) to a full cluster of homogeneous or heterogeneous hardware with minimal configuration changes. A plug-in architecture provides customized control of the unit of work without the need to modify the framework itself. Distributed transaction services provide for atomic storage of pipeline products for a unit of work across a relational database and the custom Kepler DB. Generic parameter management and data accountability services are provided to record the parameter values, software versions, and other meta-data used for each pipeline execution. A graphical console allows for the configuration, execution, and monitoring of pipelines. An alert and metrics subsystem is used to monitor the health and performance of the pipeline. The framework was developed for the Kepler project based on Kepler requirements, but the framework itself is generic and could be used for a variety of applications where these features are needed.

  10. Advances in riser and pipeline technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction

  11. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  12. Leak detection in pipelines using cepstrum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaei, M.; Beck, S. B. M.; Staszewski, W. J.

    2006-02-01

    The detection and location of leaks in pipeline networks is a major problem and the reduction of these leaks has become a major priority for pipeline authorities around the world. Although the reasons for these leaks are well known, some of the current methods for locating and identifying them are either complicated or imprecise; most of them are time consuming. The work described here shows that cepstrum analysis is a viable approach to leak detection and location in pipeline networks. The method uses pressure waves caused by quickly opening and closing a solenoid valve. Due to their simplicity and robustness, transient analyses provide a plausible route towards leak detection. For this work, the time domain signals of these pressure transients were obtained using a single pressure transducer. These pressure signals were first filtered using discrete wavelets to remove the dc offset, and the low and high frequencies. They were then analysed using a cepstrum method which identified the time delay between the initial wave and its reflections. There were some features in the processed results which can be ascribed to features in the pipeline network such as junctions and pipe ends. When holes were drilled in the pipe, new peaks occurred which identified the presence of a leak in the pipeline network. When tested with holes of different sizes, the amplitude of the processed peak was seen to increase as the cube root of the leak diameter. Using this method, it is possible to identify leaks that are difficult to find by other methods as they are small in comparison with the flow through the pipe.

  13. Creativity in action: elegantly simple idea puts firm on international pipeline map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlubny, J.

    2002-05-06

    A saddle bag-like device, a relatively simple invention to carry weights to hold pipelines stable in wet environments, has catapulted a small Athabasca, Alberta, company to international prominence. The saddle bag is made of 100 per cent non-biodegradable material called geotextile, commonly referred to as road matting. The bags have a life expectancy of 100 years or more, easily outlasting the pipe they protect from shifting. Weighting systems are used on pipelines to achieve the negative buoyancy required to prevent them from floating out of wet ground. They are essential in wide swats of the northern areas where the oil and gas industry operates. The saddle bags replace the traditional concrete weights which have been either bolted down or set on top of the pipe. They were bulky and hard to transport, as well as difficult to place on the pipe. In contrast, the saddle bags are easy to transport and easy to install. Indeed, the production process is portable, so that the weighted saddle bags can be made at the site of the pipeline construction job involved. This makes it easier to do pipeline weighting jobs in cold weather, at remote locations or in spots where considerable travel time is involved in completing projects. Saddle Tech has recently joined forces with the giant in the weighting system world from the United States, CRC-Evans. The U.S. firm is marketing the bags under a trademarked name 'the saddle bag'. The product being used on projects in California, as well as on almost 90 per cent of wetlands pipeline work in Alberta and British Columbia. Production was 17,000 bags in the first year of operation. So far this season, more than 40,000 bags have been made and distributed throughout North America. Plans are afoot to expand and convert the production facility to an automated operation, running 24 hours a day.

  14. Building a virtual ligand screening pipeline using free software: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    Virtual screening, the search for bioactive compounds via computational methods, provides a wide range of opportunities to speed up drug development and reduce the associated risks and costs. While virtual screening is already a standard practice in pharmaceutical companies, its applications in preclinical academic research still remain under-exploited, in spite of an increasing availability of dedicated free databases and software tools. In this survey, an overview of recent developments in this field is presented, focusing on free software and data repositories for screening as alternatives to their commercial counterparts, and outlining how available resources can be interlinked into a comprehensive virtual screening pipeline using typical academic computing facilities. Finally, to facilitate the set-up of corresponding pipelines, a downloadable software system is provided, using platform virtualization to integrate pre-installed screening tools and scripts for reproducible application across different operating systems.

  15. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  16. Safety of long-distance pipelines. Probabilistic and deterministic aspects; Sicherheit von Rohrfernleitungen. Probabilistik und Deterministik im Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollaender, Robert [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Infrastruktur und Ressourcenmanagement

    2013-03-15

    The Committee for Long-Distance Pipelines (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reported on the relation between deterministic and probabilistic approaches in order to contribute to a better understanding of the safety management of long-distance pipelines. The respective strengths and weaknesses as well as the deterministic and probabilistic fundamentals of the safety management are described. The comparison includes fundamental aspects, but is essentially determined by the special character of the technical plant 'long-distance pipeline' as an infrastructure project in the area. This special feature results to special operation conditions and related responsibilities. However, our legal system 'long-distance pipeline' does not grant the same legal position in comparison to other infrastructural facilities such as streets and railways. Thus, the question whether and in what manner the impacts from the land-use in the environment of long-distance pipelines have to be considered is again and again the initial point for the discussion on probabilistic and deterministic approaches.

  17. The use of differential GPS as an inspection tool in the external corrosion control of buried pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, A.R. [Asesoria Adiestramiento y Construccion, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    A maintenance program was designed to improve the cathodic protection level of two oil gathering pipelines of an oil production facility in Eastern Venezuela. The program was built upon the information obtained from a coating condition evaluation and the soil resistivity profile along the pipeline corridors. The external coating was inspected with the Direct Current Voltage Gradient technique, DCVG; the soil resistivity of the pipeline corridor was measured every 100 meters (328 ft.). All the geographical information was obtained with Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS). This allowed the pipeline operator to relocate all coating defects with a sub metric accuracy that considerably reduced the rehabilitation costs. The coating inspection covered a total distance of twelve thousand, nine hundred and thirty-six meters (12,936 meters). Two hundred and ninety two (292) defects were found; 54 defects belonged to Category 3 and will need immediate repair. The soil corrosiveness along the pipeline corridors was established by the resistivity gradient. Critical areas were established and exploratory digs were recommended to assess exposed metal condition.

  18. Experimental Study on Free Spanning Submarine Pipeline Under Dynamic Excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昕; 刘亚坤; 周晶; 马恒春; 朱彤

    2002-01-01

    Seismic load has a significant effect on the response of a free spanning submarine pipeline when the pipeline is constructed in a seismically active region. The model experiment is performed on an underwater shaking table to simulate the response of submarine pipelines under dynamic input. In consideration of the effects of the terrestrial and submarine pipeline, water depth, support condition, distance from seabed, empty and full pipeline, and span on dynamic response, 120 groups of experiments are conducted. Affecting factors are analyzed and conclnsions are drawn for reference. For the control of dynamic response, the span of a submarine pipeline is by far more important than the other factors. Meanwhile, the rosponse difference between a submarine pipeline under sine excitation and that under random excitation exists in experiments.

  19. Vortex induced vibrations of free span pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koushan, Kamran

    2009-07-01

    Pipelines from offshore petroleum fields must frequently pass over areas with uneven sea floor. In such cases the pipeline may have free spans when crossing depressions. Hence, if dynamic loads can occur, the free span may oscillate and time varying stresses may give unacceptable fatigue damage. A major source for dynamic stresses in free span pipelines is vortex induced vibrations (VIV) caused by steady current. This effect is in fact dominating on deep water pipelines since wave induced velocities and accelerations will decay with increasing water depth. The challenge for the industry is then to verify that such spans can sustain the influence from the environment throughout the lifetime of the pipeline. The aim of the present project is to improve the understanding of vortex induced vibrations (VIV) of free span pipelines, and thereby improve methods, existing computer programs and guidelines needed for design verification. This will result in more cost effective and reliable offshore pipelines when laid on a very rugged sea floor. VIV for multiple span pipeline is investigated and the dynamical interaction between adjacent spans has been shown. The interaction may lead to increased or decreased response of each spans depending on the current speed and the properties for the two spans. The extension of the contact zone between the spans and sea floor parameters will of course also be important for the interaction effect. The influence from temperature variation on vortex induced vibrations has been demonstrated. The response frequency is influenced through changes in pipe tension and sag. Both increase and decrease of the response frequency may be experienced. Moreover, it is shown that the influence from snaking of the pipe on the temperature effect is small, at least for large diameter pipes. A free span pipeline will necessarily oscillate close to the seabed. The presence of the seabed will therefore have some influences on the ambient flow profile and also

  20. Mammography Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  1. Health Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, such as birthing centers and psychiatric care centers. When you ...

  2. Canyon Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — B Plant, T Plant, U Plant, PUREX, and REDOX (see their links) are the five facilities at Hanford where the original objective was plutonium removal from the uranium...

  3. Pipeline operators training and certification using thermohydraulic simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Claudio V.; Plasencia C, Jose [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Montalvao, Filipe; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous pipeline operators training and certification of the TRANSPETRO's Pipeline National Operations Control Center (CNCO) is an essential task aiming the efficiency and safety of the oil and derivatives transport operations through the Brazilian pipeline network. For this objective, a hydraulic simulator is considered an excellent tool that allows the creation of different operational scenarios for training the pipeline hydraulic behavior as well as for testing the operator's responses to normal and abnormal real time operational conditions. The hydraulic simulator is developed based on a pipeline simulation software that supplies the hydraulic responses normally acquired from the pipeline remote units in the field. The pipeline simulation software has a communication interface system that sends and receives data to the SCADA supervisory system database. Using the SCADA graphical interface to create and to customize human machine interfaces (HMI) from which the operator/instructor has total control of the pipeline/system and instrumentation by sending commands. Therefore, it is possible to have realistic training outside of the real production systems, while acquiring experience during training hours with the operation of a real pipeline. A pilot Project was initiated at TRANSPETRO - CNCO targeting to evaluate the hydraulic simulators advantages in pipeline operators training and certification programs. The first part of the project was the development of three simulators for different pipelines. The excellent results permitted the project expansion for a total of twenty different pipelines, being implemented in training programs for pipelines presently operated by CNCO as well as for the new ones that are being migrated. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the implementation process and the development of a training environment through a pipe simulation environment using commercial software. This paper also presents

  4. Improved, Low-Stress Economical Submerged Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study has shown that the use of a high-strength composite fiber cloth material may greatly reduce fabrication and deployment costs of a subsea offshore pipeline. The problem is to develop an inexpensive submerged pipeline that can safely and economically transport large quantities of fresh water, oil, and natural gas underwater for long distances. Above-water pipelines are often not feasible due to safety, cost, and environmental problems, and present, fixed-wall, submerged pipelines are often very expensive. The solution is to have a submerged, compliant-walled tube that when filled, is lighter than the surrounding medium. Some examples include compliant tubes for transporting fresh water under the ocean, for transporting crude oil underneath salt or fresh water, and for transporting high-pressure natural gas from offshore to onshore. In each case, the fluid transported is lighter than its surrounding fluid, and thus the flexible tube will tend to float. The tube should be ballasted to the ocean floor so as to limit the motion of the tube in the horizontal and vertical directions. The tube should be placed below 100-m depth to minimize biofouling and turbulence from surface storms. The tube may also have periodic pumps to maintain flow without over-pressurizing, or it can have a single pump at the beginning. The tube may have periodic valves that allow sections of the tube to be repaired or maintained. Some examples of tube materials that may be particularly suited for these applications are non-porous composite tubes made of high-performance fibers such as Kevlar, Spectra, PBO, Aramid, carbon fibers, or high-strength glass. Above-ground pipes for transporting water, oil, and natural gas have typically been fabricated from fiber-reinforced plastic or from more costly high-strength steel. Also, previous suggested subsea pipeline designs have only included heavy fixed-wall pipes that can be very expensive initially, and can be difficult and expensive

  5. FutureGen 2.0 Pipeline and Regional Carbon Capture Storage Project - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Chris [Patrick Engineering Inc., Lisle, IL (United States); Wortman, David [Patrick Engineering Inc., Lisle, IL (United States); Brown, Chris [Battelle Memorial Inst., Richland, WA (United States); Hassan, Syed [Gulf Interstate Engineering, Houston, TX (United States); Humphreys, Ken [Futuregen Industrial Alliance, Inc., Washington, D.C. (United States); Willford, Mark [Futuregen Industrial Alliance, Inc., Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) FutureGen 2.0 Program involves two projects: (1) the Oxy-Combustion Power Plant Project and (2) the CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project. This Final Technical Report is focused on the CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project. The FutureGen 2.0 CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project evolved from an initial siting and project definition effort in Phase I, into the Phase II activity consisting permitting, design development, the acquisition of land rights, facility design, and licensing and regulatory approvals. Phase II also progressed into construction packaging, construction procurement, and targeted early preparatory activities in the field. The CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project accomplishments were significant, and in some cases unprecedented. The engineering, permitting, legal, stakeholder, and commercial learnings substantially advance the nation’s understanding of commercial-scale CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers. Voluminous and significant information was obtained from the drilling and the testing program of the subsurface, and sophisticated modeling was performed that held up to a wide range of scrutiny. All designs progressed to the point of securing construction contracts or comfort letters attesting to successful negotiation of all contract terms and willing execution at the appropriate time all major project elements – pipeline, surface facilities, and subsurface – as well as operations. While the physical installation of the planned facilities did not proceed in part due to insufficient time to complete the project prior to the expiration of federal funding, the project met significant objectives prior to DOE’s closeout decision. Had additional time been available, there were no known, insurmountable obstacles that would have precluded successful construction and operation of the project. Due to the suspension of the project, site restoration activities were developed and the work was accomplished. The site restoration

  6. Automatic pipeline operation using Petri Nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Guilherme O. [PETROBRAS TRANSPORTE S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A pipeline operation requires several actions, attention and time from the control room operator in each of its operating phases. This article proposition is to use automation as something more than a remote control, drastically reducing the number of repetitive and routine actions needed from the operator to start and stop the system, granting more time for system supervision, decision making during critical conditions and avoiding errors caused due to the need of several actions being executed in a short period of time. To achieve these objectives the pipeline operation will be modeled as a Petri Net consisting of states, event and actions. A methodology for converting this Petri Net into a Ladder controller code will also be proposed. (author)

  7. Installation Capacity Assessment of Damaged Deepwater Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide exploration and development of subsea and deepwater reservoirs has laid down some new and old engineering challenges to the offshore pipeline industry. This requires large D/t pipelines to be installed at water depths in the vicinity of up to 2700m. The deepwater collapse and buckle propagation event is almost unavoidable as the pipe wall thickness cannot be always determined from the codes and standards due to the limit state criteria. These codes also do not consider any fabrication imperfections and sustained damages emanating from transportation and handling. The objective of this paper is to present the Finite Element Analysis (FEA of dented pipes with D/t ratio more than 45, which is outside the applicability of current design codes, and to investigate the effects on installation capacity of these various damage sizes in terms of collapse and buckle propagation.

  8. The e-MERLIN Data Reduction Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Argo, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Written in Python and utilising ParselTongue to interface with the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS), the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline is intended to automate the procedures required in processing and calibrating radio astronomy data from the e-MERLIN correlator. Driven by a plain text file of input parameters, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages by the user, depending on requirements. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent, carry out some or all of the calibration procedures including self-calibration), and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so that the quality of the data can be assessed. The software is available for download from the e-MERLIN website or via Github.

  9. Sensor network architectures for monitoring underwater pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nader; Jawhar, Imad; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Zhang, Liren

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (radio frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring.

  10. Sensor Network Architectures for Monitoring Underwater Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Jawhar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring.

  11. e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, Megan

    2014-07-01

    Written in Python and utilizing ParselTongue (ascl:1208.020) to interface with AIPS (ascl:9911.003), the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline processes, calibrates and images data from the UK's radio interferometric array (Multi-Element Remote-Linked Interferometer Network). Driven by a plain text input file, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent (ascl:1312.001), carry out some or all of the calibration procedures (including self-calibration), and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so data quality can be assessed.

  12. Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R

    1999-11-01

    Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

  13. Wave Pipelining Using Self Reset Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Litvin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel design approach combining wave pipelining and self reset logic, which provides an elegant solution at high-speed data throughput with significant savings in power and area as compared with other dynamic CMOS logic implementations. To overcome some limitations in SRL art, we employ a new SRL family, namely, dual-rail self reset logic with input disable (DRSRL-ID. These gates depict fairly constant timing parameters, specially the width of the output pulse, for varying fan-out and logic depth, helping accommodate process, supply voltage, and temperature variations (PVT. These properties simplify the implementation of wave pipelined circuits. General timing analysis is provided and compared with previous implementations. Results of circuit implementation are presented together with conclusions and future work.

  14. The e-MERLIN Data Reduction Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Kirsty Argo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Written in Python and utilising ParselTongue to interface with the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS, the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline is intended to automate the procedures required in processing and calibrating radio astronomy data from the e-MERLIN correlator. Driven by a plain text file of input parameters, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages by the user, depending on requirements. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent, carry out some or all of the calibration procedures (including self-calibration, and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so that the quality of the data can be assessed. The software is available for download from the e-MERLIN website or via Github.

  15. The MUSE Data Reduction Software Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilbacher, P. M.; Roth, M. M.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Bacon, R.; Muse Team

    2006-07-01

    After giving a short overview of the instrument characteristics of the second generation VLT instrument MUSE, we discuss properties of the data will look like and present challenges and goals of its data reduction software. It is conceived as a number of pipeline recipes to be run in an automated way within the ESO data flow system. These recipes are based on a data reduction library that is being written in the C language using ESO's CPL API. We give a short overview of the steps needed for reduction and post-processing of science data, discuss requirements of a future visualization tool for integral field spectroscopy and close with the timeline for MUSE and its data reduction pipeline.

  16. Automatic pipeline operation using Petri Nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Guilherme O. [PETROBRAS TRANSPORTE S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A pipeline operation requires several actions, attention and time from the control room operator in each of its operating phases. This article proposition is to use automation as something more than a remote control, drastically reducing the number of repetitive and routine actions needed from the operator to start and stop the system, granting more time for system supervision, decision making during critical conditions and avoiding errors caused due to the need of several actions being executed in a short period of time. To achieve these objectives the pipeline operation will be modeled as a Petri Net consisting of states, event and actions. A methodology for converting this Petri Net into a Ladder controller code will also be proposed. (author)

  17. Leadership pipeline i den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Aagaard; Molly-Søholm, Thorkil

    en rejse ind i hjertet af offentlig ledelse med fokus på lederniveauerne: topchef, funktionel chef, leder af ledere og leder af medarbejdere. Med afsæt i righoldige eksempler og fortællinger fra virkeligheden introduceres læseren for ledelsesteorien den Offentlige Leadership Pipeline, som giver...... enkelte lederniveauer og udvikle ledertalenter. Teorien byder på et detaljeret ledelsesgrundlag, hvorudfra den offentlige organisation kan bygge en professionel værdikæde for ledelse ved at forme lederprofiler, -rekruttering, -uddannelse, -evaluering m.m. Leadership Pipeline i den offentlige sektor er...... baseret på et treårigt dansk praksisorienteret forskningsprojekt med deltagelse af 15 offentlige organisationer, som repræsenterer kommunerne, regionerne og staten. Projektet har videreudviklet en af de sidste 10 års mest indflydelsesrige ledelseteorier i de største private organisationer, Leadership...

  18. Study on the petroleum recovery technology : Analysis of pipeline flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Joon; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, In Kee; Huh, Dae Gee [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The petroleum exploration activities have been performed by our own technology in the concession Block VI-I in Korean continental shelf for more than 10 years. Gas and gas condensate were discovered from several exploratory wells drilled in this block. This year, the news of another hit in the well of Gorae-V was very encouraging. Different from the previous gas discoveries, the reservoir properties and the productivity of Gorea-V well were excellent and the reserve estimate was very optimistic for the gas field development in this region. Gas consumption was very rapidly increased during recent years because of the image of cleaner fuel compared with other fossil fuels and convenience of usage. Korea is the fifth country in the world in terms of total quantity of petroleum consumption. This is the reason why the secure supply of oil and gas in the future is vital to our industry. The development of gas or gas condensate reservoir is different from that of oil reservoir. Especially sales contract must be made before the initiation of gas field exploitation. The production facilities including pipeline system must be selected and designed for further consideration. In this study, we have selected the 'K' offshore gas field where the water depth is 155 m and the distance from the shore is 50 km. The main purpose of this production system analysis is to select the optimum size and capacity of production facilities including pipeline in order to find the most appropriate production schedule. Production system analysis using nodal analysis includes deliverability calculation of the reservoir, production system optimization, recoverable reserve estimation, and performance forecast of the reservoir with three different production rate scenarios. The reservoir pressure is 4525 psia and the temperature is 248 deg.F. The OGIP of this reservoir was calculated as 24.64 BCF/well and the reservoir is expected to produce for up to 10 years. The porosity is 6% and the

  19. Improving the Tuberculosis Drug Development Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelopoulos, D; McHugh, T D

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is considered one of the most successful pathogens and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, a disease that urgently requires new chemical entities to be developed for treatment. There are currently several new molecules under clinical investigation in the tuberculosis (TB) drug development pipeline. However, the complex lifestyle of M. tuberculosis within the host presents a barrier to the development of new drugs. In this review, we highlight the reasons that make TB ...

  20. Opening the Production Pipeline: Unruly Creators

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, John

    2005-01-01

    Opening the Production Pipeline: Unruly Creators and Enjoyment John A. L. Banks Online Communications Director Auran www.auran.com Project Leader Australasian CRC for Interaction Design Postdoctoral Research Fellow (As from January 2005) Creative Industries Research Applications Centre Queensland University of Technology This paper draws on material from a recently submitted PhD dissertation, "Participatory Culture and Enjoyment in the Video Games Industry: Reconfiguring the Player–Developer ...

  1. Sensor Network Architectures for Monitoring Underwater Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Imad Jawhar; Jameela Al-Jaroodi; Nader Mohamed; Liren Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network...

  2. Energy consumption in the pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-12-31

    Estimates are developed of the energy consumption and energy intensity (EI) of five categories of U.S. pipeline industries: natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, coal slurry, and water. For comparability with other transportation modes, it is desirable to calculate EI in Btu/Ton-Mile, and this is done, although the necessary unit conversions introduce additional uncertainties. Since water and sewer lines operate by lift and gravity, a comparable EI is not definable.

  3. Grooving corrosion of seam welded oil pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    24” pipeline carrying oil was failed in the form of longitudinal crack at the 6 O’clock position resulting in oil spill. The failed pipe was investigated to reveal the main cause of its failure. The procedure of investigation was built on studying the intact pipe, rupture area, parent material, and intact weld. Results of chemical analysis, mechanical properties, and microstructure of the pipe material were confirmed with the specified standard. Cracks were originated from weld defected sites...

  4. Modules for Pipelined Mixed Radix FFT Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolij Sergiyenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of soft IP cores for the Winograd r-point fast Fourier transform (FFT is considered. The cores are designed by the method of spatial SDF mapping into the hardware, which provides the minimized hardware volume at the cost of slowdown of the algorithm by r times. Their clock frequency is equal to the data sampling frequency. The cores are intended for the high-speed pipelined FFT processors, which are implemented in FPGA.

  5. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Digital compositing in the VFX pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Ostasheva, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore a specific area of visual effects production - Digital Compositing. The work explains the origin of this craft and clarifies reasons for its demand in the field. The theoretical section explains the role of Digital Compositing in the VFX pipeline, as well as introduces a reader to the major compositing operations, which digital artists in the field have to be able to perform. Among those are compositing CGI materials into live-action plates, rotosc...

  7. Stress-strain analysis of pipelines laid in permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, P.; Yan‘nan', Van; Burkova, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing reliability of pipelines becomes a real challenge at all stages: design, construction and operation of pipeline systems. It is very important to determine the behaviour of the constructed pipeline under the operational and environmental loads using the design model in accordance with that one adopted in the rules and regulations. This article presents the simulation of pipeline in permafrost. The evaluation of the stress-strain state is given herein and the areas of the stress concentration are detected with the account for different loads occurred during the pipeline operation. Information obtained from the assessment of the stress-strain state of the pipeline allows determining sections in pre-emergency state (even before damages) and take all the necessary measures for eliminating them, thus increasing the pipeline system reliability. It is shown that the most critical pipeline cross-section is observed at the point of transition from one environment to another. The maximum strains decrease the level of the pipeline reliability. The finite element model is presented to determine the pipeline sections in pre-emergency state.

  8. Risk-based underground pipeline safety management considering corrosion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seolin; Lee, Gunhak; Ahmed, Usama; Lee, Yongkyu; Na, Jonggeol; Han, Chonghun

    2017-08-18

    Due to the long term usage and irregular maintenance for corrosion checks, catastrophic accidents have been increasing in underground pipelines. In this study, a new safety management methodology of underground pipeline, risk-based pipeline management, is introduced reflecting corrosion effect. First, principle of the risk-based pipeline management is presented compared with an original method, qualitative measure. It is distinguished from the qualitative measure by reflecting societal risk and corrosion in safety management of underground pipeline. And then, it is applied to an existing underground propylene pipeline in Ulsan Industrial Complex, South Korea. The consequence analysis is based on real information, and the frequency analysis reflects degree of corrosion. For calculation of corrosion rate, direct current voltage gradient (DCVG) and close interval potential survey (CIPS) are conducted. As a result of applying the risk-based pipeline management, risk integral is reduced by 56.8% compared to the qualitative measure. Finally, sensitivity analysis is conducted on variables, which affect the risk of the pipeline. This study would contribute to introduce quantitative measure to pipeline management and increase safety of pipeline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pipeline of Known Chemical Classes of Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina d'Urso de Souza Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many approaches are used to discover new antibiotic compounds, one of the most widespread being the chemical modification of known antibiotics. This type of discovery has been so important in the development of new antibiotics that most antibiotics used today belong to the same chemical classes as antibiotics discovered in the 1950s and 1960s. Even though the discovery of new classes of antibiotics is urgently needed, the chemical modification of antibiotics in known classes is still widely used to discover new antibiotics, resulting in a great number of compounds in the discovery and clinical pipeline that belong to existing classes. In this scenario, the present article presents an overview of the R&D pipeline of new antibiotics in known classes of antibiotics, from discovery to clinical trial, in order to map out the technological trends in this type of antibiotic R&D, aiming to identify the chemical classes attracting most interest, their spectrum of activity, and the new subclasses under development. The result of the study shows that the new antibiotics in the pipeline belong to the following chemical classes: quinolones, aminoglycosides, macrolides, oxazolidinones, tetracyclines, pleuromutilins, beta-lactams, lipoglycopeptides, polymyxins and cyclic lipopeptides.

  10. Interaction between soils and gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpachevskii, L. O.; Goroshevskii, A. V.; Zubkova, T. A.

    2011-03-01

    The interaction between pipelines and soils manifests itself in the soil disturbance in the course of the pipe installation, in the transformation of the water and temperature regimes in the trenches, and in the appearance of corrosion and cracks on the pipe walls. The more contrasting the soil water regime in the pipe-adjacent sections of the trench, the greater the amount of the pipe damage. The damage of the pipe insulation activates the pipe corrosion. The emission of gases (H2S, CH4, CO2, CO, and H2) and the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria are the main causes of the pipes' destruction. The humus content and the redox potential decrease, and the soil density and concentrations of ferrous compounds increase in the soils of the trench zone. Accidents along pipelines occur most often in the area of serozems and chestnut soils, and this is related to the salinization in the lower soil horizons and to the contrasting soil water regime near the pipe. The number of accidents along the pipelines installed into soddy-podzolic soils is lower.

  11. The GALAH survey: The data reduction pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Kos, Janez; Zwitter, Tomaž; Žerjal, Maruška; Sharma, Sanjib; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Asplund, Martin; Casey, Andrew R; De Silva, Gayandhi M; Freeman, Ken C; Martell, Sarah L; Simpson, Jeffrey D; Schlesinger, Katharine J; Zucker, Daniel; Anguiano, Borja; Bacigalupo, Carlos; Bedding, Timothy R; Betters, Christopher; Da Costa, Gary; Duong, Ly; Hyde, Elaina; Ireland, Michael; Kafle, Prajwal R; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Lewis, Geraint F; Munari, Ulisse; Nataf, David; Stello, Dennis; Tinney, Chris G; Traven, Gregor; Watson, Fred; Wittenmyer, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    We present the data reduction procedures being used by the GALAH survey, carried out with the HERMES fibre-fed, multi-object spectrograph on the 3.9~m Anglo-Australian Telescope. GALAH is a unique survey, targeting 1 million stars brighter than magnitude V=14 at a resolution of 28,000 with a goal to measure the abundances of 29 elements. Such a large number of high resolution spectra necessitates the development of a reduction pipeline optimized for speed, accuracy, and consistency. We outline the design and structure of the Iraf-based reduction pipeline that we developed, specifically for GALAH, to produce fully calibrated spectra aimed for subsequent stellar atmospheric parameter estimation. The pipeline takes advantage of existing Iraf routines and other readily available software so as to be simple to maintain, testable and reliable. A radial velocity and stellar atmospheric parameter estimator code is also presented, which is used for further data analysis and yields a useful verification of the reductio...

  12. KENYA’S OIL PIPELINE AND TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The threat of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks on the critical infrastructure (oil pipeline in Kenya has brought to the attention the strategic issue of the energy sector security, highlighting the potential vulnerabilities of this sector. Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP should be a key component of the national security especially after the Kenya Defence Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia. The merger of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist groups and the accelerated grenades attack against Kenya in retaliation has become the centre of the debate on terrorism and internal security of the Kenya. The energy resources are strategic assets from the security, political and economic point of view. Kenya as an oil transit country is considered of primary strategic importance at international level. International terrorism has always looked with interest at the oil resource in order to meet its political and economic targets. We argue that Kenya’s oil pipelines are vulnerable to Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attack. In summary, the article looks at the concept of terrorism within the framework of critical infrastructure protection, the dangers of attacks on oil pipelines, Kenya’s government preparedness and recommendations.

  13. Analysis of domino effect in pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Camacho, J Giovanni; Pastor, Elsa; Casal, Joaquim; Amaya-Gómez, Rafael; Muñoz-Giraldo, Felipe

    2015-11-15

    Parallel pipelines are frequently installed over long distances, due to the difficulty in creating or maintaining the required corridor. This implies that a release in one pipeline can seriously affect another one. The main risks associated with this domino effect are erosion by fluid-sand jets and the thermal action of jet fires. In this paper a survey has been performed on the accidents that have occurred, and the diverse associated domino sequences are analyzed. The probability of occurrence of domino effect is a function of the location of the hole, the jet direction and solid angle, the diameter of both pipelines and the distance between them. A mathematical model has been developed to estimate this probability. The model shows how the probability of domino effect decreases with the distance and diameter of the source pipe, and increases with the diameter of the target pipe. Its frequency can be estimated from this probability and from the frequency of the initiating pipe failure plus, in the case of jet fire impingement, the probability of ignition. The frequency of the target pipe failure thus calculated, always higher than its individual frequency, allows a more realistic risk analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The pipeline for the GOSSS data reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Sota, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS) is an ambitious project that is observing all known Galactic O stars with B < 13 in the blue-violet part of the spectrum with R-2500. It is based on version 2 of the most complete catalog to date of Galactic O stars with accurate spectral types (v1, Ma\\'iz Apell\\'aniz et al. 2004 ;v2, Sota et al. 2008). Given the large amount of data that we are getting (more than 150 nights of observations at three different observatories in the last 4 years) we have developed an automatic spectroscopic reduction pipeline. This pipeline has been programmed in IDL and automates the process of data reduction. It can operate in two modes: automatic data reduction (quicklook) or semi-automatic data reduction (full). In "quicklook", we are able to get rectified and calibrated spectra of all stars of a full night just minutes after the observations. The pipeline automatically identifies the type of image and applies the standard reduction procedure (bias subtraction, flat field c...

  15. The GALAH survey: the data reduction pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Janez; Lin, Jane; Zwitter, Tomaž; Žerjal, Maruška; Sharma, Sanjib; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Asplund, Martin; Casey, Andrew R.; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Freeman, Ken C.; Martell, Sarah L.; Simpson, Jeffrey D.; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Zucker, Daniel; Anguiano, Borja; Bacigalupo, Carlos; Bedding, Timothy R.; Betters, Christopher; Da Costa, Gary; Duong, Ly; Hyde, Elaina; Ireland, Michael; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Lewis, Geraint F.; Munari, Ulisse; Nataf, David; Stello, Dennis; Tinney, C. G.; Traven, Gregor; Watson, Fred; Wittenmyer, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the data reduction procedures being used by the GALactic Archeology with Hermes (GALAH) survey, carried out with the HERMES fibre-fed, multi-object spectrograph on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope. GALAH is a unique survey, targeting 1 million stars brighter than magnitude V = 14 at a resolution of 28 000 with a goal to measure the abundances of 29 elements. Such a large number of high-resolution spectra necessitate the development of a reduction pipeline optimized for speed, accuracy, and consistency. We outline the design and structure of the IRAF-based reduction pipeline that we developed, specifically for GALAH, to produce fully calibrated spectra aimed for subsequent stellar atmospheric parameter estimation. The pipeline takes advantage of existing IRAF routines and other readily available software so as to be simple to maintain, testable, and reliable. A radial velocity and stellar atmospheric parameter estimator code is also presented, which is used for further data analysis and yields a useful verification of the reduction quality. We have used this estimator to quantify the data quality of GALAH for fibre cross-talk level (≲0.5 per cent) and scattered light (˜5 counts in a typical 20 min exposure), resolution across the field, sky spectrum properties, wavelength solution reliability (better than 1 km s-1 accuracy), and radial velocity precision.

  16. SCADA System for the Modeling and Optimization of Oil Collecting Pipeline Network: A Case Study of Hassi Messaoud Oilfield

    OpenAIRE

    M. Aouadj; F. Naceri; M. Touileb; D. Sellami; M. Boukhatem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims are data acquisition, control and online modeling of an oil collection pipeline network using a SCADA «Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition» system, allowing the optimization of this network in real time by creating more exact models of onsite facilities. Indeed, fast development of computing systems makes obsolete usage of old systems for which maintenance became more and more expensive and their performances don’t comply any more with modern company operations. SCADA sys...

  17. Early generation pipeline girth welding practices and their implications for integrity management of North American pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amend, Bill [DNV Columbus, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In response to the interest in ensuring the continued safe operation of vintage pipelines and the integrity management challenges related to those pipelines, PRCI sponsored in 2009 a project called {sup V}intage Girth Weld Defect Assessment - Comprehensive Study{sup .} Its objectives focused on girth welds made with the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process, particularly with regard to: review of approaches for evaluating the integrity of these welds; description of the typical characteristics and properties of SMAW vintage welds; determination of gaps in available information and technology that hinder effective integrity assessment and management of vintage girth welds. A very extensive literature review was performed as part of this project. Key findings include the following. The failure rate of early generation girth welds is low, especially when considering the rate of catastrophic failures. Pipeline girth welds are unlikely to fail unless subjected to axial strains that far exceed the strains related to internal pressure alone.

  18. Marine Environmental Protection and Transboundary Pipeline Projects: A Case Study of the Nord Stream Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lott

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nord Stream transboundary submarine pipeline, significant for its impact on the EU energy policy, has been a heav- ily debated issue in the Baltic Sea region during the past decade. This is partly due to the concerns over the effects that the pipeline might have on the Baltic Sea as a particularly sensitive large marine ecosystem.  This manuscript focuses on the issue from the viewpoint of the UNCLOS legal framework and its related treaties. It thus illustrates some of the more polemical topics arising in modern law of the sea and environmental law, eg limitations on the freedom to lay submarine pipelines, the scope and boundaries of marine scientific research, the obligation to consider alter- natives in the course of an EIA. In broader terms, this manuscript presents an explanatory study of matters mostly related to sustainable development, the precautionary principle and the ecosystem approach.

  19. An Experimental Simulation of Load-Leveling Through Adsorption for Natural Gas Pipeline System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周理; 陈海华

    2002-01-01

    A lo9adleveling method through adsorption was presented to adjust the supply quantity according to the consumption rate of natural gas with time,An experimental simulation set up was designed and used to test the load-leveling function for a real pipline system.A storage tank filled with activated carbon together with a filter constitutes the major part of the load-leveling facility,Pressure and temperature of the system,as well as the real gas output of the storage tank were recorded.It is proven that load-leveling by adsorption in technically feasible even for low pipeline pressure of natural gas supply system.

  20. Managing changes of location classes of gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Sergio B.; Sousa, Antonio Geraldo de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Most of the gas pipeline design codes utilize a class location system, where the design safety factor and the hydrostatic test factor are determined according to the population density in the vicinities of the pipeline route. Consequently, if an operator is requested or desires to maintain an existing gas pipeline in compliance with its design code, it will reduce the operational pressure or replace pipe sections to increase the wall thickness whenever a change in location class takes place. This article introduces an alternative methodology to deal with changes in location classes of gas pipelines. Initially, selected codes that utilize location class systems are reviewed. Afterwards, a model for the area affected by an ignition following a natural gas pipeline leak is described. Finally, a methodology to determine the MAOP and third part damage mitigation measures for gas transport pipelines that underwent changes in location class is presented. (author)

  1. Influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H. [ESIME Zacatenco, SEPI Electronica Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [DIM-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perez-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Statistical studies performed in Mexico indicate that leakage due to external pitting corrosion is the most likely cause of failure of buried pipelines. When pipelines are inspected with the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology, which is routinely used, the magnetization level of every part of the pipeline changes as the MFL tool travels through it. Remanent magnetization stays in the pipeline wall after inspection, at levels that may differ from a point to the next. This paper studies the influence of the magnetic field on pitting corrosion. Experiments were carried out on grade 52 steel under a level of remanent magnetization and other laboratory conditions that imitated the conditions of a pipeline after an MLF inspection. Non-magnetized control samples and magnetized samples were subjected to pitting by immersion in a solution containing chlorine and sulfide ions for seven days, and then inspected with optical microscopy. Results show that the magnetic field in the pipeline wall significantly increases pitting corrosion.

  2. Development Prospect of Oil & Gas Pipelines of CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yaorong; Chen Hao; Zhang Jinjun; Zhang Kegang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Technology progress of oil & gas pipelines transportation project of CNPC since the 11th Five-Year Plan period An introduction to oil & gas pipelines transportationproject As a large industrious system, pipelines transportation industry is playing a more and more important role in oil and natural gas industry even in the world economy.Thanks to the efforts of 40 years, substantial progress has been achieved in the oil & gas pipelines construction in China. Till now, long distance oil & gas transportation trunk pipelines with large caliber have been completed one after another, with a total length exceeding 50 thousand kilometers (kin). CNPC boasts a long distancel and oil transportation pipeline of 30 thousand km.

  3. Crack detection in pipelines using multiple electromechanical impedance sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chunyuan; Feng, Xin; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Jing

    2017-10-01

    An extensive network of pipeline systems is used to transport and distribute national energy resources that heavily influence a nation’s economy. Therefore, the structural integrity of these pipeline systems must be monitored and maintained. However, structural damage detection remains a challenge in pipeline engineering. To this end, this study developed a modified electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique for crack detection that involves fusing information from multiple sensors. We derived a new damage-sensitive feature factor based on a pipeline EMI model that considers the influence of the bonding layer between the EMI sensors and pipeline. We experimentally validated the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, we used a damage index—root mean square deviation—to examine the degree and position of crack damage in a pipeline.

  4. Computer models of complex multiloop branched pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudinov, I. V.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Eremin, A. V.; Branfileva, A. N.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the principal theoretical concepts of the method used for constructing computer models of complex multiloop branched pipeline networks, and this method is based on the theory of graphs and two Kirchhoff's laws applied to electrical circuits. The models make it possible to calculate velocities, flow rates, and pressures of a fluid medium in any section of pipeline networks, when the latter are considered as single hydraulic systems. On the basis of multivariant calculations the reasons for existing problems can be identified, the least costly methods of their elimination can be proposed, and recommendations for planning the modernization of pipeline systems and construction of their new sections can be made. The results obtained can be applied to complex pipeline systems intended for various purposes (water pipelines, petroleum pipelines, etc.). The operability of the model has been verified on an example of designing a unified computer model of the heat network for centralized heat supply of the city of Samara.

  5. Working group 3: upstream pipelines: inspection, corrosion and integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, Jorge; Stephenson, Mark [Talisman Energy, (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The third topic investigated the latest challenges to upstream pipeline operation and the areas for improvement in upstream integrity in the pipeline industry. The first session of talks reported on the pipeline incident analysis conducted by the CAPP on several companies from 2006 to 2010 in order to identify best management practises and to drive improvement in pipeline integrity management. Reviews of primary failure statistics and failure frequency were conducted with respect to the various materials of pipes. A summary of changes to the CSA standard related to non-metallic pipes was also presented to complete this background overview of the upstream industry. The second session provided more information about these non-metallic pipes, focusing on construction and quality issues with large diameter HDPE pipelines. The third session discussed the ERW pipeline in relation to upstream industry. An integrity management panel discussion was carried out to close this third working group.

  6. Leadership Pipeline på rejse i den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Dahl, Kristian Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    udbredelse af Leadership Pipeline modellen. Forskningslitteraturen om Leadership Pipeline er imidlertid beskeden. Med teoretisk ammunition fra ”idé på rejse” perspektivet og et multi-level case studie i den danske offentlige sektor belyser artiklen udbredelse og implementering af Leadership Pipeline. Ved...... at anvende skiftende teoretiske begreber og henholdsvis zoome-ind (organisationsniveau) og zoome-ud (feltniveau) viser artiklen, hvordan en række gensidigt forbundne teoretiserings- og translationsaktiviteter sikrede Leadership Pipeline legitimitet og fremskyndede dens udbredelse samtidig med, at forskellige...... praksisvarianter af Leadership Pipeline udkrystalliserede sig i offentlige organisationer med hver deres kendetegn og problemdefinitioner. Med afsæt i denne empiri argumenterer vi for, at implementering af Leadership Pipeline udspillede sig i overlappende teoretiserings- og translationsaktiviteter, der forstærkede...

  7. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  8. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Towards CFD modeling of turbulent pipeline material transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahirpour, Amir; Herzog, Nicoleta; Egbers, Cristoph

    2013-04-01

    to generate an optimized LES solver to model turbulent pipe flow for larger Reynolds numbers. The validations are carried out using experiments conducted in Cottbus Large Pipe Test Facility at BTU as a reference [3]. In the mentioned experimental research, evolution of statistical pipe flow quantities, such as turbulence intensity, skewness and flatness are investigated to clarify the development length needed to achieve fully developed turbulence. These observations take place in a relatively large pipe test facility with an inner pipe diameter of Di = 0.19 m and a total length of L = 27 m where a bulk Reynolds number of 8.5×105 can be reached. 1. CO2 pipeline Infrastructure: An analysis of global challenges and opportunities, Final Report For International Energy Agency of Greenhouse Gas Program (2010) 2. J. Kim, P. Moin, R. Moser, Turbulence statistics in fully developed channel flow at low Reynolds number, J.Fluid Mech. 177, 133-166, (1987) 3. F. Zimmer, E.-S. Zanoun and C. Egbers, A study on the influence of triggering pipe flow regarding mean and higher order statistics, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 318 (2011) 032039

  10. A pipeline for comprehensive and automated processing of electron diffraction data in IPLT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Andreas D; Philippsen, Ansgar; Engel, Andreas; Walz, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystals allows the structural study of membrane proteins in their native environment, the lipid bilayer. Determining the structure of a membrane protein at near-atomic resolution by electron crystallography remains, however, a very labor-intense and time-consuming task. To simplify and accelerate the data processing aspect of electron crystallography, we implemented a pipeline for the processing of electron diffraction data using the Image Processing Library and Toolbox (IPLT), which provides a modular, flexible, integrated, and extendable cross-platform, open-source framework for image processing. The diffraction data processing pipeline is organized as several independent modules implemented in Python. The modules can be accessed either from a graphical user interface or through a command line interface, thus meeting the needs of both novice and expert users. The low-level image processing algorithms are implemented in C++ to achieve optimal processing performance, and their interface is exported to Python using a wrapper. For enhanced performance, the Python processing modules are complemented with a central data managing facility that provides a caching infrastructure. The validity of our data processing algorithms was verified by processing a set of aquaporin-0 diffraction patterns with the IPLT pipeline and comparing the resulting merged data set with that obtained by processing the same diffraction patterns with the classical set of MRC programs.

  11. Spatial analysis in PGPB's risk administration system for pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.R.C.S.; Mendoza, J.L.M.; Betancourt, E.R. [Pemex Gas and Petrochemical Basics, Huasteca (Mexico); Polanco, R.P. [Petroleos Mexicanos, Huasteca (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Pemex Gas and Petrochemical Basics (PGPB) has been using Bass Trigon's Integrity Assessment Program (IAP) for risk administration. The software includes a risk administration system for pipelines (RASP), making it possible to identify and evaluate risks that could affect the transportation capacity of the petrochemical, liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas transmission system. The pipeline division of PGPB uses a geographic information system (GIS) called the facilities and assets information system (FAIS) for maintenance of its pipelines, as well as the design, construction and operation of pumping and compression stations. Some specific applications using the integrated FAIS and RASP system were presented to demonstrate risk assessment data analysis and their consequences. In particular, it described how PGPB used FAIS to analyse RASP data to decide if a liquefied petroleum gas terminal should change location. RASP considers over 200 variables that contribute to risk factors for external and internal corrosion, design and materials, third parties, ground movement and system operation. The spatial analysis system proved effective in supporting decision making, preventing accidents, and developing emergency plans. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  12. Asian Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahata, M.

    2011-04-01

    Asian underground facilities are reviewed. The YangYang underground Laboratory in Korea and the Kamioka observatory in Japan are operational and several astrophysical experiments are running. Indian Neutrino Observatory(INO) and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) are under construction and underground experiments are being prepared. Current activities and future prospects at those underground sites are described.

  13. Processing of Ultralow Carbon Pipeline Steels with Acicular Ferrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Furen XIAO; Mingchun ZHAO; Yiyin SHAN; Bo LIAO; Ke YANG

    2004-01-01

    Acicular ferrite microstructure was achieved for an ultralow carbon pipeline steel through the improved thermomechanical control process (TMCP), which was based on the transformation process of deformed austenite of steel.Compared with commercial pipeline steels, the experimental ultralow carbon pipeline steel possessed the satisfied strength and toughness behaviors under the current improved TMCP, although it contained only approximately 0.025% C, which should mainly be attributed to the microstructural characteristics of acicular ferrite.

  14. Identification and assessment of geohazards affecting pipelines and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, L. A.; Teterin, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper addresses methods and criteria of risk assessment associated with land subsidence threatening pipelines, buildings, and constructions. Currently, there are some practical issues relating to geohazards that should be taken into account while constructing a pipeline. The article provides comparison data on the effects of Spitak earthquake and the natural disaster in Neftegorsk in terms of geohazards impact on the pipeline systems. The suggested risk assessment procedure embraces a wide range of aspects: from soil properties to economic and management issues.

  15. Engineering Design of Shaanxi-Beijing Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Bo; Mei Sanqiang; Wang Wei

    1996-01-01

    @@ Steel pipes of Φ660×60 are used in the gas pipeline,totaling 860 km in length,from Shaan-Gan-Ning gas field,to Beijing(Shaan-Jing pipeline for short).The maximum operating pressure of the pipeline is designed to be 6.3Mpa,and the maximum annual natural gas deliverability is set to be 2×109m3.

  16. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Zhuang; Yang Li; Wei Su

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emerge...

  17. Dynamic Pressure of Seabed around Buried Pipelines in Shallow Water

    OpenAIRE

    Changjing Fu; Guoying Li; Tianlong Zhao; Donghai Guan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the obvious nonlinear effect caused by the shallow waves, the nonlinear wave loads have a great influence on the buried pipelines in shallow water. In order to ensure their stability, the forces on the pipelines that resulted from nonlinear waves should be considered thoroughly. Based on the Biot consolidation theory and the first-order approximate cnoidal wave theory, analytical solutions of the pore water pressure around the buried pipelines in shallow water caused by waves are first...

  18. CPECC Contracts Oil Products Pipeline Construction in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yong

    2002-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Engineering & Construction Corporation (CPECC), a subsidiary of CNPC, and Pak-Arab Pipeline Company (PARCO) of Pakistan have recently reached an agreement to confirm the US$317-million contract for construction a pipeline for oil products in Pakistan by CPECC. The project is called the white oil pipeline project (WOPP)running from Karachi to Mahmood Kot, the distribution center of oil products in the northwest part of the country.

  19. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM: a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre eBellec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1 it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2 it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3 if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an opensource MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac. We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images. The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources.

  20. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM): a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellec, Pierre; Lavoie-Courchesne, Sébastien; Dickinson, Phil; Lerch, Jason P; Zijdenbos, Alex P; Evans, Alan C

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM) is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output, and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1) it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2) it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3) if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an open-source MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac). We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI). The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources.

  1. Controlling internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the systematic treatment of pitting sequence (SToPS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Chu, F.Y.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The oil and gas pipeline industry relies on the use of carbon and low-alloy steels. As such, there is a need to predict the corrosivity of brines containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) when designing production equipment and transportation facilities. A true industry-standard approach to predicting CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion does not exist, but there are similarities in existing approaches and models. This paper reviewed the Systematic Treatment of Pitting Sequence (SToPS) software program developed by the materials assessment team at Natural Resources Canada to predict the internal pitting corrosion rate of multiphase, oil producing, gas producing, oil transmission, and gas transmission pipelines. The main output of SToPS is the prediction of how long the pipe is safe. SToPS considers the pipeline to be safe until the depth of the deepest pit is 50 percent of the pipe wall thickness. In addition, SToPS predicts pH, wall shear stress, flow regime, as well as the probability of pitting corrosion. SToPS requires details about pipeline properties, production conditions of the pipeline and gas composition in order to accurately predict the pitting corrosion. SToPS calculates the pitting corrosion rate by combining the effect of 11 different operational parameters. This paper explained how each of these components affects the pitting corrosion rate and how to calculate their individual corrosion rates. The paper showed that each operational parameter can alter the pitting corrosion rate. There are currently 2 versions of SToPS, notably SToPS v1.1, and SToPS v2.0 which produces 7 different graphs to help the user understand the corrosion occurring in their pipeline over the production periods. 16 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  2. Superscalar pipelined inner product computation unit for signed unsigned number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra P. Rajput

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed superscalar pipelined inner product computation unit for signed-unsigned number operating at 16 GHz. This is designed using five stage pipelined operation with four 8 × 8 multipliers operating in parallel. Superscalar pipelined is designed to compute four 8 × 8 products in parallel in three clock cycles. In the fourth clock cycle of the pipeline operation, two inner products are computed using two adders in parallel. Fifth stage of the pipeline is designed to compute the final product by adding two inner partial products. Upon the pipeline is filled up, every clock cycle the new product of 16 × 16-bit signed unsigned number is obtained. The worst delay measured among the pipeline stage is 0.062 ns, and this delay is considered as the clock cycle period. With the delay of 0.062 ns clock cycle period, the pipeline stage can be operated with 16 GHz synchronous clock signal. Each superscalar pipeline stage is implemented using 45 nm CMOS process technology, and the comparison of results shows that the delay is decreased by 38%, area is reduced by 45% and power dissipation is saved by 32%.

  3. Natural Gas Gathering and Transporting Pipeline Networks in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xuehou

    1995-01-01

    @@ It is over 30 years since Baxian-Chongqing Gas Transmission Pipeline has been put into operation in 1960s. So far approximately 8 000 km pipelines of various kinds have been built in Sichuan, among which about 1 800 km are gas pipelines (the maximum diameter of 720 mm ),therefor a gathering pipeline system has been established which connects more than 80 gas fields over ten of major industrial cities in Sichuan, such as Chengdu, Chongqing,Zigong, Luzhou, Daxian, Deyang, Mianyang, Nanchong,and more than 600 large and medium size end-users and the chemical fertilizer manufacturing bases in the neighboring provinces of Yunnan and Guizhou.

  4. Amateur Image Pipeline Processing using Python plus PyRAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Wayne

    2012-05-01

    A template pipeline spanning observing planning to publishing is offered as a basis for establishing a long term observing program. The data reduction pipeline encapsulates all policy and procedures, providing an accountable framework for data analysis and a teaching framework for IRAF. This paper introduces the technical details of a complete pipeline processing environment using Python, PyRAF and a few other languages. The pipeline encapsulates all processing decisions within an auditable framework. The framework quickly handles the heavy lifting of image processing. It also serves as an excellent teaching environment for astronomical data management and IRAF reduction decisions.

  5. Toward a graphical user interface for the SPIRE spectrometer pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordenovic, C.; Surace, C.; Baluteau, J. P.; Benielli, D.; Davis, P.; Fulton, T.

    2008-08-01

    Herschel is a satellite mission led by ESA and involving an international consortium of countries. The HCSS is in charge of the data processing pipeline. This pipeline is written in Jython and includes java classes. We present a convenient way for a user to deal with SPIRE photometer and spectrometer pipeline scripts. The provided Graphical User Interface is built up automatically from Jython script. The user can choose tasks to be executed, parameterise them and set breakpoints during the pipeline execution. Results can be displayed and saved in FITS and VOTable formats.

  6. Satellites and solid state electronics test concrete pressure water pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumo, John; Worthington, Will

    2000-06-01

    Like all structures, water pressure pipelines have a finite life. Pipelines will eventually begin to fail, leaving the pipeline owner to deal with the quandary: what caused this to happen, can we prevent future failures, must we replace this structure now? The causes for pipeline failure include defects and anomalies which may occur in any phase of a pipeline's life: during the engineering, the manufacture, the construction, or the operation. Failure may simply be the result of environmental conditions or old age. In the past five years, passive acoustic emission detection technology has been adapted to concrete pressure pipelines. This method of inspection is based on the caustic emissions made by the prestressed reinforcing wire as it releases its energy. A recently patented method of using this technology relies on a series of remote, independent test stations to detect, record and time-stamp these acoustic emissions. A low-powered, high- performance embedded processor system makes use of global positioning system time signals to synchronize multiple stations. These methods are re-defining the standard of care of water pressure pipelines. This paper describes pipeline failure mechanisms and a state-of-the-art data sampling system which has been developed to evaluate pipeline structural integrity.

  7. Data reduction pipeline for the MMT Magellan Infrared Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Chilingarian, Igor; Fabricant, Daniel; McLeod, Brian; Roll, John; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We describe principal components of the new spectroscopic data pipeline for the multi-object MMT/Magellan Infrared Spectrograph (MMIRS). The pipeline is implemented in IDL and C++. The performance of the data processing algorithms is sufficient to reduce a single dataset in 2--3 min on a modern PC workstation so that one can use the pipeline as a quick-look tool during observations. We provide an example of the spectral data processed by our pipeline and demonstrate that the sky subtraction quality gets close to the limits set by the Poisson photon statistics.

  8. Quantitative risk analysis in two pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Euclides [Centro Universitario FIB, Salvador , BA (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Transportation risk analysis techniques were used to study two pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO. The Pipeline A is for the simultaneous transportation of diesel, gasoline and LPG and comprises three parts, all of them crossing rural areas. The Pipeline B is for oil transportation and one of its ends is located in an area of a high density population. Both pipelines had their risk studied using the PHAST RISK{sup R} software and the individual risk measures, the only considered measures for license purposes for this type of studies, presented level far below the maximum tolerable levels considered. (author)

  9. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-02-29

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.

  10. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ramirez

    Full Text Available The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196 were inactive, one-third (1,665 were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration.

  11. Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vicentini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps. It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

  12. PRIMO: An Interactive Homology Modeling Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenister, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The development of automated servers to predict the three-dimensional structure of proteins has seen much progress over the years. These servers make calculations simpler, but largely exclude users from the process. In this study, we present the PRotein Interactive MOdeling (PRIMO) pipeline for homology modeling of protein monomers. The pipeline eases the multi-step modeling process, and reduces the workload required by the user, while still allowing engagement from the user during every step. Default parameters are given for each step, which can either be modified or supplemented with additional external input. PRIMO has been designed for users of varying levels of experience with homology modeling. The pipeline incorporates a user-friendly interface that makes it easy to alter parameters used during modeling. During each stage of the modeling process, the site provides suggestions for novice users to improve the quality of their models. PRIMO provides functionality that allows users to also model ligands and ions in complex with their protein targets. Herein, we assess the accuracy of the fully automated capabilities of the server, including a comparative analysis of the available alignment programs, as well as of the refinement levels used during modeling. The tests presented here demonstrate the reliability of the PRIMO server when producing a large number of protein models. While PRIMO does focus on user involvement in the homology modeling process, the results indicate that in the presence of suitable templates, good quality models can be produced even without user intervention. This gives an idea of the base level accuracy of PRIMO, which users can improve upon by adjusting parameters in their modeling runs. The accuracy of PRIMO’s automated scripts is being continuously evaluated by the CAMEO (Continuous Automated Model EvaluatiOn) project. The PRIMO site is free for non-commercial use and can be accessed at https://primo.rubi.ru.ac.za/. PMID:27855192

  13. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  14. Materials Solutions for Hydrogen Delivery in Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ningileri, Shridas T.; Boggess, Todd A; Stalheim, Douglas

    2013-01-02

    The main objective of the study is as follows: Identify steel compositions/microstructures suitable for construction of new pipeline infrastructure and evaluate the potential use of the existing steel pipeline infrastructure in high pressure gaseous hydrogen applications. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 5.5 MPa (800 psi), 11 MPa (1600 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi). Based on reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best across the pressure range were selected for evaluation of fracture and fatigue performance in gaseous hydrogen at 5.5 MPa (800 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi). The basic format for this phase of the study is as follows: Microstructural characterization of volume fraction of phases in each alloy; Tensile testing of all four alloys in He and H{sub 2} at 5.5 MPa (800 psi), 11 MPa (1600 psi), and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi). RA performance was used to choose the two best performers for further mechanical property evaluation; Fracture testing (ASTM E1820) of two best tensile test performers in H{sub 2} at 5.5 MPa (800 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi); Fatigue testing (ASTM E647) of two best tensile test performers in H2 at 5.5 MPa (800 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi) with frequency =1.0 Hz and R-ratio=0.5 and 0.1.

  15. PRIMO: An Interactive Homology Modeling Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatherley, Rowan; Brown, David K; Glenister, Michael; Tastan Bishop, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    The development of automated servers to predict the three-dimensional structure of proteins has seen much progress over the years. These servers make calculations simpler, but largely exclude users from the process. In this study, we present the PRotein Interactive MOdeling (PRIMO) pipeline for homology modeling of protein monomers. The pipeline eases the multi-step modeling process, and reduces the workload required by the user, while still allowing engagement from the user during every step. Default parameters are given for each step, which can either be modified or supplemented with additional external input. PRIMO has been designed for users of varying levels of experience with homology modeling. The pipeline incorporates a user-friendly interface that makes it easy to alter parameters used during modeling. During each stage of the modeling process, the site provides suggestions for novice users to improve the quality of their models. PRIMO provides functionality that allows users to also model ligands and ions in complex with their protein targets. Herein, we assess the accuracy of the fully automated capabilities of the server, including a comparative analysis of the available alignment programs, as well as of the refinement levels used during modeling. The tests presented here demonstrate the reliability of the PRIMO server when producing a large number of protein models. While PRIMO does focus on user involvement in the homology modeling process, the results indicate that in the presence of suitable templates, good quality models can be produced even without user intervention. This gives an idea of the base level accuracy of PRIMO, which users can improve upon by adjusting parameters in their modeling runs. The accuracy of PRIMO's automated scripts is being continuously evaluated by the CAMEO (Continuous Automated Model EvaluatiOn) project. The PRIMO site is free for non-commercial use and can be accessed at https://primo.rubi.ru.ac.za/.

  16. 77 FR 34123 - Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... pipeline industry representatives on topics relating to their experiences implementing the distribution... to all. There is no cost to attend. The meeting will be held at the OMNI Hotel, 1300 Houston Street, Fort Worth, TX 76102-6556. Hotel reservations under the ``U.S. DOT DIMP'' room block for the nights of...

  17. SERPent: Scripted E-merlin Rfi-mitigation PipelinE for iNTerferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Luke W.; Fenech, Danielle M.

    2013-12-01

    SERPent is an automated reduction and RFI-mitigation procedure that uses the SumThreshold methodology. It was originally developed for the LOFAR pipeline. SERPent is written in Parseltongue, enabling interaction with the Astronomical Image Processing Software (AIPS) program. Moreover, SERPent is a simple "out of the box" Python script, which is easy to set up and is free of compilers.

  18. Deep water construction on live oil and gas pipelines using the SmartPlug high-pressure pipeline isolation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, Ralph; Tveit, Edd; Sauthier, Daniel [PSI, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The world first successful SmartPlug operation took place at the Dimlington process plant in UK in 1999. Since 1999, the SmartPlug system has been deployed on more than 80 projects worldwide allowing the operators to perform pipeline repair work, modifications, or tie-ins with the pipeline systems full of product, and at full production pressure. Mid-line applications of the SmartPlug system allows the operator to tie a new pipeline into an existing pipeline without displacing the oil or gas and eliminates time needed to flare, depressurize, empty the line and commission the line before start up. The first SmartPlug installations were done to isolate pig trap valves or ESD valve from the pipeline allowing the valve to be replaced at full pipeline pressure, and in some instances while production was flowing. Some pipelines have multiple platforms or fields tied in along the pipeline, and the SmartPlug system is frequently used to isolate a single platform to allow platform removal or riser repair without impacting the production flow in the remaining part of the pipeline system. (author)

  19. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100,...

  20. Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

    2014-06-01

    This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

  1. CADRE: The CArma Data REduction pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, D. N.

    2013-08-01

    The Combined Array for Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) data reduction pipeline (CADRE) has been developed to give investigators a first look at a fully reduced set of their data. It runs automatically on all data produced by the telescope as they arrive in the CARMA data archive. CADRE is written in Python and uses Python wrappers for MIRIAD subroutines for direct access to the data. It goes through the typical reduction procedures for radio telescope array data and produces a set of continuum and spectral line maps in both MIRIAD and FITS format. CADRE has been in production for nearly two years and this paper presents the current capabilities and planned development.

  2. CADRE: The CArma Data REduction pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Friedel, D N

    2013-01-01

    The Combined Array for Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) data reduction pipeline (CADRE) has been developed to give investigators a first look at a fully reduced set of their data. It runs automatically on all data produced by the telescope as they arrive in the CARMA data archive. CADRE is written in Python and uses Python wrappers for MIRIAD subroutines for direct access to the data. It goes through the typical reduction procedures for radio telescope array data and produces a set of continuum and spectral line maps in both MIRIAD and FITS format. CADRE has been in production for nearly two years and this paper presents the current capabilities and planned development.

  3. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  4. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  5. Leadership Pipeline i den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molly-Søholm, Thorkil; Dahl, Kristian Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    Teorien Leadership Pipeline er de seneste ca. ti år vundet kraftigt frem som en deskriptiv ramme for ledelse og som et styrende paradigme for store internationale koncerners ledelsesinfrastruktur (Kaiser, 2011). Teorien beskriver bl.a. hvilke færdigheder, prioriteter og arbejdsværdier, der skal til...... Leadership pipelineteoriens Gennem en række kvalitative fokusgruppeinterviews med 100 ledere fra forskellige lederniveauer blev der arbejdet med disse spørgsmål. Analysen af dataene indikerer, at teorien skal suppleres af otte kompetencefelter. Afslutningsvist diskuteres begrænsninger i forskningsdesignet...

  6. INCREASING COMBINATIONAL CIRCUIT PERFORMANCE VIA PIPELINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Pottosin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of increasing performance of a device with no memory, which develops a sequence of discrete signals, is considered. A problem is set to divide a given multilevel combinational circuit into a given number of cascades with registers providing pipeline-wise development of incoming signals. To solve this problem we use a model based on representation of combinational circuit as a directed graph. In the process of solving this problem, the frequency of incoming signals is established. This frequency must be as high as possible.

  7. On the modelling and the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities in pipeline-riser systems; Modelisation et analyse des instabilites d'ecoulements diphasiques dans les conduites petrolieres du type pipeline-riser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakarian, E.

    2000-03-10

    Recent estimations predict that over half the remaining offshore oil and gas reserves are located in deep water and marginal fields. For such reserves, economic recovery methods are required. Then, multiphase flows are transported within pipelines and separated on treatment platforms built in shallow water or processed in onshore facilities. Unfortunately, hydrodynamic instabilities may occur whenever gas and liquid flow in a pipeline, generating serious operating problems. This dissertation presents a new way to model two-phase flows in pipelines such as pipeline-riser systems. Equations are algebraic and differential. Their smoothness depends on the closure laws of the problem such as slip or friction laws. Smooth forms of these closure laws are presented for the first time in this dissertation. Therefore, a mathematical analysis of our model fits into a classical frame: a linear analysis leads to an analytical expression of the boundary between stable and unstable flows. A nonlinear analysis provides for the first time, the bifurcation curves of gas-liquid flows in pipe-riser systems, locally round their stability boundary. (author)

  8. Regulatory reform for natural gas pipelines: The effect on pipeline and distribution company share prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie

    1997-08-01

    The natural gas shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural gas industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural gas pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of gas. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural gas pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural gas industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural gas pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural gas pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in

  9. 77 FR 28331 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Request for additional... North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission... American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission, however,...

  10. 77 FR 56835 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Constitution Pipeline Project, Request for Comments on... environmental impacts of the proposed Constitution Pipeline Project (Project) involving construction...

  11. A graph-based approach for designing extensible pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maíra R; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Machado, Moara; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2012-07-12

    In bioinformatics, it is important to build extensible and low-maintenance systems that are able to deal with the new tools and data formats that are constantly being developed. The traditional and simplest implementation of pipelines involves hardcoding the execution steps into programs or scripts. This approach can lead to problems when a pipeline is expanding because the incorporation of new tools is often error prone and time consuming. Current approaches to pipeline development such as workflow management systems focus on analysis tasks that are systematically repeated without significant changes in their course of execution, such as genome annotation. However, more dynamism on the pipeline composition is necessary when each execution requires a different combination of steps. We propose a graph-based approach to implement extensible and low-maintenance pipelines that is suitable for pipeline applications with multiple functionalities that require different combinations of steps in each execution. Here pipelines are composed automatically by compiling a specialised set of tools on demand, depending on the functionality required, instead of specifying every sequence of tools in advance. We represent the connectivity of pipeline components with a directed graph in which components are the graph edges, their inputs and outputs are the graph nodes, and the paths through the graph are pipelines. To that end, we developed special data structures and a pipeline system algorithm. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach by implementing a format conversion pipeline for the fields of population genetics and genetic epidemiology, but our approach is also helpful in other fields where the use of multiple software is necessary to perform comprehensive analyses, such as gene expression and proteomics analyses. The project code, documentation and the Java executables are available under an open source license at http://code.google.com/p/dynamic-pipeline. The system

  12. Evaluation on ductile tearing properties of girth weld pipelines using SE(T) and SE(B) specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Leonardo Luiz Siqueira; Ruggieri, Claudio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Oceanica

    2012-07-01

    Predictive methodologies aimed at quantifying the impact of defects in oil and gas pipelines play a key role in safety assessment procedures of in-service facilities. Current methodologies for structural integrity assessments advocate the use of geometry dependent resistance curves so that crack-tip constraint in the test specimen closely matches the crack tip constraint for the structural component. Testing standards now under development to measure fracture resistance of pipeline steels (J and CTOD) most often employ single edge notched specimens under tension (SENT) to match a postulated defect in the structural component. This paper presents an investigation of the ductile tearing properties for a girth weld of an API 5L X80 pipeline steel using experimentally measured crack growth resistance curves (J-R curves). Testing of the girth weld pipeline steels employed side-grooved, clamped SE(T) specimen with center-crack weld and side-grooved, three-point bending SE(B) (or SENB) specimens to determine the J-R curves. The methods were compared in terms of geometry, relative crack size and crack-tip constraint, and the results were applied to a case study, to evaluate the degree of conservativeness in defect acceptance criteria. The tests involving SE(B) specimens are usually considered conservative, however, the comparison between this two methods may point an accurate alternative for girth weld assessments, since adequate geometry is adopted to describe accurately the structure's behavior. (author)

  13. Evaluation on ductile tearing properties of girth weld pipelines using SE(T) and SE(B) specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Leonardo Luiz Siqueira; Ruggieri, Claudio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Oceanica

    2012-07-01

    Predictive methodologies aimed at quantifying the impact of defects in oil and gas pipelines play a key role in safety assessment procedures of in-service facilities. Current methodologies for structural integrity assessments advocate the use of geometry dependent resistance curves so that crack-tip constraint in the test specimen closely matches the crack tip constraint for the structural component. Testing standards now under development to measure fracture resistance of pipeline steels (J and CTOD) most often employ single edge notched specimens under tension (SENT) to match a postulated defect in the structural component. This paper presents an investigation of the ductile tearing properties for a girth weld of an API 5L X80 pipeline steel using experimentally measured crack growth resistance curves (J-R curves). Testing of the girth weld pipeline steels employed side-grooved, clamped SE(T) specimen with center-crack weld and side-grooved, three-point bending SE(B) (or SENB) specimens to determine the J-R curves. The methods were compared in terms of geometry, relative crack size and crack-tip constraint, and the results were applied to a case study, to evaluate the degree of conservativeness in defect acceptance criteria. The tests involving SE(B) specimens are usually considered conservative, however, the comparison between this two methods may point an accurate alternative for girth weld assessments, since adequate geometry is adopted to describe accurately the structure's behavior. (author)

  14. Baia de Guanabara pipelines - rehabilitation and integrity management; Reabilitacao e gerenciamento da integridade dos dutos da Baia de Guanabara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ricardo D. de; Matsuura, Minoru [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In 2001 PETROBRAS implemented a new Standard for Pipeline Structural Integrity Management of PETROBRAS (PID). All pipelines operated by PETROBRAS had to be adapted to the new requirements imposed by this Standard. When this standard was applied to the Guanabara Bay pipeline many facilities had to be adapted, new inspection procedures implemented and inspection reports reviewed. The first action was to map all pipelines, using a range of techniques, to determine their accurate 3D position. The sections not buried were inspected by divers to identify free spans that exceeded the recommended limits. Launchers were installed in the lines going to the piers to allow in-line inspection. This inspection detected many dents caused by vessels, internal corrosion and external corrosion in the inter-tidal zone. The corrosion monitoring system was redesigned and new monitoring points were installed to provide more accurate information on the high risk areas. The cathodic protection system was adapted to provide remote monitoring and data analysis. A new routine of geotechnical inspections, on-shore inspections and helicopter surveys has been implemented. Defects identified by the in-line inspection have been assessed in a conservative way and all lines have been hydrostatically tested to demonstrate continued fitness for purpose. (author)

  15. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2008,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 6.3×104 km.These pipelines include 3.2×104 km of natural gas pipelines,1.8×104 km of crude oil pipelines and 1.3×104 km of oil products pipelines,laying the foundation for establishing a network of trans-regional oil and gas pipelines.

  16. Economic model of pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-07-29

    The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

  17. Quantitative risk analysis preoperational of gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredi, Carlos; Bispo, Gustavo G.; Esteves, Alvaro [Gie S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to predict how it can be affected the individual risk and the public's general security due to the operation of a gas pipeline. In case that the single or social risks are considered intolerable, compared with the international standards, to be recommended measures of mitigation of the risk associated to the operation until levels that can be considered compatible with the best practices in the industry. The quantitative risk analysis calculates the probability of occurrence of an event based on the frequency of occurrence of the same one and it requires a complex mathematical treatment. The present work has as objective to develop a calculation methodology based on the previously mentioned publication. This calculation methodology is centered in defining the frequencies of occurrence of events, according to representative database of each case in study. Besides, it settles down the consequences particularly according to the considerations of each area and the different possibilities of interferences with the gas pipeline in study. For each one of the interferences a typical curve of ignition probabilities is developed in function from the distance to the pipe. (author)

  18. Repair of gas pipelines by explosive welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al' shanov, A.P.; Gokhstein, B.E.; Lemyakin, V.P.; Nesterenko, V.Y.; Spirin, V.A.; Rakitin, V.N.

    1980-07-01

    Explosive cladding of the external surfaces of longitudinal sections of large-diameter gas pipelines may be a good way to repair local sections damaged by corrosion. This technique ensures the uniform deposition of a protective coating of metal over pitting damage that extends to varying depths. The technique was successfully applied to 0.45-in. (9 mm) thick plate specimens of 17G2S steel, with machine defects, using 0.2-in. thick strips of 08kp steel as cladding. The explosive had a detonation rate of 11,000 ft/s, making possible a shock-wave speed of 1500-2000 ft/s. Hardness analysis of the joint area indicated a stress-hardening effect at the interface. Based on the success of the tests, further trials were conducted on gas pipelines of 21, 28, and 40-in. diameter made from 17G1S steel, using 0.1-0.2 in. thick strips of cladding. Tests showed that the clad areas had strengths equivalent to those of the base metal.

  19. PHOTOMETRYPIPELINE: An automated pipeline for calibrated photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, M.

    2017-01-01

    PHOTOMETRYPIPELINE (PP) is an automated pipeline that produces calibrated photometry from imaging data through image registration, aperture photometry, photometric calibration, and target identification with only minimal human interaction. PP utilizes the widely used Source Extractor software for source identification and aperture photometry; SCAMP is used for image registration. Both image registration and photometric calibration are based on matching field stars with star catalogs, requiring catalog coverage of the respective field. A number of different astrometric and photometric catalogs can be queried online. Relying on a sufficient number of background stars for image registration and photometric calibration, PP is well-suited to analyze data from small to medium-sized telescopes. Calibrated magnitudes obtained by PP are typically accurate within ≤0.03 mag and astrometric accuracies are of the order of 0.3 arcsec relative to the catalogs used in the registration. The pipeline consists of an open-source software suite written in Python 2.7, can be run on Unix-based systems on a simple desktop machine, and is capable of realtime data analysis. PP has been developed for observations of moving targets, but can be used for analyzing point source observations of any kind.

  20. A parallel-pipelining software process model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Software process is a framework for effective and timely delivery of software system. The framework plays a crucial role for software success. However, the development of large-scale software still faces the crisis of high risks, low quality, high costs and long cycle time.This paper proposed a three-phase parallel-pipelining software process model for improving speed and productivity, and reducing software costs and risks without sacrificing software quality. In this model, two strategies were presented. One strategy, based on subsystem-cost priority, Was used to prevent software development cost wasting and to reduce software complexity as well; the other strategy, used for balancing subsystem complexity, was designed to reduce the software complexity in the later development stages. Moreover. The proposed function-detailed and workload-simplified subsystem pipelining software process model presents much higher parallelity than the concurrent incremental model. Finally, the component-based product line technology not only ensures software quality and further reduces cycle time, software costs. And software risks but also sufficiently and rationally utilizes previous software product resources and enhances the competition ability of software development organizations.

  1. Toward cognitive pipelines of medical assistance algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Patrick; Maleshkova, Maria; Katic, Darko; Weber, Christian; Götz, Michael; Rettinger, Achim; Speidel, Stefanie; Kämpgen, Benedikt; Nolden, Marco; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Kenngott, Hannes; Müller, Beat; Studer, Rudi

    2016-09-01

    Assistance algorithms for medical tasks have great potential to support physicians with their daily work. However, medicine is also one of the most demanding domains for computer-based support systems, since medical assistance tasks are complex and the practical experience of the physician is crucial. Recent developments in the area of cognitive computing appear to be well suited to tackle medicine as an application domain. We propose a system based on the idea of cognitive computing and consisting of auto-configurable medical assistance algorithms and their self-adapting combination. The system enables automatic execution of new algorithms, given they are made available as Medical Cognitive Apps and are registered in a central semantic repository. Learning components can be added to the system to optimize the results in the cases when numerous Medical Cognitive Apps are available for the same task. Our prototypical implementation is applied to the areas of surgical phase recognition based on sensor data and image progressing for tumor progression mappings. Our results suggest that such assistance algorithms can be automatically configured in execution pipelines, candidate results can be automatically scored and combined, and the system can learn from experience. Furthermore, our evaluation shows that the Medical Cognitive Apps are providing the correct results as they did for local execution and run in a reasonable amount of time. The proposed solution is applicable to a variety of medical use cases and effectively supports the automated and self-adaptive configuration of cognitive pipelines based on medical interpretation algorithms.

  2. Natural gas pipelines for biomethane distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, Monika [PGNiG SA, Warszawa (Poland). Centrala Spolki

    2011-07-01

    The study reveals natural gas pipelines of high and medium pressure in Poland and Baltic countries, such as: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden, Germany, Finland and the Kaliningrad Oblast. The basic aim of the study was assessing the possibility of injecting biogas produced in biogas plants to the gas network or its use as CNG fuel delivered via pipeline directly to the station. Characterized qualitative factors for the transmission of the biogas (purified to the natural gas) in existing gas networks and proposes the location of the biogas plants in relation to the deployment of these networks. The study shows existing solutions of the distribution of biomethane in selected countries bordering the Baltic Sea, and analyzes the cross-border transmission capacity of the gas. The article also contains a characterization and assessment of legal and economic conditions affecting the use of biomethane processes as fuel for motor vehicles. It also shows the main priorities in this area and environmental and social benefits arising from the production and use of biomethane as a motor fuel. (orig.)

  3. Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle

    2005-12-30

    The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

  4. Use of pipe saks on pipeline construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghio, Alberto F.M.; Caciatori, Angelo [Galvao Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ruschi, Allan A.; Santos, Felipe A. dos; Barros, Horacio B. de; Loureiro, Regis R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of new technologies applied to pipeline construction and assembling, aimed at enhancing productivity has been searched by PETROBRAS, throughout its subcontractors, assemblers, by transference in the mentioned constructions. Along the construction of Cacimbas Catu Pipeline, Spread 1 A, placed between the Cacimbas Gas Treatment Station (Linhares, ES) and the future Compression Station of Sao Mateus (ES), one, by means of surveys, noticed that the length of flooded or prone to flooding areas was way superior to the ones foreseen in the basic design. One of the broadly used methods for assuring buoyancy control is concreting the pipes. Such method deeply impacts work's logistics in for instance, the pipe stringing work; in this one, a maximum load of two pipes can be transported until the area to applied, what leads to lower productivity and higher risk due to the increase of trips by heavy load trucks. As an alternative to regular concrete, the Pipe Sak System was adopted and such method improved productivity and decreased discontinuities. (author)

  5. Recovery of blended product pipeline slops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, A.W. [Process Consulting Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Both product pipeline operation and terminal blending often generate slops consisting of mixed hydrocarbon streams. Typical slops dispositions include local burning of the fuel for heat or power generation or reshipment to a refinery in a crude stream. Both of these dispositions can incur significant economic penalties. An alternative is the use of a small local plant for the separation of the streams back into pipeline products. This is achievable as long as blend stocks rather then final products containing performance additives are being separated. Final products (gasoline, diesel) contain additives and blending components difficult to handle within the constraints of a small process unit. A proposed multi-product separation unit is presented. The case investigated shows the process configuration required for a unit to process a range of mixtures containing material from LPG to atmospheric gas oil. The material presented includes the plant flow scheme, identification of major equipment, and overall sizing of major equipment. The study results summarize the investment and operating costs of the unit compared to the values of the recoverable products.

  6. Thermoplastic liners for carbon steel pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi, Mauyed S.; AlDossary, Abdullah K. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-12-19

    Materials selection for pipe and fittings used to convey corrosive fluids has often been a challenge. Traditionally, exotic Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA) have been used in corrosive environments despite their high cost. Plastic lined carbon steel piping offers a cost effective alternative to the use of CRAs by eliminating corrosion, significantly reducing the use of toxic chemicals and the heavy metal usually present in CRAs. Thermoplastic Liners offer the combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical strength, which are unachievable with singular materials. Under pressure conditions, the liner is fully supported by the metalwork, while under vacuum conditions, the liner must be thick enough along with venting system to withstand the collapsing forces created by the negative pressure. Plastic liners have been used successfully to line and protect metallic pipelines for many years and have become an indispensable requirement of the oil and gas industry particularly with water injection and hydrocarbon services. In the case of internally corroded pipes, the use of thermoplastic liners for rehabilitation is an option to extend the lifetime of companies' assets, reduce maintenance cost and increase intervals between T and Is. For new construction, plastic liners in carbon steel pipes can compete technically and economically with pipelines of CRA materials and other corrosion inhibition systems. This paper describes various design features, installations of thermoplastic liners in comparison to other corrosion inhibition methods. (author)

  7. 78 FR 55775 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities... request a three-year term of approval for each information collection activity and, when approved by OMB....), this notice announces that the Information Collection Request abstracted below is being forwarded...

  8. 76 FR 45904 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...; (5) Abstract of the information collection activity; (6) Description of affected public; (7) Estimate... ] request a three-year term of approval for each information collection activity. PHMSA requests comments...

  9. 76 FR 65778 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities... of the information collection activity; (6) Description of affected public; (7) Estimate of total..., PHMSA will request a three-year term of approval for each information collection activity. PHMSA...

  10. 77 FR 58622 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities... on a new information collection (IC) to help determine the effectiveness of PHMSA's 811 Public... comments on this information collection was published on July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39797). No comments...

  11. 75 FR 77694 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...; (3) Type of request; (4) Abstract of the information collection activity; (5) Description of affected.... PHMSA will request a three-year term of approval for this information collection activity....

  12. 78 FR 16764 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities... for Comments on a Previously Approved Information Collection. SUMMARY: In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), this notice announces that the...

  13. 75 FR 76078 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate AGENCY... percentage rate for random drug testing. SUMMARY: PHMSA has determined that the minimum random drug testing... percentage of covered employees for random drug testing. Pursuant to 49 CFR 199.105(c)(2), (3), and (4), the...

  14. 77 FR 2606 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate AGENCY... Percentage Rate for Random Drug Testing. SUMMARY: PHMSA has determined that the minimum random drug testing... percentage of covered employees for random drug testing. Pursuant to 49 CFR 199.105(c)(2), (3), and (4), the...

  15. 75 FR 9018 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate AGENCY... Percentage Rate for Random Drug Testing. SUMMARY: PHMSA has determined that the minimum random drug testing... percentage of covered employees for random drug testing. Pursuant to 49 CFR 199.105(c)(2), (3), and (4), the...

  16. West-to-East Pipeline Entirely Comes under Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhicheng

    2002-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West-to-East Pipleline Company announced at a press conference held in February that the Chinese Government has formally approved the feasibility study report of the nation-crossing pipeline, marking that the 4200-kilometer pipeline project was brought under construction.

  17. Permanent cathodic protection monitoring systems for offshore pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jim [Deepwater Corrosion Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Historically offshore pipeline cathodic protection monitoring has relied on the use of portable survey techniques. This has typically relied on ROV assisted or surface deployed survey methods. These methods have been shown to have technical as well as economic shortcomings, this is particularly true of buried offshore pipelines where accuracy is always questionable. As more focus is being placed on offshore pipeline integrity, it was time for a new method to emerge. The technology discussed involves the retro-placement of permanent clamp-on monitors onto the pipeline which can measure pipeline to seawater potential as well as current density. The sensors can be interrogated locally using light powered subsea voltage readouts. Application of the technology can be either during pipeline construction, during installation of life extension CP systems, or during routine subsea pipeline interventions. The new method eliminates the need for long cables or expensive acoustic or modulated data transfer and provides all the information required to fully verify CP system performance, thus eliminating the need for expensive close-interval surveys. Some deployment case histories will be presented along with feasibility of application on deep water pipelines and comparative economics. (author)

  18. Pipelined CPU Design with FPGA in Teaching Computer Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Seung Eun; Yu, Heon Chang; Suh, Taeweon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a pipelined CPU design project with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) system in a computer architecture course. The class project is a five-stage pipelined 32-bit MIPS design with experiments on the Altera DE2 board. For proper scheduling, milestones were set every one or two weeks to help students complete the project on…

  19. Pipeline river crossing studies; Estudos de travessias de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Marcos de Castro; Stasiak, Luciano; Silva, Alessandra de Barros e [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This work has for objective to guide the execution of study of pipelines crossings under courses of water, channels, flooded areas and reservoirs. The study seeks the minimal risks to the pipelines, be them anthropics, geotechnics, hydraulics or environmental, as in the implantation phase as of operation. It also seeks to determine which is the best constructive method for the crossing in question. (author)

  20. Simpson's Paradox in the Interpretation of "Leaky Pipeline" Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Paul H.; Walton, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional "leaky pipeline" plots are widely used to inform gender equality policy and practice. Herein, we demonstrate how a statistical phenomenon known as Simpson's paradox can obscure trends in gender "leaky pipeline" plots. Our approach has been to use Excel spreadsheets to generate hypothetical "leaky…

  1. 76 FR 4103 - ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Filing January 13, 2011. Take notice that on December 30, 2010, ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC submitted a request for a waiver of the...

  2. 18 CFR 284.122 - Transportation by intrastate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commission approval, transport natural gas on behalf of: (1) Any interstate pipeline; or (2) Any local... interstate pipeline or local distribution company has physical custody of and transports the natural gas at... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  3. QUANTITATIVE RISK MAPPING OF URBAN GAS PIPELINE NETWORKS USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Azari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is considered an important source of energy in the world. By increasing growth of urbanization, urban gas pipelines which transmit natural gas from transmission pipelines to consumers, will become a dense network. The increase in the density of urban pipelines will influence probability of occurring bad accidents in urban areas. These accidents have a catastrophic effect on people and their property. Within the next few years, risk mapping will become an important component in urban planning and management of large cities in order to decrease the probability of accident and to control them. Therefore, it is important to assess risk values and determine their location on urban map using an appropriate method. In the history of risk analysis of urban natural gas pipeline networks, the pipelines has always been considered one by one and their density in urban area has not been considered. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of several pipelines on the risk value of a specific grid point. This paper outlines a quantitative risk assessment method for analysing the risk of urban natural gas pipeline networks. It consists of two main parts: failure rate calculation where the EGIG historical data are used and fatal length calculation that involves calculation of gas release and fatality rate of consequences. We consider jet fire, fireball and explosion for investigating the consequences of gas pipeline failure. The outcome of this method is an individual risk and is shown as a risk map.

  4. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 250.1002 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way... effects of water currents, storm or ice scouring, soft bottoms, mud slides, earthquakes, subfreezing...

  5. 76 FR 26793 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Company (Belle Fourche). Belle Fourche is seeking relief from compliance with certain requirements in the... special permit from the Belle Fourche Pipeline Company. Belle Fourche seeks relief from compliance with...: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal pipeline safety laws, PHMSA is re- publishing this notice to...

  6. Pipelined CPU Design with FPGA in Teaching Computer Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Seung Eun; Yu, Heon Chang; Suh, Taeweon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a pipelined CPU design project with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) system in a computer architecture course. The class project is a five-stage pipelined 32-bit MIPS design with experiments on the Altera DE2 board. For proper scheduling, milestones were set every one or two weeks to help students complete the project on…

  7. Optimal Design of Capsule Transporting Pipeline carrying Spherical Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh; Ubbi, Kuldip

    2012-05-01

    A capsule pipeline transports material or cargo in capsules propelled by fluid flowing through a pipeline. The cargo may either be contained in capsules (such as wheat enclosed inside sealed cylindrical containers), or may itself be the capsules (such as coal compressed into the shape of a cylinder or sphere). As the concept of capsule transportation is relatively new, the capsule pipelines need to be designed optimally for commercial viability. An optimal design of such a pipeline would have minimum pressure drop due to the presence of the solid medium in the pipeline, which corresponds to minimum head loss and hence minimum pumping power required to drive the capsules and the transporting fluid. The total cost for the manufacturing and maintenance of such pipelines is yet another important variable that needs to be considered for the widespread commercial acceptance of capsule transporting pipelines. To address this, the optimisation technique presented here is based on the least-cost principle. Pressure drop relationships have been incorporated to calculate the pumping requirements for the system. The maintenance and manufacturing costs have been computed separately to analyse their effects on the optimisation process. A design example has been included to show the usage of the model presented. The results indicate that for a specific throughput, there exists an optimum diameter of the pipeline for which the total cost for the piping system is at its minimum.

  8. 78 FR 37217 - KPC Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission KPC Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 30, 2013, KPC Pipeline, LLC filed a request for partial exemption from the affiliate standards of conduct set forth in Part 358 of the Federal Energy...

  9. China-Russia Oil Pipeline Comes under Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The long-awaited oil pipeline linking Russia's far east to China's northeast is set to start operation by the end of 2010, Zhou Jiping, Vice President of ChinaNational Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) confirmed in Beijing at a conference in late April. The pipeline runs from Skovorodino, Russia to China's northeastern city of Daqing.

  10. China Shows Concerns Over Chinese-Russian Crude Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Russia's news media reported on September 3 that the Russian Natural Resources would finally give up the plan raised by Yugos,Russia's private oil producer, to construct the crude oil pipeline from Russia's Angarsk to China's Daqing. The Russian segment of the pipeline is about 1450 kilometers while the Chinese segment is 795 kilometers.

  11. Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Shi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV, WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.

  12. Common Data Analysis Pipeline | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CPTAC supports analyses of the mass spectrometry raw data (mapping of spectra to peptide sequences and protein identification) for the public using a Common Data Analysis Pipeline (CDAP). The data types available on the public portal are described below. A general overview of this pipeline can be downloaded here. Mass Spectrometry Data Formats RAW (Vendor) Format

  13. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  14. Pargo/Garoupa 22'' crude oil pipeline from reconstruction to inspection: stages of the pipeline rehabilitation into the standard of guarantee of structural integrity; Oleoduto Pargo/Garoupa 22'' da reconstrucao a inspecao: etapas de re-habilitacao de um duto ao padrao de garantia de integridade estrutural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Aldo Renato; Bueno, Sergio Ibaje Oliveira; Medeiros, Carlos Eduardo Amosso; Mori, Eduardo Teruo; Melo, Francimario da Silva Vieira de; Ribeiro, Jussara Carvalho; Moura Neto, Rodolfo Jose de [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos

    2003-07-01

    The Pipeline Pargo/Garoupa 22'' is 17 km long transfers the production of six platforms of the Northeast Pole for the Garoupa Central platform in Campos' Basin. This pipeline works with a flowrate of 450 m{sup 3}/h and it began to operate in 1987. The existence of a non-piggable sub sea manifold 500 meters down stream PGP-1 allied with receiver's absence impeded the passage of any type of pigs. The strategic importance of the pipeline allied with the need of operational safety assurance took PETROBRAS/UN-BC to the decision of building a pigs receiver in PGP-1 and to reestablish pig ability assembling a new riser and a new sub sea pipeline covering 500 meters, both in the diameter of 22 inches. After the conclusion, it was carried out a long campaign of cleaning, with emphasis in the development new drawings of specific pigs for the removal of the internal debris accumulated since the beginning of the operation. Several accessories were developed in order to improve the removal and arresting of wax and barium sulfate scale. Finally, the pipeline was inspected with a high resolution MFL pig. The present work describes all the stages of this pipeline rehabilitation, from the adaptation of the submarine facilities and of surface, going by the extensive campaign of cleaning and culminated with the inspection and the evaluation of the integrity. (author)

  15. Energy study of pipeline transportation systems. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-12-31

    The basic objectives of the overall study were to (1) characterize the pipeline industry and understand its energy consumption in each of the five major pipeline-industry segments: gas, oil, slurry, fresh water, and waste water; (2) identify opportunities for energy conservation in the pipeline industry, and to recommend the necessary R, D, and D programs to exploit those opportunities; (3) characterize and understand the influence of the Federal government on introduction of energy conservative innovations into the pipeline industry; and (4) assess the future potential of the pipeline industry for growth and for contribution to the national goal of energy conservation. This project final report is an executive summary presenting the results from the seven task reports.

  16. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

  17. Forecasting and Evaluation of Gas Pipelines Geometric Forms Breach Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, K. S.

    2016-10-01

    Main gas pipelines during operation are under the influence of the permanent pressure drops which leads to their lengthening and as a result, to instability of their position in space. In dynamic systems that have feedback, phenomena, preceding emergencies, should be observed. The article discusses the forced vibrations of the gas pipeline cylindrical surface under the influence of dynamic loads caused by pressure surges, and the process of its geometric shape deformation. Frequency of vibrations, arising in the pipeline at the stage preceding its bending, is being determined. Identification of this frequency can be the basis for the development of a method of monitoring the technical condition of the gas pipeline, and forecasting possible emergency situations allows planning and carrying out in due time reconstruction works on sections of gas pipeline with a possible deviation from the design position.

  18. Research on Optimization Operation of Urban Gas Pipeline Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田一梅; 迟海燕; 李鸿; 周颖

    2003-01-01

    The optimization operation of gas pipeline network is investigated in this paper. Based on the theories of system optimization and the multi-object decision, a mathematical model about the multi-object optimization operation of gas pipeline network is established, in line with the demand of urban gas pipeline network operation. At the same time, an effective solution of the mathematical model is presented. A calculating software about optimization operation is compiled, coupling the actual operation of gas pipeline network. It can be applied to the operation of the gas pipeline network. The software was examined by real examples. The results indicated that 2.13%00 energy consumption and 3.12%oo gas supply cost can be reduced through optimization operation.

  19. Data as a Service: A Seismic Web Service Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, E.

    2016-12-01

    Publishing data as a service pipeline provides an improved, dynamic approach over static data archives. A service pipeline is a collection of micro web services that each perform a specific task and expose the results of that task. Structured request/response formats allow micro web services to be chained together into a service pipeline to provide more complex results. The U.S. Geological Survey adopted service pipelines to publish seismic hazard and design data supporting both specific and generalized audiences. The seismic web service pipeline starts at source data and exposes probability and deterministic hazard curves, response spectra, risk-targeted ground motions, and seismic design provision metadata. This pipeline supports public/private organizations and individual engineers/researchers. Publishing data as a service pipeline provides a variety of benefits. Exposing the component services enables advanced users to inspect or use the data at each processing step. Exposing a composite service enables new users quick access to published data with a very low barrier to entry. Advanced users may re-use micro web services by chaining them in new ways or injecting new micros services into the pipeline. This allows the user to test hypothesis and compare their results to published results. Exposing data at each step in the pipeline enables users to review and validate the data and process more quickly and accurately. Making the source code open source, per USGS policy, further enables this transparency. Each micro service may be scaled independent of any other micro service. This ensures data remains available and timely in a cost-effective manner regardless of load. Additionally, if a new or more efficient approach to processing the data is discovered, this new approach may replace the old approach at any time, keeping the pipeline running while not affecting other micro services.

  20. Effective strategies for development of thermal heavy oil field facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ken; Lehnert-Thiel, Gunter [IMV Projects (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In thermal heavy oil, a significant part of the capital has to be invested in field facilities and therefore strategies have to be implemented to optimize these costs. Field facilities consist of pipelines, earthworks and production pads whose purpose is to connect an oilsands reservoir to a central processing facility. This paper, presented by IMV Projects, a leading company in the thermal heavy oil field, highlights strategies to manage field facility lifecycle cost. Upfront planning should be done and the development of field facilities should be thought of as a long term infrastructure program rather than a stand-alone project. In addition, templates should be developed to save money and repeatability should be implemented to obtain a better prediction of the program's costs. The strategies presented herein allow major savings over the program's life by implementing an improved schedule and allowing refinements all along the program's course.

  1. Improved cost models for optimizing CO2 pipeline configuration for point-to-point pipelines and simple networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M. M. J.; Guijt, W.; Ramirez, A.; Faaij, A. P. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new cost model is developed for CO2 pipeline transport, which starts with the physical properties of CO2 transport and includes different kinds of steel grades and up-to-date material and construction costs. This pipeline cost model is used for a new developed tool to determine the

  2. 77 FR 52018 - Kinder Morgan Pony Express Pipeline LLC; Belle Fourche Pipeline Company; Notice of Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Pony Express Pipeline LLC; Belle Fourche Pipeline Company...) of the Commission's Rules of Practices and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2012), Kinder Morgan...

  3. TPH and PAH concentrations in the subsoil of polyduct segments, oil pipeline pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines from Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Castro, Alejandrina; Perez, Guillermina; Flores, Carlos; Torres, Luis G.

    2008-10-01

    For the year 1996, 366 incidents related with clandestine poaching of oil-products were reported in Mexico, 159 in 1997, and 240 in 1998. For the year 2003 (the most recently reported figure), there were 136 events. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has developed programs oriented to diminish contamination levels in all of its oil facilities. This work was aimed at characterizing zones around polyduct segments, pipelines, pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines located in the center of Mexico. The TPH contaminated sites were, in decreasing order, polyduct km 39 + 150 > polyduct km 25 + 020 > Zoquital > Tepetitlan > Catalina > Venta Prieta > Ceiba. Most of the sampled points showed the presence of more than one of the 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants. Except point TEPE 2A, where no PAHs were detected, all the sampled points showed values from low to medium concentrations; however, values found at the sites did not exceed the limits according to the Mexican or the American legislation. The place with the largest contaminated area corresponded to the polyduct km 39 + 150, with 130 m2 and 260 m3 to be treated. The least contaminated area was that around the JUAN 4 point at Juandho station, with 20 m2 and 22 m3 of contaminated soil. The total area to be treated is about 230 m2 and 497 m3.

  4. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research FacilityFacilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  5. Theme: Laboratory Facilities Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glen M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Laboratory Facilities Improvement" (Miller); "Remodeling Laboratories for Agriscience Instruction" (Newman, Johnson); "Planning for Change" (Mulcahy); "Laboratory Facilities Improvement for Technology Transfer" (Harper); "Facilities for Agriscience Instruction" (Agnew et al.); "Laboratory Facility Improvement" (Boren, Dwyer); and…

  6. Vegetation assessment in a pipeline influence area: the case study of PETROBRAS ammonia pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Porciano, Patricia P.; Bonafini, Fabio L. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: patriciapp.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: bonafini.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P.; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Vieira, Elisa D.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: elisav@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    This ammonia pipeline is about 30 km long and links the Fertilizer Plant (FAFEN-BA) to the Urea Marine Terminal (TMU) at the Port of Aratu in Candeias (Bahia State, Brazil). In this study, we characterize the remnants of vegetation and quantify the Permanent Preservation Areas. Furthermore, we propose areas and techniques for their recovery and / or management. The methodology was based on the Rapid Ecological Assessment, which combines selection of areas through remote sensing image analysis, with rapid field campaigns in the selected points. This methodology, successfully applied in PETROBRAS refineries, is first applied in a pipeline influence area. During these campaigns, the main aspects of vegetation, such as phyto physiognomy and ecological succession stages, were registered in field data sheets prepared for this purpose. The most representative remnants of vegetation that could be quantified were Atlantic Forest fragments, as well as those in the Permanent Preservation Areas. (author)

  7. Pipeline for Tracking Neural Progenitor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Holm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Automated methods for neural stem cell lineage construction become increasingly important due to the large amount of data produced from time lapse imagery of in vitro cell growth experiments. Segmentation algorithms with the ability to adapt to the problem at hand and robust tracking methods play...... a key role in constructing these lineages. We present here a tracking pipeline based on learning a dictionary of discriminative image patches for segmentation and a graph formulation of the cell matching problem incorporating topology changes and acknowledging the fact that segmentation errors do occur....... A matched filter for detection of mitotic candidates is constructed to ensure that cell division is only allowed in the model when relevant. Potentially the combination of these robust methods can simplify the initiation of cell lineage construction and extraction of statistics....

  8. Grooving corrosion of seam welded oil pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hanafy El-Sayed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 24” pipeline carrying oil was failed in the form of longitudinal crack at the 6 O’clock position resulting in oil spill. The failed pipe was investigated to reveal the main cause of its failure. The procedure of investigation was built on studying the intact pipe, rupture area, parent material, and intact weld. Results of chemical analysis, mechanical properties, and microstructure of the pipe material were confirmed with the specified standard. Cracks were originated from weld defected sites, initiated by grooving corrosion, propagated by inertia at the normal designed pressure condition, and stopped when stress relief is attained. It is recommended to use high quality ERW pipe, with its seam weld line positioned around the 12 O’clock during installation, to minimize and decelerate grooving corrosion. It is also important to perform regular or routine inspection, on suitable intervals, determined by past experience.

  9. SAND: Automated VLBI imaging and analyzing pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming

    2016-05-01

    The Search And Non-Destroy (SAND) is a VLBI data reduction pipeline composed of a set of Python programs based on the AIPS interface provided by ObitTalk. It is designed for the massive data reduction of multi-epoch VLBI monitoring research. It can automatically investigate calibrated visibility data, search all the radio emissions above a given noise floor and do the model fitting either on the CLEANed image or directly on the uv data. It then digests the model-fitting results, intelligently identifies the multi-epoch jet component correspondence, and recognizes the linear or non-linear proper motion patterns. The outputs including CLEANed image catalogue with polarization maps, animation cube, proper motion fitting and core light curves. For uncalibrated data, a user can easily add inline modules to do the calibration and self-calibration in a batch for a specific array.

  10. Working group 7: pipeline risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariyawasam, Shahani; Weir, David

    2011-07-01

    This seventh working group of the Banff 2011 conference provided an understanding of risk management process in the pipeline industry, including system-wide risk assessment, risk based integrity systems and risk control techniques. The presentations furnished a basis on which to discuss programs, processes and procedures including reliability based decision support and performance measures that support a company's risk management policy. This workshop was divided into three sessions. The first session focused on the comparison between reliability methods and conventional deterministic methods in terms of accuracy, simplicity and sensitivity. Next, the importance of low probability high consequence events and the processes to prevent them were discussed. The last session discussed the consequences of management processes on failures and risks. The debates following these presentations tried to identify the best management practices to reduce risks, and the regulations and requirements to develop.

  11. Retropath: automated pipeline for embedded metabolic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Parutto, Pierre; Baudier, Claire; Junot, Christophe; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-08-15

    Metabolic circuits are a promising alternative to other conventional genetic circuits as modular parts implementing functionalities required for synthetic biology applications. To date, metabolic design has been mainly focused on production circuits. Emergent applications such as smart therapeutics, however, require circuits that enable sensing and regulation. Here, we present RetroPath, an automated pipeline for embedded metabolic circuits that explores the circuit design space from a given set of specifications and selects the best circuits to implement based on desired constraints. Synthetic biology circuits embedded in a chassis organism that are capable of controlling the production, processing, sensing, and the release of specific molecules were enumerated in the metabolic space through a standard procedure. In that way, design and implementation of applications such as therapeutic circuits that autonomously diagnose and treat disease, are enabled, and their optimization is streamlined.

  12. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  13. Data Reduction Pipeline for GTC/FRIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Cardiel, N.; Pascual, S.; Gallego, J.

    2009-07-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the GTC) will be a NIR (1-2.5 μm) imager and Integral Field Unit spectrograph to operate with the Adaptive Optics system of the 10.4 m GTC telescope. FRIDA will offer broad and narrow band diffraction-limited imaging and integral field spectroscopy at low, intermediate and high spectral resolution. The Extragalactic Astrophysics and Astronomical Instrumentation group of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (GUAIX) is developing the Data Reduction Pipeline for FRIDA. Specific tools for converting output, reduced datacubes to the standard Euro3D FITS format will be developed, in order to allow users to exploit existing VO applications for analysis. FRIDA is to be commissioned on the telescope in 2011.

  14. The Servier oncology pipeline in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therasse, Patrick; Perron, Beatrice; Novack, Sarah A; Abastado, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Cancer is a complex, multifactorial disease that for years has been the focus of intensive research efforts to explore both the molecular and biological mechanisms involved and the development of novel agents to target these pathways. Servier is an independent French pharmaceutical company with a focus on oncology. Currently, Servier's commercial portfolio includes agents used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and metastatic colorectal cancer; Servier's oncology pipeline involves agents for the treatment of both solid and hematological tumors. The main areas of future research focus on the development of therapeutics targeting apoptosis or the active immune components involved in tumour development/maintenance. Servier intends to continue its focus on cutting-edge oncology innovation by collaborating with both industry and academia, and maintaining its strong patient-centered approach.

  15. Simulation of pipelining pours point depressant beneficiated waxy crude oil through China West Crude Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿英; 张劲军; 凌霄; 黄启玉; 林小飞; 贾邦龙; 李宇光

    2008-01-01

    Flow properties of waxy crude oils,particularly the beneficiated waxy crude oils,are sensitive to shear history that the crude oil experienced,called the shear history effect.To simulate this shear history effect accurately is vital to pipeline design and operation.It has been demonstrated by our previous that the energy dissipation or entropy generation due to viscous flow in the shear process is a suitable parameter for simulating the shear history effect.In order to further verify the reliability of this approach,experimental simulations were conducted for three PPD-beneficiated waxy crude oils transported through the China West Crude Oil Pipeline,a most complicated long-distance-crude-oil-pipeline technically and operationally so far in China.The simulations were made by using a stirred vessel and with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter.Comparison between the flow properties of crude oils obtained from field test and experimental simulations,it is found that the gel points and viscosities from experimental simulations are in good agreement with the field data.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Pipeline Deformation Caused by Rockfall Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rockfall impact is one of the fatal hazards in pipeline transportation of oil and gas. The deformation of oil and gas pipeline caused by rockfall impact was investigated using the finite element method in this paper. Pipeline deformations under radial impact, longitudinal inclined impact, transverse inclined impact, and lateral eccentric impact of spherical and cube rockfalls were discussed, respectively. The effects of impact angle and eccentricity on the plastic strain of pipeline were analyzed. The results show that the crater depth on pipeline caused by spherical rockfall impact is deeper than by cube rockfall impact with the same volume. In the inclined impact condition, the maximum plastic strain of crater caused by spherical rockfall impact appears when incidence angle α is 45°. The pipeline is prone to rupture under the cube rockfall impact when α is small. The plastic strain distribution of impact crater is more uneven with the increasing of impact angle. In the eccentric impact condition, plastic strain zone of pipeline decreases with the increasing of eccentricity k.

  17. Urban Underground Pipelines Mapping Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, S. W.; M, Hashim

    2014-02-01

    Underground spaces are now being given attention to exploit for transportation, utilities, and public usage. The underground has become a spider's web of utility networks. Mapping of underground utility pipelines has become a challenging and difficult task. As such, mapping of underground utility pipelines is a "hit-and-miss" affair, and results in many catastrophic damages, particularly in urban areas. Therefore, this study was conducted to extract locational information of the urban underground utility pipeline using trenchless measuring tool, namely ground penetrating radar (GPR). The focus of this study was to conduct underground utility pipeline mapping for retrieval of geometry properties of the pipelines, using GPR. In doing this, a series of tests were first conducted at the preferred test site and real-life experiment, followed by modeling of field-based model using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD). Results provide the locational information of underground utility pipelines associated with its mapping accuracy. Eventually, this locational information of the underground utility pipelines is beneficial to civil infrastructure management and maintenance which in the long term is time-saving and critically important for the development of metropolitan areas.

  18. Condition Monitoring Of Operating Pipelines With Operational Modal Analysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries, great attention is being paid to safety, reliability and maintainability of equipment. There are a number of technologies to monitor, control, and maintain gas, oil, water, and sewer pipelines. The paper focuses on operational modal analysis (OMA application for condition monitoring of operating pipelines. Special focus is on the topicality of OMA for definition of the dynamic features of the pipeline (frequencies and mode shapes in operation. The research was conducted using two operating laboratory models imitated a part of the operating pipeline. The results of finite-element modeling, identification of pipe natural modes and its modification under the influence of virtual failure are discussed. The work considers the results of experimental research of dynamic behavior of the operating pipe models using one of OMA techniques and comparing dynamic properties with the modeled data. The study results demonstrate sensitivity of modal shape parameters to modification of operating pipeline technical state. Two strategies of pipeline repair – with continuously condition-based monitoring with proposed technology and without such monitoring, was discussed. Markov chain reliability models for each strategy were analyzed and reliability improvement factor for proposed technology of monitoring in compare with traditional one was evaluated. It is resumed about ability of operating pipeline condition monitoring by measuring dynamic deformations of the operating pipe and OMA techniques application for dynamic properties extraction.

  19. Development of a wrinkled pipeline fatigue ultimate limit state criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semiga, V.; Tiku, S.; Dinovitzer, A. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd., Kanata (Canada); Zhou, J.; Sen, M. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described research currently being conducted to develop a mechanics-based wrinkle ultimate limit state for evaluating the long-term integrity of wrinkled pipeline segments. Efforts included testing and non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) of small-scale and full-scale wrinkled pipeline segments. The aim of the program was to develop a set of monotonic and cyclic material properties for use in designing a failure assessment procedure. A failure criterion has also been developed to predict the fatigue life of experimental pipeline specimens. An experimental material properties database was developed for several pipeline materials ranging from API grade X60 to X100 steel pipelines. Multiple monotonic tensile tests were conducted for all materials used in the program. Experimental stress-strain curves were used to develop finite element material models during the modelling phase of the project. Complete strain life curves were also obtained. A small scale strip test was developed to predict the fatigue life of strip test specimens. Nonlinear kinematic material models were also developed. Results of the program to date indicate that the finite element method (FEM) model is capable of accurately estimating the cyclic fatigue life of pipelines with wrinkles. It was concluded that the FEM model will also be used to examine the interactions between soil and buried pipelines. 6 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Research on operation optimization of multi-product pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Y.; Gong, J.; Kang, Z.; Yang, F. [Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China). College of Petroleum Engineering

    2004-07-01

    In order to operate complex, long-distance pipelines safely and efficiently while meeting energy demands, operators require offline optimization simulation software. This paper presented the newly developed STROBER software for simulating the operations of multi-product pipelines whose hydraulic characteristics vary continuously with batch movement in the pipeline. The software was based on a mathematical model that optimized the configuration of pumps in order to minimize the electricity costs associated with operating a multi-product pipeline. The energy conservation equation met the following restraining factors: the flow rate in an initial pumping station was as stable as possible for specific periods of time; the inlet and outlet pressures of the pumping stations and the pressures of some special points were within the preset limits; and, the off-take task was completed during a prescribed time. The optimization theory was solved using dynamic programming. The peak-to-valley ratio of electricity price was also taken into consideration in order to encourage pipeline companies to consume most electricity during off-peak periods of the electrical network. The STROBER software was successfully applied in the start-up and current operation of the LanZhou-ChengDu-ChongQing multi-product pipeline in China. This complex pipeline includes 13 off-take stations, 2 pressure-reducing stations and 4 pumping stations. The software provided off-take plans and information on pressure control. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. A Low-Cost Natural Gas/Freshwater Aerial Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, A; Bolonkin, Alexander; Cathcart, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Offered is a new type of low-cost aerial pipeline for delivery of natural gas, an important industrial and residential fuel, and freshwater as well as other payloads over long distances. The offered pipeline dramatically decreases the construction and operation costs and the time necessary for pipeline construction. A dual-use type of freight pipeline can improve an arid rural environment landscape and provide a reliable energy supply for cities. Our aerial pipeline is a large, self-lofting flexible tube disposed at high altitude. Presently, the term "natural gas" lacks a precise technical definition, but the main components of natural gas are methane, which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in the Earth-atmosphere at high altitude and poses no threat to airplanes or the local environment. The authors also suggest using lift force of this pipeline in tandem with wing devices for che...

  2. CO2 injection along a pipeline with transient approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezos, Víctor; Carrera, Jesús; Slooten, Luit Jan; Silva, Orlando; Bear, Jacob; Kitro-Belinkov, Myra

    2013-04-01

    CO2 geological sequestration involves several processes. One of the more relevant of these processes is the CO2 injection along a pipeline, because it links the capture and transport of CO2 with its deep geological storage. The knowledge of the CO2 behavior within injection and monitoring wells is essential for designing efficient CO2 storage strategies. In particular, a thorough modeling and simulation of CO2 flow through the injection pipe is required to define operational protocols and to design the surface CO2 conditioning facilities. Much work has been performed on modeling the steady state multiphase flow in wellbores during CO2 injection. However, relevant problems, including the displacement of the initial brine in the injection well, or the upwards flow of CO2 during a push-pull test, require the modeling of transient conditions, which is the goal of the present work. Here, we present the governing equations and preliminary results for the modeling of dynamic non isothermal CO2 flow through an injection well, including displacement of the initial brine. The model considers continuity, momentum and energy equations, together with equations of state and some thermodynamic relations. These equations are solved using the simulation framework "Proost", which implements the finite element method. The code is verified by comparison with a steady-state solver for a range of surface injection conditions. The results obtained show pressure, velocity and temperature evolution, which allows quantifying the phase changes that gradually experiment the CO2 through the injection pipe. We find the surface pressure required initially is much higher than steady-state because heat exchange with the formation reduces significantly the density of CO2 at the borehole.

  3. Assessment of Common and Emerging Bioinformatics Pipelines for Targeted Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwald, Léa; Touzet, Hélène; Lemoine, Yves; Hot, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeted metagenomics, also known as metagenetics, is a high-throughput sequencing application focusing on a nucleotide target in a microbiome to describe its taxonomic content. A wide range of bioinformatics pipelines are available to analyze sequencing outputs, and the choice of an appropriate tool is crucial and not trivial. No standard evaluation method exists for estimating the accuracy of a pipeline for targeted metagenomics analyses. This article proposes an evaluation protocol containing real and simulated targeted metagenomics datasets, and adequate metrics allowing us to study the impact of different variables on the biological interpretation of results. This protocol was used to compare six different bioinformatics pipelines in the basic user context: Three common ones (mothur, QIIME and BMP) based on a clustering-first approach and three emerging ones (Kraken, CLARK and One Codex) using an assignment-first approach. This study surprisingly reveals that the effect of sequencing errors has a bigger impact on the results that choosing different amplified regions. Moreover, increasing sequencing throughput increases richness overestimation, even more so for microbiota of high complexity. Finally, the choice of the reference database has a bigger impact on richness estimation for clustering-first pipelines, and on correct taxa identification for assignment-first pipelines. Using emerging assignment-first pipelines is a valid approach for targeted metagenomics analyses, with a quality of results comparable to popular clustering-first pipelines, even with an error-prone sequencing technology like Ion Torrent. However, those pipelines are highly sensitive to the quality of databases and their annotations, which makes clustering-first pipelines still the only reliable approach for studying microbiomes that are not well described. PMID:28052134

  4. Prospects for energy conservation in the pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    A qualitative projection (the ''baseline scenario'') is made of the pipeline industry growth to the year 2000. This projection is based on the conventional wisdom of the industry. It is concluded that, to achieve significant growth, the industry must develop the capability, called freight pipeline, to move other commodities than oil and gas, i.e., bulk and packaged goods. Technical and economic performance criteria are identified which, if met by the freight pipeline capability, could induce modal shifts resulting in a reduction of total transportation energy consumption, and would offer other benefits, including compatibility with high-speed rail passenger service.

  5. A FAST FOREGROUND DIGITAL CALIBRATION TECHNIQUE FOR PIPELINED ADC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yu; Yang Haigang; Cheng Xin; Liu Fei; Yin Tao

    2012-01-01

    Digital calibration techniques are widely developed to cancel the non-idealities of the pipelined Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs).This letter presents a fast foreground digital calibration technique based on the analysis of error sources which influence the resolution of pipelined ADCs.This method estimates the gain error of the ADC prototype quickly and calibrates the ADC simultaneously in the operation time.Finally,a 10 bit,100 Ms/s pipelined ADC is implemented and calibrated.The simulation results show that the digital calibration technique has its efficiency with fewem operation cycles.

  6. Gemini Planet Imager Calibrations, Pipeline Updates, and Campaign Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Follette, Katherine B.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Wang, Jason; Wolff, Schulyer; Hung, Li-Wei; Arriaga, Pauline; Savransky, Dmitry; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Draper, Zachary; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Greenbaum, Alexandra; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Maire, Jerome; Nielsen, Eric L.; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Ruffio, Jean-Baptise; Tran, Debby; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Zalesky, Joe; GPIES Team

    2017-01-01

    In support of GPI imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets, polarimetry of disks, and the ongoing Exoplanet Survey we continue to refine calibrations, improve data reduction methods, and develop other enhancements to the data pipeline. We summarize here the latest updates to the open-source GPI Data Reduction Pipeline, including recent improvements spectroscopic and photometric calibrations and polarimetric data processing. For the GPI Exoplanet Survey we have incorporated the GPI Data Pipeline into a larger campaign data system that provides automatic data processing including rapid PSF subtraction and contrast measurements in real time during observations and fully automated PSF subtractions using several state-of-the-art algorithms shortly after each observation completes.

  7. Coal log pipeline for twenty-first century coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H.; Wilkinson, J.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    During the first years of the 21st century coal log pipeline (CLP) technology will be available for long-distance coal transportation. The purpose of this report is to present the state-of-the-art of coal log pipeline technology. Some recent developments are as follows: optimization of coal log compaction procedures, construction of a unique coal log prototype manufacturing machine, and its testing. Coal log abrasion while transported in water-filled pipelines is also discussed. A CLP pilot plant is currently under construction at the University of Missouri. For certain routes in the US a CLP system appears to be cost-competitive.

  8. Solution of magnetometry problems related to monitoring remote pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Andrey V.; Denisov, Alexey Y.; Narkhov, Eugene D.; Sapunov, Vladimir A.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to solve two fundamental tasks, i.e., to design the pipeline model with sufficient adequacy and reproducibility, and to solve the inverse problem for the transition from the experimental data on the magnetic field in the measurement area directly to the pipeline characteristics, which are necessary for mapping pipes location and finding coordinates of welds. The paper presents a mathematical ideal pipeline model in the geomagnetic field without considering the pipe material. The solution of the direct and inverse problems are described, and the directions of the model development and methods of data interpretation are presented.

  9. Optimal Control of Gas Pipelines via Infinite-Dimensional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgut, Ismail; Leblebiciolu, Kemal

    1996-05-01

    A general optimal control approach employing the principles of calculus of variations has been developed to determine the best operating strategies for keeping the outlet pressure of gas transmission pipelines around a predetermined value while achieving reasonable energy consumption. The method exploits analytical tools of optimal control theory. A set of partial differential equations characterizing the dynamics of gas flow through a pipeline is directly used. The necessary conditions to minimize the specific performance index come from the infinite-dimensional model. The optimization scheme has been tested on a pipeline subject to stepwise change in demand.

  10. The Data Reduction Pipeline of the Hamburg Robotic Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mittag

    2010-01-01

    spectrograph of the Hamburg Robotic Telescope (HRT is presented. This pipeline is started automatically after finishing the night-time observations and calibrations. The pipeline includes all necessary procedures for a reliable and complete data reduction, that is, Bias, Dark, and Flat Field correction. Also the order definition, wavelength calibration, and data extraction are included. The final output is written in a fits-format and ready to use for the astronomer. The reduction pipeline is implemented in IDL and based on the IDL reduction package REDUCE written by Piskunov and Valenti (2002.

  11. Automated HST/STIS reference file generation pipeline using OPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rosa I.; Swam, Michel; Goudfrooij, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Bias and Dark reference files are part of the basic reduction of the CCD data taken by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). At STScI, the STIS team has been creating these reference files using the Bias and Dark Pipeline. This pipeline system starts with automatic retrieval of bias and dark exposures from the HST archive after they have been ingested. After data retrieval, a number of automatic scripts is executed in a manner compatible with the OPUS pipeline architecture. We encourage any group looking to streamline a stepwise calibration process to look into this software.

  12. Corrosivity Sensor for Exposed Pipelines Based on Wireless Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawand, Lydia; Shiryayev, Oleg; Al Handawi, Khalil; Vahdati, Nader; Rostron, Paul

    2017-05-30

    External corrosion was identified as one of the main causes of pipeline failures worldwide. A solution that addresses the issue of detecting and quantifying corrosivity of environment for application to existing exposed pipelines has been developed. It consists of a sensing array made of an assembly of thin strips of pipeline steel and a circuit that provides a visual sensor reading to the operator. The proposed sensor is passive and does not require a constant power supply. Circuit design was validated through simulations and lab experiments. Accelerated corrosion experiment was conducted to confirm the feasibility of the proposed corrosivity sensor design.

  13. Techniques for Digitally Assisted Pipeline A/D Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Shoji

    This paper reviews techniques for digitally assisted pipeline ADCs. Errors of pipeline ADCs originated by capacitor mismatch, finite amplifier gain, incomplete settling and offset can be corrected in digital-domain foreground or background calibrations. In foreground calibrations, the errors are measured by reconfiguration of the building blocks of pipeline ADC or using an INL plot without reconfiguration. In background calibrations, the errors are measured with random signal and continuously corrected while simultaneously performing the normal A/D conversions. Techniques for measuring and correcting the errors at foreground and background are reviewed and a unified approach to the description of the principle of background calibration of gain errors is presented.

  14. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  15. 76 FR 31326 - Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 18, 2011, Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC (GLNG Pipeline), Colonial Brookwood Center, 569... to Margaret G. Coffman, Counsel, Gulf LNG Pipeline Company, LLC, Colonial Brookwood Center,...

  16. Dynamical Mechanisms of Effects of Landslides on Long Distance Oil and Gas Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qingwen; WANG Chenghua; KONG Jiming

    2006-01-01

    According to the investigations on the oil and gas pipelines such as the Lan-Cheng-Chong pipeline and the Southwest pipeline, there are two ways of laying pipeline: pipelines paralleling (approximately) to the main slide direction and pipelines perpendicular (approximately) to the main slide direction. If earth-retaining walls have been built for pipelines paralleling to the main slide direction, they will prevent the lands from sliding; On the contrary, without earth-retaining walls, the sharp broken rocks in the backfilling soil will scratch the safeguard of the pipeline when the landslides take place. Pipelines perpendicular to the main slide direction can be classified into four types according to the relative positions between pipelines and landslides: Pipelines over the slide planes, pipelines inside the fracture strips of slide planes, pipelines below the slide planes and pipelines behind the backsides of landslides. The different dynamical mechanisms of the process in which landslide acts against pipelines are analyzed based on whether the pipelines are equipped with fixed frusta, because the sliding resistance depends on whether and how many fixed frusta are equipped and the distance between frusta.

  17. Proof of pipeline strength based on measurements of inspection pigs; Festigkeitsnachweis von Pipelines aufgrund der Messergebnisse von Pruefmolchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Camp, H.J.; Feser, G.; Hofmann, A.; Wolf, B.; Schmidt, H. [TUeV Sueddeutschland Bau und Betrieb GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Herforth, H.E.; Juengling, K.H.; Schmidt, W. [TUeV Anlagentechnik GmbH, Berlin-Schoeneberg (Germany). Unternehmensgruppe TUeV Rheinland/Berlin-Brandenburg

    2002-01-01

    The report is aimed at collecting and documenting the state of the art and the extensive know how of experts and pipeline operators with regard to judging the structural integrity of pipelines. In order to assess the actual mechanical strength of pipelines based on measurement results obtained by inspection pigs, guidance is given for future processing, which eventually can be used as a basis for an industry standard. A literature study of the commercially available types of inspection pigs describes and synoptically lists the respective pros and cons. In essence the report comprises besides check lists of operating data for the pipeline and the pig runs mainly the evaluation of defects and respective calculating procedures. Included are recommendations regarding maintenance planning, verification of defects as well as repetition of pig runs. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Berichtes ist die Erfassung und Dokumentation zum derzeitigen Stand der Technik und des vorhandenen umfangreichen Know-how von Sachverstaendigen und Pipelinebetreibern auf dem Gebiet der sicherheitstechnischen Beurteilung von Pipelines. Fuer den Festigkeitsnachweis von Pipelines aufgrund der Messergebnisse von Pruefmolchen wurde ein Leitfaden als Basis fuer die zukuenftige Vorgehensweise erstellt, der eventuell die Grundlage eines normativen Regelwerkes bilden kann. In einer Literaturstudie wurden die auf dem Markt befindlichen Pruefmolchtypen zusammenfassend beschrieben und ihre Vor- und Nachteile tabellarisch gegenuebergestellt und bewertet. Neben der Erstellung von Checklisten fuer notwendige Daten zum Betrieb der Pipeline und der Molchlaeufe bildet die Fehlerbewertung mit entsprechenden Berechnungsverfahren den Hauptteil dieses Berichtes. Hinweise zur Instandhaltungsplanung (Fehlerverifikation und Molchlaufwiederholung) werden gegeben. (orig.)

  18. ERDA test facilities, East Mesa Test Site. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Detailed specifications which must be complied with in the construction of the ERDA Test Facilities at the East Mesa Site for geothermal resource investigations in Imperial Valley, California are presented for use by prospective bidders for the construction contract. The principle construction work includes a 700 gpm cooling tower with its associated supports and equipment, pipelines from wells, electrical equipment, and all earthwork. (LCL)

  19. Depletion Interactions in a Cylindric Pipeline with a Small Shape Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-Shu; GAO Hai-Xia; XIAO Chang-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Stressed by external forces, it is possible for a cylindric pipeline to change into an elliptic pipeline. To expose the effect of small shape change of the pipeline on the depletion interactions, both the depletion potentials and depletion forces in the hard sphere systems confined by a cylindric pipeline or by an elliptic pipeline are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The numerical results show that the depletion interactions are strongly affected by the small change of the shape of the pipeline in a way. Furthermore, it is also found that the depletion interactions will be strengthened if the short axis of the elliptic pipeline is decreased.

  20. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average