WorldWideScience

Sample records for pipeline coating system

  1. Addressing stress corrosion cracking on multi layer pipeline coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Scott B.; Marr, James E. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Willmot, Martyn [Jotun Group (Norway); Norman, David [David Norman Corrosion Control, Cornwall (United Kingdom); Khera, Ashish [Allied Engineering, Portland, ME (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is now recognized by operators worldwide as a significant threat to the safe operation of their pipeline systems. Gas, oil, and refined products lines have all been susceptible to this form of environmentally assisted cracking. As a result, operators and regulators have been incorporating data related to the development and prevalence of SCC into their risk management systems in order that they may effectively address this time-dependant threat. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) published the first structured methodology for stress corrosion cracking direct assessment (SCCDA) in 2004 (RP0204-2004). Operators are now beginning to apply the methods outlined in the standard to assess their systems. Research and industry experience have shown that various pipeline coating systems can be more or less effective in preventing the formation and growth of SCC. Newer pipeline coatings, such as multi layer epoxy/extruded polyolefin systems have been widely regarded as effective coating systems to address the threat posed by SCC when they are properly applied. New field studies performed on a pipeline coated with a three layer epoxy/polyethylene system have raised the possibility that operators utilizing these types of coatings may need to reassess how they manage the SCC threat. (author)

  2. Pipeline coating comparison methods for northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection, Calgary, AB (Canada); Purves, G.A. [Cimarron Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Two high-quality pipe coatings designed for northern environments were compared for their relative costs and suitability for the conditions that will be encountered in the field. Coating selection should consider local conditions to achieve the optimum life-cycle costs for the system. Some of the key factors affecting the integrity of the protective coating on a pipe include the effects of cold temperature and soil types. In this study, both Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) and High Performance Composite Coatings (HPCC) were evaluated for an entire pipeline installation in a northern environment, from the coating plant to the pipe trench. The evaluation focused on the advantages of better abrasion resistance of the HPCC coating. This was compared against the incremental cost of HPCC coating over FBE on large diameter NPS 30 to NPS 48 pipelines. The following parameters influenced the choice of coating: storage, transportation and handling; bending ability under cold weather conditions; pipe installation and backfilling; weld joint coatings; coating repair and cathodic protection and pipeline integrity. Some of the construction costs that are indirectly affected by the choice of pipe coating include right-of-way preparation and restoration; trenching; supervision, service and downtime and specialist crossings. It was concluded that HPCC has better resistance to abrasion than FBE and is more flexible in extremely cold temperatures. Standard FBE is about 10 per cent less expensive than HPCC. In general HPCC will require less coating protection than FBE, depending on site conditions. 3 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

  3. Pipeline coatings keep getting more sophisticated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowers, J.

    2004-08-01

    Bredero Shaw is the world's largest pipeline company. It's Canadian division, Shaw Pipe Protection Limited (SPPL), has a technology development laboratory in Calgary where a pipe coating line is being developed along with a deepwater program which tests the performance of sub-sea insulation coatings. Tests are performed at simulated service conditions of temperature, pressure and sea water environment. Research efforts have also focused on oilsands development and the challenge of keeping bitumen hot inside pipes while reducing wear caused by entrained sand. Shaw's high performance composite coating (HPCC) is a high-tech multiple component coating that is applied as a powder spray. It can withstand temperatures of -40 to -50 degrees C and is therefore particularly suited for providing mechanical, corrosion protection in large diameter transmission pipelines such as the Mackenzie Valley Gas Pipeline and the Alaska Pipeline. It is also compatible with cathodic protection. The coating consists of fusion bonded epoxy, polyolefin adhesive and a polyethylene. It has already been used for the Athabasca Pipeline which transports crude oil from Fort McMurray through Cold Lake to Hardisty, Alberta. Other developments include the Dual Powder Abrasion Coating system which consists of two fusion layers that provide damage resistance to pipelines in rocky mountainous terrain. The Yellow Jacket is a two layer coating used for oil and gas gathering systems to resist corrosion, moisture and soil stress. This paper also described other popular coatings such as the polyurethane foam coating called Insul-8 Systems; a sprayed epoxy polymer coating called Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coating; the Cement Mortar Lining; the Flow Efficiency Coating; the Concrete Weight Coating; and, the Rock Jacket corrosion coating. 1 fig.

  4. Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

  5. Engineered pipeline field joint coating solutions for demanding conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lwemuchi, Andre L.; Gudme, Carl C.; Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, OT (Canada)

    2009-12-19

    Trends in the oil and gas pipeline industry see that the demand for new technologies and engineered solutions for pipeline external coatings are increasing. In general, superior mechanical resistance and long term performance are being required in addition to operating at higher temperatures. This demand for more robust coatings has been created because of factors such as more remote fields, deep onshore reservoirs, deep water offshore fields and heavy oil that must be pumped at higher temperatures. The development of new techniques for pipeline construction is also exposing the coatings to more aggressive construction conditions. Because of this, the use of three layer and multi-layer polypropylene mainline coating systems have been growing considerably. Following this trend, the field joint coating manufacturers developed polypropylene systems and more recently had to work on engineered solutions required for recent offshore projects in Europe where very thick polypropylene field joint heat-shrinkable systems were provided. In addition, projects in remote locations such as the recently completed projects in the Brazilian Amazon required special logistics and field services. The growth of the mining industry in South America with slurry pipelines constructed in the recent years also demanded thicker, more robust coatings. The popularization of directional drilling and shore approach applications moved the industry to develop improved abrasion resistant coating systems such as using sacrificial elements to protect the primary coating integrity after the pipeline pull. PETROBRAS plans to replace existing thermally insulated pipelines crossing Great Sao Paulo. Therefore, pumping heavy oil at high temperatures created the need to develop improved mainline and field joint coatings to avoid having the same sort of problems they are facing in existing thermally insulated lines. Due to these needs, the field joint coating manufactures have been challenged to provide

  6. Major field study compares pipeline SSC with coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delanty, B.; O' Beirne, J. (TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary (CA))

    1992-06-15

    A 6 year field study by TransCanada PipeLines Ltd. (TCPL) of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on its natural gas pipeline system has yielded important information about the origins and occurrance of SCC. This paper reports that the study was prompted by three 1986 in-service line failures attributable to SCC. Whether during service or TCPL's subsequent testing, SCC failures have occurred only in Class 1 locations (little or no human population). More populated areas on TCPL's system are protected by use of heavier wall pipe which consequently has greater flaw tolerance. SCC, which in some cases led to both in-service or test ruptures, was detected under both polyethylene tape coated and asphalt-coated pipeline section.

  7. Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierwagen, Gordon; Huang, Yaping

    2011-11-30

    The program, entitled Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines, examined the sensitivity of existing coating systems to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) exposure and developed new coating system to protect pipelines from their corrosion under SCCO2 exposure. A literature review was also conducted regarding pipeline corrosion sensors to monitor pipes used in handling co-sequestration fluids. Research was to ensure safety and reliability for a pipeline involving transport of SCCO2 from the power plant to the sequestration site to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect. Results showed that one commercial coating and one designed formulation can both be supplied as potential candidates for internal pipeline coating to transport SCCO2.

  8. Protective coating as a factor to ensure the strength and hydraulic performance of recoverable pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Zotkin Sergey Petrovich; Khrenov Konstantin Evgen’evich; Dezhina Irina Sergeevna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna

    2015-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of various types of internal protective pipeline coatings to ensure the strength and hydraulic characteristics of a remodeled pipeline and related coating methods for effective trenchless renovation of engineering systems, water supply systems and sanitation. As protective coating the authors considered a round profile tube of a smaller diameter than of the old pipe, close to the old pipe, sprayed lining on the basis of inorganic and inorganic materials. The ar...

  9. The correlation between materials, processes and final properties in the pipeline coating system with polyethylene in triple layer; A correlacao entre materiais, processos e propriedades finais no sistema de revestimento de tubos com polietileno em tripla camada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.; Campos, Paulo H. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T. [Soco-Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The use of anticorrosion coating is a common practice in industrial pipeline applications. Among the several coatings types to buried and submerged pipelines, over all, the Fusion Bonded Epoxy and Three Layer Polyethylene coating systems have been large employed. They have showed an excellent performance protecting the pipe metal from external corrosive environment, considerably decreasing the designed cathodic protection requirements, basically in the first years of pipeline operation. Coating system success depends on not only of a suitable design or of the materials technology, but also depends on the process parameters and the raw material characteristics exhibited during the application. In this paper will be presented in a theoretical approach how the process parameters and the raw materials characteristics may affect the three layer polyethylene anticorrosion coating final properties. (author)

  10. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  11. The use of the internal epoxy coating in the gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of the presentation is to show the impact of internal pipe coating on capacity of the gas transit system. There are technical and economical aspects of internal coating application in the presentation. The technical attributes and the results of economical factors prove the benefit of the use the internal coating in the gas pipelines. (author)

  12. Justification for internal coating of natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asante, B. [NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada). System Design Dept.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major considerations in the design of a pipeline is the decision to coat or not to coat the pipe internally. This decision is essentially an economic one. It requires a detailed evaluation of the costs and benefits of internal coating over the projected life of the pipeline. Some of the benefits of internal coating have been confirmed by experimental studies conducted by various pipeline companies. These studies established, among other things, that coating pipes internally could increase pipeline capability by up to 15%. For lines with fixed capacities, this could mean substantial savings in associated compressor fuel and consequently, lower operating cost of transmission. There are also some intangible benefits associated with internal coating. For example, internal coating offers protection against corrosion due to atmospheric oxidation during storage and also due to the presence of corrosive components in the transported material during service. Coated pipes are also easier to inspect for defects such as dents, cracks, quench marks and weld undercuts, which may result in catastrophic failure of the line if undetected. A survey of some major pipeline companies in North America which employ internal coating indicated that most of these patrons regard it as merely ``good practice``. Thus, very few had a defensible procedure for adequately quantifying and justifying the application of internal coating. This paper outlines a procedure for adequately evaluating the costs and benefits of internal coating.

  13. Pneumatic capsule pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.; Partyka, J.; Rudd, L. [Laurentian Univ., School of Engineering, Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2001-03-01

    With the rising cost of transporting ores and concentrates, alternatives to the traditional means of transportation by rail, trucks and hoists are being actively sought, as a means of reducing operating costs. Pneumatic encapsulated pipeline (PCP) transportation of raw, processed, or waste materials is being looked upon as a potentially viable alternative for material handling in the mining industry. There are several operating PCP systems in Europe and in Japan, although there are as yet no similar applications in North America. To evaluate the viability of pneumatic capsule pipeline systems, a 600 mm diameter, 70 m long pilot PCP plant, made of rigid fibreglass, was constructed at Laurentian University and several tests have already been conducted. It was found that any bulk material can be transported by PCP safely, with relatively small amounts of power, over long distances, and at a significantly reduced cost, while maintaining complete control. Both underground as well as surface applications appear to be viable. This paper concentrates on the results of experiments designed to test the energy requirements of a PCP system. Future studies should focus on exploring and improving the ability of PCP systems to transport vertically which would be a great advantage to hauling ore from underground mines to the surface. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  14. Infrared thermographic pipeline leak detection systems for pipeline rehabilitation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1998-03-01

    Computerized infrared thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be an accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology for pipeline rehabilitation programs, during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non- contact, non-destructive ability to inspect large areas, from above ground, with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion areas surrounding pipelines, make its testing capabilities unique and highly desirable. This paper details the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes during various rehabilitation programs involving pipelines carrying water, gas, petroleum, and sewage.

  15. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

  16. Electrometrical Methods Application for Detection of Heating System Pipeline Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrov, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Isaev, V.; Rondel, A.; Shapovalov, N.

    2004-12-01

    Coated steel underground pipelines are widely used for the petroleum and gaze transportation, for the water and heat supply. The soils, where the pipelines are placed, are usually highly corrosive for pipe's metal. In the places of crippling of external coating the corrosion processes begin, and this can provoke a pipe breakage. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the control of pipeline conditions. The geophysical methods are used to provide such diagnostic. Authors have studied the corrosion processes of the municipal heating system pipelines in Saint-Petersburg (Russia) using the air thermal imaging method, the investigation of electromagnetic fields and spontaneous polarization, measurements of electrode potentials of metal tubes. The pipeline reparation works, which have been provided this year, allowed us to make the visual observation of pipes. The investigation object comprises a pipeline composed of two parallel tubes, which are placed 1-2 meters deep. The fact that the Russian Federation and CIS countries still use the direct heat supply system makes impossible any addition of anticorrosion components to circulating water. Pipelines operate under high pressure (up to 5 atm) and high temperature (designed temperature is 150°C). Tube's isolation is meant for heat loss minimization, and ordinary has poor hydro-isolation. Some pipeline construction elements (sliding and fixed bearings, pressure compensators, heat enclosures) are often non-isolated, and tube's metal contacts with soil. Hard usage condition, ingress of technical contamination cause, stray currents etc. cause high accidental rate. Realization of geophysical diagnostics, including electrometry, is hampered in a city by underground communication systems, power lines, isolating ground cover (asphalt), limitation of the working area with buildings. These restrictions form the investigation conditions. In order to detect and localize isolation (coat) defects authors

  17. Method and system for pipeline communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson; John G.

    2008-01-29

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  18. Preprint ARPPS Augmented Reality Pipeline Prospect System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Han, Yong; Hao, DongSheng; Lv, Zhihan

    2015-01-01

    This is the preprint version of our paper on ICONIP. Outdoor augmented reality geographic information system (ARGIS) is the hot application of augmented reality over recent years. This paper concludes the key solutions of ARGIS, designs the mobile augmented reality pipeline prospect system (ARPPS), and respectively realizes the machine vision based pipeline prospect system (MVBPPS) and the sensor based pipeline prospect system (SBPPS). With the MVBPPS's realization, this paper studies the neu...

  19. An approach to coating and cathodic protection design on long distance gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchi, L.; Brugnetti, F.; Zanardo, F. [Snam Rete Gas, Milan (Italy); Castano, M. [Eni Gas and Power Div., Milan (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of a pilot gas pipeline using X100 grade steel planned as part of the TAP project in Italy. The full-scale experimental line is located at a military base in Sardinia, and is comprised of two 48-inch diameter buried pipelines which extend for approximately 700 m. One of the lines is coated, has good cathodic protection (CP) and no mechanical damage. The other line has been mechanically damaged and has artificial defects in the pipe coating as well as areas that are subjected to bacteria cultures. The damaged line has also been divided into 3 parts that are protected with different levels of cathodic protection. The aim of the project is to examine the pipeline's susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, and near-neutral stress corrosion cracking. A full scale burst test will be conducted on the undamaged line in order to analyze the mechanical behaviour of high-grade steel in optimal conditions. Three layer high density polyethylene (HDPE) and dual layer fusion bond epoxy lining are being considered by the project, which also aims to investigate the performance of field joint coatings. The project is also investigating power generation systems for CP. The CP systems will be monitored by periodic visits from technical operators as well as with the use of telemetry and remote control systems. Reference electrodes will be used to monitor the CP level of the pilot pipelines. A Cu-CuSO{sub 4} electrode will be used to monitor soil resistivity. It was concluded that the project will provide information concerning the reliability and duration of experimental electrodes, as well as the life cycle costs of corrosion protection in long-distance pipelines. 1 ref., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. Corrosion and coating defects on buried pipelines under CP: Excavations data collection and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcher, Sebastien; Campaignolle, Xavier; Masson, Bernard; Meyer, Michel [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France)

    2004-07-01

    Onshore gas transmission pipelines are conjointly protected against external corrosion by an organic coating and by cathodic protection (CP). Owing to particular defects or coating aging in the long term in ground, the protective efficiency of this dual system may be impaired. Consequently, external corrosion may develop and, eventually, threaten the integrity of the line if not detected and mitigated in time. To ensure continued protection of its lines against external corrosion, Gaz de France carries out, routinely, several maintenance and monitoring activities on the CP system. In addition, above ground surveys allow a better assessment of possible coating faults. However, it is necessary to continuously improve the reliability of the corrosion prediction to optimize the maintenance of pipelines. When indications and measurements from any mean of inspection (in-line inspection or above ground surveys) lead to suspect the presence of any significant metal defect, an excavation of the concerned pipe section is performed. At each excavation location, many parameters are collected to document the existing conditions of coating and steel. If sufficiently extended and reliable, this information may help to understand the root causes for development of corrosion. Eventually, thorough analysis of field data resulting either from inspection or from maintenance operations could lead to corrosion prediction. Since the volume of these data is large, reliability and consistency of information is absolutely required. Gaz de France has implemented a systematic data collection procedure on excavation sites, together with data analysis through a range of treatment methods. Data on more than 1400 excavations, pertaining to a set of different selected pipelines, have been collected in a single database. The later contains data such as pipelines characteristics, local cathodic protection parameters at the time of excavation, coating defect description if any, characterization of

  1. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks,...

  2. Development of a new solvent-free flow efficiency coating for natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogg, Graham A.; Morse, Jennifer [Bredero Shaw, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline design engineers have traditionally considered external anti-corrosion coatings for the protection of gas transmission pipelines, with less consideration given to the benefits of internal flow efficiency coatings. This paper reviews the benefits of using a traditional solvent-based flow efficiency coating, and the relationship between the internal surface roughness of a pipe, the pressure drop across the pipeline, and the maximum flow rate of gas through the pipeline. To improve upon existing solvent-based flow efficiency coatings, a research program was undertaken to develop a solvent-free coating. The stages in the development of this coating are discussed, resulting in the plant application of the coating and final qualification to API RP 5L2. (author)

  3. Gamma ray system operated by robots for underwater pipeline inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, C.; Camerini, C.; Maia, C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tadeu, R.; Rocha, H. [Rio de Janeiro Federal Univ. (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The Petrobras Research Centre - CENPES - and the Rio de Janeiro Federal University - UFRJ - have developed a completely automized gammagraphy system in order to inspect underwater pipelines in the oil industry. This project aims at achieving the state of the art in detection and measurement of alveoli corrosion and fatigue cracks in underwater pipelines and steel catenary risers (SCRs). This paper presents the development of the gammagraphy system that will be used, which uses Iridium-192 as radiation source, and will be available with phosphor image plates. Underwater conditions require fixed source-film geometry considering the additional thickness of the pipeline coating and conducted fluid. The available parameters are minimum source activity and contrast sensitivity of the computed radiography systems. Contrast sensitivity evaluation is performed by a computeraided procedure with the line profile of the radiographic image. (orig.)

  4. 76 FR 28326 - Pipeline Safety: National Pipeline Mapping System Data Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Systems and Liquefied Natural Gas Annual Reports AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... operators of gas transmission and gathering systems and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities that they... to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements'' (One Rule). This rulemaking...

  5. Power system for electric heating of pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Novik, Frode Karstein

    2008-01-01

    Direct electrical heating (DEH) of pipelines is a flow assurance method that has proven to be a good and reliable solution for preventing the formation of hydrates and wax in multiphase flow lines. The technology is installed on several pipelines in the North Sea and has become StatoilHydros preferred method for flow assurance. Tyrihans is the newest installation with 10 MW DEH for a 43 km pipline. However, the pipeline represents a considerable single-phase load which makes the power system ...

  6. 49 CFR 195.581 - Which pipelines must I protect against atmospheric corrosion and what coating material may I use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corrosion and what coating material may I use? 195.581 Section 195.581 Transportation Other Regulations... Corrosion Control § 195.581 Which pipelines must I protect against atmospheric corrosion and what coating... atmosphere, except pipelines under paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Coating material must be suitable...

  7. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    . The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines

  8. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, Sviatoslav

    2016-01-01

    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  9. System Reliability Assessment of Offshore Pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustaffa, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The title of this thesis, System Reliability Assessment of Offshore Pipelines, portrays the application of probabilistic methods in assessing the reliability of these structures. The main intention of this thesis is to identify, apply and judge the suitability of the probabilistic methods in evalua

  10. Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  11. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  12. An integrated system for pipeline condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Andrew P.; Lees, Gareth; Hartog, Arthur; Twohig, Richard; Kader, Kamal; Hilton, Graeme; Mullens, Stephen; Khlybov, Artem [Schlumberger, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sanderson, Norman [BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present the unique and innovative 'Integriti' pipeline and flow line integrity monitoring system developed by Schlumberger in collaboration with BP. The system uses optical fiber distributed sensors to provide simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature, strain and vibration for the detection, monitoring, and location of events including: Third Party Interference (TPI), including multiple simultaneous disturbances; geo-hazards and landslides; gas and oil leaks; permafrost protection. The Integriti technology also provides a unique means for tracking the progress of cleaning and instrumented pigs using existing optical telecom and data communications cables buried close to pipelines. The Integriti solution provides a unique and proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. It performs analysis of a combination of measurands to provide the pipeline operator with an event recognition and location capability, in effect providing a hazard warning system, and offering the operator the potential to take early action to prevent loss. Through the use of remote, optically powered amplification, an unprecedented detection range of 100 km is possible without the need for any electronics and therefore remote power in the field. A system can thus monitor 200 km of pipeline when configured to monitor 100 km upstream and downstream from a single location. As well as detecting conditions and events leading to leaks, this fully integrated system provides a means of detecting and locating small leaks in gas pipelines below the threshold of present online leak detection systems based on monitoring flow parameters. Other significant benefits include: potential reductions in construction costs; enhancement of the operator's existing integrity management program; potential reductions in surveillance costs and HSE risks. In addition to onshore pipeline systems this combination of functionality and range is available for practicable

  13. Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R

    1999-11-01

    Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

  14. 77 FR 6857 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... remote control and automatic control valves can be installed to lessen the volume of natural gas and... Capabilities and Research 12:30 p.m. Lunch 1:30 p.m. Panel 3: Considerations for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection Systems 3:30 p.m. Break 3:45 p.m. Panel 4: Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection System...

  15. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  16. Study and Application of Internal Coating Technique to Drag Reduction of the Trunk Pipeline for the West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuShixin; QuShenyang; LinZhu

    2004-01-01

    Coverage layer coated in the internal wall of pipeline enables the friction drag to be reduced, the throughput and the gas transmission efficiency to be increased, the frequency of pigging and the number of the intermediate compressor station to be reduced, and the power consumption of the compressor to be decreased etc. The drag reduction is a high advanced scientific technique with outstanding economical benefit. The study and application of internal coating technique for drag reduction of 4000km trunk pipeline in West-East gas transmission pipeline (WEGTP) project are described, in which the main points are the drag reduction principle, coating process and the indoor study of this technique with own-decided knowledge property right at home.

  17. Economic model of pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-07-29

    The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

  18. Optical Fiber Pipeline Security Forewarning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Qishan; Ren Ruijun; Ren Peikui

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of China's economy,such incidents occurring to oil & gas pipelines as industrial and agricultural production,natural disasters,oil stealing,etc.have been prevailing and brought negative influences to the normal operation of pipelines.On account of all such destructive activities,firstly the soil around the pipeline should be vibrated,and then the cable laid in the pipe trench could respond to the vibration.Using this technology,the Department of Science & Technology of CNPC has embarked on the research of relevant equipment to monitor pipeline activities along the pipeline since 2001.

  19. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  20. Infrared-thermography-based pipeline leak detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Gary J.; Graf, Richard J.

    1991-03-01

    Computerized Infrared Thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be an accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non-contact, nondestructive ability to inspect large areas from above ground with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion surrounding pipelines make its testing capabilities unique. This paper will detail the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes and innovations anticipated for the future.

  1. Permanent cathodic protection monitoring systems for offshore pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jim [Deepwater Corrosion Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Historically offshore pipeline cathodic protection monitoring has relied on the use of portable survey techniques. This has typically relied on ROV assisted or surface deployed survey methods. These methods have been shown to have technical as well as economic shortcomings, this is particularly true of buried offshore pipelines where accuracy is always questionable. As more focus is being placed on offshore pipeline integrity, it was time for a new method to emerge. The technology discussed involves the retro-placement of permanent clamp-on monitors onto the pipeline which can measure pipeline to seawater potential as well as current density. The sensors can be interrogated locally using light powered subsea voltage readouts. Application of the technology can be either during pipeline construction, during installation of life extension CP systems, or during routine subsea pipeline interventions. The new method eliminates the need for long cables or expensive acoustic or modulated data transfer and provides all the information required to fully verify CP system performance, thus eliminating the need for expensive close-interval surveys. Some deployment case histories will be presented along with feasibility of application on deep water pipelines and comparative economics. (author)

  2. Pipeline, utilities to spend $127 million on scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spending for new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems and for additional remote-terminal units (RTUs) by North American pipelines and utilities will exceed $165 million through February 1996. New and updated scada systems will total 122 at a cost of more than $127 million; 143 RTU add-on projects will cost more than $38 million. Pipelines and combined utilities/pipelines will spend $89.5 million for 58 scada-system projects and $30.2 million for RTU add-on projects. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production-plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  3. Use of Polyurethane Coating to Prevent Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Samimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Polyurethane is a thermoses polymer with various applications. Using form this polymer has spread for military applications by Otto Bayer in 1930. In one general look polyurethane is product of Iso Syanate and ploy with each other, So that: Iso + ploy = polyurethane. Spend large cost for application and launching oil and gas transitions, has cleared the necessity protection from them agonist corrosion. In this direction protection coating with specific properties such as high electricity resistance presented to market by various companies that each of them has special advantage and disadvantages. In this research has tried while analysis coatings specifications of gas and oil transitional pipelines, has compared properties and common qualities of them with each other.

  4. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  5. An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rejowski Jr. R.; Pinto J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the sched...

  6. Cathodic Protection of Pipeline Using Distributed Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan Jayapalan; Ganga Agnihotri; Deshpande, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed control system (DCS) is available in most of the compressor stations of cross-country pipeline systems. Programmable logic controller (PLC) is used in all the intermediate pigging (IP) stations/sectional valve (SV) stations to collect the field data and to control the remote actuated valves. This paper presents how DCS or PLC can be used for cathodic protection of gas pipelines. Virtual instrumentation (VI) software is used here for simulation and real-time implementation purpose....

  7. Flags pipeline - first phase of UK gas gathering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The Far North Liquids and Associated Gas System (FLAGS pipeline) is described. The building specifications for the pipeline are reviewed, and the end use of the pipeline to transport oil, natural gas liquids, and natural gas from the Brent field in the North Sea is discussed. Other fields now on the FLAGS include the Cormorant, Ninian, and North West Hutton fields, and the Magnus, Murchison, and Thistle fields will be added during 1983. The refinery and gas processing facilities on shore in Scotland also are described. Both building and operating problems are mentioned.

  8. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. High-throughput bioinformatics with the Cyrille2 pipeline system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Groot Joost CW

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern omics research involves the application of high-throughput technologies that generate vast volumes of data. These data need to be pre-processed, analyzed and integrated with existing knowledge through the use of diverse sets of software tools, models and databases. The analyses are often interdependent and chained together to form complex workflows or pipelines. Given the volume of the data used and the multitude of computational resources available, specialized pipeline software is required to make high-throughput analysis of large-scale omics datasets feasible. Results We have developed a generic pipeline system called Cyrille2. The system is modular in design and consists of three functionally distinct parts: 1 a web based, graphical user interface (GUI that enables a pipeline operator to manage the system; 2 the Scheduler, which forms the functional core of the system and which tracks what data enters the system and determines what jobs must be scheduled for execution, and; 3 the Executor, which searches for scheduled jobs and executes these on a compute cluster. Conclusion The Cyrille2 system is an extensible, modular system, implementing the stated requirements. Cyrille2 enables easy creation and execution of high throughput, flexible bioinformatics pipelines.

  10. Hydraulic calculation of gravity transportation pipeline system for backfill slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-li; HU Guan-yu; WANG Xin-min

    2008-01-01

    Taking cemented coal gangue pipeline transportation system in Suncun Coal Mine, Xinwen Mining Group, Shandong Province, China, as an example, the hydraulic calculation approaches and process about gravity pipeline transportation of backfill slurry were investigated. The results show that the backfill capability of the backfill system should be higher than 74.4m3/h according to the mining production and backfill times in the mine; the minimum velocity (critical velocity) and practical working velocity of the backfill slurry are 1.44 and 3.82m/s, respectively. Various formulae give the maximum ratio of total length to vertical height of pipeline (L/H ratio) of the backfill system of 5.4, and then the reliability and capability of the system can be evaluated.

  11. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  12. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  13. An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rejowski Jr.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the scheduling system. The model must satisfy all the operational constraints, such as mass balances, distribution constraints and product demands. Results generated include the inventory levels at all locations, the distribution of products between the depots and the best ordering of products in the pipeline.

  14. The RoboPol pipeline and control system

    OpenAIRE

    King, O. G.; Baloković, M.; Hovatta, T.; Pearson, T. J.; A. C. S. Readhead()

    2014-01-01

    We describe the data reduction pipeline and control system for the RoboPol project. The RoboPol project is monitoring the optical R-band magnitude and linear polarization of a large sample of active galactic nuclei that is dominated by blazars. The pipeline calibrates and reduces each exposure frame, producing a measurement of the magnitude and linear polarization of every source in the 13 arcmin × 13 arcmin field of view. The control system combines a dynamic scheduler, real-time data reduct...

  15. The RoboPol pipeline and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, O. G.; Blinov, D.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Myserlis, I.; Angelakis, E.; Baloković, M.; Feiler, R.; Fuhrmann, L.; Hovatta, T.; Khodade, P.; Kougentakis, A.; Kylafis, N.; Kus, A.; Modi, D.; Paleologou, E.; Panopoulou, G.; Papadakis, I.; Papamastorakis, I.; Paterakis, G.; Pavlidou, V.; Pazderska, B.; Pazderski, E.; Pearson, T. J.; Rajarshi, C.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Steiakaki, A.; Tassis, K.; Zensus, J. A.

    2014-08-01

    We describe the data reduction pipeline and control system for the RoboPol project. The RoboPol project is monitoring the optical R-band magnitude and linear polarization of a large sample of active galactic nuclei that is dominated by blazars. The pipeline calibrates and reduces each exposure frame, producing a measurement of the magnitude and linear polarization of every source in the 13 arcmin × 13 arcmin field of view. The control system combines a dynamic scheduler, real-time data reduction, and telescope automation to allow high-efficiency unassisted observations.

  16. The RoboPol Pipeline and Control System

    CERN Document Server

    King, O G; Ramaprakash, A N; Myserlis, I; Angelakis, E; Baloković, M; Feiler, R; Fuhrmann, L; Hovatta, T; Khodade, P; Kougentakis, A; Kylafis, N; Kus, A; Paleologou, E; Panopoulou, G; Papadakis, I; Papamastorakis, I; Paterakis, G; Pavlidou, V; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Pearson, T J; Rajarshi, C; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Rouneq, R; Steiakaki, A; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the data reduction pipeline and control system for the RoboPol project. The RoboPol project is monitoring the optical $R$-band magnitude and linear polarization of a large sample of active galactic nuclei that is dominated by blazars. The pipeline calibrates and reduces each exposure frame, producing a measurement of the magnitude and linear polarization of every source in the $13'\\times 13'$ field of view. The control system combines a dynamic scheduler, real-time data reduction, and telescope automation to allow high-efficiency unassisted observations.

  17. FUZZY INFERENCE BASED LEAK ESTIMATION IN WATER PIPELINES SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline networks are the most widely used mode for transporting fluids and gases around the world. Leakage in this pipeline causes harmful effects when the flowing fluid/gas is hazardous. Hence the detection of leak becomes essential to avoid/minimize such undesirable effects. This paper presents the leak detection by spectral analysis methods in a laboratory pipeline system. Transient in the pressure signal in the pipeline is created by opening and closing the exit valve. These pressure variations are captured and power spectrum is obtained by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method and Filter Diagonalization Method (FDM. The leaks at various positions are simulated and located using these methods and the results are compared. In order to determine the quantity of leak a 2 × 1 fuzzy inference system is created using the upstream and downstream pressure as input and the leak size as the output. Thus a complete leak detection, localization and quantification are done by using only the pressure variations in the pipeline.

  18. Sectional pipeline bundles. Design, fabrication and testing of a subsea pipeline connection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The tests of the prototype system indicated that the system is applicable for connecting pipeline bundle sections. The overall performance of the system is therefore concluded to be satisfactory. Some modifications are required though, for improving the reliability of the system to the level required for offshore North Sea application. The tests showed that connection of the pipeline bundle sections can be performed for alignment tolerances larger than those expected during a typical subsea installation. Pull-in of bundle end sections can be performed with pull-in wires deployed from surface. The offshore tests showed that handling of wires must be done with great care to avoid possibility for wire entanglement, especially if a fully diverless system is to be used. The flowline connection tool was found to be suitable for final alignment of the individual spool ends. It was demonstrated that face to face contact between the hub faces in the connector was obtained after tie-in. Pressure tests showed that the connector could be sealed by the tie-in force applied by the connection tool tie-in system. However, the standard connector clamp which was used, was found to be insuficient for maintaining the connector effectively sealed after removal of the pull-in force applied by the connection tool. Based on the results proposals for improvements of the system are included. Improvements are applicable to the current system for connection of bundle sections or for tie-in operations, relating to conventional pipelines. The improvements also includes a strong connection clamp suitable for subsea use. The connection clamp will replace the standard clamp devise used in this project. (au) EFP-96. 41 refs.

  19. USING COMPUTER MODELS FOR DESIGN OF COMPLEX PIPELINE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kolesnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main rules of computer models construction were developed, which intended for pipeline networks design and they were considered as single whole hydraulic systems. The construction of new sections is possible after their design in order to provide operation in given regime. In heat networks operation we see the following problems: irregular change in pressure between direct and return pipelines, increased pressure in return pipeline, misalignment of network and others. Their causes may be: undersize thickness of pipelines, reduction in diameter caused by scales in internal surfaces of pipes, closure of gate valves in sections of networks with big speeds of heat coolant, “parasitic” circulations and others. Efficient mean for determining the main reasons of these problems, they may be in any heat pipeline, and also for new heating pipe networks design we consider computer models, which allow to simulate (practically in the whole volume hydraulic and temperature regimes of their work.  The purpose of work – using computer models for implementation of project of new heat removal pipe from Tolyatti central thermal station in order to heat the Central Region of Tolyatti, feeding from heat power station of the Volga car factory .With the help of developed computer model the location of equipment and their main characteristics were determined, they take into account joint work of two sources of heat (central thermal station of Tolyatti and the Volga car factory. 

  20. Active coatings technologies for tailorable military coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, J. L., III

    2007-04-01

    The main objective of the U.S. Army's Active Coatings Technologies Program is to develop technologies that can be used in combination to tailor coatings for utilization on Army Materiel. The Active Coatings Technologies Program, ACT, is divided into several thrusts, including the Smart Coatings Materiel Program, Munitions Coatings Technologies, Active Sensor packages, Systems Health Monitoring, Novel Technology Development, as well as other advanced technologies. The goal of the ACT Program is to conduct research leading to the development of multiple coatings systems for use on various military platforms, incorporating unique properties such as self repair, selective removal, corrosion resistance, sensing, ability to modify coatings' physical properties, colorizing, and alerting logistics staff when tanks or weaponry require more extensive repair. A partnership between the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ along with researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ, Clemson University, SC, University of New Hampshire, NH, and University of Massachusetts (Lowell), MA, are developing the next generation of Smart Coatings Materiel via novel technologies such as nanotechnology, Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS), meta-materials, flexible electronics, electrochromics, electroluminescence, etc. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Active Coatings Technologies Program, including an update of the on-going Smart Coatings Materiel Program, its progress thus far, description of the prototype Smart Coatings Systems and research tasks as well as future nanotechnology concepts, and applications for the Department of Defense.

  1. Cathodic Protection of Pipeline Using Distributed Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Jayapalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed control system (DCS is available in most of the compressor stations of cross-country pipeline systems. Programmable logic controller (PLC is used in all the intermediate pigging (IP stations/sectional valve (SV stations to collect the field data and to control the remote actuated valves. This paper presents how DCS or PLC can be used for cathodic protection of gas pipelines. Virtual instrumentation (VI software is used here for simulation and real-time implementation purpose. Analog input channels available in DCS/PLC can be used to measure pipe to soil potential (PSP with the help of half-cell and voltage transducer. Logic blocks available in DCS can be used as low selector switch to select the lowest PSP. Proportional-integral (PI controller available in DCS/PLC can be used for taking the controlling action. PI controller output varies the firing angle of AC phase controller. Phase controller output is rectified, filtered, and fed to the pipeline as cathodic protection current. Proposed scheme utilizes existing infrastructure to control pipeline corrosion.

  2. Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

  3. Research on a New-style Pipeline Inspection Robot System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-yun; YAN Guo-zheng; YAN Bo; DING Yong-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The pipe inspection robot system is developed for automatic inspection of gas pipeline with pipe diameter between 400mm and 650mm. It is composed of a pipe robot crawling mechanism controlled by remote network system, nondestructive examination sensor system, ground working station and so on. This paper presents the pipe inspection robot system design, the key technique and the performance experiment of the robot. The main performance index of the pipe robot system prototype has reached domestic advanced level. The prototype has also the technical potential to be developed as a product used in industry for periodic check of main gas/oil pipe.

  4. Reliable pipeline repair system for very large pipe size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John N.; Sousa, Alexandre Barreto de [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas industry worldwide has been mainly depending on the long-term reliability of rigid pipelines to ensure the transportation of hydrocarbons, crude oil, gas, fuel, etc. Many other methods are also utilized onshore and offshore (e.g. flexible lines, FPSO's, etc.), but when it comes to the underwater transportation of very high volumes of oil and gas, the industry commonly uses large size rigid pipelines (i.e. steel pipes). Oil and gas operators learned to depend on the long-lasting integrity of these very large pipelines and many times they forget or disregard that even steel pipelines degrade over time and more often that that, they are also susceptible to various forms of damage (minor or major, environmental or external, etc.). Over the recent years the industry had recognized the need of implementing an 'emergency repair plan' to account for such unforeseen events and the oil and gas operators have become 'smarter' by being 'pro-active' in order to ensure 'flow assurance'. When we consider very large diameter steel pipelines such as 42' and 48' nominal pipe size (NPS), the industry worldwide does not provide 'ready-made', 'off-the-shelf' repair hardware that can be easily shipped to the offshore location and effect a major repair within acceptable time frames and avoid substantial profit losses due to 'down-time' in production. The typical time required to establish a solid repair system for large pipe diameters could be as long as six or more months (depending on the availability of raw materials). This paper will present in detail the Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems (EPRS) that Oceaneering successfully designed, manufactured, tested and provided to two major oil and gas operators, located in two different continents (Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. and Arabian Gulf, U.A.E.), for two different very large pipe sizes (42'' and 48'' Nominal Pipe Sizes

  5. An electrochemical method for evaluating the resistance to cathodic disbondment of anti-corrosion coatings on buried pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the resistance to cathodic disbondment (RCD) of anti-corrosion coatings on buried pipelines were reviewed. It is obvious that these traditional cathodic disbondment tests (CDT) have some disadvantages and the evaluated results are only simple figures and always rely on the subjective experience of the operator. A new electrochemical method for evaluating the RCD of coatings, that is, the potentiostatic evaluation method (PEM), was developed and studied. During potentiostatic anodic polarization testing, the changes of stable polarization current of specimens before and after cathodic disbonding (CD) were measured,and the degree of cathodic disbondment of the coating was quantitatively evaluated, among which the equivalent cathodic disbonded distance △D was suggested as a parameter for evaluating the RCD. A series of testing parameters of the PEM were determined in these experiments.

  6. Transient drift flux modelling of severe slugging in pipeline-riser systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malekzadeh, R.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Mudde, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    A large number of pipelines in the petroleum industry simultaneously transport gas and liquid. Transient behaviour of multiphase flow is frequently encountered in these pipelines. A common example is severe slugging that can occur in multiphase flow systems where a pipeline segment with a downward o

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried ou...

  8. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  9. Practical approach on gas pipeline compression system availability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matvey [Solar Turbines, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-12-19

    Gas pipeline projects traditionally have been designed based on load factor and steady state flow. This approach exposes project sponsors to project sustainability risks due to potential losses of revenues and transportation contract penalties related to pipeline capacity shortage as consequence of compressor unit's unavailability. Such unavailability should previously be quantified during the design phase. This paper presents a case study and a methodology that highlights the practical benefits of applying Monte Carlo simulation for the compression system availability analysis in conjunction with quantitative risk analysis and economic feasibility study. Project economics main variables and their impacts on the project NPV (Net Present Value) are evaluated with their respective statistics distribution to quantify risk and support decision makers to adopt mitigating measures to guarantee competitiveness while protecting project sponsors from otherwise unpredictable risks. This practical approach is compared to load factor approach and the results are presented and evaluated. (author)

  10. Engineering considerations for corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, T.G.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Proper corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipelines requires a system review to determine the appropriate monitor locations and types of monitoring techniques. This paper develops and discusses a classification of conditions such as flow regime and gas composition. Also discussed are junction categories which, for corrosion monitoring, need to be considered from two points of view. The first is related to fluid flow in the line and the second is related corrosion inhibitor movement along the pipeline. The appropriate application of the various monitoring techniques such as coupons, hydrogen detectors, electrical resistance probe and linear polarization probes are discussed in relation to flow regime and gas composition. Problems caused by semi-conduction from iron sulfide are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of fluid gathering methods such as pots and flow-through drips are discussed in relation to their reliability as on-line monitoring locations.

  11. 75 FR 63774 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ..., coating anomalies, in-line inspection data, corrosion coupon data, corrosion inhibitor usage, analysis of... stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in hazardous liquid pipeline systems. Comments should address the public... pipelines from the adverse effects of internal and external corrosion (Subpart H of 49 CFR Part...

  12. Estimating Performance of Pipelined Spoken Language Translation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, M; Price, P; Lyberg, B; Rayner, Manny; Carter, David; Price, Patti; Lyberg, Bertil

    1994-01-01

    Most spoken language translation systems developed to date rely on a pipelined architecture, in which the main stages are speech recognition, linguistic analysis, transfer, generation and speech synthesis. When making projections of error rates for systems of this kind, it is natural to assume that the error rates for the individual components are independent, making the system accuracy the product of the component accuracies. The paper reports experiments carried out using the SRI-SICS-Telia Research Spoken Language Translator and a 1000-utterance sample of unseen data. The results suggest that the naive performance model leads to serious overestimates of system error rates, since there are in fact strong dependencies between the components. Predicting the system error rate on the independence assumption by simple multiplication resulted in a 16\\% proportional overestimate for all utterances, and a 19\\% overestimate when only utterances of length 1-10 words were considered.

  13. Study of beat phenomenon on a pile-supported pipeline system subjected to wave loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Xun; Huang Weiping; Li Huajun

    2007-01-01

    Classical beat phenomenon has been observed in most combined systems. The focus of this paper is to provide a better understanding of this phenomenon in an offshore pile-supported pipeline system. The beat phenomeon is caused by the coupling movement of the pipeline and its vertical pile support under certain conditions. It can induce excessive vibration and cause fatigue failure at pipe elbow. However, in some circumstances it does not exist. Numerical results in both frequency and time domains are presented to elucidate this phenomenon in a combined pipeline system. The conclusions of this paper could give constructive guidance to future design of simply supported pipeline systems.

  14. New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

  15. Comprehensive long distance and real-time pipeline monitoring system based on fiber optic sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikles, Marc; Ravet, Fabien; Briffod, Fabien [Omnisens S.A., Morges (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    An increasing number of pipelines are constructed in remote regions affected by harsh environmental conditions. These pipeline routes often cross mountain areas which are characterized by unstable grounds and where soil texture changes between winter and summer increase the probability of hazards. Due to the long distances to be monitored and the linear nature of pipelines, distributed fiber optic sensing techniques offer significant advantages and the capability to detect and localize pipeline disturbance with great precision. Furthermore pipeline owner/operators lay fiber optic cable parallel to transmission pipelines for telecommunication purposes and at minimum additional cost monitoring capabilities can be added to the communication system. The Brillouin-based Omnisens DITEST monitoring system has been used in several long distance pipeline projects. The technique is capable of measuring strain and temperature over 100's kilometers with meter spatial resolution. Dedicated fiber optic cables have been developed for continuous strain and temperature monitoring and their deployment along the pipeline has enabled permanent and continuous pipeline ground movement, intrusion and leak detection. This paper presents a description of the fiber optic Brillouin-based DITEST sensing technique, its measurement performance and limits, while addressing future perspectives for pipeline monitoring. (author)

  16. Evaluating an SH wave EMAT system for pipeline screening and extending into quantitative defect measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Matthew; Dixon, Steve; Fleming, Matthew; Stone, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Guided waves are now commonly used in industrial NDT for locating corrosion in pipelines in the form of wall thinning. Shear Horizontal waves generated by EMATs are used in a screening arrangement in this work to locate and size corrosion in terms of axial extent and circumferential positioning. This is facilitated by propagating SH waves circumferentially around the pipeline whilst moving a scanning rig axially, keeping transducer separation constant. This arrangement is preferential in that it can operate through thin(up to 1mm) coatings and does not require full access to the pipe's circumference and is useful for detecting corrosion in difficult to access regions, such as below pipe supports and in subsea applications. The performance of the system in terms of screening capability and the possibilities of extension into more quantitative measures are assessed. The behaviour of different wave modes as they interact with defects is investigated via experimental measurements on artificially induced corrosion patches and measurements on samples with in service corrosion. Measurement of the axial extent of corrosion patches, circumferential positioning and a range of possible remaining thickness is assessed. Finite element modelling of SH mode interaction with defects is used to understand what happens to different wave modes when they interact with defects in terms of reflection, diffraction and mode conversion.

  17. Research on underground pipeline augmented reality system based on ARToolKit

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zongyi; Xia, Zongguo; Chang, Yong; Chen, Weirong; Hu, Jinshan; Wei, Xiuqin

    2006-10-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is the overlay of virtual computer graphics images on real world objects, and has many potential applications in industrial operations and academic research. First, this paper discusses the method of camera calibration. ARToolKit provides two calibration approaches: Two Step Calibration Approach and One Step Calibration Approach. Two Step Calibration Approach is more difficult to use, but results in better accuracy (better for 3D measurement). We used ARToolKit's two step method to calibrate our camera. Next, the paper addresses the method of spatial analysis of augmented reality system, data model of spatial analysis, data modeling of 3D pipelines, and the mathematical model of coordinate conversion of 3D pipeline networks. Then, the paper discusses the data structures of underground pipelines. The data structures of underground pipelines include spatial data structure, attribute data structure, and sense data structure. We implemented the display of 3D pipelines in augmented reality, augmented visualization of 3D pipelines based on ARToolKit, information query and spatial buffer analysis of 3D pipelines. Finally, the paper discusses the framework of underground pipeline augmented reality system based on ARToolKit. A hybrid registration based on electronic compass and inclinometer, and a position based on RTK GPS and INS in outdoor AR system are presented. The hardware configuration and software framework of the system and data processing workflow of the combined system are given.

  18. Three-Layer PE Corrosion-Inhibiting Coating for Steel Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Aiguo; Zheng Aijing

    1994-01-01

    @@ RIET (Research Institute of Engineering Technology of China National Petroleum Corporation)had got a lender contract for manufacturing corrosion-inhibiting coating for steel pipe piles through international competitive bidding in the extension section project of Dandong Port (China)in 1992. The contract had been completed by May 1993. Now, brief descriptions of the corrosion-inhibiting coating manufactured by RIETare presented as following.

  19. Solution of magnetometry problems related to monitoring remote pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Andrey V.; Denisov, Alexey Y.; Narkhov, Eugene D.; Sapunov, Vladimir A.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to solve two fundamental tasks, i.e., to design the pipeline model with sufficient adequacy and reproducibility, and to solve the inverse problem for the transition from the experimental data on the magnetic field in the measurement area directly to the pipeline characteristics, which are necessary for mapping pipes location and finding coordinates of welds. The paper presents a mathematical ideal pipeline model in the geomagnetic field without considering the pipe material. The solution of the direct and inverse problems are described, and the directions of the model development and methods of data interpretation are presented.

  20. National Wildlife Refuge System Oil and Gas Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of all pipeline activity, both past and present, located on National Wildlife Refuges. The dataset was acquired from the U.S. Department...

  1. Pipeline transport of fossile fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with hydraulic pipeline transport of fossil fuels. A general analysis of coal and heavy viscous oil pipelining systems is introduced and pipeline transport of concentrated coal-water slurry, coal-water fuel, coal pipelining in other than water carrier liquid (e.g. methanol) and capsule pipeline transport (coal-log pipelining) is described.

  2. SPADOCK: Adaptive Pipeline Technology for Web System using WebSocket

    OpenAIRE

    Aries RICHI; Riri Fitri SARI

    2013-01-01

    As information technology grows to the era of IoT(Internet of Things) and cloud computing, the performance ofweb application and web service which acts as the informationgateway becomes an issue. Horizontal quality of serviceimprovement through system performance escalation becomesan issue pursued by engineers and scientists, giving birth toBigPipe pipeline technology which was developed by Facebook.We make SPADOCK, an adaptive pipeline system which is builtunder distributed system architectu...

  3. Pipeline integrity through cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N. [Gas Authority India Ltd., New Delhi (India); Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2008-07-01

    Pipeline integrity management is defined as a process for assessing and mitigating pipeline risks in an effort to reduce both the likelihood and consequences of incidents. Defects on pipelines result in production losses, environmental losses, as well as loss of goodwill and subsequent financial losses. This presentation addressed pipeline integrity through cathodic protection. It noted that pipeline integrity can be strengthened by successfully controlling, monitoring and mitigating corrosion strategies. It can also be achieved by avoiding external and internal corrosion failures. A good coating offers the advantages of low current density; lower power consumption; low wear of anodes; larger spacing between cathodic protection stations; and minimization of interference problems. The presentation reviewed cathodic protection of cross-country pipelines; a sacrificial cathodic protection system; and an impressed current cathodic protection system. The efficiency of a cathodic system was shown to depend on the use of reliable power sources; proper protection criterion; efficient and effective monitoring of cathodic protection; proper maintenance of the cathodic protection system; and effective remedial measures. Selection criteria, power sources, and a comparison of cathodic protection sources were also presented. Last, the presentation addressed protection criteria; current interruption circuits; monitoring of the cathodic protection system; use of corrosion coupons; advantages of weightless coupons; checking the insulating flanges for shorted bolts; insulated/short casings; anodic and cathodic interference; common corridor problems; and intelligent pigging. tabs., figs.

  4. Research on developing an underground pipeline information system with ArcGIS engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-si; Liu, Ying-fei; Peng, Zheng-hong; Chen, Yong-xi

    2005-10-01

    The difficulty on managing underground pipeline brings forward the demand for establishing Urban Underground Pipeline Information System (UUPIS). This paper mainly introduces ArcGIS Engine, the developing platform that UUPIS is based on. And it brings forward the major function targets of UUPIS. Some key functions and major implementation algorithms are briefly introduce. At last, the paper briefly introduces the process to construct the basic system framework and the final deployment project of UUPIS.

  5. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

    2009-01-01

    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

  7. Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2009-07-01

    Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

  8. Vision-Based System of AUV for An Underwater Pipeline Tracker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tie-dong; ZENG Wen-jing; WAN Lei; QIN Zai-bai

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new framework for detection and tracking of underwater pipeline,which includes software system and hardware system.It is designed for vision system of AUV based on monocular CCD camera.First,the real-time data flow from image capture card is pre-processed and pipeline features are extracted for navigation.The region saturation degree is advanced to remove false edge point group after Sobel operation.An appropriate way is proposed to clear the disturbance around the peak point in the process of Hough transform.Second,the continuity of pipeline layout is taken into account to improve the efficiency of line extraction.Once the line information has been obtained,the reference zone is predicted by Kalman filter.It denotes the possible appearance position of the pipeline in the image.Kalman filter is used to estimate this position in next frame so that the information of pipeline of each frame can be known in advance.Results obtained on real optic vision data in tank experiment are displayed and discussed.They show that the proposed system can detect and track the underwater pipeline online,and is effective and feasible.

  9. Risk based maintenance of a cross-country petroleum pipeline system

    OpenAIRE

    Dawotola, A.W.; Trafalis, T.B.; Mustaffa, Z.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; J. K. Vrijling

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a data-driven approach in determining an optimal inspection interval for a petroleum pipeline system. The approach accounts for the determination of both the probability of failure and its associated consequences. The probability of failure is estimated by fitting the historical data of failure of the pipeline into either a homogenous Poisson process or non-homogenous Poisson process (power law). The analysis of historical data reveals the Poisoneous form that gives better...

  10. Recovery of the external anticorrosion protection systems of onshore pipelines - evaluation methods and practical results; Recuperacao de sistemas de protecao anticorrosiva externa de dutos terrestres - metodos de avaliacao e resultados praticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castinheiras, Wilson; Koebsch, Andre; Silva, Flavio A. da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The rehabilitation of an old pipeline means to increase its lifetime, making it safety to operate in the necessaries conditions to transport the product. The pipe steel wall evaluation, related to it thickness reduction, due to, basically, internal and external corrosion, is fundamental to guide its rehabilitation. The techniques used to this evaluation are 'pig' and specials field survey. These last surveys are realized over the soil surface (digs is not necessary to access the pipeline or the pipeline operation is not necessary to stop) and objective to verify the pipeline coating and Cathodic Protection System conditions. Due to the actual authors experience, this paper will only treat of the Rehabilitation of the External Anti corrosive Protection System (coating and cathodic protection) of onshore pipelines. This paper present the techniques current attenuation, ON-OFF pipe-to-soil potential close interval survey and DCVG and same practical results obtained with the application of these techniques on the Sergipe/Bahia gas pipeline. (author)

  11. Seismic/geologic risks as factors in prioritizing gas pipeline system replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) has intensified efforts to evaluate earthquake hazards and their potential effects on gas and electric power systems, with the goals of implementing reduction of earthquake vulnerability and increasing post-earthquake reliability. The earthquake lifeline engineering approach applied to the gas pipeline system involves identifying potential locations of high-probability, large-magnitude scenario earthquakes; developing seismic zonation maps for surface fault rupture, liquefaction potential, and slope-failure potential; evaluating the condition of the existing gas pipeline system and the consequences of the scenario earthquakes in order to assess and implement mitigations. This paper describes an example of application of this approach to modify the PG and E Gas Pipeline Replacement Program (GPRP), which is a long-term replacement of aging and leak-prone installed pipelines. An additional pipeline prioritization factor is defined and applied to accelerate the replacement of GPRP pipeline segments in areas subject to earthquake effects that are likely to increase gas leak potential

  12. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  13. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  14. Numerical Recovery of Gas Flows in Pipeline Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Seleznev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal control, prevention and investigation of accidents, and detection of discrepancies in estimated gas supply and distribution volumes are relevant problems of trunkline operation. Efficient dealing with these production tasks is based on the numerical recovery of spacetime distribution of nonisothermal transient flow parameters of transmitted gas mixtures based on full-scale measurements in a substantially limited number of localities spaced considerable distances apart along the gas pipelines. The paper describes a practical method of such recovery by defining and solving a special identification problem. Simulations of product flow parameters in extended branched pipelines, involving calculations of the target function and constraint function for the identification problem of interest, are done in the 1D statement. In conclusion, results of practical application of the method in the gas industry are briefly discussed.

  15. Diagnosis of pipelines - An expert system for failure analysis; Diagnose von Rohrleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshad, M.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes an expert system for the failure analysis of pipelines (EFAP) that can be used for various types of pipelines and overhead lines made of metallic or non-metallic materials as well as for pressure-bearing and pressure-free pipeline applications. The EFAP system identifies the environmental influences of a mechanical, physical, thermal, chemical and biological nature that can cause failures. The article describes the development of the EFAP system and discusses the expert know-how contained in the system that was collected from many experts. Methods of reliability assessment and failure analysis are discussed and the analysis mechanisms used in the EFAP expert system are described. Application areas for the system are discussed.

  16. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2 inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

  17. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  18. The Ninian Pipeline System in the UK North Sea - developments for the second generation of fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindop, P.H. (Oryx Energy Co. (United States))

    1992-01-01

    As the original giant oil fields of the East Shetland Basin enter their decline period there has been, as with any mature asset, the challenge of managing the pipeline system's potential and cost per barrel. One way to maintain this potential is to keep the system full by bringing other parties' volumes in to take the growing ullage. The Ninian Field, Ninian Pipeline System and Sullom Voe Terminal are, amongst other measures, benefitting from the advances of technology which have moved undeveloped fields from the marginal to the economic, and hence opened up a new generation of fields to use the pipelines system and enhance its value. At the same time as this, rationalisation of the process facilities at Sullom Voe, Europe's largest oil and liquified gas terminal, has as its aim to maintain the terminal's efficiency and economic viability. (author).

  19. State value of pipeline transport systems if there is injury from external influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor TARARYCHKIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article considered questions about selection of criteria for state value of pipeline systems if there is damage from external influences. The algorithm is formulated and the computer program to calculate the survivability of transport systems is compiled. The program allows to establish the extent of damage of the system by given scenario of damage.

  20. A computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline georeferencing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.G.; Pellanda, P.C.; Gois, J.A. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Roquette, P.; Pinto, M.; Durao, R. [Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha (IPqM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.S.V.; Martins, W.F.; Camillo, L.M.; Sacsa, R.P.; Madeira, B. [Ministerio de Ciencia e Tecnologia (CT-PETRO2006MCT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP). Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Setor Petroleo e Gas Natural

    2009-07-01

    This work presents a computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline geo referencing systems, which was developed based on typical pipeline characteristics, on the dynamical modeling of Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) and on the analysis and implementation of an inertial navigation algorithm. The software environment of PIG trajectory simulation and navigation allows the user, through a friendly interface, to carry-out evaluation tests of the inertial navigation system under different scenarios. Therefore, it is possible to define the required specifications of the pipeline geo referencing system components, such as: required precision of inertial sensors, characteristics of the navigation auxiliary system (GPS surveyed control points, odometers etc.), pipeline construction information to be considered in order to improve the trajectory estimation precision, and the signal processing techniques more suitable for the treatment of inertial sensors data. The simulation results are analyzed through the evaluation of several performance metrics usually considered in inertial navigation applications, and 2D and 3D plots of trajectory estimation error and of recovered trajectory in the three coordinates are made available to the user. This paper presents the simulation platform and its constituting modules and defines their functional characteristics and interrelationships.(author)

  1. A Real-time Monitoring System for the Pipeline Network of Coalmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. L.; Wang, J. K.; Jiang, X.

    2012-05-01

    The pipeline network of coalmine has the characteristics of widespread distribution and complex structure. It is difficult to detect abnormalities in time by manual when the faults occurred, which often lead to reduction in production. In this paper, a monitoring system is developed to monitor the operating conditions of the pipeline network in real-time. The system has abilities to dynamic monitoring, real-time display, and failure alarm and leakage location. Therefore, the faults detection and maintenance can be implemented timely to ensure the safety of coalmine production due to the real-time condition monitoring of the pipeline network. Moreover, the resources allocation, production efficiency and management level can also be improved obviously. In addition, this real-time monitoring system has shown significant performance in applying it in Dongtan Coal Mine, Yanzhou Coal Mining Co., Ltd and Wennan Coal Mine, Shandong Energy Xinwen Mining Group Co., Ltd, China.

  2. Development of Deposit Detection System in Pipelines of the Steelworks Using CS-137 Gamma-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Joon; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Dong

    2008-02-01

    The deposit is built up in the pipeline of the steelworks by the chemical reaction among COG (coke oven gas), BFG (blast furnace gas), moisture, and steel in the high temperature environment and obstructs the smooth gas flow. In this study a gamma-ray system is developed to detect the deposit accumulated in pipelines and calculate the accumulation rate with respect to the cross section area of pipes. Cs-137 is used as the gamma-ray source and the system is designed to apply to pipes of various diameters. This system also includes the DB for storage and display of the measurement results so that it can be used for the efficient management of the pipelines.

  3. A Real-time Monitoring System for the Pipeline Network of Coalmine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pipeline network of coalmine has the characteristics of widespread distribution and complex structure. It is difficult to detect abnormalities in time by manual when the faults occurred, which often lead to reduction in production. In this paper, a monitoring system is developed to monitor the operating conditions of the pipeline network in real-time. The system has abilities to dynamic monitoring, real-time display, and failure alarm and leakage location. Therefore, the faults detection and maintenance can be implemented timely to ensure the safety of coalmine production due to the real-time condition monitoring of the pipeline network. Moreover, the resources allocation, production efficiency and management level can also be improved obviously. In addition, this real-time monitoring system has shown significant performance in applying it in Dongtan Coal Mine, Yanzhou Coal Mining Co., Ltd and Wennan Coal Mine, Shandong Energy Xinwen Mining Group Co., Ltd, China.

  4. Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

    2012-01-01

    Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for

  5. Novel coating systems based on PVD for steel sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhmacher, B. [Dortmunder Oberflaechenzentrum GmbH (DOC) von Thyssen Krupp Stahl (Germany); Ehlers, K.D. [Salzgitter AG, Stahl und Technologie (Germany); Flossdorf, F.J. [Verein Deutscher Eisenhuettenwerke (VDEh) (Germany). Fachbereich Werkstofftechnik; Hagler, J. [Vereinigte Oesterreichische Eisen- und Stahlwerke AG (VOeST)-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Linz (Austria); Metzner, C.; Scheffel, B. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Elektronenstrahl und Plasmatechnik (FEP), Dresden (Germany); Steffen, R. [Stahlwerke Bremen GmbH (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    Physical vapour deposition (PVD) in combination with conventional coating processes such as hot-dip coating or electrolytic deposition offers interesting development approaches for novel steel strip coating systems. In joint-research projects of several German and Austrian steel companies with the Fraunhofer-Institute for Electron-beam and Plasma technology (FEP) different promising approaches for new PVD-coated steel sheet products, in particular in combination with conventional coating processes have been investigated. For an industrial application challenges particularly remain in terms of process development, i.e. to integrate PVD coating-processes into conventional steel strip coating lines. (orig.)

  6. Study on the flow in the pipelines of the support system of circulating fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, L.; Yang, J.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhuang, X. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the support system of Circulating Fluidized Bed (Below referred to as CFB) of thermal power plant, the pipelines of primary wind are used for transporting the cold air to the boiler, which is important in controlling and combustion effect. The pipeline design will greatly affect the energy loss of the system, and accordingly affect the thermal power plant economic benefits and production environment. Three-dimensional numerical simulation is carried out for the pipeline internal flow field of a thermal power plant in this paper. Firstly three turbulence models were compared and the results showed that the SST k-ω model converged better and the energy losses predicted were closer to the experimental results. The influence of the pipeline design form on the flow characteristics are analysed, then the optimization designs of the pipeline are proposed according to the energy loss distribution of the flow field, in order to reduce energy loss and improve the efficiency of tunnel. The optimization plan turned out to be efficacious; about 36% of the pressure loss is reduced.

  7. New method of leak detecting in diagnostic of gas pipeline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes new directions in gas transmission pipelines diagnostics as well as new methods and equipment used to detect leaks. It was also shown that efficient and functional diagnostics system is the necessary condition to keep the exploitation of transmission systems safe. (author)

  8. Third-Generation Partnerships for P-16 Pipelines and Cradle-through-Career Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2013-01-01

    Amid unprecedented novelty, complexity, turbulence, and conflict, it is apparent that a new education system is needed. Focused on a new outcome--postsecondary education completion with advanced competence--heretofore separate systems for early childhood, K-12 schools, and postsecondary education are being joined in P-16 pipelines and…

  9. Multi-level access control in the data pipeline of the international supply chain system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruksasri, P.; Berg, J. van den; Hofman, W.; Daskapan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Seamless Integrated Data Pipeline system was proposed to the European Union in order to overcome the information quality shortcomings of the current international supply chain information exchange systems. Next to identification and authorization of stakeholders, secure access control needs to b

  10. Expert system for the reliability assessment of hydro-carbon transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacs, J.; Nagy, G.; Toeroek, I. [Department of Mechanical Technology, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    Safety operation, condition monitoring, periodical inspection and rehabilitation of high-pressure hydro-carbon transporting pipelines are a complex problem. To answer arising questions is inconceivable without technical-critical evaluation of defects - originated during manufacturing or operation - can be found on the pipeline. This evaluation must be in line with requirements of our age, i.e. it has to assert such concept of which basis is not the `possible worst` but the `just happening wrong`. Solving these problems without application of computer resources is inconceivable in our time. The final purpose of the solution is the expert system and among the components of the expert system primarily the development of the knowledge base is needed. The paper demonstrates a possible structure of the knowledge base, furthermore its fundamental elements and their contents (defect types, evaluation possibilities of defects, categorisation of pipelines) and summaries the prospective advantages of its application. (orig.) 27 refs.

  11. Designing a warning system of pipeline net based on detecting vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinhao; Fan, Shangchun; Li, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    A pipeline network security warning system is designed based on vibration detection techniques, which consist of the front nodes module, relay modules and the computer monitor center in this paper. Someone dig in the ground of pipeline and destruction of the pipeline, when pipe stress change and the acceleration sensor close to the walls of the pipe feel the stress change. The signal through sampling transmit to ARM processor and after Wavelet denoising and the genetic algorithm processing and to have the true and false judgment by the relay modules to the information of the computer monitoring and control center with GSM module, and then PC monitoring software sound and light alarm and forwarding alarm information to the related personnel. At last the experiment shows the system could fulfill the objectives, that is, lower false alarm ratio and higher response ability.

  12. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  13. Development of the updated system of city underground pipelines based on Visual Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxiong; Zhu, Yun; Li, Xiangdong

    2009-10-01

    Our city has owned the integrated pipeline network management system with ArcGIS Engine 9.1 as the bottom development platform and with Oracle9i as basic database for storaging data. In this system, ArcGIS SDE9.1 is applied as the spatial data engine, and the system was a synthetic management software developed with Visual Studio visualization procedures development tools. As the pipeline update function of the system has the phenomenon of slower update and even sometimes the data lost, to ensure the underground pipeline data can real-time be updated conveniently and frequently, and the actuality and integrity of the underground pipeline data, we have increased a new update module in the system developed and researched by ourselves. The module has the powerful data update function, and can realize the function of inputting and outputting and rapid update volume of data. The new developed module adopts Visual Studio visualization procedures development tools, and uses access as the basic database to storage data. We can edit the graphics in AutoCAD software, and realize the database update using link between the graphics and the system. Practice shows that the update module has good compatibility with the original system, reliable and high update efficient of the database.

  14. Locating Mechanical Damages Using Magnetic Flux Leakage Inspection in Gas Pipeline System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas transmission pipelines are often inspected and monitored using the magnetic flux leakage method. An inspection vehicle known as a 'pig' is launched into the pipeline and conveyed along the pipe by the pressure of natural gas. The pig contains a magnetizer, an array of sensors and a microprocessor-based data acquisition system for logging data. This paper describes magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signal processing used for detecting mechanical damages during an in-line inspection. The overall approach employs noise removal and clustering technique. The proposed method is computationally efficient and can easily be implemented. Results are presented and verified by field tests from an application of the signal processing

  15. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  16. Risk based maintenance of a cross-country petroleum pipeline system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawotola, A.W.; Trafalis, T.B.; Mustaffa, Z.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a data-driven approach in determining an optimal inspection interval for a petroleum pipeline system. The approach accounts for the determination of both the probability of failure and its associated consequences. The probability of failure is estimated by fitting the historical

  17. Integration of the MUSE Software Pipeline into the Astro-WISE System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizagno, J.; Streicher, O.; Vriend, W. -J; Ballester, P.; Egret, D.; Lorente, N.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the current state of integrating the Mutli Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (hereafter: MUSE) software pipeline (Weilbacher et al. 2006) into the Astro-WISE system (Valentijn et al. 2007a; Vriend et al. 2012). MUSE is a future integral-field spectrograph for the VLT, consisting of 24 Integral

  18. The strategic priorities of the national oil and gas pipeline transport system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Миколаївна Ісаєва

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective analysis of legal documents governing relations between Ukraine, Russia and the European Union as part of their energy policies was performed. The strategic interests of participating countries and the strategic priorities of the governance with national oil and gas pipeline transport system development in particular were designated

  19. Petri net modeling and simulation of pipelined redistributions for a deadlock-free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I. Souravlas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of multiprocessing systems has given rise to the necessity for modeling, verifying, and evaluating their performance in order to fully exploit hardware. The Petri net (PN formalism is a suitable tool for modeling parallel systems due to its basic characteristics, such as parallelism and synchronization. In addition, the PN formalism allows the incorporation of more details of the real system into the model. Examples of such details include contention for shared resources (like memory or identification of blocked processes (a definition for blocked processes is found in the Introduction section. In this paper, PNs are considered as a modeling framework to verify and study the performance of parallel pipelined communications. The main strength of the pipelines is that if organized in a proper way, they lead to overlapping of computation, communication, and read/write costs that incur in parallel communications. Most of the well-known pipelined schemes have been evaluated by theoretical analysis, queueing networks, and simulations. Usually, the factors taken into account are scheduling, message classification, and buffer spacing. To the best of our knowledge, there is no work in the literature that uses PN as a modeling tool for verification of the pipeline-based scheme. Apart from verification, a more accurate and complete model should also consider other factors, such as contentions and blocked processes. These factors have a high impact on the performance of a parallel system. The PN model presented in this paper accurately captures the behavior of the pipeline-based parallel communication system. The model considers synchronization, message scheduling, and message classification, while it is proven to be free of deadlocks and contentions. Also, the model is characterized by symmetry, so it can be used for large and complex systems.

  20. Investigation of Water Hammer Effect Through Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Wee Choon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper we study the condition where the water hammer effect is occurs in pipe line. Water hammer can cause the pipe to break if the pressure is high enough. The experiment will be set-up to investigate the water hammer effect in order to avoid the water hammer effect happen. The prevention of water hammer effect will be propose and prove the prevention method is successfully reduce the water hammer effect. The prevention method using is installing the bypass pipe with non-return valve. The experiment is done by capture the vibration signal by using data acquisition device and accelerometer. The pressure signal is capture after a sudden shutoff for the valve. The signal is than analyze and convert to wave speed. The project is differentiating and compares the water hammer phenomenon with different pipe material, pipe length, inlet diameter of pipe, and pressure in pipeline. From the experiment, result shown that the lower strength material pipe, smaller inlet diameter pipe, and longer pipe will deal with lager water hammer effect. Besides, the prevention method by installing by pass pipe with non-return valve of water hammer effect is proved successfully reduce the water hammer phenomenon by 33.33% of pressure.

  1. Feasibility assessment of path-planning for pipeline system construction of electric utilities network enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.C.; Huang, S.J. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposed an algorithm to improve the power transmission network in Taiwan which has experienced increased competition since the addition of competitive local exchange carriers (CLEC) into the telecommunication market. Recently, the CLECs requested to rent pipelines from the original incumbent local exchange carriers (ILECs) and from the Taiwan Power Company. The Taiwan Power Company not only builds transmission lines, but also telecommunication networks using different kinds of fiber optic cables, including Optical Power Ground Wire (OPGW), All-Dielectric Self-Supporting (ADSS), and Wrapped types (WOC). This paper also discussed the integration of pipeline rent-out work with AM/FM/geographic information system software. The Java-based software determines a shortest path-planning method for the piping layout to help improve the pipeline system and the construction of an electricity network. The method is expected to increase the use of existing pipelines by improving the efficiency of network planning and maintenance. The method also reduces the potential for design faults and is easy to apply in the field due to the clear criteria. This paper described the proposed system architecture in detail and presented test results. It was shown that the use of a shortest path for the piping layout can reduce the distance between manholes in the huge network. According to test results, the proposed method is considered to be feasible. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  2. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece.

  3. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, F A; Siontorou, C G; Spanidis, P-M P

    2011-02-15

    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece. PMID:21177031

  4. DNV RP-F116 integrity management of submarine pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinum, B.H.; Etterdal, B. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Hoevik (Norway); Augustinovic, Z. [Dong Energy, Fredericia (Denmark); Paula, A. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The need to keep pipelines operating safely and efficiently is paramount for any operator. Additionally, there is an increasing awareness at both regulatory and public level. Authorities around the world are adopting a more proactive approach as they seek to minimize the risk of human injuries or harm to the environment resulting from pipeline leaks. A joint industry project (JIP) led by DNV Energy is formulating guidelines for how to manage the integrity of submarine pipeline system. The resultant document of recommended practice, DNV RP-F116, will provide the oil and gas industry with a useful tool in an area where no such formal guidance currently exists. This paper gives an overview of the RP and demonstrates the use with a case study for the Siri field. The Siri field is operated by DONG Energy, Denmark and all infield pipelines were subjected to an integrity assessment using the Integrity Management process as outlined in the upcoming DNV RP-116. In parallel with establishing the RP, DNV has further developed the web-based software system, Orbit+, which is aligned with the RP. The software system is implemented and used by Dong Energy. (author)

  5. 76 FR 7238 - Pipeline Safety: Dangers of Abnormal Snow and Ice Build-Up on Gas Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Build-Up on Gas Distribution Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... owners and operators of petroleum gas and natural gas facilities of the need to take the appropriate steps to prevent damage to pipeline facilities from accumulated snow or ice. Past events on natural...

  6. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  7. Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) uses wheeled capsules (vehicles) to carry cargoes through a pipeline filled with air. Modern large diameter PCP systems utilize through flow booster pumps, also known as jet pump injectors. These create the pressure differentials required to propel multiple capsules through a pipeline, while allowing both terminals at atmospheric pressure. This is done by placing a booster pump midway along the pipeline, and designing it in such a way that capsules can bypass ...

  8. Reliability and risk analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the semi-Markov model is applied to describe the port oil pipeline transportation system operation processes and its selected parameters are determined. Multi-state systems are considered and their reliability and risk are found. Next, the joint model of the systems' operation process and the systems' multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. (author)

  9. Ecoulements diphasiques instables dans les systèmes pipeline/riser Unsteady Two-Phase Flows in Pipeline/Riser Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabre J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les instabilités hydrodynamiques de l'écoulement dans les systèmes pipeline/riser ont été étudiées sur une boucle d'essais en tubes transparents de diamètre intérieur 0,053 m, longueur 25 m pour la partie pipeline et 13,5 m pour la partie riser. Les expériences effectuées sur de l'eau et de l'air, à différentes pentes du pipeline et pour plusieurs valeurs du débit d'entrée, ont permis l'observation d'instabilités à grande échelle à faible débit de liquide et de gaz. Les cartes de configuration d'écoulement ont été établies pour trois pentes différentes du pipeline. Le modèle numérique développé à partir de ces données résout les équations locales instantanées de bilan de masse et de quantité de mouvement de ces écoulements par la méthode des caractéristiques. L'évolution des pressions, fraction de vide, débit de gaz et de liquide au cours du temps, prévue par le modèle, est généralement en bon accord avec les données expérimentales. Hydrodynamic instabilities of flow in pipeline/riser systems were studied on a test loop made of transparent tubes with an ID of 0. 053 m and 25 m long for the pipeline part and 13. 5 m long for the riser. Experiments performed with water and air, with different slopes of the pipeline and with several inlet flow rates, reveal large-scale instabilities at low liquid and gas flow rates. Flow configuration maps were compiled for three different pipeline slopes. The numerical model developed from these data solves instantaneous local equations for the mass balance and amount of movement of such flows by the method of characteristics. Variations in pressures, in the void fraction and in gas and liquid flow in the time forecast by the model are generally in good agreement with experimental data.

  10. A case study in flow assurance of a pipeline-riser system using OLGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Rafael Horschutz; Balino, Jorge Luis [Nucleo de Dinamica e Fluidos. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.nemoto@usp.br, jlbalino@usp.br; Tanaka, Rafael Loureiro; Godinho, Carlos Alberto [Prysmian Cables and Systems, Cariacica, ES (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.tanaka@prysmian.com, carlos.godinho@prysmian.com

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a case study in flow assurance is performed considering an offshore operating system, using the software OLGA. As operating system we consider a pipeline-riser geometry with typical dimensions of offshore oil production systems, and a three-phase flow of oil, gas and water. The model developed in OLGA considers the composition and dimensions of the tubes, heat transfer parameters, process equipment and fluid sources. The fluids properties are calculated using the software PVTsim. Simulations are ran in order to determine the pipeline inner diameter and insulation required to satisfy pressure and temperature requirements. It is also possible to simulate the transient behavior of the system, which allows to evaluate if production instabilities are present. In case instabilities exist, two mitigation alternatives are evaluated: closure of a choke valve before the separator and gas lift. Considering a possible production shutdown, the tubes insulation is calculated in order to avoid hydrate formation. (author)

  11. Pipeline inwall 3D measurement system based on the cross structured light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Da; Lin, Zhipeng; Xue, Lei; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Zichi

    2014-01-01

    In order to accurately realize the defect detection of pipeline inwall, this paper proposes a measurement system made up of cross structured light, single CCD camera and a smart car, etc. Based on structured light measurement technology, this paper mainly introduces the structured light measurement system, the imaging mathematical model, and the parameters and method of camera calibration. Using these measuring principles and methods, the camera in remote control car platform achieves continuous shooting of objects and real-time rebound processing as well as utilizing established model to extract 3D point cloud coordinate to reconstruct pipeline defects, so it is possible to achieve 3D automatic measuring, and verifies the correctness and feasibility of this system. It has been found that this system has great measurement accuracy in practice.

  12. Leakage location system for oil pipeline on basis of stress wave detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangfeng WANG; Renwen CHEN

    2008-01-01

    An online monitoring system was developed for rapidly determining the exact location of the holing position in an oil pipeline by monitoring and analyzing the characteristics of the strain wave caused by the hole. The system has a master-slaver computer structure based on a remote wireless network. The master system takes charge of managing and controlling the whole system, identifying the holing stress wave, and calculating the holing position. The slaver system is responsible for sampling the strain wave signal from the pipeline. The characteristics of the strain wave signal are extracted by a Hilbert-Huang trans-form based on a signal processing approach. The exact holing position can be obtained by a time delay locating method with stress wave characteristics. The experimental results of the in-service pipeline show that the average locating error of the system is less than 10 m, the accuracy ratio for the holing alarm is more than 90%, and the time that the system takes to respond to the leakage is less than 10 s.

  13. FBG Temperature and Pressure Sensing System for Hot Water Pipeline of Petrochemical Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Hui Lü; Shao-Hua Shang; Xu Jiang; Jin-Ping Ou; Chao Yang; Chuan-Di Li; Wei Xu

    2008-01-01

    A spatial and wavelength division multi-plexing fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system is reported for monitoring the temperature and the pressure (T-P) of hot water pipeline in petrochemical factory. The FBG sensing system has 72 channels independently, and it provides the capability to monitor large number sensors at same time. A resolution of 0.1 ℃ and 0.01 MPa with a measurement bandwidth of 150 Hz has been achieved.

  14. The development of pipeline integrity management in the world and practice in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohua, Dong; Qing, Wang; Feifan [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    The paper analyzed the pipeline integrity management latest development, and the relationship among HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM). CNPC is a pioneer of China industry on implementation of pipeline integrity management by using latest developed technologies such as in-line inspection, GIS, Risk assessment and advanced repair technologies, and it is typical model of PIM in China pipeline who supply the gas to whole Beijing city. With smart pigging inspection and implementation of GIS and EAM(enterprise assets management) system on two thousand kilometers of Shaanxi-Beijing gas pipeline BHGC is able to manage pipeline integrity in five areas which include pipe materials safety, nature and geotechnical hazards management, coating and corrosion protection, stationing and associated facilities maintenance, and underground gas storage integrity. This paper presents latest achievement of BHGC in their pipeline integrity programs. (author)

  15. SPADOCK: Adaptive Pipeline Technology for Web System using WebSocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries RICHI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As information technology grows to the era of IoT(Internet of Things and cloud computing, the performance ofweb application and web service which acts as the informationgateway becomes an issue. Horizontal quality of serviceimprovement through system performance escalation becomesan issue pursued by engineers and scientists, giving birth toBigPipe pipeline technology which was developed by Facebook.We make SPADOCK, an adaptive pipeline system which is builtunder distributed system architecture with the utilization ofHTML5 WebSocket, then measure its performance. Parametersused for the measurement includes latency, workload, andbandwidth. The result shows that SPADOCK could reduceserving latency by 68.28% compared with the conventional web,and it is 20.63% faster than BigPipe.

  16. PageRank Pipeline Benchmark: Proposal for a Holistic System Benchmark for Big-Data Platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Dreher, Patrick; Hill, Chris; Gadepally, Vijay; Kuszmaul, Bradley; Kepner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The rise of big data systems has created a need for benchmarks to measure and compare the capabilities of these systems. Big data benchmarks present unique scalability challenges. The supercomputing community has wrestled with these challenges for decades and developed methodologies for creating rigorous scalable benchmarks (e.g., HPC Challenge). The proposed PageRank pipeline benchmark employs supercomputing benchmarking methodologies to create a scalable benchmark that is reflective of many real-world big data processing systems. The PageRank pipeline benchmark builds on existing prior scalable benchmarks (Graph500, Sort, and PageRank) to create a holistic benchmark with multiple integrated kernels that can be run together or independently. Each kernel is well defined mathematically and can be implemented in any programming environment. The linear algebraic nature of PageRank makes it well suited to being implemented using the GraphBLAS standard. The computations are simple enough that performance predictio...

  17. Reliability, risk and availability analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in constant operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the multi-state approach to the analysis and evaluation of systems' reliability, risk and availability is practically applied. Theoretical definitions and results are illustrated by the example of their application in the reliability, risk and availability evaluation of an oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline transportation system is considered in the constant in time operation conditions. The system reliability structure and its components reliability functions are not changing in constant operation conditions. The system reliability structure is fixed with a high accuracy. Whereas, the input reliability characteristics of the pipeline components are not sufficiently exact because of the lack of statistical data necessary for their estimation. The results may be considered as an illustration of the proposed methods possibilities of applications in pipeline systems reliability analysis. (author)

  18. The history and future of thermal sprayed galvanically active metallic anticorrosion coatings used on pipelines and steel structures in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodijnen, Fred van [Sulzer Metco, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Since its invention by M. U. Schoop in the beginning of the 20th century, thermal spray has been used for corrosion protection applications in naval, on-shore, submerged and atmospheric environments. Thermally sprayed coatings of zinc, zinc alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys are currently the most popular materials used for active corrosion protection of steel and concrete, which can be applied using either of the widely known thermal spray processes of combustion wire or electric arc wire. In the oil and gas exploration and production industry, corrosion protection applications using these technologies have evolved since the early sixties. Thermal spray technology has successfully been used to protect steel-based materials from corrosion in many different fields of application like platforms and pipelines. The most used material in the oil and gas industry is TSA (Thermally Sprayed Aluminum) coating. TSA coatings, with a lifetime of 25 to 30 years, require no maintenance except for cosmetic reasons when painted. The surface temperature of a TSA can go as high as 480 deg C. Although TS (Thermal Spray) is an older process, the number of applications and the number of m{sup 2} it is applied to is still increasing resulting from its maintenance-free and reliable active corrosion-protection features. (author)

  19. A Novel MagPipe Pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.R.; Montgomery, D.B.; Roderick, L. [Magplane Technology Inc., Littleton, MA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A novel capsule pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives, called Magplane MagPipe, is under development with the intention to replace trucks and railways for hauling materials from the mine to the rail head, power plant, or processing plant with reduced operating cost and energy consumption. The initial demonstration of a MagPipe line in Inner Mongolia will be a 500-m-long double-pipe coal transport system with the design transportation capacity of 3 Mega-Mg per year. The pipeline consists of 6-m-long plastic pipe modules with an I-beam suspension system inside the pipe to carry sets of five coupled capsules. The pipe will also contain noncontinuous motor winding modules spaced at 50-m intervals. A set of Halbach-arrayed permanent magnets on the bottom of the capsules interact with the linear motor windings to provide propulsion. The motor is driven by variable frequency drives outside the pipe to control the speed. This paper briefly describes the overall MagPipe pipeline transportation system, including the preliminary conclusions of the linear synchronous motor analysis.

  20. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-02-22

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for debris formation of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is being performed at the Savannah River Technology Center. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause coating disbondment as identified by the Industry Coatings Expert Panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are described in this report and the application of these elements to evaluate the performance of the specific coating system of Phenoline 305 epoxy-phenolic topcoat over Carbozinc 11 primer on a steel substrate. This system is one of the predominant coating systems present on steel substrates in NPP containment.

  1. Pipeline rehabilitation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

  2. Configuring an open pipeline fulfilment system - a simulation study in an automotive context

    OpenAIRE

    Brabazon, Philip G.; Woodcock, Andrew; MacCarthy, Bart L.

    2008-01-01

    Automotive producers are adopting multi-modal fulfillment models in which customers can be fulfilled by products from stock, by allocating as yet unmade products that are in the planning pipeline, or by building a product to order. This study explores how fulfillment is sensitive to several parameters of the system and how they interact with different methods for sequencing products into the production plan.

  3. Method for installing submarine pipelines using a marine railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of installing a cold water conduit for use with Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), fossil or nuclear power plants comprises installing a marine railway system on the ocean floor and subsequently using the railway system as an aid to the installation of the cold water conduit and as a support structure for the conduit

  4. Brazil pipelines system crossings; Sistema de dutovias do Brasil - interferencias nos transportes terrestres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Roberto; Barbosa, Sylvio [Agencia Nacional de Transportes Terrestres (ANTT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Abib, Osvaldo

    2005-07-01

    The Law 10.233/2001 of 2001 designated the National Agency of Land Transportation (ANTT) as responsible for the gathering and organizing of information about Brazilian pipeline infrastructure. In order to fulfill this legal requirement, ANTT is developing the Brazilian Pipeline Catalog System (SISDUT) and is creating a geo referenced database. The priority is to collect information on the critical points, those where the pipelines intersect with road and rail networks. The SISDUT geo processing catalog will store all information required to manage and track critical points, such as: technical construction standards, as built plans, adjustments terms with roads and rail networks, special usage grants, inspection procedures, pictures taken on local visits, ANTT deliberations, usage of soil, etc. The system was designed using the Object Oriented Analysis and Design paradigms, modeled in the Unified Modeling Language. The database will be populated by ANTT and with data imported from partners. The queries for literal and geographic data will be available on the Internet using Web mapping. SISDUT system will allow spatial cross referencing among its many entities, allowing complex analysis and tracking of events in the critical points. (author)

  5. Statistical analysis on the signals monitoring multiphase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Guo, Liejin

    2013-07-01

    The signals monitoring petroleum transmission pipeline in offshore oil industry usually contain abundant information about the multiphase flow on flow assurance which includes the avoidance of most undesirable flow pattern. Therefore, extracting reliable features form these signals to analyze is an alternative way to examine the potential risks to oil platform. This paper is focused on characterizing multiphase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system that is often appeared in offshore oil industry and finding an objective criterion to describe the transition of flow patterns. Statistical analysis on pressure signal at the riser top is proposed, instead of normal prediction method based on inlet and outlet flow conditions which could not be easily determined during most situations. Besides, machine learning method (least square supported vector machine) is also performed to classify automatically the different flow patterns. The experiment results from a small-scale loop show that the proposed method is effective for analyzing the multiphase flow pattern.

  6. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

  7. An Experimental Simulation of Load-Leveling Through Adsorption for Natural Gas Pipeline System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周理; 陈海华

    2002-01-01

    A lo9adleveling method through adsorption was presented to adjust the supply quantity according to the consumption rate of natural gas with time,An experimental simulation set up was designed and used to test the load-leveling function for a real pipline system.A storage tank filled with activated carbon together with a filter constitutes the major part of the load-leveling facility,Pressure and temperature of the system,as well as the real gas output of the storage tank were recorded.It is proven that load-leveling by adsorption in technically feasible even for low pipeline pressure of natural gas supply system.

  8. Finite element modeling of engineered thin film/coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finite element modeling is becoming an increasingly important tool used in the design methodology and in the analysis of engineered functional thin film/coating systems. In contrast with many analytical modeling methods, modem finite element analysis can readily model non-linear static and transient thermo-mechanical behavior of engineered coating systems. Non-linear finite element analysis can be applied to multi-layered coating systems to predict the stresses and deformations generated during the processing of the coating system and under operating conditions. For example thermo-mechanical finite element analysis can be used to determine the composition and layer geometry of a coating system such that the stresses generated under operating conditions are minimized. In this paper we demonstrate the use of non-linear finite element analysis in the following situations: a) the prediction of contact stresses and film surface crack propagation within the coating system developed during the normal indentation of a hard wear-resistant coating on a soft substrate, and b) the determination of stresses generated in a multi-layered non-wetting, wear-resistant and oxidation resistant glass molding coating system during repeated thermal shot cycling. (author)

  9. Development of a Neural Fuzzy System for Advanced Prediction of Gas Hydrate Formation Rate in Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad JALALNEZHAD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the natural gas industry in the 20th century, the production, processing and distribution of natural gas under high-pressure conditions has become necessary. Under these conditions, it was found that the production and transmission pipelines were becoming blocked with what looked like to be ice. Hammerschmidt determined that hydrates were the cause of plugged natural gas pipelines. Gas hydrates and difficulties related to their formation in production and transmission pipelines and equipment, are the major concerns of the gas industry. The main objective of this study was to present a novel approach to access more accurate hydrate formation rate predicting models based on a combination of flow loop experimental data with learning power of adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems and more than 900 data points of the , , , and i-  hydrate formation rate. Using this data set different predictive models were developed. It was found that such models can be used as powerful tools, with total errors less than 6 % for the developed models, in predicting hydrate formation rate in these cases.

  10. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    CERN Document Server

    Priyatikanto, R; Rachman, A; Dani, T

    2015-01-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO \\& GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast-moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar sche...

  11. Pipelining the Fast Multipole Method over a Runtime System

    CERN Document Server

    Agullo, Emmanuel; Coulaud, Olivier; Darve, Eric; Messner, Matthias; Toru, Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Fast Multipole Methods (FMM) are a fundamental operation for the simulation of many physical problems. The high performance design of such methods usually requires to carefully tune the algorithm for both the targeted physics and the hardware. In this paper, we propose a new approach that achieves high performance across architectures. Our method consists of expressing the FMM algorithm as a task flow and employing a state-of-the-art runtime system, StarPU, in order to process the tasks on the different processing units. We carefully design the task flow, the mathematical operators, their Central Processing Unit (CPU) and Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) implementations, as well as scheduling schemes. We compute potentials and forces of 200 million particles in 48.7 seconds on a homogeneous 160 cores SGI Altix UV 100 and of 38 million particles in 13.34 seconds on a heterogeneous 12 cores Intel Nehalem processor enhanced with 3 Nvidia M2090 Fermi GPUs.

  12. Internal cement coating in pipelines - chances and limitations for in-line-inspection; Zementausgekleidete Rohre - Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen fuer eine intelligente Molchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogumil, H.G.; Westeinde, P. van' t [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Bukman, F.; Schmidt, R. [3P Services GmbH und Co. KG, Lingen (Germany)

    2000-02-01

    For the inspection of pipelines for internal and external corrosion, the 'in-line inspection', using 'intelligent pigs', has become state-of-the-art as far as oil and gas transport pipelines are concerned. Since recent years, also small diameter tools - as small as 4'' - have become available. In one of its oil fields, where wet oil contains H{sub 2}S, internal cement coating is applied to protect the steel pipe from internal corrosion. An in-line-inspection was considered necessary, however, the internal coating, having a thickness of 8 mm, was in contrary to the general requirement of intelligent pigs to have direct contact to the internal pipe (=steel) surface. Pull tests that were carried out in cement coated pipes using the PiCoLo equipment of 3P Services (based on the magnetic flux leakage/MFL principle) indicated that reasonable results could be achieved, however, at reduced resolution. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Inspektion von Rohrleitungen auf innere und aeussere Korrosion werden intelligente Molche eingesetzt. Diese Untersuchungsmethode wird bei Oel- und Gastransportleitungen eingesetzt. In den letzten Jahren ist es auch moeglich, kleinere Durchmesser - wie z.B. DN 100 - zu untersuchen. An einem der Oelfelder sind zementausgekleidete Rohre fuer den Transport eingesetzt. Die Zementinnenauskleidung soll die Stahlrohre vor Innenkorrosion schuetzen. Eine innere Inspektion wurde auch von Sachverstaendigen als moegliche Alternative fuer die 5jaehrige Wasserdruckpruefung mit dem 1,3-fachen Nenndruck nach dem entsprechenden Regelwerk gesehen. Die Wasserdruckpruefung liefert nicht ausreichende Daten ueber den Gesamtzustand des Leitungssystems und dient nur als Momentaufnahme. Die Zementinnenauskleidung hat eine Dicke von ca. 8 mm. Das stand im Gegensatz zu den Anforderungen, die an ein herkoemmliches, intelligentes Molchsystem gestellt werden. Herkoemmliche Molchsysteme haben direkten Kontakt zum entsprechenden Stahlrohr. Es wurden

  13. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development: Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-11

    Objectives are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability. Such coating systems are essential to the ATS engine (gas turbine) meeting its objectives.

  14. Process engineering of ceramic composite coatings for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G.; Kim, H.; Chen, M.; Yang, Q.; Troczynski, T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Researchers at UBCeram at the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering at the University of British Columbia have developed a technology to chemically bond composite sol-gel (CB-CSG) coating onto metallic surfaces of complex or concave shapes. The process has been optimized for electrically resistive coatings and corrosion-resistant coatings. The CSG is sprayed onto metallic surfaces and is heat-treated at 300 degrees C to partially dehydrate the hydroxides. The CSG film is then chemically bonded through reaction of active alumina with metal phosphates, such as aluminium phosphate. A new chromate-free process is being developed to address the issue of coatings porosity. The electrodeposition technique involves polymer particles mixed with suspended fine alumina particles which are co-deposited by electrophoretic means or by electrocoagulation. The composite e-coatings have excellent mechanical properties and are being considered as a protective coating for various components of fuel cell systems. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Research on On-line detection system for natural gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Jianyong; Yan Guozheng; Ding Guoqing; Fu Xiguang; Zhang Yunwei

    2005-01-01

    Four methods for testing the thickness and defect of pipeline are compared and analyzed in this paper. The testing principle of magnetic leakage flux based on electromagnetism is discussed in detail. From the experiments of sensor character, the effects caused by some factors are found, which give some important information for sensor design, and this method is proved reasonable and effective. The mechanical and electrical structures of inspection equipment, as well as its working principle and technical features are introduced. In this paper, control flow and software design are discussed, too. This detection system has been successfully developed. Experiments show that this detection system has high resolution and can be put into practice.

  16. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-12-01

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel.

  17. Pipelines on irregular seabed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, S.; Gjertveit, E.

    1985-01-01

    From the Statpipe project in the North Sea a unique experience has been gained on the design and construction of pipelines on seabed with large irregularities of different types. The Statpipe pipeline system consists of 4 pipeline legs and totals 842 km subsea and 40 km onshore lines. Two pipelines are crossing the Norwegian Trench at about 300 m water depth. In the Statpipe project pre-lay intervention to prepare the seabed for pipelaying was only required for less than a 1 km rock outcrop section in the landfall area. The offshore pipelines cross large areas of pockmarks and iceberg ploughmarks. However, after an extensive design effort a routing was found which avoided pre-lay intervention and limited the post-lay intervention work. Grout bag supports were installed underneath the most severe pipeline spans as a temporary measure, while permanent span correction was performed by trenching and gravel dumping. The above methods proved adequate for the largest ploughmark spans with height under the pipeline up to 3.3 m (moranic material) and pockmark spans in soft soil with height up to 6 m (trenching only). For pipelines in landfall areas, where the seabed is highly irregular due to rock outcrops, various construction methods are at disposal. The Statpipe project used a subsea bridge to span the irregularities, while another pipeline project (Oseberg) is constructing a subsea floor tunnel for later pull-in of the pipeline through a sealing plug at an offshore point.

  18. Environmental management systems methodology for pipeline systems implementation; Metodologia para implantacao de sistemas de gestao ambiental na implementacao de empreendimentos dutoviarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Claudio Marques [JPTE Engenharia Ltda., Barueri, SP (Brazil); Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The implementation of oil and gas pipeline systems are commonly made in a own or shared with power transmission, rail and crossroads right-of-way. Pipelines are a 'linear' structure, such as power transmission lines, which are established on landscapes with several conformations (accent slopes, swamp and rocky soils), including sites with high environmental sensibility. The services involved on pipeline implementation are very dynamic, involving several number of employees, vehicles, heavy equipment of excavation and welding that results in a high potential to cause environmental and social impacts. This article, based on the Brazilian and foreign experience on pipeline construction, proposes a methodology to prevent and minimize social and environmental impacts during the construction stage of a pipeline system. (author)

  19. Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  20. Field experience with a novel pipe protection and monitoring system for large offshore pipeline construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerstaedt, Michael; Blitz, Gunther [ROSEN Swiss AG, Stans (Switzerland); Sabido, Carlos E. [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For pipe joints stored during large-scale offshore pipeline construction projects, corrosion protection as well as protection from physical damage of pipelines is very important. Integrity Management does not just start with the operation of a pipeline. In the past, with the much lower risks and cost at stake in on shore constriction, this factor was often overlooked. Sometimes, newly laid pipelines failed upon hydrostatic testing or even during operation. Causes were corrosion or damage the pipe joints took before pipeline laying. For offshore projects, the cost and consequences associated with such failures are orders of magnitude higher and must be avoided by all means. Within six months from the conception of the idea, a system was developed and deployed that protected (and in part still protects) a large number of pipe joints used in a European offshore gas pipeline project more than 2000 km. The pipe joints were physically protected from corrosion, interior contamination, and condensation. At the same time, the system provided real-time monitoring of more than 100'000 pipe joints stored at 5 storage yards distributed over 3 countries with distances of more than 1200 km apart from each other. Every single joint was identified with its location and status at every time during the storage period. Any third-party interference was transmitted to a central control room in real time as well. Protection of the pipe joints was provided vs.: corrosion of pipe joint end cutbacks exposed to the maritime climate for up to 2 years; contamination of the pipe interior by: foreign material, dirt, water, ice, animals. Third party damage to the pipe joints; damage to the protection system or to the transmission network; fire; theft of pipe joints or other equipment. System features were: modular pipe caps that, protect the pipe interior, cover both inner and outer cutback, allow ventilation of the pipe interior, continuously monitor each pipe joint for third party damage

  1. Acoustic natural frequency analysis of tree-structure pipeline systems by personal computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györi, I.; Joó, Gy.

    1986-02-01

    The paper gives the extension of the Schmidt-Kuhlmann method for reciprocating compressor pipeline systems having a tree-structure, consisting of receivers and pipes with an optional number of branchings. It gives a generalized algorithm which makes it possible to mechanize program constructing for the purpose of determining acoustic natural frequencies of complex structures, and it illustrates the use of personal computers—besides the actual numerical calculations—for automatic program-writing as well. The program developed is very useful in design practice for determining the effects caused by modification of the geometric dimensions, and it permits one to shift and avoid harmful acoustic resonances in preliminary planning.

  2. EST Pipeline System: Detailed and Automated EST Data Processing and Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Xu; Liang Zhang; Hong Yu; Yan Zhou; Ling He; Yuanzhong Zhu; Wei Huang; Lijun Fang; Lin Tao; Yuedong Zhu; Lin Cai; Huayong Xu

    2003-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are widely used in gene survey research these years. The EST Pipeline System, software developed by Hangzhou Genomics Institute (HGI), can automatically analyze different scalar EST sequences by suitable methods. All the analysis reports, including those of vector masking, sequence assembly, gene annotation, Gene Ontology classification, and some other analyses,can be browsed and searched as well as downloaded in the Excel format from the web interface, saving research efforts from routine data processing for biological rules embedded in the data.

  3. SCADA System for the Modeling and Optimization of Oil Collecting Pipeline Network: A Case Study of Hassi Messaoud Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aouadj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims are data acquisition, control and online modeling of an oil collection pipeline network using a SCADA «Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition» system, allowing the optimization of this network in real time by creating more exact models of onsite facilities. Indeed, fast development of computing systems makes obsolete usage of old systems for which maintenance became more and more expensive and their performances don’t comply any more with modern company operations. SCADA system is a telemetry and control system adapted for particular requirements of an oilfield management. Thanks to its different functions, we take advantage of this system to solve production problems especially those related to oil collecting pipeline network. In fact this network is confronted to some problems, in particular pressure losses which has significant effect on the production. This problem can be taken under control by the awareness of pipeline network operation and all its process data (especially junctions in real time. This will allow online creation of representative and accurate computerized models for the oil collecting pipeline network including producing wells, collecting pipelines, manifolds and others facilities.

  4. Water hammer in the pump-rising pipeline system with an air chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Sang-Gyun; LEE Kye-Bock; KIM Kyung-Yup

    2014-01-01

    Water hammer following the tripping of pumps can lead to overpressure and negative pressure. Reduction in overpressure and negative pressure may be necessary to avoid failure, to improve the efficiency of operation and to avoid fatigue of system components. The field tests on the water hammer have been conducted on the pump rising pipeline system with an air chamber. The hydraulic transient was simulated using the method of characteristics. Minimizing the least squares problem representing the difference between the measured and predicted transient response in the system performs the calibration of the simulation program. Among the input variables used in the water hammer analysis, the polytropic exponent, the discharge coefficient and the wave speed were calibrated. The computer program developed in this study will be useful in designing the optimum parameters of an air chamber for the real pump pipeline system. The correct selection of air chamber size and the effect of the inner diameter of the orifice to minimize water hammer have been investigated by both field measurements and numerical modeling.

  5. Patterns identification in supervisory systems of nuclear reactors installations and gas pipelines systems using self-organizing maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-Organizing Maps, SOM, of Kohonen were studied, implemented and tested with the aim of developing, for the energy branch, an effective tool especially for transient identification in nuclear reactors and for gas pipelines networks logistic supervision, by classifying operations and identifying transients or abnormalities. The digital system for the test was developed in Java platform, for the portability and scalability, and for belonging to free development platforms. The system, executed in personal computers, showed satisfactory results to aid in decision taking, by classifying IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor operation conditions (data from simulator) and by classifying Southeast (owner: TRANSPETRO - Brazil) gas pipeline network. Various adaptations were needed for such business, as new topologies for the output layer of artificial neural network and particular preparation for the input data. (author)

  6. Development of EQ coating for a new TBC coating system in Ni-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawagishi, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Harada, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki (Japan); Sato, A. [National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ang, J. [National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[The Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Ni-base single crystal (SC) superalloys containing high concentrations of refractory elements prone to generate a diffusion layer called Secondary Reaction Zone (SRZ) beneath their bond coating during exposure at high temperatures. SRZ cause a reduction of the load bearing cross section and it is detrimental to the creep properties of thin-wall turbine airfoils. In this study, a new bond coat system, ''EQ coating'' which is stable and suppressing SRZ is proposed. The characteristic of EQ system is that the coating stays in equilibrium state and never reacts with the substrate. Diffusion couples of coating materials and substrate alloys were made and were heat treated at 1100 C for 300 h and 1000 h. The concentration profiles of alloying elements in these diffusion couples were analyzed by EPMA to investigate the existence of the diffusion zone. Cyclic oxidation examinations were carried out at 1100 C in air and the oxidation properties of EQ coating materials were discussed. (orig.)

  7. A Proposed Scalable Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Long-Distance Water Pipeline Leakage Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz S. Almazyad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

  8. Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

  9. Pegasus International, Inc. coating removal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Pegasus Coating Removal System (PCRS) was demonstrated at Florida International University (FIU) where it was being evaluated for efficiency and cost. In conjunction with the FIU testing demonstration, a human factors assessment was conducted to assess the hazards and associated safety and health issues of concern for workers utilizing this technology. The PCRS is a chemical paste that is applied to the surface using a brush, roller, or airless sprayer. After the type of PCRS, thickness, and dwell time have been determined, a laminated backed material is placed on top of the chemical paste to slow down the drying process and to provide a mechanism to strip-off the chemical. After the dwell time is reached, the chemical substrate can be removed. Scrapers may be used to break-loose the layers as necessary or to break-loose the layers that are not removed when the laminated paper is picked up. Residue may also be cleaned off of the surface with a damp sponge with an agitating motion, absorbent sponges, or a vacuum, as needed. The paint and removal agent is then placed in drums for disposal at a later time. During the assessment sampling was conducted for organic vapors and general observational techniques were conducted for ergonomics. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during application and removal of the PCRS include: (1) work practices that reflect avoidance of exposure or reducing the risk of exposure; (2) assuring all PPE and equipment are compatible with the chemicals being used; (3) work practices that reduce the worker`s need to walk on the slippery surface caused by the chemical or the use of special anti-slip soles; (4) careful control of overspray (if a spray application is used); and (5) the use of ergonomically designed long-handled tools to apply and remove the chemical (to alleviate some of the ergonomic concerns).

  10. Concept of an advanced hyperspectral remote sensing system for pipeline monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Göksu; Teutsch, Caroline D.; Lenz, Andreas; Middelmann, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Areas occupied by oil pipelines and storage facilities are prone to severe contamination due to leaks caused by natural forces, poor maintenance or third parties. These threats have to be detected as quickly as possible in order to prevent serious environmental damage. Periodical and emergency monitoring activities need to be carried out for successful disaster management and pollution minimization. Airborne remote sensing stands out as an appropriate choice to operate either in an emergency or periodically. Hydrocarbon Index (HI) and Hydrocarbon Detection Index (HDI) utilize the unique absorption features of hydrocarbon based materials at SWIR spectral region. These band ratio based methods require no a priori knowledge of the reference spectrum and can be calculated in real time. This work introduces a flexible airborne pipeline monitoring system based on the online quasi-operational hyperspectral remote sensing system developed at Fraunhofer IOSB, utilizing HI and HDI for oil leak detection on the data acquired by an SWIR imaging sensor. Robustness of HI and HDI compared to state of the art detection algorithms is evaluated in an experimental setup using a synthetic dataset, which was prepared in a systematic way to simulate linear mixtures of selected background and oil spectra consisting of gradually decreasing percentages of oil content. Real airborne measurements in Ettlingen, Germany are used to gather background data while the crude oil spectrum was measured with a field spectrometer. The results indicate that the system can be utilized for online and offline monitoring activities.

  11. Failure mechanism for thermal fatigue of thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giolli, C.; Scrivani, A.; Rizzi, G. [Turbocoating S.p.A., Rubbiano di Solignano (Italy); Borgioli, F. [Firenze Univ., Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bolelli, G.; Lusvarghi, L. [Univ. di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    High temperature thermal fatigue causes the failure of Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) systems. Due to the difference in thickness and microstructure between thick TBCs and traditional thin TBCs, they cannot be assumed a-priori to possess the same failure mechanisms. Thick TBCs, consisting of a CoNiCrAlY bond coat and Yttria Partially Stabilised Zirconia top coat with different values of porosity, were produced by Air Plasma Spray. Thermal fatigue resistance limit of TBCs was tested by Furnace Cycling Tests (FCT) according to the specifications of an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). TBC systems were analyzed before and after FCT. The morphological and chemical evolution of CoNiCrAlY/TGO microstructure was studied. Sintering effect, residual stress, phase transformation and fracture toughness were evaluated in the ceramic Top Coat. All the tested samples passed FCT according to the specification of an important OEM. Thermal fatigue resistance increases with the amount of porosity in the top coat. The compressive in-plane stresses increase in the TBC systems after thermal cycling, nevertheless the increasing rate has a trend contrary to the porosity level of top coat. The data suggest that the spallation happens at the TGO/Top Coat interface. The failure mechanism of thick TBCs subjected to thermal fatigue was eventually found to be similar to the failure mechanism of thin TBC systems made by APS. (orig.)

  12. Multiscale Systems-Pharmacology Pipeline to Assess the Prophylactic Efficacy of NRTIs Against HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwal, S; Sunkara, V; von Kleist, M

    2016-07-01

    While HIV-1 continues to spread, the use of antivirals in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has recently been suggested. Here we present a modular systems pharmacology modeling pipeline, predicting PrEP efficacy of nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) at the scale of reverse transcription, target-cell, and systemic infection and after repeated viral exposures, akin to clinical trials. We use this pipeline to benchmark the prophylactic efficacy of all currently approved NRTIs in wildtype and mutant viruses. By integrating pharmacokinetic models, we find that intracellular tenofovir-diphosphate builds up too slowly to halt infection when taken "on demand" and that lamivudine may substitute emtricitabine in PrEP combinations. Lastly, we delineate factors confounding clinical PrEP efficacy estimates and provide a method to overcome these. The presented framework is useful to screen and optimize PrEP candidates and strategies and to understand their clinical efficacy by integrating the diverse scales which determine PrEP efficacy. PMID:27439573

  13. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance

  14. Physicochemical characterization and failure analysis of military coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Lionel Thomas

    Modern military coating systems, as fielded by all branches of the U.S. military, generally consist of a diverse array of organic and inorganic components that can complicate their physicochemical analysis. These coating systems consist of VOC-solvent/waterborne automotive grade polyurethane matrix containing a variety of inorganic pigments and flattening agents. The research presented here was designed to overcome the practical difficulties regarding the study of such systems through the combined application of several cross-disciplinary techniques, including vibrational spectroscopy, electron microscopy, microtomy, ultra-fast laser ablation and optical interferometry. The goal of this research has been to determine the degree and spatial progression of weathering-induced alteration of military coating systems as a whole, as well as to determine the failure modes involved, and characterizing the impact of these failures on the physical barrier performance of the coatings. Transmission-mode Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been applied to cross-sections of both baseline and artificially weathered samples to elucidate weathering-induced spatial gradients to the baseline chemistry of the coatings. A large discrepancy in physical durability (as indicated by the spatial progression of these gradients) has been found between older and newer generation coatings. Data will be shown implicating silica fillers (previously considered inert) as the probable cause for this behavioral divergence. A case study is presented wherein the application of the aforementioned FTIR technique fails to predict the durability of the coating system as a whole. The exploitation of the ultra-fast optical phenomenon of femtosecond (10-15S) laser ablation is studied as a potential tool to facilitate spectroscopic depth profiling of composite materials. Finally, the interferometric technique of Phase Shifting was evaluated as a potential high-sensitivity technique applied to the

  15. Implementation of an integrity management program in a crude oil pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Maria; Tomasella, Marcelo [Oleoductos del Valle, General Roca (Argentina); Rossi, Juan; Pellicano, Adolfo [SINTEC S.A. , Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    The implementation of an Integrity Management Program (IMP) in a crude oil pipeline system is focused on the accomplishment of two primary corporative objectives: to increase safety operation margins and to optimize available resources. A proactive work philosophy ensures the safe and reliable operation of the pipeline in accordance with current legislation. The Integrity Management Program is accomplished by means of an interdisciplinary team that defines the strategic objectives that complement and are compatible with the corporative strategic business plan. The implementation of the program is based on the analysis of the risks due to external corrosion, third party damage, design and operations, and the definition of appropriate mitigation, inspection and monitoring actions, which will ensure long-term integrity of the assets. By means of a statistical propagation model of the external defects, reported by high-resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), together with the information provided by corrosion sensors, field repair interventions, close internal surveys and operation data, projected defect depth; remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established, including the inspection and repair plan, the internal inspection program and both corrosion monitoring and mitigation programs. (author)

  16. A New Software for Management, Scheduling, and Optimization for the Light Hydrocarbon Pipeline Network System of Daqing Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtu Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the new software which specifically developed based on Visual Studio 2010 for Daqing Oilfield China includes the most complex light hydrocarbon pipeline network system in Asia, has become a powerful auxiliary tool to manage field data, makes scheduling plans for batching operation, and optimizes pumping plans. Firstly, DMM for recording and managing field data is summarized. Then, the batch scheduling simulation module called SSM for the difficult batch-scheduling issues of the multiple-source pipeline network system is introduced. Finally, SOM, that is Scheduling Optimization Module, is indicated for solving the problem of the pumps being started up/shut-down frequently.

  17. Non-metallic composite repair systems for pipes and pipelines; Nicht-metallische Reparatursysteme fuer Rohre- und Rohrleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehberg, Thomas; Schad, Michael [DENSO GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    ''Traditionally mechanical defects on pipelines, which were detected either by working on the line or as a result of intelligent pigging, will be repaired by replacing the defected areas with metallic pipe segments or welding of spherical caps. Since 15-20 years so called composite repair systems have been used in this field of pipeline business, too. Their backing fabrics consist of Carbon, Kevlar or Fiberglass fibres, which are reinforced with resins. This article reports about the experiences made with one of these state-of-the-art repair systems.'' (orig.)

  18. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM -- PHASE III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

    2005-03-01

    This report documents the third year's effort towards a 3-year program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. Two earlier phases of development precede this report. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of retrofit micropilot ignition (RMI) systems for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system for an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Installation efforts at Window Rock were completed towards the end of the budget period, which did not leave sufficient time to complete the durability testing. These efforts are ongoing, with funding provided by El Paso Pipeline Group, and the results will be documented in a

  19. Discrete wavelet transform-based fault diagnosis for driving system of pipeline detection robot arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Huiyu; Wang Xinli; Ma Peisun

    2005-01-01

    A real-time wavelet multi-resolution analysis (MRA)-based fault detection algorithm is proposed. The first stage detailed MRA signals extracted from the original signals were used as the criteria for fault detection. By measuring sharp variations in the detailed MRA signals, faults in the motor driving system of pipeline detection robot arm could be detected. The fault type was then identified by comparison of the three-phase MRA sharp variations. The effects of the faults were examined. The simulation results show that this algorithm is effective and robust, it is promising for fault detection in a robot's joint driving system. The method is simple, rapid and it can operate in real time.

  20. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-01-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we coated coupons of selected alloy steels with diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, as well as with titanium and tantalum nitrides. The coated samples were analyzed for their surface composition. In several instances, the samples were also cut to determine the depth profile of the coating. Several of the early runs did not yield uniform or deep enough coatings and hence a significant portion of the effort in this period was devoted fixing the problems with our fluidized bed reactor. Before the end of the quarter we had prepared a number of samples, many of them in duplicates, and sent one set to Wabash River Energy Laboratory for them to install in their gasifier. The gasifier was undergoing a scheduled maintenance and thus presented an opportunity to place some of our coupons in the stream of an operating gasifier. The samples submitted included coated and uncoated pairs of different alloys.

  1. Decision Analysis Framework for Risk Management of Crude Oil Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex W. Dawotola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is constructed for risk management of crude pipeline subject to rupture on the basis of a methodology that incorporates structured expert judgment and analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The risk model calculates frequency of failure and their probable consequences for different segments of crude pipeline, considering various failure mechanisms. Specifically, structured expert judgment is used to provide frequency of failure assessments for identified failure mechanisms of the pipeline. In addition, AHP approach is utilized to obtain relative failure likelihood for attributes of failure mechanisms with very low probability of occurrence. Finally, the expected cost of failure for a given pipeline segment is estimated by combining its frequency of failure and the consequences of failure, estimated in terms of historical costs of failure from the pipeline operator’s database. A real-world case study of a crude pipeline is used to demonstrate the application of the proposed methodology.

  2. The NOAO Pipeline Data Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiriart, R.; Valdes, F.; Pierfederici, F.; Smith, C.; Miller, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Data Manager for NOAO Pipeline system is a set of interrelated components that are being developed to fulfill the pipeline system data needs. It includes: (1) management of calibration files (flat, bias, bad pixel mask and xtalk calibration data.); (2) management of the pipeline stages' configuration parameters; and (3) management of the pipeline processing historic information, for each of the data products generated by the pipeline. The Data Manager components uses a distributed, CORBA based architecture, providing a flexible and extensible object oriented framework, capable of accommodating the present and future pipeline data requirements. The Data Manager communicates with the pipeline modules, with internal and external databases, and with other NOAO systems such as the NOAO Archive and the NOAO Data Transport System.

  3. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM): a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellec, Pierre; Lavoie-Courchesne, Sébastien; Dickinson, Phil; Lerch, Jason P; Zijdenbos, Alex P; Evans, Alan C

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM) is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output, and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1) it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2) it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3) if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an open-source MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac). We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI). The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources.

  4. Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System

    OpenAIRE

    Jingwen Tian; Meijuan Gao; Yonggang He

    2013-01-01

    Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole‐position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN) and expert system (ES) is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBFNN...

  5. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

    2004-05-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. A review of the literature indicated that the Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. We selected diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, and surface coatings of Si and Ti for the preliminary testing. These coatings will be applied using the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition technique developed at SRI which is rapid and relatively inexpensive. We have procured coupons of typical alloys used in a gasifier. These coupons will be coated with Cr, Al, Si, and Ti. The samples will be tested in a bench-scale reactor using simulated coal gas compositions. In addition, we will be sending coated samples for insertion in the gas stream of the coal gasifier.

  6. Process Optimization of a Novel Immediate Release Film Coating System using QbD Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Teckoe, Jason; Mascaro, Tracey; Farrell, Thomas P.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a quality-by-design (QbD) approach to determine the optimal coating process conditions and robust process operating space for an immediate release aqueous film coating system (Opadry® 200). Critical quality attributes (CQAs) or associated performance indicators of the coated tablets were measured while coating process parameters such as percent solids of the coating dispersion, coating spray rate, inlet air temperature, airflow rate and pan speed were varied, using a desig...

  7. Water quality regulation during construction of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemansky, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The trans-Alaska oil pipeline system (TAPS) was constructed by a consortium including some of the largest oil companies in the world. They had a strong economic incentive in rapid construction of the project, perceiving delay as equivalent to loss of large amounts of profit. State and federal governments had similarly compelling economic, political, and policy reasons to adopt this objective of the oil companies as their own. This dissertation is a retrospective assessment of water quality regulation during construction of the TAPS project (1974 through mid-1977). Its theoretical framework involves the degree to which regulatory redundancy (overlap) produced reliability in achieving compliance with water pollution control requirements. It was found during this research that noncompliance was widespread, frequent, and of a magnitude which was often large. The root cause of this unnecessary noncompliance was the overriding economic interest of the pipeline builders in rapid construction coupled with the failure of regulatory agencies to enforce. There was a greater appearance of regulatory redundancy than was actually the case. The same economic, political, and policy reasons that had led to TAPS project authorization and bureaucratic dynamics resulted in enforcement failure with regard to water pollution control requirements. Under a mandate to facilitate rapid construction, the regulatory agencies demonstrated an inability to accomplish any other objective at the same time. Common-mode failure largely defeated the beneficial potential of what limited regulatory redundancy there was. Additionally, meaningful public participation was prevented by lack of resources, lack of procedural opportunity, and resistance to it from industry and government. The dissertation is concluded with recommendations for improving regulatory performance through strengthened redundancy mechanisms.

  8. Anticorrosive field joint coating qualification, heat shrinkable sleeve; Qualificacao de revestimento anticorrosivo para juntas de campo, mantas termocontrateis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Glaucia B.; Koebsch, Andre; Castinheiras Junior, Wilson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this job is to present the quality requirements fixed by PETROBRAS for anticorrosive field joint coating for buried pipelines, industrially coated with PE-3L. It describes the used system - polyethylene based heat shrinkable sleeve - comparing with the existent on the pipeline. So, it exposes the suppliers' qualification stages, which include test carried out for the materials, for the sleeve set and for the coating after its application on the joint field. Finally, it shows that the experience, which has been gotten in the qualification, consolidated the quality control systematic that have been carry out during the sleeves acquisition and application at the pipeline construction. (author)

  9. Study on Detection Technique for Pipeline Leakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 王立坤; 周琰; 靳世久

    2003-01-01

    Pipeline integrity defect is a considerable portion in all the defects. Therefore, the study on detection technique is of great concern to the owners of pipelines. A real-time monitoring system of pipeline defect is established. For unexpected accidents of pipeline leakage, several methods of signal processing, including wavelet analysis are utilized. The leakage can be located accurately in time. This system is applied to many long distance pipelines in China, which has made great contributions to the economy.

  10. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

    2004-10-01

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results show that simulated contact can be detected. Future work will involve further refinement of the method and testing on operating pipelines.

  11. Deformation And Fracture Analysis Of Coating-Substrate Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kot M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the deformation and fracture analysis of coating-substrate systems during spherical indentation. CrN and TiN ceramic coatings with a thickness of 1-5 μm were tested using 10 to 200 μm tip radius spherical indenters. The typical results of indentation tests i.e. force-penetration depth curves were transformed into stress-strain curves using an algorithm developed by the author. The test results are compared with the results of numerical analysis conducted using FEM modelling. Such a complex analysis allows users to determine the level of tensile stress leading to the formation of cracks observed using SEM and TEM microscopy, and to define the failure maps for the coating substrate-systems.

  12. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary L. Burkhardt

    2005-12-31

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring the pipeline and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating (thus resulting in a signal path to ground) changes the signal received at the receiving stations. The IACC method was shown to be a viable method that can be used to continuously monitor pipelines for third-party contact. Electrical connections to the pipeline can be made through existing cathodic protection (CP) test points without the need to dig up the pipe. The instrumentation is relatively simple, consisting of (1) a transmitting station with a frequency-stable oscillator and amplifier and (2) a receiving station with a filter, lock-in amplifier, frequency-stable oscillator, and remote reporting device (e.g. cell phone system). Maximum distances between the transmitting and receiving stations are approximately 1.61 km (1 mile), although the length of pipeline monitored can be twice this using a single transmitter and one receiver on each side (since the signal travels in both directions). Certain conditions such as poor pipeline coatings or strong induced 60-Hz signals on the pipeline can degrade IACC performance, so localized testing should be performed to determine the suitability for an IACC installation at a given

  13. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-04

    The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1: Program Planning--Complete; Phase 2: Development; Phase 3: Selected Specimen--Bench Test. Work is currently being performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, process improvements will be married with new bond coat and ceramic materials systems to provide improvements over currently available TBC systems. Coating reliability will be further improved with the development of an improved lifing model and NDE techniques. This will be accomplished by conducting the following program tasks: II.1 Process Modeling; II.2 Bond Coat Development; II.3 Analytical Lifing Model; II.4 Process Development; II.5 NDE, Maintenance and Repair; II.6 New TBC Concepts. A brief summary of progress made in each of these 6 areas is given.

  14. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-03-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we conducted two exposure tests with coated and uncoated coupons. The first one was aborted after a short period, because of a leak in the pressure regulator of a CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas mixture gas cylinder that was used to prepare the simulated coal gas stream. Nevertheless, this run was very instructive as it showed that during the brief exposure when the concentration of H{sub 2}S increased to 8.6%, even specialty alloys such as HR160 and I800 were badly corroded, yet the sample of a SS405-steel that was coated with Ti/Ta showed no signs of corrosion. After replacing the pressure regulator, a second run was conducted with a fresh set of coated and uncoated samples. The Ti/Ta-coated on to SS405 steel from the earlier runs was also exposed in this test. The run proceeded smoothly, and at the end of test the uncoated steels were badly damaged, some evidence of corrosion was found on coupons of HR160 and I800 alloys and the Cr-coated steels, but again, the Ti/Ta-coated sample appeared unaffected.

  15. Cement-lined pipelines. Opportunities and limitations for intelligent pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogumil, H.G.; Westeinde, P. van' t [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Bukman, F.; Schmidt, R. [3P Services GmbH und Co. KG, Lingen (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    For the inspection of pipelines for internal and external corrosion, the 'in-line inspection' using 'intelligent pigs', has become state-of-the-art as far as oil and gas transport pipelines are concerned. Since recent years, also small diameter tools - as small as 4'' - have become available. BEB, operator of several German oil and gas fields, has applied these systems in field, gathering and small transport pipelines of 4'' to 8'' with good success. In one of its oil fields, where wet oil contains H{sub 2}S, internal cement coating is applied to protect the steel pipe from internal corrosion. An in-line-inspection was considered necessary, however, the internal coating, having a thickness of 8 mm, was in contrary to the general requirement of intelligent pigs to have direct contact to the internal pipe (=steel) surface. Pull tests that were carried out in cement coated pipes using the PiCoLo equipment of 3P Services (based on the magnetic flux leakage/MFL principle) indicated that reasonable results could be achieved, however, at reduced resolution. The necessary pig equipment was custom made and applied to inspect cement coated field lines of 6'' and 4''. This task required two inspection steps: First, a high resolution geometric inspection pig recorded spots of defective cement coating, and second, the MFL pig inspected the lines for corrosion. Only by correlating the different sets of data it was possible to distinguish and describe the various defect cases, like (1) different degrees of loss of cement coating without corrosion at the pipe wall, (2) a defective coating with corrosion, or (3) external metal loss with the coating and internal pipe surface not being affected. (orig.)

  16. Research and Development on Control System of Novel Winding Machine for High-pressure FRP Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Bo; XU Jiazhong; HU Haiyan; CHENG Ningbo; ZHANG Qingli

    2006-01-01

    The novel winding machine adopted steam inside solidification technics, can wind, solidify and extract high-pressure fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) pipelines in one single machine. Its control system consisted of the winding and extraction subsystem and the steam inside solidification subsystem. In order to improve the control precision and stability, a real-time control method was adopted in the winding and extraction subsystem. In this method, high-precision TRIO motion controller combined with industrial personal computer (IPC) forms an open-type CNC system which supports multitask. The Modbus protocol was adopted for the communication between the IPC and TRIO motion controller. The human-machine interface (HMI) was developed with VC++ 6.0 and the control software of the motion controller was developed with TRIO BASIC language. In the steam inside solidification subsystem, embedded IPC and PLC were used to realize the closed-loop control of the steam temperature and the HMI was developed with MCGS 5.1 under WinCE. Practices show that this system has the good performances of high precision, good stability and high efficiency.

  17. New alarm system approach for detection and location of small leaks from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapor Monitoring Wells are an accepted method to monitor for leaks from underground storage tanks and pipe. This paper discusses a method that is similar to well leak detection technique, yet superior for pipelines for reasons to be defined. Vapors from a leak source migrate through the soil. The time required for a leak to migrate a known distance is dependent on the vapor pressure of the leaking substance, the leak rate, and finally, soil type, compaction, and collection device is to the leak source the shorter the time required for the premise that the sensor tube acts as a continuous row of wells that can all be automatically sampled with one central pump/detector. The system precisely locates the leak. The benefit of this system is earlier detection and location of small leaks to minimize product loss to the environment. Dr. Wolfgang Issel developed Leak Alarm System for Pollutants, LASP, with the support of the German Ministry of Research and Technology to protect groundwater and other environmentally sensitive zones

  18. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  19. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  20. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    OpenAIRE

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-01-01

    The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petr...

  1. Risk-based optimization of the design of on-shore pipeline shutdown systems

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Héctor; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim; Bonvicini, Sarah; Cozzani, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Crude oil and other liquid materials are transported in large quantities through pipelines. Pipelines are an efficient and safe transport way as compared to both rail and road transportation, both from the economical and environmental points of view. Nevertheless, loss of containment accidents can occur due to external action ea mechanical impact, for examplee or to corrosion, aging, etc. Even though the frequency of such events is certainly very low, the effects and consequences ...

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON DRAG REDUCTION OF OIL-PIPELINE WITH EPOXY COATINGS%环氧涂层对成品油输送管道减阻作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任远; 柏子龙; 马宏燎; 顾涛

    2011-01-01

    采用添加低表面能填料的方法制备出不同表面性质的环氧涂层,在循环管道试验装置上评价环氧清漆、环氧色漆对3种不同黏度油品的减阻效果.结果表明:环氧清漆、环氧色漆对测试油品均有明显的减阻效果,其中添加低表面能填料的环氧色漆减阻效果较好;在雷诺数为3475时,3%PTFE环氧色漆涂层对3号油品的最大减阻率达到23.1%;涂层对油品的减阻效果与油品黏度和涂层表面性能有关,油品的黏度越大,涂层的表面张力越小,涂层对油品的减阻效果越明显.%Pipeline wall with resin coating can significantly reduce the resistance of its delivery. Epoxy coatings with various surface properties were prepared by adding different amounts of low surface energy filler. The drag reduction effect of epoxy varnish and epoxy color paints was evaluated in a circulation pipeline testing equipment in the laboratory using three oil samples having various viscosities. Results show that all the prepared coatings exhibit drag reduction function on the samples tested,and coatings containing low surface energy filler have better drag reduction effect,in which epoxy color paint with 3% PTFE shows the maximum drag reduction rate of 23.1% at a Reynolds number of 3 475. However,the drag reduction effect of epoxy coatings on oil samples is related to the oil viscosity and the surface property of coating,with the increase of oil viscosity and the decrease of coating surface tension, the drag reduction rate of coating increases.

  3. Dynamic strain measurement of hydraulic system pipeline using fibre Bragg grating sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure is a serious problem in hydraulic piping systems installed in the machinery and equipment working in harsh operational conditions. To alleviate this problem, health monitoring of pipes can be conducted by measuring and analysing vibration-induced strain. Fibre Bragg grating is considered as a promising sensing approach for dynamic load monitoring. In this article, dynamic strain measurements based on fibre Bragg grating sensors for small-bore metal pipes have been investigated. The quasi-distributed strain sensing of fibre Bragg grating sensors is introduced. Two comparison experiments were carried out under vibration and impact loads among the methods of electrical strain gauge, piezoelectric accelerometer and fibre Bragg grating sensor. Experimental results indicate that fibre Bragg grating sensor possesses an outstanding ability to resist electromagnetic interference compared with strain gauge. The natural frequency measurement results, captured by fibre Bragg grating sensor, agree well with the modal analysis results obtained from finite element analysis. In addition, the attached fibre Bragg grating sensor brings a smaller impact on the dynamic characteristics of the measured pipe than the accelerometer due to its small size and lightweight. Fibre Bragg grating sensors have great potential for the quasi-distributed measurement of dynamic strain for the dynamic characteristic research and health monitoring of hydraulic system pipeline.

  4. Multi -omics and metabolic modelling pipelines: challenges and tools for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondi, Marco; Liò, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Integrated -omics approaches are quickly spreading across microbiology research labs, leading to (i) the possibility of detecting previously hidden features of microbial cells like multi-scale spatial organization and (ii) tracing molecular components across multiple cellular functional states. This promises to reduce the knowledge gap between genotype and phenotype and poses new challenges for computational microbiologists. We underline how the capability to unravel the complexity of microbial life will strongly depend on the integration of the huge and diverse amount of information that can be derived today from -omics experiments. In this work, we present opportunities and challenges of multi -omics data integration in current systems biology pipelines. We here discuss which layers of biological information are important for biotechnological and clinical purposes, with a special focus on bacterial metabolism and modelling procedures. A general review of the most recent computational tools for performing large-scale datasets integration is also presented, together with a possible framework to guide the design of systems biology experiments by microbiologists.

  5. The monitoring system of the pipeline safety of the coal mine gas drainage based on the optic fiber sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-fang; Wei, Yubin; Zhang, Tingting; Zhao, Yanjie; Lv, Lei; Liu, Tong-yu

    2013-09-01

    Based on the technology of the spectrum absorption and the FBG, the monitoring system realize on line detection of the concentration of methane and oxygen, the temperature and the pressure of the gas in pipeline, and in order to improve the accuracy of the gas detection, we induce the compensation to the gas concentration using the data of the temperature and the pressure. In order to have a effective utilization of the methane in the coal mine gas drainage system, we have to have a accurate measurements of the concentration, the temperature and the pressure of the gas in pipeline. At the same time the dynamic monitoring of the concentration of Oxygen is a sign of the leakage of the pump. This paper gave some data detected in the field of the coal mine gas drainage system.

  6. Surface electromagnetic technology for the external inspection of oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Delgado, O.; Flores, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Nakamura, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present a surface electromagnetic technology for the non-destructive pipeline coating inspection (SEMPI). This technology allows: determination of the depth and plane position of pipelines, quantitative evaluation of the insulation resistance and delimitation of zones with coating damages, estimation of the performance of the cathodic protection system (CPS) and detection of its connections to out-of-service pipes and other grounded constructions, and assessment of the soil aggressively. The SEMPI technology is based on the approximation of pipelines by heterogeneous transmission lines with variable leakage conductance and pipe impedance to represent insulation coating and wall thickness damages. Based on the result of simulations, we have optimized the field measurements and developed the interpretation procedure of experimental data. The field operations include surface measurements of magnetic field, voltage on the control posts of the CPS and soil resistivity. In zones with coating damages the detailed measurements can be performed using magnetic or electric field to increase the resolution in localizing and evaluating the insulation damages. The SEMPI technology has been applied for inspections of pipelines with different technical characteristics in complicated environmental conditions. The examples presented in this work confirm the high efficiency of the developed technology for external integrity evaluation of pipelines. (author)

  7. Effect of carbon on microstructure of CrAlCχN1-χ coatings by hybrid coating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung-Kyu AHN; Se-Hun KWON; Kwang-Ho KIM

    2011-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the microstructure of CrAICχN1-χ coatings as a function of carbon contents was conducted.Quaternary CrAICχN1-χ coatings were deposited on Si wafers by a hybrid coating system combining an arc-ion plating technique and a DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique using Cr and Al targets in the Ar/N2/CH4 gaseous mixture. The effect of carbon content on microstructure of CrAICχN1-χ coatings was investigated with instrumental analyses of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the carbon content of CrAICχN1-χ coatings linearly increases with increasing CH4/(CH4/N2) gas flow rate ratio. The surface roughness of the CrAICχN 1-χ coating layer decreases with the increase of carbon content.

  8. New concept for cathodic protection of offshore pipelines to reduce hydrogen induced stress cracking (HISC) in high strength 13% Cr stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassen, S.

    2004-05-01

    Cathodic protection (CP) of submarine pipelines has generally been based on a conservative approach, as consequences of failure, to a great extent, are higher than the cost of installations. All design parameters and procedures are based on robust selections. Recent failures on pipelines with supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) materials have challenged this approach and laid the way for new design aspects with more realistic use of parameters. A new design concept has been introduced for the cathodic protection of offshore pipelines made from high strength stainless steel materials such as supermartensitic stainless steels (SMSS) with enhanced coating systems such as multilayer polypropylene coatings for combined corrosion protection and thermal insulation. The objectives are to reduce the susceptibility to hydrogen induced stress cracking (HISC) and coating damage. Conditions for the pipeline material, which can cause HISC have been studied and this has motivated the use of the new design concept. The study has been concerned with materials testing, CP-design parameters, CP installation and pipeline attachments, pipeline design, coating quality and direct electrical beating systems for hydrate control. The study has shown that the most critical factors for HISC are pipeline conditions with high stress and strain, especially stress concentrations, potential levels more negative than -0.80 V versus Ag/AgCl, low operating temperatures, coating failures and deep waters (high hydrostatic pressures). The paper gives a detailed overview of the new concept with regard to protection potentials for different pipeline materials; selection of design current density requirements; use of anodes with reduced driving potentials; use of subsea isolating joints; CP design principles; installation methods; compatibility with the direct electrical heating systems for hydrate control. The basis for the design has been the new ISO Draft International Standard 15889-2 on cathodic

  9. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

    2005-05-01

    This report documents a 3-year research program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system and prepare the technology for

  10. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-08

    Objectives of this program are to provide a thermal barrier coating system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art systems. This report describes the bond coat deposition process, manufacturing, and repair.

  11. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-01-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we focused on getting a bench-scale test system to expose alloy coupons to simulated gasifier environment. The test facility was designed to allow about 20 specimen coupons to be exposed simultaneously for an extend period to a simulated coal gas stream at temperatures up to 1000 C. The simulated gas stream contained about 26%H{sub 2}, 39%CO, 17%CO{sub 2}, 1.4% H{sub 2}S and balance steam. We successfully ran a 100+h test with coated and uncoated stainless steel coupons. The tested alloys include SS304, SS316, SS405, SS409, SS410, and IN800. The main finding is that Ti/Ta coating provides excellent protection to SS405 under conditions where uncoated austenitic and ferritic stainless steel alloy coupons are badly corroded. Cr coatings also appear to afford some protection against corrosion.

  12. Efficiency of Pipeline System for Sprinkler Irrigation in Well Irrigation Areas%井灌区喷灌管路系统的效率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高传昌; 冯跃志

    2000-01-01

    就井灌区低压管道输水灌溉工程改造成喷灌工程后,对影响喷灌管路系统效率的因素进行了分析,给出了其管路系统效率的计算公式。最后探讨了提高喷灌管路系统效率的途径。%This paper analyses the factors that influence efficiency of pipeline system for sprinkler irri-gation, under condition of changing existing low pressture pipeline irrigation system into sprinkler irri-gation system. The formulas used to calculated efficiency of sprinkler irrigation pipeline system andthe measures to improve pipeline system efficiency are also presented.

  13. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Dennis L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Hackel, Lloyd; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Dane, C. Brent; Mrowka, Stanley

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

  14. Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Erdem; D. rockwell; P. Oshkai; M. Pollack

    2002-05-29

    Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. Moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

  15. Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Erdem; D. Rockwell; P.L. Oshkai; M. Pollack

    2001-02-28

    Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

  16. North Slope pipeline work strong; gas pipeline project deferred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.

    1982-09-01

    Over 225 miles of insulated pipelines will be installed on the North Slope as part of a 5-year, $10.5 billion program by Sohio and Arco to maintain output from the field to feed the trans-Alaska oil pipeline. New lines are for waterflood supply systems, low pressure production systems, produced water handling, and gas handling. Pipeline construction is quite active at both Prudhoe Bay and at Kuparuk Field. Future projects include an oil line to the Beaufort Sea, the Polar Gas Project, the Arctic Pilot project, and the Northern Tier Pipeline.

  17. Using a central Vehicle Holding Compound (VHC) in an open pipeline automotive order fulfilment system: a simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    MacCarthy, Bart L.; Ovutmen, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Satisfying requests for specific vehicle variants in a timely manner may increase profit margins for the automotive producer and automotive dealers and may reduce the need to incentivise customers financially to make a purchase. Open pipeline order fulfilment systems have emerged in the automotive sector to allow dealers to fulfil a customer in a number of ways. Not only can a dealer search its own stock for a suitable match to a customer’s requested vehicle specification, the dealer can al...

  18. Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahryar Garmsiri; Marc A. Rosen; Gordon Rymal Smith

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas†(P2G) scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane) for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity...

  19. Mathematical analysis of marine pipeline leakage monitoring system based on coherent OTDR with improved sensor length and sampling frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnev, A. B.; Zhirnov, A. A.; Stepanov, K. V.; Nesterov, E. T.; Shelestov, D. A.; Karasik, V. E.

    2015-01-01

    A system based on coherent optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) for subsea pipeline monitoring is described. The fiber sensor length is increased using erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) cascades. The sampling frequency is increased by dividing the fiber sensor into separate sensitive areas, with parallel scanning. The calculation of the erbium amplifier cascade spontaneous noise influence on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is carried out.

  20. Polymers coatings of fluid pipelines: characterization and evolution of the adhesion in aggressive medium; Revetements polymeres de canalisation de fluide: caracterisation et evolution de l'adhesion en milieu agressif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeuille, F.

    2002-07-15

    This study deals with the adhesion and the ageing of an external three-layer polyethylene coating applied to buried steel pipelines. In order to avoid corrosion of the pipe external surface, 'Gaz De France' utilizes two complementary methods of protection: The first is passive protection achieved by the use of an organic coating that acts as a barrier between pipe and the surrounding environment. This is supplemented by an electrochemical method known as 'Cathodic Protection' (CP), which prevents corrosion of the metal surface where it is exposed to the environment at holidays and other defects in the barrier coating. The coating comprises three polymers, successively applied on the surface of the pipe in the following sequence: 1. A thin layer of Epoxy (Ep) is directly sprayed on the prepared metal surface. 2. An adhesive layer called Ethylene Butyl Acrylate (EBA) is extruded on this first layer of Epoxy. 3. A thick topcoat of Polyethylene (HDPE) is extruded on the EBA. Excellent adhesion of the coating to the metal substrate is critical if the coating is to act as a long-term barrier to corrosion. Our study used a 'peel test' to characterise and quantify adhesion. This test was considered the most suitable considering the geometry and composition of our samples. The study of samples without 'surface failure' showed that the adhesion of this coating is directly dependent on the quality of the manufacturing process. A pipeline's service lifetime can be very long (up to 50 years). Therefore we have used harsh experimental conditions to accelerate ageing on samples. Samples without 'surface failure', and samples with 'surface failure' were tested to make an ageing comparison. Only samples with 'surface failure' suffered premature ageing. The results showed the weakness of Epoxy compared to the other external layers (EBA and HDPE), that are much less permeable to water. Specific water diffusion

  1. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Protective Liner Systems, Inc., Epoxy Mastic, PLS-614

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Protective Liner Systems International, Inc. Epoxy Mastic PLS-614 coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and T...

  2. Preparation Process and Characteristics Analysis of Ni-Al System Intermetallic Compound Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNHong-fei; WANGCan-ming; WANDian-mao; JINTao; SONGQiang

    2004-01-01

    Ni-Al system intermetallic compound coatings were acquired on the substrates of Nickel base superalloy by thermal spray accompanied with metallurgy and diffusion process. The main phases in the coatings are NiA1 and Ni3Al and the microstructure of the coatings are dense. The coatings bond well with the substrates and show excellent characteristics of oxidation-resistance at temperature as high as 1300~C. The coatings have been applied successfully in industry.

  3. Preparation Process and Characteristics Analysis of Ni-Al System Intermetallic Compound Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-fei; WANG Can-ming; WAN Dian-mao; JIN Tao; SONG Qiang

    2004-01-01

    Ni-Al system intermetallic compound coatings were acquired on the substrates of Nickel base superalloy by thermal spray accompanied with metallurgy and diffusion process. The main phases in the coatings are NiAl and Ni3Al and the microstructure of the coatings are dense. The coatings bond well with the substrates and show excellent characteristics of oxidation-resistance at temperature as high as 1300℃. The coatings have been applied successfully in industry.

  4. Rotary feeding system for metallic coating installation by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stănescu, A.; Alecusan, A. M.; Dimitescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper aims to present an alternative feeding system for metallic coatings lines by electrodeposition which lends itself to the circular arrangement of the cuvettes used in such plants. The novelty lies both, in the arrangement of the electrodeposition installation components and mechanical feeding and transport system for parts to be electrodeposited. The control and actuation system of this type of installation simplifies. Nevertheless, all these increase the system reliability and run lower maintenance costs, without adversely affecting the quality of the end product. The paper presents the justification for reducing the total energy consumption in the electrodeposition process, too.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Pressure inside High Pressure Fuel Pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump Fuel Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Hayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to completely understand the trend of pressure variations inside High Pressure (HP fuel pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP fuel injection system and study the impact of two major physical properties of fuel i.e., density and dynamic viscosity on pressure a 1D nonlinear dynamic mathematical model of fuel pressure inside pipeline using Wave Equation (WE has been developed in MATLAB using finite difference method. The developed model is based on the structural parameters of CEUP fuel injection system. The impact of two major physical properties of the fuel has been studied as a function of pressure at various operating conditions of diesel engine. Nearly 13.13 bars of increase in pressure is observed by increasing the density from 700 kg/m3 to 1000 kg/m3. Whereas an increase of viscosity from 2 kg/m.s to 6 kg/m.s results in decrease of pressures up to 44.16 bars. Pressure corrections in the mathematical model have been incorporated based on variations of these two fuel properties with the pressure. The resultant pressure profiles obtained from mathematical model at various distances along the pipeline are verified by correlating them with the profiles obtained from simulated AMESim numerical model of CEUP. The results show that MATLAB mathematical results are quite coherent with the AMESim simulated results and validate that the model is an effective tool for predicting pressure inside HP pipelines. The application of the this mathematical model with minute changes can therefore be extended to pressure modeling inside HP rail of Common Rail (CR fuel injection system.

  6. Product through pipelines : transportation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballyntyne, R. [Terasen Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided a brief overview of the corporate structure of Terasen Pipelines along with a map displaying the locations of the pipelines it operates and new directions for growth. It also presented a proposal to deliver petroleum products from Alberta's oilsand fields to markets via the Corridor and Express pipeline systems, and evaluated the issue of transporting petrochemicals via rail transport rather than pipeline. Industry is also examining the option of shipping refined products through a trans mountain system from Alberta to British Columbia and California. A chart highlighting Canadian crude oil production was presented along with an oil sands pipeline capacity chart. It was noted that significant investment in refining capacity is needed and that new pipeline facilities will be required to meet the needs of oil sands developments. tabs., figs.

  7. Failure Analysis on Field Joint Coatings of the West-East Gas Pipeline%西气东输一线埋地管道补口材料失效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲杰; 韩文礼; 徐忠苹

    2014-01-01

    The West-East pipeline in China was constructed earlier this century and its field joint coatings adopted the typical 3-layer structure,“epoxy primer+heat-melting adhesive+radiation cross-linked polyethylene heat shrinkable sleeve”. Based on excavation tests on field joints of the pipelines that served above 10 years,the failure mode was discussed and main reasons of field joint coating failure were found,which include poor construction quality and adhesive degradation in long term service. Through compassion of various field joint repairing materials and structures,the study recommended a“visco-elastic tape+outer layer”composite structure as the first choice of field joint rehabilitation for buried pipelines.%西气东输一线管道补口一般采用“环氧底漆+热熔胶+辐射交联聚乙烯”的3层结构热收缩带补口方法。通过对西气东输一线管道已服役10年以上补口进行开挖检测,评价了管道补口的失效形式,发现补口失效的原因主要是由于热收缩带补口防腐层在使用环境中的失效和施工质量较差导致的。通过多种补口修复方式对比,建议将施工便利、性能稳定的“粘弹体胶带+外护带”复合结构作为在役埋地管道补口防腐层修复的首选结构。

  8. Development of a combined ultrasonic and eddy current test system for the internal testing of austenitic pipelines filled with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pipe crawler (or 'pig') was developed as system support, which makes it possible to test the pipe circular seams, the pipe longitudinal seams, the welding-in seams of the nozzles going from the pipeline and the RPV welding-in seams. To test the 30 weld seams which are contained in the recirculation water loop, special test sensors were developed, which take the technical test and manipulation requirements into account. The SIALOK system is used as ultrasonic test equipment and the M12 18 system is used as eddy current test system. (orig./DG)

  9. PGPG: An Automatic Generator of Pipeline Design for Programmable GRAPE Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, T; Makino, J; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro

    2007-01-01

    We have developed PGPG (Pipeline Generator for Programmable GRAPE), a software which generates the low-level design of the pipeline processor and communication software for FPGA-based computing engines (FBCEs). An FBCE typically consists of one or multiple FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) chips and local memory. Here, the term "Field-Programmable" means that one can rewrite the logic implemented to the chip after the hardware is completed, and therefore a single FBCE can be used for calculation of various functions, for example pipeline processors for gravity, SPH interaction, or image processing. The main problem with FBCEs is that the user need to develop the detailed hardware design for the processor to be implemented to FPGA chips. In addition, she or he has to write the control logic for the processor, communication and data conversion library on the host processor, and application program which uses the developed processor. These require detailed knowledge of hardware design, a hardware description ...

  10. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-04-10

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) must ensure that the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) or safety-related containment spray system (CSS) remains capable of performing its design safety function throughout the life of the plant. This requires ensuring that long-term core cooling can be maintained following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Adequate safety operation can be impaired if the protective coatings which have been applied to the concrete and steel structures within the primary containment fail, producing transportable debris which could then accumulate on BWR ECCS suction strainers or PWR ECCS sump debris screens located within the containment. This document will present the data collected during the investigation of coating specimens from plants.

  11. Charting pipeline paths : GIS/GPS application zooms into the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) was originally developed by the US Defence Department as a navigational tool. Today, portable receivers make it possible for one to determine their precise coordinates on any place on earth in a matter of seconds. GPS technology uses orbiting satellites to pinpoint locations based on the distance and speed of transmission signals. Pipeline professionals use the receivers to locate faults, corrosion damage and cathodic protection flaws. GPS technology is the only accurate alternative to physically measuring pipelines. All the data collected is generally transferred into a geographical information system (GIS) and transposed onto a graphic representation of the pipeline. Details such as coating quality, pipeline composition, surface conditions and landowner status are recorded. Calgary-based Golder Associates Ltd., has developed a computer simulation that incorporates elements extracted from a GIS database. 3 figs

  12. Whole new ball game : pipeline leak detection system undergoes first field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsters, S.

    2007-07-15

    This article described an innovative and portable technology that detects leaks in oil and gas pipelines. Pure Technologies Ltd. completed the first field trial of its SoundPrint SmartBall, a free-swimming foam ball with an embedded sensor in an aluminum core that detects leaks as the ball moves through the pipe. The technology is based on the premise that sound is released when a pressurized fluid is escaping. The field trial was performed over 18 kilometres of a 10-inch crude oil pipeline in Texas. The SmartBall was first sent through a pipeline without any artificial leaks. It was then sent through a pipeline with an artificial leak constructed at one of the block valves. The SmartBall was able to detect the artificial leak from hundreds of metres away. The device was deployed and retrieved without incident by pipeline operations personnel using existing pigging infrastructure. It was determined that the device can detect leaks of less than 3.78 litres per minute at an operating pressure of 8.6 bars. The size of the SmartBall is generally between 50 to 80 per cent of the diameter of the pipeline and depends on other factors such as location of in-line vales, the size of the appurtenances through which the ball is inserted and retrieved and the presence of other lateral lines. The device records acoustic information as it travels in the pipe. Alternatively, transducers that emit an acoustic pulse can be installed on pipe appurtenances. The leaks can be located by analyzing the relative arrival time of pulses. The device can operate for up to 40 hours, enough to travel 100 kilometres in a single deployment. Pure Technologies is now working on getting this new technology accepted by the industry. 2 figs.

  13. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    OpenAIRE

    Yimei Mao; Zuoying Huang; Guiyun Tian; Hui Zhao; Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of ...

  14. An integrated multi−period planning of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products in a single pipeline system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Herrán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiproduct pipeline provides an economic way to transport large volumes of refined petroleum products over long distances. In such a pipeline, different products are pumped back−to−back without any separation device between them. The sequence and lengths of such pumping runs must be carefully selected in order to meet market demands while minimizing pipeline operational costs and satisfying several constraints. The production planning and scheduling of the products at the refinery must also be synchronized with the transportation in order to avoid the usage of the system at some peak−hour time intervals. In this paper, we propose a multi−period mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model for an optimal planning and scheduling of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products from a refinery plant connected to several depots through a single pipeline system. The objective of this work is to generalize the mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation proposed by Cafaro and Cerdá (2004, Computers and Chemical Engineering where only a single planning period was considered and the production planning and scheduling was not part of the decision process. Numerical examples show how the use of a single period model for a given time period may lead to infeasible solutions when it is used for the upcoming periods. These examples also show how integrating production planning with the transportation and the use of a multi−period model may result in a cost saving compared to using a single−period model for each period, independently.

  15. Coatings and Surface Treatments for Reusable Entry Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2016-01-01

    This talk outlines work in coatings for TPS done at NASA Ames. coatings and surface treatments on reusable TPS are critical for controlling the behavior of the materials. coatings discussed include RCG, TUFI and HETC. TUFROc is also discussed.

  16. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, September 1, 1996--November 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-11

    Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with improved temperature capability and reliability. This report describes the bond/coating process and manufacturing.

  17. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, August 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-04

    Objectives of this program are to provide an advanced thermal barrier coating system with improved reliability and temperature capability. This report describes the coating/deposition process, repair, and manufacturing.

  18. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary L. Burkhardt; Alred E. Crouch

    2005-04-01

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 0.7 mile. Unexpected results were that the electrical impedance from the operating pipelines to the soil was very low and, therefore, the changes in impedance and signal resulting from third-party contact were unexpectedly low. Future work will involve further refinement of the method to resolve the issues with small signal change and additional testing on operating pipelines.

  19. On the modelling and the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities in pipeline-riser systems; Modelisation et analyse des instabilites d'ecoulements diphasiques dans les conduites petrolieres du type pipeline-riser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakarian, E.

    2000-03-10

    Recent estimations predict that over half the remaining offshore oil and gas reserves are located in deep water and marginal fields. For such reserves, economic recovery methods are required. Then, multiphase flows are transported within pipelines and separated on treatment platforms built in shallow water or processed in onshore facilities. Unfortunately, hydrodynamic instabilities may occur whenever gas and liquid flow in a pipeline, generating serious operating problems. This dissertation presents a new way to model two-phase flows in pipelines such as pipeline-riser systems. Equations are algebraic and differential. Their smoothness depends on the closure laws of the problem such as slip or friction laws. Smooth forms of these closure laws are presented for the first time in this dissertation. Therefore, a mathematical analysis of our model fits into a classical frame: a linear analysis leads to an analytical expression of the boundary between stable and unstable flows. A nonlinear analysis provides for the first time, the bifurcation curves of gas-liquid flows in pipe-riser systems, locally round their stability boundary. (author)

  20. System-Enforced Deterministic Streaming for Efficient Pipeline Parallelism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昱; 李兆鹏; 曹慧芳

    2015-01-01

    Pipeline parallelism is a popular parallel programming pattern for emerging applications. However, program-ming pipelines directly on conventional multithreaded shared memory is difficult and error-prone. We present DStream, a C library that provides high-level abstractions of deterministic threads and streams for simply representing pipeline stage work-ers and their communications. The deterministic stream is established atop our proposed single-producer/multi-consumer (SPMC) virtual memory, which integrates synchronization with the virtual memory model to enforce determinism on shared memory accesses. We investigate various strategies on how to efficiently implement DStream atop the SPMC memory, so that an infinite sequence of data items can be asynchronously published (fixed) and asynchronously consumed in order among adjacent stage workers. We have successfully transformed two representative pipeline applications – ferret and dedup using DStream, and conclude conversion rules. An empirical evaluation shows that the converted ferret performed on par with its Pthreads and TBB counterparts in term of running time, while the converted dedup is close to 2.56X, 7.05X faster than the Pthreads counterpart and 1.06X, 3.9X faster than the TBB counterpart on 16 and 32 CPUs, respectively.

  1. Decision Analysis Framework for Risk Management of Crude Oil Pipeline System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawotola, A.W.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A model is constructed for risk management of crude pipeline subject to rupture on the basis of a methodology that incorporates structured expert judgment and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The risk model calculates frequency of failure and their probable consequences for different segments of cr

  2. Automated system for laser damage testing of coated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Dale C.; Streater, Alan D.

    2005-12-01

    Research Electro-Optics Inc. (REO) has recently developed a new laser damage testing facility for the purpose of optimizing process parameters for fabrication and coating of high-damage optics. It also enables full or sample qualification of optics with laser damage specifications. The fully automated laser damage testing system uses microscope photography for detection of damage and a 3 ns pulse length 1064 nm laser for irradiation of the sample. It can test and statistically analyze damage events from a large number of shots, enabling large area testing for low probability events. The system measures and maps sizes and locations of damage sites down to a few microns in diameter. The results are not subject to variations due to the human operator. For coatings deposited by ion beam sputtering, small defects (less than 20 microns) are found to be most prevalent at the fluences specified for small optics for the National Ignition Facility. The ability to measure and characterize small defects has improved REO's ability to optimize their processes for making coated optics with high damage thresholds. In addition to qualifying particular parts, the periodic testing also assures that equipment and processes remain optimized.

  3. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  4. New application technology for 'in situ' pipeline protection using pigging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretorius, Louis Charles [Corrocoat SA (PTY) Ltd., Durban (South Africa)

    2005-07-01

    Pigging of long pipelines is a technique for in situ (field) coating, creating seamless internal structural linings. Originally developed for cleaning pipes, the system was adapted to apply internal anti-corrosion protection to pipes using a thin epoxy layer, which had some problems in weld coverage, stress cracking, poor cold weather curing and the inability to fill pitting corrosion metal loss. New coating materials, revised application methods and modified pigging equipment have made it possible to apply in situ liquid film coatings up to 1 mm thick, as an internal corrosion barrier to pipes, in a single application (similar to continuous screeding) resulting in a bonded 'GRP pipe within a steel pipe'. The method can be used for new projects on fully welded pipe lines avoiding coating problems associated with flange joints and/or couplings, or for refurbishment of old pipelines, varying from 150-900 mm diameter, up to 12 km long. Pipes can be buried, submerged, continuously welded or flanged. Many different pipes, such as oil platform to shore based pipelines, can all be treated using this method. Thick film polymer pigging techniques create new possibilities for Engineers to extend the life of pipeline systems, with significant cost savings compared to replacement pipe. (author)

  5. The influence of bond coat surface roughness and structure on the oxidation of a thermal barrier coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.P.; Evans, H.E. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The results of a study on two thermal barrier coating systems, oxidised isothermally in thermobalances at 1000 C, show that the surface roughness of the bond coat and its density have a significant effect on the oxidation behaviour. The particular system examined is composed of the Haynes 230 alloy substrate with CoNiCrAlY bond coat and yttria stabilised zirconia ceramic outer layer. Coatings were applied either using air- plasma spraying for both layers in the sample type with the coarsest interfacial roughness or electroplating deposition for the bond coat in the sample with the smoothest interface. Weight gain per unit geometric area is higher for the plasma-sprayed bond coat due both to its larger effective surface area and because of gas access into the structure and consequent internal oxidation. This enhanced oxidation results in a much more rapid depletion of aluminium within the bond coat and an earlier transition into chemical failure. The consequences of this on the formation of delamination cracks is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Design Thought of Intelligence Pipeline Data Acquisition System%智能化管道数据采集系统设计思路初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐大为; 朱静

    2015-01-01

    Based on the information standards of the data of oil and gas transmission pipeline, according to the standardized data encoding system and the data structure and data edition method regulated by the data dictionary, through the basic data of whole life cycle of gathering pipeline, intelligent pipeline data acquisition system is input to the pipeline integrity database. Data integration, visualization pipeline data model and comprehensive information collection are the application system to implement the integrated data acquisition of the pipeline full life cycle, the basic tools to implement the structured data integration using and unstructured data storage of the pipeline and the important parts of intelligent pipeline management system.%智能化管道数据采集系统基于油气长输管道的数据信息化标准,按照统一规范的数据编码体系,根据数据字典规定的数据结构和数据采录方法,通过采集管道全生命周期的基础数据,录入管道完整性数据库,经数据集成、利用形成可视化的管道数据模型和综合信息集合,是实现管道全生命周期内综合数据采集的应用系统,是实现管道结构化数据集成展示利用、非结构化数据存储的基础性工具,是智能化管道管理系统的重要组成部分。

  7. Development of systems for detection, early warning, and control of pipeline leakage in drinking water distribution: A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weifeng Li; Wencui Ling; Suoxiang Liu; Jing Zhao; Ruiping Liu; Qiuwen Chen; Zhimin Qiang; Jiuhui Qu

    2011-01-01

    Water leakage in drinking water distribution systems is a serious problem for many cities and a huge challenge for water utilities.An integrated system for the detection,early warning,and control of pipeline leakage has been developed and successfully used to manage the pipeline networks in selected areas of Beijing.A method based on the geographic information system has been proposed to quickly and automatically optimize the layout of the instruments which detect leaks.Methods are also proposed to estimate the probability of each pipe segment leaking (on the basis of historic leakage data),and to assist in locating the leakage points (based on leakage signals).The district metering area (DMA) strategy is used.Guidelines and a flowchart for establishing a DMA to manage the large-scale looped networks in Beijing are proposed.These different functions have been implemented into a central software system to simplify the day-to-day use of the system.In 2007 the system detected 102 non-obvious leakages (i.e.,14.2% of the total detected in Beijing) in the selected areas,which was estimated to save a total volume of 2,385,000 m3 of water.These results indicate the feasibility,efficiency and wider applicability of this system.

  8. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  9. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM-PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Bestor

    2003-03-04

    This report documents the first year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase I goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase II research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase I were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. Initial testing results showed: (1) Brake specific fuel consumption of natural gas was improved from standard spark ignition across the map, 1% at full load and 5% at 70% load. (2) 0% misfires for all points on micropilot ignition. Fuel savings were most likely due to this percent misfire improvement

  10. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Bestor

    2004-06-01

    This report documents the second year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase II goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase III research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system to demonstrate the technology's readiness for the field demonstration phase. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase II were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. Modifications to existing engine components were kept to a minimum. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. An extensive testing program at the EECL using the GMV-4 test engine demonstrated that: (1) In general, the engine operated more stable fewer misfires and partial combustion events when using the 3-hole injectors compared to the 5-hole injectors used in Phase I. (2) The engine had, in general, a wider range of operation with the 3-hole injectors. Minimum operational boost levels were approximately 5&apos

  11. Integrated natural gas pipeline control and customer service system of Gasum; Le systeme integre de controle des canalisations de gaz et de service au consommateur chez Gasum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, J.; Manty, O.; Ahlnas, B. [Gasul Oy (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Due to the rapid development of the information technology, ageing is not the only driving force for replacing old computer systems with more sophisticated ones. The Finnish natural Gas company, Gasum Oy, has recently taken into use a new control and monitoring system for natural gas pipeline. A special customer service system, developed by Gasum Oy, is closely connected to monitoring system. It provides up-to-date information to all customers of Gasum Oy. The information is layered in three confidential levels: general information, operational data and invoicing information. The system is operating interactively in confidential Extranet. Inside Gasum Oy to meet the needs of departments outside the control room, a new GID system is developed. GID is a way to present pipeline process data and its further modifications with a very user-friendly interface based on geographical map. The system is based on data warehouse architecture and it is working on company's Intranet. This makes it possible to present various secrecy level information based on user ID. Gasum's new SCADA is not only the base for operating the pipeline, but it also provides lot of vital information to other systems serving different user groups within natural gas business in Finland. (authors)

  12. Intelligent leak detection system for oil pipelines; Sistema inteligente para deteccao de vazamentos em dutos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Dantas Gadelha de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in an oil field is implementation of a software-based leak detection system on a multi-phase flow pipeline. This paper will discuss implementation of a leak detection system in a particular oil field using state-of-the-art signal processing techniques to apply to the data collected in a oil pipeline. This leak detection system is still in development and uses a more practical approach to the problem than traditional methods and was implemented on a PC under the Windows operating system. Windowing, joint time-frequency analysis and wavelets were considered to develop methods of detecting leaks by watching for the wavefront. The idea behind these techniques is to cut the signal of interest into several parts and then analyze the parts separately. It is impossible to know the exact frequency and the exact time of occurrence of the leak frequency in a signal. In other words, a leak signal can simply not be represented as a point in the time-frequency space. It is very important how one cuts the signal to implement the analysis. The wavelet transform or wavelet analysis is probably the most recent solution to overcome the shortcomings of the Fourier transform. So, this paper shows some tests and how these techniques are being implementing during the development of the system. (author)

  13. Formation of hydrotalcite coating on the aluminum alloy 6060 in spray system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Roefzaad, Melanie;

    2016-01-01

    Coatings with the composition of Li-Al-NO3 hydrotalcite were formed on the Al alloy 6060 using a spray system. The coatings consist of crystals with a typical hydrotalcite structure. Dense, uniform and blade-like flakes cover completely the surface of the Al substrate. The coatings display a mult...

  14. Automatic lost wax coating system for releasing workers from simple heavy works; Tanjun sagyo jukin sagyo kara sagyosha wo kaihosuru lost wax coating jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, H. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-30

    This paper presents the automatic lost wax coating system using Meidensha`s industrial robots, MEIROBO GWR series and MHR series robots. The automatic lost wax coating system is mainly composed of a robot, conveyers, hangers, hanger positioning equipment, hanging jig, one-touch joints, hand and various kinds of tanks. MEIROBO robot series include 6- axis robots of 20-250kg in load capacity among which the most suitable robot is selected for the automatic lost wax coating system. Construction of the coating systems is carried out considering the number of trees, drying time, installation space, process flow and operation scheme. In the concrete application example of conveyer carrying coating systems by robot, the following effects were obtained: improvement of a quality stability, coating of 2-4 trees at the same time, continuous operation of the system during drying or exchange process of trees, continuous carrying from initial layer coating through drying to storage, automatic exchange of coating order or number of layers, 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  16. Efficiency analysis on the use of internal lining in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Analise da eficiencia do uso de revestimento interno na tubulacao do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Marcos Jose Moraes da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Maria Angelica Santos; Coelho Junior, Robson Teixeira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The internal lining in gas pipelines aims the reduction of roughness and, consequently, the friction factor, therefore resulting in a reduction of pressure drop in natural gas flowing. During Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline basic design, the cost benefit of internal coating was analyzed, in terms of friction factor reduction and distances between Compressor Stations. It was observed an increase of transport capacity and reduction of compressors' power, thus leading to its utilization. Since the pipeline is already in operation, using a SCADA system with Advanced Functions, a comparison between the current real friction factor in the pipeline with that theoretical values used during the design phase becomes possible. Through this comparison, it is possible to evaluate internal coating's efficiency, quantifying its real benefit for gas pipelines. (author)

  17. Research on Pipeline Holdup Measurement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Wen-guang; XU; Zheng; CHENG; Yi-mei; SUI; Hong-zhi; YIN; Hong-he

    2012-01-01

    <正>Some of the nuclear material could be deposited in the pipeline system of the nuclear facilities in the operation process. That kind of nuclear materials in the pipeline are called holdup. The measurement of pipeline holdup is not only important for the nuclear material accounting and control of facilities, but also important for the safe operation of facilities.

  18. 埋地钢质管道新型三层PE防腐层的结构设计%Structural Design on the Polyethylene Coating of Long Distance Buried Spiral-Welded Steel Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈群尧; 王善学; 李建忠; 张东江; 王金喜; 李伟林

    2001-01-01

    The new structure design and research on multi-polyethylenecoating of long distance buried spiral-welded steel pipeline have been carried out based on some standards and codes like CAN/CSA-Z245.21 98 and SY/T4013 95 and the corresponding foreign standards.A new kind of structure for the multi-polyethylene coating of oil/gas pipeline has been proposed.The technical data for the FBE coating is that the thickness of FBE layer is between 120~160 μm,the thickness of binder layer is between 170~250 μm;the PE thickness is between 1.8~2.0 mm,the thickness of coating layer at spiral seam is not less than 1.0 mm.The authors consider that this new multi-polyethylene coating can achieve a optimal performance price ratio and decrease production cost,but it needs to be further verified in actual site application.%对我国用于埋地长输螺旋焊缝钢质管道三层PE防腐层的结构在原《埋地钢质管道聚乙烯防腐层技术标准》(SY/T4013-95)的基础上进行了新结构设计和耐蚀性研究。提出了FBE层的新结构方案即FBE厚度为120~160 μm;粘胶剂层厚度为170~250 μm;三层PE防腐层厚度为1.8~2.0 mm;焊缝处防腐层厚度不低于1.0 mm。在保持防腐性能和机械性能的前提下,对防腐层结构进行调整,合理减薄聚乙烯层厚度,增加环氧粉末厚度,实现防腐层最佳的性价比,减少成本投资。

  19. Tungsten carbide coatings with different binders prepared by low power plasma spray system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yang; M.F.Morks; FU Ying-qing

    2004-01-01

    Thermal spraying of cermet coatings is widely used for protection of machining parts against wear and corrosion. These coatings consist of WC particles in metal binders such as Co, Cr and Ni. Three kinds of WC powders with different metal binders (Co, NiCr and CoCr) were sprayed by low power plasma spray system on Al-Si-Cu alloy substrate. Fundamental aspects of sprayed cermet coatings, including (i) the effects of binder type on the coating structure, (ii) the hardness and (iii) the microstructure, were investigated. All cermet coatings have the same phase structure such as WC and W2 C. However, the intensities of these phases are different in each coating, mainly due to the difference in solidification rate in each case. Moreover, the hardness measurements are found to be different in each coating. The results show that, binder type has a significant effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the sprayed coatings.

  20. Bio-Swarm-Pipeline: a light-weight, extensible batch processing system for efficient biomedical data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Cheng

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamlined scientific workflow system that can track the details of the data processing history is critical for the efficient handling of fundamental routines used in scientific research. In the scientific workflow research community, the information that describes the details of data processing history is referred to as provenance which plays an important role in most of the existing workflow management systems. Despite its importance, however, provenance modeling and management is still a relatively new area in the scientific workflow research community. The proper scope, representation, granularity and implementation of a provenance model can vary from domain to domain and pose a number of challenges for an efficient pipeline design. This paper provides a case study on structured provenance modeling and management problems in the neuroimaging domain by introducing the Bio-Swarm-Pipeline (BSP. This new model, which is evaluated in the paper through real world scenarios, systematically addresses the provenance scope, representation, granularity, and implementation issues related to the neuroimaging domain. Although this model stems from applications in neuroimaging, the system can potentially be adapted to a wide range of bio-medical application scenarios.

  1. Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Behavior of a Composite Coating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongbai XIE; Fuhui WANG

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation and hot corrosion behavior of Co-Ni-Cr-Al-Ta-Y coating produced by magnetron sputtering with and without enamel coating has been investigated in air at 900℃ and in molten 75 wt pct NaCl+25 wt pct Na2SO4at 850℃. The results show that the enamel coating possesses good hot corrosion resistance in the molten salts, in comparison with the sputtered Co-Ni-Cr-Al-Ta-Y coating. In the hot corrosion test, breakaway corrosion did not occur on the samples with enamel coating and the composition of enamel coating did not significantly change either. The oxidation resistance of the sputtered coating, which offers good adhesion, can be improved by the enamel coating.

  2. Novel Surface Coating System Based on Maleated Shellac

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Hasmukh S.; Patel, Sumeet J.

    2010-01-01

    Shellac a natural forest product was reacted with various proportion of maleic anhydride. The resulted maleated shellac samples were designated as (MS-1 to 3) and applied for the preparation of surface coating material. Thus various compositions of coating materials were prepared by varying the contents of MS and commercial grades of acrylic resins (AR). The coating materials were applied on substrates like plaster of paris, cement and limed surface. All the coating showed film performance wi...

  3. Logistic management system for natural gas transportation by pipelines; Sistema de gestao de logistica de transporte de gas por gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos; Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    An efficient management of the natural gas business chain, based on pipeline transmission network and taking into consideration the interaction between the main players such as shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies, requires the use of decision-making support systems to maximize resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages as well as market demand shortfalls. This work presents a practical utilization of technologies such as thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies and economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for maximization and minimization objective function. The proposed system allows the definition of the optimum availability level to be maintained by the Transporter, by means of installing redundancy, to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. Identifies, quantifies and justifies economically the installation of stand-by compressor units, mitigating Transporter exposure to losses due to capacity shortfalls as consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. (author)

  4. Network Challenges for Cyber Physical Systems with Tiny Wireless Devices: A Case Study on Reliable Pipeline Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs. CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed.

  5. Network challenges for cyber physical systems with tiny wireless devices: a case study on reliable pipeline condition monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salman; Qaisar, Saad Bin; Saeed, Husnain; Khan, Muhammad Farhan; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2015-01-01

    The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs). CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed. PMID:25815444

  6. Planning of remote CP system monitoring for a new long-distance gas pipeline; Planung der KKS-Fernueberwachung einer neuen Ferngasleitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, Juergen [Max Streicher GmbH und Co. KGaA, Delitzsch (Germany); Bette, Ulrich [Labor fuer Korrosionsschutz und Elektrotechnik der Technischen Akademie Wuppertal e.V., Wuppertal (Germany); Ewert, Mirko; Rau, Frank [Wingas GmbH und Co. KG, Kassel (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The publication of DVGW Code GW 16 set off renewed discussion of the preconditions which a remote CP monitoring system for long-distance gas pipelines must fulfil in order to permit reduction of the labour and financial input for monitoring measurements in accordance with GW 10. Referred to DVGW Code GW 16 published in May, 2008, in which, inter alia, the categories were further differentiated, this would signify Category 2c, which requires verification of the effectiveness of the CP system for the entire protected system and the detection of wrapping fault points that are not completely protected. WINGAS began considering the optimization of the remote monitoring of new long-distance gas pipelines in mid-2003, since which time the ideas discussed have been updated in the context of the planned construction of new long-distance gas pipelines. This article outlines these considerations from the starting point up to the current planning status. (orig.)

  7. Pipeline Power

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert, Franz; Cobanli, Onur

    2012-01-01

    We use cooperative game theory to analyze the impact of three controversial pipeline projects on the power structure in the Eurasian trade of natural gas. Two of them, Nord Stream and South Stream, allow Russian gas to bypass transit countries, Ukraine and Belarus. Nord Stream's strategic value turns out to be huge, justifying the high investment cost for Germany and Russia. The additional leverage obtained through South Stream, in contrast, appears small. The third project, Nabucco, aims at ...

  8. Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Garmsiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

  9. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  10. An Analysis Pipeline with Statistical and Visualization-Guided Knowledge Discovery for Michigan-Style Learning Classifier Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, Ryan J; Granizo-Mackenzie, Ambrose; Moore, Jason H

    2012-11-01

    Michigan-style learning classifier systems (M-LCSs) represent an adaptive and powerful class of evolutionary algorithms which distribute the learned solution over a sizable population of rules. However their application to complex real world data mining problems, such as genetic association studies, has been limited. Traditional knowledge discovery strategies for M-LCS rule populations involve sorting and manual rule inspection. While this approach may be sufficient for simpler problems, the confounding influence of noise and the need to discriminate between predictive and non-predictive attributes calls for additional strategies. Additionally, tests of significance must be adapted to M-LCS analyses in order to make them a viable option within fields that require such analyses to assess confidence. In this work we introduce an M-LCS analysis pipeline that combines uniquely applied visualizations with objective statistical evaluation for the identification of predictive attributes, and reliable rule generalizations in noisy single-step data mining problems. This work considers an alternative paradigm for knowledge discovery in M-LCSs, shifting the focus from individual rules to a global, population-wide perspective. We demonstrate the efficacy of this pipeline applied to the identification of epistasis (i.e., attribute interaction) and heterogeneity in noisy simulated genetic association data.

  11. 原油管道YOYO系统流动安全性%Flow safety of crude oil pipeline YOYO system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛珊; 王欣然; 宇波; 周建; 王乾坤; 雷飞

    2012-01-01

    When crude oil pipelines shut down for some reason, a YOYO system can be used between non-accident stations to make crude oil flow in round trips between stations to avoid coagulation accidents. The YOYO system consists of storage tanks and screw pumps respectively set up in two adjacent pumping stations. Its operation process is similar to forward and backward transmission technology, but the purposes are different. Workflow of the YOYO system is detailed, heat transfer mathematical models of its operation process are built and the initial conditions and height differences of forward and backward transmission are discussed. Based on a calculation case of pipe section, the temperature drop law of YOYO system during its running is discussed. The flow safety of oil pipeline with YOYO system is analyzed, and results indicate that the method is a potential safety measures for accidental pipeline.%原油管道因故停输时,在非事故站间采用YOYO系统可以使原油在站间往返流动,避免凝管事故发生.YOYO系统由分别设置在两个相邻泵站的储罐和螺杆泵组成,其运行过程与正反输工艺相似,但两者使用目的不同.详细说明了YOYO系统的工作流程,建立了其运行过程的传热数学模型,讨论了正反向输送时的初始条件和高程差.基于算例管段,计算讨论了YOYO系统运行过程中的温降规律,分析了采用YOYO系统后管输原油的流动安全性,结果表明:该方法对于事故停输管道是一种潜在可行的安全措施.

  12. Residual stresses in coating-based systems, part Ⅰ:Mechanisms and analytical modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiancheng; WU Yixiong; XU Binshi; WANG Haidou

    2007-01-01

    Thin films and multi-layered coatings comprised of different classes of materials are often used for various fimctional devices. The thermo-mechanical integrity of these systems is becoming a major concern and is strongly related to the residual stresses because of the fabrication processes. In this paper, the sources of the residual stresses in the coating-based systems and the concept of"misfit strain" were briefly reviewed. Analytical models were developed to predict the residual stresses in multi-layered film structures or coating-based systems using the force and moment balances. In addition, the residual stress distributions in the functionally and compositionally graded coatings were also analyzed.

  13. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

    2004-05-01

    Heat-exchangers, filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand demanding conditions of high temperatures and pressure differentials. Under the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas, the performance of components degrade significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. A review of the literature indicates that the corrosion reaction is the competition between oxidation and sulfidation reactions. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers.

  14. 输气管道内减阻涂料黏度对钢管内喷涂的影响%Influence on Steel Pipe internal Coating of Internal Resistance-reducing Coating Viscosity for Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢航超

    2014-01-01

    In this article, it introduced the characteristics of internal resistance-reducing coating and the requirements to coating performance in the corresponding standards. Combing with steel pipe internal coating process, it analyzed the influence of viscosity change on steel pipe internal coating, and regarded that the influence of viscosity change is one of the important factors for steel pipe coating. When the coating temperature is low, based on the change of coating temperature, it should adopt proper preheating temperature preservation measures, to improve the coating thickness difference , to reduce quality defects , and enhance the utilization efficiency of coating material. The results indicated that adopting proper preheating temperature preservation measure, it can improve the quality of coating and reduce the material consumption of per unit area of the internal coating, thus to low the cost of internal coating.%介绍了输气管道内减阻涂料的特点及相关标准对涂料性能的要求。结合钢管内喷涂工艺,分析了内减阻涂料黏度的变化对钢管内喷涂的影响,认为涂料黏度的变化是影响钢管内喷涂质量的重要因素之一。涂料温度较低时,应根据涂料温度的变化,采取适当的预热保温措施,可改善涂层厚度的差异,减少涂层质量缺陷的产生,提高涂料的利用率。结果表明,采取适当的预热保温措施后,改善了涂层质量,减少了内涂料的单位面积消耗,从而降低了管道内防腐层成本。

  15. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  16. An integrated multi−period planning of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products in a single pipeline system

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Herrán; Fantahun M. Defersha; Mingyuan Chen; de la Cruz, Jesús M.

    2011-01-01

    A multiproduct pipeline provides an economic way to transport large volumes of refined petroleum products over long distances. In such a pipeline, different products are pumped back−to−back without any separation device between them. The sequence and lengths of such pumping runs must be carefully selected in order to meet market demands while minimizing pipeline operational costs and satisfying several constraints. The production planning and scheduling of the products at the refinery must al...

  17. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  18. RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FODOR Cosmin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

  19. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  20. Laser-Generated Rayleigh Waves Propagating in Transparent Viscoelastic Adhesive Coating/Metal Substrate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yi-jun; Sun, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi; Ge, Yong

    2016-10-01

    We have established numerical models for simulating laser-generated Rayleigh waves in coating/substrate systems by a finite element method and investigated the propagation characteristics of Rayleigh waves in systems concerning the viscoelasticity and transparency of adhesive coatings. In this way, we have studied the influence of the mechanical properties of the coating, such as the elastic moduli, viscoelastic moduli, coating thickness, transparency, and coating material, on the propagation characteristics of the Rayleigh waves. The results show that the propagation characteristics of the Rayleigh waves can be divided into low- and high-frequency parts. The high-frequency propagation characteristics of the Rayleigh wave are closely related to the properties of the adhesive coating.

  1. Thermo-hydraulic modelling of the South East Gas Pipeline System - an integrated model; Modelagem termo-hidraulica do Sistema de Gasodutos do Sudeste : um modelo integrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna Neto, Armando M.; Santos, Arnaldo M.; Mercon, Eduardo G. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the development of an integrated simulation model, for the numerical calculation of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in the Brazilian southeast onshore gas pipeline flow system, remotely operated by TRANSPETRO's Gas Pipeline Control Centre (CCG). In its final application, this model is supposed to provide simulated results at the closer range to reality, in order to improve gas pipeline simulation studies and evaluations for the system in question. Considering the fact that numerical thermo-hydraulic simulation becomes the CCG's most important tool to analyze the boundary conditions to adjust the mentioned gas flow system, this paper seeks and takes aim to the optimization of the following prime attributions of a gas pipeline control centre: verification of system behaviors, face to some unit maintenance stop or procedure, programmed or not, or to some new gas outlet or inlet connection to the system; daily operational compatibility analysis between programmed and realized gas volumes; gas technical expedition and delivery analysis. Finally, all this work was idealized and carried out within the one-phase flow domain (dry gas) (author)

  2. Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Tian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole‐position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN and expert system (ES is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBFNN and the ES. The ADXRS300 micro‐mechanical gyro is used as the welding gun position sensor in this system. When the welding gun position is obtained, an appropriate pitch angle can be obtained through expert knowledge and the numeric reasoning capacity of the IRBFNN. ARM is used as the controller to drive the welding gun pitch angle step motor in order to adjust the pitch angle of the welding gun in real‐time. The experiment results show that the intelligent control system of the welding gun pose using the IRBFNN and expert system is feasible and it enhances the welding quality. This system has wide prospects for application.

  3. 基于IPad的管线数据采集系统设计与应用%Design and Application of Pipeline Data Acquisition System Based On IPad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹志永; 沈飞飞; 徐运; 李仕佳

    2013-01-01

    地下管线是城市的重要基础设施,关系到城市经济发展和整体运行,采集地下管线数据,管理管线的各种信息资料,是城市规划建设和可持续发展的需要.本文结合天津市地下管线信息管理相关规范,设计并应用了基于IPad的管线数据采集系统,实现了管线数据外业高效采集及内业自动成图一体化.同时,详述了该系统的体系结构设计、数据库设计、业务逻辑设计、功能应用设计等,为移动GIS在测绘领域的应用提供了新思路.%Underground pipeline is the important infrastructure of the city, which is related to the urban economic development and o-verall operation. It is very important for urban construction and sustainable development to capture pipeline data and manage various kinds of information material. Combined with technical specification for information management of underground pipelines and cables in Tianjin, this paper designs and implements pipeline data acquisition system running on IPad device, which acquires pipeline data efficiently and draws pipeline map automatically. At the same time, the paper describes system structure design, database design, logic design and function design, which provides a new train of thought for mobile GIS applications in the field of surveying and mapping.

  4. Benchmarking TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, B.; Bugel, L.; Chiu, C; Conrad, J. M.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jones, B. J. P.; Katori, T.; Mufson, S.

    2012-01-01

    Scintillation light from liquid argon is produced at 128 nm and thus must be shifted to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs). To date, designs have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we show that the response of lightguides coated with TPB in a UV Transmitting (UV...

  5. Optimising of pipeline maintenance using deposit profile technology

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    With an aging pipeline system, the petroleum industry is experiencing new challenges in maintaining the pipeline integrity. In the Master’s thesis, a method and technology for internal pipeline diameter detection is presented. By measuring the pressure signature during a conventional utility pigging operation, the changes in internal pipeline diameter are detected. The method is evaluated and its applicability for optimising the pipeline maintenance programme is discussed. The first par...

  6. Sinopec Fuels Development of Pipelines in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuemei

    2004-01-01

    @@ Crude pipeline completed in Yangtze River Delta The Ningbo-Shanghai-Nanjing crude pipeline was recently wound up for construction following completion of the subsea segment in Hangzhou Bay,the last part of the pipeline. The 711 mm-diameter crude pipeline, designed and constructed by Sinopec, adopts the advanced SCADA system for full automation control. The pipeline is designed to have an annual crude transmission capacity of 20million tons.

  7. Failure analysis of high-temperature oxidation for plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating systems with different coating characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S.; Yoshiba, M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Harada, Y. [Thermal Spraying Technology R and D Lab., Tocalo Co., Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    In order to evaluate the durability of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems with different coating characteristics such as the coating defect structures and interfacial natures, high-temperature oxidation tests were conducted at 1000 and 1100 C under both the isothermal and thermal cycle conditions. High-temperature oxidation behavior was found to differ depending strongly on the top-coat (TC) microstructure and the reheat-treatment (RHT) conditions after spraying; namely on a combination of the treatment temperature and atmosphere. It was clarified, in particular, that the TC microstructure with the improved strain accommodation (stress relief) function, such as the porous or segmented TC layer is much effective in suppressing the TC spalling. For TBC systems with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} as the TC, furthermore, the RHT at an appropriate temperature in Ar was found to be also effective for an improvement of the oxidation property, since the RHT in Ar is attainable for the continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer at the TC/ bond-coat (BC) interface so as to reduce effectively the growth rate of thermally grown oxide (TGO) during high-temperature oxidation. For TBC systems with TC of CaO-SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, on the contrary, it was found to be difficult to improve the oxidation property by any RHT processes, mainly due to the high reactivity of CaO in TC with the CoNiCrAlY-BC. The affecting factors for the high-temperature oxidation property were discussed on the basis of such a failure analysis. (orig.)

  8. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J.; Wyrowski, F.; Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.; Wilson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics system must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. Observing modes to be processed by the system include single field interferometry, mosaics and single dish `on-the-fly' maps, and combinations of these modes. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and single dish antennas. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts. For interferometry these use as data processing engines the CASA/AIPS++ libraries and their bindings as CORBA objects within the ALMA Common Software (ACS). Initial development has used VLA and Plateau de Bure data sets to build and test a heuristic script capable of reducing single field data. In this paper we describe the reduction datapath and the algorithms used at each stage. Test results are presented. The path for future development is outlined.

  9. Constructing computational pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling-Brown, Mark; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2008-01-01

    Many bioinformatics tasks involve creating a computational pipeline from existing software components and algorithms. The traditional approach is to glue components together using scripts written in a programming language such as Perl. However, a new, more powerful approach is emerging that promises to revolutionise the way bioinformaticians create applications from existing components, an approach based on the concept of the scientific workflow. Scientific workflows are created in graphical environments known as workflow management systems. They have many benefits over traditional program scripts, including speed of development, portability, and their suitability for developing complex, distributed applications. This chapter explains how to design and implement bioinformatics workflows using free, Open Source software tools, such as the Taverna workflow management system. We also demonstrate how new and existing tools can be deployed as Web services so that they can be easily integrated into novel computational pipelines using the scientific workflow paradigm. PMID:18712319

  10. Design of a Prediction System for Hydrate Formation in Gas Pipelines using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Raed Moukhtar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Before the evolution of the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN technology, many production wells in the oil and gas industry were suffering from the gas hydration formation process, as most of them are remotely located away from the host location. By taking the advantage of the WSN technology, it is possible now to monitor and predict the critical conditions at which hydration will form by using any computerized model. In fact, most of the developed models are based on two well-known hand calculation methods which are the Specific gravity and K-Factor methods. In this research, the proposed work is divided into two phases; first, the development of a three prediction models using the Neural Network algorithm (ANN based on the specific gravity charts, the K-Factor method and the production rates of the flowing gas mixture in the process pipelines. While in the second phase, two WSN prototype models are designed and implemented using National Instruments WSN hardware devices. Power analysis is carried out on the designed prototypes and regression models are developed to give a relation between the sensing nodes (SN consumed current, Node-to-Gateway distance and the operating link quality. The prototypes controller is interfaced with a GSM module and connected to a web server to be monitored via mobile and internet networks.

  11. Evaluation of the Lifetime and Thermal Conductivity of Dysprosia-Stabilized Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nicholas; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Östergren, Lars; Li, Xin-Hai; Dorfman, Mitch

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was the further development of dysprosia-stabilized zirconia coatings for gas turbine applications. The target for these coatings was a longer lifetime and higher insulating performance compared to today's industrial standard thermal barrier coating. Two morphologies of ceramic top coat were studied: one using a dual-layer system and the second using a polymer to generate porosity. Evaluations were carried out using a laser flash technique to measure thermal properties. Lifetime testing was conducted using thermo-cyclic fatigue testing. Microstructure was assessed with SEM and Image analysis was used to characterize porosity content. The results show that coatings with an engineered microstructure give performance twice that of the present reference coating.

  12. Automatic Pipeline Surveillance Air-Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Alqaan, Hani

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents the developments of a vision-based system for aerial pipeline Right-of-Way surveillance using optical/Infrared sensors mounted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The aim of research is to develop a highly automated, on-board system for detecting and following the pipelines; while simultaneously detecting any third-party interference. The proposed approach of using a UAV platform could potentially reduce the cost of monitoring and surveying pipelines when...

  13. Anticorrosion performance of the coating/metal system by electrochemical impedance spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghuai Zhang; Lining Xu; Minxu Lu; Pu Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the anticorrosion performance of the organic coating/metal system, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were measured in the 3.5wt% NaC1 solution, the chemical component and the formation of corrosion products scale were analyzed by laser Raman microspectroscopy, and the pattern of the organic coating/metal system was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristics and the delamination process of the organic coating/metal system were investigated systematically, and the emphases were on the transportation of the corrosive medium and the changes of the coating/metal interface. The results show that the impedance decreases at the initial immersion, then increases at the middle-immersion, and again decreases at last, which is related to the corrosion products scale. The concentration of Cl-in the coating, which destroys the corrosion products scale, increases with the immersion time.

  14. Latex Colloid Dynamics in Complex Dispersions : Fluorescence Microscopy Applied to Coating Color Model Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Gunilla

    2004-01-01

    Coating colors are applied to the base paper in order to maximize the performance of the end product. Coating colors are complex colloidal systems, mainly consisting of water, binders, and pigments. To understand the behavior of colloidal suspensions, an understanding of the interactions between its components is essential.

  15. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  16. Crude Oil Pipeline Integrity Management System and Its Application%输油管道完整性管理体系及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福众; 帅健

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the integrity management system was constructed for crude oil pipeline. Management model was presented, based on plan-do-check-action cycle. The implementation essentials of the pipeline integrity management system were outlined. A pipeline integrity management information platform was developed and its functions with data management, high consequence identification, risk assessment, integrity evaluation and activity planning. Integrity management activities, such as data integration, hazard identification, risk assessment, internal inspection, external corrosion direct assessment and maintenance, were conducted. Simultaneously, the problems in pipeline integrity management system construction and application were pointed out, and the suggestion of improving pipeline integrity management system was raised.%构建了输油管道完整性管理体系,提出了基于“计划-实施-检查-改进”循环的管理模式,总结了管道完整性管理体系的实施要点,研制开发了具有数据管理、高后果区识别、风险评价、完整性评价及活动管理的输油管道完整性管理信息平台。开展了数据收集与整合、危害因素识别与风险评价、管道内检测、外腐蚀直接评价以及维修维护等完整性管理活动。同时,指出管道完整性管理体系构建与应用中的问题,提出了进一步改进和完善管道完整性管理体系的建议。

  17. Immunocytochemical localization of coated vesicle protein in rodent nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry has been used to study the distribution of the major 180,000-mol wt protein of coated vesicles in rodent cerebellum. An antibody to the coat protein was prepared in rabbits and characterized by immunodiffusion and immunofixation of polyacrylamide gels. At the light microscope level the protein was primarily localized in punctate profiles surrounding Purkinje cells and within the cerebellar glomeruli. At the electron microscope level the punctate distribution was confined t...

  18. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  19. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  20. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  1. Corrosion and oxidation properties of NiCr coatings sprayed in presence of gas shroud system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidation of a NiCr bond coat during air plasma spraying was controlled by designing a gas shroud system attached to the plasma torch nozzle. Two nozzles, termed as 'normal' and 'high-speed' nozzles examined the effect of nozzle internal design on the microstructure and phase structure of coatings. X-ray diffraction and SEM morphologies showed that the shroud system reduced the oxidation of NiCr particles during the spray process. Compared with conventional air plasma spraying, the argon gas shroud reduced the coating hardness because the volume fraction of partially melted particles increased. The high-speed nozzle reduced the oxidation and hardness of NiCr coatings due to the increase of partially melted particles in the coatings.

  2. 77 FR 70543 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  3. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under the Federal... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  4. A systems biology pipeline identifies new immune and disease related molecular signatures and networks in human cells during microgravity exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sayak; Saha, Rohini; Palanisamy, Anbarasi; Ghosh, Madhurima; Biswas, Anupriya; Roy, Saheli; Pal, Arijit; Sarkar, Kathakali; Bagh, Sangram

    2016-05-01

    Microgravity is a prominent health hazard for astronauts, yet we understand little about its effect at the molecular systems level. In this study, we have integrated a set of systems-biology tools and databases and have analysed more than 8000 molecular pathways on published global gene expression datasets of human cells in microgravity. Hundreds of new pathways have been identified with statistical confidence for each dataset and despite the difference in cell types and experiments, around 100 of the new pathways are appeared common across the datasets. They are related to reduced inflammation, autoimmunity, diabetes and asthma. We have identified downregulation of NfκB pathway via Notch1 signalling as new pathway for reduced immunity in microgravity. Induction of few cancer types including liver cancer and leukaemia and increased drug response to cancer in microgravity are also found. Increase in olfactory signal transduction is also identified. Genes, based on their expression pattern, are clustered and mathematically stable clusters are identified. The network mapping of genes within a cluster indicates the plausible functional connections in microgravity. This pipeline gives a new systems level picture of human cells under microgravity, generates testable hypothesis and may help estimating risk and developing medicine for space missions.

  5. 77 FR 21763 - Explorer Pipeline Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... structure for Explorer's proposed diluent pipeline extension project (Diluent Extension Project). The Diluent Extension Project involves the construction of a new pipeline segment from Peotone, Illinois to Manhattan, Illinois, where Explorer's pipeline system will interconnect with Enbridge's Southern...

  6. Discussion of natural gas pipeline pressure control system configuration%天然气长输管道压力调节系统配置探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绪勇

    2014-01-01

    The principles and objectives of long distance gas pipeline pressure control system are described. Configuration of different pressure control system, composition of system and features of different conifguration are described. Selection of regulating valve used in pressure control system and integration of pressure control system and station control system are discussed. The Function of pressure control system, such as pressure regulation, lfow control, switching between main pipeline and backup pipeline, emergency control and so on, are discoursed.%简要介绍了天然气长输管道中压力调节系统的设计原则及目标,详细描述了国内压力调节系统主要的配置方式、系统构成及各配置方式的特点,探讨了调节阀的选型及压力调节系统与站控系统的集成,阐述了压力调节系统调压、限流、主备用管路切换及安全控制等功能的实现。

  7. ge-CRISPR - An integrated pipeline for the prediction and analysis of sgRNAs genome editing efficiency for CRISPR/Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Karambir; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Rajput, Akanksha; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing by sgRNA a component of CRISPR/Cas system emerged as a preferred technology for genome editing in recent years. However, activity and stability of sgRNA in genome targeting is greatly influenced by its sequence features. In this endeavor, a few prediction tools have been developed to design effective sgRNAs but these methods have their own limitations. Therefore, we have developed "ge-CRISPR" using high throughput data for the prediction and analysis of sgRNAs genome editing efficiency. Predictive models were employed using SVM for developing pipeline-1 (classification) and pipeline-2 (regression) using 2090 and 4139 experimentally verified sgRNAs respectively from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Danio rerio and Xenopus tropicalis. During 10-fold cross validation we have achieved accuracy and Matthew's correlation coefficient of 87.70% and 0.75 for pipeline-1 on training dataset (T(1840)) while it performed equally well on independent dataset (V(250)). In pipeline-2 we attained Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.68 and 0.69 using best models on training (T(3169)) and independent dataset (V(520)) correspondingly. ge-CRISPR (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/gecrispr/) for a given genomic region will identify potent sgRNAs, their qualitative as well as quantitative efficiencies along with potential off-targets. It will be useful to scientific community engaged in CRISPR research and therapeutics development. PMID:27581337

  8. ge-CRISPR - An integrated pipeline for the prediction and analysis of sgRNAs genome editing efficiency for CRISPR/Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Karambir; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Rajput, Akanksha; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing by sgRNA a component of CRISPR/Cas system emerged as a preferred technology for genome editing in recent years. However, activity and stability of sgRNA in genome targeting is greatly influenced by its sequence features. In this endeavor, a few prediction tools have been developed to design effective sgRNAs but these methods have their own limitations. Therefore, we have developed "ge-CRISPR" using high throughput data for the prediction and analysis of sgRNAs genome editing efficiency. Predictive models were employed using SVM for developing pipeline-1 (classification) and pipeline-2 (regression) using 2090 and 4139 experimentally verified sgRNAs respectively from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Danio rerio and Xenopus tropicalis. During 10-fold cross validation we have achieved accuracy and Matthew's correlation coefficient of 87.70% and 0.75 for pipeline-1 on training dataset (T(1840)) while it performed equally well on independent dataset (V(250)). In pipeline-2 we attained Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.68 and 0.69 using best models on training (T(3169)) and independent dataset (V(520)) correspondingly. ge-CRISPR (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/gecrispr/) for a given genomic region will identify potent sgRNAs, their qualitative as well as quantitative efficiencies along with potential off-targets. It will be useful to scientific community engaged in CRISPR research and therapeutics development.

  9. Airborne detection of natural gas leaks from transmission pipelines by using a laser system operating in visual, near-IR, and mid-IR wavelength bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, Oleg V.; Klimov, Alexey G.; Vavilov, Vladimir P.

    2006-04-01

    An airborne gas detection IR system which includes a laser, infrared imager and video-recorder is described. The sensitivity of the system to leaks from ground pipelines by the laser channel is about 100 ppm*m at 100 m (by methane). The IR thermographic channel plays an auxiliary role and the video channel allows better coordinate positioning of detected gas leaks in conjunction with a built-in GPS device.

  10. Electrokinetic Properties of Lubricin Antiadhesive Coatings in Microfluidic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, George W; Duffy, Emer; Shallan, Aliaa; Wuethrich, Alain; Paull, Brett

    2016-02-23

    Lubricin is a glycoprotein found in articular joints which has long been recognized as being an important biological boundary lubricant molecule and, more recently, an impressive antiadhesive that readily self-assembles into a well ordered, polymer brush layer on virtually any substrate. The lubricin molecule possesses an overabundance of anionic charge, a property that is atypical among antiadhesive molecules, that enables its use as a coating for applications involving electrokinetic processes such as electrophoresis and electroosmosis. Coating the surfaces of silica and polymeric microfluidic devices with self-assembled lubricin coatings affords a unique combination of excellent fouling resistance and high charge density that enables notoriously "sticky" biomolecules such as proteins to be used and controlled electrokinetically in the device without complications arising from nonspecific adsorption. Using capillary electrophoresis, we characterized the stability, uniformity, and electrokinetic properties of lubricin coatings applied to silica and PTFE capillaries over a range of run buffer pHs and when exposed to concentrated solutions of protein. In addition, we demonstrate the effectiveness of lubricin as a coating to minimize nonspecific protein adsorption in an electrokinetically controlled polydimethylsiloxane/silica microfluidic device.

  11. 78 FR 71036 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...; Contractor Management Information System Reporting; and Obtaining Drug and Alcohol Management Information... Operators to Report Contractor Management Information System (MIS) Data; and New Method for Operators to... ``user name'' and ``password'' for the Drug and Alcohol Management Information System (DAMIS)...

  12. Residual stresses in coating-based systems, part Ⅱ: Optimal designing methodologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiancheng; WU Yixiong; XU Binshi; WANG Haidou

    2007-01-01

    In this part of the work,different cases are studied to illustrate the implementation of the analytical models that have been developed in Part Ⅰ [Front.Mech.Eng.China,2007,2(1):1-12].Different topics are involved in the optimal design of coating-based systems.Some essential relations among material properties and dimensions of the coating and substrate and the residual stress variations are reflected.For the multilayered coating-based systems,some optimal design methodologies are proposed,such as the decrease in stress discontinuity at the interface between the adjacent layers,the curvature as a function of the coating thickness,the effect of the interlayer on the residual stress redistribution,and so on.For the single-layered coating-based systems,some typical approximations that are often used to predict the residual stresses in the coating-based system or bilayer structure are corrected.A simplified model for predicting the quenching stress in a coating is also developed.

  13. Cost analysis of teg-powered and solar-powered cathodic protection system for a-50 km long buried natural gas pipeline located in Sindh, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion leaks are of significant concern to oil and gas industry and is considered to be the largest controllable factor in pipeline safety. Cathodic Protection (CP) is a well-established method for preventing corrosion of metallic materials. Electrical power is required and it is usually difficult and expensive to install conventional power lines in remote areas for readily available power supply. Oil/gas organizations make use of thermo-electric generators (TEG), which is relatively expensive in terms of running expenditures. Utilization of renewable energies is now being widely explored due to potential danger of running out of natural resources and dates back mid of 20th century [I]. However, use of solar powered CP system for oil/gas pipelines hasn't been encouraged much in Pakistan, probably due to lack of understanding. A project was undertaken for designing a solar powered CP system for a 52.4 km buried gas pipeline located at Sui/Sara gas fields (Latitude 27.5) of Tullow Pakistan (Dev.) Ltd. in Dharki, Sindh, Pakistan. After detailed analysis of soil condition, electrochemical testing, local climatic variation and cost analysis, it has been revealed that use of solar power is quite feasible for the above-mentioned pipeline section. Cost analysis and comparison have also favored this system since the maintenance cost of the solar-powered system is much less compared to TEG system. Installation cost of the solar system is about 1.57 times the cost of TEG; however, the maintenance cost is only -20% of that for TEG system. The higher installation cost has been estimated to be recoverable in less than one year of service. (author)

  14. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi-GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2014-11-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT) is one of Europe\\'s highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. ELTs are built on top of a variety of highly sensitive and critical astronomical instruments. In particular, a new instrument called MOSAIC has been proposed to perform multi-object spectroscopy using the Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique. The core implementation of the simulation lies in the intensive computation of a tomographic reconstruct or (TR), which is used to drive the deformable mirror in real time from the measurements. A new numerical algorithm is proposed (1) to capture the actual experimental noise and (2) to substantially speed up previous implementations by exposing more concurrency, while reducing the number of floating-point operations. Based on the Matrices Over Runtime System at Exascale numerical library (MORSE), a dynamic scheduler drives all computational stages of the tomographic reconstruct or simulation and allows to pipeline and to run tasks out-of order across different stages on heterogeneous systems, while ensuring data coherency and dependencies. The proposed TR simulation outperforms asymptotically previous state-of-the-art implementations up to 13-fold speedup. At more than 50000 unknowns, this appears to be the largest-scale AO problem submitted to computation, to date, and opens new research directions for extreme scale AO simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  15. The spatial distribution of pollutants in pipe-scale of large-diameter pipelines in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Chen, Huanyu; Yao, Lingdan; Wei, Zongyuan; Lou, Liping; Shan, Yonggui; Endalkachew, Sahle-Demessie; Mallikarjuna, Nadagouda; Hu, Baolan; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-01

    In large-diameter drinking water pipelines, spatial differences in hydraulic and physiochemical conditions may also result in spatial variations in pipe corrosion, biofilm growth and pollutant accumulation. In this article, the spatial distributions of various metals and organic contaminants in two 19-year-old grey cast iron pipes which had an internal diameter of 600mm (DN600), were investigated and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, X-ray Diffraction, etc. The spatial distribution of heavy metals varied significantly across the pipe section, and iron, manganese, lead, copper, and chromium were highest in concentration in the upper portion pipe-scales. However, the highest aluminum and zinc content was detected in the lower portion pipe-scales. Apart from some common types of hydrocarbons formed by microbial metabolites, there were also some microalgae metabolites and exogenous contaminants accumulated in pipe-scale, which also exhibited high diversity between different spatial locations. The spatial distributions of the physical and chemical properties of pipe-scale and contaminants were quite different in large-diameter pipes. The finding put forward higher requirements on the research method about drinking water distribution system chemical safety. And the scientific community need understand trend and dynamics of drinking water pipe systems better. PMID:27244696

  16. The spatial distribution of pollutants in pipe-scale of large-diameter pipelines in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Chen, Huanyu; Yao, Lingdan; Wei, Zongyuan; Lou, Liping; Shan, Yonggui; Endalkachew, Sahle-Demessie; Mallikarjuna, Nadagouda; Hu, Baolan; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-01

    In large-diameter drinking water pipelines, spatial differences in hydraulic and physiochemical conditions may also result in spatial variations in pipe corrosion, biofilm growth and pollutant accumulation. In this article, the spatial distributions of various metals and organic contaminants in two 19-year-old grey cast iron pipes which had an internal diameter of 600mm (DN600), were investigated and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, X-ray Diffraction, etc. The spatial distribution of heavy metals varied significantly across the pipe section, and iron, manganese, lead, copper, and chromium were highest in concentration in the upper portion pipe-scales. However, the highest aluminum and zinc content was detected in the lower portion pipe-scales. Apart from some common types of hydrocarbons formed by microbial metabolites, there were also some microalgae metabolites and exogenous contaminants accumulated in pipe-scale, which also exhibited high diversity between different spatial locations. The spatial distributions of the physical and chemical properties of pipe-scale and contaminants were quite different in large-diameter pipes. The finding put forward higher requirements on the research method about drinking water distribution system chemical safety. And the scientific community need understand trend and dynamics of drinking water pipe systems better.

  17. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, March 1, 1997--May 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-13

    Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with improved reliability and temperature capability. This report describes progress in manufacturing, bonding, deposition, non-destructive evaluation, repair, and maintenance.

  18. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Epoxy Tec International, Inc., CPP RC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epoxytec, Inc. CPP™ epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and Technology (CIGMAT) Laboratory at the Uni...

  19. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

    2007-03-31

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the hightemperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several 409 low alloy steel samples after coating them in our fluidized bed reactor and also after exposing them to our corrosion test. We report the following findings: 1. A protective coating was deposited inside a porous 409 steel sample to protect it from sulfidation attack. The coating was based on a combination of Si diffusion layer, Nb interlayer and nitrides of titanium and silicon. 2. Analysis of solid coupons exposed to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h showed that multilayer metal/ceramic coatings provide a better protection than ceramic coatings. 3. Deposition of several ceramic/metal multilayer coatings showed that coatings with niobium and tantalum interlayers have good adhesion. However, coatings with a tungsten interlayer suffered localized delaminating and coatings with Zr interlayers showed poor adhesion. 4. Analysis of solid coupons, coated with the above-mentioned multilayer films, after exposure to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h showed that niobium is the best candidate for interlayer material.

  20. Thermodynamics and kinetics of reactions in protective coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, B.; Sarkhel, A.; Shankar, S.; Seigle, L.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the aluminization of Ni from packs containing various percentages of unalloyed Al confirmed that the surface aluminum content of specimens aluminized tends to decrease with time and consequently a simple parabolic law for the weight-gain vs. time relationship is not obeyed. The diffusivity-composition relationship in NiAl was examined, and a set of curves is presented. A numerical method for the calculation of coating dissolution rates was developed and applied to NiAl-Ni3Al type of coatings.

  1. Development of high productivity pipeline girth welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend for increased oil and gas consumption implies a growth of long-distance pipeline installations. Welding is a critical factor in the installation of pipelines, both onshore and offshore, and the rate at which the pipeline can be laid is generally determined by the speed of welding. This has resulted in substantial developments in pipeline welding techniques. Arc welding is still the dominant process used in practice, and forge welding processes have had limited successful application to date, in spite of large investments in process development. Power beam processes have also been investigated in detail and the latest laser systems now show promise for practical application. In recent years the use of high strength steels has substantially reduced the cost of pipeline installation, with X70 and X80 being commonly used. This use of high strength pipeline produced by thermomechanical processing has also been researched. They must all meet three requirments, high productivity, satisfactory weld properties, and weld quality

  2. Analysis of the changes in the consumption profile of the system use gas in Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline after integration with the Campinas-Rio Gas Pipeline; Analise das alteracoes do perfil de consumo de gas de sistema no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil apos a interligacao deste gasoduto com o Campinas-Rio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir Beserra dos; Bisaggio, Helio da Cunha; Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The natural gas pipeline transport is carried out by one or more compression stations. Each station possesses one or more compressors. The compressor's fuel is usually natural gas itself. The amount of natural gas consumed by the compressors fluctuates daily according to the demand at the city-gates. The daily operational result of a pipeline is known as imbalance. The imbalance is the difference between the natural gas entering into a in a pipeline and the volume delivered in the city-gates added to system use gas. The imbalance analyses in a pipeline that uses natural gas powered compressors requires the analyses of the system use gas. The aim of this work is to study the system use gas in the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline using the available data from the Superintendencia de Comercializacao e Movimentacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados e Gas Natural - ANP and compare the change of the volume consumed before and after the entry into operation of the Campinas-Rio gas pipeline. (author)

  3. Urban natural gas pipeline prewarning system and SCADA technology%城市天然气管道预警系统&SCADA技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭道新

    2012-01-01

    随着我国近年来管道的大力发展,管道周边的第三方施工以及恶意破坏对管道安全带来了极大的危害.尤其是天然气管道,一旦发生第三方施工或者破坏导致的管道泄漏,后果很严重.如何在管道遭受破坏之前发现并制止危害事件是管道业主最为关心的问题!因此管道光纤预警技术的出现对于管道安全具有不可估量的意义.该文重点阐述西宁环城高压工程项目燃气通信光缆安全预警系统解决方案.%With the rapid development of natural gas pipeline in recent years, the third party construction around the pipeline and malicious damage have brought great harm to the pipeline safety. If natural gas leakage caused by third-party construction or malicious damage occurred, the consequence would be horrific. How to detect and stop the destruction before the pipeline is damaged is the deep concern for pipeline constructors. So the occurrence of optical fiber pipe warning technology has immeasurable significance for pipe security. This paper mainly describes the solutions of communication optical cable security warning system for Xining city high pressure gas project.

  4. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  5. MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF INTERNAL CORROSION FOR PIPELINE INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn M. Light; Sang Y. Kim; Robert L. Spinks; Hegeon Kwun; Patrick C. Porter

    2003-09-01

    Transmission gas pipelines are an important part of energy-transportation infrastructure vital to the national economy. The prevention of failures and continued safe operation of these pipelines are therefore of national interest. These lines, mostly buried, are protected and maintained by protective coating and cathodic protection systems, supplemented by periodic inspection equipped with sensors for inspection. The primary method for inspection is ''smart pigging'' with an internal inspection device that traverses the pipeline. However, some transmission lines are however not suitable for ''pigging'' operation. Because inspection of these ''unpiggable'' lines requires excavation, it is cost-prohibitive, and the development of a methodology for cost-effectively assessing the structural integrity of ''unpiggable'' lines is needed. This report describes the laboratory and field evaluation of a technology called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for monitoring and early detection of internal corrosion in known susceptible sections of transmission pipelines. With the MsS technology, developed by Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), a pulse of a relatively low frequency (typically under 100-kHz) mechanical wave (called guided wave) is launched along the pipeline and signals reflected from defects or welds are detected at the launch location in the pulse-echo mode. This technology can quickly examine a long length of piping for defects, such as corrosion wastage and cracking in circumferential direction, from a single test location, and has been in commercial use for inspection of above-ground piping in refineries and chemical plants. The MsS technology is operated primarily in torsional guided waves using a probe consisting of a thin ferromagnetic strip (typically nickel) bonded to a pipe and a number of coil-turns (typically twenty or so turns) wound

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

    2005-02-01

    This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length

  7. Electrochemical nano-coating processes in solar energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kadırgan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiencies of electrochemically prepared nano-thick CdS and black nickel coatings were investigated as a function of their preparation conditions in the application field of energy; such as, solar-electricity conversion, solar cells, and solar-thermal conversion, spectrally selective solar collectors.

  8. Electrochemical nano-coating processes in solar energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kadırgan, F.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiencies of electrochemically prepared nano-thick CdS and black nickel coatings were investigated as a function of their preparation conditions in the application field of energy; such as, solar-electricity conversion, solar cells, and solar-thermal conversion, spectrally selective solar collectors.

  9. Hydroxyl carboxylate based non-phosphorus corrosion inhibition process for reclaimed water pipeline and downstream recirculating cooling water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Dong; Hou, Deyin

    2016-01-01

    A combined process was developed to inhibit the corrosion both in the pipeline of reclaimed water supplies (PRWS) and in downstream recirculating cooling water systems (RCWS) using the reclaimed water as makeup. Hydroxyl carboxylate-based corrosion inhibitors (e.g., gluconate, citrate, tartrate) and zinc sulfate heptahydrate, which provided Zn(2+) as a synergistic corrosion inhibition additive, were added prior to the PRWS when the phosphate (which could be utilized as a corrosion inhibitor) content in the reclaimed water was below 1.7 mg/L, and no additional corrosion inhibitors were required for the downstream RCWS. Satisfactory corrosion inhibition was achieved even if the RCWS was operated under the condition of high numbers of concentration cycles. The corrosion inhibition requirement was also met by the appropriate combination of PO4(3-) and Zn(2+) when the phosphate content in the reclaimed water was more than 1.7 mg/L. The process integrated not only water reclamation and reuse, and the operation of a highly concentrated RCWS, but also the comprehensive utilization of phosphate in reclaimed water and the application of non-phosphorus corrosion inhibitors. The proposed process reduced the operating cost of the PRWS and the RCWS, and lowered the environmental hazard caused by the excessive discharge of phosphate. Furthermore, larger amounts of water resources could be conserved as a result.

  10. Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

  11. 分布式光纤油气管道监测系统研究%Study on Distributed Optical Fiber Monitoring System for Oil and Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红娜

    2013-01-01

      提出一种基于混沌理论的监测分布式光纤管道泄漏监测系统的方法,采用Duffing相轨迹法和Lyapu-nov指数法检测微弱的正弦信号,建立了基于混沌理论的分布式光纤管道泄漏检测系统的数学模型,并且进行了实例验证。%This put forward a method of monitoring distributed fiber-optic pipeline leak monitoring the system with cha-os theory. By using the method of Duffing phase trajectory and Lyapunov exponent to detect the weak sinusoidal signal, we establish a model of pipeline leakage detection system of distributed optical fiber based on chaos theory, and veri-fied by experiment.

  12. Post Irradiation Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Solid Lubricants to Support Fission Surface Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Stanford, Malcolm K.; Persinger, Justin A.; Khorsandi, Behrooz; Blue, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a nuclear power system for space missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter or a lunar outpost, requires substantially more compact reactor design than conventional terrestrial systems. In order to minimize shielding requirements and hence system weight, the radiation tolerance of component materials within the power conversion and heat rejection systems must be defined. Two classes of coatings, thermal control paints and solid lubricants, were identified as material systems for which limited radiation hardness information was available. Screening studies were designed to explore candidate coatings under a predominately fast neutron spectrum. The Ohio State Research Reactor Facility staff performed irradiation in a well characterized, mixed energy spectrum and performed post irradiation analysis of representative coatings for thermal control and solid lubricant applications. Thermal control paints were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 10(exp 13) to 10(exp 15) n per square centimeters. No optical degradation was noted although some adhesive degradation was found at higher fluence levels. Solid lubricant coatings were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 10(exp 15) to 10(exp 16) n per square centimeters with coating adhesion and flexibility used for post irradiation evaluation screening. The exposures studied did not lead to obvious property degradation indicating the coatings would have survived the radiation environment for the previously proposed Jupiter mission. The results are also applicable to space power development programs such as fission surface power for future lunar and Mars missions.

  13. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... criteria and procedures for determining the adequacy of state pipeline excavation damage prevention...

  14. Take-over and distribution of natural gas in Vienna - the high and low pressure pipeline systems. Uebernahme und Verteilung des Erdgases in Wien - die Hoch- und Niederdruckleitungssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutleber, O. (Wiener Stadtwerke-Gaswerke, Vienna (Austria))

    1989-10-01

    For the distribution of some 830x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of natural gas (1988) the Vienna gasworks operates a pipeline grid of 3 046 km, of which 485 km belong to the high-pressure grid and about 2 561 km to the low-pressure grid. This article describes the development of the Vienna supply system from 1899 to the present day with a discussion of pipe materials, operating values, corrosion control, etc. (orig.).

  15. A concept for the EQ coating system for nickel-based superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagishi, K.; Sato, A.; Harada, H.

    2008-07-01

    Nickel-based single-crystal superalloys with high concentrations of refractory elements are prone to generate a diffusion layer called a secondary reaction zone (SRZ) beneath their bond coating during long exposure to high temperatures. The SRZ causes a reduction of the load-bearing cross section and it is detrimental to the creep properties of thin-walled turbine airfoils. In this study, a new bond coat system, “EQ coating,” which is thermodynamically stable and suppresses SRZ has been proposed. Diffusion couples of coating materials and substrate alloys were made and heat treated at 1,100°C for 300 h and 1,000 h. Cyclic oxidation examinations were carried out at 1,100°C in air and the oxidation properties of EQ coating materials were discussed. High-velocity frame-sprayed EQ coatings designed for second-generation nickel-based superalloys were deposited on fourth-and fifth-generation nickel-based superalloys, and the stability of the microstructure at the interface and creep property of the coating system were investigated.

  16. Integral diagnostic in the failure causes of external corrosion of a natural gas transport pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Mendoza, J.L.; Saucedo-Robles, L.C.; Rodriguez-Clemente, H. [PEMEX Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Subdireccion de Ductos; Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-1, Piso 8, Col. Huasteca, D.F., CP 11311 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Nunez, M.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62490 (Mexico); Zavala-Olivares, G.; Hernandez-Gayosso, M.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Exploracion y Produccion, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, D.F., CP 07730 (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this study consisted in investigating the possible causes which give rise to the presence of low wall pipe thicknesses on a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline, even though during the last 12-year period cathodic protection (CP) potentials were kept in the protection range at which external corrosion should not occur. Results from in-line inspection from a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline showed 46 indications with more than 80% wall thickness lost due to external corrosion in the second segment of the pipeline. Direct inspection at the indication locations, review of the CP system performance, pipeline maintenance programs and studies, allowed to make an integral diagnostic where it was found out that the main cause of external corrosion was an inappropriate coating application since the pipeline construction, this situation has originated the increase of CP shielding effects through time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Thermal High- and Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Thick Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings have received increasing attention for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications because of their ability to provide thermal insulation to engine components. However, the durability of these coatings under the severe thermal cycling conditions encountered in a diesel engine (ref. 1) still remains a major issue. In this research at the NASA Lewis Research Center, a high-power laser was used to investigate the thermal fatigue behavior of a yttria-stabilized zirconia coating system under simulated diesel engine conditions. The mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under complex thermal low-cycle fatigue (LCF, representing stop/start cycles) and thermal high-cycle fatigue (HCF, representing operation at 1300 rpm) are described. Continuous wave and pulse laser modes were used to simulate pure LCF and combined LCF/HCF, respectively (ref. 2). The LCF mechanism was found to be closely related to the coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. These creep strains in the ceramic coating led to a tensile stress state during cooling, thus providing the major driving force for crack growth under LCF conditions. The combined LCF/HCF tests induced more severe coating surface cracking, microspallation, and accelerated crack growth than did the pure LCF test. HCF thermal loads also facilitated lateral crack branching and ceramic/bond coat interface delaminations. HCF is associated with the cyclic stresses originating from the high-frequency temperature fluctuation at the ceramic coating surface. The HCF thermal loads act on the crack by a wedging mechanism (ref. 1), resulting in continuous crack growth at temperature. The HCF stress intensity factor amplitude increases with the interaction depth and temperature swing, and decreases with the crack depth. HCF damage also increases with the thermal expansion coefficient and the Young's modulus of the ceramic coating (refs. 1 and 3).

  18. Measured catalycities of various candidate space shuttle thermal protection system coatings at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Atom recombination catalytic rates for surface coatings of various candidate thermal protection system materials for the space shuttle vehicle were obtained from measurements in arc jet, air flow. The coatings, chrome oxides, siliconized carbon/carbon, hafnium/tantalum carbide on carbon/carbon, and niobium silicide, were bonded to the sensitive surface of transient slug calorimeters that measured the heat transfer rates to the coatings. The catalytic rates were inferred from these heat transfer rates Surface temperatures of the calorimeters varied from approximately 300 to 410 K.

  19. Weathering performance of industrial atmospheric coating systems in the Arabian Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, J.; Al-Hashem, A.; Riad, W.T. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Materials Application Dept.; Othman, M. [Shuaiba Area Authority, Safat (Kuwait); Islam, M. [Cortest Columbus Technologies Inc., OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The performance and durability of a number of industrial coating systems have been studied for two and a half years at five weathering sites in the industrial belt of Shuaiba Area, Kuwait, in the Arabian Gulf. The outdoor weathering performance of eleven coating systems was related to the prevailing industrial atmospheric conditions, and comparison made to their behavior under laboratory accelerated conditions. The coating systems studied included acrylic enamel, micaceous iron oxide epoxy, alkyd enamel, alkyd gloss, chlorinated rubber, polyurethane, and water-based acrylic. Experience in Kuwait has shown that with the longer hours of strong sunshine and ambient temperatures, as well as the chemical content of the atmosphere (e.g. O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NH{sub 3}, Cl), dust retention and sandstorm, degrading of coatings has tended to be faster than in Western countries which most of these generic coating system were developed. Two accelerated test methods were used to evaluate the protective properties of the above mentioned coatings when applied to steel panels.

  20. Improved TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Z; Collin, G; Conrad, J M; Jones, B J P; Moon, J; Toups, M; Wongjirad, T

    2014-01-01

    Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetra phenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars.

  1. Wide spectrum antireflective coating for laser fusion systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of depositing a laser damage resistant, wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica has been developed. This work was sponsored under a subcontract with the University of California, with technical direction from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The coating is applied from a specific silanol polymer solution and converted to a porous SiO2 film. The pore size of the film is first reduced by a heat treatment to prevent uv scattering. Then gradation of the pore volume is achieved by a mild etching to a sufficient depth to prevent a smoother index transition from air to the substrate glass. The resulting antireflectivity covers the entire transmission range of silica and may be extended to a wavelength as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 j/cm2 have been demonstrated on processed samples

  2. Multipath Pipelined Polyphase Structures for FIR Interpolation and Decimation in MIMO OFDM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-dong Zhang; Bin Wu; Yu-mei Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The combination of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signal processing with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) technique is one favored solution in wireless communication systems for enhancing data rate. However, the computational complexity is also linear increased with the number of data streams. Generally, multiple finite impulse response (FIR) interpolations and decimations are added to solve the multiple data streams in a MIMO OFDM system, which cause a large increase ...

  3. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Bond Coat Cyclic Oxidation Behaviour in an Air-plasma-sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.R.Chen; X.Wu; B.R.Marple; P.C.Patnaik

    2004-01-01

    It is generally believed that a thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer of alumina provides enhanced protection to the metallic bond coat in thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems at elevated temperatures. However, in an air-plasma-sprayed (APS) TBC system with Co-32Ni-21Cr-8A1-0.5Y (wt%) bond coat, the TGO layer formed upon thermal exposure in air was predominantly chromia and spinels, which would not effectively protect the bond coat at above 1000℃. In addition, mixed oxides of chromia, spinel and nickel oxide formed heterogeneously between the ceramic coating and CoNiCrA1Y bond coat, which would promote crack initiation and lead to premature TBC failure. A heat treatment in a low-pressure condition was applied to the as-sprayed TBC system, with the aim to produce an alumina layer as well as reduce the amount of detrimental oxides. The influence of this low-pressure oxidation treatment (LPOT) on the bond coat cyclic oxidation behaviour of the TBC system was also investigated.

  4. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Bond Coat Cyclic Oxidation Behaviour in an Air-plasma-sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.R. Chen; X. Wu; B.R. Marple; P.C. Patnaik

    2004-01-01

    It is generally believed that a thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer of alumina provides enhanced protection to the metallic bond coat in thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems at elevated temperatures. However, in an air-plasma-sprayed (APS) TBC system with Co-32Ni-21Cr-8A1-0.5Y (wt%) bond coat, the TGO layer formed upon thermal exposure in air was predominantly chromia and spinels, which would not effectively protect the bond coat at above 1000℃. In addition,mixed oxides of chromia, spinel and nickel oxide formed heterogeneously between the ceramic coating and CoNiCrAlY bond coat, which would promote crack initiation and lead to premature TBC failure. A heat treatment in a low-pressure condition was applied to the as-sprayed TBC system, with the aim to produce an alumina layer as well as reduce the amount of detrimental oxides. The influence of this low-pressure oxidation treatment (LPOT) on the bond coat cyclic oxidation behaviour of the TBC system was also investigated.

  5. Ring retroreflector system consisting of cube-corner reflectors with special coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmistrov, V B; Sadovnikov, M A; Sokolov, A L; Shargorodskiy, V D [OJSC ' PRC ' Precision Systems and Instrument' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-30

    The ring retroreflector system (RS) consisting of cubecorner reflectors (CCRs) with a special coating of reflecting surfaces, intended for uniaxially Earth-oriented navigation satellites, is considered. The error of distance measurement caused by both the laser pulse delay in the CCR and its spatial position (CCR configuration) is studied. It is shown that the ring RS, formed by the CCR with a double-spot radiation pattern, allows the distance measurement error to be essentially reduced. (nanogradient dielectric coatings and metamaterials)

  6. Evaluating the Robustness of Top Coatings Comprising Plasma-Deposited Fluorocarbons in Electrowetting Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Papageorgiou, Dimitrios P.; Elias P. Koumoulos; Charitidis, Costas A.; Boudouvis, Andreas G.; Papathanasiou, Athanasios G.

    2012-01-01

    Thin dielectric stacks comprising a main insulating layer and a hydrophobic top coating are commonly used in low voltage electrowetting systems. However, in most cases, thin dielectrics fail to endure persistent electrowetting testing at high voltages, namely beyond the saturation onset, as electrolysis indicates dielectric failure. Careful sample inspection via optical microscopy revealed possible local delamination of the top coating under high electric fields. Thus, improvement of the adhe...

  7. Monitoring Local Strain in a Thermal Barrier Coating System Under Thermal Mechanical Gas Turbine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manero, Albert; Sofronsky, Stephen; Knipe, Kevin; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.; Raghavan, Seetha; Bartsch, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Advances in aircraft and land-based turbine engines have been increasing the extreme loading conditions on traditional engine components and have incited the need for improved performance with the use of protective coatings. These protective coatings shield the load-bearing super alloy blades from the high-temperature combustion gases by creating a thermal gradient over their thickness. This addition extends the life and performance of blades. A more complete understanding of the behavior, failure mechanics, and life expectancy for turbine blades and their coatings is needed to enhance and validate simulation models. As new thermal-barrier-coated materials and deposition methods are developed, strides to effectively test, evaluate, and prepare the technology for industry deployment are of paramount interest. Coupling the experience and expertise of researchers at the University of Central Florida, The German Aerospace Center, and Cleveland State University with the world-class synchrotron x-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory, the synergistic collaboration has yielded previously unseen measurements to look inside the coating layer system for in situ strain measurements during representative service loading. These findings quantify the in situ strain response on multilayer thermal barrier coatings and shed light on the elastic and nonelastic properties of the layers and the role of mechanical load and internal cooling variations on the response. The article discusses the experimental configuration and development of equipment to perform in situ strain measurements on multilayer thin coatings and provides an overview of the achievements thus far.

  8. Emissivity of plasma coatings of the Si-Ti-Cr system on niobium substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calorimetry study on the emissivity of heat-resistant plasma coatings of the Si-Ti-Cr system on nonalloyed niobium and the Nb-4OTi-5Al alloy has been carried out in 1x10-4-5x10-5 mm Hg vacuum within the temperature range from 700 deg to 1350 deg C. It is found that integrated hemispherical blackness of plasma silicide coatings depends on the chemical composition and strOture of the silicide phases; and for the Si-Ti-Cr coatings it is in 0.6-07 range up to 1300 deg C. High emissivity of the coatings is related to the rigid type of the interatomic bond (covalent or ion-covalent) of the main structure components of the plasma coatings and to the presence of some chromium, in the oxide film of amorphous silica on the surface of the formed coating the highest chromium oxide has a strong integrated blackness (approximately 0.8-0.9). Chromium oxide sublimation in 1x10-4-1x10-3 mm Hg vacuum at a temperature higher than 1350 deg C results in irreversible decrease of coating emissivity

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report "Arc Tube Coating System for Color Consistency"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, Roger; Jenson, Chris; Kazenski, Keith

    2013-03-21

    DOE has enabled the use of coating materials using low cost application methods on light sources to positively affect the output of those sources. The coatings and light source combinations have shown increased lumen output of LED fixtures (1.5%-2.0%), LED arrays (1.4%) and LED powered remote phosphor systems Philips L-Prize lamp (0.9%). We have also demonstrated lifetime enhancements (3000 hrs vs 8000 hrs) and shifting to higher CRI (51 to 65) in metal halide high intensity discharge lamps with metal oxide coatings. The coatings on LEDs and LED products are significant as the market is moving increasingly more towards LED technology. Enhancements in LED performance are demonstrated in this work through the use of available materials and low cost application processes. EFOI used low refractive index fluoropolymers and low cost dipping processes for application of the material to surfaces related to light transmission of LEDs and LED products. Materials included Teflon AF, an amorphous fluorinated polymer and fluorinated acrylic monomers. The DOE SSL Roadmap sets goals for LED performance moving into the future. EFOI's coating technology is a means to shift the performance curve for LEDs. This is not limited to one type of LED, but is relevant across LED technologies. The metal halide work included the use of sol-gel solutions resulting in silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide coatings on the quartz substrates of the metal halide arc tubes. The coatings were applied using low cost dipping processes.

  10. Study on influence of damping on vibration isolation system of pipeline%阻尼对水泵管路隔振系统的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仲; 陈长征; 孔祥军

    2015-01-01

    Pipeline vibration of the pump system is studied and the main factors of influencing the vibration transmissibility are analyzed.It is presented in this paper that structural damping is an important solution of pipeline vibration.The experiment about parameters of affecting the damping effect is conducted after theoretical deduction.The result shows that the free damping effect had a trend of increasing with the increasing of thick-ness.The optimal parameters based on the research of the damping parameter analysis are concluded,which have an important guiding significance in the optimization of pipeline system vibration isolation scheme.%针对水泵系统的管路振动进行了研究,分析了影响振动传递率的主要因素,提出阻尼措施是管路隔振的重要解决方法。对影响阻尼效果的参数进行了理论推导及实验研究,实验结果表明自由阻尼效果随厚度增加而呈现递增趋势。通过对阻尼参数的研究分析得出了最优参数,对管路系统的隔振方案的优化有着重要的指导意义。

  11. China Oil & Gas Pipeline Survey & Design Institute, Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bureau of CNPC; Zhao Surong

    1995-01-01

    @@ China Oil/Gas Pipeline Bureau(P.B) is the only professional organization in China specialized in oil/gas pipelines design and construction since 1980s. It has ever cooperated with certain number of well known companies from Japan,USA, Germany, Canada, as well as Italy in the designs of many large oil/gas pipeline projects, during the course of which, personnel from P.B accumulated much experience in international project designs. During the execution of each particular project, they strictly followed the common-use international codes and standards with computers as the auxiliary design system combined with the self-developed software. All its clients showed their trust in this organization and gave it high praise for its outstanding survey, design and technical service.

  12. Development of Automatic Phased Array Inspection System for Long-distance Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XueZhenkui; BaiShiwu; ZhanHua; XiaXin; XiangYang

    2004-01-01

    In the paper the development of phased array technique home and abroad is summarized, the overall structure and main research on phased array inspection system are introduced, and meanwhile the future field of study and development of phased array ultrasonic inspection technique is pointed out.

  13. The long-term behaviour of butt fusion welds in polyethylene pipeline systems

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Ravindra

    1986-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The objective of the study was to examine factors that influence the strength of butt welds and gain an understanding of the process of failure. The study was divided into several sectors. The first and primary part of the programme was to determine the extent to which the pipe system's long-term strength under both internal fluctuating and constant pressure is reduced by the presence o...

  14. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-06-30

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several coated and exposed samples of 409 steel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). We report here on findings of this analysis: (1) A SS409 coupon that was coated with multilayered combined nitrides of Ti, Al, and Si showed adherent coatings on the surface; (2) A similarly coated coupon, after exposure to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h, revealed that the coating has cracked during the exposure; (3) An SS409 coupon that was coated with nitrides of Ti and Si with a barrier layer of tungsten in between to improve the adhesion of the coating and to prevent outward diffusion of iron to the surface. (4) A porous coupon was coated with nitrides of Ti and Al and examination of the coupon revealed deposition of Ti at the interior surfaces. A similarly prepared coupon was exposed to simulated coal gas at 370 C for 300 h, and it showed no corrosion.

  15. Optical fiber sensing technology in the pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, A.M.B.; Llerena, R.W.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: abraga@mec.puc-rio.br; roberan@mec.puc-rio.br; Valente, L.C.G.; Regazzi, R.D. [Gavea Sensors, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guedes@gaveasensors.com; regazzi@gaveasensors.com

    2003-07-01

    This paper is concerned with applications of optical fiber sensors to pipeline monitoring. The basic principles of optical fiber sensors are briefly reviewed, with particular attention to fiber Bragg grating technology. Different potential applications in the pipeline industry are discussed, and an example of a pipeline strain monitoring system based on optical fiber Bragg grating sensors is presented. (author)

  16. Technical progress in pipeline design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausken, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper considers the technical progress in offshore pipeline construction with limitation to some general subjects covering pipeline design, installation and start-up. In future the use of limit state pipeline design philosophy, may be implemented as an alternative to the stress based design commonly used to day giving a potential for further optimisation of the pipeline design and consequently reduction of the initial investment. Comprehensive research and development efforts in Norway in the second half of the 1970`s, made it technically feasible to cross the deep water Norwegian Trench in the 1980`s. In addition, the development of several offshore pipeline systems until to day including gas distribution systems to the European continent, have brought Norway to the forefront of technical expertise

  17. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  18. THE RESEARCH TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL AND TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF COATING-SUBSTRATE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga CHRONOWSKA-PRZYWARA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research techniques for the analysis of both mechanical and tribological properties of thin coatings applied on highly loaded machine elements. In the Institute of Machine Design and Exploitation, AGH University of Science and Technology students of the second level of Mechanical Engineering study tribology attending laboratory class. Students learn on techniques for mechanical and tribological testing of thin, hard coatings deposited by PVD and CVD technologies. The program of laboratories contains micro-, nanohardness and Young's modulus measurements by instrumental indentations and analysys of coating to substrate adhesion by scratch testing. The tribological properties of the coating-substrate systems are studied using various techniques, mainly in point contact load conditions with ball-on-disc and block-on-ring tribomiters as well as using ball cratering method in strongly abrasive suspensions.

  19. Benchmarking TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, B; Chiu, C; Conrad, J M; Ignarra, C M; Jones, B J P; Katori, T; Mufson, S

    2012-01-01

    Scintillation light from liquid argon is produced at 128 nm and thus must be shifted to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs). To date, designs have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we show that the response of lightguides coated with TPB in a UV Transmitting (UVT) acrylic matrix is very similar to that of a coating using a polystyrene (PS) matrix. We obtain a factor of three higher light yield than has been previously reported from lightguides. This paper provides information on the response of the lightguides so that these can be modeled in simulations for future LArTPCs. This paper also identifies areas of R&D for potential improvements in the lightguide response

  20. Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

  1. Reducing Friction and Wear of Tribological Systems through Hybrid Tribofilm Consisting of Coating and Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Yazawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of surface protective additives becomes vital when operating conditions become severe and moving components operate in a boundary lubrication regime. After protecting film is slowly removed by rubbing, it can regenerate through the tribochemical reaction of the additives at the contact. However, there are limitations about the regeneration of the protecting film when additives are totally consumed. On the other hand, there are a lot of hard coatings to protect the steel surface from wear. These can enable the functioning of tribological systems, even in adverse lubrication conditions. However, hard coatings usually make the friction coefficient higher, because of their high interfacial shear strength. Amongst hard coatings, diamond-like carbon (DLC is widely used, because of its relatively low friction and superior wear resistance. In practice, conventional lubricants that are essentially formulated for a steel/steel surface are still used for lubricating machine component surfaces provided with protective coatings, such as DLCs, despite the fact that the surface properties of coatings are quite different from those of steel. It is therefore important that the design of additive molecules and their interaction with coatings should be re-considered. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the DLC and the additive combination that enable tribofilm formation and effective lubrication of tribological systems.

  2. 75 FR 14243 - Pipeline Safety: Girth Weld Quality Issues Due to Improper Transitioning, Misalignment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... compliance with the Federal pipeline safety regulations in 49 CFR Parts 192 and 195. Operators of natural gas... constructed large diameter natural gas pipeline and hazardous liquid pipeline systems of the potential for... require operators of natural gas transmission, distribution, and hazardous liquids pipeline systems...

  3. Gas-liquid two-phase severe slugging in a pipeline-riser system with S-shaped flexible riser: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nailiang; Guo, Liejin; Li, Wensheng

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to investigate the air-water two-phase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system with an S-shaped flexible riser. The test loop with 50 mm ID consists of a horizontal pipeline with 114 m in length, a downward inclined section with 16 m in length, and an S-shaped flexible riser with 24 m in height when downward section inclined at -2° with respective to the horizontal. The inclination angle of the downward section varied from -2° to -5°. The liquid superficial velocity ranged from 0.03 to 1.5 m/s, and the gas superficial velocity from 0.4 to 6.0 m/s. Identification and characterization of flow regimes were attained by pressure at riser-base and liquid holdup at riser top. Severe slugging I, severe slugging II, transition flow and stable flows are observed to exist. Flow pattern maps for each declination are presented and the transition criteria are proposed. It's found that as higher liquid and gas velocity is required for the transition of the flow in the pipeline from stratified to intermittent with increasing the declination angle, severe slugging was observed to occur over a wilder range of flow conditions. The effect of riser geometry and separator pressure on the occurrence of the flow patterns was also examined. It shows that the S-bend tends to suppress the initiation of severe slugging.

  4. Trace Software Pipelining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; AndreasKrall; 等

    1995-01-01

    Global software pipelining is a complex but efficient compilation technique to exploit instruction-level parallelism for loops with branches.This paper presents a novel global software pipelining technique,called Trace Software Pipelining,targeted to the instruction-level parallel processors such as Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) and superscalar machines.Trace software pipelining applies a global code scheduling technique to compact the original loop body.The resulting loop is called a trace software pipelined (TSP) code.The trace softwrae pipelined code can be directly executed with special architectural support or can be transformed into a globally software pipelined loop for the current VLIW and superscalar processors.Thus,exploiting parallelism across all iterations of a loop can be completed through compacting the original loop body with any global code scheduling technique.This makes our new technique very promising in practical compilers.Finally,we also present the preliminary experimental results to support our new approach.

  5. Current status and approaches to developing press-coated chronodelivery drug systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2012-02-10

    The past several decades have seen the development of many controlled-release preparations featuring constant release rates to maintain drug concentrations in the human body, regardless of the patient's physiological condition. However, long-term constant drug concentrations in the blood and tissue can cause problems such as resistance, tolerability, and drug side effects. People vary considerably in their physiological and biochemical conditions during any 24 h period, due to the circadian rhythm, and thus, the constant delivery of a drug into the body seems both unnecessary and undesirable. If the drug release profile mimics a living system's pulsatile hormone secretion, then it may improve drug efficacy, and reduce the toxicity of a specific drug administration schedule. Medication and treatments provided according to the body's circadian rhythms will result in better outcomes. This may be provided by a chronopharmaceutical dosage regimen with pulsatile release that matches the circadian rhythm resulting from a disease state, so optimizing the therapeutic effect while minimizing side effects. The press coating technique is a simple and unique technology used to provide tablets with a programmable lag phase, followed by a fast, or rate-controlled, drug release after administration. The technique offers many advantages, and no special coating solvent or coating equipment is required for manufacturing this type of tablet. The present review article introduces chronopharmaceutical press-coated products from a patient physiological needs perspective. The contents of this article include biological rhythms and pulsatile hormone secretion in humans, the reasons for using pulsatile drug delivery for disease treatment, recent chronopharmaceutical preparations appearing on the market, updated compilation of all research articles and press-coated delivery techniques, factors affecting the performance and drug release characteristics of press-coated delivery systems, and

  6. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Coatings Systems Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Whitten, Mary; Perisich, Steven; Trejo, David

    2009-01-01

    When space vehicles are launched, extreme heat, exhaust, and chemicals are produced and these form a very aggressive exposure environment at the launch complex. The facilities in the launch complex are exposed to this aggressive environment. The vehicle exhaust directly impacts the flame deflectors, making these systems very susceptible to high wear and potential failure. A project was formulated to develop or identify new materials or systems such that the wear and/or damage to the flame deflector system, as a result of the severe environmental exposure conditions during launches, can be mitigated. This report provides a survey of potential protective coatings for the refractory concrete lining on the steel base structure on the flame deflectors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  7. Management of a multi-product pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettoli, R.; Iacovoni, A. [Nuovo Pignone S.p.A., Roma (Italy). Div. Sistemi Automazione; Holden, D. [LICconsult, Stockton-on-Tees (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    The paper describes the SCADA (System Control and Data Acquisition) Tele-supervisory System for the Kandla-Bhatinda (KBPL) multi-product pipeline. The KBPL pipeline is 1,443 km in length; it is to carry petroleum products, in a batch cycle organization, from the Kandla foreshore terminal to Bhatinda. It consists of two inlet stations, four pumping stations, five delivery stations, and two terminal stations, and is equipped with a total of 85 block valves. All the stations have the capability for launching and receiving scrapers. The SCADA system consists of 10 Station Control Centers (SCC) and one Master Control Center (MCC), all located along the pipeline.

  8. The Development of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Environment Effects on the Creep and Fatigue Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Topics covered include: Environmental barrier coating system development: needs, challenges and limitations; Advanced environmental barrier coating systems (EBCs) for CMC airfoils and combustors; NASA EBC systems and material system evolutions, Current turbine and combustor EBC coating emphases, Advanced development, processing, testing and modeling, EBC and EBC bond coats: recent advances; Design tool and life prediction of coated CMC components; Advanced CMC-EBC rig demonstrations; Summary and future directions.

  9. A cathodic arc enhanced middle-frequency magnetron sputter system for deposition of hard protective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new cathode arc enhanced magnetron sputter system for deposition of hard protective coatings is reported in this article. This system consists of eight targets: four outer targets are mounted on the wall of the chamber and four inner targets are placed around the center of the chamber. The outer and inner targets form four pair targets and are powered by four middle frequency power supplies. One of the outer targets can run either in the cathode arc mode or in the magnetron sputter mode. The Ti-containing diamond-like carbon nanocomposite coatings were deposited by using this system. The prepared coating exhibits high hardness (∼20 GPa), good adhesion (critical load is 50 N), very low friction coefficient (∼0.07); and excellent tribological performance with a wear rate of 1.4 x 10-16 m3·N-l·m-1. (authors)

  10. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-09-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period, we conducted several exposure tests with coated and uncoated coupons including a ''500-h'' test. The first experiment was a 316-h test and was designed to look at the performance of Ti/Ta nitride coatings, which seemed to fare the best in earlier tests. The next experiment was a 112-h test with a range of pure metals and commercially available materials. Its purpose was to help identify those metals that best withstood gasifier environment, and hence should be good ingredients for coatings. Finally, we ran a ''500-h'' test, which was also our milestone, with coupons coated with Ti/Ta nitride or Cr/Al coatings.

  11. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-12-31

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several coated and exposed samples of 409 steel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and report on the findings of four samples: (1) Analysis of two porous coupons after exposure to the porous metal particulate filter of the coal gasification power plant at 370 C for 2140 hours revealed that corrosion takes place in the bulk of the sample while the most external zone surface survived the test. (2) Coating and characterization of several porous 409 steel coupons after being coated with nitrides of Ti, Al and/or Si showed that adjusting experimental conditions results in thicker coatings in the bulk of the sample. (3) Analysis of coupons exposed to simulated coal gas at 370 C for 300 hours showed that a better corrosion resistance is achieved by improving the coatings in the bulk of the samples.

  12. Mechanical Characterization of CrN/CrAlN Multilayer Coatings Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouther, Khlifi; Hafedh, Dhiflaoui; Lassaad, Zoghlami; Ahmed, Ben Cheikh Larbi

    2015-10-01

    Chromium-based coatings are deposited on a 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) substrate by a physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering system. The coatings have different structures, such as a CrN monolayer and CrAlN multilayer. The structural and morphological compositions of the coatings were evaluated using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy. Nano-indentation tests were performed to investigate the mechanical properties. Domes and craters are shown to be uniformly distributed over the entire surfaces of the two coatings. Additionally, the CrN/CrAlN multilayer coating exhibits a rough surface, attractive mechanical properties, a high compressive stress, and a high plastic and elastic deformation resistance. The improvement of the mechanical properties of the CrN/CrAlN coating is mainly attributed to a reduction in the crystallite size. We found that this reduction was related to three factors: (1) the compositional change resulting from the substitution of aluminum for chromium, which can produce a decrease in the interatomic distance; (2) the structure of CrN/CrAlN, which was characterized by grain size refinement; and (3) the high number of interfaces, which explains the widely accepted concept of dislocation blocking by the layer interfaces.

  13. PVD and CVD coating systems on oxide tool ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mikuła; L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Investigation of structure and properties of the Al2O3 based Al2O3+ZrO2, Al2O3+TiC and Al2O3+SiC(w) type based oxide tool ceramics coated with the anti-wear mono- and multilayers of the TiN, TiAIN, TiN+TiAlSiN+TiN, TiN+multiAiAlSiN+TiN and TiN+TiAlSiN+AlSiTiN types in the cathode arc evaporation CAE-PVD and with the multilayers of the TiCN+TiN and TiN+Al2O3 types obtained in the chemical deposition from the gas phase CVD process.Design/me...

  14. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  15. Residual stresses in chemically vapor deposited coatings in the Ti-C-N system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual stresses in chemically vapor deposited monolithic and graded coatings in the Ti-C-N system were investigated as a function of substrate material and coating composition by X-ray diffraction Sin2 Ψ method. The thermal expansion coefficients (CTEs) of the graphite substrates ranged from 2.5x10-6 K-1 to 8.6x10-6 K-1. Titanium nitride (CTE 9.35x10-6 K-1) and titanium carbide (CTE 7.5x10-6 K-1) coatings deposited on the low-expansion substrates (CTEs 2.5-3.5x10-6 K-1) exhibited crack networks which accounted for low stress levels measured in the coatings. A phenomenalogical explanation of the crack patterns was given. The coatings grown on the substrates with high coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs 7.8-8.6x10-6 K-1) had no cracks. Residual stresses in the TiN coatings on these substrates were measured to be tensile. Whereas TiC coatings always exhibited compressive stresses ranging from -54±10 MPa to -288±18 MPa. The TiCxNy coatings deposited on the substrate with a thermal expansion coefficient of 8.6x10-6 K-1 also had compressive stresses increased with increasing TiC mole fraction in the TiCxNy up to about 0.9 above which stresses decreased. The residual stresses in the top TiC layers of the graded TiN/TiC coatings with linear, parabolic and exponentional composition profiles grown on the the same substrate (CTE 8.6x10-6 K-1) were measured to be compressive and about 475 MPa. Stresses in the coatings were calculated and attributed to the thermal expansion mismatch between the coating and the substrate. It was shown that the measured stresses were, in general, found to be in good agreement with the calculated ones. (orig.)

  16. Characterization of Coated Sand Cores from Two Different Binder Systems for Grey Iron Castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Poulsen, Thomas;

    differential expansion of the core during heating. The rapid expansion of silica sand up to 600 oC and especially at 573 oC, where the α – β phase transformation occurs, is the cause of stresses in the core system. These stresses cause crack formation and metal melt flows into these cracks causing finning...... or veining and metal penetration defects. The use of refractory coatings on cores is fundamental to obtaining acceptable casting surface quality and is used on resin bonded cores in production foundries. In this study new sol gel-coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated...

  17. Type Selection and Application of SCADA System of Long Transportation Pipeline%长输管道SCADA系统选型及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀丽

    2012-01-01

    长输管道站点分布广、数量多,操作控制方式以站控和中控相结合且以中控统一集中调度为主。通过对长输管道SCADA系统国内外情况及发展的分析,比较了目前在长输管道应用中的ScADA系统调度中心两种典型系统结构;通过对两种结构的优缺点和故障率的比较和分析,论述了不同条件下相应的系统结构在长输管道中的应用场合和选择方式;提出了远控站、分控站和主控站设立的依据和方法,最大限度地发挥不同结构的作用。%Long transportatxon plpehne has large amount oI WlClely dlstrlbutecl stations. Ntatlon control and centralized control are combined, and unified and centralized scheduling through central is mainly adopted. By analyzing the status and development of SCADA system of long transportation pipeline at home and abroad, the structure of two typical systems used in SCADA system scheduling centre for long transportation pipeline are compared. By comparing and analyzing the advantages and disadvantages and failure rate of these two structures, the application sites and selection modes of related system structure under different conditions in long transportation pipeline are discussed. The setting bases and method of remote control station, separate control station and central control station are put forward to maximize the roles of different structures.

  18. Pipelines: prebuild remains focus of attention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-21

    Progress on the prebuilding of the Alaska Highway Pipeline continues to dominate the Canadian pipeline scene as the deadline nears for decision making on several aspects of the project. If obstacles are removed in time for the western leg of the prebuild to proceed on the revised schedule, facilities for gas deliveries to California should be completed by fall 1980. Financing negotiations are continuing in both the US and Canada. Pipeline projects in Canada during 1980 are listed by line type, including gas transmission lines, crude oil and products lines, gas gathering systems, waterflood systems, and new projects not called gas transmission lines.

  19. Python Bindings for the Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, O.; Weilbacher, P. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Common Pipeline Library is a set of routines written by ESO to provide a standard interface for VLT instrument data reduction tasks (“pipelines”). To control these pipelines from Python, we developed a wrapper called PYTHON-CPL that allows one to conveniently work interactively and to process data as part of an automated data reduction system. The package will be used to implement the MUSE pipeline in the AstroWISE data management system. We describe the features and design of the package.

  20. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information...... systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries...... and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  1. Pipeline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariyawasam, S. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Weir, D. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    Risk assessments and risk analysis are system-wide activities that include site-specific risk and reliability-based decision-making, implementation, and monitoring. This working group discussed the risk management process in the pipeline industry, including reliability-based integrity management and risk control processes. Attendants at the group discussed reliability-based decision support and performance measurements designed to support corporate risk management policies. New developments and technologies designed to optimize risk management procedures were also presented. The group was divided into 3 sessions: (1) current practice, strengths and limitations of system-wide risk assessments for facility assets; (2) accounting for uncertainties to assure safety; and (3) reliability based excavation repair criteria and removing potentially unsafe corrosion defects. Presentations of risk assessment procedures used at various companies were given. The role of regulators, best practices, and effective networking environments in ensuring the success of risk assessment policies was discussed. Risk assessment models were also reviewed.

  2. A pipeline VLSI design of fast singular value decomposition processor for real-time EEG system based on on-line recursive independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuan-Ju; Shih, Wei-Yeh; Chang, Jui Chung; Feng, Chih Wei; Fang, Wai-Chi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a pipeline VLSI design of fast singular value decomposition (SVD) processor for real-time electroencephalography (EEG) system based on on-line recursive independent component analysis (ORICA). Since SVD is used frequently in computations of the real-time EEG system, a low-latency and high-accuracy SVD processor is essential. During the EEG system process, the proposed SVD processor aims to solve the diagonal, inverse and inverse square root matrices of the target matrices in real time. Generally, SVD requires a huge amount of computation in hardware implementation. Therefore, this work proposes a novel design concept for data flow updating to assist the pipeline VLSI implementation. The SVD processor can greatly improve the feasibility of real-time EEG system applications such as brain computer interfaces (BCIs). The proposed architecture is implemented using TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology. The sample rate of EEG raw data adopts 128 Hz. The core size of the SVD processor is 580×580 um(2), and the speed of operation frequency is 20MHz. It consumes 0.774mW of power during the 8-channel EEG system per execution time.

  3. Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO2 pipeline for CCS application. ► We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ► We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ► We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ► We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO2 mitigation and an optimized CO2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO2/year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

  4. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before. PMID:27110780

  5. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sahli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less. This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters’ accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs. The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  6. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  7. Effects of compositional changes on the performance of a thermal barrier coating system. [yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on gas turbine engine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecura, S.

    1978-01-01

    Currently proposed thermal barrier systems for aircraft gas turbine engines consist of NiCrAlY bond coating covered with an insulating oxide layer of yttria-stabilized zirconia. The effect of yttrium concentration (from 0.15 to 1.08 w/o) in the bond coating and the yttria concentration (4 to 24.4 w/o) in the oxide layer were evaluated. Furnace, natural gas-oxygen torch, and Mach 1.0 burner rig cyclic tests on solid specimens and air-cooled blades were used to identify trends in coating behavior. Results indicate that the combinations of yttrium levels between 0.15 - 0.35 w/o in the bond coating and the yttria concentration between 6 - 8 w/o in the zirconium oxide layer were the most adherent and resistant to high temperature cyclic exposure.

  8. Creep Behavior of Hafnia and Ytterbium Silicate Environmental Barrier Coating Systems on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Harder, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability and stability of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components, thus improving the engine performance. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for engine components, appropriate test approaches simulating operating temperature gradient and stress environments for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, thermal gradient mechanical testing approaches for evaluating creep and fatigue behavior of environmental barrier coated SiC/SiC CMC systems will be described. The creep and fatigue behavior of Hafnia and ytterbium silicate environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC CMC systems will be reported in simulated environmental exposure conditions. The coating failure mechanisms will also be discussed under the heat flux and stress conditions.

  9. 深挖沟铺管技术在渤西南联网供气项目上的应用%Application of the Pipeline-Laying Technology for Deep Trenching on the Gas Pipeline Network System of Boxi & Bonan Oil/Gas Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲玉成

    2012-01-01

    There is a great deal of methods in the submarine pipeline-laying, methods adopted are different from each other due to the various situations of seawater depth, geological conditions and so on. In order to avoid the damage by any kind of vessel anchoring at anchorage, and to ensure the safety of submarine pipelines, The project of the Gas Pipeline Network System of Boxi & Bonan Oil/gas Fields is carried out by Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd. (COOEC) and Tianjin Junhao Offshore Engineering Co., Ltd. (JHHG) by the use of the contact type submersible jet flow spray gas lift type trenching machine (it's the patent facility), the submarine pipeline-laying and post-trenching works are first successfully completed with burial depth up to 4m for domestic deep trenching operation pipeline with. It is shown that the initiate procedure could be applied to more deep trenching works of the submarine pipeline in the future through this methodological description of the deep trenching, as well as could be recommended to that the submarine pipeline crossing sea-routes or the anchorage and the similar pipeline constructions which not only be able to protect pipelines but also have to ensure the sea-route unobstructed.%海底管道的铺设有很多种挖沟方法,因海水深度,地质条件等情况的不同,采用的方法也不相同.渤西南联网供气项目为避免锚地的各类船只抛描破坏,保证海管的安全,海洋石油工程股份有限公司和天津俊昊海洋工程有限公司在海底管道铺设和后挖沟施工中进行合作,采用接触武潜水射流喷冲气举式挖沟机(此系专利设备),首次成功完成了国内海管埋深达到4米的深挖沟作业.通过这次深挖沟埋管的实施,证明这种新的工艺,可以应用到更多的海底管道深挖沟埋管工程中,也可以应用到海管穿越航道、锚地等类似的既要保护管道又要保证通航安全的管道施工工程中.

  10. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-01-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period we tested coated alloy coupons under conditions designed to mimic the conditions in the filter unit after the high-temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). The filter unit is another important area where corrosion has caused unscheduled downtime, and the remedy has been the use of sintered metal tubes made of expensive alloys such as inconel. The objective of our test was to determine if those coatings on 400-series steel that were not able to withstand the harsher conditions of the HTHRU, may be sufficiently resistant for use in the filter unit, at the reduced temperatures. Indeed, most of our coatings survived well; the exceptions were the coated porous samples of SS316. We continued making improvements to our coatings apparatus and the procedure began during the last quarter. As a result of these modifications, the coupons we are now producing are uniform. We describe the improved procedure for preparing diffusion coatings. Finally, because porous samples of steel in grades other than SS316 are not readily available, we also decided to procure SS409 powder and fabricate our own sintered porous coupons.

  11. Optimization of antireflection coating design for multijunction solar cells and concentrator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Christopher E.; Desfonds, Eric; Masson, Denis; Fafard, Simon; Carlson, Andrew; Cook, John; Hall, Trevor J.; Hinzer, Karin

    2008-06-01

    Photovoltaic solar cells are a route towards local, environmentally benign, sustainable and affordable energy solutions. Antireflection coatings are necessary to input a high percentage of available light for photovoltaic conversion, and therefore have been widely exploited for silicon solar cells. Multi-junction III-V semiconductor solar cells have achieved the highest efficiencies of any photovoltaic technology, yielding up to 40% in the laboratory and 37% in commercial devices under varying levels of concentrated light. These devices benefit from a wide absorption spectrum (300- 1800 nm), but this also introduces significant challenges for antireflection coating design. Each sub-cell junction is electrically connected in series, limiting the overall device photocurrent by the lowest current-producing junction. Therefore, antireflection coating optimization must maximize the current from the limiting sub-cells at the expense of the others. Solar concentration, necessary for economical terrestrial deployment of multi-junction solar cells, introduces an angular-dependent irradiance spectrum. Antireflection coatings are optimized for both direct normal incidence in air and angular incidence in an Opel Mk-I concentrator, resulting in as little as 1-2% loss in photocurrent as compared to an ideal zero-reflectance solar cell, showing a similar performance to antireflection coatings on silicon solar cells. A transparent conductive oxide layer has also been considered to replace the metallic-grid front electrode and for inclusion as part of a multi-layer antireflection coating. Optimization of the solar cell, antireflection coating, and concentrator system should be considered simultaneously to enable overall optimal device performance.

  12. Studies with anti fouling coating on seawater intake system screens of MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofouling has been a concern for cooling water systems of coastal power plants and the same is being experienced in Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). Macro fouling organisms cause major problems for smooth operation and maintenance of the cooling water system. The cooling water intake structures particularly the screens, which act as the barrier for marine organisms to enter into the cooling water system, gets fouled severely in a short period of time. Though chlorination is being done to control biofouling, it is ineffective due to the inward flow of seawater. Severely fouled gates necessitate frequent cleaning and maintenance which involves lifting of heavy structures, laborious manual cleaning and maintenance. In order to find remedial measures for the said concern, studies have been taken up for identification of simple but effective methods in controlling bio fouling. Accordingly studies with Anti Fouling Coating (AFC) applications have been identified and field studies were carried out to review its effectiveness in meeting the given requirement. One of the gates was coated with Anti Fouling Coating (AFC) and exposed to sea water and the bio fouling tendency was regularly monitored. It was noted that the AFC coated gate was observed to have less bio fouling compared to the in-practice coal tar epoxy coatings. The small quantity of fouling deposits was generally observed to be on the side opposite to the sea water current. The area exposed to sea water currents had relatively less biogrowth. The dislodgement or removal of bio growth could be achieved by gentle pressure or scrapping thus demonstrating its effectiveness in controlling the bio fouling. Studies are also in progress to with Foul release coatings (FRC) to study its effectiveness. (author)

  13. Concept and cost of a pipeline system to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars in Germany; Konzept und Kosten eines Pipelinesystems zur Versorgung des deutschen Strassenverkehrs mit Wasserstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, Dennis

    2012-11-01

    Fuel cells and hydrogen have the potential to be essential contributors for meeting the challenges of the future traffic sector. The key challenges include: - reducing global and local emissions - reducing import dependencies - preserving Germany's competitiveness - ensuring sufficient availability of the energy carrier Hydrogen is assumed to be the most appropriate energy carrier, since it can be produced via any primary energy and in terms of security is comparable to natural gas. In the long run, renewable energy, e.g. via wind power electrolysis, will make emission-free driving feasible. In order to use hydrogen to fuel cars, a comprehensive distribution infrastructure is required. This is completely different than the case of conventional fuels such as gasoline or diesel. Large amounts of hydrogen can be transported in a gaseous state in pipelines, as is common practice for natural gas. This option has not been examined to date. In particular, at the moment no suitable material has been identified for transporting hydrogen, which degrades the stability of the pipe. The aim of this thesis was to design a technical concept for a pipeline system that would make it possible to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars. Using the assumptions of the study GermanHy, crucial technical questions were investigated. These questions comprise aspects such as general material requirements, feed-in, transportation and feed-out of the hydrogen. With respect to the material challenges, different potential possibilities are provided in order to ensure that no embrittlement will occur. Taking Germany as an example, the design and length of the pipeline system were investigated as well as the related economic and ecological aspects. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted in order to calculate the probability density of both the investment and the specific cost. These results were placed in the overall context by calculating the economic impact of production, storage and fuelling

  14. Nanocomposite coatings based on quaternary metal-nitrogen and nanocarbon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walock, Michael J.

    For this project, CrN-WC coatings are investigated as a hybrid hard and tough material. The use of a hard-carbide with a corrosion-resistant nitride may produce tailored coatings with the desired combination of properties for use as a stand-alone protective coating, or as a basis for nanocrystalline diamond deposition. The work is divided into three stages. The initial study determined the viability of the CrN-WC system, and its use as an interlayer for nanocrystalline diamond. This successful study was followed by a variation of deposition conditions at low deposition temperature. By varying the deposition parameters, the microstructure, chemical, mechanical, and tribological behavior may be optimized. While the system has relatively good adhesion to silicon substrates, its adhesion to steel was lacking. Additionally, the system showed lower than expected mechanical properties. The final step increased the deposition temperature. The aim here was to increase adhesion and improve the mechanical properties. Prior results with other systems show consistent improvement of mechanical properties at elevated deposition temperatures. The high deposition temperature coatings showed marked improvement in various characteristics over their low deposition temperature cousins.

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD KITCHEN CABINET COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system at two cabinet manufacturing plants: one in Portland, OR, and the other in Redwood City, CA. Technology transfer ef...

  16. Effect of an absorptive coating on solar energy storage in a Trombe wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, N.P. [Nigeria Univ., Nsukka (Nigeria). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Okonkwo, W.I. [National Center for Energy Research and Development, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2008-07-01

    An analysis is undertaken to show the effects of a range of coating absorptivity values on the improvement of heat transfer across a Trombe wall (which is used for passive solar heating) and to its enclosure. The analysis shows that enhanced heat delivery to the enclosure of a Trombe wall system is feasible with the application of an absorptive coating of a superior nature - characterized by high absorptivity and very low emissivity - on the heat-receiving surface of the wall and thus can be seen as a heat transfer enhancement technique. (author)

  17. Effect of an Absorptive Coating on Solar Energy Storage in a Thrombe wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, Nwosu P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Okonkwo, Wilfred I. [National Center for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2008-07-01

    An analysis is undertaken to show the effects of a range of coating absorptivity values on the improvement of heat transfer across a Trombe wall (which is used for passive solar heating) and to its enclosure. The analysis shows that enhanced heat delivery to the enclosure of a Trombe wall system is feasible with the application of an absorptive coating of a superior nature - characterized by high absorptivity and very low emissivity - on the heat-receiving surface of the wall and thus can be seen as a heat transfer enhancement technique. (author)

  18. Initial tests of atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings for superconducting RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a method of synthesizing materials in single atomic layers. We are studying this technique as a method of producing highly controlled surfaces for superconducting RF systems. We have begun tests of ALD coatings of single cells that will involve RF measurements of a cell before and after coating at Argonne. In addition to the tests on complete cells, we are also beginning a program of point contact tunneling measurements to determine the properties of the superconductors at the interface between the bulk niobium and the oxide layer. We describe the method, and tests we are beginning with single cell resonators and small samples.

  19. Customer service drives pipelines' reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate's net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG's income, it was vital that the merger of Northern's 950 employees with Transwestern's 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives

  20. Pipeline operators training and certification using thermohydraulic simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Claudio V.; Plasencia C, Jose [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Montalvao, Filipe; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous pipeline operators training and certification of the TRANSPETRO's Pipeline National Operations Control Center (CNCO) is an essential task aiming the efficiency and safety of the oil and derivatives transport operations through the Brazilian pipeline network. For this objective, a hydraulic simulator is considered an excellent tool that allows the creation of different operational scenarios for training the pipeline hydraulic behavior as well as for testing the operator's responses to normal and abnormal real time operational conditions. The hydraulic simulator is developed based on a pipeline simulation software that supplies the hydraulic responses normally acquired from the pipeline remote units in the field. The pipeline simulation software has a communication interface system that sends and receives data to the SCADA supervisory system database. Using the SCADA graphical interface to create and to customize human machine interfaces (HMI) from which the operator/instructor has total control of the pipeline/system and instrumentation by sending commands. Therefore, it is possible to have realistic training outside of the real production systems, while acquiring experience during training hours with the operation of a real pipeline. A pilot Project was initiated at TRANSPETRO - CNCO targeting to evaluate the hydraulic simulators advantages in pipeline operators training and certification programs. The first part of the project was the development of three simulators for different pipelines. The excellent results permitted the project expansion for a total of twenty different pipelines, being implemented in training programs for pipelines presently operated by CNCO as well as for the new ones that are being migrated. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the implementation process and the development of a training environment through a pipe simulation environment using commercial software. This paper also presents

  1. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  2. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-12-01

    Heat exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in an integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high-alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period, we conducted a simulated gasifier test primarily with TiN-coated steel samples. Although the test showed these coatings to offer significant protection against corrosion, they also revealed a lack of uniformity in the coatings. We spent a considerable amount of effort improving our coatings procedure as well as the fluidized bed reactor and its heater. Based on the results collected thus far, we selected 12 samples and sent them to ConocoPhillips for testing in their gasifier at the Wabash River Energy plant.

  3. [Silica-coated ethosome as a novel oral delivery system for enhanced oral bioavailability of curcumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Deng, Li; Zhang, Yan; Su, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Yin; Chen, Zhang-Bao

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of silica-coated ethosome as a novel oral delivery system for the poorly water-soluble curcumin (as a model drug). The silica-coated ethosomes loading curcumin (CU-SE) were prepared by alcohol injection method with homogenization, followed by the precipitation of silica by sol-gel process. The physical and chemical features of CU-SEs, and curcumin release were determined in vitro. The pharmacodynamics and bioavailability measurements were sequentially performed. The mean diameter of CU-SE was (478.5 +/- 80.3) nm and the polydispersity index was 0.285 +/- 0.042, while the mean value of apparent drug entrapment efficiency was 80.77%. In vitro assays demonstrated that CU-SEs were significantly stable with improved release properties when compared with curcumin-loaded ethosomes (CU-ETs) without silica-coatings. The bioavailability of CU-SEs and CU-ETs was 11.86- and 5.25-fold higher, respectively, than that of curcumin suspensions (CU-SUs) in in vivo assays. The silica coatings significantly promoted the stability of ethosomes and CU-SEs exhibited 2.26-fold increase in bioavailablity relative to CU-ETs, indicating that the silica-coated ethosomes might be a potential approach for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs especially the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine with improved bioavailability. PMID:23387090

  4. [Silica-coated ethosome as a novel oral delivery system for enhanced oral bioavailability of curcumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Deng, Li; Zhang, Yan; Su, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Yin; Chen, Zhang-Bao

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of silica-coated ethosome as a novel oral delivery system for the poorly water-soluble curcumin (as a model drug). The silica-coated ethosomes loading curcumin (CU-SE) were prepared by alcohol injection method with homogenization, followed by the precipitation of silica by sol-gel process. The physical and chemical features of CU-SEs, and curcumin release were determined in vitro. The pharmacodynamics and bioavailability measurements were sequentially performed. The mean diameter of CU-SE was (478.5 +/- 80.3) nm and the polydispersity index was 0.285 +/- 0.042, while the mean value of apparent drug entrapment efficiency was 80.77%. In vitro assays demonstrated that CU-SEs were significantly stable with improved release properties when compared with curcumin-loaded ethosomes (CU-ETs) without silica-coatings. The bioavailability of CU-SEs and CU-ETs was 11.86- and 5.25-fold higher, respectively, than that of curcumin suspensions (CU-SUs) in in vivo assays. The silica coatings significantly promoted the stability of ethosomes and CU-SEs exhibited 2.26-fold increase in bioavailablity relative to CU-ETs, indicating that the silica-coated ethosomes might be a potential approach for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs especially the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine with improved bioavailability.

  5. Influence of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscatter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X. H.; Liu, A. D., E-mail: lad@ustc.edu.cn; Zhou, C.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, M. Y.; Yu, C. X.; Liu, W. D.; Li, H.; Lan, T.; Xie, J. L. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents the first investigation of the effect of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscattering. A liquid lithium limiter has been applied in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), and a Doppler backscattering has been installed in the EAST. A parabolic mirror and a flat mirror located in the vacuum vessel are polluted by lithium. An identical optical system of the Doppler backscattering is set up in laboratory. The power distributions of the emission beam after the two mirrors with and without lithium coating (cleaned before and after), are measured at three different distances under four incident frequencies. The results demonstrate that the influence of the lithium coating on the power distributions are very slight, and the Doppler backscattering can work normally under the dosage of lithium during the 2014 EAST campaign.

  6. Structure engineering in vacuum-arc-deposited coatings of the MoN-CrN system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, V. M.; Sobol', O. V.; Pogrebnjak, A. D.; Grankin, S. S.; Stolbovoi, V. A.; Turbin, P. V.; Meilekhov, A. A.; Arseenko, M. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    The possibilities of structure engineering in multilayer coatings of the MoN-CrN system with relatively low heats of formation of component transition metal nitrides are demonstrated by varying pressure P N of reactive gas (nitrogen) and negative bias voltage- U s applied to a metal substrate. It is established that, by changing P N from 7 × 10-4 to 3 × 10-3 Torr, it is possible to obtain coatings in two significantly different structural-phase states. A multilayer nonisostructural composite with hexagonal crystalline lattice in CrN layers and cubic type lattice in MoN layers is formed at low pressure, whereas an isostructural state with cubic lattice in both nitride layers is formed at high pressure. The existence of two types of structural states allows multilayer coatings with controlled hardness to be obtained, which reaches 38 GPa in the isostructural state.

  7. 77 FR 58616 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Systems'' and the ``Incident Report--Natural and Other Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems... Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems... Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA)--Trade Association (11) Northeast Gas Association...

  8. Phased-Array Focusing Potential in Pipe with Viscoelastic Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Velsor, J. K.; Zhang, L.; Breon, L. J.; Rose, J. L.

    2007-03-01

    This work investigates the effectiveness of traditional guided-wave focusing techniques in piping with viscoelastic coating. Focusing results for an uncoated pipe are compared to that of pipe with a fusion-bonded epoxy coating, a coal-tar mastic coating, a coal-tar epoxy coating, a coal-tar tape coating, a wax coating, and an enamel coating. Experimental results are compared to computationally derived models. Results show that, for most coating types, focusing can be achieved without special consideration of the coating. This is significant in that it demonstrates the immediate applicability of traditional focusing techniques to coated pipeline.

  9. A Survey of Visual Analytic Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Meng Wang; Tian-Ye Zhang; Yu-Xin Ma; Jing Xia; Wei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Visual analytics has been widely studied in the past decade. One key to make visual analytics practical for both research and industrial applications is the appropriate definition and implementation of the visual analytics pipeline which provides effective abstractions for designing and implementing visual analytics systems. In this paper we review the previous work on visual analytics pipelines and individual modules from multiple perspectives: data, visualization, model and knowledge. In each module we discuss various representations and descriptions of pipelines inside the module, and compare the commonalities and the differences among them.

  10. Integrating sustainable growth into export pipeline projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sustainable growth in the energy industry is rapidly expanding beyond the conceptual stage. Policies addressing the three principles of Sustainable Development are being established and strategies to execute these policies are being developed and implemented in the field. Conoco is developing a strong corporate culture around sustainable growth; and, pipeline systems play a vital role in delivering the triple bottom line results for our stake holders. This paper will highlight some of the key focal points by Conoco Inc., in each phase of pipeline project development, execution, and operation to make pipeline projects a contributor to Conoco's sustainable growth success, and shares some lessons learned

  11. Design and evaluation of hydrophobic coated buoyant core as floating drug delivery system for sustained release of cisapride

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Shery; Nair, Anroop B; Patil, Pandurang N

    2011-01-01

    An inert hydrophobic buoyant coated–core was developed as floating drug delivery system (FDDS) for sustained release of cisapride using direct compression technology. Core contained low density, porous ethyl cellulose, which was coated with an impermeable, insoluble hydrophobic coating polymer such as rosin. It was further seal coated with low viscosity hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC E15) to minimize moisture permeation and better adhesion with an outer drug layer. It was found that sta...

  12. Alaska highway pipeline inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyk, K.M.; Bohmer, E.E.; Phelps, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    A public enquiry was held to determine the social and economic impacts associated with the proposed Alaska Highway pipeline. The pipeline was proposed to carry natural gas from Prudhoe Bay to the continental United States. The pipeline would follow the trans-Alaskan pipeline to Fairbanks, and follow the Alaska Highway through southern Yukon into northern British Columbia. The 48 inch pipe would operate at a pressure of 1,260 psi and would carry 2.4 billion cubic feet of gas per day, and could operate at that level for at least 25 years. Issues considered included alternative routes, employment and training, economic impact, social impact, the Yukon Indian land claim, the Dempster Lateral pipeline, planning and regulation, and compensation. The enquiry concluded that the government of Canada should not give approval in principle to the proposed pipeline through the southern Yukon without resolving the issues of an advanced payment towards the settlement of the Yukon Indian land claim, of compensation from the pipeline company, the establishment of a planning and control agency, and the deferral of the commencement of construction of the pipeline. 8 figs.

  13. Depletion Interactions in a Cylindric Pipeline with a Small Shape Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-Shu; GAO Hai-Xia; XIAO Chang-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Stressed by external forces, it is possible for a cylindric pipeline to change into an elliptic pipeline. To expose the effect of small shape change of the pipeline on the depletion interactions, both the depletion potentials and depletion forces in the hard sphere systems confined by a cylindric pipeline or by an elliptic pipeline are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The numerical results show that the depletion interactions are strongly affected by the small change of the shape of the pipeline in a way. Furthermore, it is also found that the depletion interactions will be strengthened if the short axis of the elliptic pipeline is decreased.

  14. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Yun Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields.

  15. BC Alaska-Canada gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, K. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada). BP Alaska Canada Gas Pipelines

    2006-07-01

    The Alaska natural gas pipeline project was discussed in relation to the Canadian oil and gas industry and pipeline infrastructure. Total project costs for the pipeline were estimated at approximately $20 billion. Options out of Alberta include increasing existing capacity to the west coast, as well as expanding pipeline capacity to supply midwest and east coast markets. Existing pipeline systems will be expanded, and a new pipeline from Alaska to Chicago has been proposed. The gas pipeline project is expected to be the largest private construction project in the history of North America, and will provide 6500 jobs in both the United States and Canada. Project challenges to date have included the development of relationships with Aboriginals and First Nations groups in Canada and the United States, as well as ensuring access to efficient, competitive market-based regulatory processes. Project risks to date have included capital and operating cost over-runs, regulatory and legal delays, completion risks, and commodity price risks. Stranded gas act processes were discussed, as well as fiscal contracts related to the legislative and public process. Elements of the fiscal contract were provided, as well as details of First Nations relationships and Crown consultation processes. tabs., figs.

  16. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  17. Slurry pipeline hydrostatic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Navarro Rojas, Luis Alejandro [BRASS Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    The transportation of concentrates and tailings through long distance pipeline has been proven in recent years to be the most economic, environmentally friendly and secure means of transporting of mine products. This success has led to an increase in the demand for long distance pipeline throughout the mining industry. In year 2007 alone, a total of over 500 km of pipeline has been installed in South America alone and over 800 km are in the planning stages. As more pipelines are being installed, the need to ensure its operating integrity is ever increasing. Hydrostatic testing of long distance pipeline is one of the most economical and expeditious way to proving the operational integrity of the pipe. The intent of this paper is to show the sound reasoning behind construction hydro testing and the economic benefit it presents. It will show how hydro test pressures are determined based on ASME B31.11 criteria. (author)

  18. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  19. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  20. Cortex—M3的次声波输气管道泄漏检测系统%Subsonic Gas Pipeline Leak Detection System of Cortex-M3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芳; 姜金海; 姜春雷

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of foreign and domestic natural gas pipeline construction, the safe operation of pipeline is partieu larly important in the current. High-performance STM32 processor based on Cortex-M3 core is used to collect and analyze sound waves in the pipeline, so as to determine whether the pipeline leaks or not. If the leak is detected,the leak signal is transfered to the data cen- ter, and the system can locate the leak point precisely in the ease of ms-class time synchronization at the both ends of the pipeline. The system achieves the gas pipeline leak rapid detection and alarm, and digital intelligent monitoring of sub pipeline network.%随着国内外天然气管道建设的迅速发展,管道的安全运行在当前尤为重要。采用基于Cortex—M3内核的高性能STM32处理器对管线中的声波进行采集和分析,从而判断出管道是否泄漏。在检测到泄漏之后,把泄漏信号远传到数据中心,在管道两端ms级时间同步的情况下能对泄漏点进行精确定位,实现了输气管道泄漏快速检测和报警的功能,以及管网的数字化智能监控。

  1. TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ignarra, C M

    2013-01-01

    Light detection systems in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) require the detection of the 128 nm light produced during argon scintillation. Most detectors use Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to shift the wavelength of the light into a range visible to Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs). These proceedings summarize characterizations of light-guides coated with a matrix of TPB in UV transmitting acrylic which are more compact than existing LArTPC light collection systems.

  2. TPB-coated light guides for liquid argon TPC light detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignarra, C. M.

    2013-10-01

    Light detection systems in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) require the detection of the 128 nm light produced during argon scintillation. Most detectors use Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to shift the wavelength of the light into a range visible to Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs). These proceedings summarize characterizations of light-guides coated with a matrix of TPB in UV transmitting acrylic which are more compact than existing LArTPC light collection systems.

  3. Improved TPB-coated light guides for liquid argon TPC light detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars. We discuss a model for connecting bar response in air to response in liquid argon and compare this to data taken in liquid argon. The good agreement between the prediction of the model and the measured response in liquid argon demonstrates that characterization in air is sufficient for quality control of bar production. This model can be used in simulations of light guides for future experiments

  4. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-06-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. In previous tests, we had frequently encountered problems with our steam generator that were exacerbated by the very low flow rates that we needed. During this period we installed a new computer-controlled system for injecting water into the steam generator that eliminated this problem. We also tested alloy coupons coated by using the improved procedures described in our last quarterly report. Most of these coatings were nitrided Ti and Ta coatings, either by themselves, or sometimes with barrier layers of Al and Si nitrides. The samples were tested for 300 h at 900 C in a gas stream designed to mimic the environment in the high temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). Three samples that showed least corrosion were exposed for an additional 100 h.

  5. AN AUTOMATIC MEASURING SYSTEM FOR PRINT QUALITY OF COATED INK-JET PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinsongTao; GangChen; MiaonanZhu; AiminTang; HongweiZhang

    2004-01-01

    An automatic visual measuring system designed for evaluating the print quality of coated ink-jet paper is presented. Based on the degree of wicking, feathering, strike-through and color-to-color bleeding, Ink-jet Print Quality Index (IPQI), which was calculated with Area Spread Ratio (ASR), Edge Raggedness (ER), and Roundness Deviation (RD) of the printed dots, was used to evaluate the print quality. An iterative repetition interpolation threshold segmentation algorithm was performed with the aid of magnifying glass, charge coupled device (CCD)camera, frame grabber, image software and computer. Seven kinds of coated glossy photo papers were tested with a constant ink and ink-jet printer, the optical print resolution of each kind was obtained and their performance was ranked. It was shown that the system can meet the requirements ofpapermakers and can provide an objective and quantitative method both for evaluating the print quality, determining the optical print resolution and optimizing the coating process for coated ink-jet paper.

  6. AN AUTOMATIC MEASURING SYSTEM FOR PRINT QUALITY OF COATED INK-JET PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinsong Tao; Gang Chen; Miaonan Zhu; Aimin Tang; Hongwei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    An automatic visual measuring system designed for evaluating the print quality of coated ink-jet paper is presented. Based on the degree of wicking,feathering, strike-through and color-to-color bleeding, Ink-jet Print Quality Index (IPQI), which was calculated with Area Spread Ratio (ASR), Edge Raggedness (ER), and Roundness Deviation (RD) of the printed dots, was used to evaluate the print quality. An iterative repetition interpolation threshold segmentation algorithm was performed with the aid of magnifying glass, charge coupled device (CCD)camera, frame grabber, image software and computer. Seven kinds of coated glossy photo papers were tested with a constant ink and ink-jet printer,the optical print resolution of each kind was obtained and their performance was ranked. It was shown that the system can meet the requirements ofpapermakers and can provide an objective and quantitative method both for evaluating the print quality, determining the optical print resolution and optimizing the coating process for coated ink-jet paper.

  7. Improved TPB-coated light guides for liquid argon TPC light detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Z.; Bugel, L.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J. M.; Jones, B. J. P.; Moon, J.; Toups, M.; Wongjirad, T.

    2015-08-01

    Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars. We discuss a model for connecting bar response in air to response in liquid argon and compare this to data taken in liquid argon. The good agreement between the prediction of the model and the measured response in liquid argon demonstrates that characterization in air is sufficient for quality control of bar production. This model can be used in simulations of light guides for future experiments.

  8. Coated particle fuel for radioisotope power systems (RPSs) and radioisotope heater units (RHUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    1999-01-01

    Coated particle fuel offers great promise for advanced radioisotope power systems (RPSs) and radioisotope heater units (RHUs) being pursued for future U.S. solar system exploration missions. Potential benefits of this fuel include improved design flexibility and materials compatibility, enhanced safety and performance, and reduced specific mass and volume. This paper describes and discusses coated particle fuel, with emphasis on its applicability, attributes, and potential benefits to future RPSs and RHUs. Additionally, this paper identifies further analyses and verification testing that should be conducted before a commitment is made to fully develop this fuel. Efforts to date indicate there is every reason to believe that the potential benefits of coated particle fuel to future RPSs and RHUs can be demonstrated with a modest, phased analytical and verification test effort. Thus, developmental risk appears minimal, while the potential benefits are substantial. If coated particle fuel is pursued and ultimately developed successfully, it could revolutionize the design and space use of future RPSs and RHUs.

  9. Thermal stability, mechanical and corrosion behaviour of niobium-based coatings in the ternary system Nb-O-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of oxygen in the system Nb-O-N on properties like thermal, mechanical, corrosion and degradation behaviour was studied with respect to the O/N ratio in the films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering. With increasing O/N ratio the hardness, the Young's Modulus and the residual stress strongly decreased. Furthermore the friction coefficient decreased in pin-on-disk tests against a 100Cr6 ball and was lowest for NbON coatings with medium oxygen content. The thermal stability in vacuum was excellent for the coatings up to 800 oC except for coatings with an O/N ratio of ≥ 12.8. These high oxygen-containing coatings crystallised at about 600 oC. The corrosion resistance of the Nb-based coatings in NaCl-containing media strongly improved with increasing O/N ratio, presumably due to the amorphous structure of the oxygen-containing coatings.

  10. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  11. Pipeline four-dimension management is the trend of pipeline integrity management in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohua, Dong; Feifan; Zhongchen, Han [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline integrity management is essential for today's operators to operate their pipelines safety and cost effectively. The latest developments of pipeline integrity management around the world are involved with change of regulation, industry standard and innovation of technology. And who know the trend of PIM in the future, which can be answered in the paper. As a result, the concept of P4DM was set up firstly in the world. The paper analyzed the pipeline HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM), the problem of management was produced, and also the Pipeline 4-dimension Management (P4DM) theory was brought forward. According to P4DM, from the hierarchy of P4DM, the management elements, fields, space and time was analyzed. The main content is P4DM integrate the space geography location and time, control and manage the pipeline system in whole process, anywhere and anytime. It includes the pipeline integrity, pipeline operation and emergency, which is integrated by IT system. It come true that the idea, solution, technology, organization, manager alternately intelligently control the process of management. What the paper talks about included the definition of pipeline 4D management, the research develop of P4DM, the theory of P4DM, the relationship between P4DM and PIM, the technology basis of P4DM, how to perform the P4DM and conclusion. The P4DM was produced, which provide the development direction of PIM in the future, and also provide the new ideas for PetroChina in the field of technology and management. (author)

  12. Development and application of an information-analytic system on the problem of flow accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Povarov, V. P.; Shipkov, A. A.; Gromov, A. F.; Kiselev, A. N.; Shepelev, S. V.; Galanin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    Specific features relating to development of the information-analytical system on the problem of flow-accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant are considered. The results from a statistical analysis of data on the quantity, location, and operating conditions of the elements and preinserted segments of pipelines used in the condensate-feedwater and wet steam paths are presented. The principles of preparing and using the information-analytical system for determining the lifetime to reaching inadmissible wall thinning in elements of pipelines used in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh NPP are considered.

  13. Process for the internal coating of pipes in an underground installation. Procede pour chemiser interieurement des tuyaux d'une installation souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoyuki, K.

    1983-11-04

    This process is intended for internal coating of buried pipes which are connected to several branch pipelines, each ending in the free atmosphere. Air is circulated through the system so that it passes through at least one of the branch lines; an aerosol is dispersed like a fog in the circulating air. The aerosol is a plastic.

  14. Design of detection system for household natural gas pipeline leak%家庭天然气管道泄露监测系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈菁; 刘然

    2015-01-01

    这里设计了一种结构简单且具有较强实用意义的家庭天然气管道泄漏检测系统。该系统基于AT82S52单片机收集信号,并针对天然气的特征进行各类气敏传感器的对比选择。使用MQ⁃2型半导体气敏传感器,用C语言进行程序编程,最终制作出的监测系统实物可以通过按键设定报警浓度上限。当空气中天然气的浓度超过预定值时会出现声光双重报警,且制作成本较低。%A detection system for household natural gas pipeline leak was designed ,which has simple structure and ob⁃servable practicability. This system is based on the AT82S52 to collect signals. Several gas sensitive sensors were compared for a the most proper one according to the characteristics of natural gas. MQ⁃2 semiconductor gas sensitive sensor was used to detect natural gas pipeline leakage. System software is programmed by C language. The upper limit of alarm concentration can be set by a simple keyboard. Both sound and light alarm appears by the system when the gas concentration in the air is beyond the preset value. The cost to make the system is low.

  15. Expert systems for integrity management in a crude oil pipeline; Sistemas expertos para gestion de integridad en sistemas de transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.P.; Pini, J. [Oldelval S.A., General Roca RN (Argentina)]. E-mail: mmartine@oldelval.com.ar; jpini@oldelval.com.ar; Rossi, J.P.; Pellicano, A. [Sintec S.A., Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: icesing@infovia.com.ar

    2003-07-01

    The study and modeling of corrosion processes aim at the accomplishment of three primary objectives: to increase safety operation margins, to reduce maintenance costs and to optimize available resources. The Integrity Expert System is based on a statistical propagation model of defects reported by high resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), fed with the information provided by corrosion sensors, repair interventions, field surveys and future inspections. As model results, defect depth, remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established: a medium term repair plan, an internal inspection program and both monitoring and mitigation technologies. System implementation in OLDELVAL was translated into two major effects of importance for the company integrity program: reduction in the pipeline probability of failure by corrosion by means of programmed repairs and optimization of the internal inspection investment plan by mans of an alternative programming. (author)

  16. Effects of coatings on storability of carrot under evaporative coolant system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji Charles Oluwaseun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four different coatings were developed from the mucilage of Cactus and their effects were investigated on the quality and storability of carrot fruits. The four experimental coatings were: Pure mucilage extracts (ME, Mucilage extract mixed with 5ml glycerol (MEG, Mucilage extract mixed 5ml soy oil ( MESO, Mucilage extract mixed with 5ml olive oil(MEOO the addition of oil served as plasticizer. The following parameters were measured: weight loss, ascorbic acid content, pH, firmness and microbial qualities. Four hundred and eighty (480 carrot were arranged randomly into five treatments, the control (untreated and four coating treatments were stored for seven weeks under Evaporative Coolant System (ECS. Prior to storage, the carrot samples were surface sterilized using 100mg/L sodium hypochlorite. Results showed that Cactus mucilage was effective in extending the shelf-life of carrotwhen compared to untreated control in the following order: MESO>MEOO>MEG>ME>Control. Results revealed that coatings hindered the growth of microorganisms significantly

  17. Thermal cycling behaviour of thermal barrier coating systems based on first- and fourth-generation Ni-based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Duhamel, Cécilie; Chieux, Marion; Molins, Régine; Rémy, Luc; Monceau, Daniel; Rouaix-Vande Put, Aurélie; Guédou, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the cyclic oxidation behaviour of thermal barrier coating systems. The systems consist of an yttria-stabilised zircona ceramic top coat deposited by EB-PVD, a b-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat and a Ni-based superalloy. Two different superalloys are studied: a first-generation one and a fourthgeneration one containing Re, Ru and Hf. The aim of this work is to characterise the microstructural evolution of those systems and to correlate it to their resistance to spallation. Thermal cy...

  18. Role of Components Containing in Water on the Formation Corrosion – scale Deposits in Pipelines of Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Vysotskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose results of research on the establishment of presence of components in water of the southern cities of the Republic of Kazakhstan such as carbonate hardness, non-carbonate hardness and total hardness, content of free carbonic acid and impurities of different ions of iron (two- and three-valent, sulphate and chlorine ions, pH value. When the research course parameters of heat carrier (water: carbonate hardness, non-carbonate hardness, and the total hardness, content of free carbonic acid ions and HCO3-, pH value, content of two and three valence iron ions, sulphate and chloride-ions in water were established, indicators of corrosion were calculated by the value, which we concluded about the strength of corrosive effect on steel foundation of pipelines.

  19. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Jordi Perez; Marc Hornbostel; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2007-05-31

    Advanced electric power generation systems use a coal gasifier to convert coal to a gas rich in fuels such as H{sub 2} and CO. The gas stream contains impurities such as H{sub 2}S and HCl, which attack metal components of the coal gas train, causing plant downtime and increasing the cost of power generation. Corrosion-resistant coatings would improve plant availability and decrease maintenance costs, thus allowing the environmentally superior integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) plants to be more competitive with standard power-generation technologies. Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in the IGCC system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy will improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. In this study, the use of corrosion-resistant coatings on low alloy steels was investigated for use as high-temperature components in IGCC systems. The coatings were deposited using SRI's fluidized-bed reactor chemical vapor deposition technique. Diffusion coatings of Cr and Al were deposited by this method on to dense and porous, low alloy stainless steel substrates. Bench-scale exposure tests at 900 C with a simulated coal gas stream containing 1.7% H{sub 2}S showed that the low alloy steels such SS405 and SS409 coated with

  20. Soil corrosion monitoring near a pipeline under CP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Locke, M.L. (NW Natural); Warthen, M.R. (NW Natural); Kane, Russell D. (Intercorr International Inc.); Eden, Dawn C. (Intercorr International Inc.)

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical noise (EN), linear polarization resistance (LPR), and harmonic distortion analysis (HDA) were used with three-electrode probes to monitor the corrosion occurring in soil in dry and wet conditions near a gas pipeline under cathodic protection. The test site was a cathodic protection (CP) test station where impressed current CP was applied to a 2 in. (5.1 cm) diameter FBE coated steel pipe using an 84 in. (0.2 m) TA-2 high-silicon cast iron anode. Electrochemical measurements were made at three locations, two inside the CP field and one outside the CP field. Electrochemical measurements were first made with the CP system off to establish the baseline corrosion and then with increasing levels of CP. The degree of protection was based on polarized potential and the adequacy of protection was determined by depolarization measurements. CP of an adjacent pipeline did not affect the measurement of either corrosion rate or pitting factor when using buried soil corrosion probes and the EN, LPR, and HDA techniques.

  1. Managing changes of location classes of gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Sergio B.; Sousa, Antonio Geraldo de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Most of the gas pipeline design codes utilize a class location system, where the design safety factor and the hydrostatic test factor are determined according to the population density in the vicinities of the pipeline route. Consequently, if an operator is requested or desires to maintain an existing gas pipeline in compliance with its design code, it will reduce the operational pressure or replace pipe sections to increase the wall thickness whenever a change in location class takes place. This article introduces an alternative methodology to deal with changes in location classes of gas pipelines. Initially, selected codes that utilize location class systems are reviewed. Afterwards, a model for the area affected by an ignition following a natural gas pipeline leak is described. Finally, a methodology to determine the MAOP and third part damage mitigation measures for gas transport pipelines that underwent changes in location class is presented. (author)

  2. Evaluation of a new photoresist dispense system to detect coating variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapin, Florent; Le-Peutrec, Bernard; Stock, Laurent; Hanotte, Marc

    2009-03-01

    A minimal change of dispensed volume will have a severe impact on the film thickness uniformity and in the worst case there might be some lack of resist on the wafer. Therefore it is essential to set-up the photoresist dispense accurately to avoid any dispense variation. In addition, it is important to monitor the dispense conditions real-time to detect problems which may have a direct negative impact on process yield. This paper presents the evaluation of the IntelliGen® Mini dispense system which is manufactured by Entegris, Inc. This new system is able to detect variations like bubbles in the dispense line, changes to the stop suckback valve, and changes in viscosity1. After an explanation of the pump characteristics and the potential root causes of dispense variation and their consequences, the evaluation done in Altis Semiconductor will be presented. The study has been made utilizing different photo-chemicals, including low and mid-range viscosity photo- resists and anti-reflective coatings. The capability of this new product to detect any perturbation of coating will be demonstrated. Then standard tests like coating repeatability, defect density CD uniformity and finally wafer yield inspection will be performed to prove efficiency of the system in a production mode.

  3. Black powder removal in a Mexico gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, John R. [TDW Services, Inc., New Castle, DE (United States); Drysdale, Colin; Warterfield, Bob D. [T.D.Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper focuses on the cleaning methodology and operational constrains involved with the removal of black powder in a high pressure natural gas transmission pipeline. In this case, the accumulation of black powder along the pipeline system over the seven year period since it was put into service was creating significant problems in the areas of maintenance, customer relations, and cost to the pipeline operator due to clogging of filters, reduced gas flow, and penalties as result of non-compliant delivery contracts. The pipeline cleaning project consisted of running cleaning pigs or scrappers with batches of cleaning solution through each section of the pipeline while dealing with such factors as three (3) pipeline section lengths in excess of 160 kms (100 miles), gas flow velocity fluctuations, shutdowns, and gas delivery schedule requirements. The cleaning program for the entire pipeline system included the use of chemical and diesel based cleaning solution, running multiple cleaning pigs, liquid injection and separation system, mobile storage tanks, various equipment and personnel for logistical support. Upon completion of the cleaning program, the level of black powder and other solids in all pipeline sections was reduced to approximately 0.5% liquid/solid ratio and the pipeline system returned to normal optimum operation. (author.

  4. A graph-based approach for designing extensible pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Maíra R; Magalhães Wagner CS; Machado Moara; Tarazona-Santos Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In bioinformatics, it is important to build extensible and low-maintenance systems that are able to deal with the new tools and data formats that are constantly being developed. The traditional and simplest implementation of pipelines involves hardcoding the execution steps into programs or scripts. This approach can lead to problems when a pipeline is expanding because the incorporation of new tools is often error prone and time consuming. Current approaches to pipeline d...

  5. Effects of small amount of H{sub 2}S on CO{sub 2} corrosion of pipeline steel in multiphase flow loop system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, G.S.; Khanna, A.S. [Corrosion Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 400076 (India)

    2004-07-01

    Experiments for the pipeline steel has been carried out in a multiphase flow loop system at high temperature and high pressure. The study provides an example of the increased corrosion rate under multiphase flow condition due to the presence of small amounts of H{sub 2}S. Under these operating conditions, iron sulphide film interferes with the formation of iron carbonate scale, which is less protective. The simultaneous presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S in produced fluids can make a very aggressive environment, which may lead to severe corrosion for the mild steel. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S have been shown to produce competing films at temperature between 30 and 120 deg. C and it was observed that FeS is more protective than FeCO{sub 3} at 90 deg. C. The phases formed on the surface analyzed by SEM and XRD. (authors)

  6. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  7. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  8. The main causes of in situ internal pipeline painting failures; Fatores que podem implicar em falhas prematuras de pintura interna in situ de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintela, Joaquim P.; Vieira, Magda M.; Vieira, Gerson V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Fragata, Fernando de L.; Amorim, Cristina da C. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Resources in coating technology have been used to increase the useful life of pipelines, to guarantee the carried product quality, to increase the operational trustworthiness, to reduce the maintenance costs, the personal and patrimonial risks and environmental damages. Parallel, in virtue of the pipelines natural ageing and operational problems, more advanced technologies, as the internal coating process in situ, have become an important method of pipelines rehabilitation. The aim of this work is to study the main factors that may influence the performance of an internal coating project, allowing the premature damages occurrence in pipelines, used in gas, oil and derivatives transport. (author)

  9. Supervision system for safety valves and operative metering station of the Yacuiba-Rio Grande Gas Pipeline; Sistema de supervisao para valvulas de seguranca e estacoes de medicao operativas do gasoducto Yacuiba-Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Fernando; Marques, Ailton [Transierra S.A., La Paz (Bolivia)

    2005-07-01

    One of the most critical points for the opportune intervention that compromises the operations of TRANSIERRA S.A., is the integrity of the facilities, the adjacent communities and the environment are the Shut Down Valves (SDV) of the GASYRG Gas pipeline. The GASYRG (Yacuiba Rio Grande Gas pipeline) with an extension of 432 Km and a Pipeline diameter of 32 inches presents 2 Receipt Stations, 1 Delivery Point and 11 Line Valves. The pipeline operation is made by satellite and SCADA applications; it is supervised and controlled on-line at the points of delivery and receipt; monitoring of the SDV's was left aside; because of this it was necessary to develop a Remote Supervision System. This system combines remote devices with the Control Philosophy of Report By-Exception, Low Orbit Satellite System, Internet application and Intranet. The mentioned information is sent in e-mail format to a Satellite Teleport located in London, England. The process information is sent via Internet to TRANSIERRA's SCADA Servers for its interpretation and display in the HMI of the GASYRG supervisory system. (author)

  10. Flow Characteristics in Compact Thermal Spray Coating Systems with Minimum Length Nozzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung-Hyun KIM; Youn-Jea KIM

    2009-01-01

    In this study,numerical analysis is performed to adopt the equivalence ratio on the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating systems equipped with a minimum length nozzle.The analysis is applied to investigate the axisymmetric,steady-state,turbulent,and chemically combusting flow both within the torch and in a free jet region between the torch and the substrate to be coated.The combustion is modeled using a single-step and eddy-dissipation model which assumes that the reaction rate is limited by the turbulent mixing rate of the fuel and oxidant.As the diameter of the nozzle throat is increased,the location of the Mach shock disc moves backward from the nozzle exit.As the throat diameter and the divergent portion are 6 mm and 8 mm,respectively,the pressure in the HVOF system is the lowest at the chamber and the expanding gas is steadily maintained with both high velocity and high temperature for different equivalence ratios.Thus,relatively minor amendments of the equivalence ratio and the geometry of HVOF can lead to improved control over coating characteristics.

  11. Long-Term Anti-Corrosion Performance of a Conducting Polymer-Based Coating System for Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tongyan; Yu, Qifeng

    2016-06-01

    The long-term durability of a two-layer coating system was evaluated by two accelerated corrosion tests, i.e., the ASTM B117 Salt spray test and the ASTM D5894 Cyclic salt fog/UV exposure test, and a series of surface analyses. The coating system was developed for protecting structural steels from corrosion, including a functional primer made of intrinsically conducting polymer (ICP) and a protective topcoat. The standard pull-off test per ASTM D4541 was employed for characterizing the adhesion of the coating systems to substrate, aided by visual examination of the surface deterioration of the samples. The ICP-based systems demonstrated superior long-term anti-corrosion capacity when a polyurethane topcoat is used. The ICP-based primer made of a waterborne epoxy gave poorer anti-corrosion performance than the ICP-based primer made of regular non-waterborne epoxy, which can be attributed to the lower adhesion the waterborne epoxy demonstrated to the substrate surface. The zinc-rich control systems showed good anti-corrosion durability; however, they may produce excessive oxidative products of zinc to cause coating delamination. Based on the test results, the two-layer coating system consisting of an ICP-based primer and a polyurethane topcoat outperforms the conventional zinc-rich coating systems for corrosion protection of steels.

  12. Pipelines : one size fits all : Statoil pig inspects 42-inch and 28-inch diameter pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2006-12-15

    This article provided details of a new multi-diameter pigging tool used to detect faulty pipelines at the Asgard oil and gas field off the Norwegian coast. The Asgard pipeline risers rest on an export riser base (ERB) which sits on the seabed and uses several valves to seal off the risers in case of leaks. Pigging of the pipelines presented a problem at the Asgard site as the first 200 metres of pipeline are 28 inches in diameter, while the remaining 707 km is 42 inches. Opting for 28 inch valves meant that the ERB could be smaller, lighter and cheaper. However, no inspection tool could cope with the huge change in diameter. A multi-diameter pig was deployed at the site in 2004. The pig was mounted on a specially designed suspension system supported by wheels. In order to find pipeline defects, the pig uses magnetic flux leakage, which magnetizes the pipe wall and magnetic field changes according to variations in wall thickness. Designed by Statoil, the tool was loaded onshore into a pig launcher, which was deployed from a sub-sea construction vessel via guide wires attached to the ERB. Using remotely controlled vehicles, the pig was launched into the pipeline as the system continued to transport gas. The operation was completed without creating hydrates in the pipeline, and no corrosion was detected during the inspection. Reductions in gas through-put were minimal during the deployment. The Asgard pigging operation involved 350 valve operations and 700 procedure steps. Besides having minimal impact on pipeline operations, the Statoil pig performed well and sustained minimal wear and tear due to its design. The multi-diameter tool has made it possible for other operators to inspect pipelines that have never been inspected before. It was concluded that Statoil is now looking for a collaborating partner that will provide the service to industry while continuing development of the technology. 6 figs.

  13. Satellites and solid state electronics test concrete pressure water pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumo, John; Worthington, Will

    2000-06-01

    Like all structures, water pressure pipelines have a finite life. Pipelines will eventually begin to fail, leaving the pipeline owner to deal with the quandary: what caused this to happen, can we prevent future failures, must we replace this structure now? The causes for pipeline failure include defects and anomalies which may occur in any phase of a pipeline's life: during the engineering, the manufacture, the construction, or the operation. Failure may simply be the result of environmental conditions or old age. In the past five years, passive acoustic emission detection technology has been adapted to concrete pressure pipelines. This method of inspection is based on the caustic emissions made by the prestressed reinforcing wire as it releases its energy. A recently patented method of using this technology relies on a series of remote, independent test stations to detect, record and time-stamp these acoustic emissions. A low-powered, high- performance embedded processor system makes use of global positioning system time signals to synchronize multiple stations. These methods are re-defining the standard of care of water pressure pipelines. This paper describes pipeline failure mechanisms and a state-of-the-art data sampling system which has been developed to evaluate pipeline structural integrity.

  14. Assessment of the impact of a Trans-Alaska Pipeline oil spill on the birds and mammals of the Atigun River system

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An oil spill resulting from a crack in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline was discovered on June 10, 1979 near pipeline mile post 166, on the north side of Atigun Pass....

  15. Development Prospect of Oil & Gas Pipelines of CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yaorong; Chen Hao; Zhang Jinjun; Zhang Kegang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Technology progress of oil & gas pipelines transportation project of CNPC since the 11th Five-Year Plan period An introduction to oil & gas pipelines transportationproject As a large industrious system, pipelines transportation industry is playing a more and more important role in oil and natural gas industry even in the world economy.Thanks to the efforts of 40 years, substantial progress has been achieved in the oil & gas pipelines construction in China. Till now, long distance oil & gas transportation trunk pipelines with large caliber have been completed one after another, with a total length exceeding 50 thousand kilometers (kin). CNPC boasts a long distancel and oil transportation pipeline of 30 thousand km.

  16. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  17. Energy saving measures of Shaanxi-Beijing Natural Gas Pipeline System%陕京天然气管网系统的节能措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋明智; 程凤亭

    2012-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption of gas in logistics, Shannxi-Beijing Natural Gas Pipeline System is taken as a case to analyze the natural gas storage and transportation systems. In accordance with operating characteristics and energy consumption conditions of natural gas pipelines, compressor stations, distribution stations and gas storages as well as electric power and natural gas energy consumption in the production, by the use of thermal equilibrium of energy flow, energy cascade utilization, thermodynamic exergy value and other analysis methods, energy-saving measures are researched from different aspects. It is indicated that waste heat utilization, differential pressure power generation and gas storage transformation can be used for energy saving, and the feasibility of various energy-saving measures is analyzed. Exhaust temperature of gas compressor units in the natural gas pipeline network is higher, so the waste heat has a larger potential and value for recycling. Differential pressure, enthalpy and internal energy are calculated on the basis of differential pressure energy of pipeline network distribution stations and converted by the exergy analysis principle to indicate a higher energy use value. In accordance with relevant geological conditions, it is indicated that gas-fired unit exhaust, inert gas or CO2 can replace the natural gas as the bedding gas of the gas storage. This measure can reduce more than 50% of production energy consumption. The research results can provide a reference to the natural gas logistics enterprises to improve production processes and reduce energy consumption.%为降低天然气物流能耗,以陕京天然气管网系统为例,针对天然气储运体系展开分析,根据天然气运输管道、压气站、分输站和储气库运行特征和能耗情况,运用能源流动热平衡、能量梯阶利用和热力学值等分析方法,结合生产中电力和天然气能耗情况,进行不同角度的节能措施研究.指出

  18. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamerson...

  19. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration; DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory Bulletin. SUMMARY: The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) is...

  20. 77 FR 61825 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: PHMSA and the National Association of Pipeline Safety...

  1. ERP系统对提升石油管道企业管理水平的作用探析%The Role Analysis of ERP System to Enhance the Level of the Oil Pipeline Business Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱尚杰; 李慧

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development process of the oil pipeline company, illustrates the importance of establishing a good management platform,also explained ERP and ERP systems knowledge,and cited the ERP system to enhance the level of the oil pipeline business management role,and in recent years,the ERP system to build an oil pipeline company, for example,summarizes the company's ERP project in the pipeline to promote the implementation of the results achieved and areas for improvement and enhancement.%本文简述了石油管道企业的发展历程,说明了建立好的管理平台的重要性,同时阐述了ERP和ERP系统的相关知识,并列举了ERP系统对提升石油管道企业管理水平的重要作用,而且以近几年来建立ERP系统的石油管道企业为例,总结了ERP项目在管道公司推广实施取得的效果和需要改进的地方以及改进方法。

  2. Natural Gas Gathering and Transporting Pipeline Networks in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xuehou

    1995-01-01

    @@ It is over 30 years since Baxian-Chongqing Gas Transmission Pipeline has been put into operation in 1960s. So far approximately 8 000 km pipelines of various kinds have been built in Sichuan, among which about 1 800 km are gas pipelines (the maximum diameter of 720 mm ),therefor a gathering pipeline system has been established which connects more than 80 gas fields over ten of major industrial cities in Sichuan, such as Chengdu, Chongqing,Zigong, Luzhou, Daxian, Deyang, Mianyang, Nanchong,and more than 600 large and medium size end-users and the chemical fertilizer manufacturing bases in the neighboring provinces of Yunnan and Guizhou.

  3. Detection system for urban pipeline based on IOT and UGW%基于物联网和超声导波的管道检测系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志奎; 贾少攀; 赵亮; 张清辰

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the complexity of manual handling operations of current detection systems for urban pipeline and meet the requirements of pipeline working environmental information analyzing and early warning function, a detection system for urban pipeline based on internet of things (IOT) and ultrasonic guided wave (UGW) was designed and developed. IOT technology, UGW testing and signal processing methods are integrated with this system. To implement the functions such as detection of pipeline, environmental information gathering and early warning, the system transmits data over wireless network to cloud data processing center which analyzes the pipeline detection data. Simulation results show that this system can meet the accuracy requirement of defect location, and reduce manual handling operations with early warning function.%针对当前城市管道检测系统实际应用时复杂的人工操作问题和管道工作环境信息的分析预警功能缺失问题,设计开发一套基于物联网和超声导波的城市管道检测系统.该系统将物联网、超声导波检测、信号处理等技术相融合,通过无线网络将数据传到云端数据处理中心并由数据处理中心分析管道检测信息,实现管道缺陷检测、环境信息采集以及预警等功能.实验仿真表明:该系统的缺陷定位精度达到了(能够满足)城市管道检测的要求,在减少人工操作的同时,能有效提供预警功能.

  4. Sustainable design and manufacturing of multifunctional polymer nanocomposite coatings: A multiscale systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie

    Polymer nanocomposites have a great potential to be a dominant coating material in a wide range of applications in the automotive, aerospace, ship-making, construction, and pharmaceutical industries. However, how to realize design sustainability of this type of nanostructured materials and how to ensure the true optimality of the product quality and process performance in coating manufacturing remain as a mountaintop area. The major challenges arise from the intrinsic multiscale nature of the material-process-product system and the need to manipulate the high levels of complexity and uncertainty in design and manufacturing processes. This research centers on the development of a comprehensive multiscale computational methodology and a computer-aided tool set that can facilitate multifunctional nanocoating design and application from novel function envisioning and idea refinement, to knowledge discovery and design solution derivation, and further to performance testing in industrial applications and life cycle analysis. The principal idea is to achieve exceptional system performance through concurrent characterization and optimization of materials, product and associated manufacturing processes covering a wide range of length and time scales. Multiscale modeling and simulation techniques ranging from microscopic molecular modeling to classical continuum modeling are seamlessly coupled. The tight integration of different methods and theories at individual scales allows the prediction of macroscopic coating performance from the fundamental molecular behavior. Goal-oriented design is also pursued by integrating additional methods for bio-inspired dynamic optimization and computational task management that can be implemented in a hierarchical computing architecture. Furthermore, multiscale systems methodologies are developed to achieve the best possible material application towards sustainable manufacturing. Automotive coating manufacturing, that involves paint spay and

  5. Internal and external pipe coatings for gas service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kut, S.

    1972-03-01

    Pipe coatings of improved performance are increasingly in demand. It has recently been estimated that over 600,000 miles of gas pipelines is in operation in the world with the mileage growing rapidly. Nearly 50,000 miles of new gas and oil pipelines is currently being laid each year over the world. In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in submarine pipelines, arising from the rapid growth in the number of offshore installations. It has long been recognized that a protective internal coating for pipe affords savings to pipeline operators. The coating provides protection against corrosion and abrasion and reduces cost of scrubbers, strainers, pigs, and other types of pipeline cleaning equipment. It greatly reduces maintenance and labor costs, provides protection for the pipe interior against accumulation of deposits, and substantially increases throughput. Specific spray and cleaning equipment is employed for internally coating small and large-diameter pipes, with appropriately formulated epoxy-type coatings, following sound surface preparation, such as abrasive blasting preferably, or acid cleaning. Advantages are outlined of internally coating pipelines carrying gas. Methods of application have been described for internally and externally coating pipes with liquid and powdered epoxy coatings.

  6. 浅谈长输管道典型SCADA系统特点对比%Perspectives on Comparisons of typical SCADA system in long-distance pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑾

    2014-01-01

    Expounds the present situation of the long-distance pipeline SCADA system at domestic and abroad,compare two kinds of typical structure of SCADA system is currently widely used,and list their characteristics,advantages and disadvantages.Furthermore, through analyzing the reliability and failure rate of two structures,discussed according to different process requirements select the appropriate structure of SCADA system,proposed dispatch center and station control system,in order to maximize the role of different system structures, improve production efifciency.%阐述了长输管道广泛应用的SCADA系统的现状,对比了两种典型的SCADA系统结构,并列举了各自的特点和优缺点。此外,通过对两种结构可靠性和故障率的分析,论述了可根据不同的工艺需求选择合适的SCADA系统结构,提出了调度中心和站控系统选取的依据,以便充分发挥不同系统结构的作用,提高生产效率。

  7. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-03-15

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we conducted two 300-hour tests. In the first test, we exposed samples at 900 C under conditions simulating the high-temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). The second test was at 370 C, corresponding to the filter units following the HTHRU. The tests were showed the resilience of silicon nitride as a coating component, and the new coating procedures better penetrated the pores in sintered metal filter samples. Finally, we also received samples that were exposed in the Wabash River plant. Unfortunately, all these samples, that were prepared last year, were severely eroded and/or corroded.

  8. Effect of annealing on phase sequence and their composition in the Pt-coated Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Platinum coatings were prepared using electron beam evaporator. • The phase analysis revealed the presence of the MoPt2 and MoPt. • At low annealing time, the MoPt2 phase appeared to have more Pt content. • The MoPt2 phase disappeared as the annealing time increases. • It is believed that the MoPt phase was growing at the expense of the MoPt2. - Abstract: The phase formation sequence and the composition of phases induced by thermal annealing in a platinum (Pt) coated molybdenum (Mo) system were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The X-ray diffraction study of a 0.2 μm thick platinum layer deposited on a Mo substrate and annealed at temperatures between 800 °C and 900 °C for different periods of time shows the formation of MoPt2 and MoPt phases. It was also found that these phases nucleate sequentially and the MoPt2 phase becomes unstable at 900 °C after a longer annealing time of 8 h. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the coating thickness approximately doubled after thermal annealing, from 0.22 μm to 0.46 μm, due to the formation of the Pt–Mo phases

  9. Blanch Resistant and Thermal Barrier NiAl Coating Systems for Advanced Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method of forming an environmental resistant thermal barrier coating on a copper alloy is disclosed. The steps include cleansing a surface of a copper alloy, depositing a bond coat on the cleansed surface of the copper alloy, depositing a NiAl top coat on the bond coat and consolidating the bond coat and the NiAl top coat to form the thermal barrier coating. The bond coat may be a nickel layer or a layer composed of at least one of copper and chromium-copper alloy and either the bond coat or the NiAl top coat or both may be deposited using a low pressure or vacuum plasma spray.

  10. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; establish an administrative process for making... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; and establish the adjudication process...

  11. EVALUATION OF SORPTIVE PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS CARRIERS AND COATING MATERIALS FOR LIQUISOLID SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The basic principle of liquisolid systems formulation lies in the conversion of the drug in a liquid state into an apparently dry, free-flowing and readily compressible powder by its blending (or spraying) with specific carriers and coating materials. The selection of the most suitable carrier and coating material depends especially on their values of flowable liquid retention potential (Φ), which is defined as the maximum mass of liquid that can be retained per unit mass of powder material, while maintaining an acceptable flowability. The presented work focused on the determination of the maximum amount of propylene glycol (PG), which can be retained by several selected carriers and coating materials while maintaining acceptable flow properties of the liquisolid powder blend. Granulated forms of magnesium aluminometasilicates (Neusilin® US2 and Neusilin® NS2N), dibasic calcium phosphate (Fujicalin®) and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel® PH 101) were tested due to their frequent use. Powdered forms of magnesium aluminometasilicate (Neusilin® UFL2) and colloidal silica (Aerosil® 200) were used as common coating materials. From the evaluation of liquisolid mixtures with different amounts of liquid, it could be observed that 1 g of Neusilin® US2, Neusilin® UFL2, Neusilin® NS2N, Aerosil® 200, Fujicalin® and Avicel® PH 101 can retain 1.00, 0.97, 0.54, 0.04, 0.25 and 0.12 g of propylene glycol, respectively, while maintaining acceptable flowing properties for further processing. PMID:26642662

  12. Coated particle fuel for radioisotope power systems and heater units: status and future research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel; Sholtis, Joseph A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2000-01-01

    Coated particle fuel has been proposed recently for use in Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) and Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) for a variety of space missions requiring power levels from mWs to 10's or even hundreds of Watts. It can be made into different shapes and sizes of solid compacts, heating tapes, or paints. Using a conservative design approach, this fuel form could increase by 2.3-2.4 times the thermal power output of a LWRHU, while offering promise of enhanced safety. These performance figures are based on using single-size (500 μm) compacts of ZrC coated 238PuO2 kernels and assuming 10% and 5% He release, respectively, at 1723 K, following 10 years of storage. Using binary-size (300 and 1200 μm) fuel kernels in the compact increases the thermal power output by an additional 15%. 238PuO2 fuel kernels are intentionally sized (>=300 μm in diameter) to prevent any adverse radiological effects. They are non-respirable and non-inhalable and, if ingested, would simply be excreted with no radiological effects. The 238PuO2 fuel kernels are contained within a strong ZrC coating, which is designed to fully retain the fuel and the helium gas. Helium retention in large grain (>=300 μm) granular and polycrystalline fuel kernels is possible even at high temperatures (>1700 K). The former could be fabricated using binderless agglomeration or similar processes, while the latter could be fabricated using Sol-Gel or thermal plasma processes, with potentially less radioactive waste and fabrication contamination. In addition to summarizing the results of a recent effort investigating the performance of coated fuel particle compact (CPFC) and helium gas release, this paper identifies and discusses future research and testing needs. .

  13. A graph-based approach for designing extensible pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Maíra R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bioinformatics, it is important to build extensible and low-maintenance systems that are able to deal with the new tools and data formats that are constantly being developed. The traditional and simplest implementation of pipelines involves hardcoding the execution steps into programs or scripts. This approach can lead to problems when a pipeline is expanding because the incorporation of new tools is often error prone and time consuming. Current approaches to pipeline development such as workflow management systems focus on analysis tasks that are systematically repeated without significant changes in their course of execution, such as genome annotation. However, more dynamism on the pipeline composition is necessary when each execution requires a different combination of steps. Results We propose a graph-based approach to implement extensible and low-maintenance pipelines that is suitable for pipeline applications with multiple functionalities that require different combinations of steps in each execution. Here pipelines are composed automatically by compiling a specialised set of tools on demand, depending on the functionality required, instead of specifying every sequence of tools in advance. We represent the connectivity of pipeline components with a directed graph in which components are the graph edges, their inputs and outputs are the graph nodes, and the paths through the graph are pipelines. To that end, we developed special data structures and a pipeline system algorithm. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach by implementing a format conversion pipeline for the fields of population genetics and genetic epidemiology, but our approach is also helpful in other fields where the use of multiple software is necessary to perform comprehensive analyses, such as gene expression and proteomics analyses. The project code, documentation and the Java executables are available under an open source license at http://code.google.com/p/dynamic-pipeline

  14. Technical and Economical Aspects of Current Thermal Barrier Coating Systems for Gas Turbine Engines by Thermal Spray and EBPVD: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Albert; Knapp, James; Taylor, Thomas; Ashary, Adil; Bolcavage, Ann; Hitchman, Neil

    2008-06-01

    The most advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems for aircraft engine and power generation hot section components consist of electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) applied yttria-stabilized zirconia and platinum modified diffusion aluminide bond coating. Thermally sprayed ceramic and MCrAlY bond coatings, however, are still used extensively for combustors and power generation blades and vanes. This article highlights the key features of plasma spray and HVOF, diffusion aluminizing, and EBPVD coating processes. The coating characteristics of thermally sprayed MCrAlY bond coat as well as low density and dense vertically cracked (DVC) Zircoat TBC are described. Essential features of a typical EBPVD TBC coating system, consisting of a diffusion aluminide and a columnar TBC, are also presented. The major coating cost elements such as material, equipment and processing are explained for the different technologies, with a performance and cost comparison given for selected examples.

  15. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    .... On October 18, 2010 (75 FR 63774) PHMSA published an ANPRM titled ``Pipeline Safety: Safety of On... rules (65 FR 75378; 12/1/ 2000 and 67 FR 2136; 1/16/2002) requiring IM Programs for hazardous liquid pipeline operators. In 2003, similar IM regulations were enacted for gas pipelines (68 FR 69778;...

  16. Robotics Vision-Based System of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for an Underwater Pipeline Tracker%自主式水下机器人的光视觉管道探测跟踪系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾文静; 徐玉如; 万磊; 张铁栋

    2012-01-01

    The detection and tracking of underwater pipeline based on monocular vision system of AUV(autonomous underwater vehicle) were addressed.An integrated vision system including software and hardware structure was designed.The feature of underwater pipeline image was analyzed and according to that,corresponding pre-processing method was proposed.An improved Hough transforming was advanced to obtain pipeline contour.Pipeline reference zone was estimated to increase the accuracy and decrease the time cost of pipeline tracking.Finally,the system was validated to be effective and feasible through the tank experiments.%研究了自主式水下机器人(AUV)利用单目光视觉系统对水下管道的检测跟踪问题,对实现该方法的各个过程从硬件组成和软件体系结构两方面进行了阐述,从而完成了一整套水下光视觉系统的软、硬件设计.分析了水下管道图像的特点,结合该特点阐述了图像预处理过程,提出了一种改进的Hough变换方法,改善了管道边界的提取效果.同时采用管道参考区域预测方法,提高了管道的检测率以及实时性,并利用水池试验对系统的可行性和有效性进行了验证.

  17. Submarine Pipeline Routing Risk Quantitative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 于莉; 胡云昌; 王金英

    2004-01-01

    A new method for submarine pipeline routing risk quantitative analysis was provided, and the study was developed from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis.The characteristics of the potential risk of the submarine pipeline system were considered, and grey-mode identification theory was used. The study process was composed of three parts: establishing the indexes system of routing risk quantitative analysis, establishing the model of grey-mode identification for routing risk quantitative analysis, and establishing the standard of mode identification result. It is shown that this model can directly and concisely reflect the hazard degree of the routing through computing example, and prepares the routing selection for the future.

  18. China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP), which belongs to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), authorizes China Petroleum Pipeline Engineering Corporation (CPPE) a subsidiary of CPP, to perform Overseas Business on behalf of it.

  19. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  20. Pipelined Two-Operand Modular Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Czyzak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipelined two-operand modular adder (TOMA is one of basic components used in digital signal processing (DSP systems that use the residue number system (RNS. Such modular adders are used in binary/residue and residue/binary converters, residue multipliers and scalers as well as within residue processing channels. The design of pipelined TOMAs is usually obtained by inserting an appriopriate number of latch layers inside a nonpipelined TOMA structure. Hence their area is also determined by the number of latches and the delay by the number of latch layers. In this paper we propose a new pipelined TOMA that is based on a new TOMA, that has the smaller area and smaller delay than other known structures. Comparisons are made using data from the very large scale of integration (VLSI standard cell library.

  1. 面向异构并行计算系统的流水线式压缩检查点%Pipelined Compressed Checkpointing for Heterogeneous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇鹏; 王锋; 卢凯; 刘勇燕

    2012-01-01

    Checkpointing is an effective technique to improve the reliability of large scale parallel computing systems.Data compression is a promising technique to reduce the size of data to be saved in the files in the storage subsystem and the amount of data to go through the communication subsystem. However, compression causes a huge amount of time overhead. The time overhead is the main technical barrier of its practical usability. In this paper, we propose a parallel compressed checkpointing technique to reduce the time overhead of compression in heterogenous architectures. It integrates a number of optimization techniques, which include transmitting checkpointing data between host and GPU in buffered pipelines, aggregating file write operations, employing a pipelined parallel compression algorithm, and delegating compression operations to GPU,etc. The paper reports an implementation of the technique in the TH-1 system and the evaluation experiments with the system. The experiment data show that the technique is efficient and practically useable.%在大规模并行计算系统中,并行检查点触发大量结点同时保存计算状态,造成巨大文件存储空间开销,以及对通信和存储系统的巨大访问压力.数据压缩可以缩小检查点文件尺寸,从而降低存储空间开销以及对通信和存储系统的访问压力.但是,它也带来额外的压缩计算开销.本文针对异构并行计算系统,提出流水线式并行压缩检查点技术,采用一系列优化技术来降低压缩引入的计算延时,包括:流水线式双重写缓存队列、文件写操作的合并、GPU加速的流水压缩算法和GPU资源的多进程调度,等等.本文介绍了该技术在天河一号系统中的实现,并对所实现的检查点系统进行综合评测.实验数据表明该方法在大规模异构并行计算系统中是可行、高效、实用的.

  2. Reinforcement of dented pipeline through composite sleeve repair systems subjected to fatigue by internal pressure; Reparos de dutos com amassamento atraves de luvas de materiais compositos submetidos a fadiga por pressao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrut, Valber Azevedo; Meniconi, Luiz Claudio de Marco [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Materiais, Equipamentos e Corrosao (Brazil)], e-mails: vperrut@petrobras.com.br, meniconi@petrobras.com.br; Souza Filho, Byron Goncalvez de [Transpetro (Brazil)], e-mail: byron.souza@petrobras.com.br

    2008-12-15

    Composite sleeve repair systems, now of widespread use in the market, were originally developed for the reinforcement of corroded pipelines. TRANSPETRO, the Brazilian pipeline operator, requested PETROBRAS/CENPES to address the behavior of sleeves when applied to dented pipelines. Simple verification experiments were carried out, in which both the dent filler material and the sleeve material were varied. Artificial dents with depths of 19% OD were imposed to 22 in. OD, 0.5 in. thick, API 5L X60 tubular specimens. Concrete and polymeric materials were tested for dent filler, whereas glass and carbon fiber composites, in two different thicknesses, were tried as the sleeve structural material. The main purpose of the repair sleeve in this case is to provide a repair procedure installed at low temperature and capable of reducing the stress range at the hot spot in the dent. The goal is to improve the fatigue resistance of the repaired pipeline. Low cycle fatigue tests were performed, both using non-repaired specimens (to serve as the basis for comparison) and specimens repaired using different schemes. The tests were fully instrumented to analyze strains in each specimen. After the fatigue tests, each specimen was pressurized until collapse, in order to quantify their ultimate strength. This paper reports the main results of the tests and the strain analysis for each repaired specimen, with the purpose of defining parameters which will serve to the design of future cases. (author)

  3. 49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195.559 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material for external corrosion control...

  4. Effects of Chromate and Non-Chromate Coating Systems on Environmentally Assisted Fatigue of an Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubbe, Joel J.; Westmoreland, Sophoria N.

    2014-10-01

    Fatigue crack growth testing of 2024-T3 Aluminum plate was performed using compact tension (CT) specimens with chromate and non-chromate primer paint systems to evaluate the effects of the coatings on fatigue crack growth rates. The tests were conducted in lab air and sea water environments for each of the coating systems. Standard E399 CT specimens were tested to determine the influence level of environmentally assisted cracking (corrosion fatigue) on crack growth rates and cyclic count to prescribed pre-crack and final crack lengths. Increasing stress range (Δ K) tests were conducted at 10 Hz in the range of 6.5 to 26.5 MPa. It was determined that the coated specimens exhibited a 12% shorter total life, on average, than the bare specimens for the lab air cases. In the case of salt water exposure, the coated specimens exhibited approximately 10% life increase over the bare specimens. The number of cycles to the 2.54 mm pre-crack length for the coated specimens was all less than the cycle count for the bare tests. In each case (coated or bare), there was an increased growth rate at the lower stress ranges in the salt water environment, with the chromate system case displaying the smallest change (increase). It can be concluded that the coated specimens initiate cracks and propagate faster than the bare specimens for short cracks at low stress range, but the environmental influence on the specimens is quickly overshadowed as the cracks elongate and the rate of growth increases. The coated specimens exhibited a higher total life cycle count to final crack length for this testing.

  5. Irradiated-Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA): an integrated system for HTGR coated particle fuel performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kania, M.J.; Valentine, K.H.

    1980-02-01

    The Irradiated-Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA) System, designed and built at ORNL, provides the capability of making statistically accurate failure fraction measurements on irradiated HTGR coated particle fuel. The IMGA records the gamma-ray energy spectra from fuel particles and performs quantitative analyses on these spectra; then, using chemical and physical properties of the gamma emitters it makes a failed-nonfailed decision concerning the ability of the coatings to retain fission products. Actual retention characteristics for the coatings are determined by measuring activity ratios for certain gamma emitters such as /sup 137/Cs//sup 95/Zr and /sup 144/Ce//sup 95/Zr for metallic fission product retention and /sup 134/Cs//sup 137/Cs for an indirect measure of gaseous fission product retention. Data from IMGA (which can be put in the form of n failures observed in N examinations) can be accurately described by the binomial probability distribution model. Using this model, a mathematical relationship between IMGA data (n,N), failure fraction, and confidence level was developed. To determine failure fractions of less than or equal to 1% at confidence levels near 95%, this model dictates that from several hundred to several thousand particles must be examined. The automated particle handler of the IMGA system provides this capability. As a demonstration of failure fraction determination, fuel rod C-3-1 from the OF-2 irradiation capsule was analyzed and failure fraction statistics were applied. Results showed that at the 1% failure fraction level, with a 95% confidence level, the fissile particle batch could not meet requirements; however, the fertile particle exceeded these requirements for the given irradiation temperature and burnup.

  6. Configuration Analysis of Deepwater S-Lay Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Shun-feng; CHEN Kai; CHEN Yuan; JIN Wei-liang; LI Zhi-gang; ZHAO Dong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The safety of offshore pipeline has drawn a great deal of attention during deepwater installation due to the combined actions of high external pressure,axial tension,and bending moment.Meanwhile,the pipeline configuration has a remarkable effect on the structural behaviour of the tube.The special studies focus on the deepwater S-lay technique in the present paper.The stiffened catenary theory is applied to establish the static equilibrium governing differential equation of a pipe element,and the solution equations of the total pipeline configuration from a lay-barge over a stinger to the seabed are derived.The numerical iteration method for solving pipeline configuration is described in detail,and the corresponding program is developed to conduct the analysis of effects of various parameters such as laying water depth,pipe diameter,thickness of concrete weighted coating layer,stinger length,control strain,and axial tension on pipeline configuration.The results show that the laying water depth,the submerged weight of the pipe,and the axial tension are the critical factors influencing pipeline configuration.In addition,geometrical parameters of the stinger such as length,radius,and shape have an important effect on the pipe-laying capacity of the vessel.The validity of the program is further verified by means of a comparison with results obtained from the commercial finite element software OFFPIPE.

  7. Sinopec: Pipeline Goes Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ye

    2002-01-01

    @@ Asia's largest refinery, Sinopec Corp, will proceed with a 1,600-kilometre oil pipeline across southern provinces of China, although speculation continues to linger that the company will scrap the plan due to a postponement of the multi-million-dollar project.

  8. Transient cavitation in pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to set up a one-dimensional mathematical model, which describes the transient flow in pipelines, taking into account the influence of cavitation and free gas. The flow will be conceived of as a three-phase flow of the liquid, its vapour and non-condensible gas. The wa

  9. Inside-pipe hydrophobic coating method promoting dropwise condensation in a passive cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Submerged by large tsunami, active cooling system was not operated to cool down decay heat. Likewise, station black out can lead to severe accident so that the necessity of cooling system without requesting any electric power was stressed out. Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System(PAFS) is one of the passive cooling systems suggested by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). It has hundreds of slightly inclined horizontal U-shaped pipes submerged in a large water pool. Under the accident circumstances, this system cools steam that comes from the steam generator into condensed water inside the pipes without any electric power. These pipes are made of stainless steel 304L, with the diameter of 50 mm, and the length of 8 m. The main heat transfer phenomenon inside a pipe is the condensation phenomenon. There are two modes of condensation: one is filmwise condensation(FWC) and the other is dropwise condensation(DWC). On a surface wetted by a liquid well, FWC occurs to form liquid film. The final goal of this study is to increase cooling capacity of passive safety system like PAFS. Up to now, the attempts to increase condensation heat transfer were limited to make finned tube. DWC which has higher heat transfer coefficient was only promoted on vertical plates or external pipes. By promoting DWC inside a pipe, condensation heat transfer will be fundamentally enhanced. In this paper, hydrophobic coating inside a pipe method will be presented for promoting DWC, and its condensation heat transfer performance will be evaluated by conducting condensation experiment on a vertical plate. The inside-pipe hydrophobic coating method was developed using Teflon, and it was checked that DWC was promoted by this method with visualization results. At the saturation pressure of 145kPa, average heat transfer coefficient for DWC was 53.3 kW/m''2/K, and that for FWC was 13.5 kW/m''2/K. Based on this results, it can be concluded that this coating method will

  10. Inside-pipe hydrophobic coating method promoting dropwise condensation in a passive cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Joo Won; Kang, Jun Young; Hwang, Kyoung Won; Park, Hyun Sun; Kiyofumi, Moriyama [POSTECH, Pohang(Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Korea Institute of nuclear safety, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Submerged by large tsunami, active cooling system was not operated to cool down decay heat. Likewise, station black out can lead to severe accident so that the necessity of cooling system without requesting any electric power was stressed out. Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System(PAFS) is one of the passive cooling systems suggested by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). It has hundreds of slightly inclined horizontal U-shaped pipes submerged in a large water pool. Under the accident circumstances, this system cools steam that comes from the steam generator into condensed water inside the pipes without any electric power. These pipes are made of stainless steel 304L, with the diameter of 50 mm, and the length of 8 m. The main heat transfer phenomenon inside a pipe is the condensation phenomenon. There are two modes of condensation: one is filmwise condensation(FWC) and the other is dropwise condensation(DWC). On a surface wetted by a liquid well, FWC occurs to form liquid film. The final goal of this study is to increase cooling capacity of passive safety system like PAFS. Up to now, the attempts to increase condensation heat transfer were limited to make finned tube. DWC which has higher heat transfer coefficient was only promoted on vertical plates or external pipes. By promoting DWC inside a pipe, condensation heat transfer will be fundamentally enhanced. In this paper, hydrophobic coating inside a pipe method will be presented for promoting DWC, and its condensation heat transfer performance will be evaluated by conducting condensation experiment on a vertical plate. The inside-pipe hydrophobic coating method was developed using Teflon, and it was checked that DWC was promoted by this method with visualization results. At the saturation pressure of 145kPa, average heat transfer coefficient for DWC was 53.3 kW/m''2/K, and that for FWC was 13.5 kW/m''2/K. Based on this results, it can be concluded that this coating method will

  11. Responding to a northern pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klatt, T.J. [Alaska North Slope LNG Project, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The challenges regarding the construction of a pipeline to transport LNG from the Alaska North Slope Liquefied Natural Gas Project were discussed. The LNG will be transported by an 800 mile buried pipeline from the Prudhoe Bay area to a liquefaction plant at an ice-free port in southern Alaska. The project is expected to begin in 2008. The isolated arctic region and permafrost add to the challenges of this project. The first challenge of synchronizing the pipeline's operating pressure with the LNG plant's inlet pressure to achieve maximum efficiencies has been addressed. Secondly, an advanced method to designing and operating a gas pipeline in discontinuous permafrost was evaluated and new construction methods were developed for trenching areas and winter construction. Stage one of the conceptual study which defines the project and minimizes costs has also been completed. More work, however, is still needed to transform the project from concept to reality. Alternative methods are still needed to construct a safe, environmentally sound and economically viable arctic gas pipeline system. 4 figs.

  12. Fiber optic accelerometer for pipeline surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Luiz C.G.; Cabral, Bruno S. [LUPATECH Monitoring Systems, Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Braga, Arthur M.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    The use of accelerometers for monitoring vibration due to impacts and other sources associated with pipeline operation is not new, but conventional electric accelerometers present practical problems to be deployed in the field. In this paper we evaluate the use of both commercially available and prototypes of new optical fiber accelerometers for this application. They all share the possibility of operating at long distances from the reading unit. All tests were performed at CTDUT facilities on free pipes as well as on a 14 pol-OD, 100 meters long pipeline loop. Using controlled impacts, several aspects of the application have been analyzed such as different ways of fixing the accelerometers to the pipeline wall, influence of barriers between impact and sensor, and signal propagation through buried sections of pipeline. Results of measurements performed during the operation of the loop are also presented. They include passing PIGs, pumping water out from the system, and working on the tubes to open the loop. Results indicate that the accelerometers can be placed at distances measuring hundreds of meters from the source of vibration, and that the difference in time and frequency behavior of signals measured by sensors placed in different locations along the pipeline may be used to locate and identify that source. (author)

  13. Creep behavior of plasma sprayed NiCr and NiCrAl coating-based systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiancheng ZHANG; Changjun LIU; Fuzhen XUAN; Zhengdong WANG; Shan-Tung TU

    2011-01-01

    The creep behavior of the plasma sprayed NiCr and NiCrAl coating/Nickel alloy 690substrate systems at 1033 K was investigated. Results showed that there was almost no difference in the creep lives between the NiCr and NiCrAl coated specimens at a given stress level, since the contents of Cr used in the NiCr and NiCrAl powders are almost same. The relationship between the minimum creep rate and the applied stress followed the well-known Norton's power law, εmin=Aσn, with the values of A=2.66× 10-16 Mpa-n.h-1 and n=6.48. The relation between the applied stress and time to rupture of the coated specimens can be estimated by using Larson-Miller equation. The θ projection method can be used to accurately characterize the creep behavior of the coated specimens.

  14. Development of an automated imaging pipeline for the analysis of the zebrafish larval kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens H Westhoff

    Full Text Available The analysis of kidney malformation caused by environmental influences during nephrogenesis or by hereditary nephropathies requires animal models allowing the in vivo observation of developmental processes. The zebrafish has emerged as a useful model system for the analysis of vertebrate organ development and function, and it is suitable for the identification of organotoxic or disease-modulating compounds on a larger scale. However, to fully exploit its potential in high content screening applications, dedicated protocols are required allowing the consistent visualization of inner organs such as the embryonic kidney. To this end, we developed a high content screening compatible pipeline for the automated imaging of standardized views of the developing pronephros in zebrafish larvae. Using a custom designed tool, cavities were generated in agarose coated microtiter plates allowing for accurate positioning and orientation of zebrafish larvae. This enabled the subsequent automated acquisition of stable and consistent dorsal views of pronephric kidneys. The established pipeline was applied in a pilot screen for the analysis of the impact of potentially nephrotoxic drugs on zebrafish pronephros development in the Tg(wt1b:EGFP transgenic line in which the developing pronephros is highlighted by GFP expression. The consistent image data that was acquired allowed for quantification of gross morphological pronephric phenotypes, revealing concentration dependent effects of several compounds on nephrogenesis. In addition, applicability of the imaging pipeline was further confirmed in a morpholino based model for cilia-associated human genetic disorders associated with different intraflagellar transport genes. The developed tools and pipeline can be used to study various aspects in zebrafish kidney research, and can be readily adapted for the analysis of other organ systems.

  15. 基于SPS成品油管道仿真培训系统研究%Multi-product Pipeline Simulation Training System based on SPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆春; 任泽

    2015-01-01

    根据SPS作为后台计算程序,力控作为前台界面开发成品油管道的仿真培训系统,讨论其数据交互的模式.SPS开放了API和OPC等接口,力控同时也开放了API、OPC和DDE等接口,当需要实现数据交互时可以适当的选择进行对接,讲解了API-API、API-DDE、API-OPC和OPC-OPC四种对接模式,同时也对4种模式的具体实现操作和优劣对比进行了叙述.%This paper discusses a data interactive mode by taking SPS as background process and force control as a multi-product pipeline simulation training system. The SPS opens API and OPC interfaces, and the force control opens the API, OPC and DDE interfaces. The system can be appropriately selected for docking when it needs to implement the data interaction. The paper introduces such 4 docking mode as API-API, API-DDE, API-OPC and OPC-OPC, and describes the typical implement operation and the comparison of advantages and disadvantages of these four modes.

  16. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks. A Review of Key Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Antonia, O. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines. Blending hydrogen into the existing natural gas pipeline network has also been proposed as a means of increasing the output of renewable energy systems such as large wind farms.

  17. 78 FR 71033 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revisions to Incident and Annual Reports for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    .... NORMAC proposes that PHMSA use the same definition of ``Cause'' in both the Incident Report and the MFF..., Revisions to Incident and Annual Reports for Gas Pipeline Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems; PHMSA F 7100.2-1 Annual Report for Calendar Year 20xx Natural...

  18. Teaching Scientific Computing: A Model-Centered Approach to Pipeline and Parallel Programming with C

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimiras Dolgopolovas; Valentina Dagienė; Saulius Minkevičius; Leonidas Sakalauskas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present an approach to the introduction into pipeline and parallel computing, using a model of the multiphase queueing system. Pipeline computing, including software pipelines, is among the key concepts in modern computing and electronics engineering. The modern computer science and engineering education requires a comprehensive curriculum, so the introduction to pipeline and parallel computing is the essential topic to be included in the curriculum. At the same ti...

  19. Prediction of response and damaged length of a subsea pipeline after a full bore rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Mashayekh, Kourosh

    2012-01-01

    The combination of oil and gas reservoirs in sea areas with high shipping traffic brings some challenges for engineers. One of these challenges is related to subsea pipeline systems specially where water depth is classified as shallow or intermediate. Due to large number of vessels passing the area with shallow water depth, interaction between anchors of these vessels and the offshore pipeline can occur. If a dragging anchor hits and subsequently hooks the pipeline, the pipeline could be rupt...

  20. The Study of Deposition Parameters, Properties for PVD TixN and CrxN Coatings Using a Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin Sun; Susan Field; Jian Chen; Dennis. G. Teer

    2004-01-01

    Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating (CFUBMSIP) systems have been used increasingly for PVD coating in recent years. TiN and CrN coatings, commonly used as the basic coating for a number of different hard coatings, have been chosen to study the coating process parameters for the CFUBMSIP system. In this paper, the process parameters, such as substrate temperature, substrate bias and OEM control, have been carefully examined to achieve hard and wear-resistance coatings with good adhesion. The coating structure and orientation were found to change according to the coating parameters. The Rockwell test and Scratch test were carried out to examine the coating adhesion; pin-on-disc testing was used to estimate the wear-resistant; micro-hardness was also used to determine coating hardness. HSS drill testing has been carried out to study the general properties of the coating for cutting tool application. A combination of process parameters can be selected to achieve good performance for the TiN and CrN coatings.