Sample records for pioneer emma chadwick

  1. Emma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austen, Jane


    When Emma Woodhouse sets out on a career of match-making in the little town of Highbury she manages to cause confusion at every step. Jane Austen was particularly proud of Emma, in which she takes apart the desires and foibles of small-town society with unnerving accuracy.

  2. EMMA: Towards multicultural learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kerr


    Full Text Available Interest on the part of European Institutions to explore the potential of MOOCs for providing the kind of inclusive and multicultural education that was needed for 21st century learners was confirmed by funding of projects such as EMMA ( The definition of “European” for the EMMA consortium was based on diversity - of culture, language and approach - and integration of the same. This paper looks at how EMMA is responding to the challenge of embracing diversity and integration in the same technological artefact through the use of embedded translation services, and an experimental PLE. We will also introduce the ad hoc evaluation services that are designed to test the impact of the EMMA concept.

  3. Introduction - Chadwick discovers the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.


    The background to Chadwick's discovery in 1932 of the neutron predicted by Rutherford is chronicled. In the same year Cockcroft and Walton split the atom, and the story of this event is told. 1932 also saw the demonstration by Blackett and Occhialini of the existence of the positron. These important contributions to nuclear physics were all made at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. Photographs, extracts from experimental notebooks and circuit diagrams illustrate this introduction. (UK)

  4. Reading embodied consciousness in "Emma". (United States)

    Harbus, Antonina


    The language of Emma (1815) reflects Jane Austen's developing view of embodied consciousness and her particular interest in this novel in the physical manifestations of emotions, such as blushes and nervous responses. The discursive exploration of the inner life in Emma is the product of a cultural context that features emerging brain science and Austen's own conceptualization of the psychophysical nature of emotions. This article analyzes the language of mind and emotion in Emma, to contend that Austen grapples with the implications of the idea of embodied consciousness in a narrative that contrasts mind reading with interpreting the body.

  5. James Chadwick Nobel Prize for Physics 1935. Discovery of the neutron; James Chadwick Premio Nobel de Fisica 1935. Descubrimiento del neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    James Chadwick (1981-1974) was a key figure in the field of nuclear science. Through his studies, he researched the disintegration of atoms by bombarding alpha particles and proved the existence of neutrons. For this discovery, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1935. (Author)

  6. EMMA Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Muratori, B D; Saveliev, Y M; Smith, S L; Tzenov, S I; Holder, D J; Berg, J S; Keil, E; Johnstone, C; Koscielniak, S R


    EMMA (Elec­tron Ma­chine with Many Ap­pli­ca­tions) is a pro­to­type non-scal­ing elec­tron FFAG to be host­ed at Dares­bury Lab­o­ra­to­ry. NS-FFAGs re­lat­ed to EMMA have an un­prece­dent­ed po­ten­tial for med­i­cal ac­cel­er­a­tors for car­bon and pro­ton hadron ther­a­py. It also rep­re­sents a pos­si­ble ac­tive el­e­ment for an ADSR (Ac­cel­er­a­tor Driv­en Sub-crit­i­cal Re­ac­tor). This paper sum­maris­es the com­mis­sion­ing plans for this ma­chine to­geth­er with the major steps and ex­per­i­ments in­volved along the way. A de­scrip­tion of how the 10 to 20 MeV beam is achieved with­in ALICE is also given, as well as ex­trac­tion from the EMMA ring to the di­ag­nos­tics line and then dump.

  7. Emma Goldman: A Study in Female Agitation. (United States)

    Berry, Elizabeth

    The role of the agitator in society and the special characteristics of women agitators--in particular, Emma Goldman, an American anarchist from the early twentieth century--are discussed in this paper. Specific examples of the rhetoric used by Emma Goldman in her speeches (supporting anarchism, against women's suffrage, against abortion control,…

  8. Chadwick: Symphony No. 3 in F; Barber: Vanessa-Intermezzo / Andrew Achenbach

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Achenbach, Andrew


    Uuest heliplaadist "Chadwick: Symphony No. 3 in F; Barber: Vanessa-Intermezzo, Under the Willow Tree. Music for a scene from Shelley, Op. 7. Medea's Meditation and Dance of Vengeance, Op. 23a. Detroit Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi." Chandos CD CHAN 9253

  9. James Chadwick Nobel Prize for Physics 1935. Discovery of the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    James Chadwick (1981-1974) was a key figure in the field of nuclear science. Through his studies, he researched the disintegration of atoms by bombarding alpha particles and proved the existence of neutrons. For this discovery, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1935. (Author)

  10. Nonlinear kinematics for piezoelectricity in ALEGRA-EMMA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, John Anthony; Fuller, Timothy Jesse


    This report develops and documents nonlinear kinematic relations needed to implement piezoelectric constitutive models in ALEGRA-EMMA [5], where calculations involving large displacements and rotations are routine. Kinematic relationships are established using Gausss law and Faradays law; this presentation on kinematics goes beyond piezoelectric materials and is applicable to all dielectric materials. The report then turns to practical details of implementing piezoelectric models in an application code where material principal axes are rarely aligned with user defined problem coordinate axes. This portion of the report is somewhat pedagogical but is necessary in order to establish documentation for the piezoelectric implementation in ALEGRA-EMMA. This involves transforming elastic, piezoelectric, and permittivity moduli from material principal axes to problem coordinate axes. The report concludes with an overview of the piezoelectric implementation in ALEGRA-EMMA and small verification examples.

  11. EMMA The World's First Non-scaling FFAG

    CERN Document Server

    Edgecock, R; Machida, S; Beard, C; Bliss, N; Clarke, J; Hill, C; Jamison, S; Kalinin, A; Marinov, K; Marks, N; Martlew, B; McIntosh, P; Muratori, B; Owen, H; Saveliev, Yu; Shepherd, B; Smith, R; Smith, S; Tzenov, S; White, C; Wooldridge, E; Berg, J S; Trbojevic, D; Craddock, M; Koscielniak, S; Crisp, J; Johnstone, C; Giboudot, Y; Keil, E; Méot, F; Yokoi, T


    EMMA – the Electron Model of Many Applications – is to be built at the STFC Daresbury Laboratory in the UK and will be the first non-scaling FFAG ever constructed. EMMA will be used to demonstrate the principle of this type of accelerator and study its features in detail. The design of the machine and its hardware components are now far advanced and construction is due for completion in Autumn 2009.

  12. Emma Goldman: Crusader for Children (United States)

    Denman, Joy


    Author concentrates not on the fiery anarchism for which "Red" Emma Goldman was internationally famous, but on the dilemmas of an anarchist-educator as reflected in her attitude toward children. (Editor/RK)

  13. EMMA: a new paradigm in configurable software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogiec, J. M.; Trombly-Freytag, K.


    EMMA is a framework designed to create a family of configurable software systems, with emphasis on extensibility and flexibility. It is based on a loosely coupled, event driven architecture. The EMMA framework has been built upon the premise of composing software systems from independent components. It opens up opportunities for reuse of components and their functionality and composing them together in many different ways. As a result, it provides the developer of test and measurement applications with a lightweight alternative to microservices, while sharing their various advantages, including composability, loose coupling, encapsulation, and reuse.

  14. EMMA: a new paradigm in configurable software (United States)

    Nogiec, J. M.; Trombly-Freytag, K.


    EMMA is a framework designed to create a family of configurable software systems, with emphasis on extensibility and flexibility. It is based on a loosely coupled, event driven architecture. The EMMA framework has been built upon the premise of composing software systems from independent components. It opens up opportunities for reuse of components and their functionality and composing them together in many different ways. It provides the developer of test and measurement applications with a lightweight alternative to microservices, while sharing their various advantages, including composability, loose coupling, encapsulation, and reuse.

  15. EMMA - gordost Finljandii / Viktoria Panova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Panova, Viktoria


    Soomes Espoos avati uus kaasaegse kunsti muuseum EMMA (Espoo Museum of Modern Art). Põhiekspositsiooni kõrval saab näha nelja ajutist näitust: Kazimir Malevitshi maale, ühenduse "Bubnovõi valet" loomingut, Shirin Neshati foto- ja videoloomingut ning Timo Kelaranta fotokunsti

  16. Amando de olhos abertos: Emma Goldman e o dissenso político nos EUA Loving with open eyes: Emma Goldman and the political dissent in the Unites States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Azevedo


    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a trajetória de Emma Goldman, grande nome do anarquismo, pacifismo e feminismo nos EUA, procurando apresentá- la como uma representante da chamada tradição de dissenso neste país que, ao longo de toda sua história, tem disputado os sentidos a serem atribuídos aos ideais nacionais. Em meio à atual guerra no Iraque, a memória e o legado de Emma Goldman vêm sendo recuperados no embate político em torno do sentido do americanismo.This article presents the life of Emma Goldman, who played a central role in the history of anarchism, pacifism and feminism in the United States. In the present days, when a new war is taking place in Iraq, the memory and legacy of Emma Goldman are being reassessed amidst the debate over the political meaning of Americanism.

  17. Learning analytics approach of EMMA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammets, Kairit; Brouns, Francis


    The EMMA project provides a MOOC platform to aggregate and delivers massive open online courses (MOOC) in multiple languages from a variety of European universities. Learning analytics play an important role in MOOCs to support the individual needs of the learner.

  18. Underground cosmic-ray experiment EMMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuusiniemi, P.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.


    EMMA (Experiment with MultiMuon Array) is a new approach to study the composition of cosmic rays at the knee region (1 – 10 PeV). The array will measure the multiplicity and lateral distribution of the high-energy muon component of an air shower and its arrival direction on an event-by-event basis...

  19. The EMMA Non-scaling FFAG

    CERN Document Server

    Edgecock, Thomas; Clarke, James; Griffiths, Stephen; Hill, Clive; Jamison, Steven; Jones, James; Kalinin, Alexander; Marinov, Kiril; Marks, Neil; McIntosh, Peter; Muratori, Bruno; Orrett, Joseph; Saveliev, Yuri; Shepherd, Ben; Smith, Robert; Smith, Susan; Tzenov, Stephan; Wheelhouse, Alan; Berg, J. Scott; Bliss, Neil; Martlew, Brian; White, Christopher; Craddock, Michael; Crisp, James; Johnstone, Carol; Giboudot, Yoel; Keil, Eberhard; Kelliher, David; Machida, Shinji; Koscielniak, Shane; Meot, Francois; Pasternak, Jaroslaw; Sheehy, Suzanne; Yokoi, Takeichiro


    The Elec­tron Model for Many Ap­pli­ca­tions (EMMA) will be the World's first non-scal­ing FFAG and is under con­struc­tion at the STFC Dares­bury Lab­o­ra­to­ry in the UK. Con­struc­tion is due for com­ple­tion in March 2010 and will be fol­lowed by com­mis­sion­ing with beam and a de­tailed ex­per­i­men­tal pro­gramme to study the func­tion­ing of this type of ac­cel­er­a­tor. This paper will give an overview of the mo­ti­va­tion for the pro­ject and de­scribe the EMMA de­sign and hard­ware. The first re­sults from com­mis­sion­ing will be pre­sent­ed in a sep­a­rate paper.

  20. EmmA, An Evolution Memory Management Assistant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCullough, Daryl


    .... EMMA differs from current project management tools in that it manages not only the system requirements that developers must satisfy, but also the context in which the developers develop the system...

  1. Comparison of EMMA Parameter Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, E


    This note compares the results for cell tunes, radial offsets at the centre of the long straight section, and time of flight from five programs in the baseline lattice of EMMA, the FFAG electron model under construction at the Daresbury Laboratory. The results are shown in graphs and tables. Both agreements and disagreements between programs are found.

  2. A different voice: Mary Hays's the Memoirs of Emma Courtney. (United States)

    Sharma, A


    Mary Hays wrote in the decade of the 1790s, a period of intense creative flowering in England. Writing in a period enshrined to the works of the canonical Wordsworth and Coleridge, Hays explored through her Jacobinical novel, The Memoirs of Emma Courtney, the contentious relationship between self and society. Like other Jacobin women writers - Elizabeth Inchbald, Charlotte Smith and Mary Wollstonecraft - Mary Hays too used her novel to explode the insidious connection between education and gender construction. Emma Courtney is a landmark novel that wrestles with the paradigm of decorum and propriety which disallows women from voicing their aspirations. In the process, Hays merges the plots of the domestic novel of courtship and love with the novel of ideas to create a searing portrait of women's intellectual confinement and psychic dissonance in a society that only projects them in terms of their gender construction. Memoirs of Emma Courtney is a remarkable novel in its depiction of the emotional imbalance created by thwarted desire: intellectual and sexual.

  3. Teaching the 'A' Level Text: Emma. (United States)

    Huband, David


    Notes how important it is that any critical writing assignments should take into account the individual reading, and that the teacher's role is to steer discussion that stems from a class of individual readings. Explores some of the aspects of Jane Austen's novel "Emma" to which students readily respond. (HTH)

  4. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.


    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  5. Withstanding trauma: the significance of Emma Eckstein's circumcision to Freud's Irma dream. (United States)

    Bonomi, Carlo


    The author considers the medical rationale for Wilhelm Fliess's operation on Emma Eckstein's nose in February 1895 and interprets the possible role that this played in Freud's dream of Irma's injection five months later. The author's main argument is that Emma likely endured female castration as a child and that she therefore experienced the surgery to her nose in 1895 as a retraumatization of her childhood trauma. The author further argues that Freud's unconscious identification with Emma, which broke through in his dream of Irma's injection with resistances and apotropaic defenses, served to accentuate his own "masculine protest". The understanding brought to light by the present interpretation of Freud's Irma dream, when coupled with our previous knowledge of Freud, allows us to better grasp the unconscious logic and origins of psychoanalysis itself.(1.) © 2013 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.


    CERN Document Server

    Garland, J M; McKenzie, J W; Muratori, B D


    EMMA (ElectronModel with Many Applications) is the first proof-of-principle non-scaling FFAG accelerator and is presently under construction at Daresbury Laboratory in the UK. To probe different parts of the bunch phase space during the acceleration from 10 to 20 MeV (which requires rapid resonance crossing), electron bunches are needed with sufficiently small emittance. To understand the phase space painting into the 3000 mm-mrad EMMA acceptance, we have modelled ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers in Combined Experiments) - which acts as an injector for EMMA - using GPT and compared the estimated emittances with measurements made with a variety of screen-based methods. Although the emittances are not yet as small as desired, we obtain reasonable agreement between simulation and measurement.


    CERN Document Server

    D’Arcy, R T P; Muratori, B D; Jones, J


    EMMA (Elec­tron Ma­chine with Many Ap­pli­ca­tions) is a pro­to­type non-scal­ing Fixed Field Al­ter­nat­ing Gra­di­ent (NS-FFAG) ac­cel­er­a­tor present­ly under con­struc­tion at Dares­bury Lab­o­ra­to­ry, UK. The en­er­gy re­cov­ery linac ALICE will serve as an in­jec­tor for EMMA with­in the en­er­gy range of 10 to 20 MeV. The in­jec­tion line con­sists of a sym­met­ric 30° dog­leg to ex­tract the beam from ALICE, a match­ing sec­tion and a to­mog­ra­phy sec­tion for trans­verse emit­tance mea­sure­ments. This is fol­lowed by a trans­port sec­tion to the in­jec­tion point of the EMMA ring. Com­mis­sion­ing of the EMMA in­jec­tion line start­ed in early 2010. A num­ber of dif­fer­ent in­jec­tion en­er­gy and bunch charge regimes are planned; for some of the regimes the ef­fects of space charge will be sig­nif­i­cant. It is there­fore nec­es­sary to model the elec­tron beam trans­port in this line using a code ca­pa­ble of both...

  8. Analysis on the Tragedy Figure of Gustave Flaubert——Emma in Madam Bovary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Emma is considered to be the most successful character created by Flaubert,though arouse fierce criticize at the time of her first debut. Finally,the novel receives the due respect and attention and Emma,becomes the center of the discussion of numerous readers and critics. In this paper,I would like to provide my analysis of Madam Bovary,focusing on the tragic traits of this character and attempt to fi nd the answers.

  9. Bootcamp EMMA MOOC Assessment for learning in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firssova, Olga; Brouns, Francis


    At the EDEN Conference an introduction to the EMMA platform will be combined with learning activities relevant to the topic of Formative Assessment. EDEN conference participants will have an opportunity to join the MOOC prior to the conference or at the conference. A range of learning activities

  10. Positiivne ränne Baltimaade kunstielus / Emma Duester ; intervjueerinud Laura Põld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Duester, Emma


    Emma Duesteri dissertatsioonist, mille raames uuriti Tallinna, Riia ja Vilniuse päritolu kunstnike sisserännet Suurbritanniasse. Mobiilsusest immigratsiooniküsimuse kontekstis, kunstielust Baltimaades

  11. Garri Potter povzroslel! / Daniel Radcliffe, Emma Watson ; interv. Stass Tõrkin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Radcliffe, Daniel, 1989-


    Peaosatäitja järjekorras neljandas Potteri ekraniseeringus "Harry Potter ja tulepeeker" endast, oma tegelaskuju arengust. Samas ka lühiintervjuu näitlejanna Emma Watsoniga. Režissöör Mike Newell : Suurbritannia-USA 2005

  12. Bravo Emma! Music in the life and work of Charles Darwin. (United States)

    Derry, J F


    The long-term marital dance of Emma and Charles Darwin was set to the routine beat of an almost daily piano recital. Emma was a proficient pianist, and so a quality instrument was a welcome and appropriate house-warming present for their first marital home in London. That same piano accompanied the Darwins on their move to Downe before being upgraded for a newer model, which is still there, whilst another, cheaper piano may have played in Charles Darwin's work, particularly on earthworms. Whilst he lamented his own lack of musicality, Darwin revelled in his wife's prowess, a capacity that he recognised could be inherited, not least through observation of his own children. The evolution of musicality, he reasoned, was rooted in sexual attraction as a form of communication that preceded language.

  13. An Adaptive Display to Treat Stress-Related Disorders: EMMA's World (United States)

    Banos, R. M.; Botella, C.; Guillen, V.; Garcia-Palacios, A.; Quero, S.; Breton-Lopez, J.; Alcaniz, M.


    Most of the virtual environments currently available in the field of psychological treatments were designed to solve a specific problem. Our research group has developed a versatile virtual reality system (an adaptive display) called "EMMA's world", which can address a wide range of problems. It was designed to assist in clinical situations where…

  14. Visuaalisen ilmeen suunnittelu / Make Up Emma Puhakka


    Puhakka, Roosa


    Opinnäytetyössä luon visuaalisen ilmeen meikkitaiteilija Emma Puhakalle. Työni taustaksi olen keskittynyt brändäykseen, brändi-ilmeen luomiseen, henkilöbrändäykseen sekä pohtinut myös brändistrategiaa. Suunnittelutyössä toteutan visuaalisen ilmeen asiakkaalleni ja mallinnan uuden ilmeen jalkautumisen eri materiaaleihin. Suunnittelen mm. logon, yrityksen värimaailman, kuosin ja määrittelen typografian. Opinnäytetyöni lopputulos on brändimanuaali, joka pitää sisällään visuaalisen ilmeen...

  15. Mikropropagasi Dendrobium “Emma Pink” (Orchidaceae pada Media Kultur In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An experiment of micropropagation of the orchid Dendrobium “Emma Pink” on the media Vacin and Went using tissue culture technique has been done. The explant was obtained from the young stem of Dendrobium “Emma Pink”. Induction stage was started by culturing the first, second, third, fourth axilar buds counted from the base of the stem and apical bud. The most potential bud to be used as a source for an explant was identified from the serial culturing of explant on the liquid media with various combinations of growth regulator kinetin and IAA. The media were placed on a shaker at 90 rpm. The second and the third axilar buds were the most potential sources of explant at 10-5 M kinetin and 5.10-7 M IAA, with the degree of success for the formation of protocorm like bodies (protocorm- like bodies were 56.25% and 43.75% respectively. The formation and multiplication of buds were obtained from protocorm-like bodies which were cultured in the solid media in the addition of 10-4 M kinetin and 5.10-6M IAA. The multiplication rate of the buds has continuously increased during the subcultures with an average multiplication rate of 3.25 buds/4 weeks, 4.59 buds/4 weeks, 6.32 buds/4 weeks and 8.80 buds/4 weeks respectively. The roots were formed when the buds were cultured in the solid media by adding 5.10-6 M kinetin and M IAA. The degree of acclimatization success of Dendrobium “Emma Pink” was 93.33% for the rooted bud and 53.33% for the unrooted bud.

  16. iPhone, Android, or Kindle: The Emma S. Clark Memorial Library Has an App for That and So Can You (United States)

    Johnson, Bob; Gutmann, Ted


    If you are like the millions of people buying the latest smartphone, iPhone 5, or Samsung Galaxy S III, your local library should have something to offer you. The Emma S. Clark Memorial Library, for one, has an app for that! Dubbed "Emma Mobile," the library's application works with iOS (Apple), Android (Google), and Amazon Kindle Fire…

  17. Revised age of deglaciation of Lake Emma based on new radiocarbon and macrofossil analyses (United States)

    Elias, S.A.; Carrara, P.E.; Toolin, L.J.; Jull, A.J.T.


    Previous radiocarbon ages of detrital moss fragments in basal organic sediments of Lake Emma indicated that extensive deglaciation of the San Juan Mountains occurred prior to 14,900 yr B.P. (Carrara et al., 1984). Paleoecological analyses of insect and plant macrofossils from these basal sediments cast doubt on the reliability of the radiocarbon ages. Subsequent accelerator radiocarbon dates of insect fossils and wood fragments indicate an early Holocene age, rather than a late Pleistocene age, for the basal sediments of Lake Emma. These new radiocarbon ages suggest that by at least 10,000 yr B.P. deglaciation of the San Juan Mountains was complete. The insect and plant macrofossils from the basal organic sediments indicate a higher-than-present treeline during the early Holocene. The insect assemblages consisted of about 30% bark beetles, which contrasts markedly with the composition of insects from modern lake sediments and modern specimens collected in the Lake Emma cirque, in which bark beetles comprise only about 3% of the assemblages. In addition, in the fossil assemblages there were a number of flightless insect species (not subject to upslope transport by wind) indicative of coniferous forest environments. These insects were likewise absent in the modern assemblage. ?? 1991.

  18. The importance of the discovery of the neutron by J. Chadwick to the development of nuclear physics and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeliger, D.


    The discovery of the neutron by J. Chadwick in 1932 was a milestone in the development of nuclear physics and technology. Apart from basic findings on the structure of atomic nuclei, this discovery has found various fields of application among which nuclear power technology is the most important. The relation between historical impact and topicality of certain objects of investigation in neutron physics is outlined on the basis of some lines of development. (author)

  19. Astrid-2 EMMA Magnetic Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter; Risbo, Torben


    The Swedish micro-satellite Astrid-2 contains a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer with the sensor co-located with a Technical University of Denmark (DTU) star camera for absolute attitude, and extended about 0.9 m on a hinged boom. The magnetometer is part of the RIT EMMA electric and magnetic fields...... experiment built as a collaboration between the DTU, Department of Automation and the Department of Plasma Physics, The Alfvenlaboratory, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT), Stockholm. The final magnetic calibration of the Astrid-2 satellite was done at the Lovoe Magnetic Observatory under the Geological...... Survey of Sweden near Stockholm on the night of May 15.-16., 1997. The magnetic calibration and the intercalibration between the star camera and the magnetic sensor was performed by measuring the Earth's magnetic field and simultaneously observing the star sky with the camera. The rotation matrix between...

  20. EPA data for EMMA of Peatland Discharge to an Alaskan Stream Journal of Hydrology 2015 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains primarily the EPA generated data for the EMMA (End-Member-Mixing Analysis) model that was presented in the associated J. of Hydrology (2015)...

  1. EMMA: An Extensible Mammalian Modular Assembly Toolkit for the Rapid Design and Production of Diverse Expression Vectors. (United States)

    Martella, Andrea; Matjusaitis, Mantas; Auxillos, Jamie; Pollard, Steven M; Cai, Yizhi


    Mammalian plasmid expression vectors are critical reagents underpinning many facets of research across biology, biomedical research, and the biotechnology industry. Traditional cloning methods often require laborious manual design and assembly of plasmids using tailored sequential cloning steps. This process can be protracted, complicated, expensive, and error-prone. New tools and strategies that facilitate the efficient design and production of bespoke vectors would help relieve a current bottleneck for researchers. To address this, we have developed an extensible mammalian modular assembly kit (EMMA). This enables rapid and efficient modular assembly of mammalian expression vectors in a one-tube, one-step golden-gate cloning reaction, using a standardized library of compatible genetic parts. The high modularity, flexibility, and extensibility of EMMA provide a simple method for the production of functionally diverse mammalian expression vectors. We demonstrate the value of this toolkit by constructing and validating a range of representative vectors, such as transient and stable expression vectors (transposon based vectors), targeting vectors, inducible systems, polycistronic expression cassettes, fusion proteins, and fluorescent reporters. The method also supports simple assembly combinatorial libraries and hierarchical assembly for production of larger multigenetic cargos. In summary, EMMA is compatible with automated production, and novel genetic parts can be easily incorporated, providing new opportunities for mammalian synthetic biology.

  2. Emma Zunz by Jorge Luis Borges: the Concept of Justice


    Rosa Vila


    Emma Zunz, by Jorge Luis Borges, is the story of a girl who decides to kill her boss in order to avenge her father’s death, believing that her father’s version of an event that occurred years before was true. Thus, she devises a secret plan, which includes losing her virginity to a complete stranger, shortly before committing the crime, so she could argue that her boss had raped her and that she killed him in self-defense. Firstly, the text shows the contrast between formal justic...

  3. Neutron generator power supply modeling in EMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.C.; Farnsworth, A.V.; Montgomery, S.T.; Peery, J.S.; Merewether, K.O.


    Sandia National Laboratories has prime responsibility for neutron generator design and manufacturing, and is committed to developing predictive tools for modeling neutron generator performance. An important aspect of understanding component performance is explosively driven ferroelectric power supply modeling. EMMA (ElectroMechanical Modeling in ALEGRA) is a three dimensional compile time version of Sandia's ALEGRA code. The code is built on top of the general ALEGRA framework for parallel shock-physics computations but also includes additional capability for modeling the electric potential field in dielectrics. The overall package includes shock propagation due to explosive detonation, depoling of ferroelectric ceramics, electric field calculation and coupling with a general lumped element circuit equation system. The AZTEC parallel iterative solver is used to solve for the electric potential. The DASPK differential algebraic equation package is used to solve the circuit equation system. Sample calculations are described

  4. EMMA-The world's first non-scaling FFAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, R [Cockcroft Institute of Accelerator Science and Technology, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Manchester University, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Berg, J.S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Beard, C. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Bliss, N.; Clarke, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Craddock, M.K. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Crisp, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Edgecock, R., E-mail: [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Giboudot, Y. [Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Goudket, P.; Griffiths, S.; Hill, C.; Jamison, S. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Johnstone, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Kalinin, A. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Keil, E. [CERN, Geneva, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Kelliher, D. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Koscielniak, S. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Machida, S. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Marinov, K. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)


    Due to the combination of fixed magnetic field operation with strong focusing, non-scaling FFAGs have a significant potential for future particle accelerator applications. However, this technology has a number of unique features, which must be fully studied before this potential can be realised. To do this, a proof-of-principle non-scaling FFAG, called EMMA - Electron Model for Many Applications - has been constructed at the STFC Daresbury Laboratory in the UK. It has been designed by an international collaboration of accelerator scientists and engineers. It will demonstrate the principle of non-scaling FFAGs and be used to study the features of this type of accelerator in detail.

  5. EMMA: A new underground cosmic-ray experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, T; Foehr, V; Joutsenvaara, J; Jaemsen, T; Keraenen, P; Kuusiniemi, P; Laitala, H; Lehtola, M; Mattila, A; Narkilahti, J; Peltoniemi, J; Remes, H; Reponen, M; Raeihae, T; Sarkamo, J; Shen, C; Vaittinen, M; Zhang, Z; Ding, L; Zhu, Q; Roos, M; Dzaparova, I; Karpov, S; Kurenya, A; Petkov, V; Yanin, A; Fynbo, H


    A cosmic-ray experiment of new type is under construction in the Pyhaesalmi mine in the underground laboratory of the University of Oulu, Finland. It aims to study the composition of cosmic rays at and above the knee region (energy above 1 PeV). The experiment, called EMMA, covers about 150 m 2 of detector area, and the setup is capable of measuring the multiplicity and the lateral distribution of underground muons, and the arrival direction of the air shower. The detector is placed at the depth of about 85 metres (corresponding about 240 mwe) which gives a threshold energy of muons of about 45 GeV. The rock overburden filters out all other particles of the air shower except the high-energy muons. These high-energy muons originate at high altitudes close to the first interaction of the primary cosmic ray and they carry more information about the primary than low-energy muons. The full-size detector is supposed to run by the end of 2007

  6. Pioneer settlement of U.S. immigrants: Characteristics of pioneer migrants and places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gurak


    Full Text Available Background: Research on immigrant dispersion to new U.S. destinations has not addressed the question of how place and individual characteristics influence pioneer settlement. While origin-group social networks influence immigrants' settlement choices upon U.S. arrival and secondary destination decisions within the USA, other factors must be important when immigrants move to places where they have no compatriots. Objective: By examining national origin differences in pioneer migration for ten Asian and Latin American national origin groups, our goal was to determine whether and how they differed in their pioneer settlement responses to economic, demographic, social, and pan-ethnic labor markets conditions. Methods: We used 1990 and 2000 confidential decennial census data because they have sufficient sample cases and geographic detail to study national origin differences. We estimated two types of model for each origin group: a zero-inflated Poisson model that identifies the place characteristics associated with higher pioneer settlement counts in the 1990s and a logistic regression model that identifies the individual characteristics of immigrants who settled pioneer places. Results: The major context correlates of pioneer settlement were 1990 population size, the pan-ethnic presence of foreign-born from each group's origin region (Asia or Latin America, and the lack of a significant agricultural presence in the labor force. The logistic models indicated that pioneers were likely to be internal migrants rather than recent immigrants, fluent English speakers, and residents of relatively dispersed places prior to moving to pioneer labor markets. Conclusions: The analyses showed the importance of secondary migration and prior dispersion from gateways for pioneer settlement. They also revealed considerable national origin heterogeneity in pioneer settlement dynamics and indicated that national origin differences merit further attention.

  7. Two Case Histories, Ishbel Ross and Emma Bugbee: Women Journalists Ride the Rail with the Suffragettes. (United States)

    Merrick, Beverly G.

    The rise to prominence of the women's suffrage movement in the World War I years brought women reporters into U.S. newsrooms for the first time. In 1911 Emma Bugbee became the first woman hired as a "hard" news reporter for the "New York Tribune" (later the "Herald Tribune"). Ishbel Ross, author of "Ladies of the…

  8. Pioneer ACO PUF (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Pioneer ACO PUF - To address the increasing number of requests for Pioneer ACO data, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has created a standard...

  9. Microstorie magistrali: Emma Tettoni fra carduccianesimo e reti emancipative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Magazzeni


    Full Text Available Emma Tettoni (Novara, 1859 – Bergamo, 1891 was a teacher in secondary schools for women, headmistress of the Scuola normale femminile in Rovigo (Italy, student of Giosuè Carducci at Bologna University (1879-1881 and classmate of Giovanni Pascoli and Giulia Cavallari Cantalamessa. She devoted her life to teaching and writing, considering them prerequisites for female emancipation. Moving from her correspondence with the great Italian poet - teacher, but also from her female friendship network, it is possible to trace the phases of her arduous life as social and professional engaged young woman. Because of the novelty of her ideas, expressed in education lectures (on love, women’s work, women scientists and the faults of Italian mothers, she suffered the painful ostracism of conservative factions. In 1890 she joined the organization of VI Centenary of Beatrice Portinari, in Florence.

  10. Emma Zunz by Jorge Luis Borges: the Concept of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Vila


    Full Text Available Emma Zunz, by Jorge Luis Borges, is the story of a girl who decides to kill her boss in order to avenge her father’s death, believing that her father’s version of an event that occurred years before was true. Thus, she devises a secret plan, which includes losing her virginity to a complete stranger, shortly before committing the crime, so she could argue that her boss had raped her and that she killed him in self-defense. Firstly, the text shows the contrast between formal justice and taking justice into own hands. Secondly, the question of self-inflicted punishment, which in the story takes place before the perpetration of the crime. Finally, the issue whether truth is the version that can be inferred from the evidence presented in a trial, or the one which is kept to themselves by those involved in a crime. Emma Zunz, de Jorge Luis Borges, es la historia de una chica que decide matar a su jefe para vengar la muerte de su padre, creyendo que la versión de su padre de un hecho que ocurrió años atrás era cierta. De este modo, diseña un plan secreto, que incluye la pérdida de su virginidad con un desconocido, poco antes de cometer el crimen, para poder argumentar que su jefe la había violado y que ella lo mató en defensa propia. En primer lugar, el texto muestra el contraste entre la justicia formal y la justicia por cuenta propia. En segundo lugar, la cuestión de la pena infligida a uno mismo, lo que en la historia se produce antes de la comisión del delito. Por último, la cuestión de si la verdad es la versión que se puede inferir de las pruebas presentadas en un juicio, o la que se guardan para sí mismas las personas involucradas en un crimen. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN:

  11. "EMMA Study: a Brazilian community-based cohort study of stroke mortality and morbidity". (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho


    Stroke has a high burden of disability and mortality. The aim here was to evaluate epidemiology, risk factors and prognosis for stroke in the EMMA Study (Study of Stroke Mortality and Morbidity). Prospective community-based cohort carried out in Hospital Universitário, University of São Paulo, 2006-2014. Stroke data based on fatal and non-fatal events were assessed, including sociodemographic data, mortality and predictors, which were evaluated by means of logistic regression and survival analyses. Stroke subtype was better defined in the hospital setting than in the local community. In the hospital phase, around 70% were first events and the ischemic subtype. Among cerebrovascular risk factors, the frequency of alcohol intake was higher in hemorrhagic stroke (HS) than in ischemic stroke (IS) cases (35.4% versus 12.3%, P hemorrhagic stroke was greater than for ischemic stroke and reached its maximum 10 days after the event (OR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.55-7.05). Four-year survival analysis on 665 cases of first stroke (82.6% ischemic and 17.4% hemorrhagic) showed an overall survival rate of 48%. At four years, the highest risks of death were in relation to ischemic stroke and illiteracy (hazard ratio, HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.26-2.68) and diabetes (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.07-1.97). Major depression presented worse one-year survival (HR: 4.60; 95% CI: 1.36-15.55). Over the long term, the EMMA database will provide additional information for planning resources destined for the public healthcare system.

  12. Pioneer neurons of the antennal nervous system project to protocerebral pioneers in the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria. (United States)

    Boyan, George; Ehrhardt, Erica


    The twin nerve tracts of the antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria are established early in embryogenesis by sibling pairs of pioneers which delaminate from the epithelium into the lumen at the antennal tip. These cells can be uniquely identified via their co-expression of the neuronal labels horseradish peroxidase and the lipocalin Lazarillo. The apical pioneers direct axons toward the antennal base where they encounter guidepost-like cells called base pioneers which transiently express the same molecular labels as the apical pioneers. To what extent the pioneer growth cones then progress into the brain neuropil proper, and what their targets there might be, has remained unclear. In this study, we show that the apical antennal pioneers project centrally beyond the antennal base first into the deutocerebral, and then into the protocerebral brain neuropils. In the protocerebrum, we identify their target circuitry as being identified Lazarillo-positive cells which themselves pioneer the primary axon scaffold of the brain. The apical and base antennal pioneers therefore form part of a molecularly contiguous pathway from the periphery to an identified central circuit of the embryonic grasshopper brain.

  13. Characterization of the Complete Mitochondrion Genome of Diurnal Moth Amata emma (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) and Its Phylogenetic Implications (United States)

    Lu, Hui-Fen; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Wu, Chun-Sheng


    Mitogenomes can provide information for phylogenetic analyses and evolutionary biology. The complete mitochondrial genome of Amata emma (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) was sequenced and analyzed in the study. The circular genome is 15,463 bp in size, with the gene content, orientation and order identical to other ditrysian insects. The genome composition of the major strand shows highly A+T biased and exhibits negative AT-skew and GC-skew. The initial codons are the canonical putative start codons ATN with the exception of cox1 gene which uses CGA instead. Ten genes share complete termination codons TAA, and three genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. Additionally, the codon distribution and Relative Synonymous Codon Usage of the 13 PCGs in the A. emma mitogenome are consistent with those in other Noctuid mitogenomes. All tRNA genes have typical cloverleaf secondary structures, except for the trnS1 (AGN) gene, in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm is simplified down to a loop. The secondary structures of two rRNA genes broadly conform with the models proposed for these genes of other Lepidopteran insects. Except for the A+T-rich region, there are three major intergenic spacers, spanning at least 10 bp and five overlapping regions. There are obvious differences in the A+T-rich region between A. emma and other Lepidopteran insects reported previously except that the A+T-rich region contains an ‘ATAGA’ -like motif followed by a 19 bp poly-T stretch and a (AT)9 element preceded by the ‘ATTTA’ motif. It neither has a poly-A (in the α strand) upstream trnM nor potential stem-loop structures and just has some simple structures like (AT)nGTAT. The phylogenetic relationships based on nucleotide sequences of 13 PCGs using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods provided a well-supported a broader outline of Lepidoptera and which agree with the traditional morphological classification and recently working, but with a much higher support. PMID:24069145

  14. "EMMA Study: a Brazilian community-based cohort study of stroke mortality and morbidity"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Carvalho Goulart

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Stroke has a high burden of disability and mortality. The aim here was to evaluate epidemiology, risk factors and prognosis for stroke in the EMMA Study (Study of Stroke Mortality and Morbidity. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Prospective community-based cohort carried out in Hospital Universitário, University of São Paulo, 2006-2014. METHODS: Stroke data based on fatal and non-fatal events were assessed, including sociodemographic data, mortality and predictors, which were evaluated by means of logistic regression and survival analyses. RESULTS: Stroke subtype was better defined in the hospital setting than in the local community. In the hospital phase, around 70% were first events and the ischemic subtype. Among cerebrovascular risk factors, the frequency of alcohol intake was higher in hemorrhagic stroke (HS than in ischemic stroke (IS cases (35.4% versus 12.3%, P < 0.001. Low education was associated with higher risk of death, particularly after six months among IS cases (odds ratio, OR, 4.31; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.34-13.91. The risk of death due to hemorrhagic stroke was greater than for ischemic stroke and reached its maximum 10 days after the event (OR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.55-7.05. Four-year survival analysis on 665 cases of first stroke (82.6% ischemic and 17.4% hemorrhagic showed an overall survival rate of 48%. At four years, the highest risks of death were in relation to ischemic stroke and illiteracy (hazard ratio, HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.26-2.68 and diabetes (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.07-1.97. Major depression presented worse one-year survival (HR: 4.60; 95% CI: 1.36-15.55. CONCLUSION: Over the long term, the EMMA database will provide additional information for planning resources destined for the public healthcare system.

  15. Pioneers of the Nuclear Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, P.; Bulbulian, S.; Fernandez, M.; Jimenez, M.; Segovia, N.; Solache, M.; Tejera, A.


    From 1896, date in which radioactivity is discovered, to 1942, when Fermi installed the first atomic pile, a small group of researchers got to the bottom of the atom, and proposed an appropriate structure to define it and to create a technology derived from their findings. There were four schools the protagonists of such studies: a French group (Becquerel, Curie and Joliet Curie), an anglo-saxon group (Chadwick, Rutherford and Thomson), an Italian group (Fermi) and finally, an Australian-German group (Frisch, Hahn, Meitner and Strassmann). The progress of the knowledge was very fast because the results were exchanged and discussed in congresses in a totally cosmopolitan ambient, with the knowledge as the only objective. The book is arranged in sections as follows: I. The discovery of natural radioactivity. II. Atomic structure. III. Artificial radioactivity. IV. Properties of thermal neutrons. V. Nuclear fission: Otto Hahn and the german school. VI. Conclusions and two appendixes. (Author)

  16. The Conflict between Lived Religion and State Control of Poor Relief. The Case of Emma Mäkinen’s Private Orphanage at the Turn of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annola Johanna


    Full Text Available The article discusses the conflict between lived religion and the state control of poor relief in a modernizing society by analysing the case of Emma Mäkinen’s private orphanage. Emma Mäkinen’s philanthropic work among neglected children was motivated by her Evangelical Revivalist conviction. Because of her trust in the transformative power of faith, she considered it appropriate to establish an orphanage next to a shelter for ‘fallen’ women. This decision led her onto a collision course with the State Inspector of Poor Relief and the general public, who did not share her religious views but emphasized the legislative and moral aspects vis-à-vis organizing social work. The conflict demonstrates, firstly, how the ancien régime and the traditional religious authority of the Evangelical Lutheran state church in particular was challenged by individual agency in voluntary associations such as the Evangelical Revivalist Free Mission. Secondly, the case of Emma Mäkinen’s orphanage reflects how new kinds of boundaries were created by the encroaching of state control into the sphere of private philanthropy, followed by the strengthening role of scientific theories and nationalistic thinking in social work. Thirdly, the conflict opens up a view on border-crossings, thus emphasizing the undefined nature of a modernizing society.

  17. Pioneer robot testing and training status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.; Nosovsky, A.; Garin, E.; Goncharov, B.; Neretin, Y.


    The U. S. Department of Energy developed the Pioneer Robot and provided it to the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) within the framework of international technical assistance. At the Pioneer Robot has been transferred to ChNPP ownership for broad use in ChNPP activities related to decommissioning and emergency response, as well as in Unit Shelter. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is working with ChNPP and SLIRT to test the Pioneer Robot operation in a broader scope, and to provide additional operational training

  18. Pioneer ACO Model (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Pioneer ACO Model is designed for health care organizations and providers that are already experienced in coordinating care for patients across care settings. It...

  19. "I am a trained nurse": the nursing identity of anarchist and radical Emma Goldman. (United States)

    Connolly, Cynthia Anne


    For more than a century, scholars have analyzed the many dimensions of Emma Goldman. Remembered as an agent of revolution, feminism, sexual freedom, anarchy, and atheism, Goldman's motives, personality, and actions have generated an entire subgenre of historical scholarship. But although Goldman practiced nursing in New York City for ten years, one facet of her life that has been neglected is her nursing identity. Goldman's autobiography, Living My Life, reveals the way her nursing experiences informed her evolving anarchist political philosophy and international activism. She valued nursing for many reasons--for the economic independence it offered, identity it provided, and sense of community and connectivity she believed it encouraged. Finally, for Goldman, nursing represented was a vehicle to understand people's struggles and as a way of translating political philosophy into meaningful, practical solutions.

  20. Pioneer Robot Testing Program and Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.N.


    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and Ukraine established a joint program in 1997 to address the need for remotely operated systems for unstructured environments in Ukraine such as the highly hazardous conditions inside the failed Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4, or Shelter Object. The environment inside Shelter Object is extremely hazardous due to ionizing radiation fields, high airborne contamination, and major industrial safety issues. Although Ukrainian workers have explored and mapped much of the internals of Unit 4 in the time since the accident during the morning hours of April 26, 1986, there remain areas where humans have not entered to this date. Based on the agreement between USDOE and Ukraine, the USDOE, in cooperation with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), developed the Pioneer Robot and has provided it to the ChNPP within the framework of international technical assistance. Pioneer is capable of mobile platform movement and manipulation under teleoperated control, 3-dimensional mapping, and environmental data collection. The Pioneer is radiation hardened for conditions like those of Shelter Object. Pioneer has been evaluated on site in Ukraine for use in both the Shelter Object environment and the more general conditions of ChNPP decommissioning. This paper summarizes the results of these testing activities and describes the status and near-term activities in support of the Pioneer Robot integration into Ukraine

  1. The pioneer projects: Economical exploration of the solar system (United States)

    Spahr, J. R.; Hall, C. F.


    The interplanetary Pioneer missions are reviewed in terms of management implications and cost control. The responsibilities, organizational structure, and management practices of the Pioneer Projects are presented. The lines of authority and areas of responsibility of the principal organizational elements supporting the Pioneer missions are identified, and the methods employed for maintaining effective and timely interactions among these elements are indicated. The technical and administrative functions of the various organizational elements of the Pioneer Project Office at Ames Research Center are described in terms of their management responsibilities and interactions with other elements of the Project Office and with external organizations having Pioneer Project responsibilities. The management and control of activities prior to and during the hardware procurement phase are described to indicate the basis for obtaining visibility of the technical progress, utilization of resources, and cost performance of the contractors and other institutions supporting the Pioneer projects.

  2. Adolf Friedrich Fercher: a pioneer of biomedical optics. (United States)

    Hitzenberger, Christoph K


    Adolf Friedrich Fercher, an outstanding pioneer of biomedical optics, passed away earlier this year. He was a brilliant and visionary researcher who pioneered various fields of biomedical optics, such as laser speckle flowgraphy, tissue interferometry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of OCT, this paper reviews and commemorates Fercher's pioneering work. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  3. 75 FR 17798 - Pioneer Bond Fund, et al.; Notice of Application (United States)


    ... Fund, Pioneer Ibbotson Asset Allocation Series, Pioneer Series Trust VI, Pioneer Series Trust VII... subsidiary of Pioneer Global Asset Management S.p.A. and its parent UniCredit S.p.A. The Adviser is... invest, to the extent consistent with its investment objectives, policies, strategies and limitations, in...

  4. Cronotopos y autobiografía epistolar como mecanismos de autorreflexión en Memoria por correspondencia, de Emma Reyes


    Trujillo Henao, Isabel Cristina


    En el libro Memoria por correspondencia (2012), la artista plástica Emma Reyes, cuenta una historia que inicia en sus primeros recuerdos y que va hasta sus 20 años, usando el género de la autobiografía epistolar -- Este análisis busca, tomando como base la teoría de cronotopos de Mijail Bajtin y del mismo género literario, encontrar y describir los diversos elementos que ayudan a dar cuenta del proceso de autorreflexión experimentado por la autora -- Así, se hallarán y describirán las herrami...

  5. Solar wind data from the MIT plasma experiments on Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7 (United States)

    Lazarus, A. J.; Heinemann, M. A.; Mckinnis, R. W.; Bridge, H. S.


    Hourly averages are presented of solar wind proton parameters obtained from experiments on the Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7 spacecraft during the period December 16, 1965 to August 1971. The number of data points available on a given day depends upon the spacecraft-earth distance, the telemetry bit rate, and the ground tracking time allotted to each spacecraft. Thus, the data obtained earlier in the life of each spacecraft are more complete. The solar wind parameters are given in the form of plots and listings. Trajectory information is also given along with a detailed description of the analysis procedures used to extract plasma parameters from the measured data.

  6. Pioneers - The Beginning of Danish Electronic Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten


    Anmeldelse af dobbelt-cd'en Pioneers - The Beginning of Danish Electronic Music, der dokumenterer de tidligste år af dansk elektronisk musiks historie fra 1960-1978. Udgivelsesdato: 29.10......Anmeldelse af dobbelt-cd'en Pioneers - The Beginning of Danish Electronic Music, der dokumenterer de tidligste år af dansk elektronisk musiks historie fra 1960-1978. Udgivelsesdato: 29.10...

  7. The Pioneer Projects - Economical exploration of the solar system (United States)

    Spahr, J. R.; Hall, C. F.


    The interplanetary Pioneer missions are reviewed in terms of management implications and cost control. The responsibilities, organizational structure, and management practices of the Pioneer Projects are presented. The lines of authority and areas of responsibility of the principal organizational elements supporting the Pioneer missions are identified, and the methods employed for maintaining effective and timely interactions among these elements are indicated. The technical and administrative functions of various organizational elements of the project are described. The management and control of activities prior to and during the hardware procurement phase are described to indicate the basis for obtaining visibility of the technical progress, utilization of resources, and cost performance of the contractors and other institutions supporting the Pioneer projects.

  8. Does Increased Spending on Pharmaceutical Marketing Inhibit Pioneering Innovation? (United States)

    Arnold, Denis G; Troyer, Jennifer L


    The pharmaceutical industry has been criticized for developing and aggressively marketing drugs that do not provide significant health benefits relative to existing drugs but retain the benefits of patent protection. Critics argue that drug marketing increases health care expenditures and provides a disincentive for pioneering drug innovation. However, evidence that marketing expenditures have any relationship to new drug approvals has been anecdotal. We hypothesized that, at publicly traded pharmaceutical firms, increased marketing expenditures will result in a reduced volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative new drugs. We also hypothesized that additional research and development spending will result in an increased volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative drugs. Results confirm our hypotheses. Specific policy recommendations for altering firms' incentives for the development of pioneering drugs are provided. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  9. Pioneer round of translation occurs during serum starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Nara; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Hana; Choe, Junho; Kim, Yoon Ki


    The pioneer round of translation plays a role in translation initiation of newly spliced and exon junction complex (EJC)-bound mRNAs. Nuclear cap-binding protein complex CBP80/20 binds to those mRNAs at the 5'-end, recruiting translation initiation complex. As a consequence of the pioneer round of translation, the bound EJCs are dissociated from mRNAs and CBP80/20 is replaced by the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E. Steady-state translation directed by eIF4E allows for an immediate and rapid response to changes in physiological conditions. Here, we show that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which restricts only to the pioneer round of translation but not to steady-state translation, efficiently occurs even during serum starvation, in which steady-state translation is drastically abolished. Accordingly, CBP80 remains in the nucleus and processing bodies are unaffected in their abundance and number in serum-starved conditions. These results suggest that mRNAs enter the pioneer round of translation during serum starvation and are targeted for NMD if they contain premature termination codons

  10. About pioneer frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Théry


    Full Text Available The geographer Pierre Monbeig wrote texts far ahead of his time, who deserve to be read today as they are useful in understanding today's pioneering frontiers. These are nowadays much further north than in his time, in the Amazon, contested between advocates of environmental protection and production of meat and grains, which has appeared on the southern ,lank of Brazilian Amazon, in Mato Grosso.

  11. “La excavación” de Roa Bastos y “Emma Zunz” de Borges, en honor a la verdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rubio Rubio


    Full Text Available En este artículo presento la relación intertextual entre el relato “La excavación” (El trueno entre las hojas, 1953 de Augusto Roa Bastos y el borgia- no “Emma Zunz” (El Aleph, 1949, a partir del análisis contrastivo. Ade- más, presento y comento la segunda versión de “La excavación” (Madera quemada, 1967 y la comparo con la primera, advirtiendo el alejamiento de la intertextualidad con Borges. Finalmente, someto a interpretación este cambio, comentando la distinción entre “verdad moral” y “verdad factual” que se presenta en los dos relatos.

  12. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn


    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  13. Pioneer Venus and near-earth observations of interplanetary shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalov, J.D.; Russell, C.T.; Knudsen, W.C.; Scarf, F.L.


    Twenty-three transient interplanetary shocks observed near earth during 1978-1982, and mostly reported in the literature, have also been identified at the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft. There seems to be a fairly consistent trend for lower shock speeds, farther from the sun. Shock normals obtained using the Pioneer Venus data correspond well with published values from near earth. By referring to the portion of the Pioneer Venus plasma data used here from locations at longitudes within 37 degree of earth, it is found that shocks are weaker at earth, compared with closer to the sun

  14. Axogenesis in the antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria revisited: the base pioneers. (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Erica; Liu, Yu; Boyan, George


    The antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria comprises two parallel pathways projecting to the brain, each pioneered early in embryogenesis by a pair of sibling cells located at the antennal tip. En route, the growth cones of pioneers from one pathway have been shown to contact a guidepost-like cell called the base pioneer. Its role in axon guidance remains unclear as do the cellular guidance cues regulating axogenesis in the other pathway supposedly without a base pioneer. Further, while the tip pioneers are known to delaminate from the antennal epithelium into the lumen, the origin of this base pioneer is unknown. Here, we use immunolabeling and immunoblocking methods to clarify these issues. Co-labeling against the neuron-specific marker horseradish peroxidase and the pioneer-specific cell surface glycoprotein Lazarillo identifies not only the tip pioneers but also a base pioneer associated with each of the developing antennal pathways. Both base pioneers co-express the mesodermal label Mes3, consistent with a lumenal origin, whereas the tip pioneers proved Mes3-negative confirming their affiliation with the ectodermal epithelium. Lazarillo antigen expression in the antennal pioneers followed a different temporal dynamic: continuous in the tip pioneers, but in the base pioneers, only at the time their filopodia and those of the tip pioneers first recognize one another. Immunoblocking of Lazarillo expression in cultured embryos disrupts this recognition resulting in misguided axogenesis in both antennal pathways.

  15. Do pioneers have r-selected traits? Life history patterns among colonizing terrestrial gastropods. (United States)

    Bengtsson, J; Baur, B


    We examine whether pioneer species of terrestrial gastropods (snails and slugs) possess particular life history traits commonly associated with r-selection, using data on gastropod colonization in four areas in north-west Europe (the Kvarken and Tvärminne archipelagos in the Baltic, polder woods in IJsselmeer, and a rehabilitated quarry near Maastricht). Data on age at first reproduction, longevity, clutch size, egg size and lifetime fecundity were gathered from the literature. In order to control for potentially confounding effects of body size on life history traits, we compared the residuals from the allometric relations between life history traits and body size for pioneers and non-pioneers. In snails, all life history traits examined were related to body size. In slugs, all traits except age at first reproduction scaled with body size. Body sizes did not differ between pioneers and non-pioneers in any area. In all four areas, there were no significant differences between pioneers and non-pioneers in any of the life history traits examined, after body size had been taken into account. This indicates that pioneer terrestrial gastropods generally cannot be regarded as r-selected. Pioneer species may possess any of several life history strategies, and the combinations of traits shown by them may have little in common with the r-K selection concept.

  16. Alasti pioneer / Jelena Skulskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skulskaja, Jelena, 1950-


    Teatri- ja filmiuudiseid Venemaalt : Kira Muratova mängufilm "Häälestaja" ("Nastroishtshik"), Aleksandr Sokurovi töös olev mängufilm Thomas Manni ja Johann Wolfgang Goethe ainetel "Faust" ning Kirill Serebrjannikovi lavastus Sovremennikus Mihhail Kononovi romaani "Alasti pioneer" järgi, peaosas Tshulpan Hamatova. Ajalehe tiitellehel kuupäevaks "märtsi lõpp (4/05)"

  17. Diagnostic System Commissioning of the EMMA NS-FFAG Facility at Daresbury Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinin, A


    We pre­sent pre­lim­i­nary re­sults of beam di­ag­nos­tics for the world's first Non-Scal­ing FFAG Ac­cel­er­a­tor 'EMMA'. Amongst other means, a sin­gle-shot/turn-by-turn BPM sys­tem is used, that was first test­ed on the ALICE in­jec­tor. The BPM sys­tem uti­lizes a front-end con­ver­sion of but­ton pick­up sig­nals into flat-top-en­ve­lope 700 MHz bursts, time-do­main mul­ti­plex­ing (in each plane, sig­nals are made spaced by 13.8 ns), and the man­u­fac­ture of both syn­chronous de­tec­tor and ADC clocks di­rect­ly from the beam sig­nal. The sys­tem per­for­mance is dis­cussed; re­sults of beam-based res­o­lu­tion mea­sure­ment are given. First turn beam tra­jec­to­ries fur­thest from the Sep­tum and Kick­er are pre­sent­ed.

  18. Joseph Rotblat: influences, scientific achievements and legacy (United States)

    Underwood, Martin


    Joseph Rotblat was one of the most distinguished nuclear physicists and peace campaigners of the post Second World War period. His peace activities rank alongside those of Albert Einstein and Bertrand Russell; he won the Nobel Peace Prize, jointly with the Pugwash movement, that he helped found. However, he made significant contributions to science, and in particular to the medical applications of accelerators, radiation and radio-nuclides. In this article his early work and influences in Poland are described. He then joined James Chadwick at Liverpool University and began work on the cyclotron recently constructed there. Rotblat then, together with Chadwick, joined the Manhattan Project. This experience was to shape his life. He stayed at Los Alamos for less than a year before walking out. He was suspected of being a spy. Rotblat then became Professor of Physics at St Bartholomew's Medical College and pioneered the use of a 15 MeV linear accelerator in treatment and research. He made fundamental contributions to understanding the effects of the fallout from nuclear bomb tests. He also, together with Patricia Lindop, made important contributions to understanding the biological effects of radiation.

  19. 77 FR 65937 - Pioneer Railcorp-Continuation in Control Exemption-Rail Switching Services, Inc. (United States)


    ... control of Rail Switching Services, Inc. (RSS), upon RSS's becoming a Class III rail carrier. \\1\\ Pioneer states that it owns 100% of the common stock of its 17 Class III rail carrier subsidiaries: West Michigan...--Continuation in Control Exemption--Rail Switching Services, Inc. Pioneer Railcorp (Pioneer) and its...

  20. Chromatin Pioneers | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Taking advantage of their ability to explore provocative ideas, NCI investigators pioneered the study of chromatin to demonstrate its functional importance and lay the groundwork for understanding its role in cancer and other diseases.

  1. The Punjabi Pioneer Experience in America: Recognition or Denial?


    Leonard, KB


    This article reviews the experience of Punjabi pioneers in California with particular refcicncc to Punjabi-Mexican families of the early $Cttlcrs. It lfillCS Chat their history confinns the fiexibllity of etmic identity and culture, and helps to displace the old anthropological concept of 'culture' martbing in bounded units throueh time and space. The Punjabi pioneers to America in the early twentieth century encountered more constraints than opportunities whelfthey nUiflted. b...

  2. Fates of identified pioneer cells in the developing antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria. (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Erica; Graf, Philip; Kleele, Tatjana; Liu, Yu; Boyan, George


    In the early embryonic grasshopper, two pairs of sibling cells near the apex of the antenna pioneer its dorsal and ventral nerve tracts to the brain. En route, the growth cones of these pioneers contact a so-called base pioneer associated with each tract and which acts as a guidepost cell. Both apical and basal pioneers express stereotypic molecular labels allowing them to be uniquely identified. Although their developmental origins are largely understood, the fates of the respective pioneers remain unclear. We therefore employed the established cell death markers acridine orange and TUNEL to determine whether the apical and basal pioneers undergo apoptosis during embryogenesis. Our data reveal that the apical pioneers maintain a consistent molecular profile from their birth up to mid-embryogenesis, at which point the initial antennal nerve tracts to the brain have been established. Shortly after this the apical pioneers undergo apoptosis. Death occurs at a developmental stage similar to that reported elsewhere for pioneers in a leg - an homologous appendage. Base pioneers, by contrast, progressively change their molecular profile and can no longer be unequivocally identified after mid-embryogenesis. At no stage up to then do they exhibit death labels. If they persist, the base pioneers must be assumed to adopt a new role in the developing antennal nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Grace Murray Hopper - Programming Pioneer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Grace Murray Hopper - Programming Pioneer. V Rajaraman. Article-in-a-Box Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 2-3. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  4. 75 FR 32356 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically... (United States)


    ...] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically Engineered High... advising the public of our determination that a soybean line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International... engineered organisms. Our determination is based on our evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred...

  5. Pioneering system made information affordable | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Oct 27, 2010 ... Developed in the 1970s by IDRC, a pioneering software tool is still helping organizations in ... Website for the MINISIS software suite of products ... powerful enough to handle ISIS, at about a third of the cost of mainframes.

  6. The Pioneer anomaly in the context of the braneworld scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O; Paramos, J


    We examine the Pioneer anomaly-a reported anomalous acceleration affecting the Pioneer 10/11, Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft-in the context of a braneworld scenario. We show that effects due to the radion field cannot account for the anomaly, but that a scalar field with an appropriate potential is able to explain the phenomenon. Implications and features of our solution are discussed

  7. RQ-2 Pioneer: The Flawed System that Redefined US Unmanned Aviation (United States)

    2012-02-01, “RQ-2 Pioneer,” dron /w0004685.html 28 Ibid. 29 Jane’s Unmanned Aerial...Military, “RQ-2 Pioneer.” dron /w0004685.html Polmar, Norman, The Naval

  8. Redox Pioneer: Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev. (United States)

    Hatfield, Dolph L


    Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer, because he has published an article on antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited more than 1000 times and 29 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Gladyshev is world renowned for his characterization of the human selenoproteome encoded by 25 genes, identification of the majority of known selenoprotein genes in the three domains of life, and discoveries related to thiol oxidoreductases and mechanisms of redox control. Gladyshev's first faculty position was in the Department of Biochemistry, the University of Nebraska. There, he was a Charles Bessey Professor and Director of the Redox Biology Center. He then moved to the Department of Medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, where he is Professor of Medicine and Director of the Center for Redox Medicine. His discoveries in redox biology relate to selenoenzymes, such as methionine sulfoxide reductases and thioredoxin reductases, and various thiol oxidoreductases. He is responsible for the genome-wide identification of catalytic redox-active cysteines and for advancing our understanding of the general use of cysteines by proteins. In addition, Gladyshev has characterized hydrogen peroxide metabolism and signaling and regulation of protein function by methionine-R-sulfoxidation. He has also made important contributions in the areas of aging and lifespan control and pioneered applications of comparative genomics in redox biology, selenium biology, and aging. Gladyshev's discoveries have had a profound impact on redox biology and the role of redox control in health and disease. He is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 1-9.

  9. Innovation in education, ICT and pioneer teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bocconi


    Full Text Available Reflections on the role of "pioneer teachers" as a potential key figure in the innovation process of the school, with particular reference to the European Framework Programme project Ulearn eLearning.

  10. 78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental... (United States)


    ...] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment... has prepared a preliminary determination regarding a request from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc... 340. APHIS received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-063-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International...

  11. Fundamentos Curriculares del Liceo Laboratorio Emma Gamboa: Construcción teórica a partir de una Institución Participativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdián Fernández, Alicia


    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los fundamentos teóricos del Proyecto Pedagógico del Liceo Laboratorio Emma Gamboa elaborados por las investigadoras a partir de una reflexión teórica que retoma la visión y la misión con las que se creó el Liceo, la percepción y el análisis en el marco de una evaluación curricular llevada a cabo por las investigadoras, el personal docente y docente administrativo. Estos fundamentos son resultado de una investigación participativa que permitió al personal docente y docente administrativo del período de 1996 a 1998, definir las premisas conceptuales que caracterizan a ese proyecto curricular desde un punto de vista epistemológico.

  12. EMMA - the Electric and Magnetic Monitor of the Aurora on Astrid-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Blomberg


    Full Text Available The Astrid-2 mission has dual primary objectives. First, it is an orbiting instrument platform for studying auroral electrodynamics. Second, it is a technology demonstration of the feasibility of using micro-satellites for innovative space plasma physics research. The EMMA instrument, which we discuss in the present paper, is designed to provide simultaneous sampling of two electric and three magnetic field components up to about 1kHz. The spin plane components of the electric field are measured by two pairs of opposing probes extended by wire booms with a separation distance of 6.7m. The probes have titanium nitride (TiN surfaces, which has proved to be a material with excellent properties for providing good electrical contact between probe and plasma. The wire booms are of a new design in which the booms in the stowed position are wound around the exterior of the spacecraft body. The boom system was flown for the first time on this mission and worked flawlessly. The magnetic field is measured by a tri-axial fluxgate sensor located at the tip of a rigid, hinged boom extended along the spacecraft spin axis and facing away from the Sun. The new advanced-design fluxgate magnetometer uses digital signal processors for detection and feedback, thereby reducing the analogue circuitry to a minimum. The instrument characteristics as well as a brief review of the science accomplished and planned are presented. Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions. Space plasma physics (instruments and techniques

  13. EMMA - the Electric and Magnetic Monitor of the Aurora on Astrid-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Blomberg


    Full Text Available The Astrid-2 mission has dual primary objectives. First, it is an orbiting instrument platform for studying auroral electrodynamics. Second, it is a technology demonstration of the feasibility of using micro-satellites for innovative space plasma physics research. The EMMA instrument, which we discuss in the present paper, is designed to provide simultaneous sampling of two electric and three magnetic field components up to about 1kHz. The spin plane components of the electric field are measured by two pairs of opposing probes extended by wire booms with a separation distance of 6.7m. The probes have titanium nitride (TiN surfaces, which has proved to be a material with excellent properties for providing good electrical contact between probe and plasma. The wire booms are of a new design in which the booms in the stowed position are wound around the exterior of the spacecraft body. The boom system was flown for the first time on this mission and worked flawlessly. The magnetic field is measured by a tri-axial fluxgate sensor located at the tip of a rigid, hinged boom extended along the spacecraft spin axis and facing away from the Sun. The new advanced-design fluxgate magnetometer uses digital signal processors for detection and feedback, thereby reducing the analogue circuitry to a minimum. The instrument characteristics as well as a brief review of the science accomplished and planned are presented.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions. Space plasma physics (instruments and techniques

  14. Brand Evaluation and Consumers' Preference towards Pioneer and Follower Brands: Empirical Study on Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP Syahlani


    Full Text Available Abstract. The aims of this research were to identify brand recall as well as to analyze consumers’ attitude and consumers’ preference toward pioneer and follower brands on processed dairy product. One hundred and fifty housewives were engaged as respondents in this research. The techniques used in the data analysis were non parametric two related sample test, one sample t-test and independent sample t-test. The result indicated that each of the product category, the percentage of the pioneer brand preference was higher than follower brand, namely Ultra Milk (87.30%, Yakult (94.70%, Anlene (93.30% and Kraft (98.70%. The result showed that from 150 respondents were able to correctly recall Ultra Milk (66.70%, Yakult (86.70%, Anlene (82.70% and Kraft (96.00% as the pioneer brand on each product category. Furthermore, the results showed that the average consumer attitudes were higher toward the pioneer brands than the follower brands. The result also indicated that consumers preferred pioneer brands than follower brands for the same flavour, quality and price. The result led to conclusion that consumers retrieved or recalled pioneer brands more correctly than follower brands. Moreover, consumers had a more favourable attitude to pioneer brands than to follower brands, in which consumers preferred to purchase the pioneer brands products to those of the follower brands concerning the farm-manufactured products of UHT milk, pro-biotic milk, high-calcium milk and cheese. Key Words: brand retrieval, brand recall, attitudes, preference

  15. Overview by Pioneer observations of the distant geomagnetic tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villante, U [L' Aquila Univ. (Italy). Istituto de Astrofisica


    Pioneer 7 and Pioneer 8 spacecraft provided the only direct observations of the geomagnetic tail at geocentric distances as large as 1000 Rsub(e) and 500 Rsub(e) respectively. The presence of a low density plasma flow in the region of expected tail and the intermittent and short duration character of the tail encounters suggested in the past a distant tail structure remarkably different from its near-earth and cislunar shape. However the recent discovery of the plasma mantle allows interpretation of the Pioneer observations in terms of a distant tail that possibly is still preserving most of its near-earth characteristics. In particular, the region of tail encounters and the magnitude and direction of the observed magnetic field might be consistent with a cylindrical tail with a modestly increased cross-section. Neutral sheet observations also appear to be consistent with the most recent bidimensional tail models. Finally, as in the cislunar region, the double peaked proton energy spectra can be interpreted in terms of a partial intermingling of plasma sheet and plasma mantle populations.

  16. Elwood Murray: Pioneering Methodologist in Communication (United States)

    Brownell, Judi


    Elwood Murray (1897-1988) was a pioneer in communication education. Beginning in the 1930s, he applied nontraditional methods in the speech classroom to encourage students to internalize and apply what they learned, and to view knowledge holistically. Drawing on the work of Kunkel, Moreno, Lewin, and Korzybski, Murray focused on developing skills…

  17. Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy--An Andragogical Pioneer (United States)

    Loeng, Svein


    Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy's work related to andragogy is insufficiently discussed in adult pedagogical literature, although most of his work deals with this field, if we employ his own definition of andragogy. This paper makes visible his role as an andragogical pioneer, and clarifies his understanding of andragogy and basic perspectives in his…

  18. Pioneering advantage in new service development: a multi-country study of managerial perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, X.M.; Benedetto, Di A.C.; Song, L.


    Pioneering advantage in manufacturing firms has received much attention in the management and marketing literature. Few research studies, however, have been conducted to investigate the pioneering advantages and disadvantages involved in new service development, especially across several geographic

  19. Boekbesprekings/Book Review: "Pioneers of the Waterberg: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. ELIZABETH HUNTER (samesteller) Pioneers of the Waterberg: a photographic journey. Lephalale: Elizabeth Hunter (uitgewer); Johannesburg: Camera Press (drukker&binder), 2010 128 pp. ISBN: 978-0-620-49969-9 ...

  20. [Dr. Atanasije Puljo: pioneer of Serbian dentistry]. (United States)

    Jovananović, Svetlana; Milovanović, Srdjan; Zagradjanin, Danica; Milovanović, Nebojša; Puzović, Dragana


    This paper describes the life and work of Dr. Atanasije Puljo (1878-1944). He was a volunteer in the Balkan wars, an active participant in the First World War; he was the first who noted the importance of team-work of a dentist and a surgeon in the care of jaw and facial injuries. He established primacy in this field, as he came up with this brilliant idea three years before other colleagues. His method of treatment of the upper jaw neglected fractures, called the Balkan method, was recognized worldwide. Dr. Puljo is the pioneer of dental radiology in Serbia, founder of the Odontology Clinic of the Medical Faculty and main supporter of the establishment of the School of Dentistry. Merits of Dr. Atanasije Puljo, medical practitioner with a broad knowledge in different fields, remain within the academic institution that was founded by this pioneer of dentistry in Serbia.

  1. The Pioneer 11 high-field fluxgate magnetometer (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.


    The High Field Fluxgate Magnetometer Experiment flow aboard the Pioneer 11 spacecraft to investigate Jupiter's magnetic field is described. The instrument extends the spacecraft's upper limit measurement capability by more than an order of magnitude to 17.3 gauss with minimum power and volume requirements.

  2. Ontogeny of pioneer neurons in the antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria. (United States)

    Boyan, George; Ehrhardt, Erica


    The nervous system of the antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria consists of two nerve tracts in which sensory cells project their axons to the brain. Each tract is pioneered early in embryogenesis by a pair of identified cells located apically in the antennal lumen. The pioneers are thought to originate in the epithelium of the antenna and then delaminate into the lumen where they commence axogenesis. However, unambiguous molecular identification of these cells in the epithelium, of an identifiable precursor, and of their mode of generation has been lacking. In this study, we have used immunolabeling against neuron-specific horseradish peroxidase and against Lachesin, a marker for differentiating epithelial cells, in combination with the nuclear stain DAPI, to identify the pioneers within the epithelium of the early embryonic antenna. We then track their delamination into the lumen as differentiated neurons. The pioneers are not labeled by the mesodermal/mesectodermal marker Mes3, consistent with an epithelial (ectodermal) origin. Intracellular dye injection, as well as labeling against the mitosis marker phospho-histone 3, identifies precursor cells in the epithelium, each associated with a column of cells. Culturing with the S-phase label 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) shows that both a precursor and its column have incorporated the label, confirming a lineage relationship. Each set of pioneers can be shown to belong to a separate lineage of such epithelial cells, and the precursors remain and are proliferative after generating the pioneers. Analyses of mitotic spindle orientation then enable us to propose a model in which a precursor generates its pioneers asymmetrically via self-renewal.

  3. A Pioneer of Collegiate Women's Sports (United States)

    Lum, Lydia


    This article features North Carolina State University's Kay Yow, a pioneer of collegiate women's sports. An Olympic gold medal champion whose entire coaching career has been spent in her home state of North Carolina, Yow has amassed a remarkable lifetime win-loss record of 729-337. She is one of only six coaches to have won at least 700 career…

  4. "Mid-Week Pictorial": Pioneer American Photojournalism Magazine. (United States)

    Kenney, Keith

    In 1914 (22 years before the inception of "Life" magazine), the "New York Times" began publishing "Mid-Week Pictorial" to absorb a flood of war pictures pouring in from Europe. Several sociological and technological forces shaped "Mid-Week Pictorial" as a pioneer of American photojournalism magazines,…

  5. Competing Environmental Ethics in Cooper's "The Pioneers" (United States)

    Mnassar, Sabri


    This essay examines the environmental worthiness of James Fenimore Cooper's "The Pioneers" and analyzes the various and competing environmental ethics that Cooper introduces in this novel through his descriptions of the different relationships between humans and the natural world. Among these different environmental ethics are the…

  6. Think Piece: Pioneers as Relational Subjects? Probing Relationality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therefore offers a possible framework for more detailed empirical studies on relationality in collective learning .... pioneers. This idea is also reflected in a book co-authored by Hermansen called Commonities ..... studies. Harvard MS: Harvard.

  7. Z3 model of Saturns magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connerney, J.E.P.; Acuna, M.H.; Ness, N.F.


    Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z(sub 3) model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z(sub 3) zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the Z(sub 3) model field are found to be small (approximately 1%) and quantitatively consistent with the expected instrumental accuracy. A detailed examination of these differences in spacecraft payload coordinates shows that they are uniquely associated with the instrument frame of reference and operation. A much improved fit to the Pioneer 11 observations is obtained by rotation of the instrument coordinate system about the spacecraft spin axis by 1.4 degree. With this adjustment, possibly associated with an instrumental phase lag or roll attitude error, the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations are fully consistent with the Voyager Z(sub 3) model

  8. The English Village in Emma: An Empirical Study of Heritage Dramas, Location Filming and Host Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Brydon


    Full Text Available This article considers location filming for heritage dramas in rural England, focusing on the experiences of the communities that “host” television crews during production. The article specifically examines the filming of the 2009 BBC adaptation of Jane Austen’s Emma, for which the historic Kent village, Chilham, doubled as the fictional Highbury. In doing so, it interrogates two central aspects. First, it illuminates some of the practical issues and economic and cultural impact of location filming for heritage dramas within rural areas. Second, it reflects upon how a community experiences and responds to its status as the host of such a series, considering the impact this has upon questions of identity and heritage. The article draws upon original empirical research, oral history interviews and community archive building conducted within the Chilham community and with Kent Film Office. It explores the memories and experiences of the local population involved in the television location filming process, as both spectators and participants. We thus consider the significance of location from the point of view of those who solicit, resist, profit from, and are caused problems by the temporary transformation of their local space into a television drama shooting space, forging new connections between production practices, location shooting and heritage series and national television/cinema.

  9. Pioneers in Astronomy and Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server


    The pioneers of astronomy and space exploration have advanced humankind's understanding of the universe. These individuals include earthbound theorists such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Galileo, as well as those who put their lives on the line travelling into the great unknown. Readers chronicle the lives of individuals positioned at the vanguard of astronomical discovery, laying the groundwork for space exploration past, present, and yet to come.

  10. Sir Victor Horsley: pioneer craniopharyngioma surgeon. (United States)

    Pascual, José M; Prieto, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo


    Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery. He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in 1889, and in 1906 he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors. He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on. Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (Queen Square, London), and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost. In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), written in 1911 by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia. They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery. Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type. The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful. According to the

  11. Willem J Kolff (1911-2009): physician, inventor and pioneer: father of artificial organs. (United States)

    Morrissey, Megan


    Medical pioneer Willem Johan Kolff was an inspirational father, son, physician and inventor. He founded the development of the first kidney dialysis machine, pioneered advances in the heart and lung machine, laid down the foundations for the first mainland blood bank in Europe and successfully implanted the first artificial heart into humans.



    Đorđe Kaličanin


    One of the most important questions faced by business leaders in the strategic management process is a choice of timing to launch new product/technologies and enter new markets. There are two options: to be a pioneer or to be a follower. Both have advantages and risks. Pioneers often have higher profitability, greater market share, and a longer business life, but the relative success of each strategy depends on several factors, both internal and external (pace of evolution of technology and m...

  13. In Memoriam: Arthur Samuel: Pioneer in Machine Learning


    McCarthy, John; Feigenbaum, Edward A.


    Arthur Samuel (1901-1990) was a pioneer of artificial intelligence research. From 1949 through the late 1960s, he did the best work in making computers learn from their expe-rience. His vehicle for this work was the game of checkers.

  14. 76 FR 34712 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model; Extension of the Submission... (United States)


    ... stakeholders to develop initiatives to test innovative payment and service delivery models to reduce program...] Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model; Extension of the Submission Deadlines for... of the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model letters of intent to June 30, 2011 and the...

  15. A question of strategy: To be a pioneer or a follower?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Đorđe


    Full Text Available One of the most important questions faced by business leaders in the strategic management process is a choice of timing to launch new product/technologies and enter new markets. There are two options: to be a pioneer or to be a follower. Both have advantages and risks. Pioneers often have higher profitability, greater market share, and a longer business life, but the relative success of each strategy depends on several factors, both internal and external (pace of evolution of technology and markets.

  16. Guido von Pirquet: Austrian pioneer of astronautics (United States)

    Sykora, F.


    The works of Guido von Pirquet, Austrian pioneer of rocketry, were assessed. Major emphasis was given to Pirquet's calculation of the route to Venus which in fact was followed by the first Russian rocket to Venus. Of interest also is Pirquet's valuable construction of a space station and his analysis of interstellar space flight.

  17. Pioneer Venus Star Sensor. [active despin control application (United States)

    Gutshall, R. L.; Thomas, G.


    The design predictions and orbital performance verification of the solid state star scanner used in the Onboard Attitude Control of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Multiprobe are presented. The star sensor extended the scanner use to active despin control, and it differs from previous sensors in solid state detection, redundant electronics for reliability, larger field of view, and large dynamic spin range. The star scanner hardware and design performance based on the ability to predict all noise sources, signal magnitudes, and expected detection probability are discussed. In-flight data collected to verify sensor ground calibration are tabulated and plotted in predicted accuracy curves. It is concluded that the Pioneer Venus Star Sensor has demonstrated predictable star calibration in the range of .1 magnitude uncertainties and usable star catalogs of 100 stars with very high probabilities of detection, which were much better than expected and well within the mission requirements.

  18. 19.gadsimta Anglijas naratīvs japāņu animācijas seriālā „Emma: A Victorian Romance”


    Čiževska, Inese


    Bakalaura darba mērķis ir noskaidrot, kā ar dažādiem stāstījuma veidiem, zīmēm un simboliem tiek reprezentēta, kādas ir līdzīgās un atšķirīgās iezīmes starp vēsturisko un animācijas seriālā atveidoto vidi. Darbā tiek analizēts japāņu animācijas seriāls „Emma: A Victorian Romance”. Empīriskie dati iegūti, veicot naratīva analīzi un semiotisko analīzi, ar kuru palīdzību tiks noskaidrots, kā caur japāņu kultūras prizmu tiek attēlota Anglija. Iegūtie rezultāti sniedz inf...

  19. Safety Test Program Summary SNAP 19 Pioneer Heat Source Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Sixteen heat source assemblies have been tested in support of the SNAP 19 Pioneer Safety Test Program. Seven were subjected to simulated reentry heating in various plasma arc facilities followed by impact on earth or granite. Six assemblies were tested under abort accident conditions of overpressure, shrapnel impact, and solid and liquid propellant fires. Three capsules were hot impacted under Transit capsule impact conditions to verify comparability of test results between the two similar capsule designs, thus utilizing both Pioneer and Transit Safety Test results to support the Safety Analysis Report for Pioneer. The tests have shown the fuel is contained under all nominal accident environments with the exception of minor capsule cracks under severe impact and solid fire environments. No catastrophic capsule failures occurred in this test which would release large quantities of fuel. In no test was fuel visible to the eye following impact or fire. Breached capsules were defined as those which exhibit thoria contamination on its surface following a test, or one which exhibited visible cracks in the post test metallographic analyses.

  20. Thermal analysis of the Pioneer anomaly: A method to estimate radiative momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.; Francisco, F.; Gil, P. J. S.


    We present a methodology based on pointlike Lambertian sources that enables one to perform a reliable and comprehensive estimate of the overall thermally induced acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. We show, by developing a sensitivity analysis of the several parameters of the model, that one may achieve a valuable insight into the possible thermal origin of the so-called Pioneer anomaly.

  1. Pioneers of paediatrics: Professor Salah Abdelrahman Ali Taha (United States)


    This article highlights the contributions of Professor Salah Abdelrahman Ali Taha (1927–1988), one of the pioneers in paediatrics in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. He graduated from Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum[U of K]) in 1952 and was awarded an MD from the U of K in 1973, having accomplished a survey on the prevalence and underlying causes of childhood malnutrition in 14 villages. His impact was remarkable in establishing child health services in Sudan and Saudi Arabia, and in laying the foundation of the Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, King Saud University. He was also an active researcher in various fields in child health, and was pioneering in those related to nutrition. Following his return to Sudan, Dr Salah A Taha was elected Member of Parliament from his rural district in Gezira State and was the Speaker of the House of Parliament in 1986. PMID:27493360

  2. Feminist activist and pioneering researcher : Meet Jac sm Kee ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jac has conducted pioneering research on Internet governance, censorship, privacy ... year to identify where research is needed to address issues involving gender and ... Among the areas needing further research are the gaps in research on ...

  3. 78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically... (United States)


    ...] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically Engineered... Hi-Bred International Inc., designated as maize event DP-[Oslash][Oslash]4114-3, which has been... by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its petition for a determination of nonregulated status...

  4. Time and tide wait for no man pioneers and laggards in the deployment of CCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rübbelke, Dirk; Vögele, Stefan


    Highlights: • Analysis whether it pays throughout to be a CCS pioneer. • Welfare effects on electricity suppliers and consumers considered for European countries. • One country’s CCS activities affect other countries through import/export of electricity. • Pioneering CCS activities tend to be rather heterogeneous for laggard and pioneer countries. • Profitability of CCS for countries does not crucially depend on their laggard- or pioneer-role. - Abstract: In Europe the ambitions of individual countries to deploy carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are diverse. Reasons for this are, amongst other things, the heterogeneity of national electricity generation systems and storage capacities and the differences in the public perception of these technologies. In this analysis we investigate the consequences of partial deployment of CCS, i.e. we consider a situation where some European countries (the “pioneers”) actively deploy CCS technologies, while others (the “laggards”) do not use CCS. Our study focuses on the question whether it pays throughout to be a pioneer and whether laggards will generally be disadvantaged. In our assessment, we take into account impacts on consumers affected from rising electricity prices, electricity suppliers whose profits are influenced by changes in both electricity prices and sales, and international trade-flow changes (modifications in European electricity import/export patterns)

  5. Ella Flagg Young: Pioneer of Democratic School Administration. (United States)

    Webb, L. Dean; McCarthy, Martha M.


    Ella Flagg Young was the first woman superintendent of a large-city school system (Chicago, 1909-15) and the first woman president of the National Education Association (1910). A colleague of Dewey, Young pioneered democratic administrative practices in a scientific management era and organized school councils to give teachers a greater voice in…

  6. Post-carbon Society: Pioneering Cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelianoff, Cyria; Mor, Elsa


    In 2009 a programme was launched, steered jointly by the Foresight Mission of the French Ecology Ministry and by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), called 'Rethinking Cities in a Post-carbon Society'. The programme's work is still on-going towards a final report planned for 2013. The idea of a transition towards a 'post-carbon' society embraces four main objectives: the reduction of greenhouse gases by 2050 to one quarter of their 1990 levels, virtual autonomy in respect of carbon-based energies (oil, gas and coal), an adequate capacity for adaptation to climate change and, lastly, greater attention to situations of energy precariousness . As part of the dossier Futuribles is devoting, this month, to this programme, Cyria Emelianoff and Elsa Mor show, in this article, how certain cities have gradually taken this subject on board, developing -often thanks to civil society initiatives and the emergence of networks of pioneering cities at the European level- highly ambitious strategies of transition towards less carbon energy consumption and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Here they outline two concrete cases of cities that are highly active in this field, Hanover and Bristol, showing their aims, the strategies deployed, the levers used and the results obtained. They particularly stress the importance played in these two transitions by the economic and environmental departments coming together on the question, and also by the development of 'multi-partner' approaches. They are, nevertheless, critical of the difficulties in establish - ing proper 'multi-scale climate governance' involving -above and beyond these pioneering cities- the regional, national, European and international levels, with a view to a more large-scale post-carbon transition. (authors)

  7. Statistics of a parallel Poynting vector in the auroral zone as a function of altitude using Polar EFI and MFE data and Astrid-2 EMMA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen


    Full Text Available We study the wave-related (AC and static (DC parallel Poynting vector (Poynting energy flux as a function of altitude in auroral field lines using Polar EFI and MFE data. The study is statistical and contains 5 years of data in the altitude range 5000–30000 km. We verify the low altitude part of the results by comparison with earlier Astrid-2 EMMA Poynting vector statistics at 1000 km altitude. The EMMA data are also used to statistically compensate the Polar results for the missing zonal electric field component. We compare the Poynting vector with previous statistical DMSP satellite data concerning the electron precipitation power. We find that the AC Poynting vector (Alfvén-wave related Poynting vector is statistically not sufficient to power auroral electron precipitation, although it may, for Kp>2, power 25–50% of it. The statistical AC Poynting vector also has a stepwise transition at R=4 RE, so that its amplitude increases with increasing altitude. We suggest that this corresponds to Alfvén waves being in Landau resonance with electrons, so that wave-induced electron acceleration takes place at this altitude range, which was earlier named the Alfvén Resonosphere (ARS. The DC Poynting vector is ~3 times larger than electron precipitation and corresponds mainly to ionospheric Joule heating. In the morning sector (02:00–06:00 MLT we find that the DC Poynting vector has a nontrivial altitude profile such that it decreases by a factor of ~2 when moving upward from 3 to 4 RE radial distance. In other nightside MLT sectors the altitude profile is more uniform. The morning sector nontrivial altitude profile may be due to divergence of the perpendicular Poynting vector field at R=3–4 RE.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena; Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (Wave-particle interactions

  8. Statistics of a parallel Poynting vector in the auroral zone as a function of altitude using Polar EFI and MFE data and Astrid-2 EMMA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen


    Full Text Available We study the wave-related (AC and static (DC parallel Poynting vector (Poynting energy flux as a function of altitude in auroral field lines using Polar EFI and MFE data. The study is statistical and contains 5 years of data in the altitude range 5000–30000 km. We verify the low altitude part of the results by comparison with earlier Astrid-2 EMMA Poynting vector statistics at 1000 km altitude. The EMMA data are also used to statistically compensate the Polar results for the missing zonal electric field component. We compare the Poynting vector with previous statistical DMSP satellite data concerning the electron precipitation power. We find that the AC Poynting vector (Alfvén-wave related Poynting vector is statistically not sufficient to power auroral electron precipitation, although it may, for Kp>2, power 25–50% of it. The statistical AC Poynting vector also has a stepwise transition at R=4 RE, so that its amplitude increases with increasing altitude. We suggest that this corresponds to Alfvén waves being in Landau resonance with electrons, so that wave-induced electron acceleration takes place at this altitude range, which was earlier named the Alfvén Resonosphere (ARS. The DC Poynting vector is ~3 times larger than electron precipitation and corresponds mainly to ionospheric Joule heating. In the morning sector (02:00–06:00 MLT we find that the DC Poynting vector has a nontrivial altitude profile such that it decreases by a factor of ~2 when moving upward from 3 to 4 RE radial distance. In other nightside MLT sectors the altitude profile is more uniform. The morning sector nontrivial altitude profile may be due to divergence of the perpendicular Poynting vector field at R=3–4 RE. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena; Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (Wave-particle interactions

  9. Sir Almroth Wright: pioneer immunologist. (United States)

    Ellis, Harold


    This year marks the 150th anniversary of the birth of Almroth Edward Wright, whose pioneer work in immunology saved countless lives, especially in the First World War, but whose name and work are all but forgotten today. Wright was born in 1861 in Middleton Tyas, Yorkshire, where his father, an Irish protestant and considerable Hebrew scholar, was the minister. Almroth's Swedish mother, the daughter of NW Almroth, governor of the mint in Stockholm, was responsible for his unusual first name. She had the rare distinction of having served as a nurse with Florence Nightingale in the hospital at Scutari in the Crimean War.

  10. Short dry spells in the wet season increase mortality of tropical pioneer seedlings. (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Bettina M J; Dalling, James W; Pearson, Timothy R H; Wolf, Robert L; Gálvez, David A; Koehler, Tobias; Tyree, Melvin T; Kursar, Thomas A


    Variation in plant species performance in response to water availability offers a potential axis for temporal and spatial habitat partitioning and may therefore affect community composition in tropical forests. We hypothesized that short dry spells during the wet season are a significant source of mortality for the newly emerging seedlings of pioneer species that recruit in treefall gaps in tropical forests. An analysis of a 49-year rainfall record for three forests across a rainfall gradient in central Panama confirmed that dry spells of > or = 10 days during the wet season occur on average once a year in a deciduous forest, and once every other year in a semi-deciduous moist and an evergreen wet forest. The effect of wet season dry spells on the recruitment of pioneers was investigated by comparing seedling survival in rain-protected dry plots and irrigated control plots in four large artificially created treefall gaps in a semi-deciduous tropical forest. In rain-protected plots surface soil layers dried rapidly, leading to a strong gradient in water potential within the upper 10 cm of soil. Seedling survival for six pioneer species was significantly lower in rain-protected than in irrigated control plots after only 4 days. The strength of the irrigation effect differed among species, and first became apparent 3-10 days after treatments started. Root allocation patterns were significantly, or marginally significantly, different between species and between two groups of larger and smaller seeded species. However, they were not correlated with seedling drought sensitivity, suggesting allocation is not a key trait for drought sensitivity in pioneer seedlings. Our data provide strong evidence that short dry spells in the wet season differentially affect seedling survivorship of pioneer species, and may therefore have important implications to seedling demography and community dynamics.

  11. Pioneering instrumentation aspects of NA60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Andre


    NA60 is taking data with proton and heavy-ion beams at the CERN SPS. Although building up on previous experiments, the dimuon physics programme of NA60 places very demanding requirements on its new detectors, in terms of radiation tolerance, granularity and read-out electronics speed. We start by comparing dimuon detection strategies in NA60 with those of previous experiments. We then describe the new detectors used in NA60, placing particular emphasis on their technological pioneering aspects as well as on their contributions to the overall physics performance of the experiment

  12. Sigmund Freud: pioneer in energy healing. (United States)

    Edwards, Stephen D; Edwards, David J


    Energy healing is a popular contemporary term for forms of healing that facilitate a natural healing process through harmonizing, rebalancing, and releasing energy flow disturbed or blocked by disease and illness. Biographical evidence indicates that Freud used physical, suggestive, and radiant forms of energy healing, and that his personal life, metapsychology, and psychoanalysis were founded on dynamic, energetic experiences and conceptualizations. Analysis of Freud's life and work leads to the conclusion that in experience, theory, and practice, Freud typified the traditional role of therapist and was a pioneer in modern forms of energy healing.



    Andrei Daniel Timofte; Irina-Draga Căruntu


    The concept of computer-assisted training was firstly implemented in UMF Iasi in 1997, through the development of two pioneering digital instruments, namely the Histology Album and the Oral Histology Album. Both were built for learning purposes and became available, at that time, as Internet resources worldwide visible. The application of this particular e-learning method was dictated by the importance of well-defined visual images in acquiring basic histologic principles. Thus, t...

  14. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (United States)


    ... Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147.847 Navigation and Navigable... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is in...

  15. Results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11 (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.


    A high-field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was mounted on Pioneer 11 to measure the main magnetic field of Jupiter. It is found that this planetary magnetic field is more complex than that indicated by the results of the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer. At distances less than 3 Jupiter radii, the magnetic field is observed to increase more rapidly than an inverse-cubed distance law associated with any simple dipole model. Contributions from higher-order multipoles are significant, with the quadrupole and octupole being 24 and 21 percent of the dipole moment, respectively. Implications of the results for the study of trapped particles, planetary radio emission, and planetary interiors are discussed. Major conclusions are that the deviation of the main planetary magnetic field from a simple dipole leads to distortion of the L shells of the charged particles and to warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Amalthea and Io are predicted.

  16. Avoiding transport bottlenecks in an expanding root system: xylem vessel development in fibrous and pioneer roots under field conditions. (United States)

    Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Byczyk, Julia; Eissenstat, David M; Oleksyn, Jacek; Zadworny, Marcin


    Root systems develop to effectively absorb water and nutrients and to rapidly transport these materials to the transpiring shoot. In woody plants, roots can be born with different functions: fibrous roots are primarily used for water and nutrient absorption, whereas pioneer roots have a greater role in transport. Because pioneer roots extend rapidly in the soil and typically quickly produce fibrous roots, they need to develop transport capacity rapidly so as to avoid becoming a bottleneck to the absorbed water of the developing fibrous roots and, as we hypothesized, immediately activate a specific type of autophagy at a precise time of their development. Using microscopy techniques, we monitored xylem development in Populus trichocarpa roots in the first 7 d after emergence under field conditions. Newly formed pioneer roots contained more primary xylem poles and had larger diameter tracheary elements than fibrous roots. While xylogenesis started later in pioneer roots than in fibrous, it was completed at the same time, resulting in functional vessels on the third to fourth day following root emergence. Programmed cell death was responsible for creating the water conducting capacity of xylem. Although the early xylogenesis processes were similar in fibrous and pioneer roots, secondary vascular development proceeded much more rapidly in pioneer roots. Compared to fibrous roots, rapid development of transport capacity in pioneer roots is not primarily caused by accelerated xylogenesis but by larger and more numerous tracheary elements and by rapid initiation of secondary growth.

  17. Redox Pioneer: Professor Stuart A. Lipton (United States)


    Abstract Professor Stuart A. Lipton Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D. is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because of his publication of four articles that have been cited more than 1000 times, and 96 reports which have been cited more than 100 times. In the redox field, Dr. Lipton is best known for his work on the regulation by S-nitrosylation of the NMDA-subtype of neuronal glutamate receptor, which provided early evidence for in situ regulation of protein activity by S-nitrosylation and a prototypic model of allosteric control by this post-translational modification. Over the past several years, Lipton's group has pioneered the discovery of aberrant protein nitrosylation that may contribute to a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease). In particular, the phenotypic effects of rare genetic mutations may be understood to be enhanced or mimicked by nitrosative (and oxidative) modifications of cysteines and thereby help explain common sporadic forms of disease. Thus, Lipton has contributed in a major way to the understanding that nitrosative stress may result from modifications of specific proteins and may operate in conjunction with genetic mutation to create disease phenotype. Lipton (collaborating with Jonathan S. Stamler) has also employed the concept of targeted S-nitrosylation to produce novel neuroprotective drugs that act at allosteric sites in the NMDA receptor. Lipton has won a number of awards, including the Ernst Jung Prize in Medicine, and is an elected fellow of the AAAS. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 757–764. PMID:23815466

  18. Redox pioneer:Professor Christine Helen Foyer. (United States)

    Del Río, Luis A


    Dr. Christine Foyer (B.Sc. 1974; Ph.D. 1977) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because she has published an article on redox biology that has been cited more than 1000 times, 4 other articles that have been cited more than 500 times, and a further 32 articles that have been each cited more than 100 times. During her Ph.D. at the Kings College, University of London, United Kingdom, Dr. Foyer discovered that ascorbate and glutathione and enzymes linking NADPH, glutathione, and ascorbate are localized in isolated chloroplast preparations. These observations pioneered the discovery of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, now known as Foyer-Halliwell-Asada pathway after the names of the three major contributors, a crucial mechanism for H(2)O(2) metabolism in both animals and plants. Dr. Foyer has made a very significant contribution to our current understanding of the crucial roles of ascorbate and glutathione in redox biology, particularly in relation to photosynthesis, respiration, and chloroplast and mitochondrial redox signaling networks. "My view is that science…is compulsive and you have to keep with it all the time and not get despondent when things do not work well. Being passionate about science is what carries you through the hard times so that it isn't so much work, as a hobby that you do for a living. It is the thrill of achieving a better understanding and finding real pleasure in putting new ideas together, explaining data and passing on knowledge that keeps you going no matter what!" --Prof. Christine Helen Foyer.

  19. Engineer pioneer plants respond to and affect geomorphic constraints similarly along water–terrestrial interfaces world-wide


    Corenblit, D.; Baas, A.; Balke, T.; Bouma, T.J.; Fromard, F.; Garófano-Gómez, V.; González, E.; Gurnell, A.M.; Hortobágyi, B.; Julien, F.; Kim, D.; Lambs, L.; Stallins, J.A.; Steiger, J.; Tabacchi, E.


    Aim Within fluvial and coastal ecosystems world-wide, flows of water, wind and sediment generate a shifting landscape mosaic composed of bare substrate and pioneer and mature vegetation successional stages. Pioneer plant species that colonize these ecosystems at the land–water interface have developed specific traits in response to environmental constraints (response...

  20. Observations of the interplanetary sector structure up to heliographic latitudes of 160: Pioneer 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.J.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Rosenberg, R.L.


    A study of the interplanetary sector structure at heliographic latitudes up to 16 0 N is reported. The study is based on magnetic field measurements made on board Pioneer 11 as the spacecraft traveled along the post-Jupiter-encounter trajectory. Preliminary measurements are used to determine the dominant polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field during 43 successive solar rotations including Pioneer's ascent to its maximum latitude and motion inward from 5 to 3.7 AU. As the latitude of Pioneer increased, the dominant polarity became continually more positive, corresponding to an outward-directed solar interplanetary field. When the spacecraft reached the highest latitude, the usual sector structure had essentially disappeared. A histogram of the field longitude angle, based on data acquired during 1 month at 16 0 latitude, shows an almost total absence of inward-directed fields. A comparison with interplanetary field polarities in the ecliptic, as inferred from geomagnetic field variations, rules out the possibility that a time variation rather than a latitude dependence is responsible. The Pioneer 11 observations imply that the boundary between adjacent sectors corresponds physically to a current sheet surrounding the sun and lying near parallel to the solar equatorial plane. Above this current sheet, in the northern hemisphere, the field polarity at this phase of the solar cycle is outward, and below the current sheet, in the southern hemisphere, it is inward. The Pioneer observations confirm earlier theoretical suggestions regarding the existence and equatorial orientation of this current sheet. The properties of the current sheet and some major implications and questions associated with it are discussed. It is shown that the radial component of the sheet current is compensated by the distributed currents in the northern and southern hemispheres associated with the spiraled interplanetary field

  1. Highlight: Pioneer of oral rehydration therapy visits IDRC's Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dr Cash is renowned for his pioneering work on oral rehydration therapy (ORT), a practical treatment for cholera and other diseases causing diarrheal dehydration. A visiting professor at the Public Health Foundation of India, Dr Cash is a senior lecturer on global health in the Department of Global Health and Population at ...

  2. Crippling load test of Budd Pioneer Car 244, test 3. (United States)


    This report summarizes Test 3, a crippling load test on Budd Pioneer Car 244, conducted on June 28, 2011. Before the crippling load test, Transportation Technology Center, Inc., conducted two 800,000-pound (lb) quasi-static tests on Car 244 in accord...

  3. Salute to some nursing pioneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Harrison


    Full Text Available This is indeed a very wide meaning for the word, ‘Pioneer’, and it was with some trepidation that I approached this subject. After all, it could end up by being a sort of Biographical Directory of Nurses in South Africa and this is certainly not what our readers would like in this particular journal. In any case, Searle’s History of the Development of Nursing in South Africa covers this field very fully and adequately. So just what sort of people do we regard as pioneers of nursing in our country? Where do we begin? Can one be totally objective about it or would my choice be different from that of readers because of a more subjective attitude.

  4. W. Grey Walter, pioneer in the electroencephalogram, robotics, cybernetics, artificial intelligence. (United States)

    Bladin, Peter F


    With the announcement by William Lennox at the 1935 London International Neurology Congress of the use of electroencephalography in the study of epilepsy, it became evident that a new and powerful technique for the investigation of seizures had been discovered. William Grey Walter, a young researcher finishing his post-graduate studies at Cambridge, was selected to construct and study the EEG in clinical neurology at the Maudsley Hospital, London. His hugely productive pioneering career in the use of EEG would eventually lead to groundbreaking work in other fields --the emerging sciences of robotics, cybernetics, and early work in artificial intelligence. In this historical note his pioneering work in the fields of clinical neurophysiology is documented, both in the areas of epileptology and tumour detection. His landmark contributions to clinical neurophysiology are worthy of documentation.

  5. The Pioneering Legacy of Betty Ford | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... Ford Photo: AP “Mrs. Ford was a courageous pioneer, a groundbreaking First Lady , and a forceful advocate ... and drug addiction, located next to the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, California. The facility offers ...

  6. Pioneering unquenched desire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Hoffmann


    Full Text Available The book Twórczość Leśmiana w kręgu filozoficznej myśli symbolizmu rosyjskiego written by Sobieska is a pioneering attempt at combining a discussion on the literary output of the author of Dziejba leśna with the reflection stemming from the tradition of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The book, notwithstanding its shortcomings and self-imposed limitations, comprehensively discusses views and opinions hitherto unknown to the Polish reader, introduces and explains the context of the findings of such thinkers as Soloviov or Biely, compares texts written by Russian symbolists with Leśmian’s poems. Sobieska categorizes the problem issues into subsequent thematic ranges (epiphany insight into the nature of being, musicality and the notion of poetical metre, creative imagination, mystical femininity in order to point at potential sources of the recontextualization of Leśmian’s poetical sensitivity. The findings, being an example of classic comparatistic studies, have been enhanced by iconological and musicological observations as well as by some additional guiding elements facilitating the understanding of Orthodox theology. The present sketch discusses the book and is complemented with a polemics with some of its methodological solutions.

  7. 77 FR 35959 - Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of... (United States)


    ... Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 30, 2012, Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC (Atlas) and Pioneer Natural Resources... President and General Counsel, Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent, LLC, 110 W. 7th Street, Suite 2300, Tulsa, OK...

  8. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome: the 60th anniversary of Eaton and Lambert's pioneering article. (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Kay, Cláudia Suemi Kamoi; Werneck, Lineu Cesar; Scola, Rosana Herminia


    This historical review describes the contribution of Drs. Lee M. Eaton and Edward H. Lambert to the diagnosis of myasthenic syndrome on the 60th anniversary of their pioneering article (JAMA 1957) on the disease. There are important landmarks in their article on a disorder of the neuromuscular junction associated with thoracic neoplasm and the electrophysiological criteria for Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). After 60 years, the main electrophysiological criteria described in Eaton and Lambert's pioneering article are still currently useful in the diagnosis of LEMS.

  9. Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962): A pioneer in human brain tissue culture. (United States)

    Zottoli, Steven J; Seyfarth, Ernst-August


    The ability to maintain human brain explants in tissue culture was a critical step in the use of these cells for the study of central nervous system disorders. Ross G. Harrison (1870-1959) was the first to successfully maintain frog medullary tissue in culture in 1907, but it took another 38 years before successful culture of human brain tissue was accomplished. One of the pioneers in this achievement was Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962). Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 in West Chester, Pennsylvania, and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland. Research with the developmental biologist Theodor Boveri (1862-1915) in Würzburg, Germany, resulted in her Ph.D. (1909). Hogue transitioned from studying protozoa to the culture of human brain tissue in the 1940s and 1950s, when she was one of the first to culture cells from human fetal, infant, and adult brain explants. We review Hogue's pioneering contributions to the study of human brain cells in culture, her putative identification of progenitor neuroblast and/or glioblast cells, and her use of the cultures to study the cytopathogenic effects of poliovirus. We also put Hogue's work in perspective by discussing how other women pioneers in tissue culture influenced Hogue and her research.

  10. Pioneers of representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Charles W


    The year 1897 was marked by two important mathematical events: the publication of the first paper on representations of finite groups by Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917) and the appearance of the first treatise in English on the theory of finite groups by William Burnside (1852-1927). Burnside soon developed his own approach to representations of finite groups. In the next few years, working independently, Frobenius and Burnside explored the new subject and its applications to finite group theory. They were soon joined in this enterprise by Issai Schur (1875-1941) and some years later, by Richard Brauer (1901-1977). These mathematicians' pioneering research is the subject of this book. It presents an account of the early history of representation theory through an analysis of the published work of the principals and others with whom the principals' work was interwoven. Also included are biographical sketches and enough mathematics to enable readers to follow the development of the subject. An introductor...

  11. De Vries & Mul, A.M. Cooper, Pioneer of Puppet Animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, Paul


    abstractReview of Tjitte de Vries and Ati Mul, ‘They Thought it was a Marvel’. Arthur Melbourne Cooper (1874-1961) Pioneer of Puppet Animation. Amsterdam (Pallas Publications/AmsterdamUniversity Press) 2009, 576 p., 105 ill.; includesdvd of 6 films, isbn 978 908 555016 7

  12. John Dique: dialysis pioneer and political advocate. (United States)

    George, Charles R P


    John Dique (1915-1995) epitomized the internationalism of medicine, the intellectual and manual dexterity of many pioneers of dialysis, and the social concern evinced by many nephrologists. Born in Burma of French, German, British and Indian ancestry; educated in India; an Anglo-Indian who described himself as British without ever having visited Britain; he moved to Australia in 1948 to escape the murderous inter-ethnic conflict that befell multicultural India as it and Pakistan became independent. Settling in Brisbane, he pioneered several novel medical techniques. After inventing some simple equipment to facilitate intravenous therapy, he established a neonatal exchange blood transfusion programme. Then, between 1954 and 1963, he personally constructed and operated two haemodialysis machines with which to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure, the first such treatment performed in Australasia. His patients survival results were, for the era, remarkable. He subsequently helped found the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists and went on to establish a successful private pathology practice. The latter years of his life, however, saw him become a social and political advocate. He fiercely opposed the emerging ideologies of multiculturalism and social liberalism that, he predicted, would seriously damage the national fabric of Western society. Public vilification ensued, his medical achievements disregarded. It does seem likely, however, that in none of the areas that he touched - whether medical, social, or political - has the last word yet been said.

  13. Sextose sententsidest / Marju Lepajõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepajõe, Marju, 1962-


    Ühte varaseimat, 2. saj. pärinevat kristliku eetika käsiraamatut tutvustatakse Henry Chadwick'i teose kaudu: The sentences of Sextus : a contribution to the history of early Christian ethics / by Henry Chadwick. Cambridge : University Press, 2003

  14. Saturn - lord of the rings. [Pioneer II investigation of Saturn reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G [University Coll., London (UK); Burgess, E


    Much new information has been obtained about Saturn and its system of rings by the spacecraft Pioneer II. One of the major discoveries was that Saturn has a magnetic field whose axis was found to correspond almost exactly with the axis of rotation of the planet. The planet was also found to be surrounded by belts of trapped energetic particles (radiation belts) which are effected by the planet's rings. It was not only discovered that Saturn has at least 10 satellites but also new information was provided by Pioneer about the Planet's ring system that would have been impossible to obtain from Earth-based observations. Analysis of Saturn's gravitational field, coupled with a temperature profile calculated from infrared measurements of the heat emitted by the clouds in excess of that received from the Sun, has allowed a new view of the interior of the planet to be developed.

  15. Pioneer and Voyager observations of the solar wind at large heliocentric distances and latitudes (United States)

    Gazis, P. R.; Mihalov, J. D.; Barnes, A.; Lazarus, A. J.; Smith, E. J.


    Data obtained from the electrostatic analyzers aboard the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft and from the Faraday cup aboard Voyager 2 were used to study spatial gradients in the distant solar wind. Prior to mid-1985, both spacecraft observed nearly identical solar wind structures. After day 150 of 1985, the velocity structure at Voyager 2 became flatter, and the Voyager 2 velocities were smaller than those observed by Pioneer 11. It is suggested that these changes in the solar wind at low latitudes may be related to a change which occurred in the coronal hole structure in early 1985.

  16. PBX1 Genomic Pioneer Function Drives ERα Signaling Underlying Progression in Breast Cancer (United States)

    Magnani, Luca; Ballantyne, Elizabeth B.; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Lupien, Mathieu


    Altered transcriptional programs are a hallmark of diseases, yet how these are established is still ill-defined. PBX1 is a TALE homeodomain protein involved in the development of different types of cancers. The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is central to the development of two-thirds of all breast cancers. Here we demonstrate that PBX1 acts as a pioneer factor and is essential for the ERα-mediated transcriptional response driving aggressive tumors in breast cancer. Indeed, PBX1 expression correlates with ERα in primary breast tumors, and breast cancer cells depleted of PBX1 no longer proliferate following estrogen stimulation. Profiling PBX1 recruitment and chromatin accessibility across the genome of breast cancer cells through ChIP-seq and FAIRE-seq reveals that PBX1 is loaded and promotes chromatin openness at specific genomic locations through its capacity to read specific epigenetic signatures. Accordingly, PBX1 guides ERα recruitment to a specific subset of sites. Expression profiling studies demonstrate that PBX1 controls over 70% of the estrogen response. More importantly, the PBX1-dependent transcriptional program is associated with poor-outcome in breast cancer patients. Correspondingly, PBX1 expression alone can discriminate a priori the outcome in ERα-positive breast cancer patients. These features are markedly different from the previously characterized ERα-associated pioneer factor FoxA1. Indeed, PBX1 is the only pioneer factor identified to date that discriminates outcome such as metastasis in ERα-positive breast cancer patients. Together our results reveal that PBX1 is a novel pioneer factor defining aggressive ERα-positive breast tumors, as it guides ERα genomic activity to unique genomic regions promoting a transcriptional program favorable to breast cancer progression. PMID:22125492

  17. LipidPioneer : A Comprehensive User-Generated Exact Mass Template for Lipidomics (United States)

    Ulmer, Candice Z.; Koelmel, Jeremy P.; Ragland, Jared M.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Bowden, John A.


    Lipidomics, the comprehensive measurement of lipid species in a biological system, has promising potential in biomarker discovery and disease etiology elucidation. Advances in chromatographic separation, mass spectrometric techniques, and novel substrate applications continue to expand the number of lipid species observed. The total number and type of lipid species detected in a given sample are generally indicative of the sample matrix examined (e.g., serum, plasma, cells, bacteria, tissue, etc.). Current exact mass lipid libraries are static and represent the most commonly analyzed matrices. It is common practice for users to manually curate their own lists of lipid species and adduct masses; however, this process is time-consuming. LipidPioneer, an interactive template, can be used to generate exact masses and molecular formulas of lipid species that may be encountered in the mass spectrometric analysis of lipid profiles. Over 60 lipid classes are present in the LipidPioneer template and include several unique lipid species, such as ether-linked lipids and lipid oxidation products. In the template, users can add any fatty acyl constituents without limitation in the number of carbons or degrees of unsaturation. LipidPioneer accepts naming using the lipid class level (sum composition) and the LIPID MAPS notation for fatty acyl structure level. In addition to lipid identification, user-generated lipid m/z values can be used to develop inclusion lists for targeted fragmentation experiments. Resulting lipid names and m/z values can be imported into software such as MZmine or Compound Discoverer to automate exact mass searching and isotopic pattern matching across experimental data.

  18. Feast day service honoring pioneers in medicine. (United States)

    Menninger, W Walter


    The Standing Liturgical Commission of the Anglican Church in the United States has identified persons whom they consider Holy men or Holy women, and who are celebrated in Lesser Feast and Fast day services. In 2009, the triennial General Convention of the Anglican Church, USA, ratified the recommendation of the Commission that Dr. William W. Mayo and Dr. Charles Menninger and their sons, as pioneers in medicine, were worthy of such a designation. The author was approached to deliver the following homily at a service at the Palmer Memorial Episcopal Church in Houston, Texas, March 6, 2013.

  19. System expectations for Pioneer I foil implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, A.E.; Brownell, J.H.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Goforth, J.H.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Oliphant, T.A.; Weiss, D.L.


    Prior to the beginning of the Pioneer I shot of the Los Alamos National Laboratory TRAIL-MASTER project, numerous computational simulations were run to provide ball-park estimates for the electrical currents and voltages in the circuit, the timing of the implosion, the kinetic energy, temperature, and radiation output of the load. The purpose of these calculations was to provide guidance in setting the timings of the various switches within the circuit and to establish operating ranges for the various diagnostics

  20. [Sir Geoffrey Keynes 1887-1982. Surgical pioneer, medical historian, humanist]. (United States)

    Bergljung, Lars


    Sir Geoffrey Keynes (1887 - 1982), was a pioneer in the surgery of breast cancer and thymic deseases, n.b. in patients suffering from myastenia gravis. He strongly disapproved of the longstanding dogma of so called radical mastectomy in breast cancer, and advocated a more limited surgical approach, followed by radiation therapy. This was done more than fifty years before breastconserving surgery has become the therapy of choice and against considerable opposition from the surgical establishment of his days. He also became a pioneer in the surgical treatment of myastenia gravis by thymectomy, at a time when there was no real understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and when considerable controversy existed as to the importance or non importance of concomitant tumour formation in the thymus. Besides being a busy surgeon Sir Geoffrey was a medical historian, writing the biography of among others William Harvey, a bibliographer with a special interest in the poet and artist William Blake and a bibliophil with a large book collection of great value to medical history.

  1. Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green with Earth's Smallest Settlers (United States)

    Cwikla, Julie; Milroy, Scott; Reider, David; Skelton, Tara


    Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green with the Earth's Smallest Settlers ( provides a partnership model for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning that brings university scientists together with high school students to investigate whether cyanobacteria from Antarctica could survive on…

  2. On the Frontier of School Reform with Trailblazers, Pioneers, and Settlers. (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.


    Educators leading restructuring efforts must recognize five roles people play in the change process (trailblazers, pioneers, settlers, stay-at-homes, and saboteurs) and provide training, encouragement, and support differentially for each role. The article examines four questions that must be answered to move the restructuring process forward…

  3. The Pioneer XI high field fluxgate magnetometer (United States)

    Acuna, M. A.; Ness, N. F.


    The high field fluxgate magnetometer experiment flown aboard the Pioneer XI spacecraft is described. This extremely simple instrument was used to extend the spacecraft's upper-limit measurement capability by approximately an order of magnitude (from 0.14 mT to 1.00 mT) with minimum power and volume requirements. This magnetometer was designed to complement the low-field measurements provided by a helium vector magnetometer and utilizes magnetic ring core sensors with biaxial orthogonal sense coils. The instrument is a single-range, triaxial-fluxgate magnetometer capable of measuring fields of up to 1 mT along each orthogonal axis, with a maximum resolution of 1 microT.

  4. Pioneering the human development revolution: Analysing the trajectory of Mahbub ul Haq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractMahbub ul Haq's work to coordinate, establish and propagate the human development approach offers an example of effective leadership in promoting more ethical socio-economic development. This article reviews Pioneering the Human Development Revolution-An Intellectual Biography of Mahbub

  5. The pioneer income tax relief as an investment incentive in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxation is one of the major fiscal policy instruments used by government in regulating the economy, boosting investments and regulating inflation. Many developing nations formulate tax policies aimed at stimulating rapid economic growth. One of such policies in Nigeria is the Pioneer Income Tax Relief with the main goal ...

  6. Pioneering Russian wind tunnels and first experimental investigations, 1871-1915 (United States)

    Gorbushin, A. R.


    A review of foreign and Russian sources is given mentioning the pioneering wind tunnels built in Russia at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries. The first wind tunnel in Russia was constructed by V.A. Pashkevich at the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy in St. Petersburg in 1871. In total from 1871 through 1915, 18 wind tunnels were constructed in Russia: 11 in Moscow, 5 in St. Petersburg and 2 in Kaluga. An overview of the pioneering Russian wind tunnels built by V.A. Pashkevich, K.E. Tsiolkovsky, prof. N.E. Zhukovsky, D.P. Ryabushinsky and prof. K.P. Boklevsky is given. Schemes, photographs, formulas, description of the research and test results taken from the original papers published by the wind tunnel designers are given. Photographs from the N.E. Zhukovsky Scientific and Memorial Museum and the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences are used in the article. Methods of flow visualization and results of their application are presented. The Russian scientists and researchers' contribution to the development of techniques and methods of aerodynamic experiment is shown, including one of the most important aspects - the wall interference problem.

  7. Stealing the gold a celebration of the pioneering physics of Sam Edwards

    CERN Document Server

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Sherrington, D C; Edwards, S F


    This title presents a survey of some of the most exciting topics in condensed matter physics today, from the perspective of the pioneering work of Sam Edwards. Original articles from leaders in the field highlight the historical development as well as new and emerging areas.

  8. Long-term persistence of pioneer species in tropical forest soil seed banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalling, J W; Brown, T A


    In tropical forests, pioneer species regenerate from seeds dispersed directly into canopy gaps, and from seeds that persisted in soil seed banks before gap formation. However, life-history models suggest that selection for long-term persistence of seeds in soil should be weak, as persistence incurs a fitness cost resulting from prolonged generation time. We use a carbon dating technique to provide the first direct measurements of seed persistence in undisturbed tropical forest seed banks. We show that seeds germinate successfully from surface soil microsites up to 38 years after dispersal. Decades-long persistence may be common in pioneers with relatively large mass, and appears to be unrelated to specific regeneration requirements. In Croton billbergianus, a sub-canopy tree that recruits in abundant small gaps, long-term persistence is associated with short-distance ballistic seed dispersal. In Trema micrantha, a canopy tree with widespread dispersal, persistence is associated with a requirement for large gaps that form infrequently in old-growth forest.

  9. Christopher Bayly as a Pioneer of Global History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Drayton[1


    Christopher Bayly, who died in Chicago on April 18, 2015 at the age of 69, was the preeminent historian of India and the British Empire, a key pioneer of the field of global history, perhaps the most gifted Britishborn historian of his generation. In 2007 he was the first scholar to be knighted by the British government “for services to history outside of Europe”. His adult life was anchored in the University of Cambridge, where he was Fellow of St. Catharine’s College from 1970, and Vere Harmsworth Professor of Imperial and Naval History (1992 to 2013).

  10. Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, Thomas


    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

  11. Measurements of electron density irregularities in the ionosphere of Jupiter by Pioneer 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, R.; Yang, F.


    In this paper we demonstrate that when the frequency spectrum of the log amplitude fluctuations is used, the radio occultation experiment is a powerful tool for detecting, identifying, and studying ionospheric irregularities. Analysis of the Pioneer 10 radio occultation measurements reveals that the Jovian ionosphere possesses electron density irregularities which are very similar to those found in the earth's ionosphere. This is the first time such irregularities have been found in a planetary ionosphere other than that of earth. The Pioneer 10 results indicate that the spatial wave number spectrum of the electron density irregularities is close to the Kolmogorov spectrum and that the outer scale size is greater than the Fresnel size (6.15 km). This type of spectrum suggests that the irregularities are probably produced by the turbulent dissipation of irregularities larger than the outer scale size

  12. [Plant biomorphology and seed germination of pioneer species of the Kamchatka volcanoes]. (United States)

    Voronkova, N M; Kholina, A B; Verkholat, V P


    Biomorphology, quantitative characters and seed germination of 17 pioneer plant species friable materials of volcanic eruptions (Kamchatka Peninsula) were studied. Adaptive trends in survival stress conditions are discussed. To evaluate a possibility of the cryogenic seed storage, their response to ultra low temperatures (-196 degrees C) was determine.

  13. Robert Owen: A Historiographic Study of a Pioneer of Human Resource Development (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ideals and activities of the nineteenth century Welsh industrialist and reformer Robert Owen (1771-1858), and how they informed modern human resource development (HRD) concepts and practices and provided evidence of Owen as a HRD pioneer. Design/methodology/approach: Historiography provided…

  14. Diagnostics for Pioneer I imploding plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.H.Y.; Benjamin, R.F.; Brownell, J.H.


    The Pioneer I series of imploding plasma experiments are aimed at collapsing a thin aluminum foil with a multimegampere, submicrosecond electrical pulse produced by an explosive flux compression generator and fast plasma compression opening switch. Anticipated experimental conditions are bounded by implosion velocities of 2 x 10 7 cm/s and maximum plasma temperatures of 100 eV. A comprehensive array of diagnostics have been deployed to measure implosion symmetry (gated microchannel plate array and other time-resolved imaging), temperature of the imploding plasma (visible/uv spectroscopy), stagnation geometry (x-ray pinhole imaging), radiation emission characteristics at pinch (XRD's, fast bolometry), and electrical drive history (Rogowski loops, Faraday rotation current detectors, and capacitive voltage probes). Diagnostic performance is discussed and preliminary results are presented

  15. 76 FR 29249 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model: Request for Applications (United States)


    ... Affordable Care Act, to test innovative payment and service delivery models that reduce spending under.... This Model will test the effectiveness of a combination of the following: Payment arrangements that...] Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model: Request for Applications AGENCY: Centers for...

  16. Fiftieth anniversary of major discoveries at the Cavendish Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, B.W.


    This paper begins with some recollections of the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge in the years 1928--30, which just preceded the discovery of the neutron and other major discoveries there in 1932--33. It then goes on to describe new developments in experimental techniques for accelerating, detecting, and counting charged particles such as protons and α particles in the Cavendish Laboratory which made possible the major discoveries by Chadwick, Blackett, and Cockcroft and Walton in 1932--33. The scintillation method was superseded by the linear amplifier and scale-of-two counter. Other experimental techniques described here include the original proportional counter, the cloud chamber triggered by coincident pulses in two Geiger--Mueller counters for the detection of cosmic rays, and a 700-kV voltage multiplier for the first transmutations by artificially accelerated hydrogen ions. Pioneer measurements on pair production of γ rays and annihilation radiation are discussed in terms of Dirac's relativistic theory of the electron

  17. The pioneers of radioactivity. From the Museum to the College de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This educative guidebook is built like a touristic itinerary threw Paris (France) which follows the footpaths of the French pioneers of radioactivity from the Museum, dominated by the 'Becquerel dynasty', to the College de France. This scientific route is a good way to familiarize oneself with science and its actors. (J.S.)

  18. A pioneer of Australian paediatrics: Dr Henry Edward Brown (1858-1931). (United States)

    Isles, Alan F; Roper, Peter; Pearn, John H


    The emergence of paediatrics as a specialty in Australian medicine dates from the last two decades of the 19th century. Among the pioneers of pre-Federation paediatrics, we include Dr Henry Edward Brown (1858-1931), an Irish-born physician and surgeon who became the first paediatrician to practise in the northern half of the Australian continent. In 1885, he was appointed as the medical superintendent of the Rockhampton Children's Hospital, itself a pioneer institution in the care of sick and injured children. Dr H.E. Brown also served as medical officer of health concurrently in three Queensland shires. He was a leader in the literary and sporting life of the busy port town of Rockhampton and a scholar and significant philanthropist in the domain of French literature. His life was and remains an exemplar of a class of pre-Federation paediatricians who established the ethos of clinical and societal service, which remains as a core feature of the speciality discipline of paediatrics in the 21st century. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. SNAP 19 Pioneer F and G. Final Report (United States)


    The generator developed for the Pioneer mission evolved from the SNAP 19 RTG`s launched aboard the NIMBUS III spacecraft. In order to satisfy the power requirements and environment of earth escape trajectory, significant modifications were made to the thermoelectric converter, heat source, and structural configuration. Specifically, a TAGS 2N thermoelectric couple was designed to provide higher efficiency and improved long term power performance, and the electrical circuitry was modified to yield very low magnetic field from current flow in the RTG. A new heat source was employed to satisfy operational requirements and its integration with the generator required alteration to the method of providing support to the fuel capsule.

  20. Pioneer 10/11 data analysis of the trapped radiation experiment (United States)

    Fillius, W.


    The data handling operations and the database produced by the Trapped Radiation Experiment on the NASA Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft are outlined. In situ measurements of trapped radiation at both Jupiter and Saturn, the extension of cosmic ray observations to the outer heliosphere, the presence of Jovian electrons in interplanetary space, analyses of the interaction between planetary satellites and the trapped radiation that engulfs them, and further investigations of the radiation enviroments of both planets are reported.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zimmer


    Full Text Available First investigation part, started on 1 September 2001 by feeding 473 cows (401 dairy and 72 dry and finished on 13 November by feeding 474 cows (409 dairy and 65 dry, was characterized by the main ration consisting of maize silage without inoculant. This period was known for a maximum number of housed cows being 490 (423 dairy and 67 dry and minimum 469 (395 dairy and 74 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 17.06 l with 3.48% of lactic fat on the average. Second part of the investigation, started on 14 November 2001 by feeding 474 cows (411 dairy and 63 dry and finished on 31 March 2002 by feeding 464 cows (395 dairy and 69 dry, was known for the basic ration contained maize silage enriched by inoculant Pioneer 1188.This period was characterized by a maximum number of housed cows being 482 (404 dairy and 57 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 18.67 l and 3.58% of lactic fat. The main ration was composed of silage maize, highly wet maize, pearl barley, stock meal, sunflower cake, hay, salt and VAM. Inoculant Pioneer contained 6 strains of lactic-sour fermentation selected bacteria whose viability is basis of a successful product. In fact, it is a micro-granulated product added, by Gandy doser, to amount of 0.5 kg per green mass/t. Inoculant Pioneer 1188 was in this research added in a dose of 0.436 kg t-1 silage maize. Daily average of stable milk production increased by 1.61l i.e. 9.4% and lactic fat from 3.48% to 3.58% i.e. 2.9%.

  2. Black Skin, White Pioneer: Non-Traditional Casting in an Israeli School Pageant (United States)

    Shem-Tov, Naphtaly


    The casting of a black Ethiopian Jewish girl to play a white Zionist pioneer character in an Israeli school pageant causes feelings of discomfort among the teachers, especially the vice-principal. The vice-principal uses theatrical and historical reasons to justify her opposition to the casting which can actually be perceived as new/colour-blind…

  3. A Comparative Study of Pioneer Entry Decisions in the United States and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y. Lisa; Song, Michael; Parry, Mark E.


    According to the resource-based view of the firm, competitive advantages arise from control and deployment of productive resources that are rare and difficult to imitate. Through early entry, pioneers can gain preferential access to key resources. However, the value of that access depends on the

  4. Observation of a flare-generated shock wave at 9.7 AU by Pioneer 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryer, M.; Shea, M.A.; Smart, D.F.; Collard, H.R.; Mihalov, J.D.; Wolfe, J.H.; Warwick, J.W.


    The period March 15 to May 15, 1976, was declared in advance to be the internationally recognized Study of Traveling Interplanetary Phenomena Interval II. A variety of ground- and space-based equipment was requested to make coordinated studies during this part of the minimum of solar cycle 20. Following an absence of solar activity for a long period, several type II radio bursts on March 20, 1976, produced by two solar flares behind the east limb heralded a series of solar interplanetary, and terrestrial events. These solar radio astronomical observations were followed by non-Io-associated radio emission from Jupiter and solar wind plasma detection at Pioneer 10 at 9.7 AU of an apparent shock wave on March 30 and April 9, 1976, respectively. In view of the fact that the solar flares on March 20 were essentially at central meridian with respect to Jupiter and Pioneer 10 and also that the sun was extremely inactive prior to that date we consider the circumstantial evidence that at least one solar-flare-generated shock wave propagated to the position of Pioneer 10. The average velocities of this shock wave, together with the inferred type II velocity, support previous observations and theory concerning the rapid deceleration and survival of interplanetary shock waves to distances at least as large as approx.10 AU. It is therefore believed that dissipation (other than that within shocks themselves) plays an insignificant role in shock wave dynamics within the solar wind

  5. Thomas K. Jeffers: pioneer of coccidiosis research. (United States)

    Chapman, H D


    Thomas K. Jeffers has made many significant contributions to our understanding of the biology of the parasite Eimeria, the cause of coccidiosis in poultry. His work has had direct practical application for the control of this widespread disease. Topics discussed include Jeffers' pioneering work concerned with genetics of the host response to infection, the nature of biological and immunological intraspecific variation, drug resistance and discovery, field surveys of resistance, and his most recognized achievement-the demonstration that the lifecycle of coccidia may be altered by artificial selection. Parasites so modified are attenuated but retain their immunogenicity, a discovery that has led to the development of live vaccines that are inherently non-pathogenic. This article provides a brief biography and describes the contributions that Jeffers has made to our knowledge of coccidiosis.

  6. Samuel A. Werner Pioneer of Neutron Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Anthony


    Full text: In 1975, Sam Werner and his collaborators on the staff of the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company carried out one of the pioneering experiments in neutron interferometry at the 2MW University of Michigan research reactor. It was the famous COW Experiment on gravitationally induced quantum interference. Shortly thereafter he moved to the University of Missouri in Columbia, to set up a program of neutron scattering research, including neutron interferometry. In the 25 years until his retirement a large number of beautiful experiments have been performed by Sam, with his group, his numerous students and many international collaborators. The Interferometry and Coherence session at this conference has been organized in his honour and the collected papers presented by his friends, collaborators and former students form his Festschrift. (author)

  7. Turhan Baytop (1920-2002): A pioneer historian of pharmacy from Turkey. (United States)

    Tekiner, Halil


    Turhan Baytop, a Turkish professor of pharmacognosy (the scientific study of crude drugs of animal, vegetable, and mineral origin), received international acclaim not only for his contributions in collecting and identifying the Anatolian plants, but also for his extensive research shedding light on the history of Turkish pharmacy. As a devoted researcher, collector, and lecturer, T Baytop was a genuine pioneer of the history of pharmacy as a discipline in Turkey.

  8. Book Review: Sustainable Luxury and Social Entrepreneurship. Volume II: More Stories from the Pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else


    volume Sustainable Luxury and Social Entrepreneurship: Stories of the Pioneers, published in 2014. The book series, as well as the awards, seeks to investigate and promote the motives, context, and practical endeavours of sustainable entrepreneurs within the premium and luxury sector....

  9. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank (100-002), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-002b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has...

  10. A historical and descriptive review of the pioneer companies in the intangible management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Castilla Polo


    Full Text Available Purpose: The importance and significance of the intangibles in recent years seems unquestionable to the current business environment is questionable but why not all companies, depending on their nature, are addressing their treatment. Trying to explain from the past the present situation, we will focus on analyzing the role business played in this development. Design/methodology/approach: This shall be performed at first a theoretical review of the origins of the business interest to intangibles and secondly an analysis of the reasons that argue such pioneers to address the management of these elements. Findings and Originality/value: Our results confirm both the existence of a heterogeneous between firms bet they observe the predominance of advice and knowledge intensive companies or technologies, all of great size, as the existence of different reasons for starting this management of the intangible between the protruding inform the role of different stakeholders not booked capital. Research limitations/implications: We have analyzed only those cases we have considered like the most representative pioneers internationally, for this reason we consider necessary in the future enlargement of the cases studied. Practical implications: Our results have important implications to guide research in this field, because they suppose a call for attention for the analysis of those companies are not managing their intangibles. Social implications: Our results also are a means to guide institutional-political actions in this matter, given the relationship between intangibles and value creation. Originality/value: This paper contributes to existing research on the development of the evolution of corporate interest in intangible cataloging the pioneers and offering an explanation of the reasons offered to carry out the disposal of these items.

  11. Harry E. Burke and John M. Miller, pioneers in Western forest entomology. (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman


    This history was compiled from the memoirs, diaries, and other personal documents of the two forest entomologists in charge of the first forest insect laboratories on the west coast. It traces the lives of the two pioneers from 1902 to 1952 as they pursued their careers in the USDA Bureau of Entomology, Division of Forest Insect Investigations. Cooperative bark beetle...

  12. Grete Kellenberger-Gujer: Molecular biology research pioneer. (United States)

    Citi, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E


    Grete Kellenberger-Gujer was a Swiss molecular biologist who pioneered fundamental studies of bacteriophage in the mid-20(th) century at the University of Geneva. Her life and career stories are reviewed here, focusing on her fundamental contributions to our early understanding of phage biology via her insightful analyses of phenomena such as the lysogenic state of a temperate phage (λ), genetic recombination, radiation's in vivo consequences, and DNA restriction-modification; on her creative personality and interactions with peers; and how her academic advancement was affected by gender, societal conditions and cultural attitudes of the time. Her story is important scientifically, putting into perspective features of the scientific community from just before the molecular biology era started through its early years, and also sociologically, in illustrating the numerous "glass ceilings" that, especially then, often hampered the advancement of creative women.

  13. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies (United States)


    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  14. Readiness to adopt e-learning: pioneering a course in school librarianship education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Zinn


    Full Text Available E-learning has come of age in South African higher education but scepticism, caution and an inadequate reward system for innovative teaching methods have resulted in a slow uptake by academics. Within this milieu the author pioneered a course in the ACE School Librarianship programme. The study describes the e-learning experiences of the course participants gleaned from questionnaire responses to questions related to experiences of ICTs, the Internet and online learning, ability to navigate the e-learning environment, utilization of elements of the learning management system and implementation of course ideas in their respective schools and personal lives. The study also provides an opportunity for the author to reflect on her pioneering experiences with e-learning and how she would approach it differently next time. The main lessons learned were that 1 the e-learning environment is not necessarily intuitive and participants need opportunities to digest novel features such as the discussion forum; 2 several of the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning that appear in the research literature are identified in this study; and 3 setting up an e-learning course is best achieved incrementally.

  15. 78 FR 62014 - Pioneer Wind Park I, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order (United States)


    ... curtail the Pioneer Wind Project ahead of other generators, as if it were a non-firm transmission customer... Standard Large Generator Interconnection Agreements (LGIA) with PacifiCorp, as well as the non... or intervention to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC...

  16. A political end to a pioneering career: Marianne Beth and the psychology of religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.


    Although forgotten in both Religionswissenschaft (the Science of Religion) and psychology, Marianne Beth (1880-1984), initially trained as a lawyer and already in 1928 called a "leading European woman", must be considered as one of the female pioneers of these fields. She has been active especially


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Rabil


    Full Text Available This article explores the ideology of Fathi Yakan, the pioneer of Sunni Islamism in Lebanon and a principal founder of the Islamist party al-­‐Jama'a al-­‐Islamiya.  It also traces the establishment of  al_Jama'a as the first organized Islamist party in Lebanon.  As Secretary General of al-­‐Jama'a, Fathi Yakan blazed the ideological trail for Islamism's participation in Lebanon's political realm.  Significantly, Yakan's political activism, in much the same vein as that of Druze "Socialist" Kamal Jumblat, was also more about removing Maronite hegemony over the state.

  18. 77 FR 18883 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination and Merger; Pioneer General Insurance... (United States)


    .... Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety... Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial Management Service. [FR Doc. 2012...--Termination and Merger; Pioneer General Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service...

  19. After SDSS-IV: Pioneering Panoptic Spectroscopy (United States)

    Kollmeier, Juna; AS4 Collaboration


    I will describe the current plans for a next generation sky survey that will begin After SDSS-IV --- AS4. AS4 will be an unprecedented all-sky spectroscopic survey of over six million objects. It is designed to decode the history of the Milky Way galaxy, trace the emergence of the chemical elements, reveal the inner workings of stars, the growth of black holes, and investigate the origin of planets. It will provide the most comprehensive all-sky spectroscopy to multiply the science from the Gaia, TESS and eROSITA missions. AS4 will also create a contiguous spectroscopic map of the interstellar gas in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies that is 1,000 times larger than the state of the art, uncovering the self-regulation mechanisms of Galactic ecosystems. It will pioneer systematic, spectroscopic monitoring across the whole sky, revealing changes on timescales from 20 minutes to 20 years. The project is now developing new hardware to build on the SDSS-IV infrastructure, designing the detailed survey strategy, and actively seeking to complete its consortium of institutional and individual members.

  20. Scope for a small circumsolar annular gravitational contribution to the Pioneer anomaly without affecting planetary orbits (United States)

    Moore, Guy S. M.; Moore, Richard E. M.


    All proposed gravitational explanations of the Pioneer anomaly must crucially face the Equivalence Principle. Thus, if Pioneers 10 and 11 were influenced by anomalous gravitational effects in regions containing other Solar System bodies, then those bodies should likewise be influenced, irrespective of their shape, composition or mass. Although the lack of any observed influence upon planetary orbits severely constrains such explanations, here we aim to construct by computer modeling, hypothetical gravitating annuli having no gravitational impact on planetary orbits from Mercury to Neptune. One model has a central zone, free of radial gravitation in the annular plane, and an ‘onset’ beyond Saturn’s orbit, where sunward annular gravitation increases to match the Pioneer anomaly data. Sharp nulls are included so that Uranus and Neptune escape this influence. Such models can be proportionately reduced in mass: a 1 % contribution to the anomaly requires an annulus of approximately 1 Earth mass. It is thus possible to comply with the JPL assessment of newly recovered data attributing 80 %, or more, of the anomaly to spacecraft heat, which appears to allow small contributions from other causes. Following the possibility of an increasing Kuiper belt density at great ranges, another model makes an outward small anomalous gravitation in the TNO region, tallying with an observed slight indication of such an effect, suggesting that New Horizons may slightly accelerate in this region.

  1. Lightning measurements from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (United States)

    Scarf, F. L.; Russell, C. T.


    The plasma wave instrument on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter frequently detects strong and impulsive low-frequency signals when the spacecraft traverses the nightside ionosphere near periapsis. These particular noise bursts appear only when the local magnetic field is strong and steady and when the field is oriented to point down to the ionosphere thus; the signals have all characteristics of lightning whistlers. We have tried to identify lightning sources between the cloud layers and the planet itself by tracing rays along the B-field from the Orbiter down toward the surface. An extensive data set, consisting of measurements through Orbit 1185, strongly indicates a clustering of lightning sources near the Beta and Phoebe Regios, with an additional significant cluster near the Atla Regio at the eastern edge of Aphrodite Terra. These results suggest that there are localized lightning sources at or near the planetary surface.

  2. Soomlased saavad järjekordse nüüdiskunsti muuseumi / Markku Valkonen ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valkonen, Markku


    Intervjuu 13. X avatava Espoo kaasaegse kunsti muuseumi EMMA (Espoo museum of modern art) direktori Markku Valkoneniga. 1960-ndatel valminud Aarno Ruusuvuori projekteeritud trükikoja hoone renoveeriti ja kohandati muuseumihooneks, kus paikneb EMMA kõrval veel neli muuseumi. Kaasaegsest kunstist arusaamise õpetamisest Soomes, EMMA kogudest, esimestest näitustest (Kazimir Malevitsh, Bubnovõi (tekstis: Bubnoi) Valet, Shirin Neshat, Timo Kelaranta)

  3. Hepatic deficiency of the pioneer transcription factor FoxA restricts hepatitis B virus biosynthesis by the developmental regulation of viral DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C McFadden


    Full Text Available The FoxA family of pioneer transcription factors regulates hepatitis B virus (HBV transcription, and hence viral replication. Hepatocyte-specific FoxA-deficiency in the HBV transgenic mouse model of chronic infection prevents the transcription of the viral DNA genome as a result of the failure of the developmentally controlled conversion of 5-methylcytosine residues to cytosine during postnatal hepatic maturation. These observations suggest that pioneer transcription factors such as FoxA, which mark genes for expression at subsequent developmental steps in the cellular differentiation program, mediate their effects by reversing the DNA methylation status of their target genes to permit their ensuing expression when the appropriate tissue-specific transcription factor combinations arise during development. Furthermore, as the FoxA-deficient HBV transgenic mice are viable, the specific developmental timing, abundance and isoform type of pioneer factor expression must permit all essential liver gene expression to occur at a level sufficient to support adequate liver function. This implies that pioneer transcription factors can recognize and mark their target genes in distinct developmental manners dependent upon, at least in part, the concentration and affinity of FoxA for its binding sites within enhancer and promoter regulatory sequence elements. This selective marking of cellular genes for expression by the FoxA pioneer factor compared to HBV may offer the opportunity for the specific silencing of HBV gene expression and hence the resolution of chronic HBV infections which are responsible for approximately one million deaths worldwide annually due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Modelling the reflective thermal contribution to the acceleration of the Pioneer spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, F.; Bertolami, O.; Gil, P.J.S.; Páramos, J.


    We present an improved method to compute the radiative momentum transfer in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft that takes into account both diffusive and specular reflection. The method allows for more reliable results regarding the thermal acceleration of the deep-space probes, confirming previous findings. A parametric analysis is performed in order to set upper and lower bounds for the thermal acceleration and its evolution with time.

  5. Modelling the reflective thermal contribution to the acceleration of the Pioneer spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, F., E-mail: [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bertolami, O., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gil, P.J.S., E-mail: [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica and IDMEC - Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Paramos, J., E-mail: [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)


    We present an improved method to compute the radiative momentum transfer in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft that takes into account both diffusive and specular reflection. The method allows for more reliable results regarding the thermal acceleration of the deep-space probes, confirming previous findings. A parametric analysis is performed in order to set upper and lower bounds for the thermal acceleration and its evolution with time.

  6. Boleslas Matuszewski: Pioneer of medical film-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matanović Dragana


    Full Text Available Boleslas Matuszewski, born in 1856, was a pioneer in medical film-making. He worked simultaneously on improving his movie camera, film-making, collecting film documentation, and the idea of establishing an archive of medical films. Although his first attempts at filming and showing surgical operations didn't gain widespread approval, he was not discouraged, and succeeded in garnering support from a number of French doctors, who realized the importance of his ideas, not only in filming and forming medical film documentation, but also in the use of film for educative purposes. His visionary ideas gained acceptance when Dr. Doyen, on the occasion of the 66th Convention of the British Medical Society, in 1898, used film material as part of his lecture. Shortly afterwards, the Medical Academy took steps to show certain operative techniques, which represented both the confirmation and fruition of Matuszewski's ideas about filmmaking and the establishment of an archive of medical films.

  7. Oral history in radiography: Listening to pioneers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, Christine; Winslow, Michelle


    We explore the professional value of the collection and analysis of oral histories in the history of radiography. Drawing on oral histories collected from radiographers, we analyse accounts of experiences to identify common themes, some of which are of current significance, whilst others have faded from existence. 15 oral histories were collected from radiographers whose combined practice spans the years 1930-1973. The sample consists of 6 male and 9 female radiographers. Themes identified in the oral histories include radiographers as invisible pioneers who worked in professionally unclaimed territory and their dangerous working environment. The oral histories reveal the working world of the radiographer as having encompassed a practice ethos where challenges became an accepted part of work. We gain insight into less observable aspects of the radiographer's role, the difficulties they faced, how they invented techniques and equipment, and how they managed their practice including protecting the public from ionising radiation sources.

  8. Short biography of Louis Daniel Beauperthuy (1807-71): pioneer of microbiology and medical science in Venezuela. (United States)

    Godoy, Gerardo A; Tarradath, Ewart


    Louis Daniel Beauperthuy was a pioneer of microbiology in Venezuela where he developed microscopic and clinical research together with academic and scientific observation related to leprosy and the role of insects in the transmission of febrile illnesses.

  9. The Pioneer 9 electric field experiment. III - Radial gradients and storm observations. (United States)

    Scarf, F. L.; Green, I. M.; Burgess, J. S.


    We present a detailed analysis of the Pioneer 9 VLF electric field observations for 20 selected storm periods covering a heliocentric range extending from 0.754 AU to 0.99 AU. Although data from only two low frequency channels are available, the results of the present study tend to confirm the preliminary speculation by Scarf and Siscoe (1971) that the turbulent E-field spectrum in the disturbed solar wind has a significant radial gradient.

  10. Evaluating the Effects of Pioneer Accountable Care Organizations on Medicare Part D Drug Spending and Utilization. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuting; Caines, Kadin J; Powers, Christopher A


    The improvement of medication use is a critical mechanism that accountable care organization (ACO) could use to save overall costs. Currently pharmaceutical spending is not part of the calculation for ACO-shared savings and risks. Thus, ACO providers may have strong incentives to prescribe more medications hoping to avoid expensive downstream medical costs. We designed a quasinatural experiment study to evaluate the effects of Pioneer ACOs on Medicare Part D spending and utilization. Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with Part D drug coverage who were aligned to a Pioneer ACO were compared with a random 5% sample of non-ACO beneficiaries. Outcomes included changes in Part D spending, number of prescription fills, percent of brand medications, and total Part A and B medical spending. We utilized a generalized linear model with a difference-in-differences approach to estimate 2011-2012 changes in these outcomes among beneficiaries aligned with Pioneer ACOs, adjusting for all beneficiary-level demographics, income and insurance status, clinical characteristics, and regional fixed effects. Being in an ACO did not significantly affect Part D spending (-$23.52; P=0.19), total prescriptions filled (-0.12; P=0.27), and the percent of claims for brand-name drugs (0.06%; P=0.23). The ACO group was associated with savings in Parts A and B spending of $345 (PPioneer ACOs were not associated with changes in pharmaceutical spending and use, but were associated with savings in Parts A and B spending in 2012.

  11. Pioneers and laggards - is the effect of gender equality on health dependent on context? (United States)

    Backhans, Mona Christina; Burström, Bo; Lindholm, Lars; Månsdotter, Anna


    This study combines data at individual and area level to examine interactions between equality within couples and gender equality in the municipality in which individuals live. The research question is whether the context impacts on the association between gender equality and health. The material consists of data on 37,423 men and 37,616 women in 279 Swedish municipalities, who had their first child in 1978. The couples were classified according to indicators of their level of gender equality in 1980 in the public sphere (occupation and income) and private sphere (child care leave and parental leave) compared to that of their municipality. The health outcome is compensated days from sickness insurance during 1986-1999 with a cut-off at the 85% percentile. Data were analysed using logistic regression with the overall odds as reference. The results concerning gender equality in the private sphere show that among fathers, those who are equal in an equal municipality have lower levels of sick leave than the average while laggards (less equal than their municipality) and modest laggards have higher levels. In the public sphere, pioneers (more equal t han their municipality) fare better than the average while laggards fare worse. For mothers, those who are traditional in their roles in the public sphere are protected from high levels of sick leave, while the reverse is true for those who are equal. Traditional mothers in a traditional municipality have the lowest level of sick leave and pioneers the highest. These results show that there are distinct benefits as well as disadvantages to being a gender pioneer and/or a laggard in comparison to your municipality. The associations are markedly different for men and women.

  12. Caroline B. Palmer: Pioneer Physician Anesthetist and First Chair of Anesthesia at Stanford. (United States)

    Brodsky, Jay B; Saidman, Lawrence J


    Caroline B. Palmer was appointed as Chief of Anesthesia at Cooper Medical College (soon renamed as Stanford Medical School) in 1909. For the next 28 years, she was an innovative leader, a clinical researcher, and a strong advocate for recognition of anesthesiology as a medical specialty. To honor her accomplishments, the operating room suite in the new Stanford Hospital will be named after this pioneering woman anesthesiologist.

  13. Cesar Comas and Agustin Prio: pioneers and martyrs of the Spanish radiology field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Garcia, T.; Larrasa, R.; Montserrat, E.; Clotet, M.


    On the occasion of the celebration of the centenary of the discovery of the X ray by Roentgen, the personal and professional biographies of these two radiologists are reviewed. They were the first heads of the Department of Radiology of Hospital Santa Creu y Sant Pau in Barcelona and died precisely from the effects of radiation. All the pioneers of the Spanish radiology field are duly honored

  14. Elevation, Not Deforestation, Promotes Genetic Differentiation in a Pioneer Tropical Tree. (United States)

    Castilla, Antonio R; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Jha, Shalene


    The regeneration of disturbed forest is an essential part of tropical forest ecology, both with respect to natural disturbance regimes and large-scale human-mediated logging, grazing, and agriculture. Pioneer tree species are critical for facilitating the transition from deforested land to secondary forest because they stabilize terrain and enhance connectivity between forest fragments by increasing matrix permeability and initiating disperser community assembly. Despite the ecological importance of early successional species, little is known about their ability to maintain gene flow across deforested landscapes. Utilizing highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we examined patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation for the pioneer understory tree Miconia affinis across the Isthmus of Panama. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of geographic distance, forest cover, and elevation on genetic differentiation among populations using circuit theory and regression modeling within a landscape genetics framework. We report marked differences in historical and contemporary migration rates and moderately high levels of genetic differentiation in M. affinis populations across the Isthmus of Panama. Genetic differentiation increased significantly with elevation and geographic distance among populations; however, we did not find that forest cover enhanced or reduced genetic differentiation in the study region. Overall, our results reveal strong dispersal for M. affinis across human-altered landscapes, highlighting the potential use of this species for reforestation in tropical regions. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of considering topography when designing programs aimed at conserving genetic diversity within degraded tropical landscapes.

  15. Germany. A pioneer on earthen feet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelowa, A.


    Germany is one of the two OECD countries having achieved substantial greenhouse gas reductions in the last decade. While a part was large reductions in industry after the economic crash in East Germany, a relevant share is due to the huge public infrastructure investments in East Germany. The real success of German climate policy in the past decade is the strong reduction of methane and nitrous oxide which has been almost unnoticed. German climate policy is a good example of how lobbying of interest groups leads to a complex maze of hundreds of measures whose effects are difficult to evaluate. Paradoxically, policies have focused on expensive measures and Germany clearly is a pioneer in the most expensive forms of renewable energy. Concerning cost-effective measures and market instruments, Germany is a laggard. Only slowly, policymakers start to notice this distortion and first, shaky steps towards a more cost-efficient policy are made. Several challenges such as nuclear phase-out and trends in household energy consumption will put pressure on government to embrace the Kyoto Mechanisms and to refocus domestic instruments well before the first commitment period

  16. Acrostichum, a Pioneering Fern of Floodplain Areas from the Late Oligocene Sariñena Formation of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreno-Domínguez

    Full Text Available Acrostichum is considered today an opportunistic fern in disturbed areas, which indicates the first stages of colonisation of such zones. However, in the fossil record, Acrostichum appears related to fluvio-lacustrine environments, freshwater marshes and mangrove deposits. We report here for first time fossil evidence of Acrostichum that reveals a pioneering behaviour of this fern in the colonisation of perturbed communities in Europe, which corroborates previous assumptions about the paleobiology of Acrostichum. Plant remains were collected from the Chattian (late Oligocene La Val fossil site (Estadilla, Huesca, northeastern Spain belonging to the Sariñena Formation, which mainly embraces crevasse splays, levees and floodplain deposits. Evidence shows that Acrostichum grew within the levee's vegetal community or close to/on the river banks as well as on floodplain areas and closer to/on the shores of ephemeral ponds. But most importantly, the observed co-existence of Equisetum and Acrostichum remains in the same beds indicates that such strata represent short-lived inundated terrains, e.g., floodplains where the water table was temporarily stagnant. Evidence shows wetland environments dominated by pioneering taxa, implying a pioneering role for Acrostichum during the late Oligocene in the Iberian Peninsula.

  17. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max


    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described...... demonstrating that the electrical force encouraged hopeful applications. This history emphasizes the unique contribution in the induction of grand mal seizures as the therapeutic basis rather than the role of electricity alone....

  18. Pioneer Vegetation Detection by Hyperspectral Images on Temporal Landslides: A case study of Tzengwen catchment upstream, Taiwan (United States)

    Cheng, Youg-Sin; Yu, Teng-To; Egozi, Roey; Tarolli, Paolo


    In the southern part of Taiwan, shallow landslides are common natural disasters i.e. in the Alishan region. One unique example is the typhoon Morakot in 2009 during which heavy rainfall triggered many scattered but massive landslides at the upstream area of Tzengwen catchment in Alishan. Landslide scars could be easily identified due to the bare soil that remained after most of the vegetation had been removed. After the event, observations made at the same area documented the establishment of few pioneer plants that started covering the bare land and survived several typhoons in the following years. This study examines the links between the pioneering vegetation and shallow landslides dynamic. High temporal resolution of satellite images, i.e. after heavy rainfall events from 2009 to 2015, were used to detect landslides. We then classified the landslides into three categorise 1) old stable landslide - no significant change in its area has been detected and quantified; 2) old dynamic landslide - landslide was growing, a major change in its area has been detected; 3) new landslide - a landslide that formed after an event. In total 159 landslides were mapped in the study area, most of them formed after typhoon Morakot ( 50%) of which 23% landslides which had been triggered by typhoon Morakot remained dynamic and continued to grow or triggered again. The succession of pioneered vegetation, such as Arundo formosana - one of the native pioneer plants is examined with 1-m hyperspectral images taken in 2016 for the same area. To enhance the landslide volume of the slope-failure assessments, a variety of data processing have been conducted. After finalizing the atmospheric correction, the NDVI technique to remove the non-vegetation area, and the Minimum Noise Component (MNF), we expect to that certain types of vegetation would be considered as markers for landslides detection. This would allow sophisticated indirect method in order to study post event landslides dynamics or

  19. William and Caroline Herschel pioneers in late 18th-century astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael


    This beautifully structured book presents the essentials of William and Caroline Herschel's pioneering achievements in late 18th-century astronomy. Michael Hoskin shows that William Herschel was the first observational cosmologist and one of the first observers to attack the sidereal universe beyond the solar system:Herschel built instruments far better than any being used at the royal observatory. Aided by his sister Caroline, he commenced a great systematic survey that led to his discovery of Uranus in 1781.Unlike observers before him, whose telescopes did not reveal them as astronomical obj

  20. Constraints on the gamma-ray burst luminosity function from Pioneer Venus Orbiter and BATSE observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulmer, A.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Fenimore, E.E.


    We examine the width of the gamma ray burst luminosity function through the distribution of Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) peak fluxes as detected by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The strength of the analysis is greatly enhanced by using a merged

  1. Two Good Gay Teachers: Pioneering Advocate-Practitioners Confronting Homophobia in Schooling in British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Grace, André P.


    This article investigates the political, cultural, and educational work of two pioneering Canadian gay teachers during the 1990s: James Chamberlain and Murray Corren. These advocate-practitioners took up roles as social activists, cultural workers, and engaged teachers whose transgressive acts focused on the social and cultural transformation of…

  2. Women in science 50 fearless pioneers who changed the world

    CERN Document Server

    Ignotofsky, Rachel


    A charmingly illustrated and educational book, New York Times best seller Women in Science highlights the contributions of fifty notable women to the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) from the ancient to the modern world. Full of striking, singular art, this fascinating collection also contains infographics about relevant topics such as lab equipment, rates of women currently working in STEM fields, and an illustrated scientific glossary. The trailblazing women profiled include well-known figures like primatologist Jane Goodall, as well as lesser-known pioneers such as Katherine Johnson, the African-American physicist and mathematician who calculated the trajectory of the 1969 Apollo 11 mission to the moon.

  3. Differences in morphological characteristics between of football pioneer and elementary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javorac Dejan


    Full Text Available For a large number of sports disciplines generally known morphological structure that most influence the sporty performance, although, no doubt, the coefficients of participation of some morphological dimension in the equation specification changes in development techniques and tactics and modern world achievements in a particular sport. It was determined that the anthropological characteristics, each in its own way, the important task of training in solving with football players (Malacko i Radosav 1985. The aim of this research was to determine differences in the morphological characteristics between of football pioneer and elementary school pupils. In a sample of 196 subjects, the average age of 12:45 ± 0.03 years, there was a comparison of morphological characteristics. The first group consisted of 82 players - Pioneers FC 'Red Star' from Belgrade and the other 114 elementary school pupils from Novi Sad. A sample of five measures for the evaluation of morphological characteristics were: body height, body weight, circumference of chest, waist circumference and volume of the thigh. Comparison of morphological characteristics of young soccer players and elementary school pupils was carried out by using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA. Analysis of morphological characteristics of young soccer players and elementary school pupils found that there were no statistically significant differences.

  4. The Now Frontier. Pioneer to Jupiter. Man Links Earth and Planets. Issue No. 1-5. (United States)


    This packet of space science instructional materials includes five issues related to the planet Jupiter. Each issue presents factual material about the planet, diagramatic representations of its movements and positions relative to bright stars or the earth, actual photographs and/or tables of data collected relevant to Pioneer 10, the spacecraft…

  5. Frugivory and the effects of ingestion by bats on the seed germination of three pioneering plants (United States)

    de Carvalho-Ricardo, Maria C.; Uieda, Wilson; Fonseca, Renata Cristina B.; Rossi, Marcelo N.


    The dispersion and seedling establishment of pioneering plants can be favoured by the presence of frugivorous bats because the bats usually improve seed germination after ingestion. Although seed germinability is known to vary greatly after ingestion by different bats, the relative contribution of each bat species to seed germination within plant communities is poorly understood. In this study, we first determined the fauna of frugivorous bats in a semideciduous seasonal forest remnant in southern Brazil and subsequently identified the plant species of the seeds passed through their guts. Second, the germination performance (i.e., germination percentage and speed) of the seeds of three pioneering plants (Piper aduncum, Piper hispidinervum and Solanum granuloso-leprosum) ingested by the most abundant bats was compared with that of the non-ingested seeds (seeds collected from fruits). Additionally, the effects on seed germination of different bat species were compared. During one year, five species of frugivorous bats were caught, and the seeds of eleven identifiable plant species (not counting those of undetermined species) were found in their faeces. We found that the germination performance of the seeds of Piper species was significantly enhanced after ingestion by bats, whereas S. granuloso-leprosum seeds had neutral or reduced germinability when seeds in faeces were compared with pulp-removed seeds. Our results revealed that the bat species that were captured exerted different effects upon seed germination; such a disparity is expected to result in different rates of early establishment of these pioneer plants in tropical forests, most likely affecting forest composition and structure, particularly during the initial stages of succession.

  6. Giuseppe Pasta (1742-1823): protophysician and pioneer of psychological studies in the medical field. (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Veneroni, Laura; Poli, Marco


    Giuseppe Pasta was a pioneer of psychological support in physical disease. Born in Bergamo, Italy, he was a cousin of the physician Andrea Pasta who was a pupil of Giovanni Battista Morgagni. Giuseppe's cultural and clinical resources were the teachings of Francesco Redi's medical school in Tuscany. This paper discusses the courage and philosophical tolerance of disease and the etiquette of the physician.

  7. Dubai: A Pioneer Smart City in the Arabian Territory (United States)

    Virtudes, Ana; Abbara, Arwa; Sá, João


    Nowadays, one of the main issues that the cities are facing is related with how they are dealing with the challenges toward smartness, including infrastructures, economic, social and environmental aspects. In this sense, some of the current challenges on the global scale, trying to find solutions regarding urban societies, are based on the concept of “smart city”. Therefore, is clear that new ideas regarding the cities improvements, which are on the top of global agenda, could be found at the concept of “smart city”. As the literature reveals, this is a topic reason among the researchers, which is in a continuous development, in particular regarding societies, countries or regions where it is emerging, such as in the Arabian territories. Dubai, a city in the United Arab Emirates, is an example where in a short period of time, after the oil discovery in the decade of 1970, one small and badly known urban settlement became a pioneer reference in terms of smart cities requirements. Thus, this article presents background information about smart cities, their assets and key pillars, their smart infrastructures and features in cultural, social and environmental terms. The main goals are based on a theoretical approach, developed in order to get more details about smart cities, regarding the features of the Arabian territories. It argues around the case of Dubai, as a pioneer smart city in the Arab world. Among of the main conclusions, there is the idea that the urban transformation process in contemporary societies to secure the smartness, should apply to the use of ICT / information and communication technologies. This use will increase the efficiency concerns to the natural resources, and provide a high quality of life for citizens. The example of Dubai has shown that the decision-makers have built each sector and part of the city in a solid performance, in order to achieve the smart sustainability concept. This city is nowadays a reference on this matter, not

  8. Remembering in a Context of Forgetting: Hauntings and the Old Durham Road Black Pioneer Settlement (United States)

    Norquay, Naomi


    This paper explores the data produced from an oral history project about a Black pioneer settlement in Grey County, Ontario. Twelve area residents were interviewed and the data produced points to various community practices of both remembering and forgetting. I employ Avery Gordon's (2008) theorization of ghosts and hauntings to make sense of the…

  9. Gamma-ray burst observations with the Compton/Ulysses/Pioneer-Venus network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, T.L.; Hurley, K.C.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Fishman, G.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Wilson, R.B.; Fenimore, E.E.; Laros, J.G.; Klebesadel, R.W.


    The third and latest interplanetary network for the precise directional analysis of gamma ray bursts consists of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and instruments on Pioneer-Venus Orbiter and the deep-space mission Ulysses. The unsurpassed resolution of the BATSE instrument, the use of refined analysis techniques, and Ulysses' distance of up to 6 AU all contribute to a potential for greater precision than had been achieved with former networks. Also, the departure of Ulysses from the ecliptic plane in 1992 avoids any positional alignment of the three instruments that would lessen the source directional accuracy

  10. Breaking the mould: profiles of six pioneer trainee or beginning teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLay, Margaret


    Full Text Available There has been much recent attention on increasing the diversity of teachers in the Lifelong Learning Sector (LLS in order to provide a more representative workforce. This is seen as vital not only in engaging learners from minorities but also in increasing the experience of others in working with underrepresented groups. There has been less attention on how to support and sustain teachers from minorities once in post. This study profiles six pioneering teachers/trainees, looking at how they came into their chosen profession and subsequently into teaching, and what processes and attitudes help or hinder them in their work.

  11. Comparative time-series analysis of MeV electron data by Ulysses and Pioneer 10/11 in the Jovian magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunzlaff, P.; Kiel Univ.; Heber, B.; Kopp, A.; North-West Univ., Potchefstroom; Potgieter, M.S.


    The dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere is dominated by the planet's fast rotation with a period of ∝ 10 h.Within the magnetosphere, this periodicity can in particular be seen in the temporal variation of the spectral index of MeV electrons: every ∝ 10 h the counting rates show a maximum (minimum), while the spectral index shows a minimum (maximum) known as the Jovian ''clock'' mechanism. In this study we re-analyse Ulysses and Pioneer 10/11 data and show that another periodic modulation in the MeV electrons can be identified, manifested by local maxima of the spectral index and local minima of the counting rates. For Ulysses, this modulation can be observed throughout the magnetosphere near the magnetic equator, suggesting an azimuthal asymmetric distribution of MeV electrons near the current sheet. This modulation is found to trail the ''clock'' mechanism by ∝ 3.25 h. The Pioneer 10 data, however, only show occasional evidence of the presence of these local maxima while there is no evidence of this modulation in the Pioneer 11 data. A comparison of the times of observed minor peaks and Ulysses' distance from the current sheet using a simple rigid disc model as well as the model of Khurana and Schwarzl (2005) is performed.

  12. Neutron interferometry: The pioneering contributions of Samuel A. Werner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.G.


    In 1975, Sam Werner, while on the staff of the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company, and his collaborators from Purdue University, Roberto Colella and Albert Overhauser, carried out one of the pioneering experiments in neutron interferometry at the 2 MW University of Michigan research reactor. It was the famous COW Experiment [Colella et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 34 (1975) 1472] on gravitationally induced quantum interference. Shortly thereafter he moved to University of Missouri in Columbia, to set up a program of neutron scattering research, including neutron interferometry. In the 25 years until his retirement a large number of beautiful experiments have been performed by Sam, with his group, his numerous students and many international collaborators. This work and its history are briefly reviewed in this paper

  13. Bacterial Rhizosphere Biodiversity from Several Pioneer Desert Sand Plants Near Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Jorge R.; Zelicourt, Axel de; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, Rene; Hirt, Heribert; DuBow, Michael S.


    Life in arid regions and, in particular, hot deserts is often limited due to their harsh environmental conditions, such as large temperature fluctuations and low amounts of water. These extreme environments can influence the microbial community present on the surface sands and any rhizosphere members surrounding desert plant roots. The Jizan desert area, located in Saudi Arabia, supports particular vegetation that grows in the large sandy flat terrain. We examined five different samples, four from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants plus a surface sand sample, and used pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V3 regions of 16S rDNA genes from total extracted DNA to reveal and compare the bacterial population diversity of the samples. The results showed a total of 3,530 OTUs in the five samples, calculated using ≥ 97% sequence similarity levels. The Chao1 estimation of the bacterial diversity fluctuated from 637 to 2,026 OTUs for a given sample. The most abundant members found in the samples belong to the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. This work shows that the Jizan desert area of Saudi Arabia can contain a diverse bacterial community on the sand and surrounding the roots of pioneer desert plants. It also shows that desert sand microbiomes can vary depending on conditions, with broad implications for sandstone monument bacterial communities

  14. Bacterial Rhizosphere Biodiversity from Several Pioneer Desert Sand Plants Near Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Jorge R.


    Life in arid regions and, in particular, hot deserts is often limited due to their harsh environmental conditions, such as large temperature fluctuations and low amounts of water. These extreme environments can influence the microbial community present on the surface sands and any rhizosphere members surrounding desert plant roots. The Jizan desert area, located in Saudi Arabia, supports particular vegetation that grows in the large sandy flat terrain. We examined five different samples, four from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants plus a surface sand sample, and used pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V3 regions of 16S rDNA genes from total extracted DNA to reveal and compare the bacterial population diversity of the samples. The results showed a total of 3,530 OTUs in the five samples, calculated using ≥ 97% sequence similarity levels. The Chao1 estimation of the bacterial diversity fluctuated from 637 to 2,026 OTUs for a given sample. The most abundant members found in the samples belong to the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. This work shows that the Jizan desert area of Saudi Arabia can contain a diverse bacterial community on the sand and surrounding the roots of pioneer desert plants. It also shows that desert sand microbiomes can vary depending on conditions, with broad implications for sandstone monument bacterial communities

  15. “We were the first to support a major is innovation”. Research into the motivations of spanish pioneers in XBRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Escobar-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available We conduct a field study to analyse the reasons why pioneers supported the introduction of the Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL from its earliest days in Spain. The Spanish pioneers were able to visualize the possibilities of the XBRL as an effective tool for facilitating the transmission of accounting and related information. At that point in time, innovators had available a limited amount of technical information on XBRL, because it was in the process of development. Hence, their engagement in the introduction of XBRL was based more on intuition than on in-depth knowledge of the technological advantages to be gained from its application. Further, their support for the innovation was active and not passive.

  16. A tribute to Oscar Buneman -- Pioneer of plasma simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buneman, R.; Barker, R.J. (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Washington, DC (United States)); Peratt, A.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Brecht, S.H. (Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., CA (United States)); Langdon, A.B. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). X-Division); Lewis, H.R. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)


    Highlights are presented from among the many contributions made by Oscar Buneman to the science, engineering, and mathematics communities. Emphasis is placed not only on ''what'' this pioneer of computational plasma physics contributed but, of equal importance, on ''how'' he made his contributions. Therein lies the difference between technical competence and scientific greatness. The picture which emerges illustrates the open-mindedness, enthusiasm, intellectual/physical stamina, imagination, intellectual integrity, interdisciplinary curiosity, and deep humanity that made this individual unique. As a gentleman and a scholar, he had mastered the art of making cold technical facts ''come to life.'' Oscar Buneman died peacefully at his home near Stanford University on Sunday, January 24th, 1993. The profound influence he has had on many of his colleagues guarantees his immortality.

  17. [Eugenio Espejo, the Quito physician: pioneer of bacteriology in the Americas]. (United States)

    Fierro Benítez, Rodrigo


    Eugenio Espejo (1747-1795). Mestizo. Was born in the Royal Audience of Quito. Today, the Republic of Ecuador. The 18th century was isf illustration and enlightment for the Quiteños. Espejo's extraordinary erudition is explained by the full access he had to yhe libraries created in Quito by the Jesuits. The best in the continent at that time. His work, Reflections on Smallpox, makes or Espejo outstanding in his field. Pioneer in bacteriology and of the biopathological observations in America. The first newspaper in Quito, Primicies of the culture of Quito, was his own work. Furthermore, Espejo is considered the precursor of the independence of Hispanoamerica.

  18. Comparative time-series analysis of MeV electron data by Ulysses and Pioneer 10/11 in the Jovian magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunzlaff, P. [North-West Univ., Potchefstroom (South Africa). Centre for Space Research; Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik; Heber, B. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik; Kopp, A. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik; North-West Univ., Potchefstroom (South Africa). Centre for Space Research; Potgieter, M.S. [North-West Univ., Potchefstroom (South Africa). Centre for Space Research


    The dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere is dominated by the planet's fast rotation with a period of {proportional_to} 10 h.Within the magnetosphere, this periodicity can in particular be seen in the temporal variation of the spectral index of MeV electrons: every {proportional_to} 10 h the counting rates show a maximum (minimum), while the spectral index shows a minimum (maximum) known as the Jovian ''clock'' mechanism. In this study we re-analyse Ulysses and Pioneer 10/11 data and show that another periodic modulation in the MeV electrons can be identified, manifested by local maxima of the spectral index and local minima of the counting rates. For Ulysses, this modulation can be observed throughout the magnetosphere near the magnetic equator, suggesting an azimuthal asymmetric distribution of MeV electrons near the current sheet. This modulation is found to trail the ''clock'' mechanism by {proportional_to} 3.25 h. The Pioneer 10 data, however, only show occasional evidence of the presence of these local maxima while there is no evidence of this modulation in the Pioneer 11 data. A comparison of the times of observed minor peaks and Ulysses' distance from the current sheet using a simple rigid disc model as well as the model of Khurana and Schwarzl (2005) is performed.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide and central redox theory for aerobic life: A tribute to Helmut Sies: Scout, trailblazer, and redox pioneer. (United States)

    Jones, Dean P


    When Rafael Radi and I wrote about Helmut Sies for the Redox Pioneer series, I was disappointed that the Editor restricted us to the use of "Pioneer" in the title. My view is that Helmut was always ahead of the pioneers: He was a scout discovering paths for exploration and a trailblazer developing strategies and methods for discovery. I have known him for nearly 40 years and greatly enjoyed his collegiality as well as brilliance in scientific scholarship. He made monumental contributions to 20th century physiological chemistry beginning with his first measurement of H2O2 in rat liver. While continuous H2O2 production is dogma today, the concept of H2O2 production in mammalian tissues was largely buried for half a century. He continued this leadership in research on oxidative stress, GSH, selenium, and singlet oxygen, during the timeframe when physiological chemistry and biochemistry transitioned to contemporary 21st century systems biology. His impact has been extensive in medical and health sciences, especially in nutrition, aging, toxicology and cancer. I briefly summarize my interactions with Helmut, stressing our work together on the redox code, a set of principles to link mitochondrial respiration, bioenergetics, H2O2 metabolism, redox signaling and redox proteomics into central redox theory. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Priscilianistas: Actas del I Concilio de Toledo recopiladas por Bartolomé Carranza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz de Pablos, Francisco


    Full Text Available In the current article, the author provides some documents which demonstrate that Bartolomé Carranza, (Archbishop from Toledo was the first person who compiled the «Actas from the 1st Council of Toledo», against the theory sustained by Chadwick since 1978.

    En el presente artículo el autor aporta documentos que demuestran que Bartolomé Carranza, arzobispo de Toledo, fue el primer recopilador de las Actas del I Concilio de Toledo, en contra de la teoría sostenida por Chadwick desde 1978.

  1. History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers. (United States)

    Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya


    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  2. Florence Nightingale: creator of modern nursing and public health pioneer. (United States)

    Ellis, Harold


    In starting this series of articles on distinguished women in nursing, medicine and the related healthcare professions, the choice of the first name is obvious. Florence Nightingale is, I suggest, the most famous female in the long history of medicine and is a name that is known and revered throughout the world. Most people--even those in 'the trade'--think of her as 'the lady with the lamp', the heroine who went out to the Crimean War and nursed the sick and wounded at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution was her continued work, long after the war, in nursing organisation and training, hospital planning, public and military health and her pioneering work in the efficient gathering of medical statistics.

  3. Precision medicine needs pioneering clinical bioinformaticians. (United States)

    Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Dopazo, Joaquín; Cigudosa, Juan C; Valencia, Alfonso; Al-Shahrour, Fátima


    Success in precision medicine depends on accessing high-quality genetic and molecular data from large, well-annotated patient cohorts that couple biological samples to comprehensive clinical data, which in conjunction can lead to effective therapies. From such a scenario emerges the need for a new professional profile, an expert bioinformatician with training in clinical areas who can make sense of multi-omics data to improve therapeutic interventions in patients, and the design of optimized basket trials. In this review, we first describe the main policies and international initiatives that focus on precision medicine. Secondly, we review the currently ongoing clinical trials in precision medicine, introducing the concept of 'precision bioinformatics', and we describe current pioneering bioinformatics efforts aimed at implementing tools and computational infrastructures for precision medicine in health institutions around the world. Thirdly, we discuss the challenges related to the clinical training of bioinformaticians, and the urgent need for computational specialists capable of assimilating medical terminologies and protocols to address real clinical questions. We also propose some skills required to carry out common tasks in clinical bioinformatics and some tips for emergent groups. Finally, we explore the future perspectives and the challenges faced by precision medicine bioinformatics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  4. Discovery of non-directional and directional pioneer transcription factors by modeling DNase profile magnitude and shape (United States)

    Lewis, Sophia; Barkal, Amira A; van Hoff, John Peter; Karun, Vivek; Jaakkola, Tommi; Gifford, David K


    Here we describe Protein Interaction Quantitation (PIQ), a computational method that models the magnitude and shape of genome-wide DNase profiles to facilitate the identification of transcription factor (TF) binding sites. Through the use of machine learning techniques, PIQ identified binding sites for >700 TFs from one DNase-seq experiment with accuracy comparable to ChIP-seq for motif-associated TFs (median AUC=0.93 across 303 TFs). We applied PIQ to analyze DNase-seq data from mouse embryonic stem cells differentiating into pre-pancreatic and intestinal endoderm. We identified (n=120) and experimentally validated eight ‘pioneer’ TF families that dynamically open chromatin, enabling other TFs to bind to adjacent DNA. Four pioneer TF families only open chromatin in one direction from their motifs. Furthermore, we identified a class of ‘settler’ TFs whose genomic binding is principally governed by proximity to open chromatin. Our results support a model of hierarchical TF binding in which directional and non-directional pioneer activity shapes the chromatin landscape for population by settler TFs. PMID:24441470

  5. Program of solar wind data analysis utilizing data from Pioneer 6, Mariner 5 and explorer 35 (United States)

    Siscoe, G. L.


    A combined data analysis and theoretical program aimed at interpreting and utilizing solar wind data obtained from Pioneer 6, Mariner 5, and Explorer 35 has been completed. A theoretical model of the radial dependence of large scale solar wind inhomogeneities was developed and used to map solar wind variations measured by Explorer 35 to various heliocentric distances and to the orbits of Mercury, Venus, and Mars. The model was also used to determine power spectra velocity, density and temperature variations of 20 R sub s from spectra obtained from the Mariner 5 data at an average heliocentric distance of 180 R sub s. Five stream-stream interaction events in the Pioneer 6 data were analyzed which confirmed the picture of a spiral compression ridge interfacing the two streams and the associated east-west deflections of the solar wind flow. Magnetopause crossings observed in Explorer 35 plasma data were used to develop statics on boundary motions at lunar distance. A study of the geomagnetic disturbance field asymmetry was performed and a model of disturbance field from a partial ring current was developed.

  6. Cutting (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cutting KidsHealth / For Teens / Cutting What's in this article? ... Getting Help Print en español Cortarse What Is Cutting? Emma's mom first noticed the cuts when Emma ...

  7. Environmental Impact of a Submarine Cable: Case Study of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/ Pioneer Seamount Cable (United States)

    Kogan, I.; Paull, C. K.; Kuhnz, L.; von Thun, S.; Burton, E.; Greene, H. G.; Barry, J. P.


    To better understand the potential impacts of the presence of cables on the seabed, a topic of interest for which little data is published or publicly available, a study of the environmental impacts of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable was conducted. The 95 km long, submarine, coaxial cable extends between Pioneer Seamount and the Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California. Approximately two thirds of the cable lies within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The cable is permitted to NOAA- Oceanic and Atmospheric Research for transmitting data from a hydrophone array on Pioneer Seamount to shore. The cable was installed unburied on the seafloor in 1995. The cable path crosses the continental shelf, descends to a maximum depth of 1,933 m, and climbs back upslope to 998 m depth near the crest of Pioneer Seamount. A total of 42 hours of video and 152 push cores were collected in 10 stations along cable and control transects using the ROVs Ventana and Tiburon equipped with cable-tracking tools. The condition of the cable, its effect on the seafloor, and distribution of benthic megafauna and infauna were determined. Video data indicated the nature of interaction between the cable and the seafloor. Rocky nearshore areas, where wave energies are greatest, showed the clearest evidence of impact. Here, evidence of abrasion included frayed and unraveling portions of the cable's armor and vertical grooves in the rock apparently cut by the cable. The greatest incision and armor damage occurred on ledges between spans in irregular rock outcrop areas. Unlike the nearshore rocky region, neither the rocks nor the cable appeared damaged along outcrops on Pioneer Seamount. Multiple loops of slack cable added during a 1997 cable repair operation were found lying flat on the seafloor. Several sharp kinks in the cable were seen at 240 m water depths in an area subjected to intense trawling activity. Most of the cable has become buried with time in sediment

  8. A portrait of Fielding H Garrison (1870-1935): America's pioneering medical historian. (United States)

    Colman, Eric G


    Fielding Hudson Garrison once remarked that because his birthday fell on 5 November, Guy Fawkes Day, he was "fated to suffer from in-ward hell-fire and brimstone all [his] life". Though said in jest, Garrison was a vulnerable, melancholic and self-confessed lonely man who found solace in the papers, periodicals and books of the Army Medical Library-today's National Library of Medicine. Over the course of approximately 25 years, and often while working in his spare time, Garrison went from a clerk in the world's largest medical library to America's pioneering and, arguably, most prolific medical historian, past or present.

  9. On the Origin of the Dark Matter/Energy in the Universe and the Pioneer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham A. Ungar


    Full Text Available Einstein's special relativity is a theory rich of paradoxes, one of which is the recently discovered Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox. According to this Paradox, the relativistic invariant mass of a galaxy of moving stars exceeds the sum of the relativistic invariant masses of the constituent stars owing to their motion relative to each other. This excess of mass is the mass of virtual matter that has no physical properties other than positive relativistic invariant mass and, hence, that reveals its presence by no means other than gravity. As such, this virtual matter is the dark matter that cosmologists believe is necessary in order to supply the missing gravity that keeps galaxies stable. Based on the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox we offer in this article a model which quantifies the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts and other deep space missions, and explains the presence of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. It turns out that the origin of dark matter and dark energy in the Universe lies in the Paradox, and that the origin of the Pioneer anomaly results from neglecting the Paradox. In order to appreciate the physical significance of the Paradox within the frame of Einstein's special theory of relativity, following the presentation of the Paradox we demonstrate that the Paradox is responsible for the extension of the kinetic energy theorem and of the additivity of energy and momentum from classical to relativistic mechanics. Clearly, the claim that the acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts is anomalous is incomplete, within the frame of Einstein's special relativity, since those who made the claim did not take into account the presence of the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox (which is understandable since the Paradox, published in the author's 2008 book, was discovered by the author only recently. It remains to test how well the Paradox accords with observations.

  10. Pioneering a Biobased UAS (United States)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; hide


    With the exponential growth of interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their vast array of applications in both space exploration and terrestrial uses such as the delivery of medicine and monitoring the environment, the 2014 Stanford-Brown-Spelman iGEM team is pioneering the development of a fully biological UAV for scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities – for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight – these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material’s systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an “amberless” system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment. So far, we have: successfully transformed Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a cellulose-producing bacterium, with a series of promoters to test transformation efficiency before adding the acetylation genes; isolated protein bands present in the wasp nest material; transformed the cellulose-degrading genes into Escherichia coli; and we have confirmed that the amberless construct prevents protein expression in wild-type cells. In addition, as

  11. Ectopic expression of eIF4E-transporter triggers the movement of eIF4E into P-bodies, inhibiting steady-state translation but not the pioneer round of translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Chul; Cho, Hana; Kim, Yoon Ki


    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is the best-characterized mRNA surveillance mechanism; this process removes faulty mRNAs harboring premature termination codons (PTCs). NMD targets newly synthesized mRNAs bound by nuclear cap-binding proteins 80/20 (CBP80/20) and exon junction complex (EJC), the former of which is thought to recruit the ribosome to initiate the pioneer round of translation. After completion of the pioneer round of translation, CBP80/20 is replaced by the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E, which mediates steady-state translation in the cytoplasm. Here, we show that overexpression of eIF4E-T preferentially inhibits cap-dependent steady-state translation, but not the pioneer round of translation. We also demonstrate that overexpression of eIF4E-T or Dcp1a triggers the movement of eIF4E into the processing bodies. These results suggest that the pioneer round of translation differs from steady-state translation in terms of ribosome recruitment

  12. Professor Peter Choyce: an early pioneer of intraocular lenses and corneal/refractive surgery. (United States)

    Pandey, Suresh K; Apple, David J


    Professor Peter Choyce, FRCS, DOMS, MS, was one of the pioneers of intraocular lens implant surgery. He developed an interest in artificial lens implantation following cataract surgery, a procedure that was widely criticized by the ophthalmic establishment in the UK, Europe, North America and other countries. Owing to the opposition to the intraocular lenses, Peter Choyce together with Sir Harold Ridley co-founded the International Intraocular Implant Club in 1966, which was responsible for the gradual acceptance of artificial lens implantation. Peter Choyce developed several models of intraocular lens, but did not patent the majority of them. The Choyce Mark IX, manufactured by Rayner Intraocular Lenses, became the first US Food and Drug Administration-approved intraocular lens in 1981. A review of Peter Choyce's record confirms a significant number of original innovations in the field of anterior segment surgery, including many procedures taken for granted today, but not associated with his name. These include early work on both kerato- and intraocular lens-refractive procedures, keratoprosthesis, pioneering paediatric implant procedures and others. Unfortunately his tenacious adherence to anterior chamber lens technology, while in general clinically sound, caused many to question his influence and hence he remained poorly understood even until after his death. He passed away on 8 August 2001 after a long fight with colon cancer. In this article, we provide evidence and elaborate Peter Choyce's accomplishments, which places him as one of the most innovative ophthalmologist in his surgical field in the twentieth century.

  13. A renaissance for the pioneering 16S rRNA gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, Susannah; Hugenholtz, Philip


    Culture-independent molecular surveys using the 16S rRNA gene have become a mainstay for characterizing microbial community structure over the last quarter century. More recently this approach has been overshadowed by metagenomics, which provides a global overview of a community's functional potential rather than just an inventory of its inhabitants. However, the pioneering 16S rRNA gene is making a comeback in its own right thanks to a number of methodological advancements including higher resolution (more sequences), analysis of multiple related samples (e.g. spatial and temporal series) and improved metadata and use of metadata. The standard conclusion that microbial ecosystems are remarkably complex and diverse is now being replaced by detailed insights into microbial ecology and evolution based only on this one historically important marker gene.

  14. Hauts-de-France. A pioneer in the French energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Thomas


    France had established in advance of last year's climate summit in Paris on ambitious energy policy goals. Especially the 2016 newly formed Region Hauts-de-France stands out as a pioneer here. There one drives innovation and investments with the objective of fulfilling by 2050 their own needs completely by renewable sources. The orientation to supplies Jeremy Rifkin idea of the third industrial revolution. If successful, the region would be on climate protection well ahead of the national targets, the 2050 ''only'' provide a CO 2 emission reduction of 75%. In addition to the Research and development (R and D) to many future ideas in Hauts-de-France but also some major projects for Security of European energy supplies are realized that show the local agility. [de

  15. A renaissance for the pioneering 16S rRNA gene. (United States)

    Tringe, Susannah G; Hugenholtz, Philip


    Culture-independent molecular surveys using the 16S rRNA gene have become a mainstay for characterizing microbial community structure over the past quarter century. More recently this approach has been overshadowed by metagenomics, which provides a global overview of a community's functional potential rather than just an inventory of its inhabitants. However, the pioneering 16S rRNA gene is making a comeback in its own right thanks to a number of methodological advancements including higher resolution (more sequences), analysis of multiple related samples (e.g. spatial and temporal series) and improved metadata, and use of metadata. The standard conclusion that microbial ecosystems are remarkably complex and diverse is now being replaced by detailed insights into microbial ecology and evolution based only on this one historically important marker gene.

  16. The influence of biosurfactants released by S-mitis BMS on the adhesion of pioneer strains and cariogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoogmoed, CG; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ


    The influence of Streptococcus mitis BMS biosurfactants on the adhesion of eight pioneer and four cariogenic oral bacterial strains was, for a first screening, examined in a microtiter plate assay. The adhesion to pellicle-coated wells of three cariogenic strains was inhibited >70% by the

  17. Piret Raud avaldas iPadi-raamatu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Arvustus: Raud, Piret. Emma roosad asjad. Tallinn : Tammerraamat, 2010 ; Raud, Piret. Emma roosad asjad : [digitaalne pildiraamat lastele. Suurbritannia] : WingedChariot, 2010. Teost on võimalik kasutada Apple´i elektroonikatoodetes iPad, iPhone ja iPod (eesti, inglise ja jaapani keeles)

  18. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budry, L.; Balsalobre, A.; Gauthier, Y.; Khetchoumian, K.; L'Honore, A.; Vallette-Kasic, S.; Brue, T; Figarella-Branger, D.; Meij, B.P.; Drouin, J.


    Genes Dev. 2012 Oct 15;26(20):2299-310. doi: 10.1101/gad.200436.112. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling. Budry L, Balsalobre A, Gauthier Y, Khetchoumian K, L'honoré A, Vallette S, Brue T, Figarella-Branger D, Meij B,

  19. A Tribute to Professor Rene H. Miller - A Pioneer in Aeromechanics and Rotary Wing Flight Transportation (United States)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.; Johnson, Wayne; Scully, Michael P.


    Rene H. Miller (May 19, 1916 January 28, 2003), Emeritus H. N. Slater Professor of Flight Transportation, was one of the most influential pioneers in rotary wing aeromechanics as well as a visionary whose dream was the development of a tilt-rotor based short haul air transportation system. This paper pays a long overdue tribute to his memory and to his extraordinary contributions.

  20. D4.1 Learning analytics: theoretical background, methodology and expected results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammets, Kairit; Laanpere, Mart; Eradze, Maka; Brouns, Francis; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen; De Rosa, Rosanna; Ferrari, Chiara


    The purpose of the EMMA project is to showcase excellence in innovative teaching methodologies and learning approaches through the large-scale piloting of MOOCs on different subjects. The main objectives related with the implementation of learning analytics in EMMa project are to: ● develop the

  1. Chilean Strategy Towards Antarctica (United States)


    Jackie M. Aislabie, Megan R. Balks, Julia M. Foght, and Emma J. Waterhouse, Hydrocarbon Spill on Antarctic Soils: Effects and Management. Enviromental ...Jackie M., Balks, Megan R., Foght Julia M., and Waterhouse Emma J. “Hydrocarbon Spill on Antarctic Soils: Effects and Management.” Enviromental

  2. Le Bruit de l'amer: Time, Loss and Fossilized Romanticism in Madame Bovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Bouvier


    Full Text Available Des études récentes ont mis en lumière le « désordre temporel » d’Emma Bovary, son étrange inaptitude à produire un événement dans sa vie ou à intégrer le temps dans son expérience. Une scène clé à cet égard est celle où, curieusement, Emma échoue à pleurer la mort de sa mère alors même qu’elle met en place tout un rituel romantique du chagrin qui n’aboutit qu’à l’indifférence et à l’ennui. Élaborée à partir d’un schéma psychanalytique assez vaste qui englobe les dernières recherches sur le traumatisme et l’addiction, cette étude montre que cette scène est symptomatique d’une incapacité plus large à assimiler la perte, qui se manifeste à travers les problèmes d’ennui et d’addiction, ainsi que par l’incapacité générale d’Emma à s’orienter par rapport au passé. Les implications linguistiques de ce problème sont particulièrement importantes : un tel trouble temporel lié à un défaut de deuil peut en effet être lu précisément à travers les perturbations du langage qui en résultent. Dans la figure étrange et indéchiffrable de la mère Rollet, par exemple, on peut discerner l’aventure cryptique du langage qui se produit à partir du problème de la perte mal assimilée, la conspiration de mots qui conduit Emma au suicide par la mise en place de retours équivoques du signifiant. En dernier ressort, si l’échec d’Emma à faire le deuil de sa mère est révélateur d’une certaine inaptitude à faire le deuil du temps lui-même, cette scène initiale marque aussi l’incapacité ou le refus d’Emma de faire son deuil d’une esthétique morte. Quand Emma satisfait son goût pour l’imagerie romantique en écoutant « tous les chants de cygnes mourants », ce qu’elle n’entend pas est précisément le caractère stéréotypé et dégradé d’une telle imagerie, l’équivoque romantique se manifestant à travers un champ de signes mourants.Recent studies


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozila Kana


    Full Text Available The changing landscape of the global terrorism threat coupled with increasing concern about home grown extremism means that the need to tackle the root causes of radicalisation across the European Union has never been greater. The pathway to violent extremism and terrorism is, however, undeniably complex. Frontline practitioners working with those vulnerable to radicalisation need to have the right tools to allow them to recognise, respond to and challenge ideologies and narratives associated with any form of terrorism. A pioneering EU Commission funded project is the first of its kind designed to offer consistency around, and increase awareness of, counter radicalisation specifically for frontline practitioners. Improving Security by Democratic Participation (ISDEP is a two year programme based on the EU Commission’s Prevent strand of the Counter Terrorism Strategy. Training themes focus on helping practitioners to identify the influences and vulnerabilities that shape an individual’s thought processes towards violent extremism.

  4. Pioneer vegetation on ash dumps in Oswiecim (southern Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarczuk, T.; Kuczynski, B.


    The authors found fifty-three plant species growing on the ash dumps in Oswiecim, while in 1963 twenty-two species only were encountered there. Most of the self-sown plants belong to calciphilous, ruderal and xerophilous species. The pH of the ashes amounts to 9.5. Some of them, e.g. Matricaria chamomilla are index plants for acid habitats; others were hitherto encountered in wet habitats, e.g. Rumex obtusifolias, Myricaria germanica, Epilobium roseum, and others. Their occurrence on ash dumps is possible thanks to the considerable amount of precipitation (465 mm) during the vegetative period. The mosses are the pioneers of these dumps, e.g. Funaria hygromertrica and Bryum argenteum, which usually appear on the site of fire. The authors are of the opinion that a better knowledge of the plants appearing spontaneously on dumps and waste heaps may provide many useful conclusions which will help to obtain positive results at the recultivation of spoil heaps and industrial wastes. 9 references, 3 tables.

  5. Assessment of a pioneer metabolic information service in Brazil. (United States)

    Brustolin, Silvia; Souza, Carolina; Puga, Ana Cristina; Refosco, Lilia; Pires, Ricardo; Peres, Rossana; Giugliani, Roberto


    The Information Service on Inborn Errors of Metabolism (SIEM), a pioneer toll-free service in both Brazil and South America, is based in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. SIEM has been operating since October 2001 providing support to health care professionals involved in the diagnosis and management of suspected metabolic diseases. We analyzed the demographic and clinical characteristics of the 376 consults received and followed in the first two and half years of SIEM. Our results show that the suspicion of a metabolic disease was most often associated with neurological symptoms. Among the consults, 24.4% were eventually confirmed as inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), with organic acidurias and amino acid disorders being the two most frequent diagnostic groups. Our conclusion shows this kind of service to provide helpful support to the diagnosis and acute management of IEM, especially to health professionals working in developing countries who are often far from reference centers.

  6. Hydraulic architecture of two species differing in wood density: opposing strategies in co-occurring tropical pioneer trees (United States)

    Katherine A. McCulloh; Daniel M. Johnson; Frederick C. Meinzer; Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Jean-Christophe. Domec


    Co-occurring species often have different strategies for tolerating daily cycles of water stress. One underlying parameter that can link together the suite of traits that enables a given strategy is wood density. Here we compare hydraulic traits of two pioneer species from a tropical forest in Panama that differ in wood density: Miconia argentea...

  7. Marine protected areas in areas beyond national jurisdiction
    The pioneering efforts under the OSPAR Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. Molenaar


    Full Text Available The international community has committed itself to establishing a coherent network of marine protected areas (MPAs by 2012. This network should also extend to areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ, namely the high seas and the ‘Area’ (the seabed and ocean floor and the subsoil thereof beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. This article examines the pioneering efforts of OSPAR to establish MPAs in ABNJ in the North-East Atlantic Ocean. In that connection, OSPAR has to work out how to deal with the applicable international governance and regulatory framework, most importantly the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS and the various ‘competent’ international organizations functioning thereunder. The article’s most important conclusion is that an effective regime for ABNJ in general and also for holistic MPAs in ABNJ requires complementary action at the global and regional levels. OSPAR’s pioneering approach may, if pursued carefully – among other things by respecting the competence of other global and regional bodies – have a decisive impact on the development of the global legal regime in respect of the role of regional environmental organizations in the management of ABNJ.

  8. Are We There Yet? A Progress Report from Three Turkish University Pioneers in Distance Education and E-Learning (United States)

    Latchem, Colin; Simsek, Nurettin; Balta, Ozlem Cakir; Torkul, Orhan; Cedimoglu, I. Hakki; Altunkopru, Alpaslan


    The international literature provides little in-depth analysis of distance education and e-learning activities, achievements, and challenges in Turkish higher education other than the country's mega-university, Anadolu. This paper examines the development of, and lessons to be learned from, such undertakings by three pioneers--two regular state…

  9. "Tom Byers: The New Colossus"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger Hunnerup


    Educational and social welcome strategies to American Society and Culture: SUSI director Tom Byers, The Statue of Liberty and Emma Lazarus' "New Colossus"......Educational and social welcome strategies to American Society and Culture: SUSI director Tom Byers, The Statue of Liberty and Emma Lazarus' "New Colossus"...

  10. Women in Prosthodontics: A Brief Look at Pioneers, Leaders, and Inspirers. (United States)

    Afshari, Fatemeh S; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino


    There are several women pioneers in prosthodontics, and each deserves recognition and admiration for all she has achieved in helping bridge the gender gap in dentistry. Women have come a long way from being first depicted as a thieving woman assistant in early 1523 to becoming award-winning, Board-certified clinicians, program directors, department chairs, and deans of dental schools. However, current female resident membership in the American College of Prosthodontists is less than 40%. Women in leadership roles are still scarce, and advancement is still needed. This article provides a brief summary of the history of prosthodontics, highlighting prominent women prosthodontists and their stories, while providing inspiration for future prosthodontists, men as well as women. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Evaluation of a transportable capnometer for monitoring end-tidal carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, T; Tobiasen, Malene Espelund; Olsen, K S


    We compared a small and transportable Capnometer (EMMA™) with a reference capnometer, the Siesta i TS Anaesthesia. During air-breathing through a facemask, both the EMMA (nine modules) and reference capnometer sampled expired gas simultaneously. A wide range of end-tidal carbon dioxide values were...... obtained during inhalation of carbon dioxide and voluntary hyperventilation. The median IQR [range] difference between all sets of carbon dioxide values (EMMA - reference) was -0.3 (-0.6 to 0.0 [-1.7 to 1.6] kPa; n = 297) using new batteries, which was statistically significant (p = 0.04) and located...... to two of the nine EMMAs tested. Using batteries with reduced voltage did not influence the measurements. The 95% CI of the medians of the differences were -0.4 to -0.2. We conclude that the EMMA can slightly under-read the end-tidal carbon dioxide but is generally comparable with a free-standing monitor...

  12. Kazan period of life-sustaining activity of professor V.I. Ra-zumovsky — a pioneer of Russian neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilov V.I.


    Full Text Available There were presented historical data of life-sustaining activity of professor V. I. Razumovsky — a pioneer of Russian neurosurgery, who began to perform and then was performing systematically neurosurgical operations in the Kazan clinic under the guidance of outstanding neurologists V. M. Bekhterev and L. O. Darkshevich.

  13. 75 FR 19880 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER at Walker Ridge 249, Outer Continental Shelf FPSO, Gulf of Mexico (United States)


    ... BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, at Walker Ridge 249 in the Outer Continental Shelf. The purpose of the safety zone is to protect the FPSO from vessels operating... reduces the threat of allisions, oil spills, and releases of natural gas, and thereby protects the safety...

  14. Martha Wollstein: A pioneer American female clinician-scientist. (United States)

    Abrams, Jeanne; Wright, James R


    Martha Wollstein was not only the first fully specialized pediatric perinatal pathologist practicing exclusively in a North America children's hospital, she also blazed another pathway as a very early pioneer female clinician-scientist. Wollstein provided patient care at Babies Hospital of New York City from 1891 until her retirement in 1935, and also simultaneously worked for many years as a basic scientist at the prestigious Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Wollstein published over 65 papers, many frequently cited, during her career on a wide range of topics including pediatric and infectious diseases. Wollstein was a rare female in the field of pathology in an era when just a relatively small number of women became doctors in any medical specialty. Wollstein was born into an affluent Jewish American family in New York City in 1868 and graduated from the Women's Medical College in 1889. This paper explores her family support and ethnic and religious background, which helped facilitate her professional success. During her time, she was recognized internationally for her research and was respected for her medical and scientific skills; unfortunately today her important career has been largely forgotten.

  15. The History with Two Prehistories. On the design of the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Novikov


    Full Text Available The article refers to the history of design of the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers architectural complex on Leninskie (now Vorobievy Gory viewed in the context of evolution of the national architecture. While speaking about how the project came into being and which way was chosen to find the architectural character, the author proves that the Palace was a pivotal point in the history of Russian architecture and became one of the symbols of Soviet Modernism.

  16. On fundamentally new sources of energy for rockets in the early works of the pioneers of astronautics (United States)

    Melkumov, T. M.


    The research for more efficient methods of propelling a spacecraft, than can be achieved with chemical energy, was studied. During a time when rockets for space flight had not actually been built pioneers in rocket technology were already concerned with this problem. Alternative sources proposed at that time, were nuclear and solar energy. Basic engineering problems of each source were investigated.

  17. Montessus de Ballore, a pioneer of seismology: The man and his work (United States)

    Cisternas, Armando


    Ferdinand de Montessus de Ballore was one of the founders of scientific seismology. He was a pioneer in seismology at the same level as Perrey, Mallet, Milne and Omori. He became familiar with earthquakes and volcanoes in Central America (1881-1885). After his experience in El Salvador his interest for understanding earthquakes and volcanoes oriented all of his life. Back in France he worked out a most complete world catalogue of earthquakes with 170.000 events (1885-1907), and completed his career being the head of the Chilean Seismological Service (1907-1923). Many of his ideas were in advance of later discoveries. He was an exceptional writer and published more than 30 books and hundreds of papers.

  18. Solar wind and coronal structure near sunspot minimum: Pioneer and SMM observations from 1985-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalov, J.D.; Barnes, A.; Hundhausen, A.J.; Smith, E.J.


    The solar wind speeds observed in the outer heliosphere (20 to 40 AU heliocentric distance, approximately) by Pioneers 10 an 11, and at a heliocentric distance of 0.7 AU by the Pioneer Venus spacecraft, reveal a complex set of changes in the years near the recent sunspot minimum, 1985-1987. The pattern of recurrent solar wind streams, the long-term average speed, and the sector polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field all changed in a manner suggesting both a temporal variation, and a changing dependence on heliographic latitude. Coronal observations made from the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft during the same epoch show a systematic variation in coronal structure and (by implication) the magnetic structure imposed on the expanding solar wind. These observations suggest interpretation of the solar wind speed variations in terms of the familiar model where the speed increases with distance from a nearly flat interplanetary current sheet (or with heliomagnetic latitude), and where this current sheet becomes aligned with the solar equatorial plane as sunspot minimum approaches, but deviates rapidly from that orientation after minimum. The authors confirm here that this basic organization of the solar wind speed persists in the outer heliosphere with an orientation of the neutral sheet consistent with that inferred at a heliocentric distance of a few solar radii, from the coronal observations

  19. Geochronology and Geomorphology of the Pioneer Archaeological Site (10BT676), Upper Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, Joshua L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Pioneer site in southeastern Idaho, an open-air, stratified, multi-component archaeological locality on the upper Snake River Plain, provides an ideal situation for understanding the geomorphic history of the Big Lost River drainage system. We conducted a block excavation with the goal of understanding the geochronological context of both cultural and geomorphological components at the site. The results of this study show a sequence of five soil formation episodes forming three terraces beginning prior to 7200 cal yr BP and lasting until the historic period, preserving one cultural component dated to ~3800 cal yr BP and multiple components dating to the last 800 cal yr BP. In addition, periods of deposition and stability at Pioneer indicate climate fluctuation during the middle Holocene (~7200-3800 cal yr BP), minimal deposition during the late Holocene, and a period of increased deposition potentially linked to the Little Ice Age. In addition, evidence for a high-energy erosion event dated to ~3800 cal yr BP suggest a catastrophic flood event during the middle Holocene that may correlate with volcanic activity at the Craters of the Moon lava fields to the northwest. This study provides a model for the study of alluvial terrace formations in arid environments and their potential to preserve stratified archaeological deposits.

  20. England in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyler, Elizabeth Muir

    In England in Europe, Elizabeth Tyler focuses on two histories: the Encomium Emmae Reginae, written for Emma the wife of the Æthelred II and Cnut, and The Life of King Edward, written for Edith the wife of Edward the Confessor. Tyler offers a bold literary and historical analysis of both texts...

  1. Vivien Thomas (1910-1985): the backstage pioneer and educator. (United States)

    Ng, Chin Ting Justin


    Vivien Thomas (1910-1985) was an African-American scientist, pioneer, and renowned educator. Thomas's contributions to cardiovascular surgery were unequivocal, and yet it was only after his death that he gained more widespread recognition. Thomas's more notable work involves aiding in the discovery of the cause of traumatic shock, designing and guiding the first operation to treat Tetralogy of Fallot, carrying out the first atrial septectomy, and helping develop the electrical defibrillator. Thomas struggled amidst the adversities of racism and the Great Depression (1929-1941), armed merely with a high school degree. Nevertheless, his genius and determination eventually led him to receive an honorary doctorate from John Hopkins University. His story inspired the creation of the award winning PBS documentary in 2003 Partners of the Heart and also the 2004 Emmy Award-winning HBO film Something the Lord Made. This article will aim to provide an overview to the more notable events in Thomas's amazing tale, with a particular focus on his work on the Tetralogy of Fallot.

  2. Developing neurons use a putative pioneer's peripheral arbor to establish their terminal fields. (United States)

    Gan, W B; Macagno, E R


    Pioneer neurons are known to guide later developing neurons during the initial phases of axonal outgrowth. To determine whether they are also important in the formation of terminal fields by the follower cells, we studied the role of a putative leech pioneer neuron, the pressure-sensitive (PD) neuron, in the establishment of other neurons' peripheral arbors. The PD neuron has a major axon that exits from its segmental ganglion to grow along the dorsal-posterior (DP) nerve to the dorsal body wall, where it arborizes extensively mainly in its own segment. It also has two minor axons that project to the two adjacent segments but branch to a lesser degree. We found that the peripheral projections of several later developing neurons, including the AP motor neuron and the TD sensory neuron, followed, with great precision, the major axon and peripheral arbor of the consegmental PD neuron, up to its fourth-order branches. When a PD neuron was ablated before it had grown to the body wall, the AP and TD axons grew normally toward and reached the target area, but then formed terminal arbors that were greatly reduced in size and abnormal in morphology. Further, if the ablation of a PD neuron was accompanied by the induction, in the same segment, of greater outgrowth of the minor axon of a PD neuron from the adjacent segment, the arbors of the same AP neurons grew along these novel PD neuron branches. These results demonstrate that the peripheral arbor of a PD neuron is a both necessary and sufficient template for the formation of normal terminal fields by certain later growing follower neurons.

  3. Center-Based Child Care in the Pioneer Smart Start Partnerships of North Carolina. UNC Smart Start Evaluation Report. (United States)

    Maxwell, Kelly; Bryant, Donna; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Buysse, Virginia

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years and their families to ensure that all children enter school healthy and prepared to succeed. This study acquired a baseline measure of the quality of child care in the 12 pioneer Smart Start…

  4. David Price--Pioneer of digital ICP monitoring, neurosurgeon and teacher. (United States)

    Czosnyka, Marek; Kirollos, Ramez; van Hille, Philip


    In early 1970s first personal desk-top computers started to be available in hospitals. Mr Price was one of the pioneers introducing his own software to identify Marmarou's model of CSF space during infusion studies to diagnose patients suffering from hydrocephalus. His closed-loop control system for infusion of mannitol to manage patients at risk of intracranial hypertension was designed in 1977. The system worked successfully for 10 years in Pinderfields Hospital in Wakefield, UK. In the middle 1980's he initiated international cooperation with Children's Health Centre in Poland in long-term computer-assisted monitoring and analysis of ICP. Software designed in a course of this cooperation paved the way for contemporary package of ICM+ (Intensive Care Monitor, University of Cambridge, UK). Our scientific portfolio from these years (1985-1995) contains hundreds of head injured patients with waveform ICP analysis, introduction of compensatory reserve index RAP, few highly cited papers. Now, we understand ICP much better thanks to David's personal passion and extremely friendly support.

  5. Roots of pioneer trees in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yan-ru; PENG Shao-lin; MO Jiang-ming; LIU Xin-wei; CHEN Zhuo-quan; ZHOU Kai; WU Jin-rong


    Representative pioneer tree root systems in the subtropical area of South China were examined with regard to their structure, underground stratification and biomass distribution. Excavation of skeleton roots and observation of fine roots of seven species including the Euphorbiaceae, Theaceae, Melastomataceae, Lauraceae and Fagaceae families was carried out. The results showed that: (1) Pioneer tree roots in the first stage of natural succession were of two types, one characterized by taproot system with bulky plagiotropic branches; the other characterized by flat root system with several tabular roots. The late mesophilous tree roots were characterized by one obvious taproot and tactic braches roots up and down. Shrub species roots were characterized by heart fibrous root type featured both by horizontally and transversally growing branches. Root shapes varied in different dominant species at different stages of succession. (2) Roots of the different species varied in the external features-color, periderm and structure of freshly cut slash. (3) In a set of successional stages the biomass of tree roots increased linearly with the age of growth. During monsoon, the total root biomass amounted to 115.70 t/ha in the evergreen broad-leaved forest; 50.61t/ha in needle and broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by coniferous forest; and 64.20 t/ha in broad-and needle-leaved mixed forest dominated by broad-leaved heliophytes, and are comparable to the underground biomass observed in similar tropical forests. Thisis the first report about roots characteristics of forest in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China.

  6. Benefits, Barriers and Prerequisites for Web 2.0 Learning Activities in the Classroom: The View of Greek Pioneer Teachers (United States)

    Palaigeorgiou, George; Grammatikopoulou, Athina


    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the learning benefits and the challenges of Web 2.0 educational activities when applied in typical learning settings and as perceived by pioneer educators with extensive Web 2.0 experience. Design/Methodology/Approach: The testimonies of 26 Greek primary and secondary education teachers were collected. All…

  7. The cosmological constant and Pioneer anomaly from Weyl spacetimes and Mach's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Carlos


    It is shown how Weyl's geometry and Mach's holographic principle furnishes both the magnitude and sign (towards the sun) of the Pioneer anomalous acceleration a P ∼-c 2 /R Hubble firstly observed by Anderson et al. Weyl's geometry can account for both the origins and the value of the observed vacuum energy density (dark energy). The source of dark energy is just the dilaton-like Jordan-Brans-Dicke scalar field that is required to implement Weyl invariance of the most simple of all possible actions. A nonvanishing value of the vacuum energy density of the order of 10 -123 M Planck 4 is found consistent with observations. Weyl's geometry accounts also for the phantom scalar field in modern Cosmology in a very natural fashion.

  8. Quality and Safety in Health Care, Part I: Five Pioneers in Quality. (United States)

    Harolds, Jay


    Five pioneers had a huge impact on the quality movement in health care in the United States. Ernest Codman contributed in many ways, including his focus on outcome analysis. Avidis Donabedian is known for his focus on the 3 domains of structure, process, and outcome in health care. Walter Shewhart is known especially for the control chart and early work on what W. Edwards Deming made into the PDSA cycle. Deming is also known for other contributions, including his 14 points of management, correcting system problems rather than blaming the workers, and his System of Profound Knowledge. Juran is known for the Pareto principle and his emphasis on customer satisfaction and addressing the human, not just statistical side, of quality improvement.

  9. A note on the ring current in Saturn’s magnetosphere: Comparison of magnetic data obtained during the Pioneer-11 and Voyager-1 and -2 fly-bys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Bunce


    Full Text Available We examine the residual (measured minus internal magnetic field vectors observed in Saturn’s magnetosphere during the Pioneer-11 fly-by in 1979, and compare them with those observed during the Voyager-1 and -2 fly-bys in 1980 and 1981. We show for the first time that a ring current system was present within the magnetosphere during the Pioneer-11 encounter, which was qualitatively similar to those present during the Voyager fly-bys. The analysis also shows, however, that the ring current was located closer to the planet during the Pioneer-11 encounter than during the comparable Voyager-1 fly-by, reflecting the more com-pressed nature of the magnetosphere at the time. The residual field vectors have been fit using an adaptation of the current system proposed for Jupiter by Connerney et al. (1981a. A model that provides a reasonably good fit to the Pioneer-11 Saturn data extends radially between 6.5 and 12.5 RS (compared with a noon-sector magnetopause distance of 17 RS, has a north-south extent of 4 RS, and carries a total current of 9.6 MA. A corresponding model that provides a qualitatively similar fit to the Voyager data, determined previously by Connerney et al. (1983, extends radially between 8 and 15.5 RS (compared with a noon-sector magnetopause distance for Voyager-1 of 23–24 RS, has a north-south extent of 6 RS, and carries a total current of 11.5 MA.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems, magnetospheric configuration and dynamics, planetary magnetospheres

  10. Robert Mandell: a pioneer and giant in the art and science of contact lenses. (United States)

    Polse, Kenneth A


    Robert B. Mandell is the quintessential modern clinical scientist. Over his long academic career, he has pioneered many advances in contact lens practice, ranging from a more complete understanding of corneal shape to the effects of contact lenses on corneal health. His classic text, Contact Lens Practice, first published in 1965, was reprinted 14 times in four editions up to 1988. Mandell's contributions to the advancement of the profession of optometry have always been characterized by a genuine concern for the patient and a steadfast belief that his research must have relevance to the practice of optometry.

  11. [Axel Ström--pioneer of social medicine and administrator]. (United States)

    Sundby, Per


    Dr Axel Strøm (1901-85), professor in the University of Oslo from 1940 to 1970, was a leader in Norwegian medicine in the latter half of the 20th century. He qualified in 1926 and in 1936 gained a doctorate with a dissertation on the toxin production of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae. His first appointment as a professor was in hygiene. In 1951 he moved on to public health, a field that he pioneered in Norway and the other Scandinavian countries. As a professor during the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War, he joined the university's resistance against the Nazi authorities' attempts at taking control. When the war was over he became deeply involved in research on the impact of war on health. At a time when the study of the impact of lifestyle factors was still in its infancy, he suggested that the war-induced reduction in dietary fat consumption might be the cause of observed lower cardiovascular mortality. Of more practical importance were the studies he initiated of the mainly psychological late-onset effects of traumas suffered by prisoners in German camps, seamen, soldiers and other exposed groups. In this area, too, he was an early explorer, of what has come to be known as post-traumatic stress disorder. His efforts led to improved war pension entitlements for the victims. Over the years, exposed groups became his major professional interest as a public health specialist. In his academic work, dr Strøm also pioneered medical ethics, care for the elderly, legislation on abortion, and the rapidly expanding field of the medical basis for social security benefits. As a practising physician he was in the vanguard of occupational medicine and other kinds of preventive medicine. What brought him most recognition was, however, his leading role over many years in the Norwegian Medical Association and in the University of Oslo. He served as chairman of the Junior Hospital Doctors Association, president of the Norwegian Medical Association and

  12. Decentralized electricity generation from renewable sources as a chance for local economic development. A qualitative study of two pioneer regions in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klagge, Britta; Brocke, Tobias [Osnabrueck Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geography


    Empirical research on the local economic effects associated with decentralized electricity generation from renewable sources has only just started. So far, most studies focus on quantifying economic effects and neglect the conditions and constellations which support and enable local economic development based on decentralized electricity generation. This, however, is the focus of this paper which looks at these issues, employing the value chain concept in combination with a governance perspective. Empirically, we take a qualitative approach and analyze two case studies of pioneer regions, in which decentralized electricity generation from renewable sources has developed very dynamically. The case study regions are Soltau, with a special focus on biogas production, and Emden, where wind energy plays a special role. Based on the early activities of some pioneers, these regions have developed specific actor constellations and organizational structures and have entered development paths in which renewable energies became an important economic factor. The analysis highlights the importance of institutional context and supportive governance structures for an early advancement of decentralized electricity generation from renewable sources, with a key role of local actors and governance constellations. It also points to the importance of cooperative relationships among local business actors for creating a competitive advantage for (some) regional firms. Our analysis shows that with the geographical proliferation of electricity generation from renewable sources, specialized firms tend to reach beyond their regions, thus offering first-mover advantages for firms in pioneer regions in comparison with latecomers.

  13. On Lok: a pioneering long-term care organization for the elderly (1971-2008). (United States)

    Lehning, Amanda J; Austin, Michael J


    On Lok is a pioneering nonprofit organization that has delivered services to the frail and elderly since its founding in 1971. The agency began as a grassroots effort focused on improving the health care available to older adults living independently in the community. Over its 40-year history, On Lok has evolved into a $70 million nonprofit human service organization with a national reputation for innovation as a leading provider of care to frail elderly. The agency has developed its own model of care that has been replicated in cities around the country. The history of On Lok represents the important impact that donor and community support plays in an organization's long-term success.

  14. In-Space Manufacturing: Pioneering a Sustainable Path to Mars (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki


    In order to provide meaningful impacts to exploration technology needs, the In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) Initiative must influence exploration systems design now. In-space manufacturing offers: dramatic paradigm shift in the development and creation of space architectures; efficiency gain and risk reduction for low Earth orbit and deep space exploration; and "pioneering" approach to maintenance, repair, and logistics leading to sustainable, affordable supply chain model. In order to develop application-based capabilities in time to support NASA budget and schedule, ISM must be able to leverage the significant commercial developments, which requires innovative, agile collaborative mechanisms (contracts, challenges, SBIR's, etc.); and NASA-unique investments to focus primarily on adapting the technologies and processes to the microgravity environment. We must do the foundational work - it is the critical path for taking these technologies from lab curiosities to institutionalized capabilities: characterize, certify, institutionalize, design for Additive Manufacturing (AM). Ideally, International Space Station (ISS) U.S. lab rack or partial rack space should be identified for in-space manufacturing utilization in order to continue technology development of a suite of capabilities required for exploration missions, as well as commercialization on ISS.

  15. The Starflight Handbook: A Pioneer's Guide to Interstellar Travel (United States)

    Mallove, Eugene F.; Matloff, Gregory L.


    The Starflight Handbook A Pioneer's Guide to Interstellar Travel "The Starflight Handbook is an indispensable compendium of the many and varied methods for traversing the vast interstellar gulf--don't leave the Solar System without it!" --Robert Forward "Very sensible, very complete and useful. Its good use of references and technical `sidebars' adds to the book and allows the nontechnical text to be used by ordinary readers in an easy fashion. I certainly would recommend this book to anyone doing any thinking at all about interstellar flight or the notion of possibilities of contacts between hypothetical civilizations in different stat systems." --Louis Friedman Executive Director, The Planetary Society The Starflight Handbook is the first and only compendium on planet Earth of the radical new technologies now on the drawing boards of some of our smartest and most imaginative space scientists and engineers. Scientists and engineers as well as general readers will be captivated by its: In-depth discussions of everything from nuclear pulse propulsion engines to in-flight navigation, in flowing, non-technical language Sidebars and appendices cover technical and mathematical concepts in detail Seventy-five elegant and enlightening illustrations depicting starships and their hardware

  16. Hooked on a New Technology: The Automation Pioneers in Post-War Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Kvaal


    Full Text Available This paper presents the initial activities in servo engineering in Norway originating in the early 1950s based on contacts at the Massachusets Institute of Technology. The activities were initiated by a small group of servo enthusiasts who, through the Feedback Control Committee in the research council, managed to coordinate national activities and establish strong research groups in Trondheim, Bergen and Oslo. After the initial phase of establishing the research groups, there was a continuous strong focus on connections with industry and industrial applications. In the mid-1960s the committee was strengthened and became the Automation and Data Processing Committee. The initial group of automation pioneers have left a lasting impact on the academic and industrial fields of servo engineering and automation in Norway.


    CERN Document Server

    Kelliher, D J; Sheehy, S L


    EMMA - the Electron Model of Many Applications - is to be built at the STFC Daresbury Laboratory in the UK and will be the first non-scaling FFAG ever constructed. The purpose of EMMA is to study beam dynamics in such an accelerator. The EMMA orbit correction scheme must deal with two characteristics of a non-scaling FFAG: i.e. the lack of a well defined reference orbit and the variation with momentum of the phase advance. In this study we present a novel orbit correction scheme that avoids the former problem by instead aiming to maximise both the symmetry of the orbit and the physical aperture of the beam. The latter problem is dealt with by optimising the corrector strengths over the energy range.

  18. The teacher training process through distance education: a pioneer experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Massaru Fujita


    Full Text Available This paper presents briefly the actions conducted in the formation process and established partnerships to achieve the pioneering educational process of Distance Education (DE courses of the State University of Londrina (UEL-PR. The methodological design was developed according to the Qualitative Approach of Action-Research type that prioritizes the development and analysis of the process along with the "meaning" that people give to things and your life than actually the product itself. The data collected through questionnaires at the end of the course signal impressions (positive and constructive criticism we received and the meanings experienced teacher students (testimonials, chats, discussion forums, projects in the courses offered. The experience lived in these three courses: Virtual Learning Environment (60 hours; Tutoring in distance education (60 hours and Teaching Materials in Distance Education (60 hours, from its conception to its actual conclusion, make us think that we are on the right way and by TDIC, new horizons may open up to the institution in short- and medium-term.

  19. Rhazes, a pioneer in contribution to trials in medical practice. (United States)

    Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Naseri, Mohsen; Jafari Hajati, Razieh; Zargaran, Arman


    Medical history explains that Persian physicians used scientific methods based on clinical experiences and observations for treatment from pre-Islamic time (before 637 AD) and centuries later (in the Islamic era). Rhazes was one of the Persian physicians acknowledged as a pharmacist, chemist and prominent scientific writer on various subjects of medicine and philosophy. In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical experiences, as well as the ethical and critical views of Rhazes in medical practice. Rhazes promoted ethics in the medical profession. He expressed critical key points about ancient written texts. He broke ancient physicians' taboos in medical theories and evaluated them based on his own experiences. He designed animal and preclinical evaluations for his theories and also performed the first clinical trials with control groups in the history. His critical views about medical sciences as well as his beliefs in experiments resulted in many medical, chemical and pharmaceutical findings. Therefore, in history, he can be considered as the pioneer in using trials and experiments for approving medical methods.

  20. Contrasting regeneration strategies in climax and long-lived pioneer tree species in a subtropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Wang

    Full Text Available 1: This study investigated 15 coexisting dominant species in a humid subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest China, consisting of long-lived pioneers and climax species occurring in natural and disturbed regimes. The authors hypothesized that there would be non-tradeoff scaling relationships between sprouting and seed size among species, with the aim of uncovering the ecological relationship between plant sprouting and seed characteristics in the two functional groups. 2: The sprouting variations of the species were initially examined using pairwise comparisons between natural and disturbed habitats within and across species and were noted to show a continuum in persistence niches across the forest dominants, which may underlie the maintenance of plant diversity. Second, a significantly positive, rather than tradeoff, relationship between sprout number and seed size across species within each of the two functional groups was observed, and an obvious elevational shift with a common slope among the two groups in their natural habitat was examined. The results indicate the following: 1 the relationship of seed size vs. sprouts in the natural habitat is more likely to be bet-hedging among species within a guild in a forest; 2 climax species tend to choose seeding rather than sprouting regeneration, and vice versa for the long-lived pioneers; and 3 the negative correlation between sprouting and seed dispersal under disturbed conditions may imply a tradeoff between dispersal and persistence in situ during the process of plant regeneration. 3: These findings may be of potential significance for urban greening using native species.

  1. Methods of Data Collection, Sample Processing, and Data Analysis for Edge-of-Field, Streamgaging, Subsurface-Tile, and Meteorological Stations at Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm in Wisconsin, 2001-7 (United States)

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Owens, David W.; Hall, David W.


    The University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison Discovery Farms (Discovery Farms) and UW-Platteville Pioneer Farm (Pioneer Farm) programs were created in 2000 to help Wisconsin farmers meet environmental and economic challenges. As a partner with each program, and in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the Sand County Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Wisconsin Water Science Center (WWSC) installed, maintained, and operated equipment to collect water-quantity and water-quality data from 25 edge-offield, 6 streamgaging, and 5 subsurface-tile stations at 7 Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm. The farms are located in the southern half of Wisconsin and represent a variety of landscape settings and crop- and animal-production enterprises common to Wisconsin agriculture. Meteorological stations were established at most farms to measure precipitation, wind speed and direction, air and soil temperature (in profile), relative humidity, solar radiation, and soil moisture (in profile). Data collection began in September 2001 and is continuing through the present (2008). This report describes methods used by USGS WWSC personnel to collect, process, and analyze water-quantity, water-quality, and meteorological data for edge-of-field, streamgaging, subsurface-tile, and meteorological stations at Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm from September 2001 through October 2007. Information presented includes equipment used; event-monitoring and samplecollection procedures; station maintenance; sample handling and processing procedures; water-quantity, waterquality, and precipitation data analyses; and procedures for determining estimated constituent concentrations for unsampled runoff events.

  2. Indication, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.D.; Lau, E.L.; Turyshev, S.G.; Laing, P.A.; Liu, A.S.; Nieto, M.M.


    Radio metric data from the Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses spacecraft indicate an apparent anomalous, constant, acceleration acting on the spacecraft with a magnitude ∼8.5x10 -8 cm/s 2 , directed towards the Sun. Two independent codes and physical strategies have been used to analyze the data. A number of potential causes have been ruled out. We discuss future kinematic tests and possible origins of the signal. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  3. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.C.; Villante, U.; Lazarus, A.J.


    We present the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 R/sub E/ downstream from earth. The principal observations are (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma

  4. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail (United States)

    Walker, R. C.; Lazarus, A. J.; Villante, U.


    The present paper gives the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic-field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 earth radii downstream from earth. The principal observations are: (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma.

  5. The Inevitable War? (United States)


    69 67 Alan Bryman and Emma Bell , Business Research Methods, 2 ed. (Oxford: Oxford...University Press, USA, 2007), 727. Bryam and Bell define a dependant variable as “ a variable that is causally influenced by another variable.” As the...Pushing-for-Yuan-to-be-Global- Currency-But-Business-Leaders-Say-Not-Yet-114475409.html (accessed April 6, 2011). Bryman , Alan, and Emma Bell

  6. Geology of the Venus equatorial region from Pioneer Venus radar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senske, D.A.; Head, J.W.


    The surface characteristics and morphology of the equatorial region of Venus were first described by Masursky et al. who showed this part of the planet to be characterized by two topographic provinces, rolling plains and highlands, and more recently by Schaber who described and interpreted tectonic zones in the highlands. Using Pioneer Venus (PV) radar image data (15 deg S to 45 deg N), Senske and Head examined the distribution, characteristics, and deposits of individual volcanic features in the equatorial region, and in addition classified major equatorial physiographic and tectonic units on the basis of morphology, topographic signature, and radar properties derived from the PV data. Included in this classification are: plains (undivided), inter-highland tectonic zones, tectonically segmented linear highlands, upland rises, tectonic junctions, dark halo plains, and upland plateaus. In addition to the physiographic units, features interpreted as coronae and volcanic mountains have also been mapped. The latter four of the physiographic units along with features interpreted to be coronae

  7. The Relationship between Science Indicator and Life Expectancy in Pioneer Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moghadami


    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between scientific productivity in the field of psychiatry and life expectancy in pioneer countries. Material and Methods : A rigorous search strategy was applied on Scopus database using psychiatry terms. The search results were narrowed to 2000-2012. No language limitation was applied. Life expectancy was extracted from World Bank database using Pearson correlation. Results : The search was led to 27516 articles. The US, England and Germany were identified as leading countries in producing the psychiatry articles, respectively. Pearson correlation test results indicated that there is a direct correlation between scientific products and life expectancy index. In other words, with the increase in producing scientific articles in psychiatry field, life expectancy rises as well. Conclusion : With increase in scientific productivity, life expectancy increases and mortality rate decreases. The results of this study can serve as a guiding document in the field of health and mental health. ​

  8. Annie Marion MacLean: “the mother of contemporary etnography” and pioneer in sociology distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia García Dauder


    Full Text Available The article introduces Anne Marion MacLean into the United States' scientific sociology at its very origins (1892, when the Department of Sociology of the Chicago University was created. It also puts MacLean in a network called "Women's School of Chicago", and the forgotten contributions of these social sciences' pioneers, submitted to the American Journal of Sociology, are analyzed. Two MacLean's key contributions are highlighted: the correspondence courses in teaching sociology and her research by means of participant observation in workplaces focusing on women's work.

  9. Angelo Sismonda (1807–1878), pioneer of geological mapping in the Alps of Savoy and the Piedmont: a bibliography

    CERN Document Server

    Hollier, John; Basaglia, Tullio; Hollier, Anita


    Angelo Sismonda (Ange Sismonda) was an Italian mineralogist and geologist based in Turin during the Risorgimento who produced pioneering maps of the Alps in the Kingdom of Sardinia. Well known during his lifetime, he is now mentioned only in passing by historians and no comprehensive bibliography of his work exists. To render his work more accessible, we present a short biography and a bibliography.

  10. A Design of Innovative Engineering Drawing Teaching Materials (United States)

    Mujiarto; Djohar, A.; Komaro, M.


    Good teaching is influenced by several things such as effective school leaders and skilled teachers who are able to use information communication technology as a medium of learning. The purpose of this research in general is to develop innovative teaching materials in the form of multimedia animation for engineering drawing in the field of technology and engineering at vocational high school. Research method used research and development (research and development / R & D). The results showed that the E-book Multimedia Animation Engineering Drawing (E-MMAED) is easy to possess and contains complete material. Students stated that the use of E-MMAED adds to learning motivation and improves learning outcomes (student competencies). We recommend that teachers apply E-MMAED as a learning medium and create other innovations to improve student competences.

  11. Baden-Powell on teeth: a centenary perspective of a pioneer of preventive dental health. (United States)

    Pearn, J


    In the era when dental care, particularly preventive dental health, did not enjoy a high public profile, Lieut-General (later Lord) Robert Baden-Powell (1857-1941) was an influential advocate for the care of the teeth. He was a pioneer in a targeted outreach to youth, specifically boys and young men, emphasising the importance of dental health as an essential part of total body health and fitness. In his book, Scouting for boys, first published on 1 May 1908, he described personal accounts of the consequences of the neglect of oral hygiene and presented advice on how to make an effective 'camp tooth-brush' in order that dental hygiene would not be compromised even under the exigencies of conditions away from home. Baden-Powell wrote explicitly that daily dental hygiene was the single most important 'one civilised thing [teenage youths] could do', irrespective of one's physical circumstances. Scouting for boys was for more than five decades the world's best seller in English, after the Bible. It has run to, and now surpasses, 60 million copies in 30 languages and has been published in 35 editions. It is believed that Baden-Powell's frank and direct exhortations to preserve the teeth, with simple and direct advice on food and what today would be called oral hygiene, have been read by 350 million people throughout the world. His advocacy reached out to boys and young men as it does today to youths of both sexes in that 'window of opportunity' when life-long habits of healthcare are being inculcated and when important components of secondary dentition are forming. This paper is a centenary perspective of Baden-Powell's pioneering advocacy of modern preventive dental health.

  12. Science From Beyond: NASA's Pioneer Plaque and the History of Interstellar Communication, 1957- 1972 (United States)

    Macauley, William


    In the late twentieth century, science and technology facilitated exploration beyond the Solar System and extended human knowledge through messages comprised of pictures and mathematical symbols, transmitted from radio telescopes and inscribed on material artifacts attached to spacecraft. ‘Interstellar communication' refers to collective efforts by scientists and co-workers to detect and transmit intelligible messages between humans and supposed extraterrestrial intelligence in remote star systems. Interstellar messages are designed to communicate universal knowledge without recourse to text, human linguistic systems or anthropomorphic content because it is assumed that recipients have no prior knowledge of humankind or the planet we inhabit. Scientists must therefore imagine how extraterrestrials will relate to human knowledge and culture. The production and transmission of interstellar messages became interdisciplinary design problems that involved collaboration and exchange of ideas between scientists, visual artists, and others. My proposed paper will review sociocultural aspects of interstellar communication since the late 1950s and focus on key issues regarding conception, design and production of a specific interstellar message launched into space during the early 1970s - NASA's Pioneer plaque. The paper will explore how research on the history of interstellar communication relates to previous historical and sociological studies on rhetorical aspects of visual representation and mathematics in scientific practice. In particular, I will explain how the notion of ‘inscription' is an appropriate conceptual tool for analyzing how scientists have used pictures to articulate and validate knowledge claims and scientific facts. I argue that scientific knowledge carried on interstellar messages such as the Pioneer plaque is constituted in material practices and inscription technologies that translate natural objects, agency and culture into legible forms

  13. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916): pioneer of neurological surgery. (United States)

    Tan, Tze-Ching; Black, Peter McL


    Immortalized in surgical history for the introduction of "antiseptic wax," Sir Victor Horsley played a pivotal role in shaping the face of standard neurosurgical practice. His contributions include the first laminectomy for spinal neoplasm, the first carotid ligation for cerebral aneurysm, the curved skin flap, the transcranial approach to the pituitary gland, intradural division of the trigeminal nerve root for trigeminal neuralgia, and surface marking of the cerebral cortex. A tireless scientist, he was a significant player in discovering the cure for myxedema, the eradication of rabies from England, and the invention of the Horsley-Clarke stereotactic frame. As a pathologist, Horsley performed research on bacteria and edema and founded the Journal of Pathology. Horsley's kindness, humility, and generous spirit endeared him to patients, colleagues, and students. Born to privilege, he was nonetheless dedicated to improving the lot of the common man and directed his efforts toward the suffrage of women, medical reform, and free health care for the working class. Knighted in 1902 for his many contributions to medicine, Sir Victor met an untimely death during World War I from heat stroke at the age of 59. An iconoclast of keen intellect, unlimited energy, and consummate skill, his life and work justify his epitaph as a "pioneer of neurological surgery."

  14. Anatomist and the pioneer of radiology Étienne Destot--95th anniversary of his death. (United States)

    Báča, Václav; Kachlík, David; Báčová, Tereza; Bartoška, Radek; Marvan, Jiří; Douša, Pavel; Secrest, Thomas; Džupa, Valér


    Destot was a leading pioneer in radiology, a pupil of Ollier, an anatomist, and researcher who followed in the experimental medicine tradition of Claude Bérnard. This work is an extensive, in depth, look at the life and work of Étienne Destot. On February 5, 1896, he began performing X-ray examinations, less than two months after Roentgen's discovery! His pioneering work described a space bordered by the hamate, capitate, triquetrum, and lunate; this space is now known as Destot's space. Tanton stated that Destot was the first to reveal the mechanism of fractures of the posterior margin of the distal tibia and to emphasize their clinical relevance; in honor of this contribution, Tanton named such a fracture the “fracture of Destot.” Moreover, Destot is credited with being the first physician to use the term “pilon” in the orthopedic literature. He first described fractures of the scaphoid in 1905. He also described superficial hematomas, Destot's sign, located above the inguinal ligament or in the scrotum or thigh. Such hematomas are indicative of pelvic fractures. Destot is credited with inventing or improving many pieces of medical equipment (e.g., Lambotte's screw plates, anastomotic boutons for the digestive tube, monopolar endocavital radiological tubes). He was also active in developing technical aspects of equipment (e.g., radioscopic examination of the heart, a prototype of the mobile radiological laboratory). Étienne Destot is best known as a radiologist; however, his influence extends well beyond this field. He was an anatomist and surgeon, the founder of radiology in Lyon, prosector, physician, electrician, researcher, and artist.

  15. Ir A.H. de Voogt: life and career of a radio pioneer (United States)

    Strom, R. G.


    There are probably few radio astronomers who would be able to recall A.H. de Voogt, which is unfortunate, but at the same time unsurprising: for he published no original astronomical research, never carried out pioneering observations, nor is his name linked to either theoretical or instrumental breakthroughs. Yet he was described by the man who first observed the 21 cm hydrogen line from the Netherlands as a radio astronomy pioneer, at the very birth of the Dutch effort. He was, moreover, a trail blazer at the cutting edge of radio, not once but twice in his career. Without him it is unlikely that the 21 cm line would have been observed in the Netherlands in 1951, and arguably the H I mapping of the Milky Way under Jan Oort's leadership would have taken place much later, if at all. Radio astronomy observing itself might well have been compromised by interference had it not been for De Voogt's foresight. \\ Anthonet Hugo de Voogt (1892-1969) built, while still a teenager, one of the very first amateur radio stations (call letters VO: *** -/- - -) in Holland, earned the radio-telegrapher's diploma during his student days, and was intimately involved in the foundation of the Dutch Society for Radio-Telegraphy in 1916. Until the 1920s, he was very active in amateur radio and astronomy circles. Trained in electrical engineering at Delft, he joined the PTT (Post Office) as a telegraph engineer in 1919, worked his way through the ranks to become head of the telephone district of Breda in 1939, and was promoted to head the PTT Radio Service just days after the end of the war. As his department was responsible for overseas radio communication, he initiated a research effort to study radio propagation in the ionosphere and the effects of solar activity. To this end, he rescued a number of Würzburg-Riese 7.5-m radar antennas abandoned at the end of the war, made one available for Jan Oort's H I work, and launched a series of radio astronomical initiatives. His group also

  16. Scientific Computers at the Helsinki University of Technology during the Post Pioneering Stage (United States)

    Nykänen, Panu; Andersin, Hans

    The paper describes the process leading from the pioneering phase when the university was free to develop and build its own computers through the period when the university was dependent on cooperation with the local computer companies to the stage when a bureaucratic state organization took over the power to decide on acquiring computing equipment to the universities. This stage ended in the late 1970s when computing power gradually became a commodity that the individual laboratories and research projects could acquire just like any resource. This development paralleled the situation in many other countries and universities as well. We have chosen the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) as a case to illustrate this development process, which for the researchers was very annoying and frustrating when it happened.

  17. Coleman Advocates for Children And Youth: a pioneering child advocacy organization (1974-2008). (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Austin, Michael J


    Coleman Advocates for Youth and Children is a pioneering 30-year-old child advocacy organization founded by several affluent community members and children's service professionals to stop housing abused and neglected children in juvenile hall. Today, low-income youth and parents in families of color are now assuming leadership in developing a unique hybrid approach that integrates community organizing with more traditional child advocacy strategies and focuses on increasing affordable housing and improving the city's educational system. The strategies employed by Coleman have also evolved, shifting from insider advocacy with administrative officials to public campaigns targeting the city budget process, to local initiative campaigns, and most recently to electoral politics. This organizational history features the issues mission and structure, leadership, managing issues, advocacy strategies and community relations, and funding.

  18. Summary of initial results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11 (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.


    The main magnetic field of Jupiter was measured by the Fluxgate Magnetometer on Pioneer 11 and analysis reveals it to be relatively more complex than expected. In a centered spherical harmonic representation with a maximum order of n = 3 (designated GSFC model 04), the dipole term (with opposite polarity to the Earth's) has a moment of 4.28 Gauss x (Jupiter radius cubed), tilted by 9.6 deg towards a system 111 longitude of 232. The quadrupole and octupole moments are significant, 24% and 21% of the dipole moment respectively, and this leads to deviations of the planetary magnetic field from a simple offset tilted dipole for distances smaller than three Jupiter radii. The GSFC model shows a north polar field strength of 14 Gauss and a south polar field strength of 10.4 Gauss. Enhanced absorption effects in the radiation belts may be predicted as a result of field distortion.

  19. The structure of the inner heliosphere from Pioneer Venus and IMP observations (United States)

    Gazis, P. R.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.


    The IMP 8 and Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) spacecraft explore the region of heliographic latitudes between 8 deg N and 8 deg S. Solar wind observations from these spacecraft are used to construct synoptic maps of solar wind parameters in this region. These maps provide an explicit picture of the structure of high speed streams near 1 AU and how that structure varies with time. From 1982 until early 1985, solar wind parameters varied little with latitude. During the last solar minimum, the solar wind developed strong latitudinal structure; high speed streams were excluded from the vicinity of the solar equator. Synoptic maps of solar wind speed are compared with maps of the coronal source surface magnetic field. This comparison reveals the expected correlation between solar wind speed near 1 AU, the strength of the coronal magnetic field, and distance from the coronal neutral line.

  20. Heliographic latitude dependence of the IMF dominant polarity in 1972--1973 using Pioneer 10 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.L.


    The heliographic latitude dependence of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was studied by using Pioneer 10 data taken from March 1972 through June 1973 over Bartels solar rotation (SR) periods 1896--1913. The daily IMF sector polarities were plotted for each of these SR periods. Then the number of days of positive polarity (''away'' directed fields) per SR was plotted versus the average heliographic latitude. The dominant polarity behaved in accordance with the latitude effects found by Rosenberg and Coleman in 1969. The phase of the cycle has reversed from what it was prior to the sunspot maximum in 1968. The polarity is now predominantly positive at northern heliographic latitudes. (auth)

  1. Claudius Regaud (1870-1940): A pioneer of radiobiology and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foray, N.


    Born in 1870, Claudius Regaud was a pioneer of radiobiology and radiotherapy. As histologist, he developed a new staining technique that allowed him to describe in detail all the reproduction system of a number of animal models. As radio-biologist, he contradicted the interpretations of Tribondeau and Bergonie about relationships between cell proliferation and radiosensitivity. In 1908, he suggested that chromatin was the main target of radiation. As physician, he defined the first bases of anti-cancer radiation treatments and treated patients suffering from incurable cancer from 1911. As military doctor, he organized war hospitals by creating multidisciplinary teams for the surgery of hurts. Organizer, he was one of the founders of the League against Cancer. As radiotherapist and brachy-therapist, he contributed to make Institut Curie an international reference center for research and teaching, with nearly a thousand treated patients. As globe-trotter, he was at the origin of the creation of numerous worldwide radiotherapy and radiobiology centers. He died in December 1940 and let an impressive but still mis-known scientific heritage. A re-reading of the familial archives and the Regaud Fund of Institut Curie is the occasion to remind the contribution of Regaud. (authors)

  2. John Goodsir FRS (1814-1867): Pioneer of cytology and microbiology. (United States)

    Gardner, Dugald


    John Goodsir, pioneer of the concept that all tissues are formed of cells, was born in 1814 into a family of medical practitioners in Anstruther, Fife, Scotland where he was captivated by the marine life he saw daily in his childhood. His ambition was to follow his father and grandfather in medicine. Aged 13, he studied at St Andrews University before being apprenticed to an Edinburgh dentist and completing an original analysis of the embryology of human dentition. He became the student of Robert Knox at the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and then Conservator of the University Anatomy museum. He exchanged this position for one at the College of Surgeons before accepting the full University post. Beginning in 1830 with the compound microscope, he studied natural history and anatomy, describing his discoveries to many societies. Appointed to the Edinburgh Chair of Anatomy in 1846, his investigations of the cell as the unit of all tissues were recognised internationally. A critic of Darwin, he believed that Man could not evolve. However, malnutrition, the death of a brother and of a friend and collaborator, Edward Forbes, contributed to progressive illness and Goodsir died at Wardie, Edinburgh in 1867.

  3. Driving an electric vehicle. A sociological analysis on pioneer users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, M. [EDF R and D, Electricite de France, Research and Development, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France); Jemelin, C. [6T research bureau, 11 rue Duhesme, 75018 Paris (France); Louvet, N. [EPFL, Lausanne Federal Polytechnic School, 11 rue Duhesme, 75018 Paris (France)


    In most of the western countries, car is the prevalent means of transport for local mobility. At the same time, sensitivity to environmental issues is increasing, correlated to the consciousness that carbon dioxide emissions have to be reduced. In regard to these two trends (individual mobility and public opinions favourable to a reduction of carbon emissions), energy-efficient vehicles will probably develop in the future-car manufacturers actually prepare new offers for the mass market. Comparable cases have occurred during the last decades-probably more modest but full of learning: some local authorities have promoted innovations based on electric vehicles in the 1990s, and some people have chosen this kind of cars for their daily travels. This article deals with these pioneers (This article comes from a communication at the ECEEE Summer Study, June 2009, Panel 6: Energy efficiency in transport and mobility.). Reporting studies carried out in 2006 and 2008, we intend to identify the reasons of this innovative modal choice, to show the difficulties that electric vehicle drivers then encountered and to analyse the patterns of use that governed their mobility and their use of electric vehicles.

  4. Optimization and Flight Schedules of Pioneer Routes in Papua Province (United States)

    Ronting, Y.; Adisasmita, S. A.; Hamid, S.; Hustim, M.


    The province of Papua has a very varied topography, ranging from swampy lowlands, hills, and plateaus up steep hills. The total area of land is 410,660 km2, which consists of 28 counties and one city, 389 districts and 5.420 villages. The population of Papua Province in 2017 was 3.265.202 people with an average growth of 4.21% per year. The transportation services is still low, especially in the mountainous region, which is isolated and could only be reached by an air transportation mode, causing a considerable price disparity between coastal and mountainous areas. The purpose of this paper is to develop the route optimization and pioneer flight schedules models as an airbridge. This research is conducted by collecting primary data and secondary data. Data is based on field surveys; interviews; discussions with airport authority, official government, etc; and also from various agencies. The analytical tools used to optimization flight schedule and route are analyzed by add-in solver in Microsoft Excel. The results of the analysis we can get a more optimal route so that it can save transportation costs by 7.26%.

  5. Pioneiros da ecologia política agrária contemporânea The pioneers of the contemporary agrarian political ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Miranda Nascimento


    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo apresentar os pioneiros dos estudos materialistas sobre ecologia política agrária contemporânea. É feita uma análise das contribuições da Escola Russa de Estudos do Solo e de referências mais recentes aos escritos de Marx e Liebig. Nas considerações finais, enfatiza-se a necessidade de desenvolver a abordagem da Ecologia Política Agrária como maneira mais apropriada de entender a relação entre sistemas agrários, formações sociais e ecossistemas específicos em áreas rurais.The pioneering studies on the relationship between society and nature are important for the analysis of agricultural and ecological changes in rural areas. The goal of the present article is to introduce the contemporary pioneers of the agrarian ecology studies with a Marxist Materialism approach. The agrarian ecology describes the relations among agrarian systems, social formations and specific ecosystems in rural territories. Thence, the concept has a double function: turn the agrarian problem into an ecological theme and redefine its importance for the current studies on rural territory.

  6. Heavy metals in emergent trees and pioneers from tropical forest with special reference to forest fires and local pollution sources in Sarawak, Malaysia. (United States)

    Breulman, G; Markert, B; Weckert, V; Herpin, U; Yoneda, R; Ogino, K


    Leaf samples of tropical trees, i.e. Dryobalanops lanceolata (Kapur paji), Dipterocarpaceae and Macaranga spp. (Mahang), Euphorbiaceae were analyzed for 21 chemical elements. The pioneer Macaranga spp. exhibited higher concentrations for the majority of elements compared to the emergent species of Dryobalanops lanceolata, which was attributed to the higher physiological activity of the fast growing pioneer species compared to emergent trees. Lead showed rather high concentrations in several samples from the Bakam re-forestation site. This is suggested to be caused by emissions through brick manufacturing and related activities in the vicinity. A comparison of Dryobalanops lanceolata samples collected in 1993, 1995 and 1997 in the Lambir Hills National Park revealed that certain heavy metals, i.e. Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Ti showed higher values in 1997 compared to the previous years, which could indicate an atmospheric input from the haze caused by the extensive forest fires raging in Borneo and other parts of Southeast Asia.

  7. Young at Heart: Pioneering Approaches to Model Nonischaemic Cardiomyopathy with Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Gowran


    Full Text Available A mere 9 years have passed since the revolutionary report describing the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human fibroblasts and the first in-patient translational use of cells obtained from these stem cells has already been achieved. From the perspectives of clinicians and researchers alike, the promise of induced pluripotent stem cells is alluring if somewhat beguiling. It is now evident that this technology is nascent and many areas for refinement have been identified and need to be considered before induced pluripotent stem cells can be routinely used to stratify, treat and cure patients, and to faithfully model diseases for drug screening purposes. This review specifically addresses the pioneering approaches to improve induced pluripotent stem cell based models of nonischaemic cardiomyopathy.

  8. Ted Irving's legacy: recent developments on his pioneering work in paleomagnetism (United States)

    Enkin, R. J.; Opdyke, N. D.; Kent, D. V.; Frankel, H. R.; Evans, D. A.; Geissman, J. W.


    Edward (Ted) Irving (1927-2014) was one of the principal developers of paleomagnetism and an early champion of continental drift. Through careful multidisciplinary research and with great insight, he pioneered many aspects of paleomagnetism which continue to be actively researched. Irving was convinced of the reality of continental drift by 1954 and provided compelling arguments for its support in his classic 1964 textbook, but thought it would take the rest of his career to convince the rest of the scientific community. With the acceptance of plate tectonics in the late 1960s, he then applied his paleomagnetic tools to study young rocks (mid-ocean ridges), old rocks (the Laurentian shield), and mobile belts (the Appalachians and the Cordillera). In this poster we highlight recent work on several of his methods, results and ideas. Topics will include spherical statistics and paleosecular variation, the geomagnetic polarity time scale and the Kiaman superchron, paleoclimatic tests of paleogeography, compilation of paleomagnetic poles and the definition of apparent polar wander paths, and the paleogeography of cratons (e.g., Pangea) and mobile belts (e.g., Baja BC).

  9. Noel T. Keen--pioneer leader in molecular plant pathology. (United States)

    Collmer, Alan; Gold, Scott


    Noel T. Keen (1940-2002) made pioneering contributions to molecular plant pathology during a period when the study of disease mechanisms was transformed by the new tools of molecular genetics. His primary contributions involved race-specific elicitors of plant defenses and bacterial pectic enzymes. In collaboration with Brian J. Staskawicz and Frances Jurnak, respectively, Noel cloned the first avirulence gene and determined that pectate lyase C possessed a novel structural motif, known as the parallel beta-helix. Noel received his B.S. and M.S. from Iowa State University in Ames and his Ph.D. from the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Wisconsin in Madison in 1968. He joined the faculty of the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of California at Riverside the same year and remained there his entire career. He served as Chair of the department from 1983 to 1989 and in 1997 assumed the William and Sue Johnson Endowed Chair in Molecular Plant Pathology. He became a Fellow of the American Phytopathological Society in 1991, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1996, a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology in 1997, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1997. He was serving as President of the American Phytopathological Society (2001-2002) at the time of his death.

  10. The life, science and times of Lev Vasilevich Shubnikov pioneer of Soviet cryogenics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinders, L J


    This book describes the life, times and science of the Soviet physicist Lev Vasilevich Shubnikov (1901-1937).  From 1926 to 1930 Shubnikov worked in Leiden where he was the co-discoverer of the Shubnikov-De Haas effect. After his return to the Soviet Union he founded in Kharkov in Ukraine the first low-temperature laboratory in the Soviet Union, which in a very short time became the foremost physics institute in the country and among other things led to the discovery of type-II superconductivity. In August 1937 Shubnikov, together with many of his colleagues, was arrested and shot early in November 1937. This gripping story gives deep insights into the pioneering work of Soviet physicists before the Second World War, as well as providing much previously unpublished information about their brutal treatment at the hands of the Stalinist regime.

  11. From pioneering orientation to new product performance through competitive tactics in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. García-Villaverde


    Full Text Available The literature regarding entry timing suggests that pioneering orientation (PO is a key determinant factor of new product performance (NPP due to ‘first mover advantages’. The contradictory results and specific biases raise a research gap on which conditions and processes lead PO to a higher NPP. This paper proposes to fill this gap by designing and testing a model examining to what extent development of competitive tactics drive and explain the way from PO to NPP. We test the model on a sample of 224 footwear firms. Results show that, separately, each of the competitive tactics has a total mediating effect linking PO with NPP. Introducing the competitive tactics into a multiple mediator model the routes from PO to NPP through low cost and innovation differentiation are relevant and compatible. However, marketing differentiation is less effective. The study provides new ways of linking the entry timing and advantage strategy perspectives.

  12. The state-of-the-art in the rehabilitation of a PIONEER Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Bledea


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the analysis about the state of stress in the girder of a PIONEER crane with a prescribed vertical loading of 0,75 tones belonging to the thermal power-station Timisoara. The analysis has been performed with a FEA software (COSMOS/M which is able to conduct to important results regarding the map of stress, especially in areas where high stress concentration are present. There have been automatically combined a wide range of finite elements: shell, brick, beam,truss-cable simulating the different zones of the girder. The combination of the most advanced standard components as well the implementation of the modular product concepts and the state-of-the-art regarding the design of cranes must be in a perfect agreement with the state of stress in the metallic structure. In the end, a comparison between the FEA results and the classical calculus with the strength of materials theory has been performed.

  13. Informeeritud nõusolek ja muutuvad eetilised raamistikud bioeetikas / Kristi Lõuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõuk, Kristi


    Ülevaade 4.-6. novembril 2010 toimunud informeeritud nõusoleku teemalisel konverentsil kõneldust. Esinejad: Tom L. Beauchamp, Margit Sutrop, Ruth Faden, Theda Rehbock, Kjetil Rommetveit, Toivo Maimets, Ruth Chadwick, Ants Nõmper, Jan Helge Solbakk

  14. Tunnetades kuumust / Emma Duncan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Duncan, Emma


    Autor prognoosib, et juba lähiajal hakkavad Valitsustevahelise Kliimamuutuste Ekspertrühma (IPCC- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) aruanded mõjutama poliitikakujundamist maailmas. Diagramm: Elavhõbedasammas kerkib

  15. Venus: cloud level circulation during 1982 as determined from Pioneer cloud photopolarimeter images. 11. Solar longitude dependent circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, S.S.


    Pioneer Venus Orbiter images obtained in 1982 indicate a marked solar-locked dependence of cloud level circulation in both averaged cloud motions and cloud layer UV reflectivity. An apparent relationship is noted between horizontal divergence and UV reflectivity: the highest reflectivities are associated with regions of convergence at high latitudes, while lower values are associated with equatorial latitude regions where the motions are divergent. In solar-locked coordinates, the rms deviation of normalized UV brightness is higher at 45-deg latitudes than in equatorial regions. 37 references

  16. Collection of lectures given on the occasion of the 5th status report of the project of reprocessing and waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    10 years of R and D work in retrospect with the emphasis being on the development of electrochemical processes for fuel reprocessing (1B-EMMA and 2B-EMMA), vitrification of high-activity wastes by remote control (PAMELA, WA-350), iodine filter development, wet incineration of α-activity wastes, Pu recycling (ALONA), improvement of the chemical flow charts in the planning of the WA-350. Such developments are complemented by processes applied at the HDB. (DG) [de

  17. A salute to the pioneers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An historical account is given of the pioneers who were instrumental in opening up the electrical frontier and paved the way for its phenomenal growth over the past century. The work of Franklin, Volta and Faraday, experimenters of the 18. and 19. century, is mentioned, along with the musings of Roger Bacon, a 13. century philosopher and scientist who postulated theories about magnetism, and that of William Gilbert of some three centuries later who formulated the definition of 'frictional electricity', noting the properties of attraction created by rubbing together amber and other substances. Mention is also made of the discoveries in the 18. and 19. centuries of Andre Marie Ampere of France, Luigi Galvani of Italy, Georg Simon Ohm and Heinrich Rudolph Hertz of Germany, Hans Christian Oersted of Denmark, Joseph Henry of the United States, William Grove and James Clerk Maxwell of Britain, and Aubrey Fessenden of Canada. An account is given of the discoveries of the Yugoslavian-born Nikola Tesla, whose work bridged the 19. and 20. centuries and who made singularly important contributions to the theory of electrical distribution systems, transformers, arc lights, dynamos, electric motors, steam turbines, thermomagnetics and radio systems. His invention of the polyphase alternating current system in 1888 was the turning point for the age of electricity that pushed the geographical distribution boundaries of electricity beyond the restrictive limitations of direct current used for Thomas Edison's electric light system. His work, with the timely support of George Westinghouse, opened the floodgates to electrical progress to bring new levels of productivity to business and industry and a higher standard of living for everyone. Many of the artifacts and memorabilia associated with the development of electrical technology are preserved in special exhibits and museums throughout the country. Brief accounts of some of the publicly accessible exhibits are

  18. Methanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl. Pers. (Hypericaceae in the central Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Jardine


    Full Text Available Isoprene (Is emissions by plants represent a loss of carbon and energy resources leading to the initial hypothesis that fast growing pioneer species in secondary tropical forests allocate carbon primarily to growth at the expense of isoprenoid defenses. In this study, we quantified leaf isoprene and methanol emissions from the abundant pantropical pioneer tree species Vismia guianensis and ambient isoprene concentrations above a diverse secondary forest in the central Amazon. As photosynthetically active radiation (PAR was varied (0 to 3000 µmol m−2 s−1 under standard leaf temperature (30 °C, isoprene emissions from V. guianensis increased without saturation up to 80 nmol m−2 s−1. A nonlinear increase in isoprene emissions with respect to net photosynthesis (Pn resulted in the fraction of Pn dedicated to isoprene emissions increasing with light intensity (up to 2 % of Pn. Emission responses to temperature under standard light conditions (PAR of 1000 µmol m−2 s−1 resulted in the classic uncoupling of isoprene emissions (Topt, iso > 40 °C from net photosynthesis (Topt, Pn = 30.0–32.5 °C with up to 7 % of Pn emitted as isoprene at 40 °C. Under standard environmental conditions of PAR and leaf temperature, young V. guianensis leaves showed high methanol emissions, low Pn, and low isoprene emissions. In contrast, mature leaves showed high Pn, high isoprene emissions, and low methanol emissions, highlighting the differential control of leaf phenology over methanol and isoprene emissions. High daytime ambient isoprene concentrations (11 ppbv were observed above a secondary Amazon rainforest, suggesting that isoprene emissions are common among neotropical pioneer species. The results are not consistent with the initial hypothesis and support a functional role of methanol during leaf expansion and the establishment of photosynthetic machinery and a protective role of isoprene for

  19. Study to adapt solar electric propulsion to the Pioneer F and G spacecraft (United States)


    The addition of an electric thrust subsystem to the spin-stabilized Pioneer F and G spacecraft to improve performance capability for certain missions is discussed. The evaluation was performed for the Atlas and Titan launch vehicles with Centaur and TE-364-4 stages and for electric thrust stages of 8- and 5-kw with three 30- and five 15-cm thrusters respectively. The combination of a spinning spacecraft with electric propulsion is a concept only recently evaluated and the penalty from spinning over three-axis stabilized is not as significant as might initally be thought. There are major gains in weight, cost, and reliability, the disadvantages being lower data rate during the thrust phase and less efficient pointing. A variety of missions were evaluated from a solar approach mission into 0.14 AU to a flyby mission of Neptune at approximately 30 AU. Performance improvements were present for all missions evaluated.

  20. A pop-up voyage to the heart of matter

    CERN Multimedia


    How do you make a pop-up Big Bang? Well it seems that many of you out there have an opinion on this somewhat esoteric question. When Emma Sanders, co-author of ATLAS’ new pop-up book carried out an informal survey amongst physicists, the question provoked some strong reactions. Paper engineer Anton Radevsky in animated discussion with ATLAS’ Philippe Farthouat and Christoph Rembser. Too spiky: an early version of the pop-up Big Bang."The challenge with the design of every pop-up was to find a solution that both looked good and was scientifically correct," explains Emma. "This was particularly difficult for the Big Bang, where the expansion of the Universe had to be spherically symmetrical and not spiky!" Over 8 pages, the story of ATLAS and the LHC unfolds, pops up, rotates, and, in some cases, readers even have to get hands-on and build elements themselves. Emma worked on the project with...

  1. Natali Portman : "Ljubov i izmenõ bõli vsegda" / Natalie Portman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Portman, Natalie


    Näitlejanna endast ja oma rollidest, lähemalt rollist uusimas filmis - Suurbritannia - USA mängufilm "Teine Boleyni tüdruk" Philippa Gregory romaani ainetel (režissöör Justin Chadwick) (Tõlgitud väljaandest "Focus")

  2. Alexis Carrel (1873-1944): visionary vascular surgeon and pioneer in organ transplantation. (United States)

    Aida, Lai


    Alexis Carrel was a French surgeon in the 20th century. He made significant contributions to many advances in the fields of vascular surgery, cardiothoracic surgery and organ transplantation. He demonstrated that blood vessels can be united end-to-end and pioneered the triangulation suturing technique in vascular anastomosis. The methods he developed are still in use to this day. He insisted on the importance of absolute asepsis in vascular surgery when such practices were almost unheard of. He was also considered the father of solid organ transplantation. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in recognition of his work. Together with Charles Lindbergh, he developed the extracorporeal perfusion pump to keep organs alive outside the human body. His contribution to medicine also extended to tissue culture and wound management. He was one of the most controversial figures of his generation, believing in the idea of genetic superiority and eugenics and he was associated with fascism in the 1930s. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  3. Modernity and its Discontents: Western Catholic Pioneers of the Hindu-Christian Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Beltramini


    Full Text Available This article presents a reassessment of the Hindu-Christian dialogue in its relationship with modernity. The focus is on a group of Western Catholic clergymen who relocated to India, specifically during 1940-70, and became involved in the Hindu-Christian dialogue. The article traces the reasons for these Catholics’ relocations to their dissatisfaction with modernity and the predominance of rationality in the West, as well as their aversion to modern scientific thought. It emphasises the dual character of the interfaith dialogue, and the struggles of this group of clergymen to overcome modernity, whereby a modern Weltanschauung was the obstacle along the path to reshaping Catholic theology and establishing a fruitful interfaith dialogue with Hinduism. Although they did not pursue a common agenda and had different goals, these pioneers of interfaith dialogue came to consider such a dialogue with Hinduism as regenerative, as a means of revitalising Western thought, of balancing the modern excesses of a Western civilisation increasingly dominated by technology, and of transcending the rationalised culture of the modern West to achieve higher consciousness.

  4. Interior Design Trends in Libraries. (United States)

    Sager, Don, Ed.


    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  5. Vanda Shrenger Weiss - the Croatian pioneer between two worlds: Her role in the birth of the Italian Psychoanalytic Society (SPI). (United States)

    Corsa, Rita


    In this paper the author sheds light on Vanda Shrenger Weiss, a forgotten pioneer of the international psychoanalytic movement. Vanda Shrenger was born into a large Jewish family in Croatia (1892), and her life was thoroughly intertwined with the great tragedies of European history: the First World War, the anti-Semitic persecution within Eastern Europe, which entailed the decimation of her extended family in Croatia. Finally, the introduction of fascist laws in Italy led to her and her husband - Edoardo Weiss, the founder of the Italian Psychoanalytic Society - seeking refuge in the United States of America. During her time spent in Italy (1919-39), Vanda Shrenger, doctor and paediatrician, dedicated herself to psychoanalysis. She played a crucial part in the reconstruction of the Italian Psychoanalytic Society (SPI), whilst also being a founding member of the Rivista Italiana di Psicoanalisi (Rome, 1932). Vanda was the first woman to be a member of the SPI as well as to present a paper for it. This insightful and extensive analysis relating to this pioneer of the psychoanalytic world, has been meticulously accomplished by use of a combination of original archival materials, along with access to previously unpublished documents and personal details, kindly made available to the author by Marianna, the daughter of Vanda and Edoardo Weiss, who still lives in the United States today. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  6. Solar minimum Lyman alpha sky background observations from Pioneer Venus orbiter ultraviolet spectrometer - Solar wind latitude variation (United States)

    Ajello, J. M.


    Measurements of interplanetary H I Lyman alpha over a large portion of the celestial sphere were made at the recent solar minimum by the Pioneer Venus orbiter ultraviolet spectrometer. These measurements were performed during a series of spacecraft maneuvers conducted to observe Halley's comet in early 1986. Analysis of these data using a model of the passage of interstellar wind hydrogen through the solar system shows that the rate of charge exchange with solar wind protons is 30 percent less over the solar poles than in the ecliptic. This result is in agreement with a similar experiment performed with Mariner 10 at the previous solar minimum.

  7. Mapas de Entornos Mediante Navegacion Difusa y Sistema de Teleoperacion de una Plataforma Pioneer P3-DX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Granda


    Full Text Available El presente proyecto describe el diseno e implementacion de aplicaciones de Teleoperacion, Adquisicion de Datos, Control Difuso de Velocidad y Mapeo de Entornos en 2D, para la plataforma movil Pioneer P3-DX mediante el uso de sonares, odometrıa y software libre GNU/Linux. El proyecto brinda una guıa para utilizar los conceptos de programacion en Python, que permite crear aplicaciones de manera versatil mediante el uso de librerıas como: GTK para el desarrollo del entorno grafico, PYFUZZY para el desarrollo del controlador difuso de velocidad y OPENCV para mostrar los mapas del entorno.

  8. Interview with Oswalt Kolle (1928-2010): German sex education pioneer. (United States)

    Kolle, Oswalt; Kropman, René F; Waldinger, Marcel D; Schultheiss, Dirk


    Alfred Kinsey (1894-1956) was the first pioneer of scientific sexology after World War II with his surveys on human sexuality in the male (1948) and the female (1953), which underwent worldwide translations and also had a major impact in Europe. To clarify the role of the journalist Oswalt Kolle (1928-2010) as the promoter of sex education in Germany and Western Europe in the late 1960s. The information is almost exclusively based on a live interview taken with the time witness Oswalt Kolle in February 2010. This scientific technique of oral history is well established in the field of history research today. Kolle has a strong family background in the medical field as his father was a well-known psychiatrist and his grandfather a prominent bacteriologist. Before starting an interest in sex education, Kolle was a successful journalist by interviewing celebrities but turned into one of the most important critics against the restricted views on sex in Germany and Western Europe in the 1960s. His books and films on sexuality were translated into at least 12 languages and were major blockbusters for at least a decade. Oswalt Kolle had more influence on the public awareness and practice of sexuality in Western Europe and especially Germany than any other single person in his time. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: A Stellar Pioneer (The Dorritt Hoffleit Lecture) (United States)

    Haramundanis, Katherine


    In a world of Newtonian mechanics and Darwinian evolution, we also have Paynian composition of the stars and universe. While Payne, later Payne-Gaposchkin, did not extend her data and conclusions to the universe, her 1925 monograph, described by Otto Struve as ``the most brilliant PhD thesis ever written in astronomy,'' is a pioneering landmark that for the first time combined astronomical observations of stellar spectra with the then new atomic theories of Bohr and Saha. Her conclusions were suppressed by her advisor, H.N. Russell, but she wisely published her data with a disclaimer. Though facing overt gender discrimination throughout her career, and suffering the ``pink paycheck'' so well known to many women, she persevered and, towards the end of her working lifetime at Harvard University, became Chairman of the Department of Astronomy, a department she had helped to establish with the exuberant director Harlow Shapley in the 1920s and 1930s. One colleague, who called her ``An Astronomer's Astronomer,'' admired her as a person of great kindness, graciousness, humor and humility, who conveyed her love for the science ``lucidly and enthusiastically.'' She never lost her love and ardor for astronomy and astrophysics and made innumerable contributions to these sciences. Her work continues to inspire and provoke those working in the field, and she remains a model for all scientists to follow.

  10. Pioneering space research in the USSR and mathematical modeling of large problems of radiation transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkevich, T.A.


    This review is to remind scientists of the older generation of some memorable historical pages and of many famous researchers, teachers and colleagues. For the younger researchers and foreign colleagues it will be useful to get to know about pioneer advancements of the Soviet scientists in the field of information and mathematical supply for cosmonautic problems on the eve of the space era. Main attention is paid to the scientific experiments conducted on the piloted space vehicles and the research teams who created the information and mathematical tools for the first space projects. The role of Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh, the Major Theoretician of cosmonautics, is particularly emphasized. He determined for the most part the basic directions of development of space research and remote sensing of the Earth and planets that are shortly called remote sensing

  11. Characteristics of low-frequency components of the near-bottom current in the Chinese Pioneer Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chujin; HOU Yijun; CHEN Qi; DONG Ruzhou; DONG Lixian


    Two deep-sea moorings were deployed respectively in the east area and the west area of Chinese Pioneer Area (CPA) in the tropic east Pacific to monitor the regional deep-sea dynamics below 600 meters above bottom (mab) from July 1997 to Oct. 1999. Results of statistics, spectral estimate and correlation analysis of the low-passed velocity data show that time scales of low-frequency components of the near-bottom currents are 25~120 days, in which 51-day period dominates the lower band of the frequency domain. Topographic features have obvious effect on low-frequency currents below 50 mab; modulations of the bottom-intensified sheared mean flow to the low-frequency currents are the dynamic mechanism of the frequency shift that occurs in both the east-area and the west-area.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašin Badža


    Full Text Available The research is trying to give an answer on a question whether the training process which lasted two years influenced on development of exsplosive strenght of legs (one of basic psysical abilities at pioneer basketball players. The sample in a research are basketball players from „Danubius - Vojvodina Srbijagas” team, from Novi Sad. The group counts 20 players who participated in training process and on who measuring was conducted. Data were collected per two years, and measuring were exert three times during this period. Tests that were used in this research are: long jump, high jump and running 20m. The obtained data will be processed statistically, using ANOVA for repeated measures and descriptive statistics. Research results will be represented in tables and discussed in text.

  13. Restoration with pioneer plants changes soil properties and remodels the diversity and structure of bacterial communities in rhizosphere and bulk soil of copper mine tailings in Jiangxi Province, China. (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yanling; Tan, Yinjing; Wu, Zhaoxiang; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Guohua; Yu, Faxin


    To unravel the ecological function played by pioneer plants in the practical restoration of mine tailings, it is vital to explore changes of soil characteristics and microbial communities in rhizosphere and bulk soil following the adaptation and survival of plants. In the present study, the diversity and structure of rhizospheric bacterial communities of three pioneer plants in copper mine tailings were investigated by Illumina MiSeq sequencing, and the effects of pioneer plants on soil properties were also evaluated. Significant soil improvement was detected in rhizospheric samples, and Alnus cremastogyne showed higher total organic matter, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus than two other herbaceous plants. Microbial diversity indices in rhizosphere and bulk soil of reclaimed tailings were significantly higher than bare tailings, even the soil properties of bulk soil in reclaimed tailings were not significantly different from those of bare tailings. A detailed taxonomic composition analysis demonstrated that Alphaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes showed significantly higher relative abundance in rhizosphere and bulk soil. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were abundant in bare tailings, in which Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Lactococcus made up the majority of the bacterial community (63.04%). Many species within known heavy metal resistance and nutrient regulatory microorganism were identified in reclaimed tailings, and were more abundant among rhizospheric microbes. Hierarchical clustering and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis demonstrated that the bacterial profiles in the rhizosphere clustered strictly together according to plant types, and were distinguishable from bulk soil. However, we also identified a large shared OTUs that occurred repeatedly and was unaffected by highly diverse soil properties in rhizosphere and bulk samples. Redundancy analysis indicated that water

  14. the effect of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 31, 2015 ... hypertension and venous and arterial cardiovascular complications (Gate and ... 1991) as well as blood coagulation disorders (Chadwick, et al., 2002), jaundice, deep vein thrombosis, .... milk of a population of Nigerian nursing mothers using hormonal ... Health-and- Fitness/Contraceptives-Birth-Control.

  15. Dr. S. Donald (Don) Stookey (1915-2014): Pioneering Researcher and Adventurer (United States)

    Beall, George H.


    Don Stookey, the father of glass-ceramics, was a pioneer in inducing and understanding internal nucleation phenomena in glass. His early work on dense opal glasses and photosensitive precipitation of gold and silver in glass led to an amazing series of inventions: Fotalite, a photosensitive opal, chemically machined Fotoform and Fotoceram, and TiO2-nucleated Pyroceram products including missile nosecones and oven-proof cookware. He received a basic patent on glass-ceramics, which was contested and affirmed in court. Don was able to demonstrate a clear photochromic glass that showed reversible darkening for thousands of cycles. This material became a fixture in the ophthalmic industry. He went on to invent a full-color polychromatic glass, capable of yielding a permanent patterned and monolithic stained glass. In his life outside science, Don chaired an interfaith group that founded a home for the elderly in Corning. He was also a wilderness enthusiast, surviving a plane crash in the Arctic and two boat capsizings. Even in his later years, he continued fishing off the coast of Florida and on Lake Ontario and went solo on a trip to the Patagonian Andes. Don Stookey was a special person by any measure: an unassuming optimist, eminent scientist and inventor, adventurer, and a beloved family man. Introduction

  16. Daredevils and early birds: Belgian pioneers in automobile racing and aerial sports during the belle époque. (United States)

    Ameye, Thomas; Gils, Bieke; Delheye, Pascal


    During the belle époque, Belgium was a trend-setting nation in many domains, including motorised sports. Belgian automobile racers and pilots shattered world records and became international stars. Striking was the shift in sports. Indeed, around 1896, sporting members of the leisure class stepped from the bicycle into the automobile and, around 1908, from the automobile into the airplane. Although these motorised sports were extremely expensive, this article shows that sportsmen and sportswomen from the working class could achieve upward social mobility through their performances. The achievements of these motorised pioneers had a major impact and wide-ranging significance. They laid the foundations for the expansion of the automobile industry and the emergence of civilian and military aviation.

  17. Precipitation-runoff relations and water-quality characteristics at edge-of-field stations, Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm, Wisconsin, 2003-8 (United States)

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Peppler, Marie C.; Owens, David W.; Frame, Dennis R.


    A cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison Discovery Farms program (Discovery Farms), and the UW-Platteville Pioneer Farm program (Pioneer Farm) was developed to identify typical ranges and magnitudes, temporal distributions, and principal factors affecting concentrations and yields of sediment, nutrients, and other selected constituents in runoff from agricultural fields. Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected year-round at 23 edge-of-field monitoring stations on 5 privately owned Discovery Farms and on Pioneer Farm during water years 2003-8. The studied farms represented landscapes, soils, and farming systems typical of livestock farms throughout southern Wisconsin. Each farm employed a variety of soil, nutrient, and water-conservation practices to help minimize sediment and nutrient losses from fields and to improve crop productivity. This report summarizes the precipitation-runoff relations and water-quality characteristics measured in edge-of-field runoff for 26 "farm years" (aggregate years of averaged station data from all 6 farms for varying monitoring periods). A relatively wide range of constituents typically found in agricultural runoff were measured: suspended sediment, phosphorus (total, particulate, dissolved reactive, and total dissolved), and nitrogen (total, nitrate plus nitrite, organic, ammonium, total Kjeldahl and total Kjeldahl-dissolved), chloride, total solids, total suspended solids, total volatile suspended solids, and total dissolved solids. Mean annual precipitation was 32.8 inches for the study period, about 3 percent less than the 30-year mean. Overall mean annual runoff was 2.55 inches per year (about 8 percent of precipitation) and the distribution was nearly equal between periods of frozen ground (54 percent) and unfrozen ground (46 percent). Mean monthly runoff was highest during two periods: February to March and May to June. Ninety percent of annual runoff occurred

  18. Pioneering new approaches. Educating girls in Africa. (United States)

    Namuddu, K


    education. Women's groups are also questioning policies that bar girls from reentering school after a childhood pregnancy. Uganda has a program to help girls resume their studies after pregnancy, but not within the main educational system. Pioneering new approaches is occurring and the Rockefeller Foundation is taking the lead in an 18-member international donor group in supporting the promotion of female education.

  19. Distant interplanetary wake of Venus: plasma observations from pioneer Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalov, J.D.; Barnes, A.


    In June 1979 the Pioneer Venus orbiter made its first series of passes through the distant solar wind wake of Venus at distances of 8--12 R/sub V/ behind the planet. During this period the plasma analyzer aboard the spacecraft detected disturbed magnetosheath plasma that intermittently disappeared and reappeared, suggesting a tattered, filamentary cavity trailing behind the planet. The magnetosheath dropouts almost always occurred inside the region of 'magnetotail' observed by Russell et al. Sporadic bursts of energetic ions (E/q> or approx. =4kV) are detected inside and, occasionally, outside the magnetotail; all such bursts are consistent with identification of the ion as O + of planetary origin moving at the local magnetosheath flow speed. The morphology of the plasma dropouts and of the O + bursts is analyzed in detail. The cavity appears to contract at times of high solar wind dynamic pressure. The intensity of the O + component is highly variable, and appears not to be strongly correlated with solar wind dynamic pressure. The most intense bursts correspond to a flux 7 ions cm - 2 s - 1 . This maximum flux, if steady and filling a cylinder 1 R/sub V/ in radius would correspond to a mass loss rate of 25 ions s - 1 ; the intermittency and variability of the flux suggest that the true mean loss rate is very much lower. The kinetic temperature of the O + component is estimated as 10 5 --10 6 K in order of magnitude

  20. A Political End to a Pioneering Career: Marianne Beth and the Psychology of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Belzen


    Full Text Available Although forgotten in both Religionswissenschaft (the Science of Religion and psychology, Marianne Beth (1880-1984, initially trained as a lawyer and already in 1928 called a “leading European woman”, must be considered as one of the female pioneers of these fields. She has been active especially in the psychology of religion, a field in which she, together with her husband Karl Beth, founded a research institute, an international organization and a journal. In 1932, the Beths organized in Vienna (where Karl was a professor the largest conference ever in the history of the psychology of religion. Because of her Jewish descent, Marianne Beth fled to the USA when Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938. This brought an abrupt end to her career as researcher and writer. The article reconstructs Marianne Beth’s path into psychology, analyzes some of her work and puts her achievements in an international perspective.

  1. Archives of the Dance (22): Pioneer Women – early British modern dancers (the National Resource Centre for Dance, University of Surrey).


    Carter, Alexandra


    Pioneer Women was an AHRC-funded project based on archives held at the National Resource Centre for Dance, University of Surrey. Two of the largest collections, those on Madge Atkinson and Natural Movement, and Ruby Ginner’s Revived (later Classical) Greek Dance, are categorized and interrogated for not only what they reveal of the work of these two dance artists, but also for how they resonate with dominant cultural trends in the arts. The research privileges a much under-explored or theoriz...

  2. The first announcement about the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic in Greece through the writings of the pioneer newspaper "Thessalia" almost a century ago. (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karachaliou, Fotini; Kalogirou, Vasiliki; Gatos, Giorgos; Mavrogiannaki, Eirini; Antoniou, Antonios; Gatos, Konstantinos


    A local pioneer newspaper, "Thessalia", was the first to announce the arrival of "Spanish Flu" in Greece. It was July 19th 1918 when an epidemic outbreak occurred in the city of Patras. Until then, "Thessalia" had dealt in depth with the flu pandemic in the Greek district of Thessaly, informing the readers of the measures taken, as well as the social and economic aspects of the flu.

  3. A comparison of high-resolution specific conductance-based end-member mixing analysis and a graphical method for baseflow separation of four streams in hydrologically challenging agricultural watersheds (United States)

    Kronholm, Scott C.; Capel, Paul D.


    Quantifying the relative contributions of different sources of water to a stream hydrograph is important for understanding the hydrology and water quality dynamics of a given watershed. To compare the performance of two methods of hydrograph separation, a graphical program [baseflow index (BFI)] and an end-member mixing analysis that used high-resolution specific conductance measurements (SC-EMMA) were used to estimate daily and average long-term slowflow additions of water to four small, primarily agricultural streams with different dominant sources of water (natural groundwater, overland flow, subsurface drain outflow, and groundwater from irrigation). Because the result of hydrograph separation by SC-EMMA is strongly related to the choice of slowflow and fastflow end-member values, a sensitivity analysis was conducted based on the various approaches reported in the literature to inform the selection of end-members. There were substantial discrepancies among the BFI and SC-EMMA, and neither method produced reasonable results for all four streams. Streams that had a small difference in the SC of slowflow compared with fastflow or did not have a monotonic relationship between streamflow and stream SC posed a challenge to the SC-EMMA method. The utility of the graphical BFI program was limited in the stream that had only gradual changes in streamflow. The results of this comparison suggest that the two methods may be quantifying different sources of water. Even though both methods are easy to apply, they should be applied with consideration of the streamflow and/or SC characteristics of a stream, especially where anthropogenic water sources (irrigation and subsurface drainage) are present.

  4. On the Personal, Social and Environmental... A Response to Alistair ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Response to Alistair Chadwick's Viewpoint Responding to Destructive Interpersonal Interactions: A way forward for School-Based Environmental Educators. ... ago, at the Earth Summit and the advent of South Africa's democracy, there were great efforts to help us understand ecological issues in relation to social issues.

  5. High-resolution RCMs as pioneers for future GCMs (United States)

    Schar, C.; Ban, N.; Arteaga, A.; Charpilloz, C.; Di Girolamo, S.; Fuhrer, O.; Hoefler, T.; Leutwyler, D.; Lüthi, D.; Piaget, N.; Ruedisuehli, S.; Schlemmer, L.; Schulthess, T. C.; Wernli, H.


    Currently large efforts are underway to refine the horizontal resolution of global and regional climate models to O(1 km), with the intent to represent convective clouds explicitly rather than using semi-empirical parameterizations. This refinement will move the governing equations closer to first principles and is expected to reduce the uncertainties of climate models. High resolution is particularly attractive in order to better represent critical cloud feedback processes (e.g. related to global climate sensitivity and extratropical summer convection) and extreme events (such as heavy precipitation events, floods, and hurricanes). The presentation will be illustrated using decade-long simulations at 2 km horizontal grid spacing, some of these covering the European continent on a computational mesh with 1536x1536x60 grid points. To accomplish such simulations, use is made of emerging heterogeneous supercomputing architectures, using a version of the COSMO limited-area weather and climate model that is able to run entirely on GPUs. Results show that kilometer-scale resolution dramatically improves the simulation of precipitation in terms of the diurnal cycle and short-term extremes. The modeling framework is used to address changes of precipitation scaling with climate change. It is argued that already today, modern supercomputers would in principle enable global atmospheric convection-resolving climate simulations, provided appropriately refactored codes were available, and provided solutions were found to cope with the rapidly growing output volume. A discussion will be provided of key challenges affecting the design of future high-resolution climate models. It is suggested that km-scale RCMs should be exploited to pioneer this terrain, at a time when GCMs are not yet available at such resolutions. Areas of interest include the development of new parameterization schemes adequate for km-scale resolution, the exploration of new validation methodologies and data

  6. Dr. S. Donald (Don Stookey: (1915-2014: Pioneering Researcher and Adventurer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Halsey Beall


    Full Text Available Don Stookey was a special person by any measure: an unassuming optimist, eminent scientist and inventor, adventurer, and a beloved family man. Don Stookey, the father of glass-ceramics, was a pioneer in inducing and understanding internal nucleation phenomena in glass. His early work on dense opal glasses and photosensitive precipitation of gold and silver in glass led to an amazing series of inventions: Fotalite®, a photosensitive opal, chemically machined Fotoform® and Fotoceram®, and TiO2-nucleated Pyroceram™ products including missile nosecones and oven-proof cookware. He received a basic patent on glass-ceramics which was contested and affirmed in court.Don was able to demonstrate a clear photochromic glass that showed reversible darkening for thousands of cycles. This material became a fixture in the ophthalmic industry. He went on to invent a full-color polychromatic glass capable of yielding a permanent patterned and monolithic stained glass.In his life outside science, Don chaired an interfaith group that founded a home for the elderly in Corning. He was also a wilderness enthusiast, surviving a plane crash in the Arctic and two boat capsizings. Even In his later years, he continued fishing off the coast of Florida and on Lake Ontario, and went solo on a trip to the Patagonian Andes.

  7. Solar wind and coronal structure near sunspot minimum - Pioneer and SMM observations from 1985-1987 (United States)

    Mihalov, J. D.; Barnes, A.; Hundhausen, A. J.; Smith, E. J.


    Changes in solar wind speed and magnetic polarity observed at the Pioneer spacecraft are discussed here in terms of the changing magnetic geometry implied by SMM coronagraph observations over the period 1985-1987. The pattern of recurrent solar wind streams, the long-term average speed, and the sector polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field all changed in a manner suggesting both a temporal variation, and a changing dependence on heliographic latitude. Coronal observations during this epoch show a systematic variation in coronal structure and the magnetic structure imposed on the expanding solar wind. These observations suggest interpretation of the solar wind speed variations in terms of the familiar model where the speed increases with distance from a nearly flat interplanetary current sheet, and where this current sheet becomes aligned with the solar equatorial plane as sunspot minimum approaches, but deviates rapidly from that orientation after minimum.

  8. Dame Maud McCarthy (1859-1949): Matron-in-Chief, British Expeditionary Forces France and Flanders, First World War. (United States)

    Shields, Rosemary; Shields, Linda


    Emma Maud McCarthy was one of the most decorated nurses of the First World War. Born in Sydney in 1859, she trained as a nurse at The London Hospital in England. She was one of the first nurses to go to the South African War and in 1914 was one of the first members of Queen Alexandra's Imperial Nursing Service. Maud McCarthy went to France as Matron-in-Chief of British, Colonial and US nursing services until the end of hostilities in 1918. After the First World War she became Matron-in-Chief of the Territorial Army Nursing Service and retired five years later. She was appointed Dame Grand Cross in 1918 and earned awards from Britain, France, Belgium and America. Her influence on nursing was profound. One of the first senior nurses to recognise the impact of war on minds, she set up separate units for men who had self-harmed and she pioneered nurse anaesthetists in the British Armed Forces. Dame Maud McCarthy was an administrator par excellence whose determination to provide the best conditions possible for both her nurses and the men for whom they cared made possible the highest standards of nursing care in the First World War. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek formations, Pioneer Mountains, central Idaho; stratigraphic and structural revisions, and new data on graptolite faunas (United States)

    Dover, James H.; Berry, William B.N.; Ross, Reuben James


    Recent geologic mapping in the northern Pioneer Mountains combined with the identification of graptolites from 116 new collections indicate that the Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations occur in a series of thrust-bounded slices within a broad zone of imbricate thrust faulting. Though confirming a deformational style first reported in a 1963 study by Michael Churkin, our data suggest that the complexity and regional extent of the thrust zone were not previously recognized. Most previously published sections of the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations were measured across unrecognized thrust faults and therefore include not only structural repetitions of graptolitic Ordovician and Silurian rocks but also other tectonically juxtaposed lithostratigraphic units of diverse ages as well. Because of this discovery, the need to reconsider the stratigraphic validity of these formations and their lithology, nomenclature, structural distribution, facies relations, and graptolite faunas has arisen. The Phi Kappa Formation in most thrust slices has internal stratigraphic continuity despite the intensity of deformation to which it was subjected. As revised herein, the Phi Kappa Formation is restricted to a structurally repeated succession of predominantly black, carbonaceous, graptolitic argillite and shale. Some limy, light-gray-weathering shale occurs in the middle part of the section, and fine-grained locally pebbly quartzite is present at the base. The basal quartzite is here named the Basin Gulch Quartzite Member of the Phi Kappa. The Phi Kappa redefined on a lithologic basis represents the span of Ordovician time from W. B. N. Berry's graptolite zones 2-4 through 15 and also includes approximately 17 m of lithologically identical shale of Early and Middle Silurian age at the top. The lower contact of the formation as revised is tectonic. The Phi Kappa is gradationally overlain by the Trail Creek Formation as restricted herein. Most of the coarser

  10. Carlo Moreschi (1876-1921): co-founder of the journal "La Medicina del Lavoro" and often forgotten pioneer of modern medicine. (United States)

    Riva, M A; Smith, D R; Cesana, G


    Carlo Moreschi (1876-1921) was founding co-editor of the journal "Il Lavoro" (now known as "La Medicina del Lavoro"), together with Luigi Devoto in 1901. Despite this fact, many of his pioneering contributions to 20th century scientific debate are not well known outside Italy. The aim of this paper therefore was to recall Moreschi' achievements and the groundbreaking work of this remarkable Italian physician. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on scientific papers written by Carlo Moreschi between 1901 and 1920, extending the investigation to his original manuscripts and private correspondence with family and colleagues. Careful examination of Moreschi's work reveals several studies in the field of social medicine, epidemiology of infectious diseases, general pathology and oncology. In particular, his main interest in haematology and immunology enabled Moreschi to be one of the first to understand the mechanisms of complement fixation and the formation pathways ofantiglobulin sera. In this manner, Moreschi significantly contributed to the work of Wassermann regarding the diagnosis of syphilis, as well as contributing to the discovery of the "antiglobulin test", first described by Coombs in 1945. Furthermore, Moreschi co-founded "Il Lavoro" and "Haematologica", the oldest journals in their respective fields. According to Devoto, Moreschi can be remembered as the archetype modern researcher and clinician. His role in the 20th century scientific debate and his pioneering work in the field of immunology and haematology, that are often forgotten due to his premature death, deserve to be reconsidered and re-assessed by the Italian and international scientific community.

  11. The pioneering contribution of italian surgeons to skull base surgery. (United States)

    Priola, Stefano M; Raffa, Giovanni; Abbritti, Rosaria V; Merlo, Lucia; Angileri, Filippo F; La Torre, Domenico; Conti, Alfredo; Germanò, Antonino; Tomasello, Francesco


    The origin of neurosurgery as a modern, successful, and separate branch of surgery could be dated back to the end of the 19th century. The most important development of surgery occurred in Europe, particularly in Italy, where there was a unique environment, allowing brilliant open-minded surgeons to perform, with success, neurosurgical operations. Neurosurgery began at the skull base. In everyday practice, we still pay tribute to early Italian neuroanatomists and pioneer neurosurgeons who represented a starting point in a new, obscure, and still challenging field of medicine and surgery during their times. In this paper, we report at a glance the contributions of Tito Vanzetti from Padua (1809-1888), for his operation on a destructive skull base cyst that had, indeed, an intracranial expansion; of Davide Giordano (1864-1954) from Venice, who described the first transnasal approach to the pituitary gland; and, most importantly, of Francesco Durante from Messina (1844-1934), who was the first surgeon in the history of neurosurgery to successfully remove a cranial base meningioma. They carried out the first detailed reported surgical excision of intracranial lesions at the skull base, diagnosed only through clinical signs; used many of the advances of the 19th century; and conceived and performed new operative strategies and approaches. Their operations were radical enough to allow the patient to survive the surgery and, in the case of Durante, for the first time, to obtain more than 12 years of good survival at a time when a tumor of this type would have been fatal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Communicators take nine Virginia Press Women awards


    Owczarski, Mark


    Three Virginia Tech communicators have won Virginia Press Women awards. The winners - Susan Trulove, research division communications manager; Clara Cox, university publications director; and Heather Riley Chadwick, College of Architecture and Urban Studies communication manager - were announced at the Virginia Press Women Annual Spring Conference in Staunton, Va.

  13. Substantial Physician Turnover And Beneficiary 'Churn' In A Large Medicare Pioneer ACO. (United States)

    Hsu, John; Vogeli, Christine; Price, Mary; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Mohta, Namita; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy G


    Alternative payment models, such as accountable care organizations (ACOs), attempt to stimulate improvements in care delivery by better alignment of payer and provider incentives. However, limited attention has been paid to the physicians who actually deliver the care. In a large Medicare Pioneer ACO, we found that the number of beneficiaries per physician was low (median of seventy beneficiaries per physician, or less than 5 percent of a typical panel). We also found substantial physician turnover: More than half of physicians either joined (41 percent) or left (18 percent) the ACO during the 2012-14 contract period studied. When physicians left the ACO, most of their attributed beneficiaries also left the ACO. Conversely, about half of the growth in the beneficiary population was because of new physicians affiliating with the ACO; the remainder joined after switching physicians. These findings may help explain the muted financial impact ACOs have had overall, and they raise the possibility of future gaming on the part of ACOs to artificially control spending. Policy refinements include coordinated and standardized risk-sharing parameters across payers to prevent any dilution of the payment incentives or confusion from a cacophony of incentives across payers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Stem cell research and therapy in the Islamic republic of Iran: pioneering in the Islamic world. (United States)

    Miremadi, Tahereh; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Aghdami, Nasser; Gharanfoli, Mohsen; Vasei, Mohammad; Kouhkan, Azam; Baharvand, Hossein


    In the early 2000s, the Iranian stem cell research and technology had a relatively strong start that benefited from religious blessings, political and public support, as well as scientific endeavors on the part of non-governmental and public research organizations and universities. Later on, it developed a dynamic niche market of public, private start-up, and spin-off companies and organizations that pioneered in the Islamic world in terms of ISI papers, clinical trials, and cell therapy. However, at present, it faces new challenges stemming from the insufficient finance and a comprehensive law and regulation structure to keep its momentum. To remedy this situation, the scientific community and other stakeholders need to have a series of shared long-time goals and try to build consensus on how to achieve them through nationally approved policy documents.

  15. Exploring the emerging profession of speech-language pathology in Vietnam through pioneering eyes. (United States)

    Atherton, Marie; Davidson, Bronwyn; McAllister, Lindy


    In September 2012, 18 Vietnamese health professionals graduated as Vietnam's first university qualified speech-language pathologists (SLPs). This study details the reflections of these pioneering health professionals at 12 months following their graduation, drawing attention to their scope of practice as SLPs and to the opportunities and challenges to progressing the practice of speech-language pathology (SLP) in Vietnam. Thirteen graduates participated in small group interviews where they described their work and their perceptions of their emerging practice. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was employed to identify key concepts and themes within the data. Four overarching themes were identified-scope of practice, establishing identity, confidence to practise and progressing the profession. Overall analysis revealed evolving professional practice characterised by new learning, fluctuations in confidence and an active forging of professional identity. Mentoring and support by international colleagues and advancing professional recognition were identified as critical to the profession's progression and to the development of context-specific and culturally appropriate services. Participants' reflections draw focus to an important role for the international SLP community as it works in partnership with colleagues to enhance awareness of and services for people with communication disabilities in under-served communities such as Vietnam.

  16. Gamow's calculation of the neutron star's critical mass revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Hendrik; Ruffini, Remo


    It has at times been indicated that Landau introduced neutron stars in his classic paper of 1932. This is clearly impossible because the discovery of the neutron by Chadwick was submitted more than one month after Landau's work. Therefore, and according to his calculations, what Landau really did was to study white dwarfs, and the critical mass he obtained clearly matched the value derived by Stoner and later by Chandrasekhar. The birth of the concept of a neutron star is still today unclear. Clearly, in 1934, the work of Baade and Zwicky pointed to neutron stars as originating from supernovae. Oppenheimer in 1939 is also well known to have introduced general relativity (GR) in the study of neutron stars. The aim of this note is to point out that the crucial idea for treating the neutron star has been advanced in Newtonian theory by Gamow. However, this pioneering work was plagued by mistakes. The critical mass he should have obtained was 6.9 M, not the one he declared, namely, 1.5 M. Probably, he was taken to this result by the work of Landau on white dwarfs. We revise Gamow's calculation of the critical mass regarding calculational and conceptual aspects and discuss whether it is justified to consider it the first neutron-star critical mass. We compare Gamow's approach to other early and modern approaches to the problem.

  17. Breaking the glass ceiling: an interview with Dr. Shirley Graves, a pioneering woman in medicine. (United States)

    Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Mai, Christine L; Elder, Badrea; Rodriguez, Samuel; Yaster, Myron


    Shirley Graves M.D., D.Sc. (honorary) (1936), Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at the University of Florida, was one of the most influential women in medicine in the 1960 and 1970s, a time when the medical profession was overwhelmingly male-dominated. In today's society, it is hard to believe that only 50 years ago, women were scarce in the field of medicine. Yet Dr. Graves was a pioneer in the fields of pediatric anesthesia and pediatric critical care medicine. She identifies her development of the pediatric intensive care unit and her leadership in the Division of Pediatric Anesthesia at the University of Florida as her defining contributions. Through her journal articles, book chapters, national and international lectures, and leadership in the American Society of Anesthesiology and the Florida Society of Anesthesiology, she inspired a generation of men and women physicians to conquer the unthinkable and break through the glass ceiling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century. (United States)

    Hwang, Jackelyn


    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others.

  19. Fiscal 2000 research achievement report on the pioneering research and development involving next-generation liquid crystal process base technologies; 2000 nendo jisedai ekisho process kiban gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the enhancement of energy conservation in the liquid crystal display manufacturing process, activities are conducted in the three fields of (1) low temperature thin film fabrication technology, (2) zone-selective thin film growth technology, and (3) next-generation liquid crystal process base technology and comprehensive surveys. Conducted in field (1) are pioneering studies of low temperature high quality Si film fabrication by electromagnetic annealing, low temperature high quality thin film fabrication by EPA (electron plasma annealing), and low temperature normal pressure film fabrication. Conducted in field (2) are pioneering studies of zone-selective fabrication of high quality Si crystal film, high precision control of reforming (doping), and free pattern low resistance wiring fabrication. Conducted in field (3) are tentative fabrication, evaluation, and analysis of ultimate performance TFTs (thin film transistors) produced by the state-of-the-art purification enhancement technology; next-generation liquid crystal process; and surveys of functional thin film to be a novel material for substrates. In the pioneering study of low temperature high quality Si film fabrication by means of electromagnetic annealing, microwave annealing is studied as an energy efficient process to replace the currently favored ELA (excimer laser annealing) method, and then it is proved that the microwave annealing method is much higher in energy efficiency than the ELA method. (NEDO)

  20. The life and contribution of Dr. Ronald Gitelman: a pioneer of modern chiropractic science. (United States)

    Vernon, Howard


    The life and contribution to chiropractic science of Dr. Ronald Gitelman is reviewed. Sources for this article included review of the notes prepared by Dr. Joseph Keating in his "biography" of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC); review of the important articles published by Dr. Gitelman; review of the important projects undertaken by him along with various colleagues; notes from reminiscences obtained from many of these colleagues and discussions with his family. Dr. Gitelman's academic career spanned from 1963 to the late 1980's. During that time, he made foundational contributions to the development of chiropractic science including: developing the Archives (1974), the first collection of scientific articles supporting chiropractic science (which was subsequently published as the Chiropractic Archives Research Collection (CRAC)); delivering one of the few chiropractic papers at the seminal NINCDS conference (1975) and, developing the collaboration between CMCC and Dr. Kirkaldy-Willis at the University of Saskatoon (1976). He practiced in Toronto from 1961 to 2007. Dr. Gitelman was a pioneer in the development of chiropractic science. He died on October 7, 2012.

  1. Assessing the recharge process and importance of montane water to adjacent tectonic valley-plain groundwater using a ternary end-member mixing analysis based on isotopic and chemical tracers (United States)

    Peng, Tsung-Ren; Zhan, Wen-Jun; Tong, Lun-Tao; Chen, Chi-Tsun; Liu, Tsang-Sen; Lu, Wan-Chung


    A study in eastern Taiwan evaluated the importance of montane water contribution (MC) to adjacent valley-plain groundwater (VPG) in a tectonic suture zone. The evaluation used a ternary natural-tracer-based end-member mixing analysis (EMMA). With this purpose, VPG and three end-member water samples of plain precipitation (PP), mountain-front recharge (MFR), and mountain-block recharge (MBR) were collected and analyzed for stable isotopic compositions (δ 2H and δ 18O) and chemical concentrations (electrical conductivity (EC) and Cl-). After evaluation, Cl- is deemed unsuitable for EMMA in this study, and the contribution fractions of respective end members derived by the δ 18O-EC pair are similar to those derived by the δ 2H-EC pair. EMMA results indicate that the MC, including MFR and MBR, contributes at least 70% (679 × 106 m3 water volume) of the VPG, significantly greater than the approximately 30% of PP contribution, and greater than the 20-50% in equivalent humid regions worldwide. The large MC is attributable to highly fractured strata and the steep topography of studied catchments caused by active tectonism. Furthermore, the contribution fractions derived by EMMA reflect the unique hydrogeological conditions in the respective study sub-regions. A region with a large MBR fraction is indicative of active lateral groundwater flow as a result of highly fractured strata in montane catchments. On the other hand, a region characterized by a large MFR fraction may possess high-permeability stream beds or high stream gradients. Those hydrogeological implications are helpful for water resource management and protection authorities of the studied regions.

  2. [Baltasar Llopis Mínguez (1934-1990). A pioneer in research on bladder cancer and introduction of computing in Urology]. (United States)

    Pérez Albacete, M; Vera Donoso, C D; López Gonzáleza, P A; Ruiz Cerdá, J L


    To recall the figure of a great Valencian urologist, to emphasize his great personality and humanity, and to draw particular attention to his significant contribution to the study of prognostic factors in urology and estimation of individual oncological risk, as well as to introduction of computing in urology. His work, the testimony of colleagues who treated him, and data obtained from his close relatives, as well as our own personal knowledge, are reviewed. Result. Baltasar Llopis was born in Valencia, and obtained his degree and doctorate in Medicine at the Valencia University. He specialized in urology with Dr. Tramoyeres Cases, for whom he acted as assistant surgeon and with whom he shared work at La Fe Hospital, where he carried out his complete urological activity, since its inception. Dr. Llopis opted for oncological research, with a special focus on urothelial tumors. He pioneered diagnosis of these tumors using tumor markers and the study of prognostic factors to assess the individual risk of relapse and to implement a specific chemotherapeutic treatment, which he introduced in clinical practice at La Fe Hospital. He thus demonstrated the two essential components of his personality, his investigative and human sides. A multi-faceted person with great skills and intelligence, Dr. Llopis eagerly devoted himself to research aimed at understanding the biological behavior of cancer, particularly urothelial tumors. In the early 80s he pioneered worldwide the development of specific markers, estimations of individual oncological risk, and prognostic factors useful for planning treatment. He was 20 years ahead of the era of predictive nomograms and their clinical In addition to being a forerunner of computing applications in Urology, he designed a database for registration of superficial bladder tumors, which allowed him to perform statistical and multivariate analyses using multiple regression models to predict the risk of relapse.

  3. Decontamination experience using the EMMAC process in EDF nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, D.; Spychala, H. B.; Dupin, M.; Lantes, B.; Goulain, F.; Gregoire, J.; Jeandrot, S.


    The EMMA, EMMAC and EMMAC-PLUS decontamination processes, nondestructive tests and waste treatment are presented. The various applications of the new EMMAC soft decontamination process, used by EDF since 1995 have shown that it is a very effective tool and at the same time, is a very low corrosive process for the materials that have been treated . The improved efficiency, compared to the previous EMMA process allowed us to obtain good decontamination factors with only one cycle instead of two. At the same time, changes in chemical composition and waste treatment produced large reduction in the amount of radioactive wastes generated. Further improvements are still being sought. (authors)

  4. The time and spatial behavior of solar flare proton anisotropies observed in deep space on Pioneers 10 and 11 (United States)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ogallagher, J. J.


    The anisotropy of solar flare protons from the direction of the 'garden hose' magnetic field line has been analyzed for 24 events observed by the University of Chicago experiment on Pioneers 10 and 11 in 1972 and 1973. The anisotropy versus time profiles during individual events are in general consistent with diffusive propagation, but several cases are observed where the decay is better described by an exponential time decay. The anisotropy amplitude evaluated at the time of maximum intensity for each event shows evidence for a gradual decrease with increasing distance from the sun which is qualitatively consistent with diffusive propagation and suggests that the effective interplanetary diffusion coefficient parallel to the magnetic field increases slowly with heliocentric distance.

  5. Denver's Pioneer Astronomer: Herbert Alonso Howe (1858-1926) (United States)

    Howe, H. J.; Stencel, R. E.; Fisher, S.


    Herbert A. Howe arrived at Denver University (DU) to teach autumn 1880 classes, in math, astronomy and surveying. Howe established himself with clever solutions to the Kepler problem for orbit determinations in thesis work at Cincinnati Observatory. Riding the economic expansion of Colorado gold and silver mining in 1888, the University accepted a proposed gift of a major observatory, offered by Denver real estate baron, Humphrey Chamberlin. The result features a 20 inch aperture Alvan Clark refractor, which still ranks among the largest telescopes of the era. With the observatory building ready, the Silver Panic of 1893 -- when the US Congress dropped silver reserves from the currency basis -- burst the Denver economic bubble. Chamberlin was unable to complete payments on the balances due. Clark and G.N.Saegmuller (Fauth and Co.) at personal expense, delivered on the optics and telescope assemblies in 1894, but would wait for repayment. Sadly, this fiscal crisis affected DU for over a decade. Professor Howe, while observatory director, found himself consumed as Dean and Acting Chancellor for a young, struggling university, at the expense of the astronomy future that had looked so bright in 1892. Absent the Silver Panic, Howe would have probably been given an endowed chair in astronomy, as promised by Chamberlin. The complexion of American astronomy at the time of the birth of the American Astronomical Society in 1899 might have been different, in terms of US observing sites, etc. We are fortunate to have extensive Prof.Howe's daily diaries now in the University archives. These describe Howe's view of progress on the observatory, meetings with astronomy notables, plus vignettes of the life and times of Denver and the nation. Grandson, Herbert Julian Howe rediscovered their existence and is summarizing them in the form of a biography entitled: The Pioneer Astronomer. DU archival records contain numerous original letters from late 19th century astronomy luminaries

  6. Special article: Horace Nelson MD, John Webster LDS--unrecognized Canadian anesthesia pioneers. (United States)

    Craig, Douglas; Chartrand, Daniel


    The timing of the earliest reported ether anesthetics in early 1847, in regions to become Canada in July 1867, was examined using information from on-line and library-based sources. Previous authors had identified the first reported ether anesthetic given by a visiting American dentist in January 1847 in Saint John, New Brunswick. Nevertheless, they had reported three different anesthetics as the second occurrence - which would denote the first anesthetic given by a resident of Canada. We confirmed that there were no reports of ether anesthetics being given in Canada before that reported on January 18, 1847 in Saint John. The information available for our review indicates that the second ether anesthetic, and the first by a Canadian, was given in Montreal by a dentist, Dr. John Horatio Webster, on February 20, 1847. The surgical assistant for that operation, Dr. Horace Nelson, later reported on animal and human experiments with ether, which he had led in Montreal starting in January 1847. Earlier authors, who may not have had access to the information now available, came to incorrect conclusions about the first ether anesthetic reported to have been given by a Canadian. Current information indicates that John Webster gave the first reported anesthetic in Montreal on February 20, 1847 following experiments with ether led by Horace Nelson. Both Webster and Nelson deserve recognition as Canadian anesthesia pioneers.

  7. Seed size influence on germination responses to light and temperature of seven pioneer tree species from the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana F. Aud


    Full Text Available In Amazon secondary forests are dominated by pioneer species that typically produce large amounts of small and dormant seeds that are able to form a persistent soil seed bank. Seed dormancy in this group of species is overcome by environmental conditions found in open areas, such as high irradiation or alternating temperatures. Nevertheless, a variety of germination responses to environmental factors is known among pioneers; some of them may germinate in diffuse light or in darkness condition at constant temperature. Seed mass can be considered as one of the factors that promotes this variety. Regarding species with very small seeds, it seems that the trigger for germination is light and for larger seeds temperature alternation may be a more important stimulus. In this study we established a relationship between seed mass and germination response to light and alternating temperature for a group of seven woody pioneer species from the Amazon forest. We found that an increase in seed mass was followed by a decrease in the need for light and an increase in the tolerance to alternating temperatures. Understanding germination strategies may contribute with the knowledge of species coexistence in high diverse environments and also may assist those involved in forest management and restoration.Na Amazônia as florestas secundárias são dominadas por espécies pioneiras que, normalmente, produzem grandes quantidades de sementes pequenas, dormentes e capazes de formar bancos de sementes no solo. A dormência neste grupo de espécies é superada pelas condições ambientais de áreas abertas, como alta irradiação ou alternância de temperaturas. No entanto, uma variedade de respostas de germinação aos fatores ambientais é conhecida entre as pioneiras; algumas germinam em luz difusa ou no escuro sob temperatura constante. Um dos fatores promotores desta variedade é a massa das sementes. Parece que para as espécies com sementes muito pequenas, o est


    Babić, Rade Radomir; Stanković Babić, Gordana


    Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver (1862-1915), a Jew from Poland, was a pioneer of radiology in Serbia. He graduated from the Faculty of Medicine in Warsaw (1887), but lived and worked in abac (the Kingdom of Serbia) since 1890. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinarev - Career Development. He procured the first X-ray machine and developed radiological service in Sabac five years after the discovery of X-rays. These were the beginnings of radiology in Serbia. He introduced the application of artesian wells. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinarev - a Participant at the First Congress of Serbian Physicians and Naturalists, Belgrade 1904. "The diagnostic importance of X-rays in lung disease, especially in initial tuberculosis" and "Five Years of Treatment by X-Ray Machines" were the first works in the field of radiology in Serbia by this author. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver - Reserve Medical Officer in the Serbian Army. During the Balkan Wars, he was a volunteer with the rank of major engaged in military corps and he participated in the First World War as well. He died of malaria in 1915 in Gevgelija. "Dr Avram Vinaver"- Stanislav Vinarev. His dedication to work during the typhus epidemics was put into verses of a poem by his son Stanislav Vinarev. Dr Avram Vinaver Joseph was a noble man with a great heart, who selflessly sacrificed himself for the Serbian people and Serbia. He gave his contribution to the development of health services in Serbia, both in peacetime and wartime conditions. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver laid the foundations for today's radiology in Serbia.

  9. Mountford Joseph Bramley: A pioneering thyroidologist and the first principal of Asia′s oldest medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chatterjee


    Full Text Available Mountford Joseph Bramley was one of the educationists whose sincere efforts are undeniable in the making of modern India. After achieving the Member of the Royal College of Surgeons diploma, he joined the Malta Garrison as a Hospital Assistant and was soon promoted to the rank of Assistant Surgeon of the Rifle Brigade. Following his arrival in India in 1826, he held several important medical posts in the British service. He was one of the early researchers to investigate the role of iodine in the causation of goitre. He was appointed as the first Principal of the Medical College of Bengal, the oldest medical college in Asia, in 1835. Bramley was an educationist from the very core of his heart, and he always wished for the betterment of his students. He died early at the age of 34 years. His legacy as a pioneer in the fields of medical education and endocrinology, specifically thyroidology, has largely been shrouded in a miasma of time.

  10. Dancing on the Rim of Dreams: A Variety Show Starring Five California Dance Pioneers in Five Acts With Prelude, Sagas, Historical Asides and Finale


    Murphy, Ann


    Murphy, Ann: Dancing on the Rim of Dreams: A Variety Show Starring Five California Dance Pioneers in Five Acts with Prelude, Sagas, Historical Asides and FinaleCalifornia entered the national bloodstream in the early days of the Gold Rush and quickly became a mythic place ripe for dreamers, religionists, bigamists, outlaws, failures, utopianists, entrepreneurs, ex-slaves and poets. Tales of the West had been flying East for years, but when word of gold spread in 1849, the stories became a sir...

  11. Ricardo Dyrgalla (1910-1970), pioneer of rocket development in Argentina (United States)

    de León, Pablo


    One of the most important developers of liquid propellant rocket engines in Argentina was Polish-born Ricardo Dyrgalla. Dyrgalla immigrated to Argentina from the United Kingdom in 1946, where he had been studying German weapons development at the end of the Second World War. A trained pilot and aeronautical engineer, he understood the intricacies of rocket propulsion and was eager to find practical applications to his recently gained knowledge. Dyrgalla arrived in Argentina during Juan Perón's first presidency, a time when technicians from all over Europe were being recruited to work in various projects for the recently created Argentine Air Force. Shortly after immigrating, Dyrgalla proposed to develop an advanced air-launched weapon, the Tábano, based on a rocket engine of his design, the AN-1. After a successful development program, the Tábano was tested between 1949 and 1951; however, the project was canceled by the government shortly after. Today, the AN-1 rocket engine is recognized as the first liquid propellant rocket to be developed in South America. Besides the AN-1, Dyrgalla also developed several other rockets systems in Argentina, including the PROSON, a solid-propellant rocket launcher developed by the Argentine Institute of Science and Technology for the Armed Forces (CITEFA). In the late 1960s, Dyrgalla and his family relocated to Brazil due mostly to the lack of continuation of rocket development in Argentina. There, he worked for the Institute of Aerospace Technology (ITA) until his untimely death in 1970. Ricardo Dyrgalla deserves to be recognized among the world's rocket pioneers and his contribution to the science and engineering of rocketry deserves a special place in the history of South America's rocketry and space flight advocacy programs.

  12. John C. Carapanayiotis (1909-1999): the Greek radiologist and pioneer of physiatry in Greece. (United States)

    Baltas, Christos S; Balanika, Alexia P; Carapanayiotis, Olga J; Hesketh, Graeme; Sgantzos, Markos N


    John C. Carapanayiotis was specialized in physical medicine and rehabilitation in the USA in 1948, at a time when the medical world in post-war Greece was ignorant of this specific medical specialty, and the political, economic and social backdrop was incapable of accepting and understanding the wealth of scientific knowledge that he was trying to introduce. At this point it should be noted that the specialty of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation was established in Greece in 1973. John C. Carapanayiotis was a member of the American Congress of Physical Medicine during the 1950's. In the same period, he expressed interest, on behalf of the New York University, in the establishment of a Physical Therapy Clinic in Greece, which would be granted unlimited funding by the Marshal Plan. His efforts clashed constantly with the backward mentality of his time, with the entrenched conservatism and with the bureaucratic red tape. Unfortunately, he was far ahead of his time and was condemned to the same fate as all other visionaries and pioneers in the way that his knowledge and scientific background were not put into practice for decades to come.

  13. The technological development of neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, D.A.; Berger, H.


    Neutron radiography is a relatively recent technological development in the annals of non-destructive evaluation. It promises to play a role of increasing importance as the technology is further developed. The technique is placed in prospective with regard to other non-destructive evaluation methods in this paper. The history of the development of neutron radiography is traced to the early work of Becker, Bothe and the Joliot-Curies in Europe, and to the work of Chadwick in Great Britain. Details of the experiments which led to the discovery of the neutron by Chadwick in 1932, nuclear properties and energy classifications of neutrons, and the various interactions of neutrons with matter are discussed in detail. A history of neutron radiography is presented which outlines the early experiments by Kallmann and Kuhn; these experiments led to the production of the first neutron radiograph in Germany in 1938. The paper continues with a description of the general techniques that are characteristic of the neutron radiographic process. The breadth and extent of present neutron radiographic technology is discussed as a conclusion of the paper. (author)

  14. Estimation of different source contributions to sediment organic matter in an agricultural-forested watershed using end member mixing analyses based on stable isotope ratios and fluorescence spectroscopy. (United States)

    Derrien, Morgane; Kim, Min-Seob; Ock, Giyoung; Hong, Seongjin; Cho, Jinwoo; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Hur, Jin


    The two popular source tracing tools of stable isotope ratios (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to estimate the relative source contributions to sediment organic matter (SeOM) at five different river sites in an agricultural-forested watershed (Soyang Lake watershed), and their capabilities for the source assignment were compared. Bulk sediments were used for the stable isotopes, while alkaline extractable organic matter (AEOM) from sediments was used to obtain fluorescent indices for SeOM. Several source discrimination indices were fully compiled for a range of the SeOM sources distributed in the catchments of the watershed, which included soils, forest leaves, crop (C3 and C4) and riparian plants, periphyton, and organic fertilizers. The relative source contributions to the river sediment samples were estimated via end member mixing analysis (EMMA) based on several selected discrimination indices. The EMMA based on the isotopes demonstrated that all sediments were characterized by a medium to a high contribution of periphyton ranging from ~30% to 70% except for one site heavily affected by forest and agricultural fields with relatively high contributions of terrestrial materials. The EMMA based on fluorescence parameters, however, did not show similar results with low contributions from forest leaf and periphyton. The characteristics of the studied watershed were more consistent with the source contributions determined by the isotope ratios. The discrepancy in the EMMA capability for source assignments between the two analytical tools can be explained by the limited analytical window of fluorescence spectroscopy for non-fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) and the inability of AEOM to represent original bulk particulate organic matter (POM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Road dust emissions from paved roads measured using different mobile systems. (United States)

    Pirjola, Liisa; Johansson, Christer; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Stojiljkovic, Ana; Karlsson, Hans; Hussein, Tareq


    Very few real-world measurements of road dust suspension have been performed to date. This study compares two different techniques (referred to as Sniffer and Emma) to measure road dust emissions. The main differences between the systems are the construction of the inlet, different instruments for recording particulate matter (PM) levels, and different loads on the wheel axes (the weight of Sniffer was much higher than that of Emma). Both systems showed substantial small-scale variations of emission levels along the road, likely depending on-road surface conditions. The variations observed correlated quite well, and the discrepancies are likely a result of variations in dust load on the road surface perpendicular to the driving direction that cause variations in the measurements depending on slightly different paths driven by the two vehicles. Both systems showed a substantial influence on the emission levels depending on the type of tire used. The summer tire showed much lower suspension than the winter tires (one nonstudded and one studded). However, the relative importance of the nonstudded versus studded tire was rather different. For the ratio of studded/nonstudded, Emma shows higher values on all road sections compared with Sniffer. Both techniques showed increased emission levels with increasing vehicle speed. When the speed increased from 50 to 80 km hr(-1), the relative concentrations increased by 30-170% depending on the tire type and dust load. However, for road sections that were very dirty, Sniffer showed a much higher relative increase in the emission level with the nonstudded tire. Sniffer's absolute concentrations were mostly higher than Emma's. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed in the paper. Both systems can be used for studying relative road dust emissions and for designing air quality management strategies.

  16. Connecting the Pioneers, Current Leaders and the Nature and History of Space Weather with K-12 Classrooms and the General Public (United States)

    Ng, C.; Thompson, B. J.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Barbier, B.; Odenwald, S.; Spadaccini, J.; James, N.; Stephenson, B.; Davis, H. B.; Major, E. R.; Space Weather Living History


    The Space Weather Living History program will explore and share the breakthrough new science and captivating stories of space environments and space weather by interviewing space physics pioneers and leaders active from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to the present. Our multi-mission project will capture, document and preserve the living history of space weather utilizing original historical materials (primary sources). The resulting products will allow us to tell the stories of those involved in interactive new media to address important STEM needs, inspire the next generation of explorers, and feature women as role models. The project is divided into several stages, and the first stage, which began in mid-2011, focuses on resource gathering. The goal is to capture not just anecdotes, but the careful analogies and insights of researchers and historians associated with the programs and events. The Space Weather Living History Program has a Scientific Advisory Board, and with the Board's input our team will determine the chronology, key researchers, events, missions and discoveries for interviews. Education activities will be designed to utilize autobiographies, newspapers, interviews, research reports, journal articles, conference proceedings, dissertations, websites, diaries, letters, and artworks. With the help of a multimedia firm, we will use some of these materials to develop an interactive timeline on the web, and as a downloadable application in a kiosk and on tablet computers. In summary, our project augments the existing historical records with education technologies, connect the pioneers, current leaders and the nature and history of space weather with K-12 classrooms and the general public, covering all areas of studies in Heliophysics. The project is supported by NASA award NNX11AJ61G.

  17. Wave properties of the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, C.G.


    The wave properties of neutrons have been studied and exploited in many areas of physics almost from the time of Chadwick's discovery. Illustrations of these will be provided showing the extreme range of energy and de Broglie wavelength over which they have been observed. Attention will be directed to some of the characteristics associated with wave packet propagation. (author)

  18. Epigenetic switch involved in activation of pioneer factor FOXA1-dependent enhancers (United States)

    Sérandour, Aurélien A.; Avner, Stéphane; Percevault, Frédéric; Demay, Florence; Bizot, Maud; Lucchetti-Miganeh, Céline; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Brown, Myles; Lupien, Mathieu; Métivier, Raphaël; Salbert, Gilles; Eeckhoute, Jérôme


    Transcription factors (TFs) bind specifically to discrete regions of mammalian genomes called cis-regulatory elements. Among those are enhancers, which play key roles in regulation of gene expression during development and differentiation. Despite the recognized central regulatory role exerted by chromatin in control of TF functions, much remains to be learned regarding the chromatin structure of enhancers and how it is established. Here, we have analyzed on a genomic-scale enhancers that recruit FOXA1, a pioneer transcription factor that triggers transcriptional competency of these cis-regulatory sites. Importantly, we found that FOXA1 binds to genomic regions showing local DNA hypomethylation and that its cell-type-specific recruitment to chromatin is linked to differential DNA methylation levels of its binding sites. Using neural differentiation as a model, we showed that induction of FOXA1 expression and its subsequent recruitment to enhancers is associated with DNA demethylation. Concomitantly, histone H3 lysine 4 methylation is induced at these enhancers. These epigenetic changes may both stabilize FOXA1 binding and allow for subsequent recruitment of transcriptional regulatory effectors. Interestingly, when cloned into reporter constructs, FOXA1-dependent enhancers were able to recapitulate their cell type specificity. However, their activities were inhibited by DNA methylation. Hence, these enhancers are intrinsic cell-type-specific regulatory regions of which activities have to be potentiated by FOXA1 through induction of an epigenetic switch that includes notably DNA demethylation. PMID:21233399

  19. Roscoe Reid Graham (1890 to 1948): a Canadian pioneer in general surgery. (United States)

    Piper, Christine C; Yeo, Charles J; Cowan, Scott W


    Roscoe Reid Graham, a Canadian surgeon trained at the University of Toronto, was a true pioneer in the field of general surgery. Although he may be best known for his omental patch repair of perforated duodenal ulcers-often referred to as the "Graham patch"-he had a number of other significant accomplishments that decorated his surgical career. Dr. Graham is credited with being the first surgeon to successfully enucleate an insulinoma. He ventured to do an essentially brand new operation based solely on his patient's symptoms and physical findings, a courageous move that even some of the most talented surgeons would shy away from. He also spent a large portion of his career dedicated to the study of rectal prolapse, working tirelessly to rid his patients of this awful affliction. He was recognized by a number of different surgical associations for his operative successes and was awarded membership to those both in Canada and the United States. Despite all of these accolades, Dr. Graham remained grounded and always fervent in his dedication to the patient and their presenting symptom(s), reminding us that to do anything more would be "meddlesome." In an age when medical professionals are often all too eager to make unnecessary interventions, it is imperative that we look back at our predecessors such as Roscoe Reid Graham, for they will continually redirect us toward our one and only obligation: the patient.

  20. Radioactive contamination of arthropods from different trophic levels in hilly and mountainous areas after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. (United States)

    Tanaka, Sota; Hatakeyama, Kaho; Takahashi, Sentaro; Adati, Tarô


    In order to understand the influence of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on the ecosystem in hilly and mountainous areas of Fukushima Prefecture, chronological changes in the levels of radiocesium in arthropod species were investigated. From 2012 to 2014, arthropods from different trophic levels were sampled and the air radiation dose rates at the sampling sites were analyzed. The air radiation dose rates showed a significant and constant reduction over the 2 years at the sampling sites in Fukushima. The median radiocesium concentration ( 134 Cs +  137 Cs) detected in the rice grasshopper, Oxya yezoensis, and the Emma field cricket, Teleogryllus emma, dropped continuously to 0.080 and 0.078 Bq/g fresh weight, respectively, in 2014. In contrast, no significant reduction in radioactive contamination was observed in the Jorô spider, Nephila clavata, in which the level remained at 0.204 Bq/g in 2014. A significant positive correlation between radiocesium concentration and the air radiation dose rate was observed in the rice grasshopper, the Emma field cricket and the Jorô spider. The highest correlation coefficient (ρ = 0.946) was measured in the grasshopper. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Reminiscing about Jan Evangelista Purkinje: a pioneer of modern experimental physiology. (United States)

    Cavero, Icilio; Guillon, Jean-Michel; Holzgrefe, Henry H


    This article reminisces about the life and key scientific achievements of Jan Evangelista Purkinje (1787-1869), a versatile 19th century Czech pioneer of modern experimental physiology. In 1804, after completing senior high school, Purkinje joined the Piarist monk order, but, after a 3-yr novitiate, he gave up the religious calling "to deal more freely with science." In 1818, he earned a Medical Doctor degree from Prague University by defending a dissertation on intraocular phenomena observed in oneself. In 1823, Purkinje became a Physiology and Pathology professor at the Prussian Medical University in Breslau, where he innovated the traditional teaching methods of physiology. Purkinje's contributions to physiology were manifold: accurate descriptions of various visual phenomena (e.g., Purkinje-Sanson images, Purkinje phenomenon), discovery of the terminal network of the cardiac conduction system (Purkinje fibers), identification of cerebellar neuronal bodies (Purkinje cells), formulation of the vertigo law (Purkinje's law), discovery of criteria to classify human fingerprints, etc. In 1850, Purkinje accepted and held until his death the Physiology chair at Prague Medical Faculty. During this period, he succeeded in introducing the Czech idiom (in addition to long-established German and Latin) as a Medical Faculty teaching language. Additionally, as a zealous Czech patriot, he actively contributed to the naissance and consolidation of a national Czech identity conscience. Purkinje was a trend-setting scientist who, throughout his career, worked to pave the way for the renovation of physiology from a speculative discipline, ancilla of anatomy, into a factual, autonomous science committed to the discovery of mechanisms governing in-life functions. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Methane measurement by the Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer (United States)

    Donahue, T. M.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.


    The Pioneer Venus Large Probe Mass Spectrometer detected a large quantity of methane as it descended below 20 km in the atmosphere of Venus. Terrestrial methane and Xe-136, both originating in the same container and flowing through the same plumbing, were deliberately released inside the mass spectrometer for instrumental reasons. However, the Xe-136 did not exhibit behavior similar to methane during Venus entry, nor did CH4 in laboratory simulations. The CH4 was deuterium poor compared to Venus water and hydrogen. While the inlet to the mass spectrometer was clogged with sulfuric acid droplets, significant deuteration of CH4 and its H2 progeny was observed. Since the only source of deuterium identifiable was water from sulfuric acid, we have concluded that we should correct the HDO/H2O ratio in Venus water from 3.2 x 10-2 to (5 plus or minus 0.7) x 10-2. When the probe was in the lower atmosphere, transfer of deuterium from Venus HDO and HD to CH4 can account quantitatively for the deficiencies recorded in HDO and HD below 10 km, and consequently, the mysterious gradients in water vapor and hydrogen mixing ratios we have reported. The revision in the D/H ratio reduces the mixing ratio of water vapor (and H2) reported previously by a factor of 3.2/5. We are not yet able to say whether the methane detected was atmospheric or an instrumental artifact. If it was atmospheric, its release must have been episodic and highly localized. Otherwise, the large D/H ratio in Venus water and hydrogen could not be maintained.

  3. [In the 100 birth anniversary of the pioneer of stereotactic brain surgery in Poland professor Oskar Liszka. Functional neurosurgery in Poland and in Krakow]. (United States)

    Stachura, Krzysztof


    This article is the report from the meeting of the Medical Society of Cracow, that has been devoted to the 100 birth anniversary of Oskar Liszka, Assoc. Prof., MD. In the course of the meeting Professor Oskar Liszka's figure has been reminded and his work as a pioneer of stereotactic surgery in Poland has been discussed. In the next two sections, the development of functional neurosurgery in Poland and achievements in this field in the Department of Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology of Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum in Krakow have been presented.

  4. Pioneer hydraulic fracturing intervention on Brazilian Amazon Forest; Operacao pioneira de fraturamento hidraulico na selva Amazonica brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cledeilson; Silva, Luis A.; Duque, Luis H.; Steffan, Rodolfo H.P.; Guimaraes, Zacarias [Baker Hughes, Houston, TX (United States); Sabino, Afonso H. dos S.; Corregio, Fabio; Ferreira, Jose Carlos da Silva; Melo, Marcelo Moura; Ludovice, Roberto C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Hydraulic fracturing is a stimulation technique where fluid is pumped with enough energy to create a fracture in the reservoir and to propagate it filling the broken zone with proppant agent. To the end of the treatment the proppant agent will support the fracture creating a production flow path, once it will have permeability higher than the original formation. Since a long time it was desired to use that technique to explore tight reservoirs in the Solimoes basin. However the lack of information on the interest zones, the great amount of equipment and fluids volumes involved hindered the application in an area that withholds a environmental certification. In November 10th of 2011 these challenges were surpassed. This article describes the technique, job details and results of the pioneering hydraulic fracturing intervention in the heart of the Amazon forest that became economically viable the gas production in tight reservoirs of the Solimoes basin with minimum environmental impact. (author)

  5. Tallinna Ülikool osaleb avatud massikursuste arendusprojektis / Kairit Tammets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammets, Kairit


    2014.-2016. a. osales TLÜ Haridustehnoloogia keskus EL finantseeritavas projektis EMMA (European Multiple MOOC Aggregator), mis koondab ja majutab Euroopa ülikoolide ja äriorganisatsioonide pakutavaid MOOCe (avatud massikursuseid)

  6. Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association with asymptomatic Pinus patula planting stock. Andrew R Morris, Gerda Fourie, Izette Greyling, Emma T Steenkamp, Nicoletta B Jones ...

  7. Pioneering Integrated Education and Research Program in Graduate School of Engineering and its Inquiry by Questionnaire (United States)

    Minamino, Yoritoshi

    Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Department of Materials and Manufucturing Science and Department of Business engineering have constructed the educational programs of consecutive system from master to doctor courses in graduate school of engineering, “Pioneering Integrated Education and Research Program (PP) ”, to produce volitional and original mind researchers with high abilities of research, internationality, leader, practice, management and economics by cooperation between them for reinforcement of their ordinary curriculums. This program consists of the basic PP for master course students and the international exchange PP, leadership pp and tie-up PP of company and University for Doctor course students. In 2005th the basic PP was given to the master course students and then their effectiveness of the PP was investigated by questionnaire. The results of questionnaire proved that the graduate school students improved their various abilities by the practical lesson in cooperation between companies and our Departments in the basic PP, and that the old boys after basic PP working in companies appreciated the advantages to business planning, original conception, finding solution, patents, discussion, report skills required in companies.

  8. The birth of NASA the work of the Space Task Group, America's first true space pioneers

    CERN Document Server

    von Ehrenfried, Dutch


    This is the story of the work of the original NASA space pioneers; men and women who were suddenly organized in 1958 from the then National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) into the Space Task Group. A relatively small group, they developed the initial mission concept plans and procedures for the U. S. space program. Then they boldly built hardware and facilities to accomplish those missions. The group existed only three years before they were transferred to the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, in 1962, but their organization left a large mark on what would follow. Von Ehrenfried's personal experience with the STG at Langley uniquely positions him to describe the way the group was structured and how it reacted to the new demands of a post-Sputnik era. He artfully analyzes how the growing space program was managed and what techniques enabled it to develop so quickly from an operations perspective. The result is a fascinating window into history, amply backed up by first person documentation ...

  9. Discovery and the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    ''Discovery and the Atom'' tells the story of the founding of nuclear physics. This programme looks at nuclear physics up to the discovery of the neutron in 1932. Animation explains the science of the classic experiments, such as the scattering of alpha particles by Rutherford and the discovery of the nucleus. Archive film shows the people: Lord Rutherford, James Chadwick, Marie Curie. (author)

  10. Cosmic Noise: The Pioneers of Early Radio Astronomy and Their Discoveries (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III


    Extraterrestrial radio waves (the galactic background), often referred to as "cosmic noise", were first detected accidentally by Karl Jansky at a frequency of 20 MHz in 1932, with significant followup by Grote Reber. Yet after World War II it was England and Australia that dominated the field. An entirely different sky from that of visual astronomy was revealed by the discoveries of solar noise, "radio stars” (discrete sources such as Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, Cen A and Vir A), galactic noise, lunar and meteor radar experiments, the detection of the 21 cm hydrogen line, and eventually optical identifications such as the Crab Nebula and M87. Key players included wartime radar experts such as Stanley Hey (the British Army's Operational Research Group), Martin Ryle (Cambridge University), Bernard Lovell (Jodrell Bank) and Joe Pawsey (Radiophysics Lab, Sydney). Younger leaders also emerged such as Graham Smith, Tony Hewish, John Davies, "Chris" Christiansen, Bernie Mills, Paul Wild, and John Bolton. Some optical astronomers (Jan Oort, Henk van de Hulst, Jesse Greenstein, Rudolph Minkowski, and Walter Baade) were also extremely supportive. By the end of the postwar decade, radio astronomy was firmly established within the gamut of astronomy, although very few of its practitioners had been trained as astronomers. I will also trace the technical and social aspects of this wholly new type of astronomy, with special attention on military and national influences. I argue that radio astronomy represents one of the key developments in twentieth century astronomy not only because of its own discoveries, but also its pathfinding for the further opening the electromagnetic spectrum. This study is based on exhaustive archival research and over one hundred interviews with pioneering radio astronomers. Full details are available in the book "Cosmic Noise: A History of Early Radio Astronomy" (Cambridge Univ. Pr.).

  11. Plaadid / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-


    Heliplaatide Primal Scream "Evil Heat", Music From The Motion Picture "Scooby-Doo", Emma Shapplin "Etterna", Soweto String Quartet "Four", Korn "Untouchables", Cesaria Evora "Anthology", Terry Callier "Speak Your Peace", Kodo "Mondo Head"

  12. Factors influencing the natural regeneration of the pioneering shrub Calligonum mongolicum in sand dune stabilization plantations in arid deserts of northwest China. (United States)

    Fan, Baoli; McHugh, Allen David; Guo, Shujiang; Ma, Quanlin; Zhang, Jianhui; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Weixing; Du, Juan; Yu, Qiushi; Zhao, Changming


    Calligonum mongolicum is a successful pioneer shrub to combat desertification, which is widely used for vegetation restoration in the desert regions of northwest China. In order to reveal the limitations to natural regeneration of C. mongolicum by asexual and sexual reproduction, following the process of sand dune stabilization, we assessed clonal shoots, seedling emergence, soil seed bank density, and soil physical characteristics in mobile and stabilized sand dunes. Controlled field and pot experiments were also conducted to assess germination and seedling emergence in different dune soil types and seed burial depths. The population density of mature C. mongolicum was significantly different after sand dune stabilization. Juvenile density of C. mongolicm was much lower in stabilized sand dunes than mobile sand dune. There was no significant difference in soil seed bank density at three soil depths between mobile and stabilized sand dunes, while the emergence of seedlings in stabilized dunes was much lower than emergence in mobile dunes. There was no clonal propagation found in stabilized dunes, and very few C. mongolicum seedlings were established on stabilized sand dunes. Soil clay and silt content, air-filled porosity, and soil surface compaction were significantly changed from mobile sand dune to stabilized dunes. Seedling emergence of C. mongolicm was highly dependent on soil physical condition. These results indicated that changes in soil physical condition limited clonal propagation and seedling emergence of C. mongolicum in stabilized sand dunes. Seed bank density was not a limiting factor; however, poor seedling establishment limited C. mongolicum's further natural regeneration in stabilized sand dunes. Therefore, clonal propagation may be the most important mode for population expansion in mobile sand dunes. As a pioneer species C. mongolicum is well adapted to propagate in mobile sand dune conditions, it appears unlikely to survive naturally in

  13. US nuclear power generation the historical aspect of broad and stable utilization as the pioneer and the art of commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo


    The US has been making application of over 100 units of nuclear power generation from early 1957 as pioneer. On the other hand about 30 units are forced to be shut down. Nuclear units are also honorably given the political part by several Presidents at international stage in the history. In the unaccustomed period they were unable to avoid unwilling experience, as Three Mile Island and Indian Point. These are requesting the refinement of designing technology. US are facing aging of installed units and great duties for further development. That will be realization of more advanced reactors, high operational and administrative ability, establishment of efficient and stable fuel cycles, and process of long period of decommissioning. The art of commissioning is expected its smart usage at wide range of this technology. (author)

  14. Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice (United States)

    Adam, Rene C.; Yang, Hanseul; Rockowitz, Shira; Larsen, Samantha B.; Nikolova, Maria; Oristian, Daniel S.; Polak, Lisa; Kadaja, Meelis; Asare, Amma; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine


    Adult stem cells (SCs) reside in niches which balance self-renewal with lineage selection and progression during tissue homeostasis. Following injury, culture or transplantation, SCs outside their niche often display fate flexibility1-4. Here we show that super-enhancers5 underlie the identity, lineage commitment and plasticity of adult SCs in vivo. Using hair follicle (HF) as model, we map the global chromatin domains of HFSCs and their committed progenitors in their native microenvironments. We show that super-enhancers and their dense clusters (‘epicenters’) of transcription factor (TF) binding sites change upon lineage progression. New fate is acquired by decommissioning old and establishing new super-enhancers and/or epicenters, an auto-regulatory process that abates one master regulator subset while enhancing another. We further show that when outside their niche, either in vitro or in wound-repair, HFSCs dynamically remodel super-enhancers in response to changes in their microenvironment. Intriguingly, some key super-enhancers shift epicenters, enabling them to remain active and maintain a transitional state in an ever-changing transcriptional landscape. Finally, we identify SOX9 as a crucial chromatin rheostat of HFSC super-enhancers, and provide functional evidence that super-enhancers are dynamic, dense TF-binding platforms which are acutely sensitive to pioneer master regulators whose levels define not only spatial and temporal features of lineage-status, but also stemness, plasticity in transitional states and differentiation. PMID:25799994

  15. Pioneers of invasive cardiovascular medicine - Charles Theodore dotter and colleagues: Short historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Jelena


    Full Text Available Within modern medicine at the beginning of 21st century, we are witnessing a revolutionary development of the invasive diagnostics and therapy of cardiovascular system diseases. With the discovery of X-rays at the end of 19th century by Wilhelm Roentgen, it is appropriate to reflect on the gifted individuals whose efforts drastically altered radiology and cardiology. The early techniques used in peripheral percutaneous transluminal angioplasty form the basis for subsequent percutaneous intervention both in the peripheral and coronary arteries and are largely the contribution of Charles Dotter. The main goal of his work was the use of catheters for diagnosis and treatment in an attempt to replace the scalpel. He was 20 years ahead of his time, especially with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. The first percutaneous transluminal angioplasty marked a new era in the treatment of peripheral atherosclerotic lesions. This practical genius dedicated his considerable energy to the belief that there is always a better way to treat disease. His personal contributions to clinical medicine, research, and teaching have saved millions of limbs and lives all over the world. European physicians, who were more open to unproven techniques, almost immediately embraced percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Without the contribution and help of his colleagues, Forssmann, Sones and Gruntzig, all of them pioneers, nothing would be done. They were all ahead of there time and opened completely new chapter in medicine.

  16. Improving Surgical Skills of OBGYN Residents through Partnership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving Surgical Skills of OBGYN Residents through Partnership with Rural Hospitals: Experience from Southeast Nigeria. Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora, Azubuike Kanario Onyebuchi, Nkechi Bridget Emma-Echiegu, Justus Ndulue Eze, Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu ...

  17. 3. III avati Stockholmis Donoso galeriis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Pärnu outsider-kunstniku Aivar Kurvitsa maalide näitus. Eksponeeritud kunstniku uus vaarao-teemaline maaliseeria. Skulptuuridega esinevad Rootsis elavad autsaiderid Emma Asplund, Kristoffer Ekelund, Mikael Engman, Chang Im Ohlsson, Magnus Östling

  18. Armastusfilmid Tartus / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus


    Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali ja Tartu linna eestvõttel toimuva Tartu vabaõhu filmifestivali "Tartuff - armastuse mitu nägu" filme ("Ükskord", "Harold ja Maude", "Veenus", "Elsa ja Fred", "Emma õnn")

  19. Kallis müügitrikk laste arvel / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-


    Piret Raua digitaalsest pildiraamatust lastele "Emma roosad asjad" (Suurbritannia : WingedChariot, 2010), mida on võimalik kasutada Apple´i elektroonikatoodetes iPad, iPhone ja iPod (eesti, inglise ja jaapani keeles)

  20. Howard Atwood Kelly (1858-1943): founding Professor of Gynecology at Johns Hopkins Hospital and pioneer American radium therapist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, R. F.


    To date no objective scientific medical biography has been published on Howard Atwood Kelly, one of America's foremost radium pioneers. He had become internationally known since 1889 as the founding Chief of the Gynecology Service at Johns Hopkins, well before the discovery of radium. He was also later to maintain his own hospital in Baltimore. He was a multifaceted man and his biography provides some fascinating reading about the treatment of gynaecological cancer in the USA at the end of the 19 th century and well into the 20 th century. An Appendix is included which contains extracts from Curtis Bumam's 1936 Janeway Memorial Lecture on 'Early Experiences with Radium' which was published (without quoting any references) in the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR). Bumam was probably the most important of Kelly's collaborators and he provides unique personal and scientific insights on Kelly and the trials (and) tribulations of obtaining and using radium in 1911. (author)

  1. The neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kredov, B.M.


    The history of the neutron is displayed on the basis of contributions by scientists who produced outstanding results in neutron research (part 1), of summarizing discoveries and theories which led to the discovery of the neutron and the resulting development of nuclear physics (part 2), and of fundamental papers written by Rutherford, Chadwick, Iwanenko, and others (appendix). Of interest to physicists, historians, and students

  2. Laser System Usage in the Marine Environment: Applications and Environmental Considerations (United States)


    publications/pubs/index.html. Released by Bart Chadwick, Head Environmental Sciences Branch Under authority of Martin Machniak, Head Research...Nilsson and Lindstrom , 1983; Shelton, Gaten, and Chapman, 1985). Data on the effects of laser energy to corals also are lacking, although it can be...L. and M. Lindstrom . 1983. “Retinal Damage and Sensitivity Loss of a Light- Sensitive Crustacean Compound Eye (Cirolana borealis): Electron

  3. Kepiga korda loomas / Kaisa Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Kaisa


    Režissöör Susanna White'i koguperefilmist "Nanny McPhee ja suur pauk" (USA-Prantsuse-Suurbritannia, 2009). Film tugineb Christiana Brandi raamatutel "Nurse Matilda". Stsenaariumi kirjutas ja peaosa kehastab Emma Thompson

  4. Behaviour based Mobile Robot Navigation Technique using AI System: Experimental Investigation on Active Media Pioneer Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman, V.Ganapathy


    Full Text Available A key issue in the research of an autonomous robot is the design and development of the navigation technique that enables the robot to navigate in a real world environment. In this research, the issues investigated and methodologies established include (a Designing of the individual behavior and behavior rule selection using Alpha level fuzzy logic system  (b Designing of the controller, which maps the sensors input to the motor output through model based Fuzzy Logic Inference System and (c Formulation of the decision-making process by using Alpha-level fuzzy logic system. The proposed method is applied to Active Media Pioneer Robot and the results are discussed and compared with most accepted methods. This approach provides a formal methodology for representing and implementing the human expert heuristic knowledge and perception-based action in mobile robot navigation. In this approach, the operational strategies of the human expert driver are transferred via fuzzy logic to the robot navigation in the form of a set of simple conditional statements composed of linguistic variables.Keywards: Mobile robot, behavior based control, fuzzy logic, alpha level fuzzy logic, obstacle avoidance behavior and goal seek behavior

  5. Tra Albania e Italia: storie solide e confini liquidi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Mari


    Full Text Available Recensione di: Emma Bond e Daniele Comberiati (a cura di, Il confine liquido. Rapporti interculturali fra Italia e Albania, Nardò, Besa, 2013, 229 p., ISBN: 9788849708950, € 18,00.

  6. Kinematograafiline rätsepakunst / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017


    Taivani päritolu režissöör Ang Lee tema mängufilm "Mõistus ja tunded" ("Sense and Sensibility") : stsenarist Jane Austeni romaani põhjal Emma Thompson : Suurbritannia - Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005

  7. 6 Tips to Avoid Medication Mistakes (United States)

    ... use. Computerized Medication Box FDA has cleared for marketing the Electronic Medication Management Assistant (EMMA), a programmable ... for You Sign up for Consumer Updates by E-mail Page Last Updated: 04/02/2018 Note: If ...

  8. Espoo valmistub elamumessiks ja avab uue kunstimuuseumi / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-


    14. juulist 13. augustini 2006 Espoos toimuva elamumessi ja kõigi eelnevate messide osast Soome elamuehituspoliitikas. Espoo uuest kunstimuuseumist EMMA (Espoo Museum of Modern Art) ja FMO Tapiola (Finnforesti peakorter) looduslikest materjalidest high-tech-hoonest

  9. YANG Bong-keun as a Health Reformer and a Pioneer of Social Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIN Young-Jeon


    Full Text Available YANG Bong-keun (1897-1982 had lived as a medical doctor and a social and public health reformer during the turbulent period of the opening of the port to the western society occupation by and liberation from Japan and the partition of the Korean Peninsular He actively participated in the March First Movement Shinganhoe and other activities for Korea’s liberation from Japan He also founded Bogunwoondongsa an organization for public health movement for Korean people and published Bogeunwoondong a magazine for introducing and educating new ideas and knowledge of health for Korean people After the defeat of Japan in the World War II he worked for the protection and repatriation of Korean residents in the Manjoo area as a head of policy division of the Northeastern office of the Korean Provisional Government He also participated in the foundation of Yanbian Hospital and medical school for Korean-Chinese in China His holistic approach of health and public health movement accentuation of preventive medicine and a body under his/her own will public health movement as a part of everyday life movement and minjoong oriented humanism were closely linked with the idea of social medicine that originated from the European society in the 19th century Those are also valuable ideas to be considered and implemented in this time Moreover his effort of health for Korean people on the way of modernization and liberation of Korea provides an example of being a respectable health reformer and pioneer of social medicine

  10. Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with grass hosts in commercial pine production areas of South Africa. Cassandra L Swett, Bernice Porter, Gerda Fourie, Emma T Steenkamp, Thomas R Gordon, Michael J Wingfield ...

  11. [The Outpatient Clinic for Adolescent Risk-taking and Self-harm behaviors (AtR!Sk) - A Pioneering Approach of Outpatient Early Detection and Intervention of Borderline Personality Disorder]. (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Ghinea, Denisa; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz


    The Outpatient Clinic for Adolescent Risk-taking and Self-harm behaviors (AtR!Sk) - A Pioneering Approach of Outpatient Early Detection and Intervention of Borderline Personality Disorder Self-harm and risk-taking behaviors are frequently occurring problems in adolescents' everyday life and commonly challenge the present child and adolescent health-care system. Those behaviors are typical features of borderline-personality disorder (BPD), a severe mental disorder that is associated with immense psychological strain, increased risk of mortality and poor psychosocial functioning. Despite controversy in the past, recent evidence shows that BPD is a valid and reliable diagnosis in adolescence. Consequently, specified and effective intervention programs for this age group are necessary. Instead, present health-care services for children and adolescents in Germany are usually characterized by long waiting periods for specialized outpatient treatments and unnecessary expanses of unnecessary long inpatient stays. Alternatively, and in order to prevent serious long-term consequences, new concepts - integrated in an ambulatory setting and close to patients' daily routines - should focus on early detection and treatment of adolescents at-risk presenting with borderline personality features. The specialist outpatient clinic AtR!Sk at the University Hospital Heidelberg ensures a low-threshold initial contact service, comprehensive and accurate diagnosis of BPD features, and rapidly "tailored" therapy for young people presenting with any types of risk-taking and self-harm behavior. AtR!Sk - as a pioneering approach in south Germany - provides evidence-based early detection and intervention for adolescent BPD.

  12. Walter Baade: Father of the Two Stellar Populations and Pioneer Supernova Researcher (United States)

    Osterbrock, D. E.


    Walter Baade was the great observational astronomer of the middle part of the past century. He lived and worked in Pasadena, where he ``discovered" the two stellar populations and did outstanding pioneer research on supernovae at Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories from 1931 until 1959, when he returned to his native Germany, and died the following year. Baade was born in a little town in northwest Germany, and educated at Goettingen University, where he received his Ph.D. in 1919, just after the end of World War I. He got a research position at Hamburg Observatory, and quickly jumped into globular cluster and galactic structure work with its 40-in reflector, then the largest telescope in Europe. Baade recognized very early the great importance of the extremely rare ``highly luminous novae" which Heber D. Curtis and Knut Lundmark isolated in 1919-21. In 1929 Baade called these ``Hauptnovae" the key to measuring distances of faint galaxies. We call them supernovae today, a term he and Fritz Zwicky began using in 1932. Similarly Baade's first inkling that there was a spherically symmetric distribution of stars in our Galaxy, which he named Population II in his two great 1944 papers, came when he began picking up field RR Lyrae variables in 1926. Baade's research on the two stellar populations and supernovae was extremely important in opening up the whole fields of stellar and galactic evolution. His invited lectures at meetings and symposia, and his courses as a visiting professor inspired a whole generation of research astrophysicists. Baade's attractive personality made it possible for him to make his great discoveries in a land in which he was officially an enemy alien during World War II.

  13. Use of pioneer mosses for the revegetation of bare mineral sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campeau, S. [Bryophyta Technologies Inc., Lambton, PQ (Canada); Quinty, F. [Planirest Environnement Inc., St-Charles-de-Bellechasse, PQ (Canada)


    Abandoned sand and gravel pits in boreal regions often consist of poor, depleted substrates that are only slowly colonized by plants. Soil compaction and the lack of readily available topsoil can retard the establishment of seedlings during restoration activities. The use of native mosses and lichens in restoration activities has not yet been fully assessed. However, mosses and lichens play an important role in boreal ecosystems, and are readily adapted to poor soil and harsh climates. This paper presented the results of a series of 3 experiments conducted to accelerate the colonization of mosses in soils contaminated by mineral disturbances. Experiments were conducted on (1) a forest road embankment, (2) an abandoned gravel pit, and (3) an abandoned section of a sand and gravel quarry. Two species of moss were used, namely Polytrichum piliferum and Polytrichum juniperum. Moss fragments were collected from moss colonies in the Foret Montmorency and reintroduced into the experimental plots. A straw erosion blanket was used, and phosphorus was applied in the first 2 experiments. A protective cover consisting of wood cellulose fibre mulch was used for the third experiment. The experiment was conducted over a period of 4 years. Results indicated that all the mosses were slow to establish themselves on the experimental plots, which resulted in lower than expected plant cover over the first 2 growing seasons observed. The combined use of straw mulch and phosphorus fertilizer improved moss establishment. However, the moss cover continued to increase during the third and fourth years of the experiment, which suggested that mulch types used during the experiment may need to be improved. Sources of moss diaspores may need to be reconsidered, as large donor sites for pioneer mosses are not easily located. It was concluded that moss communities are an important component of boreal regions. Further research is needed to understand the appropriate conditions for propagating moss

  14. Abielluda! Abielluda! Abielluda! / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017


    Lühiarvustus Jane Austeni romaani ekraniseeringule "Mõistus ja tunded" ("Sens and Sensibility") : stsenarist Emma Thompson : režissöör Ang Lee : Suurbritannia - Ameerika Ühendriigid 1995. Lisatud andmed režissööri kohta

  15. COMFORT scale: a reliable and valid method to measure the amount of stress of ventilated preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielenga, J. M.; de Vos, R.; de Leeuw, R.; de Haan, R. J.


    OBJECTIVE: Assessment of clinimetric properties and diagnostic quality of a stress measurement scale (COMFORT scale). DESIGN: Sample of an open population. SETTING: Neonatology department (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), Academic Medical Centre/Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  16. Plaadid / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-


    Uutest plaatidest Pachora "Astereotypical", Lisa Stansfield "Biography", The Last Hombres "Redemption", "The Four Feathers", "Liisi Koikson", Paul Simon "On My Way, Don't Know, Where I-m Goin'", Lisa Nilsson "Samlade Sanger 1992-2003", Emma Shapplin "Etterna"

  17. Status Report on Speech Research (United States)


    invention of writing, is that readers and obscured the roots of native words. Similarly, the writers have so often happily accepted (once they Mycenaean ...fact that orthographic conventions some- Mycenaean Greek illustrate the risks of borrow- times mimic phonology: The conventions for ing, the English...protesting against the "monosyllabic myth," Ventris, M., & Chadwick, J. (1973). Documents in Mycenaean Greek has suggested that there actually were many

  18. In-capillary determination of creatinine with electrophoretically mediated microanalysis: characterization of the effects of reagent zone and buffer conditions. (United States)

    Mason, Philip E; Schildt, Derek C; Strein, Timothy G


    Previous work has demonstrated proof-of-concept for carrying out the clinically useful Jaffe reaction between creatinine and picrate within a capillary tube using electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA). Here, it is shown that careful control of reagent plug length as well as concentration and pH of the background electrolyte (BGE) can result in a marked improvement in the sensitivity of this assay. Increasing the length of the picrate reagent zone is shown to give rise to as much as a 3-4-fold enhancement, and increasing the concentration and/or pH of the borate buffer also results in an additional, albeit modest, improvement in sensitivity. Interestingly, borate BGE concentrations approaching 100mM give rise to an unexplained drop in reaction efficiency, an effect which can be avoided by utilizing lower borate concentration with higher pH. The improvements appear to primarily minimize electrodispersion of the picrate reagent, allowing higher picrate concentration in the reaction zone. The same conditions also appear to minimize the electrodispersion of the in-line product as well. With optimized EMMA parameters, the sensitivity of the in-line Jaffe chemistry can be enhanced to an extent that there is no need for the two capillary "high sensitivity" detection system required in previous work. Using optimized conditions, three different human serum samples spanning the expected clinical range of creatinine concentrations were successfully analyzed. Overall, this work illustrates the importance of systematically characterizing the conditions under which EMMA analyses are carried out.

  19. Pop / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-


    Heliplaatidest: Supergrass "Diamond Hoo Ha", Man In Maardu "Solid Symphonies", Van Der Graaf Generator "Trisector", Bon Iver "For Emma, Forever Ago", The Last Shadow Puppets "The Age Of The Understatement", Brad Mehldau Trio "Live", Mariah Carey "E=MCø"

  20. Dante Moreira Leite: um pioneiro da psicologia social no Brasil Dante Moreira Leite: a pioneer of social psychology in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo José de Paiva


    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o trabalho pioneiro no Brasil, na área da Psicologia Social, de Dante Moreira Leite, consignado em três obras: O Caráter Nacional Brasileiro, Psicologia Diferencial e Psicologia e Literatura. Nessas obras examinam-se em particular os tópicos relações interpessoais, caráter nacional e vinculações entre Literatura e Psicologia. Apresentam-se também, brevemente, o Autor em suas atividades de professor, pesquisador, escritor, tradutor e administrador acadêmico.Dante Moreira Leite’s pioneer work in Brazilian Social Psychology is presented through the analysis of three of his main books: Brazilian National Character, Differential Psychology and Psychology and Literature. The subjects especially considered in these writings are interpersonal relations, national character and the links between Literature and Psychology. His activities as professor, researcher, writer, translator and academic manager are also introduced.

  1. Pioneering In Situ Recrystallization during Bead Milling: A Top-down Approach to Prepare Zeolite A Nanocrystals. (United States)

    Anand, Chokkalingam; Yamaguchi, Yudai; Liu, Zhendong; Ibe, Sayoko; Elangovan, Shanmugam P; Ishii, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Akira; Okubo, Tatsuya; Wakihara, Toru


    Top-down approach has been viewed as an efficient and straightforward method to prepare nanosized zeolites. Yet, the mechanical breaking of zeolite causes amorphization, which usually requires a post-milling recrystallization to obtain fully crystalline nanoparticles. Herein we present a facile methodology to prepare zeolite nanocrystals, where milling and recrystallization can be performed in situ. A milling apparatus specially designed to work under conditions of high alkalinity and temperature enables the in situ recrystallization during milling. Taking zeolite A as an example, we demonstrate its size reduction from ~3 μm to 66 nm in 30 min, which is quite faster than previous methods reported. Three functions, viz., miniaturization, amorphization and recrystallization were found to take effect concurrently during this one-pot process. The dynamic balance between these three functions was achieved by adjusting the milling period and temperature, which lead to the tuning of zeolite A particle size. Particle size and crystallinity of the zeolite A nanocrystals were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and water adsorption-desorption. This work presents a pioneering advancement in this field of nanosized zeolites, and will facilitate the mass production as well as boost the wide applications of nanosized zeolites.

  2. Membrane Peeling-Induced Retinal Alterations on Intraoperative OCT in Vitreomacular Interface Disorders From the PIONEER Study. (United States)

    Ehlers, Justis P; Han, Jaehong; Petkovsek, Daniel; Kaiser, Peter K; Singh, Rishi P; Srivastava, Sunil K


    To assess retinal architectural alterations that occur following membrane peeling procedures and the impact of peel technique on these alterations utilizing intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT). This is a subanalysis of the prospective PIONEER iOCT study of eyes undergoing a membrane peeling for a vitreomacular interface (VMI) disorder. Intraoperative scanning was performed with a microscope-mounted OCT system. Macroarchitectural alterations (e.g., full-thickness retinal elevations) and microarchitectural alterations (e.g., relative layer thickness alterations) were analyzed. Video/iOCT correlation was performed to identify instrument-tissue manipulations resulting in macroarchitectural alterations. One hundred sixty-three eyes were included in the macroarchitectural analysis. Instrumentation utilized for membrane peeling included forceps alone for 73 eyes (45%), combined diamond-dusted membrane scraper (DDMS) and forceps for 87 eyes (53%), and other techniques in three eyes (2%). Focal retinal elevations were identified in 45 of 163 eyes (28%). Video/iOCT correlation identified 69% of alterations involved forceps compared to 26% due to DDMS. Sixteen percent of retinal alterations persisted 1 month following surgery. The microarchitectural analysis included 134 eyes. Immediately following membrane peeling, there was a significant increase in the ellipsoid zone to retinal pigment epithelium height (+20%, P peeling for VMI conditions. Differences in surgical instruments may impact these architectural alterations.

  3. CoQ10 supplementation: a new treatment modality in steroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cetin Dincel


    Aug 9, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. Background: Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a common ..... DiGiovanni et al. on patients with the same clinical triad ..... Valente ML, Bertini E, Emma F.COQ2. Nephropathy: A .... 2010;16:183–188.

  4. MOOCs: A multi-faceted phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kerr


    Full Text Available Based on George Siemens’ recent criticism of educational technology, we propose some reflections on the positioning of the EMMA project, European Multiple MOOC Aggregator, with respect to the future of Higher Education in Europe.

  5. 2444-IJBCS-Article-Emma N'Draman Donou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    faite sur les prélèvements sanguins de 30 drépanocytaires homozygotes SSFA2. Après induction de la ... The study was done on the blood samples of 30 SSFA2 homozygote patients with sickle cell anemia. After induction of the sickling of red blood cells, the addition of the aqueous extract of the plant allowed the ...

  6. Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb: Highlights from a pioneer of biomedical research, physician and scientist. (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa Abdalla M


    The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 - 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (1952 - 1962). He made valuable contributions by his services in the vaccine production and implementation programs, most notably in combating small pox, rabies and epidemic meningitis. In 1963 he became the first Sudanese Professor of Microbiology and Parasitology and served as the first Sudanese Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, U of K (1963-1969). He was an active loyal citizen in public life and served in various fields outside the medical profession. As Mayor of Omdurman, he was invited to visit Berlin in 1963 by Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin (1957-1966) and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (1969 to 1974). Also as Mayor of Omdurman, he represented the City in welcoming Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to Sudan in February 1965. He also received State Medals from Egypt and Ethiopia. In 1973 he was appointed Chairman of the Sudan Medical Research Council, and was awarded the international Dr. Shousha Foundation Prize and Medal by the WHO for his contribution in the advancement of health, research and medical services.

  7. Mechanism for Prenatal LPS-Induced DA Neuron Loss (United States)


    Neurol 355:479–489. rooks AI, Chadwick CA, Gelbard HA, Cory-Slechta DA, Federoff HJ (1999) Paraquat elicited neurobehavioral syndrome caused by do...Stadler, J., Chandran, J., Klinefelter , G. R., Blackstone, C., and Cookson, M. R. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 36588–36595 4. Macedo, M. G., Anar, B...fluctuations Reserpine induced a parkinsonism-like syndrome in some PROGRESSION IN PD 241 Table 2. Comparison of Human PD Characteristics With Animal Models

  8. Seasonal Stream Partitioning and Critical Zone Feedbacks within a Colorado River Headwater Basin (United States)

    Carroll, R. W. H.; Bearup, L. A.; Williams, K. H.; Brown, W. S.; Dong, W.; Bill, M.


    Groundwater contribution to streams can modulate discharge response to climate extremes, thereby protecting ecosystem health and water supply for downstream users. However, much uncertainty exists on the role of groundwater contribution in snow-dominated, mountainous systems. To better understand seasonal stream source, we employ the empirical approach of end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) using a suite of natural chemical and isotopic observations within the East River; a headwater catchment of the Colorado River and recently designated as a Science Focus Area with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. EMMA relies on principal component analysis to reduce the number of dimensions of variability (U-space) for use in hydrograph separation. The mixing model was constructed for the furthest downstream and most heavily characterized stream gauge in the study site (PH; 84.7 km2). Potential tracers were identified from PH discharge as near linear (Mg, Ca, Sr, U, SO4, DIC, δ2H and δ18O) with alternative groupings evaluated. The best model was able to describe 97% of the tracer variance in 2-dimensions with low error and lack of residual structure. U-space positioning resulted in seasonal stream water source contributions of rain (8-16%), snow (48-74%) and groundwater (18-42%). EMMA developed for PH did not scale across 10 nested sub-basins (ranging from 0.38 km2 to 69.9 km2). Differences in mixing ratios are attributable to feedbacks in the critical zone with a focus on (1) source rock contributions of SO4 and U; (2) biogeochemical processes of enhanced SO4 reduction in the floodplain sediments, (3) flow path length as expressed by carbonate weathering, and (4) enhanced groundwater contributions as related to snow distribution and ecosystem structure. EMMA is an initial step to elucidate source contributions to streamflow and address scalability and applicability of mixing processes in a complex, highly heterogeneous, snow-dominated catchment. Work will aid hydrologic

  9. The possible hindrance of a 25 MW wind farm for birds at two potential sites in Noord-Groningen: Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, L.M.J.; Spaans, A.L.


    In this appendix to an earlier published report the possible impact of a planned wind farm of 110 33M-VS wind turbines on birds in north Groningen is assessed, and the results with the estimates made for two alternative locations in that region are estimated. The new location (Emmapolder and Eemspolder/Eemshaven) combines parts of the two locations studied earlier. It has been calculated that in the new location 701 birds per year will certainly or probably collide with a wind turbine, and 945 birds certainly, probably or possibly. If 83 wind turbines are built (as planned for the two alternative locations mentioned) these figures will be 541 and 723, respectively. It is estimated that maximally 2,000-3,000 (110 wind turbines) and 1,500-2,000 birds (83 wind turbines) will be killed in the area per year. The numbers of bird disturbed are estimated at a few thousands for all species combined with greatest values for Curlew and Oystercatcher. If a wind park will be chosen with 83 wind turbines (taking out 27 wind turbines in the western portion of the wind park) the figure amounts to 1,000-2,000. The study reveals that the impact of a 25 MW wind park (83 wind turbines) in northern Groningen is smallest when it is built either in the Eemshaven/Delfzijl area or in the Emma- and Eemspolder/Eemshaven area. The impact is greatest when the wind park is concentrated in the Emma- and Eemspolder. The impact of a wind park with 110 wind turbines in the Emma- and Eemspolder/Eemshaven area is (1) larger than the impact of a wind park with 83 wind turbines in the Emma- and Eemspolder as far as the disturbance of passing birds (seasonal migration, local bird movements) is concerned, (2) roughly as large as the impact of such a park in these polders as far as the number of collision victims is concerned, and (3) in-between the impact of the two other locations as far as the disturbance of feeding and resting birds is concerned

  10. From encephalitis lethargica to cerebral cytoarchitectonics: the polymath talent of Constantin von Economo (1876-1931), pioneer neuroanatomist, neurophysiologist and military aviator. (United States)

    Demetriades, A K


    Born in Romania of Greek parents and raised in Trieste, Constantin von Economo was educated and influenced by Vienna's medical and scientific tradition. Better known for his description of encephalitis lethargica, a disease bearing his name, he made several contributions to as varied themes as the cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex, sleep regulation, evolutionary brain development and, outside medicine, in aviation. While still a student he showed an aptitude for meticulous accuracy and a skill in combining animal experiments with microanatomical techniques. Nurtured in the formidable environment of Viennese histology he produced a monumental account of the cytoarchitecture of the human cerebral cortex. This, in an attempt to correlate structure and function, was unique in its quality of accuracy and paved the way for subsequent achievements two decades later. Despite an untimely death at 55 years, he remains one of the most talented pioneers of modern neuroscience.

  11. Glacial and interglacial eolian dust dispersal patterns across the Chinese Loess Plateau inferred from decomposed loess grain-size records.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.A.; Vriend, M.G.A.


    Previous studies have indicated that a genetically meaningful decomposition (unmixing) of loess grainsize distributions can be accomplished with the end-member modeling algorithm EMMA. The independent decomposition of two series of loess grain-size records from the NE Tibetan Plateau and Loess

  12. Muzei bez sten / Tatjana Pissareva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pissareva, Tatjana


    Skulptori, graafiku ja maalikunstniku Rafael Arutjunjani loomingut kajastavast raamatust "Rafael Arutjunjan. Proizvedenija iskusstva" räägib raamatu väljaandja Areg Arutjunjan. Reprod ja fotod on Valeri Baretalt ja Sergei Didõkilt. Artiklite autorid on Boris Bernshtein, Aleksandr Sidorov ja Emma Darvis

  13. From the Frankish Empire to Prague: Evangeliary Cim 2 in the Library of the Prague Metropolitan Chapter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubínová, Kateřina


    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2014), s. 126-135 ISSN 2336-3452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18261S Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : illuminated manuscripts * karolingians * 10th century * queen Emma Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  14. 75 FR 30876 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of... (United States)


    ... financial statements pursuant to generally accepted accounting principles (``GAAP'') as established by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (``GASB''), or pursuant to GAAP as established by the Financial... Access System (EMMA[supreg]) May 26, 2010. I. Introduction On July 14, 2009, the Municipal Securities...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citra Suryanovika


    Fokus penelitian pada ujaran yang disampaikan oleh tokoh utama perempuan dalam enam novel Jane Austen. Penelitian bertujuan menelaah pengaruh status sosial dan solidaritas pada kuantitas ujaran. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 1,738 dengan rincian 266 ujaran Elinor Dashwood, 368 ujaran Elizabeth Bennet, 194 ujaran Fanny Price, 473 ujaran Emma Woodhouse, 113 ujaran Anne Elliot, and 324 ujaran Catherine Morland. Berdasarkan peringkat, status sosial tinggi Emma Woodhouse menghasilkan jumlah ujaran paling banyak, dibandingkan dengan lima tokoh lainnya, namun Fanny Price dengan status sosial paling bawah berada di peringkat kelima dari enam tokoh yang ditelaah. Telaah keakraban menunjukkan 66,7% jumlah ujaran dengan skala solidaritas tinggi, dan 33,3% ujaran dengan skala solidaritas rendah. Berdasarkan hasil analisa, dapat disimpulkan bahwa penentu kuantitas ujaran bukan hanya ditentukan oleh status sosial dan solidaritas karakter, tapi juga ditentukan oleh ketertarikan dan rasa penasaran. Kata kunci: Status Sosial, Skala Solidaritas, Ujaran, Jane Austen.

  16. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esperschütz


    Full Text Available In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany. Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L. were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1–4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity

  17. Determining the degree of satisfaction of project Good Business entrepreneurs in Paraná’s North Pioneer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Alves Brene


    Full Text Available The study aims to assess the determinants of satisfaction of entrepreneurs with training/course project called Good Northern Paraná Business Pioneer. As an analytical tool, the research used a factor analysis, which had a role in evaluating the consistency of the questionnaire and add the 11 questions in two groups (Structure and consultants. With these two explanatory variables, they were crossed with the note of satisfaction with the course (dependent variable first from the adjustment rates (Pearson and Spearman and later with the regression analysis. It is noteworthy that the regression determined which of the variables are shown more relevant, or even if both are significant. As a result it is observed that the variable Consultants has a moderate Pearson correction (0,413 with the note of satisfaction, being larger than the structure (0,268, classified as poor. About Spearman, both had the hypothesis H1 (linking the variables accepted. Regarding the regression is possible to infer that both overall and in individual aspect, the variables are significant, highlighting the structure presented coefficient (1,13 higher than that of consultants (1,07, both explaining 27.2% of the satisfaction score (0,5 points from an average of 1,86.

  18. Vaade lähiminevikku ja pilguheit tulevikku / Evelyn Müürsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Evelyn


    Mooste Kunsti- ja Sotsiaalpraktika Keskuse tegevusest. Loetletud 2009. a. Moostes töötanud 16 kunstnikku. Ana Carvalho (Portugal), Jez Riley Frenchi (Inglismaa), Matt Marble'i ja Emma Lippi (USA), Susanne Kudielka ja Kaspar Wimberley (Saksamaa/Inglismaa) ning Kanako Sasaki (Jaapan) töödest

  19. Piret Raua raamatud Saksamaal ja iPhone´is

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Piret Raua lasteraamat "Härra Linnu lugu" ilmus saksa keeles ; Piret Raua digitaalset pildiraamatut lastele "Emma roosad asjad" on võimalik kasutada Apple´i elektroonikatoodetes iPad, iPhone ja iPod (eesti, inglise ja jaapani keeles). Esitlus toimus 24. mail Lastekirjanduse Teabekeskuses

  20. Is consanguinity prevalence decreasing in Saudis?: a study in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 2, 2014 ... Consanguineous mating and inbreeding have been a subject of human biological inquiry since George. Darwin, himself the son of a marriage between Charles. Darwin and his cousin Emma Wedgewood [2], who. Corresponding author: Arjumand S. Warsy. Department of Biochemistry. College of Science.

  1. 78 FR 39048 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of a... (United States)


    ... topics that might be considered material to investors in making an informed investment decision... with material information necessary for investors to make informed investment decisions. EMMA On June 1... account owner's bank account. The MSRB believes that the burden on dealers to submit this information...

  2. 75 FR 492 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of... (United States)


    ... obligated persons are expected to submit annual financial information, audited financial statements and... underwriter and SIFMA preferred that EMMA users determine this information by reading the official statement... submission of annual financial information in a manner that is extracted from the official statement. This...

  3. Kwaliteit van leven bij kinderen met sikkelcelziekte in de regio Amsterdam [Quality of life of children with sickle cell disease in the Amsterdam area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, A.P.; Heijboer, H.; Peters, M.; Vogels, T.; Prins, M.H.; Heymans, H.S.A.


    Objective. To determine the differences in quality of life between children with sickle cell disease and healthy immigrant children. Design. Descriptive, comparative. Method. The quality of life of children with sickle cell disease between 5 and 15 years old being treated in the Emma Children's

  4. A critical review of the works of pioneer physicians on kidney diseases in ancient Iran: Avicenna, Rhazes, Al-akhawayni, and Jorjani. (United States)

    Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Shamsi, Mohsen; Cyrus, Ali; Bastani, Bahar; Tabatabayei, Seyed Mohammad


    The history of kidney and urologic disorders dates back to the dawn of civilization. Throughout history of medicine, urine, the first bodily fluid to be examined, has continuously been studied as a means of understanding inner bodily function. The purpose of this review was to appraise the contributions of the ancient Iranian physician pioneers in the field of kidney and urological disorders, and to compare their beliefs and clinical methods with the modern medicine. We searched all available reliable electronic and published sources for the views of ancient Iranian physicians, Avicenna, Rhazes, Al-Akhawayni, and Jorjani, and compared them with recent medical literature. Our findings showed that ancient Iranian physicians described the symptoms, signs, and treatment of kidney and urological disorders; addressed bladder anatomy and physiology; and performed bladder catheterization and stone removal procedures in accordance with contemporary medicine. Ancient Iranian physicians pursued a comprehensive scientific methodology based on experiment, which is in compliance with the bases of modern medicine.

  5. The contribution to medical work and nursing by the pioneer missionaries of the D.R.C. mission in Nyasaland (Malawi from 1889-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Smit


    Full Text Available Although the first, pioneer missionaries of the D. R. C. Mission were not fully qualified medical doctors, they played a big role in introducing western medicine among the indigenous population and in this way countered the practice of the witch-doctors. With their limited knowledge of medicine, they knew enough to treat the indigenous people, their fellow missionaries as well as other people like government officials, planters and hunters in the central province, where they were stationed. They managed to save lives and started with health education to motivate the people to think and live more hygienic lives and thus uplift the standard of health of the country. One cannot but have admiration for their courageous perseverance and faith and the skilful way in which they applied their medical knowledge in the absence of a fully qualified medical doctor.

  6. 75 FR 63884 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Order Approving Proposed... (United States)


    ... the needs of retail investors.'' \\24\\ The MSRB stated that S&P's reference to information required to... unfairly allows institutional and sophisticated investors to more easily access information about a... information directly to EMMA is a more efficient way of disseminating information to investors, noting that...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 255 ... Gabriel Rossouw, David Russell. Vol 9, No 2 (2009), Differentials of Light of Consciousness: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the ... Emma L. Turley, Surya Monro, Nigel King. Vol 7, No 2 (2007), Domestic Temporalities: Sensual Patterning in Persian Migratory Landscapes, Abstract PDF.

  8. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Ames Dhai Editor University of Witwatersrand University of Witwatersrand Private Bag X1 Pinelands 7430 Cape Town South Africa Phone: 011 717 2718. Email: Support Contact. Emma Buchanan Phone: 021 657 8200. Email: ISSN: 1999-7639.

  9. Research on the weed control degree and glyphosate soil biodegradation in apple plantations (Pioneer variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia ALEXA


    Full Text Available In this study we follow control degree of glyphosate herbicide on weeds in apple plantations (Pioneer variety of the Research Station Timisoara. It was also followed glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the soil by determining the amount of CO2 released by the action of microorganisms on C14 glyphosate marked isotope. Laboratory analysis of glyphosate residues in soil was made using a Liquid Scintillation TRIATHLER. Glyphosate biodegradation ability in the presence of soil microorganisms is high, so glyphosate residues remaining in soil, in terms of its use in weed combating, are minimal. Study of glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the experimental field indicates that the CO2 fraction accumulated after 50 days is 28.02% for samples exposed in the experimental field. Weather conditions, especially temperature variations between day and night, influences the activity of soilmicroorganisms and affect biodegraded glyphosate percentage.Chemical method of weed control consisted in: herbicide used was Roundup 3 l/ha (glyphosate isopropyl amine salt 360 g/l and are based on chemical application on weeds, on the rows of trees, on their uptake and translocation in their organs having as principal scope the total destruction of weeds. The experimental results obtained reveal a weed combat degree of 82.98% , in the case of chemical variant, compared with control variant. The species combated mainly due to glyphosate herbicide, which is no longer found in the final mapping are: Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Plantago major, Polygonum aviculare. Total combated weeds /m2 with glyphosate is 126.67.

  10. Institutional pioneers in world politics: Regional institution building and the influence of the European Union. (United States)

    Lenz, Tobias; Burilkov, Alexandr


    What drives processes of institution building within regional international organizations? We challenge those established theories of regionalism, and of institutionalized cooperation more broadly, that treat different organizations as independent phenomena whose evolution is conditioned primarily by internal causal factors. Developing the basic premise of 'diffusion theory' - meaning that decision-making is interdependent across organizations - we argue that institutional pioneers, and specifically the European Union, shape regional institution-building processes in a number of discernible ways. We then hypothesize two pathways - active and passive - of European Union influence, and stipulate an endogenous capacity for institutional change as a key scope condition for their operation. Drawing on a new and original data set on the institutional design of 34 regional international organizations in the period from 1950 to 2010, the article finds that: (1) both the intensity of a regional international organization's structured interaction with the European Union (active influence) and the European Union's own level of delegation (passive influence) are associated with higher levels of delegation within other regional international organizations; (2) passive European Union influence exerts a larger overall substantive effect than active European Union influence does; and (3) these effects are strongest among those regional international organizations that are based on founding contracts containing open-ended commitments. These findings indicate that the creation and subsequent institutional evolution of the European Union has made a difference to the evolution of institutions in regional international organizations elsewhere, thereby suggesting that existing theories of regionalism are insufficiently able to account for processes of institution building in such contexts.

  11. Acer negundo invasion along a successional gradient: early direct facilitation by native pioneers and late indirect facilitation by conspecifics. (United States)

    Saccone, Patrick; Pagès, Jean-Philippe; Girel, Jacky; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Michalet, Richard


    *Here, we analysed the role of direct and indirect plant interactions in the invasion process of Acer negundo along a natural successional gradient in the Middle Rhone floodplain (France). We addressed two questions: What are the responses of the invasive Acer seedlings to native communities' effects along the successional gradient? What are the effects of the invasive Acer adult trees on the native communities? *In the three communities (Salix, Acer and Fraxinus stands) we transplanted juveniles of the invasive and juveniles of the natives within the forest and in experimental gaps, and with and without the herb layer. We also quantified changes in understory functional composition, light, nitrogen and moisture among treatments. *Acer seedlings were directly facilitated for survival in the Salix and Acer communities and indirectly facilitated for growth by adult Acer through the reduction of the abundance of highly competitive herbaceous competitors. *We conclude that direct facilitation by the tree canopy of the native pioneer Salix is very likely the main biotic process that induced colonization of the invasive Acer in the floodplain and that indirect facilitation by adult conspecifics contributed to population establishment.

  12. Darwinian hydrology: can the methodology Charles Darwin pioneered help hydrologic science? (United States)

    Harman, C.; Troch, P. A.


    There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrology "Darwinian"? While there have now been a number of discussions of Darwinian approaches, many referencing Harte (2002), the term is potentially a source of confusion while its connections to Darwin remain allusive rather than explicit. Here we discuss the methods that Charles Darwin pioneered to understand a variety of complex systems in terms of their historical processes of change. We suggest that the Darwinian approach to hydrology follows his lead by focusing attention on the patterns of variation in populations, seeking hypotheses that explain these patterns in terms of the mechanisms and conditions that determine their historical development, using deduction and modeling to derive consequent hypotheses that follow from a proposed explanation, and critically testing these hypotheses against new observations. It is not sufficient to catalogue the patterns or predict them statistically. Nor is it sufficient for the explanations to amount to a "just-so" story not subject to critical analysis. Darwin's theories linked present-day variation to mechanisms that operated over history, and could be independently test and falsified by comparing new observations to the predictions of corollary hypotheses they generated. With a Darwinian framework in mind it is easy to see that a great deal of hydrologic research has already been done that contributes to a Darwinian hydrology - whether deliberately or not. The various heuristic methods that Darwin used to develop explanatory theories - extrapolating mechanisms, space for time substitution, and looking for signatures of history - have direct application in hydrologic science. Some

  13. The challenge of neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Christine


    Neutrinos'', Maurice Goldhaber once remarked, ''are remarkable particles: they induce courage in theoreticians and perseverance in experimenters''. They are also no strangers to controversy, for they were in a sense born amidst it, and as recent work on neutrino oscillations demonstrates they continue to fuel debate. This is of course largely to do with the fact that neutrinos have no electric charge and experience only the weak nuclear force, making them supremely difficult to detect. The debates surrounding neutrinos began in the first decades of the 20th century, before the particle had even been thought of. Studies pioneered by Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn suggested that the electrons emitted in beta-decay emerged with discrete energies. In these experiments a spectrometer bent the electrons according to their energy, and a photographic plate detected the electrons emerging through a movable slit, so yielding ''lines'' at various energies. But when James Chadwick used a point counter instead of a photographic plate, he could not find ''the ghost of a line''. Instead, he convinced himself that the energy of the beta-decay electrons varies continuously up to a maximum, with peaks (''lines'') at only a few energies. And he was able to explain how the photographic technique could ''fake'' lines through its great sensitivity to small changes in intensity. The First World War interrupted these investigations, but afterwards arguments between a continuous energy spectrum and discrete lines continued until 1927, when Charles Drummond Ellis and William Wooster at Cambridge published results from a definitive experiment in which they measured the total electron energy in a single decay process. If the electrons always started out with the same energy but lost varying amounts in subsidiary processes to give many lines, as Meitner believed, then the result would equal the maximum at the end of the spectrum.


    CERN Multimedia


    Would the person who borrowed the large bubble chamber lens from the Microcosm workshops on the ISR please return it. This is a much used piece from our object archives. If anybody has any information about the whereabouts of this object, please contact Thank you

  15. Can Pedagogical Concerns Eclipse Mathematical Knowledge? (United States)

    Creager, Mark A.; Jacobson, Erik; Aydeniz, Fetiye


    Mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) is often thought of as a transformed, mutually-influencing mixture of content and pedagogy. However when individuals' MKT does not integrate content and pedagogy, one type of knowledge can supersede the other, sometimes unconsciously. We exemplify this with Emma, a prospective elementary teacher, whose…

  16. Oh No, Not the "A" Word! Proposing an "Anarchism" for Education (United States)

    DeLeon, Abraham


    Anarchist theory has a long-standing history in political theory, sociology, and philosophy. As a radical discourse, anarchist theory pushes educators and researchers towards new conceptualizations of community, theory, and praxis. Early writers, like Joseph Proudhoun and Emma Goldman, to more contemporary anarchists, such as Noam Chomsky, have…

  17. Young Artists@ CERN : 20 young artists from around Europe will travel to CERN for one week in January, 2004

    CERN Multimedia


    From left to right, front row: Isambard Poulson, Floris van Heynsgergen, George Prassas, Andreas Mitropoulos, Andy Charalambous, organisateur and Nataly Sugnaux. Back row: Douglas Bourton, Denny Robson, Emma Hart, Eleanor Duffin, Caroline Gray, Grace Adam, Machyta Giebels, Janitsio Moreno Gomez, Paul Magee, Mark Ingham, Stine Ljungdalh and Julien Aubert.

  18. The pioneer factor PBX1 is a novel driver of metastatic progression in ERα-positive breast cancer (United States)

    Magnani, Luca; Patten, Darren K.; Nguyen, Van T.M.; Hong, Sung-Pil; Steel, Jennifer H.; Patel, Naina; Lombardo, Ylenia; Faronato, Monica; Gomes, Ana R.; Woodley, Laura; Page, Karen; Guttery, David; Primrose, Lindsay; Garcia, Daniel Fernandez; Shaw, Jacqui; Viola, Patrizia; Green, Andrew; Nolan, Christopher; Ellis, Ian O.; Rakha, Emad A.; Shousha, Sami; Lam, Eric W.-F.; Győrffy, Balázs; Lupien, Mathieu; Coombes, R. Charles


    Over 30% of ERα breast cancer patients develop relapses and progress to metastatic disease despite treatment with endocrine therapies. The pioneer factor PBX1 translates epigenetic cues and mediates estrogen induced ERα binding. Here we demonstrate that PBX1 plays a central role in regulating the ERα transcriptional response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling. PBX1 regulates a subset of EGF-ERα genes highly expressed in aggressive breast tumours. Retrospective stratification of luminal patients using PBX1 protein levels in primary cancer further demonstrates that elevated PBX1 protein levels correlate with earlier metastatic progression. In agreement, PBX1 protein levels are significantly upregulated during metastatic progression in ERα-positive breast cancer patients. Finally we reveal that PBX1 upregulation in aggressive tumours is partly mediated by genomic amplification of the PBX1 locus. Correspondingly, ERα-positive breast cancer patients carrying PBX1 amplification are characterized by poor survival. Notably, we demonstrate that PBX1 amplification can be identified in tumor derived-circulating free DNA of ERα-positive metastatic patients. Metastatic patients with PBX1 amplification are also characterized by shorter relapse-free survival. Our data identifies PBX1 amplification as a functional hallmark of aggressive ERα-positive breast cancers. Mechanistically, PBX1 amplification impinges on several critical pathways associated with aggressive ERα-positive breast cancer. PMID:26215677

  19. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratio of plant biomass versus soil solution in a tropical pioneer tree, Ficus insipida. (United States)

    Garrish, Valerie; Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Turner, Benjamin L


    It is commonly assumed that the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio of a terrestrial plant reflects the relative availability of N and P in the soil in which the plant grows. Here, this was assessed for a tropical pioneer tree, Ficus insipida. Seedlings were grown in sand and irrigated with nutrient solutions containing N:P ratios ranging from 100. The experimental design further allowed investigation of physiological responses to N and P availability. Homeostatic control over N:P ratios was stronger in leaves than in stems or roots, suggesting that N:P ratios of stems and roots are more sensitive indicators of the relative availability of N and P at a site than N:P ratios of leaves. The leaf N:P ratio at which the largest plant dry mass and highest photosynthetic rates were achieved was approximately 11, whereas the corresponding whole-plant N:P ratio was approximately 6. Plant P concentration varied as a function of transpiration rate at constant nutrient solution P concentration, possibly due to transpiration-induced variation in the mass flow of P to root surfaces. The transpiration rate varied in response to nutrient solution N concentration, but not to nutrient solution P concentration, demonstrating nutritional control over transpiration by N but not P. Water-use efficiency varied as a function of N availability, but not as a function of P availability.

  20. Gamma-Ray Burst Arrival Time Localizations: Simultaneous Observations by Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, and Ulysses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laros, J.G.; Hurley, K.C.; Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Briggs, M.S.; Kouveliotou, C.; McCollough, M.L.; Fishman, G.J.; Meegan, C.A.; Cline, T.L.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.


    Between the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) launch in 1991 April and the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) demise in 1992 October, concurrent coverage by CGRO, PVO, and Ulysses was obtained for several hundred gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although most of these were below the PVO and Ulysses thresholds, 37 were positively detected by all three spacecraft, with data quality adequate for quantitative localization analysis. All were localized independently to ∼2 degree accuracy by the CGRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), and three were also localized by COMPTEL. We computed arrival-time error boxes, whose larger dimensions range from about 2' to several degrees and whose smaller dimensions are in the arcminute range. Twelve have areas less than 10 arcmin 2 , and only four have areas greater than 1 deg 2 . The area of the smallest box is 0.44 arcmin 2 . We find that the overall BATSE localization accuracy for these events is consistent with the most recent stated uncertainties. This work indicates that the ROSAT soft X-ray source found within a preliminary IPN error box for GB920501 (Trig 1576) (Hurley et al.) is less likely to be the GRB counterpart than previously reported. copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society

  1. Bending The Spending Curve By Altering Care Delivery Patterns: The Role Of Care Management Within A Pioneer ACO. (United States)

    Hsu, John; Price, Mary; Vogeli, Christine; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy G


    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) appear to lower medical spending, but there is little information on how they do so. We examined the impact of patient participation in a Pioneer ACO and its care management program on rates of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations and on Medicare spending. We used data for the period 2009-14, exploiting naturally staggered program entry to create concurrent controls to help isolate the program effects. The care management program (the ACO's primary intervention) targeted beneficiaries with elevated but modifiable risks for future spending. ACO participation had a modest effect on spending, in line with previous estimates. Participation in the care management program was associated with substantial reductions in rates for hospitalizations and both all and nonemergency ED visits, as well as Medicare spending, when compared to preparticipation levels and to rates and spending for a concurrent sample of beneficiaries who were eligible for but had not yet started the program. Rates of ED visits and hospitalizations were reduced by 6 percent and 8 percent, respectively, and Medicare spending was reduced by 6 percent. Targeting beneficiaries with modifiable high risks and shifting care away from the ED represent viable mechanisms for altering spending within ACOs. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Transpiration efficiency of a tropical pioneer tree (Ficus insipida) in relation to soil fertility. (United States)

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Turner, Benjamin L; Marshall, John D


    The response of whole-plant water-use efficiency, termed transpiration efficiency (TE), to variation in soil fertility was assessed in a tropical pioneer tree, Ficus insipida Willd. Measurements of stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C, delta(18)O, delta(15)N), elemental concentrations (C, N, P), plant growth, instantaneous leaf gas exchange, and whole-plant water use were used to analyse the mechanisms controlling TE. Plants were grown individually in 19 l pots with non-limiting soil moisture. Soil fertility was altered by mixing soil with varying proportions of rice husks, and applying a slow release fertilizer. A large variation was observed in leaf photosynthetic rate, mean relative growth rate (RGR), and TE in response to experimental treatments; these traits were well correlated with variation in leaf N concentration. Variation in TE showed a strong dependence on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) mole fractions (c(i)/c(a)); both for instantaneous measurements of c(i)/c(a) (R(2)=0.69, P <0.0001, n=30), and integrated estimates based on C isotope discrimination (R(2)=0.88, P <0.0001, n=30). On the other hand, variations in the leaf-to-air humidity gradient, unproductive water loss, and respiratory C use probably played only minor roles in modulating TE in the face of variable soil fertility. The pronounced variation in TE resulted from a combination of the strong response of c(i)/c(a) to leaf N, and inherently high values of c(i)/c(a) for this tropical tree species; these two factors conspired to cause a 4-fold variation among treatments in (1-c(i)/c(a)), the term that actually modifies TE. Results suggest that variation in plant N status could have important implications for the coupling between C and water exchange in tropical forest trees.

  3. Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (38th) Held at Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio on June 13-17 1983. (United States)


    AMPLITUDE INTERNAL MOTION INTERACTIONS..15 min.(l:30) C. RICHARD UADE and YUHUA GUAN, Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas...128 REI. (1.30) THEORY FOR VIBRATION-ROTATION-LARGE AMPLITUDE ITkTERNAL MOTION INTERACTIONS C. RICAARD qUADE AND YUHUA GUAN A theory for vibration...Massachusetts 02139. Address of Cross: 32 Chadwick St., Hilton Park, WESTERN AUSTRALIA 6163. 160 FBIO. II:06) THE CaO c z:z - a 3 .ii SYSTEM J.B_. NORM4AN, K.J





    Crimean War of 1853 1856 is a factor of important socio-political and socio-medical reforms. Study of these cases is characterized as interdisciplinary. At the edge of Crimean War Great Britain press highlighted aspiration of the empire to capture russian territories of Black sea region, also reforms and work of E.Chadwick, founder of public health system, were criticized, he was wanted to be away from members of parliament and London oligarchs due to his extreme reforms and British corruptio...

  5. Cooking crisis: What crisis?


    Caraher, M.


    Cooking has long been a topic of discussion and concern among those arguing for a healthy diet. Chadwick, the great public health reformer, in 1842 called for cooking education.\\ud \\ud The Obama administration has heartedly endorsed cooking, mainly through the First Lady and a program called Cooking Matters, to address the obesity problem in the United States ( \\ud \\ud Changing practices in cooking and food preparation and the way we eat some argue are driven by a ...

  6. Neutron-Activated Gamma-Emission: Technology Review (United States)


    in Be9 + α  C12 + n and Be9 + α  3He4 + n. Chadwick (5) made use of the naturally occurring α-emitter polonium - 210 , which decays to lead-206 with...emission, the variation of gamma attenuation with distance and the presence of organic clutter (in food , fertilizer, dirt road, etc.) makes it 8...a neutron source by mixing a radioisotope that emits alpha particles, such as radium or polonium , with a low atomic weight isotope, usually in the

  7. The Early History of UC Santa Cruz's Farm and Garden


    Lee, Paul; Norris, Phyllis; Martin, Orin; Tamura, Dennis; Hagege, Maya; Jarrell, Randall; Regional History Project, UCSC Library


    The Early History of UCSC's Farm and Garden documents the emergence of the organic gardening and farming movement in Santa Cruz. It includes interviews with Paul Lee, Phyllis Norris, Orin Martin, and Dennis Tamura, who were involved in the early years of the Garden. Maya Hagege, a former Farm and Garden apprentice and UCSC alumna, conducted the interviews, which were edited by Jarrell. Established in 1967 by master gardener Alan Chadwick, the original site was a neglected 4-acre plot...

  8. Contrasting nitrogen fate in watersheds using agricultural and water quality information (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I.; Baker, Nancy T.; McCarthy, Kathleen A.


    Surplus nitrogen (N) estimates, principal component analysis (PCA), and end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) were used in a multisite comparison contrasting the fate of N in diverse agricultural watersheds. We applied PCA-EMMA in 10 watersheds located in Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Nebraska, Mississippi, and Washington ranging in size from 5 to 1254 km2 with four nested watersheds. Watershed Surplus N was determined by subtracting estimates of crop uptake and volatilization from estimates of N input from atmospheric deposition, plant fixation, fertilizer, and manure for the period from 1987 to 2004. Watershed average Surplus N ranged from 11 to 52 kg N ha−1 and from 9 to 32% of N input. Solute concentrations in streams, overland runoff, tile drainage, groundwater (GW), streambeds, and the unsaturated zone were used in the PCA-EMMA procedure to identify independent components contributing to observed stream concentration variability and the end-members contributing to streamflow and NO3 load. End-members included dilute runoff, agricultural runoff, benthic-processing, tile drainage, and oxic and anoxic GW. Surplus N was larger in watersheds with more permeable soils (Washington, Nebraska, and Maryland) that allowed greater infiltration, and oxic GW was the primary source of NO3 load. Subsurface transport of NO3 in these watersheds resulted in some removal of Surplus N by denitrification. In less permeable watersheds (Iowa, Indiana, and Mississippi), NO3 was rapidly transported to the stream by tile drainage and runoff with little removal. Evidence of streambed removal of NO3 by benthic diatoms was observed in the larger watersheds.

  9. Visiting a Swiss solar pioneer - 'People don't react voluntarily'; 'Der Mensch reagiert nicht freiwillig'. Auf Besuch bei einem Schweizer Solarpionier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaninger, E.


    This article presents an interview with Swiss solar energy pioneer Josef Jenni, who is considered one of the most successful European solar innovators. In the interview, Jenni's basic motivation to set up his company and the initial lean spell he encountered are discussed, as is his idea - in the nineteen eighties - of running a tour across Switzerland with solar-powered vehicles. Further topics discussed include the potential for new renewable energy sources, the large-scale photovoltaic installations on his factory buildings, energy self-sufficient buildings, socio-economic factors, training of planners and installers and the replacement of oil with solar and other renewable resources. Swiss energy policy, energy saving efforts and plans for new large-scale power stations are also discussed.

  10. Production and quality of tomato fruits under organic management Produção e qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de tomateiro, sob manejo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora S Toledo


    Full Text Available Information about the production and quality of tomato cultivars under organic management and the conditions of climate and soil from the north region of Minas Gerais State, Brasil, are scarce. Thus, this research was carried out to evaluate the production and quality of tomato cultivars under organic management, in this region. The treatments consisted of four open pollination tomato cultivars (Chadwick Cherry, Pitanga vermelha, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Kada and five hybrid cultivars (Marguerita, Nicolas, Ellen, Magestade and Dominador. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replications. The experiment was carried out using organic fertilization in the initial preparation of the area, compost and rock phosphate and sprays with Bordeaux mixture, neem oil and fertilizer. The marketable yield varied from 12.3 t ha-1 to 23.9 t ha-1. The hybrid Marguerita presented higher marketable production (23.9 t ha-1. The cultivars Chadwick Cherry and Pitanga Vermelha reached similar production as most cultivars and larger proportions of marketable and giant fruits, and therefore, better market quality. All the cultivars presented low potassium and manganese levels in foliar tissue suggesting an evaluation after various organic manuring cycles and better nutrition conditions are necessary to permit the comparison of the performance of cultivars in this system.Informações sobre a produção e qualidade de frutos de cultivares de tomateiro, sob manejo orgânico, nas condições de clima e solo do Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil, são escassas. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção e qualidade de frutos de cultivares de tomateiro, sob manejo orgânico, em Montes Claros-MG. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro cultivares de tomate de polinização livre (Chadwick Cherry, Pitanga Vermelha, Santa Clara e Santa Cruz Kada e cinco cultivares híbridos (Marguerita, Nícolas, Ellen, Majestade e Dominador. Foi utilizado o

  11. Moodne aeg : Moeuudised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Moes on puhvseelik, mis moekriitik Amanda Harlech'i arvates teeb naise keha inetuks. Londonis elava prantslanna Emma Cassid'i cool'id ridikülid. Sian Evansi toidukäruga sõrmused. Graafik James Jarvise disainitud Briti firma Silas'i Evil Martini nimeline kummilelu ning tema sõber kummikass Bubba the Car.

  12. Sigmund Freud's Discovery of the Etiological Significance of Childhood Sexual Traumas. (United States)

    Kuhn, Philip


    Reconstructs Freud's early treatment of Emma Eckstein so as to challenge assumptions that Freud's early writings have no place in the current discourse on child sexual abuse. Reveals how Freud first formulated the radical theory that his patients' psycho-neuroses were due to their having been sexually traumatized as children. (RJM)

  13. Primary Science Interview: Science Sparks (United States)

    Bianchi, Lynne


    In this "Primary Science" interview, Lynne Bianchi talks with Emma Vanstone about "Science Sparks," which is a website full of creative, fun, and exciting science activity ideas for children of primary-school age. "Science Sparks" started with the aim of inspiring more parents to do science at home with their…

  14. Bootcamp EMMA MOOC Assessment for learning in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firssova, Olga; Brouns, Francis


    Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a relevant theme for teachers and educationalists. Formative assessment is a valuable tool for supporting the learning process. It is applied during learning and offers you more and better opportunities to guide your students. Formative assessment

  15. Spotlight on unmet needs in stroke prevention: The PIONEER AF-PCI, NAVIGATE ESUS and GALILEO trials. (United States)

    Hemmrich, Melanie; Peterson, Eric D; Thomitzek, Karen; Weitz, Jeffrey I


    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major healthcare concern, being associated with an estimated five-fold risk of ischaemic stroke. In patients with AF, anticoagulants reduce stroke risk to a greater extent than acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with ASA plus clopidogrel. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are now a widely-accepted therapeutic option for stroke prevention in non-valvular AF (NVAF). There are particular patient types with NVAF for whom treatment challenges remain, owing to sparse clinical data, their high-risk nature or a need to harmonise anticoagulant and antiplatelet regimens if co-administered. This article focuses on three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that are investigating the utility of rivaroxaban, a direct, oral, factor Xa inhibitor, in additional areas of stroke prevention where data for anticoagulants are lacking: oPen-label, randomized, controlled, multicentre study explorIng twO treatmeNt stratEgiEs of Rivaroxaban and a dose-adjusted oral vitamin K antagonist treatment (PIONEER AF-PCI); New Approach riVaroxoban Inhibition of factor Xa in a Global trial vs Aspirin to prevenT Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (NAVIGATE ESUS); and Global study comparing a rivAroxaban-based antithrombotic strategy to an antipLatelet-based strategy after transcatheter aortIc vaLve rEplacement to Optimize clinical outcomes (GALILEO). Data from these studies present collaborative efforts to build upon existing registrational Phase III data for rivaroxaban, driving the need for effective and safe treatment of a wider range of patients for stroke prevention.

  16. Meeting report: Comparative aeronomy in the solar system (United States)

    Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Bunce, Emma


    The coupled upper atmospheres, ionospheres and magnetospheres of the planets were the subject of a joint RAS-G/MIST discussion meeting hosted by the RAS on 10 January 2003, organized by Ingo Mueller-Wodarg and Emma Bunce. The scientific programme consisted of 10 presentations by speakers from the UK, France, USA and Australia.

  17. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 16 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro propagation of orchid (Dendrobium nobile) var. Emma white · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ... Control of powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) on tomato by foliar sprays of liquid potassium silicate (K2SiO3) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emma-Echiegu, NB. Vol 23, No 1-2 (2011) - Articles Prevalence of sexual harassment/victimization of female students in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, southeast Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-7410. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  19. Speedwriting--The Proven One-Year Shorthand System. (United States)

    Schindler, Irene

    Emma Dearborn originated the Speedwriting Alphabetic Shorthand in 1924. The system became well known in 1928 when it became the first shorthand system publicized for dual use in verbatim recording and selected notetaking. For the next 50 years, speedwriting was marketed in a franchise arrangement with proprietary schools. It became available to…

  20. Progressive-Era Resources on the World Wide Web. (United States)

    Howenstein, Amanda


    Provides a list of Progressive-era websites with the address and a detailed description of each of the websites. Includes topics such as the womens suffrage movement, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the Prohibition, labor-management conflicts, the Hull House, the Chicago fire, Emma Goldman, Progressive-era entertainment, and the Worlds Fair.…