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Sample records for pion-nucleus interactions progress

  1. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This report summarizes investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions and nucleon-nucleus charge-exchange reactions. The work was carried out with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the cyclotrons at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland, and at Indiana University (IUCF), as a collaborative effort among several laboratories and universities. The experimental activity at LAMPF involved measurements of new data on pion double-charge-exchange scattering, some initial work on a new Neutral Meson Spectrometer system, a search for deeply-bound pionic atoms, measurements of elastic scattering, and studies of the (n,p) reaction on various nuclei. At PSI measurements of pion quasielastic scattering were carried out, with detection of the recoil proton. Work on the analysis of data from a previous experiment at PSI on pion absorption in nuclei was continued. This experiment involved using a detector system that covered nearly the full solid angle.

  2. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus and nucleon-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies. Progress report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-30

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991-94 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. Most of these studies involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions and nucleon-nucleus charge-exchange reactions. The work was carried out with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the cyclotrons at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland, at Indiana University (IUCF), and at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, as collaborative efforts among several laboratories and universities. We have also worked on plans and preparations for new experiments involving studies of the quark structure of nucleons and nuclei, which would be carried out at Fermilab (FNAL), near Chicago, and at the HERA facility at the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany. The NMSU personnel included two faculty members, five postdoctoral research associates, nine graduate students, and one undergraduate student.

  3. The Nuclear $\\sigma$ Term in the Skyrme Model Pion-Nucleus Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gammal, A

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear sigma term is calculated including the nuclear matrix element of the derivative of the NN interaction with respect to the quark mass, $m_q\\frac{\\partial V_{NN}}{\\partial m_q}$. The NN potential is evaluated in the skyrmion-skyrmion picture within the quantized product ansatz. The contribution of the NN potential to the nuclear sigma term provides repulsion to the pion-nucleus interaction. The strength of the s-wave pion-nucleus optical potential is estimated including such contribution. The results are consistent with the analysis of the experimental data.

  4. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies. [New Mexico State Univ. , Las Cruces, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This report summarizes investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions and nucleon-nucleus charge-exchange reactions. The work was carried out with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the cyclotrons at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland, and at Indiana University (IUCF), as a collaborative effort among several laboratories and universities. The experimental activity at LAMPF involved measurements of new data on pion double-charge-exchange scattering, some initial work on a new Neutral Meson Spectrometer system, a search for deeply-bound pionic atoms, measurements of elastic scattering, and studies of the (n,p) reaction on various nuclei. At PSI measurements of pion quasielastic scattering were carried out, with detection of the recoil proton. Work on the analysis of data from a previous experiment at PSI on pion absorption in nuclei was continued. This experiment involved using a detector system that covered nearly the full solid angle.

  5. Pion-nucleus interactions and the STAR experiment at RHIC. Progress report, 1990--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, C.F.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the work carried out by personnel from the University of Texas at Austin at the Los Alamos Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) during the calendar years 1990--1993 and on the STAR experiment at RHIC under grant DE-FGO5-87ER40343 between the University of Texas at Austin and the United States Department of Energy. A brief overview of work supported by this grant is given in Section 2. An account of the study of the double giant resonances in pion double charge exchange forms Section 3. This report contains a list of published papers and preprints in Section 6, invited talks in Section 7, and abstracts in Section 8. These papers summarize experiments involving participants supported by this grant and indicate the work accomplished by these participants in this program of medium energy nuclear physics research. Section 9 contains a list of personnel who have participated in this research program.

  6. Pion-nucleus elastic scattering on $^{12}C$, $^{40}Ca$, $^{90}Zr$, and $^{208}Pb$ at 400 and 500 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Kahrimanis, G; Chen, C M; Clark, B C; Dhuga, K S; Ernst, D J; Faucett, J A; Fortune, H T; Hama, S; Hussein, A; Jiang, M F; Johnson, K W; Kerr, L K; Mathews, S; McGill, J A; Moore, C F; Mordechai, S; Morris, C L; O'Donnell, J; Snell, M; Rawool-Sullivan, M; Ray, L; Whitley, C; Williams, A L; Kahrimanis, George; Burleson, George; Dhuga, Kalvir; Hussein, Ahmed; Mathews, Scott; Gill, John Mc; Mordechai, Shaul; Morris, Christopher L.; Donnell, John O'; Snell, Mike; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Whitley, Charles; Williams, Allen L.

    1997-01-01

    Pion-nucleus elastic scattering at energies above the Delta(1232) resonance is studied using both pi+ and pi- beams on 12C, 40Ca, 90Zr, and 208Pb. The present data provide an opportunity to study the interaction of pions with nuclei at energies where second-order corrections to impulse approximation calculations should be small. The results are compared with other data sets at similar energies, and with four different first-order impulse approximation calculations. Significant disagreement exists between the calculations and the data from this experiment.

  7. Pion-nucleus total cross-section data from LAMPF and BNL. [Neutron and proton radii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    New measurements of pion-nucleus total cross sections were made at LAMPF and BNL. The results from LAMPF include measurement of the difference of the rms neutron and proton radii of /sup 48/Ca to be 0.08 +- 0.02 and that of /sup 18/O to be 0.19 +- 0.02. The BNL measurements provide a new phenomenology on the downshift and spreading of the (3-3) resonance in nuclei from the first data on heavy nuclei. A new technique for handling the Coulomb effects in total cross section measurements is discussed.

  8. Applicability of pion-nucleus Drell-Yan data in global analysis of nuclear parton distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Paakkinen, Petja; Paukkunen, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the success of modern nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs) in describing nuclear hard-process data, they still suffer from large uncertainties. One of the poorly constrained features is the possible asymmetry in nuclear modifications of valence $u$ and $d$ quarks. We study the possibility of using pion-nucleus Drell-Yan dilepton data as a new constraint in the global analysis of nPDFs. We find that the nuclear cross-section ratios from the NA3, NA10 and E615 experiments can be used without imposing significant new theoretical uncertainties and, in particular, that these datasets may have some constraining power on the $u$/$d$ -asymmetry in nuclei.

  9. Progress on Multiple Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Skands, P Z

    2004-01-01

    We report on the development of a new model for the underlying event in hadron-hadron collisions. The model includes parton showers for all interactions, as well as non-trivial flavour, momentum, and colour correlations between interaction initiators and beam remnant partons.

  10. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Tomasz [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Juszczak, Cezary [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Sobczyk, Jan T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  11. Research progress in cation-π interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG JiaGao; LUO XiaoMin; YAN XiuHua; LI Zhong; TANG Yun; JIANG HuaLiang; ZHU WeiLiang

    2008-01-01

    Cation-π interaction is a potent intermolecular interaction between a cation and an aromatic system, which has been viewed as a new kind of binding force, as being compared with the classical interac-tions (e.g. hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions). Cation-π interactions have been observed in a wide range of biological contexts. In this paper, we present an overview of the typi-cal cation-π interactions in biological systems, the experimental and theoretical investigations on cation-π interactions, as well as the research results on cation-π interactions in our group.

  12. Research progress in cation-π interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cation-π interaction is a potent intermolecular interaction between a cation and an aromatic system,which has been viewed as a new kind of binding force,as being compared with the classical interactions(e.g. hydrogen bonding,electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions). Cation-π interactions have been observed in a wide range of biological contexts. In this paper,we present an overview of the typical cation-π interactions in biological systems,the experimental and theoretical investigations on cation-π interactions,as well as the research results on cation-π interactions in our group.

  13. Experimental studies of the quark-gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei and of pion- and proton-nucleus interactions. Progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out by New Mexico State University from April 1, 1994, through March 31, 1996 under a grant from the US Department of Energy. During this period we began phasing out our programs of study of pion-nucleus and pion-nucleon interaction and of nucleon-nucleus charge-exchange reactions, which have been our major focus of the past two or three years. At the same time we continued moving in a new direction of research on studies of the internal structure of nucleons and nuclei in terms of quarks and gluons. The pion and nucleon work has been aimed at improving our understanding of the nature of pion and proton interactions in the nuclear medium and of various aspects of nuclear structure. The studies of the quark-gluon structure of nucleons are aimed at clarifying such problems as the nature of the quark sea and the relation of the nucleon spin to the spins of the quarks within the nucleon, questions which are of a very fundamental nature.

  14. A preference for progressivity in interaction

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates two types of preference organization in interaction: in response to a question that selects a next speaker in multi-party interaction, the preference for answers over non-answer responses as a category of a response; and the preference for selected next speakers to respond. It is asserted that the turn allocation rule specified by Sacks, Schegloff & Jefferson (1974) which states that a response is relevant by the selected next speaker at the transition relevance plac...

  15. Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-08-16

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  16. Interaction of Vortices with a progressive Surface Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinlinWANG; HuiyangMA

    1996-01-01

    Interaction of submerged vortices with a progressive surface wave is investigated by the finite-difference numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations.The progressive wave is the surface gravity water wave in a finite depth.The initial vortex model is Oseen vortex.The numerical computations show that a special pattern of the wave surface may be observed by the interaction from the submerged vortices.The influences of Froude number,the initial geometric configuration of vortices,and the amplitude,inital phase of surface wave on the wave pattern are discussed.

  17. Discussing Progress in Understanding Ice Sheet-Ocean Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz Borreguero, Laura; Mottram, Ruth; Cvijanovic, Ivana

    2010-11-01

    Advanced Climate Dynamics Course 2010: Ice Sheet-Ocean Interactions; Lyngen, Norway, 8-19 June 2010; Sea level rise is one of many expected consequences of climate change, with accompanying complex social and economic challenges. Major uncertainties in sea level rise projections relate to the response of ice sheets to sea level rise and the key role that interactions with the ocean may play. Recognizing that probably no comprehensive curriculum currently exists at any single university that covers this novel and interdisciplinary subject, the Advanced Climate Dynamics Courses (ACDC) team brought together a group of 40 international students, postdocs, and lecturers from diverse backgrounds to provide an overview and discussion of state-of-the-art research into ocean-ice sheet interactions and to propose research priorities for the next decade. Among the key issues addressed were small-scale processes near the Antarctic ice shelves and Greenland outlet glaciers. These are fast changing components in the climate system, often related to large-scale forcings (atmospheric teleconnections and oceanic circulation). Progress in understanding and modeling is hampered by the range of scales involved, the lack of observations, and the difficulties in constraining, initializing, and providing adequate boundary conditions for ice sheet and ocean models.

  18. Progressive freezing of interacting spins in isolated finite magnetic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kakoli; Dupuis, Veronique; Le-Roy, Damien; Deb, Pritam

    2017-02-01

    Self-organization of magnetic nanoparticles into secondary nanostructures provides an innovative way for designing functional nanomaterials with novel properties, different from the constituent primary nanoparticles as well as their bulk counterparts. Collective magnetic properties of such complex closed packing of magnetic nanoparticles makes them more appealing than the individual magnetic nanoparticles in many technological applications. This work reports the collective magnetic behaviour of magnetic ensembles comprising of single domain Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The present work reveals that the ensemble formation is based on the re-orientation and attachment of the nanoparticles in an iso-oriented fashion at the mesoscale regime. Comprehensive dc magnetic measurements show the prevalence of strong interparticle interactions in the ensembles. Due to the close range organization of primary Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the ensemble, the spins of the individual nanoparticles interact through dipolar interactions as realized from remnant magnetization measurements. Signature of super spin glass like behaviour in the ensembles is observed in the memory studies carried out in field cooled conditions. Progressive freezing of spins in the ensembles is corroborated from the Vogel-Fulcher fit of the susceptibility data. Dynamic scaling of relaxation reasserted slow spin dynamics substantiating cluster spin glass like behaviour in the ensembles.

  19. Interactions between biomaterials and the sclera: Implications on myopia progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, James

    Myopia prevalence has steadily climbed worldwide in recent decades with the most dramatic impact in East Asian countries. Treatments such as eyeglasses, contact lenses, and laser surgery for the refractive error are widely available, but none cures the underlying cause. In progressive high myopia, invasive surgical procedures using a scleral buckle for mechanical support are performed since the patient is at risk of becoming blind. The treatment outcome is highly dependent on the surgeon's skills and the patient's myopia progression rate, with limited choices in buckling materials. This dissertation, in four main studies, represents efforts made to control high myopia progression through the exploration and development of biomaterials that influence scleral growth. First, mRNA expression levels of the chick scleral matrix metalloproteinases, tissue-inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, and transforming growth factor-beta 2 were assessed for temporal and defocus power effects. The first study elucidated the roles that these factors play in scleral growth regulation and suggested potential motifs that can be incorporated in future biomaterials design. Second, poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) as injectable gels and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) as solid strips were implanted in chicks to demonstrate the concept of posterior pole scleral reinforcements. This second study found that placing appropriate biomaterials at the posterior pole of the eye could directly influence scleral remodeling by interacting with the host cells. Both studies advanced the idea that scleral tissue remodeling could be potentially controlled by well-designed biomaterials. These findings led to the exploration of biomimetic hydrogels comprising enzymatically-degradable semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (edsIPNs) to determine their biocompatibility and effects on the chick posterior eye wall. This third study demonstrated the feasibility of stimulating scleral growth by applying biomimetic

  20. Research progress in neuro-immune interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-ling CAI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune response may be activated quickly once the organism is invaded by exotic pathogens. An excessive immune response may result in inflammation and tissue damage, whereas an insufficient immune response may result in infection. Nervous system may regulate the intensity of innate immune responses by releasing neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Compared with the complicated neuro-immune system in mammals, it is much simpler in Caenorhabditis elegans. Besides, C. elegans is accessible to genetic, molecular biology and behavioral analyses, so it has been used in studies on neuro-immune interactions. It has been revealed recently in the studies with C. elegans that the neuronal pathways regulating innate immune responses primarily include a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β pathway, an insulin/insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF pathway and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Since these pathways are evolutionally conservative, so it might be able to provide some new ideas for the research on neuro-immune interactions at molecular levels. The recent progress in this field has been reviewed in present paper.

  1. Directed Transport of Interacting Particle Systems: Recent Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhi-Gang

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in studies of directed transport processes in interacting particle systems are retrospected. Due to the interactions among elements, the directed transport process exhibits complicated and novel cooperative dynamics. We considered various possibilities in achieving ratchet motion by breaking different symmetries of many-body systems. It is shown that the directional transport can even be induced by breaking the coupling symmetry and the spatiotemporal symmetries.

  2. [Research in elementary particles and interactions]. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.

    1992-05-01

    Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.

  3. Progress in the studies of electrochemically controllable host-guest interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing; LI Yuangang; FANG Yu

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the electrochemically controllable host-guest interactions have received considerable attention since the middle of the 1980s. In this paper, progress in such studies is reviewed according to the types of the hosts, including cyclodextrin, calixarene,cucurbituril, cyclophane, and so on. In addition, perspectives for the future development and potential applications of the interactions are discussed.

  4. Progress at the WITCH experiment towards weak interaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tandecki, Michaël

    A measurement of the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation in nuclear $\\beta$- decay is a good probe to search for physics beyond the Standard Model, independent of assumptions like parity, charge and time reversal violation. The WITCH (Weak Interaction Trap for Charged Particles) experiment will measure this correlation with the aim of further constraining the possible existence of scalar currents in the weak interaction or find a positive indication. The setup is located at ISOLDE/CERN and consists of a double Penning trap system combined with a retardation spectrometer to probe the energy of the recoil ions from the $\\beta$- decay. The shape of the recoil ion energy spectrum allows to determine the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation coefficient, $a$. Past experiments have allowed to measure this parameter with a precision of 0.5–1 %. The aim of the WITCH experiment is to measure $a$ with a precision of about 0.5 %.\\\\ A first step towards this goal has already been taken in 2006 with the measurement of a recoil ...

  5. Progress in EEG-Based Brain Robot Interaction Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most popular noninvasive Brain Robot Interaction (BRI technology uses the electroencephalogram- (EEG- based Brain Computer Interface (BCI, to serve as an additional communication channel, for robot control via brainwaves. This technology is promising for elderly or disabled patient assistance with daily life. The key issue of a BRI system is to identify human mental activities, by decoding brainwaves, acquired with an EEG device. Compared with other BCI applications, such as word speller, the development of these applications may be more challenging since control of robot systems via brainwaves must consider surrounding environment feedback in real-time, robot mechanical kinematics, and dynamics, as well as robot control architecture and behavior. This article reviews the major techniques needed for developing BRI systems. In this review article, we first briefly introduce the background and development of mind-controlled robot technologies. Second, we discuss the EEG-based brain signal models with respect to generating principles, evoking mechanisms, and experimental paradigms. Subsequently, we review in detail commonly used methods for decoding brain signals, namely, preprocessing, feature extraction, and feature classification, and summarize several typical application examples. Next, we describe a few BRI applications, including wheelchairs, manipulators, drones, and humanoid robots with respect to synchronous and asynchronous BCI-based techniques. Finally, we address some existing problems and challenges with future BRI techniques.

  6. Progress in EEG-Based Brain Robot Interaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengfan; Niu, Linwei; Xian, Bin; Zeng, Ming; Chen, Genshe

    2017-01-01

    The most popular noninvasive Brain Robot Interaction (BRI) technology uses the electroencephalogram- (EEG-) based Brain Computer Interface (BCI), to serve as an additional communication channel, for robot control via brainwaves. This technology is promising for elderly or disabled patient assistance with daily life. The key issue of a BRI system is to identify human mental activities, by decoding brainwaves, acquired with an EEG device. Compared with other BCI applications, such as word speller, the development of these applications may be more challenging since control of robot systems via brainwaves must consider surrounding environment feedback in real-time, robot mechanical kinematics, and dynamics, as well as robot control architecture and behavior. This article reviews the major techniques needed for developing BRI systems. In this review article, we first briefly introduce the background and development of mind-controlled robot technologies. Second, we discuss the EEG-based brain signal models with respect to generating principles, evoking mechanisms, and experimental paradigms. Subsequently, we review in detail commonly used methods for decoding brain signals, namely, preprocessing, feature extraction, and feature classification, and summarize several typical application examples. Next, we describe a few BRI applications, including wheelchairs, manipulators, drones, and humanoid robots with respect to synchronous and asynchronous BCI-based techniques. Finally, we address some existing problems and challenges with future BRI techniques. PMID:28484488

  7. Normal and mutant HTT interact to affect clinical severity and progression in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, N A; Jurgens, C K; Landwehrmeyer, G B;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the HD gene (HTT). We aimed to assess whether interaction between CAG repeat sizes in the mutant and normal allele could affect disease severity and progression. METHODS: Using...... with less severe symptoms and pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing CAG repeat size in normal HTT diminishes the association between mutant CAG repeat size and disease severity and progression in Huntington disease. The underlying mechanism may involve interaction of the polyglutamine domains of normal...

  8. Progress of Large-Scale Air-Sea Interaction Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲书箴; 赵进平; 于卫东; 赵永平; 杨波

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress of large-scale air-sea interaction studies that has been achieved in China in the four-year period from July 1998 to July 2002, including seven aspects in the area of the air-sea interaction, namely air-sea interaction related to the tropical Pacific Ocean, monsoon-related air-sea interaction, air-sea interaction in the north Pacific Ocean, air-sea interaction in the Indian Ocean, air-sea interactions in the global oceans, field experiments, and oceanic cruise surveys. However more attention has been paid to the first and the second aspects because a large number of papers in the reference literature for preparing and organizing this paper are concentrated in the tropical Pacific Ocean, such as the ENSO process with its climatic effects and dynamics, and the monsoon-related air-sea interaction. The literature also involves various phenomena with their different time and spatial scales such as intraseasonal, annual, interannual, and interdecadal variabilities in the atmosphere/ocean interaction system, reflecting the contemporary themes in the four-year period at the beginning of an era from the post-TOGA to CLIVAR studies. Apparently, it is a difficult task to summarize the great progress in this area, as it is extracted from a large quantity of literature, although the authors tried very hard.

  9. Maternal Environment Interacts with Modifier Genes to Influence Progression of Nephrotic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratelade, Julien; Lavin, Tiphaine Aguirre; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Morisset, Ludivine; Mollet, Géraldine; Boyer, Olivia; Chen, Deborah S.; Henger, Anna; Kretzler, Matthias; Hubner, Norbert; Théry, Clotilde; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Montagutelli, Xavier; Antignac, Corinne; Esquivel, Ernie L.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the NPHS2 gene, which encodes podocin, are responsible for some cases of sporadic and familial autosomal recessive steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Inter- and intrafamilial variability in the progression of renal disease among patients bearing NPHS2 mutations suggests a potential role for modifier genes. Using a mouse model in which the podocin gene is constitutively inactivated, we sought to identify genetic determinants of the development and progression of renal disease as a result of the nephrotic syndrome. We report that the evolution of renal disease as a result of nephrotic syndrome in Nphs2-null mice depends on genetic background. Furthermore, the maternal environment significantly interacts with genetic determinants to modify survival and progression of renal disease. Quantitative trait locus mapping suggested that these genetic determinants may be encoded for by genes on the distal end of chromosome 3, which are linked to proteinuria, and on the distal end of chromosome 7, which are linked to a composite trait of urea, creatinine, and potassium. These loci demonstrate epistatic interactions with other chromosomal regions, highlighting the complex genetics of renal disease progression. In summary, constitutive inactivation of podocin models the complex interactions between maternal and genetically determined factors on the progression of renal disease as a result of nephrotic syndrome in mice. PMID:18385421

  10. Quantum computing with atomic qubits and Rydberg interactions: Progress and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Saffman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of quantum computation with neutral atom qubits. After an overview of architectural options we examine Rydberg mediated gate protocols and fidelity for two- and multi-qubit interactions. We conclude with a summary of the current status and give an outlook for future progress.

  11. BRCA1 interaction of centrosomal protein Nlp is required for successful mitotic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shunqian; Gao, Hua; Mazzacurati, Lucia; Wang, Yang; Fan, Wenhong; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Wei; Wang, Mingrong; Zhu, Xueliang; Zhang, Chuanmao; Zhan, Qimin

    2009-08-21

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 is implicated in the control of mitotic progression, although the underlying mechanism(s) remains to be further defined. Deficiency of BRCA1 function leads to disrupted mitotic machinery and genomic instability. Here, we show that BRCA1 physically interacts and colocalizes with Nlp, an important molecule involved in centrosome maturation and spindle formation. Interestingly, Nlp centrosomal localization and its protein stability are regulated by normal cellular BRCA1 function because cells containing BRCA1 mutations or silenced for endogenous BRCA1 exhibit disrupted Nlp colocalization to centrosomes and enhanced Nlp degradation. Its is likely that the BRCA1 regulation of Nlp stability involves Plk1 suppression. Inhibition of endogenous Nlp via the small interfering RNA approach results in aberrant spindle formation, aborted chromosomal segregation, and aneuploidy, which mimic the phenotypes of disrupted BRCA1. Thus, BRCA1 interaction of Nlp might be required for the successful mitotic progression, and abnormalities of Nlp lead to genomic instability.

  12. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The Panels provide a detailed assessment report every four years. The most recent 2014 Quadrennial Assessment by the EEAP was published as a special issue of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). The next Quadrennial Assessment will be published in 2018/2019. In the interim, the EEAP generally produces an annual update or progress report of the relevant scientific findings. The present progress report for 2015 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change.

  13. Recent progress on ULF wave and its interactions with energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG QiuGang; WANG YongFu; YANG Biao; FU SuiYan; PU ZuYin; XIE Lun; Theodore A. FRITZ

    2008-01-01

    The global distribution properties of Ultra Low Frequency wave (ULF) in the inner magnetospgere and its interactions with energetic particles, such as the wave-particle resonance, modulation, and particle acceleration, are active topics in space physics research. These problems are fundamentally important issues to understand the energy transport from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. In this paper we briefly reviewed the recent research progress on ULF wave and its interactions with energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere; furthermore, we suggested some open questions for future study.

  14. Quantum computing with atomic qubits and Rydberg interactions: progress and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffman, M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a review of quantum computation with neutral atom qubits. After an overview of architectural options and approaches to preparing large qubit arrays we examine Rydberg mediated gate protocols and fidelity for two- and multi-qubit interactions. Quantum simulation and Rydberg dressing are alternatives to circuit based quantum computing for exploring many body quantum dynamics. We review the properties of the dressing interaction and provide a quantitative figure of merit for the complexity of the coherent dynamics that can be accessed with dressing. We conclude with a summary of the current status and an outlook for future progress.

  15. Designing Progressive and Interactive Analytics Processes for High-Dimensional Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkay, Cagatay; Kaya, Erdem; Balcisoy, Selim; Hauser, Helwig

    2017-01-01

    In interactive data analysis processes, the dialogue between the human and the computer is the enabling mechanism that can lead to actionable observations about the phenomena being investigated. It is of paramount importance that this dialogue is not interrupted by slow computational mechanisms that do not consider any known temporal human-computer interaction characteristics that prioritize the perceptual and cognitive capabilities of the users. In cases where the analysis involves an integrated computational method, for instance to reduce the dimensionality of the data or to perform clustering, such non-optimal processes are often likely. To remedy this, progressive computations, where results are iteratively improved, are getting increasing interest in visual analytics. In this paper, we present techniques and design considerations to incorporate progressive methods within interactive analysis processes that involve high-dimensional data. We define methodologies to facilitate processes that adhere to the perceptual characteristics of users and describe how online algorithms can be incorporated within these. A set of design recommendations and according methods to support analysts in accomplishing high-dimensional data analysis tasks are then presented. Our arguments and decisions here are informed by observations gathered over a series of analysis sessions with analysts from finance. We document observations and recommendations from this study and present evidence on how our approach contribute to the efficiency and productivity of interactive visual analysis sessions involving high-dimensional data.

  16. Latest progress on interactions between VLF/ELF waves and energetic electrons in the inner magnetosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between very/extremely low frequency (VLF/ELF) waves and energetic electrons play a fundamental role in dynamics occurring in the inner magnetosphere. Here, we briefly discuss global properties of VLF/ELF waves, along with the variability of the electron radiation belts associated with wave-particle interactions and radial diffusion. We provide cases of electron loss and acceleration as a result of wave-particle interactions primarily due to such waves, and particularly some preliminary results of 3D evolution of phase space density from our currently developing 3D code. We comment on the existing mechanisms responsible for acceleration and loss, and identify several critical issues that need to be addressed. We review latest progress and suggest open questions for future investigation.

  17. PIAS1-FAK Interaction Promotes the Survival and Progression of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerfiz D. Constanzo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The sequence of genomic alterations acquired by cancer cells during tumor progression and metastasis is poorly understood. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that integrates cytoskeleton remodeling, mitogenic signaling and cell survival. FAK has previously been reported to undergo nuclear localization during cell migration, cell differentiation and apoptosis. However, the mechanism behind FAK nuclear accumulation and its contribution to tumor progression has remained elusive. We report that amplification of FAK and the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 gene loci frequently co-occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells, and that both gene products are enriched in a subset of primary NSCLCs. We demonstrate that endogenous FAK and PIAS1 proteins interact in the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus of NSCLC cells. Ectopic expression of PIAS1 promotes proteolytic cleavage of the FAK C-terminus, focal adhesion maturation and FAK nuclear localization. Silencing of PIAS1 deregulates focal adhesion turnover, increases susceptibility to apoptosis in vitro and impairs tumor xenograft formation in vivo. Nuclear FAK in turn stimulates gene transcription favoring DNA repair, cell metabolism and cytoskeleton regulation. Consistently, ablation of FAK by CRISPR/Cas9 editing, results in basal DNA damage, susceptibility to ionizing radiation and impaired oxidative phosphorylation. Our findings provide insight into a mechanism regulating FAK cytoplasm-nuclear distribution and demonstrate that FAK activity in the nucleus promotes NSCLC survival and progression by increasing cell-ECM interaction and DNA repair regulation.

  18. Interaction of tumor cells with the immune system: implications for dendritic cell therapy and cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Marianne; Karas, Irene; Gomez, Ivan; Eger, Andreas; Imhof, Martin

    2013-01-01

    There is a continuous demand for preclinical modeling of the interaction of dendritic cells with the immune system and cancer cells. Recent progress in gene expression profiling with nucleic acid microarrays, in silico modeling and in vivo cell and animal approaches for non-clinical proof of safety and efficacy of these immunotherapies is summarized. Immunoinformatic approaches look promising to unfold this potential, although still unstable and difficult to interpret. Animal models have progressed a great deal in recent years, finally narrowing the gap from bench to bedside. However, translation to the clinic should be done with precaution. The most significant results concerning clinical benefit might come from detailed immunologic investigations made during well designed clinical trials of dendritic-cell-based therapies, which in general prove safe.

  19. Progress towards understanding heterotypic interactions in multi-culture models of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Mary C; Alarid, Elaine T; Beebe, David J

    2016-06-13

    Microenvironments in primary tumors and metastases include multiple cell types whose dynamic and reciprocal interactions are central to progression of the disease. However, the literature involving breast cancer studied in vitro is dominated by cancer cells in mono-culture or co-cultured with one other cell type. For in vitro studies of breast cancer the inclusion of multiple cell types has led to models that are more representative of in vivo behaviors and functions as compared to more traditional monoculture. Here, we review foundational co-culture techniques and their adaptation to multi-culture (including three or more cell types). Additionally, while macroscale methods involving conditioned media, direct contact, and indirect interactions have been informative, we examined many advances that have been made more recently using microscale systems with increased control over cellular and structural complexity. Throughout this discussion we consider the benefits and limitations of current multi-culture methods and the significant results they have produced.

  20. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme Environmental Effects Assessment Panel

    2017-02-15

    The Parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three Panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with two focal issues. The first focus is the effects of UV radiation on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The second focus is on interactions between UV radiation and global climate change and how these may affect humans and the environment. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed. As a result of this, human health and environmental issues will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable. Like the other Panels, the EEAP produces a detailed report every four years; the most recent was published as a series of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter Progress Reports of the relevant scientific findings. The most recent of these was for 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2016, 15, 141-147). The present Progress Report for 2016 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the direct and indirect effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change. The more detailed Quadrennial Assessment will be made available in 2018.

  1. Coverage of protein domain families with structural protein-protein interactions: current progress and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncearenco, Alexander; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Zhang, Dachuan; Sarychev, Alexey; Panchenko, Anna R

    2014-01-01

    Protein interactions have evolved into highly precise and regulated networks adding an immense layer of complexity to cellular systems. The most accurate atomistic description of protein binding sites can be obtained directly from structures of protein complexes. The availability of structurally characterized protein interfaces significantly improves our understanding of interactomes, and the progress in structural characterization of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) can be measured by calculating the structural coverage of protein domain families. We analyze the coverage of protein domain families (defined according to CDD and Pfam databases) by structures, structural protein-protein complexes and unique protein binding sites. Structural PPI coverage of currently available protein families is about 30% without any signs of saturation in coverage growth dynamics. Given the current growth rates of domain databases and structural PPI deposition, complete domain coverage with PPIs is not expected in the near future. As a result of this study we identify families without any protein-protein interaction evidence (listed on a supporting website http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/ibis/coverage/) and propose them as potential targets for structural studies with a focus on protein interactions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony; Aucamp, Pieter J; Bais, Alkiviadis; Ballaré, Carlos L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bornman, Janet F; Caldwell, Martyn; Cullen, Anthony P; Erickson, David J; de Gruijl, Frank R; Häder, Donat-P; Ilyas, Mohammad; Kulandaivelu, G; Kumar, H D; Longstreth, Janice; McKenzie, Richard L; Norval, Mary; Paul, Nigel; Redhwi, Halim Hamid; Smith, Raymond C; Solomon, Keith R; Sulzberger, Barbara; Takizawa, Yukio; Tang, Xiaoyan; Teramura, Alan H; Torikai, Ayako; van der Leun, Jan C; Wilson, Stephen R; Worrest, Robert C; Zepp, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    After the enthusiastic celebration of the 20th Anniversary of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 2007, the work for the protection of the ozone layer continues. The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel is one of the three expert panels within the Montreal Protocol. This EEAP deals with the increase of the UV irradiance on the Earth's surface and its effects on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality and materials. For the past few years, interactions of ozone depletion with climate change have also been considered. It has become clear that the environmental problems will be long-lasting. In spite of the fact that the worldwide production of ozone depleting chemicals has already been reduced by 95%, the environmental disturbances are expected to persist for about the next half a century, even if the protective work is actively continued, and completed. The latest full report was published in Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2007, 6, 201-332, and the last progress report in Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2008, 7, 15-27. The next full report on environmental effects is scheduled for the year 2010. The present progress report 2008 is one of the short interim reports, appearing annually.

  3. Current progress on genetic interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulin JIA; Guangjie LIU; Stefano COSTANZO; Seonghee LEE; Yuntao DAI

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of genetic interactions between rice and its pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani should lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of host resistance, and the improvement of strategies to manage rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Currently, dozens office resistance (R) genes against specific races of the blast fungus have been described. Among them, ten were molecularly characterized and some were widely used for breeding for genetic resistance. The Pi-ta gene was one of the best characterized rice R genes. Following the elucidation of its molecular structure, interaction, distribution, and evolution, user friendly DNA markers were developed from portions of the cloned genes to facilitate the incorporations of the Pi-ta mediated resistance into improved rice varieties using marker assisted selection (MAS). However, rice blast is still a major threat for stable rice production because of race change mutations occurring in rice fields, which often overcome added resistance based on single R genes, and these virulent races of M. oryzae pose a continued challenge for blast control. For sheath blight, progress has been made on the exploration of novel sources of resistance from wild rice relatives and indica rice cultivars. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL), named qSB9-2, was recently verified in several mapping populations with different phenotyping methods, including greenhouse methods. The ability to identify qSB9-2 using greenhouse methods should accelerate the efforts on the qSB9-2 fine mapping and positional cloning.

  4. Progress in studies of the reciprocal interaction between sleep disorders and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhen-yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly, and is the most common cause of dementia. Epidemiological studies have discovered that, 44% of patients with AD are associated with sleep disorders and (or circadian rhythm disorders. Now there are growing evidences indicating that interstitial fluid amyloid-β protein (A β levels exhibit circadian rhythm fluctuation, and sleep disorders will accelerate the process of Aβ deposition, which may act as a risk factor of AD, suggesting the possible reciprocal interaction between sleep disorders and AD. The mechanism is not yet completely clear. Sleep disorders may be related with the impairments of both sleep-wake regulating system, circadian rhythm regulating system and the change of zeitgeber in AD. Sleep disorders would affect neuronal activity, neurotransmitter secretion, and as a stressor affecting A β processing and metabolism, thus accelerate the pathological process of AD. This paper reviewed the progress in the studies of reciprocal interaction between sleep disorders and Alzheimer's disease and the possible mechanisms.

  5. [Research Progress on the Interaction Effects and Its Neural Mechanisms between Physical Fatigue and Mental Fatigue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Chuncui; He, Feng; Zhao, Xin; Qi, Hongzhi; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Fatigue is an exhaustion state caused by prolonged physical work and mental work, which can reduce working efficiency and even cause industrial accidents. Fatigue is a complex concept involving both physiological and psychological factors. Fatigue can cause a decline of concentration and work performance and induce chronic diseases. Prolonged fatigue may endanger life safety. In most of the scenarios, physical and mental workloads co-lead operator into fatigue state. Thus, it is very important to study the interaction influence and its neural mechanisms between physical and mental fatigues. This paper introduces recent progresses on the interaction effects and discusses some research challenges and future development directions. It is believed that mutual influence between physical fatigue and mental fatigue may occur in the central nervous system. Revealing the basal ganglia function and dopamine release may be important to explore the neural mechanisms between physical fatigue and mental fatigue. Future effort is to optimize fatigue models, to evaluate parameters and to explore the neural mechanisms so as to provide scientific basis and theoretical guidance for complex task designs and fatigue monitoring.

  6. Experimental and theoretical modelling of sand-water-object interaction under nonlinear progressive waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testik, Firat Yener

    An experimental and theoretical study has been conducted to obtain a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of the sand, water and a solid object interaction as progressive gravity waves impinge on a sloping beach. Aside from obvious scientific interest, this exceedingly complex physical problem is important for naval applications, related to the behavior of disk/cylindrical shaped objects (mines) in the coastal waters. To address this problem, it was divided into a set of simpler basic problems. To begin, nonlinear progressive waves were investigated experimentally in a wave tank for the case of a rigid (impermeable) sloping bottom. Parameterizations for wave characteristics were proposed and compared with the experiments. In parallel, a numerical wave tank model (NWT) was calibrated using experimental data from a single run, and wave field in the wave tank was simulated numerically for the selected experiments. Subsequently, a layer of sand was placed on the slope and bottom topography evolution processes (ripple and sandbar dynamics, bottom topography relaxation under variable wave forcing, etc.) were investigated experimentally. Models for those processes were developed and verified by experimental measurements. Flow over a circular cylinder placed horizontally on a plane wall was also studied. The far-flow field of the cylinder placed in the wave tank was investigated experimentally and numerical results from the NWT simulations were compared with the experimental data. In the mean time, the near-flow velocity/vorticity field around a short cylinder under steady and oscillatory flow was studied in a towing tank. Horseshoe vortex formation and periodic shedding were documented and explained. With the understanding gained through the aforementioned studies, dynamics and burial/scour around the bottom objects in the wave tank were studied. Possible scenarios on the behavior of the disk-shaped objects were identified and explained. Scour around 3D cylindrical

  7. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics: Progress report, May 1, 1987-April 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, P.; Thews, R.L.

    1988-01-22

    This paper contains progress information on the following topics in High Energy Physics: strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions; aspects of quark-gluon models for hadronic interactions, decays, and structure; the dynamical generation of a mass gap and the role and truthfulness of perturbation theory; statistical and dynamical aspects of hadronic multiparticle production; and realization of chiral symmetry and temperature effects in supersymmetric theories. (LSP)

  8. Accelerating progress in Artificial General Intelligence: Choosing a benchmark for natural world interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Brandon

    2010-12-01

    Measuring progress in the field of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) can be difficult without commonly accepted methods of evaluation. An AGI benchmark would allow evaluation and comparison of the many computational intelligence algorithms that have been developed. In this paper I propose that a benchmark for natural world interaction would possess seven key characteristics: fitness, breadth, specificity, low cost, simplicity, range, and task focus. I also outline two benchmark examples that meet most of these criteria. In the first, the direction task, a human coach directs a machine to perform a novel task in an unfamiliar environment. The direction task is extremely broad, but may be idealistic. In the second, the AGI battery, AGI candidates are evaluated based on their performance on a collection of more specific tasks. The AGI battery is designed to be appropriate to the capabilities of currently existing systems. Both the direction task and the AGI battery would require further definition before implementing. The paper concludes with a description of a task that might be included in the AGI battery: the search and retrieve task.

  9. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony L; Aucamp, Pieter J; Austin, Amy T; Bais, Alkiviadis F; Ballaré, Carlos L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bornman, Janet F; Caldwell, Martyn; Cullen, Anthony P; Erickson, David J; de Gruijl, Frank R; Häder, Donat-P; He, Walter; Ilyas, Mohammad; Longstreth, Janice; Lucas, Robyn; McKenzie, Richard L; Madronich, Sasha; Norval, Mary; Paul, Nigel D; Redhwi, Halim Hamid; Robinson, Sharon; Shao, Min; Solomon, Keith R; Sulzberger, Barbara; Takizawa, Yukio; Tang, Xiaoyan; Torikai, Ayako; van der Leun, Jan C; Williamson, Craig E; Wilson, Stephen R; Worrest, Robert C; Zepp, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    The parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with two focal issues. The first focus is the effects of increased UV radiation on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The second focus is on interactions between UV radiation and global climate change and how these may affect humans and the environment. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than believed previously. As a result of this, human health and environmental problems will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable. Like the other panels, the EEAP produces a detailed report every four years; the most recent was published in 2010 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2011, 10, 173-300). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter progress reports, which highlight and assess the significance of developments in key areas of importance to the parties. The next full quadrennial report will be published in 2014-2015. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies 2012

  10. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony; Aucamp, Pieter J; Bais, Alkiviadis F; Ballaré, Carlos L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bornman, Janet F; Caldwell, Martyn; Cullen, Anthony P; Erickson, David J; deGruijl, Frank R; Häder, Donat-P; Ilyas, Mohammad; Kulandaivelu, G; Kumar, H D; Longstreth, Janice; McKenzie, Richard L; Norval, Mary; Paul, Nigel; Redhwi, Halim Hamid; Smith, Raymond C; Solomon, Keith R; Sulzberger, Barbara; Takizawa, Yukio; Tang, Xiaoyan; Teramura, Alan H; Torikai, Ayako; van der Leun, Jan C; Wilson, Stephen R; Worrest, Robert C; Zepp, Richard G

    2010-03-01

    The parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with UV radiation and its effects on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality and materials. Since 2000, the analyses and interpretation of these effects have included interactions between UV radiation and global climate change. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than believed previously. As a result of this, human health and environmental problems will likely be longer-lasting and more regionally variable. Like the other panels, the EEAP produces a detailed report every four years; the most recent was that for 2006 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2007, 6, 201-332). In the years in between, the EEAP produces a less detailed and shorter progress report, as is the case for this present one for 2009. A full quadrennial report will follow for 2010.

  11. Pion-Nucleus potentials in the energy range of 0-80 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirav, O.; Friedman, E.; Altman, A.; Hannah, M.; Johnson, R. R.; Gill, D. R.

    1987-12-01

    Data for the elastic scattering of 30-80 MeV positive and negative pions by a wide range of nuclei is analysed with an Ericson-Ericson MSU type optical potential. By use of consistent sets of data for π+ and π- and of experimental results for total reaction cross sections we obtain for the first time optical potentials that describe well all the data without the need of introducing non-standard charge-dependent effects.

  12. [Biology of cancer cell-stroma interaction in carcinogenesis and cancer progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, S; Sugihara, H; Ito, R; Tsuchihashi, Y

    1984-03-01

    Cancer cells are dependent on physical and chemical supports of stroma no less than non-cancerous cells and tissues are. The role of stroma should, therefore, be important in genesis and progression of cancers growing in vivo. But this aspect underlying carcinogenesis and manifestation of human cancers has long been neglected or attracted less attention in the investigations of oncology. Focusing particular attention on parenchyma-stromal interaction in gastrointestinal mucosa, the authors have found that, quite unexpectedly, in normal gastric as well as intestinal mucosa of all the animal species so for studied, vascularity is always poorly developed in the generative cell zones. Cross-sectional area of vascular bed is markedly reduced in this zone. Application of Hagen-Poiseulle law revealed that the reduced total cross-sectional area, resulting in a rapid drop in hydrostatic pressure, creates here a situation particularly favorable for proliferating cell population. Since the transport of water soluble material together with tissue fluid through the capillary wall is driven by the hydrostatic pressure, the generative cell zones are found to be present at the site where the turnover of the material is the most active. Before the zone of the rapid pressure drop, there appears zone of relatively high intravascular hydrostatic pressure, where secretory function seems to be facilitated. This zone, as is well known, corresponds to glandular portion of the mucosa. After the zone of the rapid pressure drop (in surface of the mucosa), zone of a low intravascular hydrostatic pressure appears, where absorptive function is to be facilitated. Within such zones, in gastric mucosa surface epithelium and in intestinal mucosa absorptive villi cells are located. It is likely that architecture of gastrointestinal epithelium and vascular pattern in the stroma is closely correlated and that the former is determined, at least partly, by the latter. When human gastric mucosa shows

  13. Gene-environment interaction in progression of AMD: the CFH gene, smoking and exposure to chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Paul N; Robman, Luba D; Richardson, Andrea J; Dimitrov, Peter N; Tikellis, Gabriella; McCarty, Catherine A; Guymer, Robyn H

    2008-05-01

    A number of risk factors including the complement factor H (CFH) gene, smoking and Chlamydia pneumoniae have been associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the mechanisms underlying how these risk factors might be involved in disease progression and disease aetiology is poorly understood. A cohort series of 233 individuals followed for AMD progression over a mean period of 7 years underwent a full eye examination, blood was taken for DNA and antibody titre and individuals completed a standard medical and general questionnaire. Y402H variants of the CFH gene were assessed with disease progression as well as examination of interaction between Y402H variants and smoking and Y402H variants and the pathogen C. pneumoniae. The CC risk genotype of Y402H was significantly associated with increased AMD progression [odds ratio (OR) 2.43, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.07-5.49] as was smoking (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.26-4.12). However, the risk of progression was greatly increased to almost 12-fold (OR 11.8, 95% CI 2.1-65.8) when, in addition to having the C risk allele, subjects also presented with the upper tertile of antibodies to the bacterial pathogen C. pneumoniae compared with those with the T allele of Y402H and the lowest antibody tertile. This demonstrates for the first time the existence of a gene environment-interaction between pathogenic load of C. pneumoniae and the CFH gene in the aetiology of AMD.

  14. A DDB2 mutant protein unable to interact with PCNA promotes cell cycle progression of human transformed embryonic kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucca, Paola; Sommatis, Sabrina; Mocchi, Roberto; Prosperi, Ennio; Stivala, Lucia Anna; Cazzalini, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage binding protein 2 (DDB2) is a protein involved in the early step of DNA damage recognition of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) process. Recently, it has been suggested that DDB2 may play a role in DNA replication, based on its ability to promote cell proliferation. We have previously shown that DDB2 binds PCNA during NER, but also in the absence of DNA damage; however, whether and how this interaction influences cell proliferation is not known. In this study, we have addressed this question by using HEK293 cell clones stably expressing DDB2(Wt) protein, or a mutant form (DDB2(Mut)) unable to interact with PCNA. We report that overexpression of the DDB2(Mut) protein provides a proliferative advantage over the wild type form, by influencing cell cycle progression. In particular, an increase in the number of S-phase cells, together with a reduction in p21(CDKN1A) protein level, and a shorter cell cycle length, has been observed in the DDB2(Mut) cells. These results suggest that DDB2 influences cell cycle progression thanks to its interaction with PCNA.

  15. Elementary particle interactions. Progress report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Siopsis, G.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1995-10-01

    This year has been a busy and demanding one with completion of a long SLD run, much progress on light quark states from E-687 resulting in strong evidence for two new states, observation in E-144 of non-linear Compton scattering (multiphoton absorption by electrons) up to N-4 and initial evidence for e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pair production in Compton process. The authors have also made considerable progress toward preparation for a n-{bar n} oscillation experiment and have carried out experimental studies of quartz fiber calorimetry for SLD polarimeter and forward calorimeter for CMS and LHC including a thorough set of gamma ray and neutron radiation damage studies on quartz fiber. Two graduate students received their Ph.D.s this year, Kathy Danyo Blackett on data from Fermilab E-687 and Sharon White on SLD radiative Bhabha scattering.

  16. Elementary particle interactions. Progress report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1992-10-01

    Work continues on strange particle production in weak interactions using data from a high-energy neutrino exposure in a freon bubble chamber. Meson photoproduction has also consumed considerable effort. Detector research and development activities have been carried out.

  17. Interaction of PTPIP51 with Tubulin, CGI-99 and Nuf2 During Cell Cycle Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wimmer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51, also known as regulator of microtubule dynamics protein 3, was identified as an in vitro and in vivo interaction partner of CGI-99 and Nuf-2. PTPIP51 mRNA is expressed in all stages of the cell cycle; it is highly expressed six hours post-nocodazole treatment and minimally expressed one hour post-nocodazole treatment. Recent investigations located PTPIP51 protein at the equatorial plate. This study reports the localization of the PTPIP51/CGI-99 and the PTPIP51/Nuf-2 complex at the equatorial region during mitosis. Moreover, Duolink proximity ligation assays revealed an association of PTPIP51 with the microtubular cytoskeleton and the spindle apparatus. High amounts of phosphorylated PTPIP51 associated with the spindle poles was seen by confocal microscopy. In parallel a strong interaction of PTPIP51 with the epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylating PTPIP51 at the tyrosine 176 residue was seen. In the M/G1 transition a high level of interaction between PTPIP51 and PTP1B was registered, thus restoring the interaction of PTPIP51 and Raf-1, depleted in mitotic cells. Summarizing these new facts, we conclude that PTPIP51 is necessary for normal mitotic processes, impacting on chromosomal division and control of the MAPK pathway activity.

  18. Drug interaction alert override rates in the Meaningful Use era: no evidence of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, A D; Fletcher, G S; Payne, T H

    2014-01-01

    Interruptive drug interaction alerts may reduce adverse drug events and are required for Stage I Meaningful Use attestation. For the last decade override rates have been very high. Despite their widespread use in commercial EHR systems, previously described interventions to improve alert frequency and acceptance have not been well studied. (1) To measure override rates of inpatient medication alerts within a commercial clinical decision support system, and assess the impact of local customization efforts. (2) To compare override rates between drug-drug interaction and drug-allergy interaction alerts, between attending and resident physicians, and between public and academic hospitals. (3) To measure the correlation between physicians' individual alert quantities and override rates as an indicator of potential alert fatigue. We retrospectively analyzed physician responses to drug-drug and drug-allergy interaction alerts, as generated by a common decision support product in a large teaching hospital system. (1) Over four days, 461 different physicians entered 18,354 medication orders, resulting in 2,455 visible alerts; 2,280 alerts (93%) were overridden. (2) The drug-drug alert override rate was 95.1%, statistically higher than the rate for drug-allergy alerts (90.9%) (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in override rates between attendings and residents, or between hospitals. (3) Physicians saw a mean of 1.3 alerts per day, and the number of alerts per physician was not significantly correlated with override rate (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.41). Despite intensive efforts to improve a commercial drug interaction alert system and to reduce alerting, override rates remain as high as reported over a decade ago. Alert fatigue does not seem to contribute. The results suggest the need to fundamentally question the premises of drug interaction alert systems.

  19. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, bi...

  20. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, bi...

  1. PROGRESS ON THE INTERACTION REGION DESIGN AND DETECTOR INTEGRATION AT JLAB'S MEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Vasiliy; Brindza, Paul; Camsonne, Alexandre; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Ent, Rolf; Gaskell, David; Lin, Fanglei; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Ungaro, Maurizio; Zhang, Yuhong; Hyde, Charles; Park, Kijun; Sullivan, Michael; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2014-07-01

    One of the unique features of JLab's Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) is a full-acceptance detector with a dedicated, small-angle, high-resolution detection system, capable of covering a wide range of momenta (and charge-to-mass ratios) with respect to the original ion beam to enable access to new physics. We present an interaction region design developed with close integration of the detection and beam dynamical aspects. The dynamical aspect of the design rests on a symmetry-based concept for compensation of non-linear effects. The optics and geometry have been optimized to accommodate the detection requirements and to ensure the interaction region's modularity for ease of integration into the collider ring lattices. As a result, the design offers an excellent detector performance combined with the necessary provisions for non-linear dynamical optimization.

  2. ODICIS (One Display for a Cockpit Interactive Solution) - Final public progress report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bécouarn, Loïc; Dominici, Johanna; Bader, Joachim

    The ODICIS project aims at developing a single display cockpit associated with adequate means of interaction. This addresses three current major aeronautics needs: the system architecture flexibility, the useful surface optimisation and the information continuity. Therefore the project will improve...... the operational safety and efficiency while reducing the aircraft development cost. The first objective is to prove the technical feasibility of an avionics large seamless display, which can possibly be curved. This involves optical but also graphic generation challenges. The design of the display must take...... into account as much as possible user wishes and aircraft possibilities. Once the display is available, the proper means of interaction must be defined and implemented. At this point, a complete technological mock-up of a single display cockpit will be available. Meanwhile, the concepts of use, that stimulated...

  3. Progressive acclimation alters interaction between salinity and temperature in experimental Daphnia populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Cláudia; Cuco, Ana P; Claro, Maria Teresa; Santos, Joana I; Pedrosa, M Arminda; Gonçalves, Fernando; Castro, Bruno B

    2015-11-01

    Environmental stressors rarely act in isolation, giving rise to interacting environmental change scenarios. However, the impacts of such interactions on natural populations must consider the ability of organisms to adapt to environmental changes. The phenotypic adaptability of a Daphnia galeata clone to temperature rise and salinisation was investigated in this study, by evaluating its halotolerance at two different temperatures, along a short multigenerational acclimation scenario. Daphniids were acclimated to different temperatures (20°C and 25°C) and salinities (0gL(-1) and 1gL(-1), using NaCl as a proxy) in a fully crossed design. The objective was to understand whether acclimation to environmental stress (combinations of temperature and salinity) influenced the response to the latter exposure to these stressors. We hypothesize that acclimation to different temperature×salinity regimes should elicit an acclimation response of daphniids to saline stress or its interaction with temperature. Acute (survival time) and chronic (juvenile growth) halotolerance measures were obtained at discrete timings along the acclimation period (generations F1, F3 and F9). Overall, exposure temperature was the main determinant of the acute and chronic toxicity of NaCl: daphniid sensitivity (measured as the decrease of survival time or juvenile growth) was consistently higher at the highest temperature, irrespective of background conditions. However, this temperature-dependent effect was nullified after nine generations, but only when animals had been acclimated to both stressors (high salinity and high temperature). Such complex interaction scenarios should be taken in consideration in risk assessment practices.

  4. Interaction of radiation with matter. Research progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The mechanisms of dissipation of energy in organic and inorganic materials, and the application of the technique developed to a study of selected problems of environmental concern in the production of energy from fossil fuels were studied. In the Inorganic Phase of the work the research involves (1) measurements of cross-sections for K and L-shell ionization processes for heavy projectiles in the low velocity region, (2) experimental tests of target dependence of the effective-charge theory for light projectiles, (3) theoretical studies on the energy loss of swift particles in plasmas over a broad density and temperature range. The organic phase of the work falls into a series of closely related areas, all derived from a study of the interaction of radiation with matter. (1) New techniques for the study of small particulates (approx. 1..mu..); composition, mass (to +-1 pg) and charge (+-1 electron) can be determined. (2) External photoelectric effects as a tool in arriving at the electronic structure of organic crystals. (3) The interaction of water with charge carriers in organic crystals, producing reactive chemical species, such as Oh and HSO/sub 3/ radicals. (4) Mechanisms of interaction of air-pollutant polycyclic aromatic carcinogens with DNA and the study of the conformation of the adducts.

  5. Study of hydrocarbon--shale interaction. Progress report No. 1, July 1, 1976--October 1, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettler, P.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Work on Hydrocarbon-Shale Interaction at Juniata College from June 1, 1976 through September 30, 1976 is summarized. Work was accomplished in the following areas: constrictive and geometric effects associated with gas production from shale wells, diffusion constants, hydrocarbon gas analysis, adsorption isotherms and powder x-ray diffraction. A bibliography on adsorption and diffusion in shale was prepared and is included. A detailed description of the procedures used in construction and calibration of the apparatus used for sorption measurements is included. All experimental work was done on cores from Well No. 20403 in Lincoln County, West Virginia.

  6. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms. Report of progress, February 1, 1975--October 31, 1975. [Summaries of research activities at Brown Univ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-01

    Progress in the following areas of research is reported: Energies of giant isoscalar monopole and quadrupole excitations, energy-weighted sum rules, the random-phase approximation, Hartree-Fock calculations, spreading widths, physical consequences of the locality of current-density commutators and current-current sum rules. Electron-hydrogen scattering using the inhomogenous equation method; variational calculation of e/sup -/ + H scattering using the symmetrized channel coupling array equation; K operators and unitary approximations for the 3-body problem; approximate calculation of model (d-p) and (dd) amplitudes and cross sections; multi-step processes in direct reactions; bound state calculations using the channel coupling array theory. Methods for determining nuclear charge distributions, relativistic effects in nuclei, dispersion corrections and recoil corrections to elastic electron scattering; unitarity of elastic scattering amplitudes; low energy theorems for two-photon processes; pion-exchange contributions to the charge density; recoil effects and energy-dependent Hamiltonians; pion-exchange contributions to two-photon processes; hypervirial theorems for the Dirac equation; Coulomb energies of nuclei. Pion-nucleus scattering, diagonalization of the ..delta..-(nucleon-hole) configurations, doorway states and doorway dominance, calculations for /sup 4/He, discussion of experimental results.

  7. Quarterly Technical Progress Report - Investigation of Syngas Interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty A. Akundi

    1998-11-10

    This report presents the work done on " Investigation of Syngas Interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts" during the last quarter. The major activity during this period is on FTIR absorption studies of Co/Cr catalysts using CO as a probe molecule. Transition metals cobalt and copper play significant roles in the conversion of syngas (CO + H2 ) to liquid fuels. With a view to examine the nature of interaction between CO and metal, the FTIR spectra of CO adsorbed on Co-Cr2 O3 composites were investigated. The results indicate that as cobalt loading increases, the intensity of the CO adsorption bands increase and several vibrational modes seem to be promoted. Heat treatment of the sample revealed two distinct processes of adsorption. Bands due to physisorption disappeared while bands due to chemisorption not only increased in intensity but persisted even after desorption. It seems that the physisorption process is more active when the catalyst is fresh and is hindered when carbidic/carbonyl formations occur on the metal surfaces.

  8. Progress in Spacecraft Environment Interactions: International Space Station (ISS) Development and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve; Suggs, Robb; Schneider, Todd; Minow, Joe; Alred, John; Cooke, Bill; Mikatarian, Ron; Kramer, Leonard; Boeder, paul; Soares, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The set of spacecraft interactions with the space flight environment that have produced the largest impacts on the design, verification, and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) Program during the May 2000 to May 2007 time frame are the focus of this paper. In-flight data, flight crew observations, and the results of ground-based test and analysis directly supporting programmatic and operational decision-making are reported as are the analysis and simulation efforts that have led to new knowledge and capabilities supporting current and future space explorations programs. The specific spacecraft-environment interactions that have had the greatest impact on ISS Program activities during the first several years of flight are: 1) spacecraft charging, 2) micrometeoroids and orbital debris effects, 3) ionizing radiation (both total dose to materials and single event effects [SEE] on avionics), 4) hypergolic rocket engine plume impingement effects, 5) venting/dumping of liquids, 6) spacecraft contamination effects, 7) neutral atmosphere and atomic oxygen effects, 8) satellite drag effects, and 9) solar ultraviolet effects. Orbital inclination (51.6deg) and altitude (nominally between 350 km and 460 km) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the performance and reliability of materials and systems on ISS. ISS operates in the F2 region of Earth s ionosphere in well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other ionospheric plasma species, solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays. The micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an important determinant of spacecraft design and operations in any orbital inclination. The induced environment results from ISS interactions with the natural environment as well as environmental factors produced by ISS itself and visiting vehicles. Examples include ram-wake effects, hypergolic thruster plume impingement, materials out-gassing, venting

  9. In Vivo Analysis of Protein–Protein Interactions with Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET): Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sihuai; Yang, Xiaobing; Wang, Yao; Shen, Xihui

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are the elementary machinery of life, and their functions are carried out mostly by molecular interactions. Among those interactions, protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the most important as they participate in or mediate all essential biological processes. However, many common methods for PPI investigations are slightly unreliable and suffer from various limitations, especially in the studies of dynamic PPIs. To solve this problem, a method called Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) was developed about seventeen years ago. Since then, BRET has evolved into a whole class of methods that can be used to survey virtually any kinds of PPIs. Compared to many traditional methods, BRET is highly sensitive, reliable, easy to perform, and relatively inexpensive. However, most importantly, it can be done in vivo and allows the real-time monitoring of dynamic PPIs with the easily detectable light signal, which is extremely valuable for the PPI functional research. This review will take a comprehensive look at this powerful technique, including its principles, comparisons with other methods, experimental approaches, classifications, applications, early developments, recent progress, and prospects. PMID:27727181

  10. In Vivo Analysis of Protein-Protein Interactions with Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET): Progress and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sihuai; Yang, Xiaobing; Wang, Yao; Shen, Xihui

    2016-10-11

    Proteins are the elementary machinery of life, and their functions are carried out mostly by molecular interactions. Among those interactions, protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are the most important as they participate in or mediate all essential biological processes. However, many common methods for PPI investigations are slightly unreliable and suffer from various limitations, especially in the studies of dynamic PPIs. To solve this problem, a method called Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) was developed about seventeen years ago. Since then, BRET has evolved into a whole class of methods that can be used to survey virtually any kinds of PPIs. Compared to many traditional methods, BRET is highly sensitive, reliable, easy to perform, and relatively inexpensive. However, most importantly, it can be done in vivo and allows the real-time monitoring of dynamic PPIs with the easily detectable light signal, which is extremely valuable for the PPI functional research. This review will take a comprehensive look at this powerful technique, including its principles, comparisons with other methods, experimental approaches, classifications, applications, early developments, recent progress, and prospects.

  11. Progress in the epidemiological understanding of gene-environment interactions in major diseases: cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-04-01

    Cancer epidemiology has undergone marked development since the 1950s. One of the most spectacular and specific contributions was the demonstration of the massive effect of smoking on the occurrence of lung, larynx, and bladder cancer. Major chemical, physical, and biological carcinogenic agents have been identified in the working environment and in the overall environment. The chain of events from environmental exposures to cancer requires hundreds of polymorphic genes coding for proteins involved in the transport and metabolism of xenobiotics, or in repair, or in an immune or inflammatory response. The multifactorial and multistage characteristics of cancer create the theoretical conditions for statistical interactions that have been exceptionally detected. Over the last two decades, a considerable mass of data has been generated, mostly addressing the interactions between smoking and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in smoking-related cancers. They were sometimes considered disappointing, but they actually brought a lot of information and raised many methodological issues. In parallel, the number of polymorphisms that can be considered candidate per function increased so much that multiple testing has become a major issue, and genome wide-screening approaches have more and more gained in interest. Facing the resulting complexity, some instruments are being set up: our studies are now equipped with carefully sampled biological collections, high-throughput genotyping systems are becoming available, work on statistical methodologies is ongoing, bioinformatics databases are growing larger and access to them is becoming simpler; international consortiums are being organized. The roles of environmental and genetic factors are being jointly elucidated. The basic rules of epidemiology, which are demanding with respect to sampling, with respect to the histological and molecular criteria for cancer classification, with respect to the evaluation of environmental exposures

  12. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This year the Montreal Protocol celebrates its 20th Anniversary. In September 1987, 24 countries signed the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Today 191 countries have signed and have met strict commitments on phasing out of ozone depleting substances with the result that a 95% reduction of these substances has been achieved. The Montreal Protocol has also contributed to slowing the rate of global climate change, since most of the ozone depleting substances are also effective greenhouse gases. Even though much has been achieved, the future of the stratospheric ozone layer relies on full compliance of the Montreal Protocol by all countries for the remaining substances, including methyl bromide, as well as strict monitoring of potential risks from the production of substitute chemicals. Also the ozone depleting substances existing in banks and equipment need special attention to prevent their release to the stratosphere. Since many of the ozone depleting substances already in the atmosphere are long-lived, recovery cannot be immediate and present projections estimate a return to pre-1980 levels by 2050 to 2075. It has also been predicted that the interactions of the effects of the ozone layer and that of other climate change factors will become increasingly important.

  13. Recent Progress in Treating Protein-Ligand Interactions with Quantum-Mechanical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazer, Nusret Duygu; Korth, Martin

    2016-05-16

    We review the first successes and failures of a "new wave" of quantum chemistry-based approaches to the treatment of protein/ligand interactions. These approaches share the use of "enhanced", dispersion (D), and/or hydrogen-bond (H) corrected density functional theory (DFT) or semi-empirical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods, in combination with ensemble weighting techniques of some form to capture entropic effects. Benchmark and model system calculations in comparison to high-level theoretical as well as experimental references have shown that both DFT-D (dispersion-corrected density functional theory) and SQM-DH (dispersion and hydrogen bond-corrected semi-empirical quantum mechanical) perform much more accurately than older DFT and SQM approaches and also standard docking methods. In addition, DFT-D might soon become and SQM-DH already is fast enough to compute a large number of binding modes of comparably large protein/ligand complexes, thus allowing for a more accurate assessment of entropic effects.

  14. Recent Progress in Treating Protein–Ligand Interactions with Quantum-Mechanical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusret Duygu Yilmazer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the first successes and failures of a “new wave” of quantum chemistry-based approaches to the treatment of protein/ligand interactions. These approaches share the use of “enhanced”, dispersion (D, and/or hydrogen-bond (H corrected density functional theory (DFT or semi-empirical quantum mechanical (SQM methods, in combination with ensemble weighting techniques of some form to capture entropic effects. Benchmark and model system calculations in comparison to high-level theoretical as well as experimental references have shown that both DFT-D (dispersion-corrected density functional theory and SQM-DH (dispersion and hydrogen bond-corrected semi-empirical quantum mechanical perform much more accurately than older DFT and SQM approaches and also standard docking methods. In addition, DFT-D might soon become and SQM-DH already is fast enough to compute a large number of binding modes of comparably large protein/ligand complexes, thus allowing for a more accurate assessment of entropic effects.

  15. Simulated high-level waste-basalt interaction experiments. First interim progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Scheetz, B.E.; Komarneni, S.; Barnes, M.; Smith, C.A.; Lewis, J.F.; Smith, D.K.

    1978-03-24

    Reconnaissance experiments have shown that waste/basalt interactions are of real importance in understanding all aspects of total containment of radionuclides in a basalt repository. It has been shown that the reprocessed waste forms, calcine and glass, are relatively more reactive than the more crystalline waste forms, spent unreprocessed fuel (SURF) and supercalcine. These experiments have established the direction of future research. The remainder of the program will be concerned with longer-duration and more-detailed experiments whose emphasis will be on understanding the mechanisms of reaction. Long-duration and in-depth experiments are being initiated to establish kinetic relationships and get a better feel as to whether or not we are approaching equilibrium in our shorter-duration reconnaissance experiments. In some cases, especially at higher temperatures, it appears that we are approaching a steady-state wherein products are no longer changing. This, however, might be a metastable state. Experiments with cesium compounds thought to be present in SURF (Cs/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/), a simple cesium source (CsOH), labradorite, and ground water have shown that pollucite forms and, as a result, fixes 86 to 99% of the cesium (depending upon the amount of basalt present.

  16. AKAP95 promotes cell cycle progression via interactions with cyclin E and low molecular weight cyclin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Deng-Cheng; Zhuang, Wen-Xin; Hua, Su-Hang; Dai, Yue; Yuan, Yang-Yang; Feng, Li-Li; Huang, Qian; Teng, Bo-Gang; Yu, Xiu-Yi; Liu, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, Yong-Xing

    2016-01-01

    AKAP95 in lung cancer tissues showed higher expression than in paracancerous tissues. AKAP95 can bind with cyclin D and cyclin E during G1/S cell cycle transition, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To identify the mechanism of AKAP95 in cell cycle progression, we performed AKAP95 transfection and silencing in A549 cells, examined AKAP95, cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 expression, and the interactions of AKAP95 with cyclins E1 and E2. Results showed that over-expression of AKAP95 promoted cell growth and AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and E2, low molecular weight cyclin E1 (LWM-E1) and LWM-E2. Additionally AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 in the nucleus during G1/S transition, bound LMW-E1 during G1, S and G2/M, and bound cyclin E2 mainly on the nuclear membrane during interphase. Cyclin E2 and LMW-E2 were also detected. AKAP95 over-expression increased cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 expression but decreased cyclin E2 levels. Unlike cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 that were nuclear located during the G1, S and G1/S phases, cyclin E2 and LMW-E1 were expressed in all cell cycle phases, with cyclin E2 present in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane, with traces in the nucleus. LMW-E1 was present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The 20 kDa form of LMW-E1 showed only cytoplasmic expression, while the 40 kDa form was nuclear expressed. The expression of AKAP95, cyclin E1, LMW-E1 and -E2, might be regulated by cAMP. We conclude that AKAP95 might promote cell cycle progression by interacting with cyclin E1 and LMW-E2. LMW-E2, but not cyclin E2, might be involved in G1/S transition. The binding of AKAP95 and LMW-E1 was found throughout cell cycle. PMID:27158371

  17. Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why Has It Been Do Difficult to Quantify Aerosol-Cloud Interactions for Climate Assessment, and How Can We Make Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2015-01-01

    The organizers of the National Academy of Sciences Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia Series on Improving Our Fundamental Understanding of the Role of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the Climate System would like to post Ralph Kahn's presentation entitled Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why has it been so difficult to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions for climate assessment, and how can we make progress? to their public website.

  18. Pfh1 Is an Accessory Replicative Helicase that Interacts with the Replisome to Facilitate Fork Progression and Preserve Genome Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin R McDonald

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Replicative DNA helicases expose the two strands of the double helix to the replication apparatus, but accessory helicases are often needed to help forks move past naturally occurring hard-to-replicate sites, such as tightly bound proteins, RNA/DNA hybrids, and DNA secondary structures. Although the Schizosaccharomyces pombe 5'-to-3' DNA helicase Pfh1 is known to promote fork progression, its genomic targets, dynamics, and mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Here we address these questions by integrating genome-wide identification of Pfh1 binding sites, comprehensive analysis of the effects of Pfh1 depletion on replication and DNA damage, and proteomic analysis of Pfh1 interaction partners by immunoaffinity purification mass spectrometry. Of the 621 high confidence Pfh1-binding sites in wild type cells, about 40% were sites of fork slowing (as marked by high DNA polymerase occupancy and/or DNA damage (as marked by high levels of phosphorylated H2A. The replication and integrity of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes, highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes, and nucleosome depleted regions were particularly Pfh1-dependent. The association of Pfh1 with genomic integrity at highly transcribed genes was S phase dependent, and thus unlikely to be an artifact of high transcription rates. Although Pfh1 affected replication and suppressed DNA damage at discrete sites throughout the genome, Pfh1 and the replicative DNA polymerase bound to similar extents to both Pfh1-dependent and independent sites, suggesting that Pfh1 is proximal to the replication machinery during S phase. Consistent with this interpretation, Pfh1 co-purified with many key replisome components, including the hexameric MCM helicase, replicative DNA polymerases, RPA, and the processivity clamp PCNA in an S phase dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that Pfh1 is an accessory DNA helicase that interacts with the replisome and promotes replication and suppresses DNA damage at hard

  19. The role of turbulence-flow interactions in L- to H-mode transition dynamics: recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, L.

    2017-02-01

    Recent experimental and simulation work has substantially advanced the understanding of L-mode plasma edge turbulence and plasma flows and their mutual interaction across the L-H transition. Flow acceleration and E   ×   B shear flow amplification via the turbulent Reynolds stress have been directly observed in multiple devices, using multi-tip probe arrays, Doppler backscattering, beam emission spectroscopy, and gas puff imaging diagnostics. L-H transitions characterized by limit-cycle oscillations (LCO) allow probing of the trigger dynamics and the synergy of turbulence-driven and pressure-gradient-driven flows with high spatio-temporal resolution. L-mode turbulent structures exhibit characteristic changes in topology (tilting) and temporal and radial correlation preceding the L-H transition. Long-range toroidal flow correlations increase preceding edge-transport-barrier formation. The energy transfer from the turbulence spectrum to large-scale axisymmetric flows has been quantified in L-LCO and fast L-H transitions in several devices. After formation of a transient barrier, the increasing ion pressure gradient (via the E   ×   B flow shear associated with diamagnetic flow) sustains fluctuation suppression and secures the transition to H-mode. Heuristic models of the L-H trigger dynamics have progressed from 0D predator-prey models to 1D extended models, including neoclassical ion flow-damping and pressure-gradient evolution. Initial results from 2D and 3D reduced fluid models have been obtained for high-collisionality regimes.

  20. A Scoping Analysis Of The Impact Of SiC Cladding On Late-Phase Accident Progression Involving Core–Concrete Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The overall objective of the current work is to carry out a scoping analysis to determine the impact of ATF on late phase accident progression; in particular, the molten core-concrete interaction portion of the sequence that occurs after the core debris fails the reactor vessel and relocates into containment. This additional study augments previous work by including kinetic effects that govern chemical reaction rates during core-concrete interaction. The specific ATF considered as part of this study is SiC-clad UO2.

  1. KRT6 interacting with notch1 contributes to progression of renal cell carcinoma, and aliskiren inhibits renal carcinoma cell lines proliferation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jing; Zhang, Li-Chao; Song, Xu; Lu, Jian-Rao; Jin, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling is a conserved and widely expressed signaling pathway, which mediates various physiological processes including tumorigenesis. This study aims to explore the potential role and mechanism of notch1 interacting with KRT6B in the progression of RCC. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein expression of notch1 and KRT6 were significantly increased in tumor tissues, and highly positive correlation existed between notch1 and KRT6. Moreover, the patients with high notch1 expr...

  2. [Effects of both folic acid, p16 protein expression and their interaction on progression of cervical cancerization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, W L; Ding, L; Ren, Z Y; Wu, T T; Zhao, W M; Fan, S L; Wang, J T

    2016-12-10

    Objective: To explore the effects of both folic acid, p16 protein expression and their interaction on progression of cervical cancerization. Methods: Participants were pathologically diagnosed new cases, including 80 women with normal cervical (NC), 55 patients with low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINⅠ), 55 patients with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINⅡ/Ⅲ) and 64 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Serum folate levels were detected by microbiological assay method while p16 protein expression levels were measured by Western-blot. In vitro, cervical cancer cell lines C33A (HPV negative) and Caski (HPV16 positive) were treated with different concentrations of folate. Proliferation and apoptosis of cells and the levels of p16 protein expression were measured in groups with different folic acid concentrations. Results: Results showed that the levels of serum folate were (5.96±3.93) ng/ml, (5.08±3.43) ng/ml, (3.92±2.59) ng/ml and (3.18±2.71) ng/ml, and the levels of p16 protein were 0.80±0.32, 1.33±0.52, 1.91±0.77, and 2.09±0.72 in the group of NC, CINⅠ, CINⅡ/Ⅲ and SCC, respectively. However, the levels of serum folate decreased (trend χ(2)=32.71, Pp16 protein expression increased (trend χ(2)=56.06, Pp16 protein in the CINⅠ, CINⅡ/Ⅲ and SCC group. Results in vitro showed that, with the increase of folate concentration, the inhibition rate of cell proliferation (C33A: r=0.928, P=0.003; Caski: r=0.962, P=0.001) and the rate on cell apoptosis (C33A: r=0.984, Pp16 protein expression (C33A: r=-0.817, P=0.025; Caski: r=-0.871, P=0.011) reduced. The proliferation inhibition rate (C33A: r=-0.935, P=0.002; Caski: r=-0.963, P=0.001) and apoptosis rate of cells (C33A: r=-0.844, P=0.017; Caski: r=-0.898, P=0.006) were negatively correlated with the levels of p16 protein expression. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that both serum folate deficiency and high expression of p16 protein could increase the

  3. Investigations of the dynamics and electromagnetic interactions of few-body systems. Progress report, June 30, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, D.R.

    1995-10-01

    This progress report summarizes the work of The George Washington University (GW) nuclear theory group during the period 1 July 1994 - 30 September 1995 under DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-95-ER40907 mainly dealing with photonuclear reactions and few-body problems of nuclei. This report contains: papers published or in press, submitted for publication, and in preparation; invited talks at conferences and meetings; invited talks at universities and laboratories; contributed papers or abstracts at conferences; visitors to the group; and research progress by topic.

  4. Progressive Dysarthria and Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Conversation: Establishing the Reliability of the Dysarthria-in-Interaction Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Steven; Tuomainen, Jyrki

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Dysarthria-in-Interaction Profile's potential contribution to the clinical assessment of dysarthria-in-conversation has been outlined in the literature, but its consistency of use across different users has yet to be reported. Aims: To establish the level of consistency across raters on four different interaction categories. That…

  5. [Studies in intermediate energy nuclear physics]. Technical progress report, [October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes work carried out between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder. The experimental program in intermediate-energy nuclear physics is very broadly based; it includes pion-nucleon and pion-nucleus studies at LAMPF and TRIUMF, kaon-nucleus scattering at the AGS, and equipment development for experiments at the next generation of accelerator facilities.

  6. Oncogene interactions are required for glioma development and progression as revealed by a tissue specific transgenic mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lynette M. Moore; Kristen M. Holmes; Gregory N. Fuller; Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The aggressive and invasive nature of brain tumors has hampered progress in the design and implementation of efficacious therapies. The recent success of targeted therapies in other tumor types makes this an attractive area for research yet complicating matters is the ability of brain tumors to circumvent the targeted pathways to develop drug resistance. Effective therapies will likely need to target more than one signaling pathway or target multiple nodes within a given pathway. Key to identifying these targets is the elucidation of the driver and passenger molecules within these pathways. Animal models provide a useful tool with many advantages in the study of these pathways. These models provide a means to dissect the critical components of tumorigenesis, as well as serve as agents for preclinical testing. This review focuses on the use of the RCAS/tv-a mouse model of brain tumors and describes their unique ability to provide insight into the role of oncogene cooperation in tumor development and progression.

  7. Interactive radiopharmaceutical facility between Yale Medical Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Progress report, June 1981-July 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, A

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following research areas: (1) evaluation of /sup 14/C-labelled carboxyethyl ester 2-cardoxy methyl ester of arachidonic acid; (2) the effects of drug intervention on cardiac inflammatory response following experimental myocardial infarction using indium-111 labeled autologous leukoyctes; (3) the evaluation of /sup 97/Ru-oxine to label human platelets in autologous plasma; and (4) the specific in vitro radiolabeling of human neutrophils. (ACR)

  8. Investigation of syngas interaction in alcohol synthesis catalysts. Quartery technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akundi, M.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the work done on {open_quotes}Investigation of Syngas Interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts{close_quotes} during the last three months. In this report the results of the work done on the effect of CO adsorption on the magnetic character of cobalt in the Cu/Co/Cr catalysts is discussed.

  9. Investigations of the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body systems. Progress report, 1 July 1991--30 June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, D.R.; Haberzettl, H.; Maximon, L.C.; Parke, W.C.; Bennhold, C.; Ito, Hiroshi; Pratt, R.K.; Najmeddine, M.; Rakei, A.

    1994-07-01

    In order to make it easy for the reader to see the specific research carried out and the progress made, the following report of progress is done by topic. Each item has a format layout of Topic, Investigators, Objective, Significance, and Description of Progress, followed at the end by the relevant references. As is clear from the topics listed, the emphasis of the GW nuclear theory group has been on the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body nuclei. Both low- and intermediate-energy electromagnetic disintegration of these nuclei is considered, including coherent photoproduction of {pi} mesons. When the excitation energy of the target nucleus is low, the aim has been to handle the continuum part of the theoretical work numerically with no approximations, that is, by means of full three- or four-body dynamics. When structure questions are the issue, numerically accurate calculations are always carried through, limited only by the underlying two-body or three-body interactions used as input. Implicit in our work is the question of how far one can go within the traditional nuclear physics framework i.e., nucleons and mesons in a nonrelativistic setting. Our central goal is to carry through state-of-the-art few-body calculations that will serve as a means of determining at what point standard nuclear physics requires introduction of relativity and/or quark degrees of freedom in order to understand the phenomena in question. So far, the problems considered were mostly concerned with low- to medium-energy regimes where little evidence was found that requires going beyond the traditional approach.

  10. Investigations of the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body systems. Progress report, 1 August 1991--31 July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, D.R.; Haberzettl, H.; Maximon, L.C.; Parke, W.C.

    1992-07-01

    In order to make it easy for the reader to see the specific research carried out and the progress made, the following report of progress is done by topic. Each item has a format layout of Topic, Investigators, Objective, Significance, and Description of Progress, followed at the end by the relevant references. As is clear from the topics listed, the emphasis of the George Washington University (GWU) theory group has been on the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body nuclei. Both low- and intermediate-energy electromagnetic disintegration of these nuclei is considered. When the excitation energy of the target nucleus is low, the aim has been to handle the continuum part of the theoretical work numerically with no approximations, that is, by means of full three- or four-body dynamics. When structure questions axe the issue, numerically accurate calculations axe always carried through, limited only by the underlying two-body or three-body interactions used as input. Implicit in our work is the question of how far one can go within the traditional nuclear physics framework, i.e., nucleons and mesons in a nonrelativistic setting. Our central goal is to carry through state-of-the-art fewbody calculations that wig serve as a means of determining at what point standard nuclear physics requires quark degrees of freedom in order to understand the phenomena in question. So far, in the problems considered, there has been no evidence of the necessity to go beyond the traditional approach, though we always keep in mind that possibility. As our work is involved with questions in the intermediate-energy realm, moving from a nonrelativistic framework to a relativistic one is always a consideration. Currently, for the problems that have been pursued in this domain of energy, the issues concern far more the mechanisms of the reactions and structural questions than the need to move to relativistic dynamics.

  11. Iodine regulates G2/M progression induced by CCL21/CCR7 interaction in primary cultures of papillary thyroid cancer cells with RET/PTC expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, You-Yuan; Liu, Ze-Bing; Ye, Xuan-Guang; Ren, Wei-Min

    2016-10-01

    Treatment with high iodine concentrations can delay oncogenic activation effects, reduce cell growth and return thyroid-specific gene and protein expression levels to normal. During rearranged during transfection (RET)/papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) 3 activation, excess iodine can act as a protective agent in thyroid follicular cells. The chemokine receptor CCR7 serves a critical role in lymphocyte trafficking into and within lymph nodes, the preferential metastatic site for PTC. However, the potential associations between chemokine (C‑C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21)/C‑C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) interaction and iodine concentrations in primary cultures of PTC with RET/PTC expression remain unclear. Proliferation assays of primary cultures of PTC cells with RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 expression indicated that CCR7 activation by its specific ligand, CCL21, was associated with significantly increased cell proliferation. Flow cytometry data indicated that CCL21/CCR7 interaction significantly increased the fraction of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Western blotting indicated that CCL21/CCR7 interaction significantly upregulated cyclin A, cyclin B1 and cyclin‑dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) expression. Western blotting determined that CCL21/CCR7 interaction significantly enhanced the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (P‑ERK). Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that there was interaction between P‑ERK and cyclin A, cyclin B1 or CDK1, particularly in the presence of CCL21. Sodium iodide (NaI, 10-5 M) significantly abolished the effects of exogenous CCL21. These results suggest that CCL21/CCR7 interaction contributes to G2/M progression of RET/PTC‑expressing cells via the ERK pathway in association with 10‑5 M NaI.

  12. Global transport processes and interactions with trace constituents. Annual progress report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, R. E.

    1979-06-18

    Technical progress made in the period 1 October 1976 to 15 June 1978 is summarized. It was found that tropical Pacific sea temperature can be used to predict tropical air temperature several months ahead. Either Indian Ocean sea temperatures or volcanic aerosol may be used as a second predictor. Atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration also depends on tropical Pacific sea temperature, although whether the relationship occurs through the solubility effect or through the influence of the oceanic biosphere is not shown. A simple model for the temperature change accompanying a CO/sub 2/ doubling yields a temperature rise of less than 0.25/sup 0/C, which is not in accord with other models.

  13. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...

  14. Progress in nano-electro optics characterization of nano-optical materials and optical near-field interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2005-01-01

    This volume focuses on the characterization of nano-optical materials and optical-near field interactions. It begins with the techniques for characterizing the magneto-optical Kerr effect and continues with methods to determine structural and optical properties in high-quality quantum wires with high spatial uniformity. Further topics include: near-field luminescence mapping in InGaN/GaN single quantum well structures in order to interpret the recombination mechanism in InGaN-based nano-structures; and theoretical treatment of the optical near field and optical near-field interactions, providing the basis for investigating the signal transport and associated dissipation in nano-optical devices. Taken as a whole, this overview will be a valuable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nano-electro-optics.

  15. Scoping assessments of ATF impact on late-stage accident progression including molten core-concrete interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, M. T.; Leibowitz, L.; Terrani, K. A.; Robb, K. R.

    2014-05-01

    Simple scoping models that can be used to evaluate ATF performance under severe accident conditions have been developed. The methodology provides a fundamental technical basis (a.k.a. metric) based on the thermodynamic boundary for evaluating performance relative to that of traditional Zr-based claddings. The initial focus in this study was on UO2 fuel with the advanced claddings 310 SS, D9, FeCrAl, and SiC. The evaluation considered only energy release with concurrent combustible gas production from fuel-cladding-coolant interactions and, separately, molten core-concrete interactions at high temperatures. Other important phenomenological effects that can influence the rate and extent of cladding decomposition (e.g., eutectic interactions, degradation of other core constituents) were not addressed. For the cladding types addressed, potential combustible gas production under both in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions was similar to that for Zr. However, exothermic energy release from cladding oxidation was substantially less for iron-based alloys (by at least a factor of 4), and modestly less (by ∼20%) for SiC. Data on SiC-clad UO2 fuel performance under severe accident conditions are sparse in the literature; thus, assumptions on the nature of the cladding decomposition process were made in order to perform this initial screening evaluation. Experimental data for this system under severe accident conditions is needed for a proper evaluation and comparison to iron-based claddings.

  16. Molecular interactions of ‘high risk’ human papillomaviruses E6 and E7 oncoproteins: implications for tumour progression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oishee Chakrabarti; Sudhir Krishna

    2003-04-01

    The aetiology of cervical cancer has been primarily attributed to human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These are characterized by the persistent expression of the two oncogenes, E6 and E7. Experimental studies show that E6 and E7 genes of the high risk HPVs deregulate key cell cycle controls. Recent work has uncovered new cellular partners for these proteins that throw light on many of the pathways and processes in which these viral proteins intervene. This review focuses on the regulation of host proteins by the viral oncoproteins and consequence of such interactions on cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.

  17. IMMUNOLOGICAL AND METABOLIC FACTORS INTERACTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN LATENT AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES OF ADULTS (LADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Saprina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers found that the development of microvascular complications (nephropathy, retinopathy with latent autoimmune diabetes adults (LADA occurs much earlier than in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The research devoted to the study of the spectrum and the time of development of microangiopathy in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes of adults, compared to patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Also studied immunological factors (cytokine secretion of mononuclear leukocytes as one of the possible mechanisms of diabetic angiopathy progression. It has been shown that in LADA, as in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the development of microvascular complications (nephropathy, retinopathy occurs much earlier than in type 1 diabetes mellitus (after a 4-year course of the disease due to a sharp decline in the serum concentration of C peptide. Thus in patients with LADA, having microvascular complications in the supernatants of cell cultures of mononuclear leukocytes determined a significant increase in the concentrations of cytokines IL-2, IL-4, TNFα.

  18. Study of the interactions between friction, wear and system rigidity. Progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, V.; D' Souza, A.F.; Kalpakjian, S.; Shareef, I.

    1980-03-01

    Progress in friction and wear studies is reported. After an extensive study of various possible systems for friction, wear and vibration measurements, a pin and disk sliding system has been designed to be used on a rigid lathe bed. This versatile design has the capability of controlling the applied load, rigidity and damping of the total frictional system. The design and construction of the pin holding assembly has been completed with certain features to render it suitable for acquisition of appropriate data such as forces and displacements. Special instrumentation has been obtained the major components of which are a tri-axial quartz piezoelectric force transducer, a tri-axial ceramic piezoelectric accelerometer for measurements of vibrations of the slider, charge preamplifiers with dc power supply, and monitoring equipment such as a spectral analyzer and an oscillograph. Preliminary experiments indicate that the system, as designed and constructed, is appropriate for the type of study undertaken in this project. Some preliminary experimental results are included here. The method of describing functions and harmonic balance is being employed for the study of friction induced self-excited vibrations. Some new developments of this method have been obtained to take into account the coupling between the degrees of freedom in the normal and frictional directions.

  19. The Hippo/YAP pathway interacts with EGFR signaling and HPV oncoproteins to regulate cervical cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunbo; Mao, Dagan; Hua, Guohua; Lv, Xiangmin; Chen, Xingcheng; Angeletti, Peter C; Dong, Jixin; Remmenga, Steven W; Rodabaugh, Kerry J; Zhou, Jin; Lambert, Paul F; Yang, Peixin; Davis, John S; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size and tumorigenesis through a kinase cascade that inactivates Yes-associated protein (YAP). Here, we show that YAP plays a central role in controlling the progression of cervical cancer. Our results suggest that YAP expression is associated with a poor prognosis for cervical cancer. TGF-α and amphiregulin (AREG), via EGFR, inhibit the Hippo signaling pathway and activate YAP to induce cervical cancer cell proliferation and migration. Activated YAP allows for up-regulation of TGF-α, AREG, and EGFR, forming a positive signaling loop to drive cervical cancer cell proliferation. HPV E6 protein, a major etiological molecule of cervical cancer, maintains high YAP protein levels in cervical cancer cells by preventing proteasome-dependent YAP degradation to drive cervical cancer cell proliferation. Results from human cervical cancer genomic databases and an accepted transgenic mouse model strongly support the clinical relevance of the discovered feed-forward signaling loop. Our study indicates that combined targeting of the Hippo and the ERBB signaling pathways represents a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26417066

  20. Glial-neuronal interactions in Alzheimer's disease: the potential role of a 'cytokine cycle' in disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, W S; Sheng, J G; Royston, M C; Gentleman, S M; McKenzie, J E; Graham, D I; Roberts, G W; Mrak, R E

    1998-01-01

    The role of glial inflammatory processes in Alzheimer's disease has been highlighted by recent epidemiological work establishing head trauma as an important risk factor, and the use of anti-inflammatory agents as an important ameliorating factor, in this disease. This review advances the hypothesis that chronic activation of glial inflammatory processes, arising from genetic or environmental insults to neurons and accompanied by chronic elaboration of neuroactive glia-derived cytokines and other proteins, sets in motion a cytokine cycle of cellular and molecular events with neurodegenerative consequences. In this cycle, interleukin-1 is a key initiating and coordinating agent. Interleukin-1 promotes neuronal synthesis and processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein, thus favoring continuing deposition of beta-amyloid, and activates astrocytes and promotes astrocytic synthesis and release of a number of inflammatory and neuroactive molecules. One of these, S100beta, is a neurite growth-promoting cytokine that stresses neurons through its trophic actions and fosters neuronal cell dysfunction and death by raising intraneuronal free calcium concentrations. Neuronal injury arising from these cytokine-induced neuronal insults can activate microglia with further overexpression of interleukin-1, thus producing feedback amplification and self-propagation of this cytokine cycle. Additional feedback amplification is provided through other elements of the cycle. Chronic propagation of this cytokine cycle represents a possible mechanism for progression of neurodegenerative changes culminating in Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Membrane-membrane interactions in a lipid-containing bacteriophage system. Progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snipes, W

    1981-05-01

    Virus-cell interactions and the mechanism of viral entry have been the major focal points of this research. A method of analysis was perfected to investigate the entry process for herpes simplex virus. This technique makes use of a photosensitizing dye, FITC, that covalently binds to viral envelope proteins. Treated virions remain photosensitive until the envelope is shed during the process of infection. Our data strongly support an entry mechanism in which the viral envelope fuses with the cell plasma membrane. Other related projects have involved studies of the virucidal properties of retinoids, plaque development characteristics for viruses surviving treatment with membrane perturbers, and a large plaque effect that occurs when virus are plated on cells pretreated with uv light. In addition, we have characterized a new bacteriophage, investigated the interactions of divalent cations and proteins with phospholipid vesicles, extended our studies of the effects of hydrophobic photosensitizers on cell membranes, and used the spin-trapping technique to elucidate the reaction mechanism for an enzyme-like activity in soil extracts.

  2. Selective hyaluronan-CD44 signaling promotes miRNA-21 expression and interacts with vitamin D function during cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas progression following UV irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly YW Bourguignon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan (HA, the major extracellular matrix component, is often anchored to CD44 isoforms, a family of structurally/functionally important cell surface receptors. Our recent results indicate that UV irradiation (UVR-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC overexpress a variety of CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v, with different CD44v isoforms appear to confer malignant SCC properties. UVR also stimulates HA degradation in epidermal keratinocytes. Both large HA polymers and their UVR-induced catabolic products (small HA selectively activate CD44 isoform-mediated cellular signaling in normal keratinocytes and SCC cells, with all of the downstream processes being mediated by RhoGTPases (e.g., RhoA and Rac1. Importantly, we found that the hormonally active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH2D3 not only prevents the UVR-induced small HA activation of abnormal keratinocyte behavior and SCC progression, but also enhances large HA stimulation of normal keratinocyte activities and epidermal function(s. Furthermore, we found that HA and its UVR-induced catabolic products (e.g., large and small HA selectively activate CD44-mediated Rac and RhoA signaling. Specifically, large HA-CD44 interaction promotes Rac/PKNγ-dependent normal keratinocyte differentiation, DNA repair and keratinocyte survival. Conversely, small HA-CD44v isoform interaction stimulates RhoA/ROK-dependent NFκB signaling and microRNA-21 (miR-21 production, leading to inflammation, proliferation (following acute UVR response and SCC progression (following chronic UVR exposure. Active vitamin D inhibits small HA-CD44v-mediated RhoA/ROK signaling and SCC progression; and it also enhances large HA-CD44-mediated differentiation, DNA repair and normal epidermal function. Selective applications of large HA and vitamin D will be used to improve the UVR-induced HA (small vs. large HA-CD44 isoform interaction with RhoGTPase signaling and skin inflammation as a potential therapeutic treatment for skin

  3. Proteometabolomic study of compatible interaction in Tomato fruit challenged with Sclerotinia rolfsii illustrates novel protein network during disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Ghosh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit is an assimilator of metabolites, nutrients, and signaling molecules, thus considered as potential target for pathogen attack. In response to patho-stress, such as fungal invasion, plants reorganize their proteome and reconfigure their physiology in the infected organ. This remodeling is coordinated by a poorly understood signal transduction network, hormonal cascades, and metabolite reallocation. The aim of the study was to explore organ-based proteomic alterations in the susceptibility of heterotrophic fruit to necrotrophic fungal attack. We conducted time-series protein profiling of Sclerotinia rolfsii invaded tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit. The differential display of proteome revealed 216 patho-stress responsive proteins (PSRPs that change their abundance by more than 2.5-fold. Mass spectrometric analyses led to the identification of 56 PSRPs presumably involved in disease progression; regulating diverse functions viz. metabolism, signaling, redox homeostasis, transport, stress-response, protein folding, modification and degradation, development. Metabolome study indicated differential regulation of organic acid, amino acids and carbohydrates paralleling with the proteomics analysis. Further, we interrogated the proteome data using network analysis that identified two significant functional protein hubs centered around malate dehydrogenase, T-complex protein 1 subunit gamma, and ATP synthase beta. This study reports, for the first-time, kinetically controlled patho-stress responsive protein network during post-harvest storage in a sink tissue, particularly fruit and constitute the basis towards understanding the onset and context of disease signaling and metabolic pathway alterations. The network representation may facilitate the prioritization of candidate proteins for quality improvement in storage organ.

  4. Interactive radiopharmaceutical facility between Yale Medical Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Progress report, October 1976-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, A.

    1979-01-01

    DOE Contract No. EY-76-S-02-4078 was started in October 1976 to set up an investigative radiochemical facility at the Yale Medical Center which would bridge the gap between current investigation with radionuclides at the Yale School of Medicine and the facilities in the Chemistry Department at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. To facilitate these goals, Dr. Mathew L. Thakur was recruited who joined the Yale University faculty in March of 1977. This report briefly summarizes our research accomplishments through the end of June 1979. These can be broadly classified into three categories: (1) research using indium-111 labelled cellular blood components; (2) development of new radiopharmaceuticals; and (3) interaction with Dr. Alfred Wolf and colleagues in the Chemistry Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  5. Strange meson-baryon interaction in hot and dense medium: recent progress for a road to GSI/FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera, Daniel; Aichelin, Jörg; bratkovskaya, Elena

    2015-01-01

    We report recent results on the dynamics of strange hadrons in two-body reactions relevant for near-threshold production in heavy-ion collisions at GSI/FAIR and NICA-Dubna. In particular, $\\bar K N$ scattering in hot and dense nuclear matter is studied within a chiral unitary framework in coupled channels, setting up the starting point for implementations in microscopic off-shell transport approaches. We focus on the calculation of transition rates with special attention to the excitation of hyperon resonances and isospin effects. Additionally, we explore "unconventional" strangeness generation by meson-meson and meson-baryon interactions in connection with recent HADES observations of deep sub-threshold $\\phi$ and $\\Xi$ production.

  6. Interaction between EphrinB1 and CNK1 Found to Play Role in Tumor Progression | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The family of proteins known as ephrins plays a critical role in a variety of biological processes. In a recent article in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Hee Jun Cho, Ph.D., and colleagues report on the interaction between proteins CNK1 and ephrinB1 that promotes cell movement. Their findings may have an important implication in developing new therapeutics for reducing metastases in certain cancers. “Eph and ephrin signaling has become an area of intense interest due to the influence these molecules exert on the control of cell adhesion and cell movement,” Cho said. “This signaling affects the formation of tissues during development and has been shown to play an instructive role in angiogenesis, as well as tumor cell invasion.”

  7. Progressive effects of the interaction of Sodium nitrite and sunset yellow on different physiological parameters in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman. G.E. Helal

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been noticed that the Egyptian children usually eat and drink food containing both food preservative and food colourants at the same time . This has attracted the attention to study the interaction between one of food preservatives (sodium nitrite and a food coloring agent (sunset yellow. The mixture of the two agents at the limited dose of each was found to be a lethal dose. So, 1/10th of this dose was used daily for 30 days. Animals were devided into three groups. The first group served as a control, while the second group was orally administered a mixture of 10mg sod. nitrite (NaNO3/kg and 0.5 mg/ kg /day sun set yellow (S.S.Y/. The third group received selenium (5 mcg/kg in addition to the above mentioned mixture. After 30 days of treatment, half of the animals from each group were decapitated. The other half of animals was left for another 15 days without treatment for recovery. Ingestion of the mixture of (NaNO3 and S.S.Y significantly decreased rat body weight, R B C and WBC counts, Hb %. , Hct %. Serum inorganic phosphorus, serum protein and serum albumin. Significant increases were observed in serum glucose, T3, T4, calcium, GGT, LDH, Cpk, ALK.ph and cholesterol. Also cholesterol of brain, liver and heart were significantly elevated. No changes were recorded for organ/ body weight, respiratory rate, heart beats, rectal temperature, AST and ALT activities of serum and tissues, acid phosphatase activity, total lipids of serum and tissues, cholesterol of muscle and kidney and serum triglycerides A complete recovery from the abnormalities of most biochemical and haematological parameters was observed after 15 days recovery or when selenium was administered This draws attention to the dangers of interactions of such preservatives and colorants. The present study showed that even the permitted doses of colourants and food preservatives may be harmful.

  8. Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal theories of modern physics and new fundamental mathematical structures were discovered or formed in this period. Significant physicists...... such as Lorentz and Einstein as well as mathematicians such as Poincare, Minkowski, Hilbert and Weyl contributed to this development. They created the new physical theories and the mathematical disciplines that play such paramount roles in their mathematical formulations. These physicists and mathematicians were...

  9. Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Progress report, July 1993--August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragt, A.J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group has been carrying out long-term research work in the general area of Dynamical Systems with a particular emphasis on applications to Accelerator Physics. This work is broadly divided into two tasks: the computation of charged particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Each of these tasks is described briefly. Work is devoted both to the development of new methods and the application of these methods to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. In addition to its research effort, the Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group is actively engaged in the education of students and postdoctoral research associates. Substantial progress in research has been made during the past year. These achievements are summarized in the following report.

  10. KRT6 interacting with notch1 contributes to progression of renal cell carcinoma, and aliskiren inhibits renal carcinoma cell lines proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Zhang, Li-Chao; Song, Xu; Lu, Jian-Rao; Jin, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling is a conserved and widely expressed signaling pathway, which mediates various physiological processes including tumorigenesis. This study aims to explore the potential role and mechanism of notch1 interacting with KRT6B in the progression of RCC. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein expression of notch1 and KRT6 were significantly increased in tumor tissues, and highly positive correlation existed between notch1 and KRT6. Moreover, the patients with high notch1 expression had a significantly poorer prognosis than those of low expression patients. In vitro, KRT6 loss-of-function could inhibit the expression of notch1 and induce renal carcinoma cell death. Eventually, we found that renin inhibitor, aliskiren, could inhibit cell proliferation and decrease the expression of notch1 and KRT6 as well as regulate apoptosis-related protein expression in 786-O and ACHN renal carcinoma cell lines. These results suggested that the upregulation of notch1 and KRT6B might be involved in the development, progression and prognosis of human RCC, and aliskiren could suppress renal carcinoma cell proliferation, at least partially, through downregulation the expression of notch1 and KRT6.

  11. Pegmatite/wallrock interactions, Black Hills, South Dakota: Progressive boron metasomatism adjacent to the Tip Top pegmatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.; Simon, S.B.; Laul, J.C.; Christian, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Interaction between country rock and fluids derived from the Tip Top pegmatite has resulted in a series of boron enriched assemblages. Between unaltered quartz-mica schist to the pegmatite contact is a succession of four mineral assemblages: 1. (1) Quartz-Biotite-Potassium Feldspar assemblage (Q-B-K), which consists essentially of the original metamorphic silicate assemblage plus anomalously high amounts of modal tourmaline 2. (2) Quartz-Biotite-Tourmaline assemblage (Q-B-T) 3. (3) Tourmaline-Quartz-Muscovite assemblage (T-Q-M) 4. (4) Tourmaline-Quartz assemblage (T-Q). Alkali elements (Cs, Rb, K, Li), SiO2, and Ba show a decrease from the Q-B-K assemblage to the T-Q assemblage. A12O3, Ga, B, total Fe and Zn increase moderately from the Q-B-K assemblage to the T-Q assemblage. The mineral chemistries also change considerably. The Mg/(Mg + Fe2+) ratios in biotites range from 0.54 to 0.50 in samples from the Q-B-K assemblage to 0.39 in the (Q-B-T) assemblage. The range in tourmaline end-member components from the Q-B-K assemblage to the T-Q assemblage is as follows: Q-B-K: Dravite.63 Schorl.23 Elbaite.05 Buergerite.09 T-Q: Dravite.23 Schorl.37 Elbaite.17 Buergerite.23. Observed variations in mineral assemblage and whole rock chemistry within the alteration zone appear to a first approximation to be a function of ??B2O3 (boron metasomatism) and ??K2O (alkali leaching). The breakdown of feldspar and biotite may be approximated by reactions: 2HCl + 2(K, Na)AlSi3O8 /ai 2(K, Na)Cl + Al2SiO5 + 5SiO2 + H2O and 2 Annite + SiO2 + 5Al2SiO5 + 2NaCl + 6H3BO3 /ai 2 Tourmaline + 2KCl + 7H2O. The alteration zone may represent either a single episode (B-, Cs-, Li-, Rb-enriched fluid) or multiple episodes (B, Zn, Mn fluid and Cs, Li, Rb fluid) of pegmatite fluid-schist interactions. In both situations, B in the aqueous fluid from the pegmatite reacts with the schist breaking down sheet silicate "traps" for Cs, Rb, Li, and K and forming tourmaline-rich assemblages. ?? 1984.

  12. Interaction between V-ATPase B2 and (Pro) renin Receptors in Promoting the progression of Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zuo, Sujun; Li, Xiaoyan; Fan, Jinjin; Cao, Xueqin; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Qiongqiong

    2016-04-28

    To investigate the levels of (Pro) renin receptor [(P) RR], α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin (FN), and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) subunits (B2, E, and c) in rat unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) models and rat proximal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E) treated with prorenin to elucidate the role of V-ATPase in these processes by activating the (P) RR. UUO significantly upregulated (P) RR, V-ATPase subunits, α-SMA and FN expression in tubulointerstitium or tubular epithelial cells. A marked colocalization of (P) RR and the B2 subunit was also observed. Prorenin treatment upregulated α-SMA, FN, (P) RR, and V-ATPase subunits and activity in NRK52E cell in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 partially blocked prorenin-induced (P) RR, FN, and α-SMA expression. Co-immunoprecipitate and immunofluorescence results demonstrated that the V-ATPase B2 subunit bound to the (P) RR, which was upregulated after prorenin stimulation. Either siRNA-mediated (P) RR or B2 subunit knockdown partially reduced V-ATPase activity and attenuated prorenin-induced FN and α-SMA expression. From the data we can assume that activation of (P) RR and V-ATPase may play an important role in tubulointerstitial fibrosis with possible involvement of interaction of V-ATPase B2 subunit and (P)RR.

  13. Inhibition of Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 1 with Necrostatin–1s ameliorates disease progression in elastase-induced mouse abdominal aortic aneurysm model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiwei; Zhou, Ting; Liu, Zhenjie; Ren, Jun; Phan, Noel; Gupta, Kartik; Stewart, Danielle M.; Morgan, Stephanie; Assa, Carmel; Kent, K. Craig; Liu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common aortic disease with a progressive nature. There is no approved pharmacological treatment to effectively slow aneurysm growth or prevent rupture. Necroptosis is a form of programmed necrosis that is regulated by receptor-interacting protein kinases (RIPs). We have recently demonstrated that the lack of RIP3 in mice prevented aneurysm formation. The goal of the current study is to test whether perturbing necroptosis affects progression of existing aneurysm using the RIP1 inhibitors Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) and an optimized form of Nec-1, 7-Cl-O-Nec-1 (Nec-1s). Seven days after aneurysm induction by elastase perfusion, mice were randomly administered DMSO, Nec-1 (3.2 mg/kg/day) and Nec-1s (1.6 mg/kg/day) via intraperitoneal injection. Upon sacrifice on day 14 postaneurysm induction, the aortic expansion in the Nec-1s group (64.12 ± 4.80%) was significantly smaller than that of the DMSO group (172.80 ± 13.68%) (P aortic diameter of Nec-1 treated mice appeared to be smaller (121.60 ± 10.40%) than the DMSO group, though the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.1). Histologically, the aortic structure of Nec-1s-treated mice appeared normal, with continuous and organized elastin laminae and abundant αActin-expressing SMCs. Moreover, Nect-1s treatment diminished macrophage infiltration and MMP9 accumulation and increased aortic levels of tropoelastin and lysyl oxidase. Together, our data suggest that pharmacological inhibition of necroptosis with Nec-1s stabilizes pre-existing aneurysms by diminishing inflammation and promoting connective tissue repair. PMID:28186202

  14. The SEMA5A gene is associated with hippocampal volume, and their interaction is associated with performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Moyzis, Robert K; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chunhui; Li, Jin; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Wang, Yunxin; Lin, Chongde

    2014-03-01

    The Allen Brain Atlas shows that the semaphorin 5A (SEMA5A) gene, which encodes an important protein for neurogenesis and neuronal apoptosis, is predominantly expressed in the human hippocampus. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have further shown that the hippocampus plays an important role in the performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM), a measure of reasoning ability and general fluid intelligence. Thus far, however, no study has examined the relationships between the SEMA5A gene polymorphism, hippocampal volume, and RPM performance. The current study collected both structural MRI, genetic, and behavioral data in 329 healthy Chinese adults, and examined associations between SEMA5A variants, hippocampal volume, and performance on RAPM (the advanced form of RPM). After controlling for intracranial volume (ICV), sex, and age, SEMA5A genetic polymorphism at the SNP rs42352 had the strongest association with hippocampal volume (p=0.00000552 and 0.000103 for right and left hippocampal volumes, respectively), with TT homozygotes having higher hippocampal volume than the other genotypes. Furthermore, there was a high correlation between right hippocampal volume and RAPM performance (r=0.42, p=0.0000509) for SEMA5A rs42352 TT homozygotes. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of the SEMA5A gene in hippocampal structure and their interaction on RAPM performance. Future studies of the hippocampus-RPM associations should consider genetic factors as potential moderators.

  15. Development of small-bore, high-current-density railgun as testbed for study of plasma-materials interaction. Progress report for October 16,2000 - May 13, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyekyoon [Kevin

    2003-05-14

    The present document is a final technical report summarizing the progress made during 10/16/2000 - 05/13/2003 toward the development of a small-bore railgun with transaugmentation as a testbed for investigating plasma-materials interaction.

  16. Physiopathology of blood platelets: a model system for studies of cell-to-cell interaction. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    This report covers the studies on basic mechanisms of cellular interactions, utilizing platelets as a model system and, when possible, concentrating on the influence that environmental factors (nutritional, metabolic, cellular, immunologic and others) have on them. The four major sections include: platelet interaction with tumor cells; a model for the study of cell-to-cell interaction; interaction of platelets with vessel walls; and platelet interactions with immune proteins.

  17. Physiopathology of blood platelets: a model system for studies of cell-to-cell interaction. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, M G

    1979-01-01

    In this report, we will limit ourselves to the detailed description of four major sections of our research done during the past year: platelet interaction with tumor cells; studies of the interaction of platelets with macrophages; interaction of platelets with vessel walls; and further studies of cyclic nucleotides on stored platelets.

  18. A Progress Report: The Relationship Between Mother-Infant Interaction and Sensory-Motor Development According to Age, Sex and Social Class Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Frank; And Others

    This paper describes the purposes and procedures of a longitudinal study designed to: (1) relate mother-infant interaction patterns to infant age, sex, and social class; (2) relate mother-infant interaction patterns to infant sensory-motor development; and (3) to examine the relationship between infant sensory-motor development and infant sex and…

  19. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  20. Interactive Book Reading to Accelerate Word Learning by Kindergarten Children with Specific Language Impairment: Identifying Adequate Progress and Successful Learning Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkel, Holly L.; Komesidou, Rouzana; Fleming, Kandace K.; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to provide guidance to clinicians on early benchmarks of successful word learning in an interactive book reading treatment and to examine how encoding and memory evolution during treatment contribute to word learning outcomes by kindergarten children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Twenty-seven…

  1. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates the gene interactions to activate the HIV replication and faster disease progression in a co-infected host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Jaideep S; Singh, Sukhvinder; Sharma, Aman; Arora, Sunil K

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of the chronic immune activation, breakdown of immune defense and synergistic effect between HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may provide essential information regarding key factors involved in the pathogenesis of HIV disease. In this study, we aimed to highlight a few of the immunological events that may influence and accelerate the progression of HIV disease in the presence of co-infecting Mtb. A cross-sectional study was performed on cohorts, including anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) naïve active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients, antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV-1 infected individuals at different stages of disease, ATT and ART naïve HIV-PTB co-infected individuals and healthy controls. A significantly higher T-regulatory cell (Treg) frequency coupled with the high FoxP3 expression in the CD4 T-cells indicated an immunosuppressive environment in the advance stage of HIV-1 infection. This is further substantiated by high HO-1 expression favoring TB co-infection. Functionally, this change in Treg frequency in HIV-1 infected individuals correlated well with suppression of T-cell proliferation. Mtb infection seems to facilitate the expansion of the Treg pool along with increased expression of FoxP3, specifically the variant-1, as evident from the data in HIV-1 co-infected as well as in patients with only PTB. A significantly lower expression of HO-1 in co-infected individuals compared to patients with only HIV-infection having comparable CD4 count correlated well with increased expression of CCR5 and CxCR4 as well as NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, which collectively may contribute to enhanced viral replication and increased cell death, hence faster disease progression in co-infected individuals.

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates the gene interactions to activate the HIV replication and faster disease progression in a co-infected host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep S Toor

    Full Text Available Understanding of the chronic immune activation, breakdown of immune defense and synergistic effect between HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb may provide essential information regarding key factors involved in the pathogenesis of HIV disease. In this study, we aimed to highlight a few of the immunological events that may influence and accelerate the progression of HIV disease in the presence of co-infecting Mtb. A cross-sectional study was performed on cohorts, including anti-tubercular therapy (ATT naïve active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB patients, antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve HIV-1 infected individuals at different stages of disease, ATT and ART naïve HIV-PTB co-infected individuals and healthy controls. A significantly higher T-regulatory cell (Treg frequency coupled with the high FoxP3 expression in the CD4 T-cells indicated an immunosuppressive environment in the advance stage of HIV-1 infection. This is further substantiated by high HO-1 expression favoring TB co-infection. Functionally, this change in Treg frequency in HIV-1 infected individuals correlated well with suppression of T-cell proliferation. Mtb infection seems to facilitate the expansion of the Treg pool along with increased expression of FoxP3, specifically the variant-1, as evident from the data in HIV-1 co-infected as well as in patients with only PTB. A significantly lower expression of HO-1 in co-infected individuals compared to patients with only HIV-infection having comparable CD4 count correlated well with increased expression of CCR5 and CxCR4 as well as NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, which collectively may contribute to enhanced viral replication and increased cell death, hence faster disease progression in co-infected individuals.

  4. Study of neutron-proton interaction in the 300--700 MeV energy region. Final progress report, July 1991--August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northcliffe, L.C.; Hiebert, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The experimental program supported by the present grant is a continuation of the work supported under DOE Contract DE-AS05-76ER04449. More detailed discussion of the experimental apparatus and earlier activities can be found in annual reports for that contract and this grant. The primary objective of this program is investigation of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, in the medium-energy region, in both elastic and inelastic channels.

  5. An interactive physics-based unmanned ground vehicle simulator leveraging open source gaming technology: progress in the development and application of the virtual autonomous navigation environment (VANE) desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Mitchell M.; Crawford, Justin; Toschlog, Matthew; Iagnemma, Karl D.; Kewlani, Guarav; Cummins, Christopher L.; Jones, Randolph A.; Horner, David A.

    2009-05-01

    It is widely recognized that simulation is pivotal to vehicle development, whether manned or unmanned. There are few dedicated choices, however, for those wishing to perform realistic, end-to-end simulations of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). The Virtual Autonomous Navigation Environment (VANE), under development by US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), provides such capabilities but utilizes a High Performance Computing (HPC) Computational Testbed (CTB) and is not intended for on-line, real-time performance. A product of the VANE HPC research is a real-time desktop simulation application under development by the authors that provides a portal into the HPC environment as well as interaction with wider-scope semi-automated force simulations (e.g. OneSAF). This VANE desktop application, dubbed the Autonomous Navigation Virtual Environment Laboratory (ANVEL), enables analysis and testing of autonomous vehicle dynamics and terrain/obstacle interaction in real-time with the capability to interact within the HPC constructive geo-environmental CTB for high fidelity sensor evaluations. ANVEL leverages rigorous physics-based vehicle and vehicle-terrain interaction models in conjunction with high-quality, multimedia visualization techniques to form an intuitive, accurate engineering tool. The system provides an adaptable and customizable simulation platform that allows developers a controlled, repeatable testbed for advanced simulations. ANVEL leverages several key technologies not common to traditional engineering simulators, including techniques from the commercial video-game industry. These enable ANVEL to run on inexpensive commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. In this paper, the authors describe key aspects of ANVEL and its development, as well as several initial applications of the system.

  6. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  7. Influence of the interaction between Ac-SDKP and Ang Ⅱsignal on the development and progression of silicotic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan LIU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the changes of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE/angiotensin Ⅱ(Ang Ⅱ/angiotensin Ⅱtype 1 receptor (AT1R axis and their impact on the development and progression of silicotic fibrosis. Methods  Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10. The rats inhaled dust for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks (w respectively to reproduce silicosis model. HE staining was performed to observe the pathological changes of the lung tissue. The expression of αsmooth muscle actin (α-SMA, collagen Ⅰ(Col Ⅰ, fibronectin (Fn, ACE and AT1R were measured by Western blotting. The levels of Ac-SDKP and Ang Ⅱin lung tissue were detected by ELISA. Results  Macrophage infiltration and widened alveolar wall were observed by HE staining in the silicosis 2-w group. Isolated cell lesions which composed of macrophages were seen in silicosis 4-w group. The alveolar wall widened obviously and the number of silicotic nodules increased at 8w and 12w. The fusion of silicotic lesions, interstitial fibrosis and fibrous lesions were observed at 16w. Compared with control group, the expressions of α-SMA, Col Ⅰand Fn protein in silicosis 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-w group increased gradually. In silicosis 2-, 4-, 8-, 12-, 16-w group, the expressions of ACE, Ang Ⅱand AT1R gradually increased compared to the control. The level of Ac-SDKP in the lung tissue of silicosis 2-w group was significantly higher than that in control group, and then decreased gradually, and significantly lower in the silicosis 12-and 16-w group than the control (P<0.05. Conclusion  Along with the development and progression of silicosis, ACE, Ang Ⅱ, and AT1R expressions gradually increase in local lung tissue, while the expression of Ac-SDKP gradually decreases. Ac-SDKP and Ang Ⅱsignal would participate the silicotic fibrosis process in rats. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.09.02

  8. Nuclear interactions of high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. Technical progress report, 1 April 1991--31 March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wefel, J.P.

    1992-01-23

    This program was established for the purpose of studying projectile fragmentation; (1) as a function of energy, focusing first on the intermediate energy region, < 1 GeV/nucleon, where there have been few previous measurements and no systematic studies, and (2) as a function of projectile mass, starting with light beams and proceeding to species as heavy as nickel (and possibly beyond). The intermediate energy region is important as the transition between the lower energy data, where the interaction appears to be dominated by collective effects and the decay of excited nuclei, and the highest energy results, where nucleon-nucleon interactions are fundamental, ``limiting fragmentation`` applies, and the nucleus may well break-up before any de-excitation. The mass dependence of projectile fragmentation is largely unknown since most detailed work has involved light ion beams. Nuclear structure effects, for example, may well be quite prominent for heavier beams. Furthermore, the nuclear excitation functions for the production of different fragment isotopes have immediate application to the astrophysical interpretation of existing isotopic datasets obtained from balloon and satellite measurements of galactic cosmic rays.

  9. The Gcn2 Regulator Yih1 Interacts with the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Cdc28 and Promotes Cell Cycle Progression through G2/M in Budding Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Silva

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Yih1, when overexpressed, inhibits the eIF2 alpha kinase Gcn2 by competing for Gcn1 binding. However, deletion of YIH1 has no detectable effect on Gcn2 activity, suggesting that Yih1 is not a general inhibitor of Gcn2, and has no phenotypic defect identified so far. Thus, its physiological role is largely unknown. Here, we show that Yih1 is involved in the cell cycle. Yeast lacking Yih1 displays morphological patterns and DNA content indicative of a delay in the G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and this phenotype is independent of Gcn1 and Gcn2. Accordingly, the levels of phosphorylated eIF2α, which show a cell cycle-dependent fluctuation, are not altered in cells devoid of Yih1. We present several lines of evidence indicating that Yih1 is in a complex with Cdc28. Yih1 pulls down endogenous Cdc28 in vivo and this interaction is enhanced when Cdc28 is active, suggesting that Yih1 modulates the function of Cdc28 in specific stages of the cell cycle. We also demonstrate, by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation, that endogenous Yih1 and Cdc28 interact with each other, confirming Yih1 as a bona fide Cdc28 binding partner. Amino acid substitutions within helix H2 of the RWD domain of Yih1 enhance Yih1-Cdc28 association. Overexpression of this mutant, but not of wild type Yih1, leads to a phenotype similar to that of YIH1 deletion, supporting the view that Yih1 is involved through Cdc28 in the regulation of the cell cycle. We further show that IMPACT, the mammalian homologue of Yih1, interacts with CDK1, the mammalian counterpart of Cdc28, indicating that the involvement with the cell cycle is conserved. Together, these data provide insights into the cellular function of Yih1/IMPACT, and provide the basis for future studies on the role of this protein in the cell cycle.

  10. Recent Progress in PYTHIA

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2000-01-01

    PYTHIA is a general-purpose event generator for multiparticle production in high-energy physics. After a general introduction and program news survey, some areas of recent physics progress are considered: the matching to matrix elements, especially for W/Z production; charm and bottom hadronization; multiple interactions; and interconnection effects. The report concludes with some words on the future, specifically the ongoing transition to C++.

  11. Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Progress report, August 1992--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragt, A.J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group has been carrying out long-term research work in the general area of Dynamical Systems with a particular emphasis on applications to Accelerator Physics. This work is broadly divided into two tasks: Charged Particle Beam Transport and the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields and Beam-Cavity Interactions. Each of these tasks is described briefly. Work is devoted both to the development of new methods and the application of these methods to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. In addition to its research effort, the Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group is actively engaged in the education of students and postdoctoral research associates.

  12. Research Progress of Interaction Between Aluminum and Phosphorus in Acidic Coils%酸性土壤植物磷铝互作研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小玉; 付登强; 杨伟波; 陈良秋; 李东霞; 刘立云; 黄丽云; 李艳

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum toxicity and phosphorus deficiency were both of the most deleterious factors for plant growth in acidic soils ,solving these problems was important reasons for restricting crop yield and food security in the acidic soils.Aluminum toxicity and phosphorus deficiency exist simultaneously in the acidic soils ,phosphorus and aluminum are not only closely related in the soil ,but also have close relationship root-soil interface and in the plants,the interaction have important influences on the plant growth and development.This paper summarized the presence form of phosphorus in the acidic soil ,the status of phosphorus and the presence form of phosphorus in the acidic soil ,descripted the impact of interaction between aluminum and phosphorus in the plant growth and development recently ,and the main fields and projects for further research were also briefly discussed.%铝毒和缺磷是酸性土壤上作物生产的2个主要限制因子,解决酸性土壤铝毒和缺磷问题是提高作物产量及保障粮食安全的重要途径。酸性土壤中铝毒和缺磷经常共存,磷与铝在土壤、根-土界面和植物体内关系密切,其相互作用对植物生长发育具有重要影响。该文总结了酸性土壤中铝的存在形式、磷的现状及存在形式,简述了近年来磷与铝元素交互作用对植物生长发育的影响,并对进一步的研究作了展望。

  13. 植物与微生物互作的研究进展%Research Progress of Interaction between Plant and Microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国辉; 毛志泉; 刘训理

    2011-01-01

    Plants and the microorganisms in their growth environment have close relationships, which form the plant-microorganism symbiont system and interact mutually. Plants affect microbial community composition in the surroundings and the microorganisms also have an influence on plant growth. It is of great importance for agricultural production to understand and recognize the interaction between plants and microorganisms. This paper reviewed the effects of plant types and root exudates on the microbial community composition and diversity, stated the influences of rhizosphere microbes, phyllosphere microbe and endophyte (including the endophytic fungus, the endophytic bacteria and the endophytic actinomycete) on plant growth, and prospected the related research interests in the future.%植物与其生长环境中的微生物关系密切,两者形成了植物一微生物共生体系统.植物影响着其周围及体内的微生物的群落结构,这些微生物又通过其生命活动影响植物的生长发育.了解与认识植物与微生物的相互作用对于农业生产具有重要意义.笔者就植物类型及植物根系分泌物对微生物群落结构及多样性的影响,植物根际微生物、叶围微生物和内生菌(包括内生真菌、内生细菌以及内生放线茵)对植物生长发育的影响等进行综述,并就其将来的研究方向做了展望.

  14. Transcriptomic profile induced in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells after interaction with multiple myeloma cells: implications in myeloma progression and myeloma bone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gomez, Antonio; Las Rivas, Javier De; Ocio, Enrique M.; Díaz-Rodríguez, Elena; Montero, Juan C.; Martín, Montserrat; Blanco, Juan F.; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermín M.; Pandiella, Atanasio; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Garayoa, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence about the implication of the bone marrow (BM) stromal microenvironment in multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth and survival, little is known about the effects of myelomatous cells on BM stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from healthy donors (dMSCs) or myeloma patients (pMSCs) were co-cultured with the myeloma cell line MM.1S, and the transcriptomic profile of MSCs induced by this interaction was analyzed. Deregulated genes after co-culture common to both d/pMSCs revealed functional involvement in tumor microenvironment cross-talk, myeloma growth induction and drug resistance, angiogenesis and signals for osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition. Additional genes induced by co-culture were exclusively deregulated in pMSCs and predominantly associated to RNA processing, the ubiquitine-proteasome pathway, cell cycle regulation, cellular stress and non-canonical Wnt signaling. The upregulated expression of five genes after co-culture (CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCL6 in d/pMSCs, and Neuregulin 3 and Norrie disease protein exclusively in pMSCs) was confirmed, and functional in vitro assays revealed putative roles in MM pathophysiology. The transcriptomic profile of pMSCs co-cultured with myeloma cells may better reflect that of MSCs in the BM of myeloma patients, and provides new molecular insights to the contribution of these cells to MM pathophysiology and to myeloma bone disease. PMID:25268740

  15. Progress in Development of C60 Nanoparticle Plasma Jet for Diagnostic of Runaway Electron Beam-Plasma Interaction and Disruption Mitigation Study for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    We produced a C60 nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ) with uniquely fast response-to-delivery time (~ 1 - 2 ms) and unprecedentedly high momentum (~ 0 . 6 g .km/s). The C60 NPPJ was obtained by using a solid state TiH2/C60 pulsed power cartridge producing ~180 mg of C60 molecular gas by sublimation and by electromagnetic acceleration of the C60 plasma in a coaxial gun (~35 cm length, 96 kJ energy) with the output of a high-density (>1023 m-3) hyper-velocity (>4 km/s) plasma jet. The ~ 75 mg C60/C plasma jet has the potential to rapidly and deeply deliver enough mass to significantly increase electron density (to ne ~ 2 . 4 ×1021 m-3, i.e. ~ 60 times larger than typical DIII-D pre-disruption value, ne 0 ~ 4 ×1019 m-3), and to modify the 'critical electric field' and the runaway electrons (REs) collisional drag during different phases of REs dynamics. The C60 NPPJ, as a novel injection technique, allows RE beam-plasma interaction diagnostic by quantitative spectroscopy of C ions visible/UV line intensity. The system is scalable to ~ 1 - 2 g C60/C plasma jet output and technology is adaptable to ITER acceptable materials (BN and Be) for disruption mitigation. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-08ER85196 grant.

  16. Progress in Interaction between Ionic Liquids and Biomacromolecules%离子液体与生物大分子相互作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟子蓓; 陈志涛; 夏之宁; 穆小静; 宫玉华

    2012-01-01

    离子液体作为一类新型绿色溶剂,因其独特的理化性质,被广泛应用于催化、有机合成、分离富集和电化学等领域。其中,离子液体在生物大分子的分离纯化、催化和降解方面显示出良好的应用前景,成为研究的热点领域之一。本文从离子液体与生物大分子的本质关系出发,对离子液体在DNA和蛋白质的分离纯化、酶的活性稳定性和天然纤维素溶解等过程中与生物大分子之间的相互作用进行了综述。%Ionic liquids (ILs) as a new type of green solvent have been widely used in catalysis, organic synthesis, separation and enrichment, electrochemistry and other fields based on their unique physical and chemical properties. As well as, ILs show great prospects in separation, purification, catalysis and degradation of biomacromolecules, which become one of the hot topics in current research. In this paper, the interactions between ILs and biomacromolecules are reviewed in the processes of separation and purification of DNA and proteins, stabilizing enzymes and dissolution of cellulose.

  17. 乙肝病毒X蛋白结合蛋白最新研究进展%Latest Research Progress on the Hepatitis B X-interacting Protein (HBXIP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑平; 申杰; 蓝文贤; 龚福春

    2012-01-01

    乙肝病毒X蛋白结合蛋白(HBXIP)是肝细胞癌变过程的一个关键因素,它能在动物肌肉组织和恶性肿瘤组织中过表达.近年来研究显示:HBXIP能与人体内多种蛋白结合.本文综述了HBXIP蛋白参与细胞凋亡与增殖、细胞周期进程、中心体复制、肿瘤细胞迁移等过程,以期为以HBXIP蛋白为靶标的新的抗乙肝病毒等药物设计提供基础.%The hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) is a key factor in the process of canceration of liver cells, which can overexpress in animal muscle tissue and malignant tumors tissue. In recent years, studies have shown that HBXIP can bind a variety of proteins of the human body. In this review, we summarized the latest advances on the studies about how HBXIP is involved in cell apoptosis and proliferation, cell cycle progression, centrosome replication, and tumor cell migration through interaction with other proteins, in order to rationally design new anti-hepatitis B virus drug using HBXIP as a target in the future.

  18. 乙肝病毒X蛋白结合蛋白最新研究进展%Latest Research Progress on the Hepatitis B X-interacting Protein(HBXIP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑平; 申杰; 蓝文贤; 龚福春

    2012-01-01

    The hepatitis B X-interacting protein(HBXIP) is a key factor in the process of canceration of liver cells,which can overexpress in animal muscle tissue and malignant tumors tissue.In recent years,studies have shown that HBXIP can bind a variety of proteins of the human body.In this review,we summarized the latest advances on the studies about how HBXIP is involved in cell apoptosis and proliferation,cell cycle progression,centrosome replication,and tumor cell migration through interaction with other proteins,in order to rationally design new anti-hepatitis B virus drug using HBXIP as a target in the future.%乙肝病毒X蛋白结合蛋白(HBXIP)是肝细胞癌变过程的一个关键因素,它能在动物肌肉组织和恶性肿瘤组织中过表达。近年来研究显示:HBXIP能与人体内多种蛋白结合。本文综述了HBXIP蛋白参与细胞凋亡与增殖、细胞周期进程、中心体复制、肿瘤细胞迁移等过程,以期为以HBXIP蛋白为靶标的新的抗乙肝病毒等药物设计提供基础。

  19. 机器人在人机交互过程中的安全性研究进展%Progress in Robot Safety Research during Human-robot Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海彬; 杨剑鸣

    2011-01-01

    为全面准确地掌握人机交互作业过程中人与机器人在安全性方面的研究进展,把提高机器人安全性的策略归纳为3种方法,分别称为事前预防主动控制、关节柔顺设计和用黏弹性材料包裹连杆,阐述了每种方法评价机器人安全性的主要性能指标.通过对比各种实现方法的设计思想和结构组成方案,总结出各种方法的优缺点和存在的主要问题.事前控制的关键在于信息的全面性和控制的实时性;事后控制方法的主要问题则只能在一定程度上减缓撞击的伤害程度,而无法从根本上保证人的安全性.结果表明,到目前为止仅靠单一手段和方法还不能彻底解决机器人安全性问题,要多种手段相结合,高度重视影响安全性的主客观因素,把提高机器人安全性的理念贯穿于机器人设计的各个环节.%For the purpose of precisely grasping the research development of human and robot safety during human-robot interaction, three types of methods for improving robot safety are summarized. The first is pre-collision preventive active control, the second is compliant joint design, and the third is link coating with viscoelastic materials. Corresponding evaluating criteria of robot safety for the above methods are discussed. By contrasting design mechanism and construction scheme of each type of method, the advantages , disadvantages and main problems are generalized. The key of pre-collision control depends on if the information is comprehensive and if the control is real-time. The problem of post-collision control is that the injury can only be eased, but can not be totally avoided. It is concluded that only depending on one of the above methods is hard to thoroughly resolve robot safety problem, and several methods should be combined to effectively improve robot safety. Meanwhile, both subjective and objective factors should be highly valued, and the idea of improving robot safety should be

  20. Progress in research on interaction of intestinal microbiota and immunity%肠道微生物与免疫的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康永波; 孔祥阳; 张晓芳; 郭丽琼; 苏君鸿

    2016-01-01

    T cell) and immunoglobulin A (IgA),and the expression of antimicrobial peptides. Intestinal colonization of altered Schaedler flora (ASF) resulted in activation and de novo generation of colonic Treg cells.Failure to activate Treg cells resulted in the induction of T helper 1 7 (Th1 7) and Th1 cell responses.Thus, microbiota colonization-induced Treg cell responses are a fundamental intrinsic mechanism to induce and maintain host-intestinal microbial T cell mutualism.Commensals are rapidly killed by macrophages,intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) can keep small numbers of live commensals for a few days,which makes DCs selectively induce IgA.The commensal-loaded DCs are confined to the mucosal immune compartment by the mesenteric lymph nodes,which assure that immune responses to gut bacteria are induced locally,without potentially damaging systemic immune responses.The production of cathelicidin related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) by insulin secretingβ-cells was controlled by short chain fatty acids produced by the gut microbiota.Therefore,gut microbiota manipulations in non-bese diabetic (NOD) mice modulated CRAMP production and inflammation in the pancreatic islets,exposing that the gut microbiota directly shape the pancreatic immune environment and autoimmune diabetes development. There may be numerous molecules produced by gut microbes that affect these immune responses.Meanwhile, targeting gut microbiota might be an effective strategy to overcome diseases, which was proved by many experimental and clinical researches.Accordingly,if these mechanisms are fully understood,diseases can be treated with probiotics/prebiotics to regulate gut microbes. Here, this review advances our understanding of the interactions between resident microbes and the immune system,and the implications of these findings for human health.

  1. Expression of RIZ1 protein (Retinoblastoma-interacting zinc-finger protein 1) in prostate cancer epithelial cells changes with cancer grade progression and is modulated in vitro by DHT and E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Valentina; Staibano, Stefania; Abbondanza, Ciro; Pasquali, Daniela; De Rosa, Caterina; Mascolo, Massimo; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Visconti, Daniela; De Bellis, Annamaria; Moncharmont, Bruno; De Rosa, Gaetano; Puca, Giovanni Alfredo; Bellastella, Antonio; Sinisi, Antonio Agostino

    2009-12-01

    The nuclear protein methyl-transferase Retinoblastoma-interacting zinc-finger protein 1 (RIZ1) is considered to be a downstream effector of estrogen action in target tissues. Silencing of RIZ1 expression is common in many tumors. We analyzed RIZ1 expression in normal and malignant prostate tissue and evaluated whether estradiol (E2) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment modulated RIZ1 in cultured prostate epithelial cells (PEC). Moreover, we studied the possible involvement of RIZ1 in estrogen action on the EPN prostate cell line, constitutively expressing both estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and beta. RIZ1 protein, found in the nucleus of normal PECs by immunohistochemistry, was progressively lost in cancer tissues as the Gleason score increased and was only detected in the cytoplasmic compartment. RIZ1 transcript levels, as assayed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in primary PEC cultures, were significantly reduced in cancer cells (P DHT treatment significantly increased RIZ1 transcript and protein levels (P DHT or E2 treatment in vitro. Furthermore, the E2 effects on ER-expressing prostate cells involve RIZ1, which confirms a possible role for ER-mediated pathways in a non-classic E(2)-target tissue.

  2. Progress in nanophotonics 4

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsui, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the recent progress in the field of nanophotonics. It contains review-like chapters focusing on various but mutually related topics in nanophotonics written by the world’s leading scientists. Following the elaboration of the idea of nanophotonics, much theoretical and experimental work has been carried out, and several novel photonic devices, high-resolution fabrication, highly efficient energy conversion, and novel information processing have been developed in these years. Novel theoretical models describing the nanometric light-matter interaction, nonequilibrium statistical mechanical models for photon breeding processes and near-field‐assisted chemical reactions as well as light‐matter interaction are also explained in this book. It describes dressed photon technology and its applications, including implementation of nanophotonic devices and systems, fabrication methods and performance characteristics of ultrathin, ultraflexible organic light‐emitting diodes, organic solar cells ...

  3. Progress in clinical herb-drug interactions mediated by drug metabolism- related genes%药物代谢相关基因介导的中草药药物相互作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高利臣; 张伟; 刘昭前; 范岚; 周宏灏

    2012-01-01

    中草药既是药物也可作为食品补充剂,其应用在国际上越来越广泛.中草药对细胞色素P450酶及其药物转运体的诱导和抑制是介导中草药-药物相互作用和产生药物临床毒副反应的主要机制.中草药能够通过影响药物代谢酶或转运体基因表达和功能改变其底物药物的血药浓度,可能导致临床上药物毒副反应或治疗失败的发生,产生有重要临床意义的中草药-药物相互作用.研究还发现,中草药对药物代谢酶和转运体的影响也受基因剂量控制,即符合基因剂量效应,因而具有遗传的个体差异.本文概述了近年来药物代谢相关基因介导的中草药-药物相互作用及药物基因组学临床研究的最新进展.%Herbal medicines can be used for both prescriptions or food supplements with a wide range of applications. Inductive or inhibitive effects of herbal medicines on cytochrome P450 enzymes and drug transporters is the main mechanism that mediates herb-drug interactions and produces clinical toxicity. Herbal medicines could alter plasma exposure of substrate drugs for drug metabolizing enzymes or transporters by influencing the expressions and functions of drug metabolizing enzymes or transporters, perhaps resulting in unexpected clinical toxicity or therapeutic failure and leading to herb-drug in- teractions with clinical importance. Moreover, herb-drug interactions are in accordance with the gene-dosage rule, and therefore have genetic in-terindividual differences. Research progress of the clinical herb-drug interactions and related pharmacogenomics studies mediated by drug metabolism-related genes are reviewed in this article.

  4. Progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhiraman, A.; Collard, D.; Cardelino, B.; Bhatia, S.; Desai, P.; Harruna, I.; Khan, I.; Mariam, Y.; Mensah, T.; Mitchell, M.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA funding allowed Clark Atlanta University (CAU) to establish a High Performance Polymers And Ceramics (HiPPAC) Research Center. The HiPPAC Center is consolidating and expanding the existing polymer and ceramic research capabilities at CAU through the development of interdepartmental and interinstitutional research in: (1) polymer synthesis; (2) polymer characterization and properties; (3) polymer processing; (4) polymer-based ceramic synthesis; and (5) ceramic characterization and properties. This Center has developed strong interactions between scientists and materials scientists of CAU and their counterparts from sister institutions in the Atlanta University Center (AUC) and the Georgia Institute of Technology. As a component of the center, we have started to develop strong collaborations with scientists from other universities and the HBCU's, national and federal agency laboratories, and the private sector during this first year. During this first year we have refined the focus of the research in the HiPPAC Center to three areas with seven working groups that will start programmatic activities on January 1, 1993, as follows: (1) nonlinear optical properties of chitosan derivatives; (2) polymeric electronic materials; (3) nondestructive characterization and prediction of polyimide performance; (4) solution processing of high-performance materials; (5) processable polyimides for composite applications; (6) sol-gel based ceramic materials processing; and (7) synthetic based processing of pre-ceramic polymers.

  5. Research progress in neuro-immune interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans%秀丽隐杆线虫神经免疫相互作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡金玲; 杜丽; 马琼; 崔玉芳

    2012-01-01

    机体受外源病原体入侵时,会迅速激活固有免疫反应.免疫反应过强会导致炎症反应和组织损伤,过弱则会使机体受到感染.神经系统可通过释放神经递质、神经肽及激素来调节固有免疫反应的强度.与哺乳动物复杂的神经免疫系统结构相比,秀丽隐杆线虫的神经免疫系统结构简单,且易于进行遗传学、分子生物学和行为学分析等,因而被应用于神经免疫相互作用的研究.近年来,对秀丽隐杆线虫的研究发现,调节其固有免疫反应的神经通路主要是转化生长因子β通路、胰岛素信号通路和多巴胺通路.由于这些通路在进化上有许多保守之处,因而为高等生物神经免疫相互作用分子机制的研究提供了新思路.本文仅就近年来该领域的研究进展做一概述.%The innate immune response may be activated quickly once the organism is invaded by exotic pathogens. An excessive immune response may result in inflammation and tissue damage, whereas an insufficient immune response may result in infection. Nervous system may regulate the intensity of innate immune responses by releasing neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Compared with the complicated neuro-immune system in mammals, it is much simpler in Caenorhabditis elegans. Besides, C. elegans is accessible to genetic, molecular biology and behavioral analyses, so it has been used in studies on neuro-immune interactions. It has been revealed recently in the studies with C. elegans that the neuronal pathways regulating innate immune responses primarily include a transforming growth factor- β (TGF- β) pathway, an insulin/insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF) pathway and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Since these pathways are evolutionally conservative, so it might be able to provide some new ideas for the research on neuro-immune interactions at molecular levels. The recent progress in this field has been reviewed in present paper.

  6. Study of heavy flavored particles. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses progress on the following topics: time-of- flight system; charmed baryon production and decays; D decays to baryons; measurement of sigma plus particles magnetic moments; and strong interaction coupling. (LSP)

  7. Progress on Chemical Reactions and Interaction Factors During Milk Storage and Processing%导致乳粉贮藏加工劣变的主要化学反应和物化因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; Leif H Skibsted; 蒋东华

    2012-01-01

    The safety of dairy products has been an increasing public concern in China, especially that of milk powder. At present, the main factors of deterioration are three types of chemical reactions: Lipid oxidation, Maillard reaction and lactose crystallization during milk' s processing and storage. Their interaction mechanism is not clear. In this paper, research progress on the chemical changes and their impact factors, determination methods and the inter- action are reviewed, research direction of chemical reactions in milk powder storage are prospected. This research will provide the theory in further study of the quality and safety control of milk powder.%我国乳制品安全日益受到大众的关注,其中乳粉是焦点之一。目前乳粉贮藏加工中引起质量劣变的因素主要为三类化学反应——脂质氧化,美拉德反应和乳糖结晶,它们之间存在相互作用,但机理尚未明确。文中针对乳粉贮藏加工中的重要化学变化和它们的影响因素、测定方法和相互作用的研究进展进行了综述,并对乳粉贮藏中化学反应的研究方向提出了展望,为进一步从机理上研究乳粉劣变并确保乳粉质量安全提供依据。

  8. Justifying departures from progressivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Steensig, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    -going activity. Some of the actions that altså prefaces can also be prefaced by phrases like ‘you know’ or ‘I mean’, which seem to do at least some of the work that altså does, but altså is used more frequently and across a wider range of actions. In our discussion, we raise the possibility that the usefulness......This chapter investigates the use of the Danish particle altså in turn-initial position. Turn-initial altså can be employed for prefacing a wide range of actions, including self- and other-initiated repair, questions, second stories and answers to both yes/no and wh-questions. We show that across...... these actions, participants in interaction produce altså to indicate (1) that the action they will produce departs from progressivity, (2) that it will expand on something prior, (3) that the departure is, therefore, justified, and (4) that it will contribute to reinstalling the progression of the larger on...

  9. Learning numerical progressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitz, P C; Hazan, D N

    1974-01-01

    Learning of simple numerical progressions and compound progressions formed by combining two or three simple progressions is investigated. In two experiments, time to solution was greater for compound vs simple progressions; greater the higher the progression's solution level; and greater if the progression consisted of large vs small numbers. A set of strategies is proposed to account for progression learning based on the assumption S computes differences between integers, differences between differences, etc., in a hierarchical fashion. Two measures of progression difficulty, each a summary of the strategies, are proposed; C1 is a count of the number of differences needed to solve a progression; C2 is the same count with higher level differences given more weight. The measures accurately predict in both experiments the mean time to solve 16 different progressions with C2 being somewhat superior. The measures also predict the learning difficulty of 10 other progressions reported by Bjork (1968).

  10. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following: electrical uses, direct-heat uses, drilling activities, leases, geothermal loan guarantee program, general activities, and legal, institutional, and regulatory activites. (MHR)

  11. A progress report on progress files

    OpenAIRE

    East, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In order to facilitate personal development planning (PDP), the UK higher education sector is committed to introducing progress files. This article explores the experience of one institution in seeking to establish a system of progress files. It identifies the main practical problems in doing this, highlighting the lack of agreement on the skills that higher education students are expected to acqui...

  12. Cancer progression modeling using static sample data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yijun; Yao, Jin; Nowak, Norma J; Goodison, Steve

    2014-01-01

    As molecular profiling data continues to accumulate, the design of integrative computational analyses that can provide insights into the dynamic aspects of cancer progression becomes feasible. Here, we present a novel computational method for the construction of cancer progression models based on the analysis of static tumor samples. We demonstrate the reliability of the method with simulated data, and describe the application to breast cancer data. Our findings support a linear, branching model for breast cancer progression. An interactive model facilitates the identification of key molecular events in the advance of disease to malignancy.

  13. Progress in front propagation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

    2008-08-01

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  14. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Cheon, Bobby K; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J; Blizinsky, Katherine D

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed.

  15. 土壤-植物系统中氮锌交互作用研究进展%Research progress of interaction between nitrogen and zinc in plant-soil system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠俊; 华珞; 白玲玉; 韦东普; 陈世宝

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviewed the research work on the interaction between nitrogen and zinc over the past several decades and looked forward to the research direction in the future. It discussed the characteristics of plant growth, uptake, translocation and accumulation as well as the relationships between each other of nitrogen, zinc and other elements during nitrogen and zinc interaction. The influence of the interaction between nitrogen and zinc on the growth of microbes and symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the interaction between nitrogen and zinc in the soil also discussed in this paper. Discussions were also included physiological and biochemical basis, cell/subcell, and mechanisms of nitrogen and zinc interaction. The weak aspects and some suggestions in the interaction research were also introduced in this paper.%对几十年来有关土壤-植物系统氮锌交互作用研究现状及未来趋势进行了综述。论述了氮锌交互作用与植物生长、氮锌及其它元素的吸收、转运、积累的相互关系,以及对微生物生长及豆科作物固氮的影响;讨论了氮锌交互作用的生理生化基础及细胞亚细胞学机理;指出了氮锌交互作用的若干薄弱环节;展望了氮锌交互作用未来的研究方向。

  16. Experiencing affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2010-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective move

  17. Progress in biomaterials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    "Progress in Biomaterials is a multidisciplinary, English-language publication of original contributions and reviews concerning studies of the preparation, performance and evaluation of biomaterial...

  18. Natalizumab in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Ratzer, Rikke; Börnsen, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS: In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients with progre......OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS: In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients...

  19. 2004 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    Fusion research is undertaken all over the world with the objective of realising an environmentally responsible source of energy with essentially unlimited and widely distributed fuel reserves. The results of the worldwide efforts made in recent years are now embodied in ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, designed to produce at least 500 MW of fusion power with a power gain of ten. ITER will test for the first time the interaction of fusion plasma physics with power station technology. In this international framework, during 2004 Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit of ENEA obtained important results in several keys areas. At the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade the lower hybrid microwave system was fully exploited to study the generation and control of the plasma current, and the electron cyclotron heating system reached full power (1.5 MW). With the simultaneous injection of the two waves, good energy confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma densities ever achieved. Advanced scenario regimes were also addressed in the activities of ENEA at JET. The engineering design of the IGNITOR machine was finalised, and significant progress was made in understanding the plasma physics regimes. Among the technology activities, the qualification of the deposition process of a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles may be mentioned as the most important achievement. This innovative pre brazed casting process is a competitive candidate for the fabrication of the CFCbased ITER divertor components. ENEA participated in the European activity for the definition and production on an industrial scale of an advanced Nb3Sn strand for the ITER superconducting central solenoid and toroidal field coils. Contributions were also made to the design of the final conductor layout and the characterisation tests. Inertial fusion studies continued along the previous lines, namely, the study of the implosion

  20. Interactive Environment Design in Smart City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, DeXiang; Chen, LanSha; Zhou, Xi

    2017-08-01

    The interactive environment design of smart city is not just an interactive progress or interactive mode design, rather than generate an environment such as the “organic” life entity as human beings through interactive design, forming a smart environment with perception, memory, thinking, and reaction.

  1. Information Loss from Technological Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Progress in electronics and optics offers faster computers, and rapid communication via the internet that is matched by ever larger and evolving storage systems. Instinctively one assumes that this must be totally beneficial. However advances in software and storage media are progressing in ways which are frequently incompatible with earlier systems and the economics and commercial pressures rarely guarantee total compatibility with earlier systems. Instead, the industries actively choose to force the users to purchase new systems and software. Thus we are moving forward with new technological variants that may have access to only the most recent systems and we will have lost earlier alternatives. The reality is that increased processing speed and storage capacity are matched by an equally rapid decline in the access and survival lifetime of older information. This pattern is not limited to modern electronic systems but is evident throughout history from writing on stone and clay tablets to papyrus and paper. It is equally evident in image systems from painting, through film, to magnetic tapes and digital cameras. In sound recording we have variously progressed from wax discs to vinyl, magnetic tape and CD formats. In each case the need for better definition and greater capacity has forced the earlier systems into oblivion. Indeed proposed interactive music systems could similarly relegate music CDs to specialist collections. The article will track some of the examples and discuss the consequences as well as noting that this information loss is further compounded by developments in language and changes in cultural views of different societies.

  2. Genetic progress in Dutch crop yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, H.C.A.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Crop yields are a result of interactions between genetics, environment and management (G × E × M). As in the Netherlands differences between potential yield and actual farm yields (yield gaps) are relatively small, progress in genetic potential is essential to further increase farm yields. In this p

  3. Progression i musikundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbæk, Annelise

    Hvad er progression? ; Musikalitetsbegrebet ; Fælles mål for musik ; Modeller som redskab ; Stemmen : sang ; Sammenspil ; Dans og bevægelse ; Lytning......Hvad er progression? ; Musikalitetsbegrebet ; Fælles mål for musik ; Modeller som redskab ; Stemmen : sang ; Sammenspil ; Dans og bevægelse ; Lytning...

  4. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...

  5. On Disciplinary Fragmentation and Scientific Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balietti, Stefano; Mäs, Michael; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Why are some scientific disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, more fragmented into conflicting schools of thought than other fields, such as physics and biology? Furthermore, why does high fragmentation tend to coincide with limited scientific progress? We analyzed a formal model where scientists seek to identify the correct answer to a research question. Each scientist is influenced by three forces: (i) signals received from the correct answer to the question; (ii) peer influence; and (iii) noise. We observed the emergence of different macroscopic patterns of collective exploration, and studied how the three forces affect the degree to which disciplines fall apart into divergent fragments, or so-called “schools of thought”. We conducted two simulation experiments where we tested (A) whether the three forces foster or hamper progress, and (B) whether disciplinary fragmentation causally affects scientific progress and vice versa. We found that fragmentation critically limits scientific progress. Strikingly, there is no effect in the opposite causal direction. What is more, our results shows that at the heart of the mechanisms driving scientific progress we find (i) social interactions, and (ii) peer disagreement. In fact, fragmentation is increased and progress limited if the simulated scientists are open to influence only by peers with very similar views, or when within-school diversity is lost. Finally, disciplines where the scientists received strong signals from the correct answer were less fragmented and experienced faster progress. We discuss model’s implications for the design of social institutions fostering interdisciplinarity and participation in science. PMID:25790025

  6. 不同类型表面活性剂与蛋白质作用研究进展%Research Progress of the Interaction of Different Type Surfactants with Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洪玉; 张莹莹; 唐乾; 郑学仿

    2014-01-01

    Surfactants interact with proteins in multifarious ways which depend on surfactant types, concentration, structure, and physical-chemical properties. To obtain a global overview of this process, the physicochemical properties of the interaction was began with introducing between proteins and surfactants, the recent research including the structural properties of protein-surfactant complex, the adsorption mechanisms of the complex, as well as the structural changes of proteins induced by surfactants. Then different phase behaviors and interaction mechanisms of proteins interaction were expounded with five different classes of surfactants, including anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants, zwitterionic surfactants, non-ionic surfactants, fluorine and Gemini surfactants. Recent research scope and current situation in every field had also been reviewed. Our results and methods in studying protein-surfactant interaction were systematically summarized in the suitable part.%表面活性剂和蛋白质作用的方式与表面活性剂的种类、结构、浓度和其理化性质有关。本文系统地总结了多种类型表面活性剂(阴离子型、阳离子型、两性离子型、非离子型、氟表面活性剂及 Gemini 表面活性剂)的结构特点,以蛋白质-表面活性剂相互作用的物理化学特征为出发点,综述了该体系相互作用的最新研究成果及进展,包括二者作用时所形成的复合物的结构理论,复合物的吸附机理及其作用过程中蛋白质结构的变化;结合本课题组的工作总结分析了蛋白质分别与各类表面活性剂相互作用过程中作用力特征、相行为、作用机理及应用。

  7. 污染物与生物大分子作用的研究方法及进展%Research Methodology and Progress of Interaction between Pollutants and Biomacromolecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦芳; 吴玲玲

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollutants would interact with biological macromolecules firstly after entering into organisms, resulting in changes of the macromolecular structure, and then consequently a series of diseases taken place.Therefore, study of the interaction between pollutants and biological macromolecules is helpful to understand in depth the toxigenicity process, so as to evaluate the pollutants toxicity roundly.Recently many methods such as fluorescence spectrometry, balance dialysis method, isothermal titration trace calorimetry, dichroism method, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and resonance light scattering were commonly used to study the molecular interaction.This paper reviewed these methods researching the pollutants and biomacromolecules in the respects of combination model, combination number and binding sites.The future study direction was suggested.%环境污染物进入机体后会首先作用于生物大分子,致使生物大分子的结构发生变化,从而产生一系列的病变作用,因此研究污染物与生物大分子之间的作用有助于深入地阐述污染物的致毒过程,从而全面评价环境污染物的毒性.近年来较常用于研究分子间相互作用的方法有荧光光谱法、平衡透析法、等温滴定微量热法、圓二色谱法、核磁共振、共振光散射等,本文对这些方法在研究污染物和生物大分子之间的结合模型、结合数目、结合位点等方面的研究成果进行了综述,并提出了今后的研究方向.

  8. Rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Wolff, Martin; Weitz, Michael; Bartlau, Thomas; Korth, Carsten; Zerr, Inga

    2011-09-01

    Different rates of progression have been observed among patients with Alzheimer disease. Risk factors that accelerate deterioration have been identified and some are being discussed, such as genetics, comorbidity, and the early appearance of Alzheimer disease motor signs. Progressive forms of Alzheimer disease have been reported with rapid cognitive decline and disease duration of only a few years. This short review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, we suggest that rapid, in this context, should be defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score decrease of 6 points per year.

  9. Physicians’ progress notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...

  10. Research progress on the interaction of traditional Chinese medicines and intestinal flora%中药与肠道菌群相互作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑶; 季宇彬; 陈明苍

    2012-01-01

    健康人肠内菌群的平衡是相当稳定的.肠内菌群平衡对人的健康至关重要,菌群失调往往导致各种胃肠道等消化道疾病的发生.肠内菌微生物种类繁多,含酶丰富,对中药成分的转化有着相当重要的作用;同时,许多中药对肠道菌群的平衡也有着重要的影响.中药和肠道菌群的相互作用对于中药现代化研究具有重要意义.%The balance of intestinal flora is very stable in healthy people. It is essential to human health. The dysbacterio -sis often leads to a variety of gastrointestinal tract and other gastrointestinal diseases. Intestinal tract contains a wide range of intestinal bacteria and abundant enzymes, and plays a very significant role in the transformation of Chinese medicine. Meanwhile the traditional Chinese medicine is essential to the balance of intestinal flora. The mutual interaction between traditional Chinese medicine and intestinal flora is very important for us to investigate the mutual interaction between tra -ditional Chinese medicine and intestinal flora.

  11. Modeling cancer progression via pathway dependencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena J Edelman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a heterogeneous disease often requiring a complexity of alterations to drive a normal cell to a malignancy and ultimately to a metastatic state. Certain genetic perturbations have been implicated for initiation and progression. However, to a great extent, underlying mechanisms often remain elusive. These genetic perturbations are most likely reflected by the altered expression of sets of genes or pathways, rather than individual genes, thus creating a need for models of deregulation of pathways to help provide an understanding of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. We introduce an integrative hierarchical analysis of tumor progression that discovers which a priori defined pathways are relevant either throughout or in particular steps of progression. Pathway interaction networks are inferred for these relevant pathways over the steps in progression. This is followed by the refinement of the relevant pathways to those genes most differentially expressed in particular disease stages. The final analysis infers a gene interaction network for these refined pathways. We apply this approach to model progression in prostate cancer and melanoma, resulting in a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Our analysis supports previous findings for the deregulation of several pathways involved in cell cycle control and proliferation in both cancer types. A novel finding of our analysis is a connection between ErbB4 and primary prostate cancer.

  12. Progress in Seawater Desalination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Scientists from the CAS Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry have made significant progress in developing advanced expertise of seawater desalination. Their work was recently appraised and confirmed by a panel of experts in northeast China's Jilin Province.

  13. Progressive hemifacial atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Sande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy, also known as Parry-Romberg Syndrome, is an uncommon degenerative and poorly understood condition. It is characterized by a slow and progressive but self-limited atrophy affecting one side of the face. The incidence and the cause of this alteration are unknown. A cerebral disturbance of fat metabolism has been proposed as a primary cause. Possible factors that are involved in the pathogenesis include trauma, viral infections, heredity, endocrine disturbances and auto-immunity. The most common complications that appear in association to this disorder are: trigeminal neuralgia, facial paresthesia, severe headache and epilepsy. Characteristically, the atrophy progresses slowly for several years and, it becomes stable. The objective of this work is, through the presentation of a clinical case, to accomplish a literature review concerning general characteristics, etiology, physiopathology and treatment of progressive hemifacial atrophy.

  14. Reporting Continuous Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Richard M.; Fistler, Ronald

    1973-01-01

    Described is the approach to evaluating student progress in the Iowa Braille and Sight Saving School which is based upon observable behaviors in all subject areas from kindergarten through grade 12. (MC)

  15. Physicians’ Progress Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines physicians’ progress notes, an artifact that, in spite of its obvious importance in the coordination of cooperative work in clinical settings, has not been subjected to systematic study under CSCW auspices. While several studies have addressed the role of the medical record...... in patient care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...

  16. The interaction between malate dehydrogenase and p53 protein contribute to tumor progression%苹果酸脱氢酶与p53蛋白相互调控对肿瘤进程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍科; 刘志宏

    2016-01-01

    p53基因是一种重要的抑癌基因,其肿瘤抑制机制十分复杂,p53基因编码的p53蛋白能通过多种途径抑制肿瘤的进程.苹果酸脱氢酶(MDH)是一种重要的代谢酶,但是MDH作用并不局限于代谢调节.p53蛋白与苹果酸脱氢酶的相互调控作用能影响肿瘤细胞的细胞周期、衰老和凋亡.同时,也对肿瘤细胞中葡萄糖、谷氨酸盐、烟酰胺腺嘌呤二核苷酸磷酸(NADPH)、脂质等物质代谢有重要影响.文章拟对MDH与p53蛋白相互调控作用对肿瘤细胞进程的影响及其相关机制做一综述.%p53 gene is a important cancer suppressor gene,tumor suppressor mechanism of p53 gene is very complex,p53 protein coded by p53 gene can inhibit the progression of tumor through a variety of ways.Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is a important metabolic enzyme,but the function of MDH is not confined to metabolism regulation.Mutual regulation between p53 protein and MDH can influence the cell cycle,senescence and apoptosis of tumor cells.Meanwhile,the regulation also has great influence in material metabolism such as glucose,glutamate,nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and lipid.This article will review the influence and related mechanism by mutual regulation between MDH and p53 protein.

  17. Progresses on the InteraCtion between Selenium and MerCury in an AquatiC ECosystem%水生生态系统中汞-硒相互作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南雪娇; 余晓平; 郭金玲; 郭亚飞; 邓天龙

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury is the most toxic form among mercury compounds in the aquatic ecosystem,and poses health risks to organisms through the food chain. The effective control of methylation processes of mercury is an active research field in environmental chemistry and toxicology. Selenium(Se)has a significant suppression effect on the methylation processes of mercury(Hg). Therefore,it will be beneficial to the prevention and control of mercury contamination to clarify the speciation characteristic of mercury and the interaction mechanisms between mercury and selenium in the aquatic ecosystem. Mercury toxicity is closely associated with the levels of selenium in organisms,the interaction between Hg and Se are mainly embodied in the formation of insoluble compounds to contribute mercury demethylation or methylmercury directly ruled out by inhibition of biological a selenium related enzyme,which inhibits the toxic effect of mercury. In this paper,the speciation and distribution characteristics of mercury and selenium in the aquatic ecosystem and their interaction mechanisms were reviewed. Meanwhile,the reasonable addition of selenium compounds into water will be an effective way to inhibit the methylation processes of mercury in organisms. The development direction for the studies of interaction mechanisms between mercury and selenium and its physical effects in organisms were also reviewed.%甲基汞是汞存在于水生生态系统(水体、沉积物和水生生物)毒性最强的形态,并通过食物链的传递对生物体产生危害,因此有效控制汞的甲基化过程是汞环境化学和毒理学研究的重要课题.生物体内硒对汞的甲基化过程有明显的抑制作用,明确汞和硒在水生生态系统的形态特征以及汞 - 硒相互作用机制,有助于解决汞污染问题.汞在生物体内的毒性与生物体内硒含量紧密相关,汞与硒相之间的相互作用主要表现在生成不溶的化合物促使汞去甲基化或受生物

  18. Progressive geometric algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander P.A. Alewijnse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive algorithms are algorithms that, on the way to computing a complete solution to the problem at hand, output intermediate solutions that approximate the complete solution increasingly well. We present a framework for analyzing such algorithms, and develop efficient progressive algorithms for two geometric problems: computing the convex hull of a planar point set, and finding popular places in a set of trajectories.

  19. IDEOLOGY AND PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Constantin Mihăilescu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The progress theme is very important for the ideologies of the Enlightenment political modernity. Moreover, it had received, with the help of the Enlightenment historicism and rationalism, a mythological dimension. Having in view the historical experience that we have today, it is necessary to give up on progress in thismillenarist meaning. But we are observing – as it also results from the political programs presented in the article – that some of the parties affiliated to the forementioned ideologies are approaching in an inconsistent manner the entire theme of the progress. The recession of this theme is part of a larger cultural context, specific for late modernity, when the ideologies seem to be exhausted. But ideologies survive and this fact certifies their power. They continue to impose different reference criteria on politics, and one of the most significant must remainthe progress. But there is also a more modest way to understand progress. Exactly this kind of approach is presented in this article, an approach which is best understood and commented by the help of Richard Rorty's works. Without having the progress as a desideratum, the negative use of power becomes easier. At the same time, the comparative evaluation of the economic, social or political initiatives,and also the social imperatives as solidarity, social cohesion, or the diminishing of the sufferings become more difficult to realize and pursue.

  20. [Progressive visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Futamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-10-01

    Progressive visual agnosia was discovered in the 20th century following the discovery of classical non-progressive visual agnosia. In contrast to the classical type, which is caused by cerebral vascular disease or traumatic injury, progressive visual agnosia is a symptom of neurological degeneration. The condition of progressive visual loss, including visual agnosia, and posterior cerebral atrophy was named posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) by Benson et al. (1988). Progressive visual agnosia is also observed in semantic dementia (SD) and other degenerative diseases, but there is a difference in the subtype of visual agnosia associated with these diseases. Lissauer (1890) classified visual agnosia into apperceptive and associative types, and it in most cases, PCA is associated with the apperceptive type. However, SD patients exhibit symptoms of associative visual agnosia before changing to those of semantic memory disorder. Insights into progressive visual agnosia have helped us understand the visual system and discover how we "perceive" the outer world neuronally, with regard to consciousness. Although PCA is a type of atypical dementia, its diagnosis is important to enable patients to live better lives with appropriate functional support.

  1. Progression of patterns (POP): a machine classifier algorithm to identify glaucoma progression in visual fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Michael H; Lee, Intae; Jang, Giljin; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Sample, Pamela A; Weinreb, Robert N; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Girkin, Christopher A; Anderson, Douglas R; Zangwill, Linda M; Fredette, Marie-Josee; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Medeiros, Felipe A; Bowd, Christopher

    2012-09-25

    We evaluated Progression of Patterns (POP) for its ability to identify progression of glaucomatous visual field (VF) defects. POP uses variational Bayesian independent component mixture model (VIM), a machine learning classifier (MLC) developed previously. VIM separated Swedish Interactive Thresholding Algorithm (SITA) VFs from a set of 2,085 normal and glaucomatous eyes into nine axes (VF patterns): seven glaucomatous. Stable glaucoma was simulated in a second set of 55 patient eyes with five VFs each, collected within four weeks. A third set of 628 eyes with 4,186 VFs (mean ± SD of 6.7 ± 1.7 VFs over 4.0 ± 1.4 years) was tested for progression. Tested eyes were placed into suspect and glaucoma categories at baseline, based on VFs and disk stereoscopic photographs; a subset of eyes had stereophotographic evidence of progressive glaucomatous optic neuropathy (PGON). Each sequence of fields was projected along seven VIM glaucoma axes. Linear regression (LR) slopes generated from projections onto each axis yielded a degree of confidence (DOC) that there was progression. At 95% specificity, progression cutoffs were established for POP, visual field index (VFI), and mean deviation (MD). Guided progression analysis (GPA) was also compared. POP identified a statistically similar number of eyes (P > 0.05) as progressing compared with VFI, MD, and GPA in suspects (3.8%, 2.7%, 5.6%, and 2.9%, respectively), and more eyes than GPA (P = 0.01) in glaucoma (16.0%, 15.3%, 12.0%, and 7.3%, respectively), and more eyes than GPA (P = 0.05) in PGON eyes (26.3%, 23.7%, 27.6%, and 14.5%, respectively). POP, with its display of DOC of progression and its identification of progressing VF defect pattern, adds to the information available to the clinician for detecting VF progression.

  2. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1973-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 6 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the progress in surface and membrane science; the solid state chemistry of the silver halide surface; and the experimental and theoretical aspects of the double layer at the mercury-solution interface. The text also describes contact-angle hysteresis; ion binding and ion transport produced by neutral lipid-soluble molecules; and the biophysical interactions of blood proteins with polymeric and artificial surfaces. Physical chemists, biophysicists, and phys

  3. Research progress in drug interaction between proton-pump inhibitors and clopidogrel%质子泵抑制剂与氯吡格雷药物相互作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党国宏; 刘治军

    2012-01-01

    To provide references for clinical practice in the drug interaction of PPIs and clopidogrel, the literature published in 2010 from Medline was reviewed. The key words "PPI + clopidogrel" , or "omeprazole + clopidogrel" , or "esomeprazole + clopidogrel" , or " lansoprazole + clopidogrel" , or "rabeprazole + clopidogrel" , or " pantoprazole + clopidogrel" were applied to search all of the related articles or Meta analyses. Effects of PPIs on clopidogrel anti-platelet aggregation are determined by multiple factors. When co-administrated with aspirin, clopidogrel has no clinically significant drug interaction with PPIs; when solely used, clopidogrel anti-platelet aggregation could be markedly reduced by different PPI with different strength; when taking micro-parameters ( such as ADP- or arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation) as comparing standard, clopidogrel has adverse drug interaction with PPIs; however, when comparing macro-parameters (such as primary event incidence) , no clinically significant drug interaction exists between clopidogrel and PPIs. Effects of PPIs on clopidogrel anti-platelet aggregation ability relate to CYP2C19 polymorphism. PPI exerted stronger effects on clopidogrel in CYP2C19 rapid metabo-lizer than in poor metabolizer. Compared with clopidogrel, aspirin co-administrated with clopidogrel can reduce the events of gastrointestinal bleeding and has no adverse effects on cardiovascular system. In patients treated with both clopidogrel and aspirin after PCI operations, anyone of the five PPIs can be selected without adverse drug interaction. When clopidogrel solely used to anti-platelet, pantoprazole should be the first choice as its adverse effects on clopidogrel is the weakest. Aspirin can effectively exert an anti-platelet effect and markedly reduce the gastrointestinal bleeding events when co-administrated with PPIs, so that aspirin is an alternative for clopidogrel when concomitant use with PPIs.%对2010年Mdeline收载的关于质

  4. 富含亮氨酸重复序列的结合蛋白1的研究进展%Research progress in leucine-rich repeat (in FLⅡ) interacting protein 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋祝昌; 佘军红

    2012-01-01

    leucine-rich repeat (in FLⅡ) interacting protein 1(LRRFIP1) is a kind of transcription inhibitory factor which exists in tissue cells of various animals and human body.Its expression increases significantly in epidermal growth,tumors and cerebrovascular diseases.With transcription inhibition feature,it involves in the regulation of signal pathways and the platelet cytoskeleton component.It is also target gene of miRNA regulation and plays an important role in the process.This paper reviews the LRRFIP1 structure characteristics,distribution and function and its regulation mechanism.%富含亮氨酸重复序列相互作用蛋白1 (LRRFIP1)是一种转录抑制因子,存在于多种动物和人的组织细胞中,在表皮生长、肿瘤及脑血管病中表达明显升高,具有转录抑制作用、参与信号通路调控及参与血小板细胞骨架的组成部分,也是miRNA调节的靶基因,并起着重要作用.对LRRFIP1的结构特点、分布与功能及其机制进行综述.

  5. 肠炎沙门菌感染与鸡蛋污染相互作用机制的研究进展%Progress on the mechanisms of interactions between Salmonella Enteritidis infection and egg contamination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐俊妮; 刘骥; 陈娟

    2012-01-01

    被污染的鸡蛋与人类肠炎沙门菌病感染之间存在明显的联系,鸡蛋和鸡蛋产品是肠炎沙门菌暴发最主要的食品源头.本文主要阐述肠炎沙门菌病原与蛋鸡及鸡蛋之间的相互作用,揭示肠炎沙门菌菌株比其他血清型菌株更易污染鸡蛋的原因.%There was an obvious association between contaminated eggs and human salmonellosis. Contaminated eggs and egg products were the most important vehicle of food-borne salmonellosis. The host-pathogen interactions in the reproductive tract of hens and eggs were explained. The reason of eggs easier to be contaminated by Salmonella Enteritidis strains than other Salmonella strains with different serotypes was highlighted.

  6. 钙粘蛋白与苏云金芽胞杆菌晶体毒素互作机制研究进展%Progress on the mechanism of interaction of cadherin with crystal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新民; 周攀登; 刘淑云; 徐玲; 夏莉; 夏立秋; 孙运军

    2013-01-01

    Cadherin is one of the most important receptors for crystal toxins of Bacillus thur-ingiensis in insects. The type, structure and distribution of cadherin in insects are sketched. The binding sites of both crystal toxin and cadherin are discussed in depth. The mechanism of interaction of cadherin with crystal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis is expounded in detail, and the relations betweeen cadherin and insect resisitance are also presented.%昆虫钙粘蛋白是苏云金芽胞杆菌晶体毒素的重要受体之一,本文简述了昆虫钙粘蛋白种类、结构特征和在昆虫体内的分布,对昆虫钙粘蛋白与苏云金芽胞杆菌毒素相互结合位点进行了较深入讨论;详细论述了苏云金芽胞杆菌晶体毒素作用孔洞模式和信号转导模式,并简要介绍了钙粘蛋白与昆虫抗性的关系.

  7. Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interaction. Technical status progress report, October 1, 1991--March 15, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biney, P.O.

    1993-04-01

    An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) Steam or water interactions has been designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature all stainless steel valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of most measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up. Initial tests indicate that the first design objective of maintaining leakproof gas collection chamber has been achieved. Initial pressure tests indicated that the pressure drop over a time span of 30 minutes was within the tolerance of the pressure transducer used to measure the pressure (within 0.690 kPa) at a nominal system pressure of 685 kPa. The experimental system hardware, data acquisition and control programs and data analysis program have been completed, tested and are currently functional.

  8. Research Progress of Interaction Between Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Host Cell%牛病毒性腹泻病毒与宿主细胞的相互作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩猛立; 黄新; 宋天增; 杨井泉; 薄新文; 钟发刚

    2012-01-01

    自1946年Olafson等首次在美国纽约州发现牛病毒性腹泻病毒(BVDV)以来,该病毒在世界各地广泛流行和传播,尤其对一些畜牧业发达国家的奶业和牛肉业造成了巨大损失.了解牛病毒性腹泻病的致病机理,研制出更加安全可靠有效的疫苗,对控制该病的发生和蔓延尤为重要.对BVDV的病原学、生物学特性以及对宿主细胞的相互作用等进行了阐述,以期为BVDV的预防及治疗奠定基础.%The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been prevalenced and disseminated worldwidely, since it was confirmed by Olafson in New York State in 1946. This virus caused large losses in dairy and beef industries, especially in the countries with advanced animal husbandry. Understanding the pathogenic mechanism and utilization of the safe and effective vaccine are very important for the control of occurrence and spread of this disease. The etiology, biological characteristics and interaction of host cell BVDV were described so as to provide the basic data for the prevention and therapy of BVDV.

  9. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS SOCIAL INTERACTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Lima, Patricia; Olsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore how entrepreneurs work with innovation; to explore and develop attention points in understanding entrepreneurship as social processes of interaction between people. Through interviews and engagement with entrepreneurs and key stakeholders, their actual social practices...... and the influence on the progress as innovators are explored. It is focused on a new local activity in a Danish town, named the I-factory which has within a year gathered almost 40 entrepreneurs. As a part of the interaction, there were created activities to encourage even more collaboration. We see...... entrepreneurship as socially constructed through local interactions between players and identify key themes in these interactions within the organisation, such as leadership, becoming part of the initiative and trust/mistrust. By doing so, this paper contributes to an understanding of entrepreneurship as social...

  10. Gleason Grade Progression Is Uncommon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Kathryn L.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Flavin, Richard; Rider, Jennifer R.; Finn, Stephen; Giovannucci, Edward; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo

    2013-01-01

    Gleason grade is universally used for pathologic scoring the differentiation of prostate cancer. However, it is unknown whether prostate tumors arise well-differentiated and then progress to less differentiated forms or if Gleason grade is an early and largely unchanging feature. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) screening has reduced the proportion of tumors diagnosed at advanced stage, which allows assessment of this question on a population level. If Gleason grade progresses as stage does, one would expect a similar reduction in high grade tumors. We studied 1,207 Physicians’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants diagnosed with prostate cancer 1982–2004 and treated with prostatectomy. We compared the distribution of grade and clinical stage across the pre-PSA and PSA screening eras. We re-reviewed grade using the ISUP 2005 revised criteria. The proportion of advanced stage tumors dropped more than six-fold, from the earliest period (12/1982–1/1993), 19.9% stage ≥T3, to the latest (5/2000–12/2004), 3% stage T3, none T4. The proportion of Gleason score ≥8 decreased substantially less, from 25.3% to 17.6%. A significant interaction between stage and diagnosis date predicting grade (p=0.04) suggests the relationship between grade and stage varies by time period. As the dramatic shift in stage since the introduction of PSA screening was accompanied by a more modest shift in Gleason grade, these findings suggest grade may be established early in tumor pathogenesis. This has implications for the understanding of tumor progression and prognosis, and may help patients diagnosed with lower grade disease feel more comfortable choosing active surveillance. PMID:23946472

  11. Interactive Shape Design

    CERN Document Server

    Cani, Marie-Paule; Wyvill, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    Providing an intuitive modeling system, which would enable us to communicate about any free-form shape we have in mind at least as quickly as with real-world tools, is one of the main challenges of digital shape design. The user should ideally be able to create, deform, and progressively add details to a shape, without being aware of the underlying mathematical representation nor being tied by any constraint on the geometrical or topological nature of the model. This book presents the field of interactive shape design from this perspective. Since interactively creating a shape builds on the hu

  12. (A study of the interaction of the flow field and the fuel jet in particulate formation as related to diesel engines: Sixth quarterly progress report, October 15, 1988--January 15, 1989)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Information available in the literature indicates that the particulate emissions from diesel engines can be reduced by controlling the fuel injection process or the air motion within the combustion chamber. Within the constraints of the current engine designs, the above approach generally results in increased NO/NO{sub x} emissions due to improvements in the combustion event. While the kinetic mechanism for NO/NO{sub x} emissions is well defined in terms of the extended Zeldovich mechanism, the complex nature of the diesel combustion process makes it impossible to predict the integrated effects of variations in the physical processes on the total NO/NO{sub x} emissions. While it is felt that both the particulate and the NO/NO{sub x} emissions can be controlled in the engine, the effects of variations in the physical processes must be defined for both the particulate and the NO/NO{sub x} emissions. The objective of this project is to develop a data base which defines the interactions of the injection, atomization, and mixing processes as well as the thermodynamic state and fuel composition on the particulate and the NO/NO{sub x} emissions. The experiments are being performed using standard diesel fuel injection equipment injecting into a flow-tube reactor, where the flow field and thermodynamic state are controlled and well defined. The particulate and NO/NO{sub x} emissions will be measured at point locations within the reactor, using a quenching probe in conjunction with a dilution tunnel as defined by the EPA specifications. The work plan for this project involves four general tasks or phases. These include: Task 1. Flow Modeling and Flow-Tube Reactor Preparation; Task 2. Flow Measurement and Spray Analysis; Task 3. Combustion Experiments; Task 4. Data Analysis; Accomplishments in each task are described.

  13. [A study of the interaction of the flow field and the fuel jet in particulate formation as related to diesel engines: Sixth quarterly progress report, October 15, 1988--January 15, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    Information available in the literature indicates that the particulate emissions from diesel engines can be reduced by controlling the fuel injection process or the air motion within the combustion chamber. Within the constraints of the current engine designs, the above approach generally results in increased NO/NO{sub x} emissions due to improvements in the combustion event. While the kinetic mechanism for NO/NO{sub x} emissions is well defined in terms of the extended Zeldovich mechanism, the complex nature of the diesel combustion process makes it impossible to predict the integrated effects of variations in the physical processes on the total NO/NO{sub x} emissions. While it is felt that both the particulate and the NO/NO{sub x} emissions can be controlled in the engine, the effects of variations in the physical processes must be defined for both the particulate and the NO/NO{sub x} emissions. The objective of this project is to develop a data base which defines the interactions of the injection, atomization, and mixing processes as well as the thermodynamic state and fuel composition on the particulate and the NO/NO{sub x} emissions. The experiments are being performed using standard diesel fuel injection equipment injecting into a flow-tube reactor, where the flow field and thermodynamic state are controlled and well defined. The particulate and NO/NO{sub x} emissions will be measured at point locations within the reactor, using a quenching probe in conjunction with a dilution tunnel as defined by the EPA specifications. The work plan for this project involves four general tasks or phases. These include: Task 1. Flow Modeling and Flow-Tube Reactor Preparation; Task 2. Flow Measurement and Spray Analysis; Task 3. Combustion Experiments; Task 4. Data Analysis; Accomplishments in each task are described.

  14. Research Progress on the Interaction Between Herb Medicine and Anti-HIV Chemical Drugs%中草药与抗艾滋病病毒化学药物相互作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓茜; 孙涛; 张丽军

    2015-01-01

    目的 HIV感染者由于免疫力低下导致各种机会性感染,中草药和化学药物联合用药的现象十分普遍.但是中草药成分复杂,可能影响抗病毒化学药物的有效性、安全性,引起HIV耐药等问题.本研究综述中草药与抗艾滋病病毒化学药物相互作用的研究进展.方法 从百度(www.baidu.com)和Pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/)中搜索有关"中草药(herb)、抗艾滋病病毒药物(anti-HIV drugs)、药物与药物相互作用(drug-drug interaction)"的文献,然后进行归纳整理.结果 综述了中草药与化学药物联合用药现状,中草药对抗病毒化学药物的药动学影响以及对CYP450代谢酶的作用.结论 系统地综述了中草药与抗艾滋病病毒化学药物的相互作用,为临床合理用药提供参考.

  15. 仪器分析研究β淀粉样蛋白和金属离子相互作用进展%Progress in Interactions of Peptide Amyloid-β and Metal ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚付军; 李向军; 袁倬斌

    2012-01-01

    大脑皮质中β淀粉样蛋白的聚集以及纤维的生成被认为与阿尔茨海默病存在密切的关系,很多证据表明过渡金属离子如铜、锌和铁在β淀粉样蛋白沉淀和神经毒性的产生过程中有着非常重要的作用。因此,研究金属离子与β淀粉样蛋白的相互作用、对Aβ的结构以及其聚集过程的影响对了解阿尔茨海默病的神经生理学特征有着非常重要的意义。此外,对Aβ蛋白与金属离子结合位点的研究亦为阿尔茨海默病的新疗法提供了一个非常广阔的前景。%The aggregation of the peptide amyloid-β(Aβ) into fibrils is considered to be closely related to the cause of Alzheimer disease(AD).A large body of evidence suggests that metallic ions such as copper,zinc and iron play an important role in the Aβ precipitation and toxicity.Therefore,the investation of how these metallic ions interact with Aβ,their influence on structure and oligomerization is very useful for understanding the neuropathological feaatures of AD.Furthermore,the understanding to the metal-ion binding sites on Aβ will provide a very promising target for the development of new therapeutics.

  16. Progression of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovind, P; Rossing, P; Tarnow, L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of renal failure. The decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is highly variable, ranging from 2 to 20, with a median of 12 mL/min/year. The risk factors of losing filtration power (progression promoters) have not been clearly identified...... mm Hg and 9.2%, respectively) revealed a rate of decline in GFR of only 1.5 mL/min/year in the lowest stratum compared with 6.1 mL/min/year in the highest stratum (P past decades, predominantly because of effective...... antihypertensive treatment. Genuine normotensive patients have a slow progression of nephropathy. Several modifiable variables have been identified as progression promoters....

  17. Progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharpuray Mohan

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Four patients had symmetrically distributed hyperkeratotic plaques on the trunk and extremities; The lesions in all of them had appeared during infancy, and after a brief period of progression, had remained static, All of them had no family history of similar skin lesions. They responded well to topical applications of 6% salicylic acid in 50% propylene glycol. Unusual features in these cases of progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma were the sparing of palms and soles, involvement of the trunk and absence of erythema.

  18. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  19. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A; Rosenberg, M D

    1975-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 9 covers the developments in surface and membrane science. The book discusses the physical adsorption of gases and vapors in micropores; the chemisorption theory; and the role of radioisotopes in the studies of chemisorption and catalysis. The text also describes the interaction of ions with monolayers; and the isolation and characterization of mycoplasma membranes. Chemists, physical chemists, and microbiologists will find the book useful.

  20. Rhizosphere interactions: root exudates, microbes and microbial communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Xing-Feng; Chaparro, Jacqueline M; Reardon, Kenneth F; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2014-01-01

    .... In this review, we summarize recent progress made in unraveling the interactions between plants and rhizosphere microbes through plant root exudates, focusing on how root exudate compounds mediate...

  1. Assessing Pupils' Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores what Assessing Pupils' Progress (APP) is about. He contends that the predilection for testing is a catastrophe as far as the teaching and learning of mathematics is concerned; it is an outcome of the drive for collecting so-called "data" on pupils. What those people, who should know better, either choose to…

  2. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  3. Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 2 December 2008, please note that the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, i.e. until 31 March 2010. Further information is available on : https://hr-services.web.cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/prp/prp.asp HR Department, tel. 73903

  4. Pure progressive aphemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, L; Benoit, N.; Van Eeckhout, P; Ducarne, B; Brunet, P.

    1993-01-01

    Aphemia, also called anarthria or severe apraxia of speech, is a rare disorder of speech production usually resulting from vascular lesions affecting the inferior premotor cortex of the left hemisphere. A patient presenting with aphemia as the sole manifestation of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is reported.

  5. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  6. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman I. Hawari

    2002-12-30

    This report presents the progress made during the first quarter of phase 2 for the project entitled ''Development and Validation of Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws from Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs.'' (B204) THIS IS NOT A FINAL REPORT

  7. [Progress on transgenic mosquitoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pin

    2011-04-30

    The genetically modified mosquitoes have been developed aiming to control mosquito-borne diseases by either reducing population sizes or replacing existing populations with vectors unable to transmit the disease. introduces some progress on the generation of transgenic mosquitoes and their fitness in wild population. This paper

  8. Research progress of RNAi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建

    2014-01-01

    the double stranded RNA into cell could cause homologous gene silencing, a phenomenon called RNA interference (RNA interference, RNAi). Research progress of RNA interference characteristics, in this paper, the mechanism of RNA interference technology, RNA interference and existing problems are summarized.

  9. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  10. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field

  11. Progressive Web applications

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Progressive Web Applications are native-like applications running inside of a browser context. In my presentation I would like describe their characteristics, benchmarks and building process using a quick and simple case study example with focus on Service Workers api.

  12. Progression og underviserkompetencer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Tortzen Bager

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available På baggrund af en kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse af undervisere ved Aarhus Universitet lavet i 2012, tematiserer artiklen, hvordan undervisere udvikler deres faglige og pædagogiske kompetencer i forhold til at kunne skabe progression inden for innovation og entreprenørskab forstået enten som didaktik, arbejdsformer i faglige forløb eller som fag på universitetet. I arbejdet med progression er det en udfordring at integrere de nye faglige dimensioner i det kernefaglige felt. Den seneste model for progression inden for innovation og entreprenør-skab siger, at det er den lærendes generelle erfaringsniveau, der er den afgørende progressionsskabende faktor (Progressionsmodellen, Fonden for Entreprenørskab, 2013b. Samtidig skelner international forskning inden for studiekompetenceområdet mellem niveauer, hvor indlejret viden er det mest avancerede kompetenceniveau (Barrie, 2002.Ifølge progressionsmodellen og den nævnte kompetenceforskning er erfaring og dybt integreret læring altså centrale dimensioner i progression. Men hvad er underviserens rolle heri? Underviserens professionelle udviklingsarbejde forekommer at være underbelyst i forhold til, at underviseren er den legitime garant for integrationen af nye faglige dimensioner og for den studerendes kompetenceniveau. Interviewundersøgelsen forholder sig til spørgsmålet om progression gennem de deltagende underviseres beskrivelse af betydningslag i entreprenørskabsbegrebet koblet til de praksisformer i undervisningen, der knytter sig hertil samt et indblik i undervisernes refleksioner over deres kompetenceudviklingsprocesser. Artiklens bidrag til progression er at se underviserens motivation og kompetenceudvikling som forudsætninger herfor.     Based on a qualitative study of five teachers in the Faculty of Arts at Aarhus University that took place during 2012, the article thematizes how teachers develop their professional and educational qualifications in innovation and

  13. Progression og underviserkompetencer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Tortzen Bager

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available På baggrund af en kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse af undervisere ved Aarhus Universitet lavet i 2012, tematiserer artiklen, hvordan undervisere udvikler deres faglige og pædagogiske kompetencer i forhold til at kunne skabe progression inden for innovation og entreprenørskab forstået enten som didaktik, arbejdsformer i faglige forløb eller som fag på universitetet. I arbejdet med progression er det en udfordring at integrere de nye faglige dimensioner i det kernefaglige felt. Den seneste model for progression inden for innovation og entreprenør-skab siger, at det er den lærendes generelle erfaringsniveau, der er den afgørende progressionsskabende faktor (Progressionsmodellen, Fonden for Entreprenørskab, 2013b. Samtidig skelner international forskning inden for studiekompetenceområdet mellem niveauer, hvor indlejret viden er det mest avancerede kompetenceniveau (Barrie, 2002.Ifølge progressionsmodellen og den nævnte kompetenceforskning er erfaring og dybt integreret læring altså centrale dimensioner i progression. Men hvad er underviserens rolle heri? Underviserens professionelle udviklingsarbejde forekommer at være underbelyst i forhold til, at underviseren er den legitime garant for integrationen af nye faglige dimensioner og for den studerendes kompetenceniveau. Interviewundersøgelsen forholder sig til spørgsmålet om progression gennem de deltagende underviseres beskrivelse af betydningslag i entreprenørskabsbegrebet koblet til de praksisformer i undervisningen, der knytter sig hertil samt et indblik i undervisernes refleksioner over deres kompetenceudviklingsprocesser. Artiklens bidrag til progression er at se underviserens motivation og kompetenceudvikling som forudsætninger herfor.  Based on a qualitative study of five teachers in the Faculty of Arts at Aarhus University that took place during 2012, the article thematizes how teachers develop their professional and educational qualifications in innovation and

  14. Disease progression of HIV/HCV co-infection and mechansism for the research of viral interactions%HIV/HCV重叠感染者疾病进展及病毒间相互作用机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉遂; 傅继华

    2012-01-01

    自1981年美国首次从男同性恋患者中报道艾滋病(AIDS)以来,相同症状的患者不断被发现,该疾病也以其惊人的速度在世界范围内传播开来.由于丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)与艾滋病病毒(HIV)有相同的传播途径,使HCV在HIV感染者中得到广泛的传播.据报道,全球HCV感染者中大约6%~10%合并HIV感染,HIV感染者中大约有30%合并HCV感染.因此HIV/HCV重叠感染成为AIDS最关注的领域之一.现对HIV/HCV重叠感染者疾病进展及病毒间在人体内相互作用机制的最新研究进展综述如下.%AIDS has spread worldwide ever rapidly since it was first identified in gay men in 1981. Due to the same route of transmission, hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) has also very common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectors. It is reported that globally the prevalence of HCV was about 6%~10% in HIV infected individuals and approximately 30% of HIV infectors were positive for anti-HCV antibody positive subjects. Therefore, HIV/HCV-co-infection has become one of the hottest topics in public health. This article describes disease progression of HIV/ HCV co-infection and progress for the research of viral interaction mechanism.

  15. Internationalisering og progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne Wilken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I Danmark har vi traditionelt tænkt universiteternes femårige kandidatuddannelser som sammenhængende forløb, hvor den studerende gradvist opbygger en stadig mere specialiseret viden inden for et givet fagområde. Denne idé om progression er i de senere år blevet udfordret fra flere sider. Især er progressionsidéen blevet diskuteret i forhold til tværfaglige uddannelsesforløb, men også de mange internationale uddannelser, der etableres, udfordrer den måde, hvorpå vi traditionelt har forstået progression i det danske uddannelsessystem. På internationale kandidatuddannelser finder vi nemlig typisk både studerende, for hvem kandidatuddannelsen er en forlængelse af en grunduddannelse, og studerende, der har taget deres grunduddannelse et andet sted og muligvis endda i et andet fag. I denne artikel undersøger vi, hvordan undervisere på kandidatuddannelser som både er tværfaglige og internationale forholder sig til progression. Artiklen er skrevet på baggrund af semistrukturerede interviews med undervisere fra tværfaglige, internationale uddannelser ved Aarhus Universitet.University programs in Denmark have traditionally been perceived as a continuous education consisting of three years of basic education followed by two years of specialization within the same discipline. This idea is now being challenged on several fronts. For instance, it is becoming more common for Danish universities to offer interdisciplinary master programs. Also, the trend for greater internationalization in higher education means that programs can attract students from outside Denmark, and these students often come from different academic backgrounds. To investigate how these changes are affecting the way professors who teach on interdisciplinary international masters programs conceive student progress, we carried out semi-structured interviews with teachers on international programs at Aarhus University, the second largest university in Denmark. The

  16. Interactive Karyotyping Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kotwaliwale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide use of newer techniques in genetic diagnostics, there remains a need for technologists to learn human chromosome morphology, identify abnormal metaphases and report clinical abnormalities. Global short age of cytogenetic trainers and a time consuming training process makes Karyotyping training difficult. We have developed a web based interactive Karyotyping training tool, KaryoTutor©, that allows technologists to learn karyotyping in an interactive environment and aids the trainer in the training process. KaryoTutor©provides visual clues for identifying abnormal chromosomes, provides instant test scores and includes a reference library of ideograms,sample chromosome images and reference materials. Trainees are able to recursively work on a case till a satisfactory result is achieved,with KaryoTutor providing interactive inputs.Additionally, trainers can assign cases and monitor trainee progress using audit trail management and other administrative features.

  17. Caffeine, creatine, GRIN2A and Parkinson's disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, David K; Wu, Cai; Tilley, Barbara C; Lohmann, Katja; Klein, Christine; Payami, Haydeh; Wills, Anne-Marie; Aminoff, Michael J; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Dewey, Richard; Hauser, Robert A; Schaake, Susen; Schneider, Jay S; Sharma, Saloni; Singer, Carlos; Tanner, Caroline M; Truong, Daniel; Wei, Peng; Wong, Pei Shieen; Yang, Tianzhong

    2017-04-15

    Caffeine is neuroprotective in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and caffeine intake is inversely associated with the risk of PD. This association may be influenced by the genotype of GRIN2A, which encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit. In two placebo-controlled studies, we detected no association of caffeine intake with the rate of clinical progression of PD, except among subjects taking creatine, for whom higher caffeine intake was associated with more rapid progression. We now have analyzed data from 420 subjects for whom DNA samples and caffeine intake data were available from a placebo-controlled study of creatine in PD. The GRIN2A genotype was not associated with the rate of clinical progression of PD in the placebo group. However, there was a 4-way interaction between GRIN2A genotype, caffeine, creatine and the time since baseline. Among subjects in the creatine group with high levels of caffeine intake, but not among those with low caffeine intake, the GRIN2A T allele was associated with more rapid progression (p=0.03). These data indicate that the deleterious interaction between caffeine and creatine with respect to rate of progression of PD is influenced by GRIN2A genotype. This example of a genetic factor interacting with environmental factors illustrates the complexity of gene-environment interactions in the progression of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiparton interactions. Theory and experimental findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus

    2013-06-15

    I give an introduction to multiparton interactions in proton-proton collisions, with a focus on the perturbative regime. Recent experimental results are discussed, as well as progress and open questions in theory.

  19. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  20. NA61/SHINE at the CERN SPS: plans, status and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Aduszkiewicz, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    The NA61/SHINE experiment aims to discover the critical point of strongly interacting matter and study properties of the onset of deconfinement. It also to performs precise hadron production measurements for the neutrino and cosmic rays experiments. These goals will be achieved by measurements of hadron production properties in nucleus-nucleus, proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions as a function of collision energy and size of the colliding nuclei, as well as pion-nucleus interactions. This contribution summarises the arguments of the ion program as well as presents the first physics results of the NA61 experiment.

  1. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2008-01-01

    In the fourty-six years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Metamaterials- Polarization Techniques- Linear Baisotropic Mediums- Ultrafast Optical Pulses- Quantum Imaging- Point-Spread Funcions- Discrete Wigner Functions

  2. Recent progress in microcalorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, E; Skinner, H A

    2013-01-01

    Recent Progress in Microcalorimetry focuses on the methodologies, processes, and approaches involved in microcalorimetry, as well as heat flow, temperature constancy, and chemistry of alumina and cements.The selection first offers information on the different types of calorimeters; measurement of the heat flow between the calorimeter and jacket boundaries by means of a thermoelectric pile; and constructional details of the microcalorimeter. Discussions focus on classification of calorimeters, use of thermoelectric piles as thermometers, correct measurement of heat flow from a calorimeter conta

  3. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2009-01-01

    In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Backscattering and Anderson localization of light- Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices- Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification- Invisibility cloaks

  4. Internationalisering og progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Tange, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    means that programs can attract students from outside Denmark, and these students often come from different academic backgrounds. To investigate how these changes are affecting the way professors who teach on interdisciplinary international masters programs conceive student progress, we carried out semi......-structured interviews with teachers on international programs at Aarhus University, the second largest university in Denmark. The article summarizes their opinions and distinguishes In this article we explore how Danish university professors teaching at interdisciplinary international master programs at Danish...

  5. Progress in nanophotonics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology, and security systems. It begins with a review of the concept of dressed photons and applications to devices, fabrication, and systems; principles and applications. Further topics include: DNA process for quantum dot chain, photon enhanced emission microscopy, near field spectroscopy of metallic nanostructure, self-organized fabrication of composite semiconductor quantum dots, formation of metallic nanostructure, and nanophotonic information systems with

  6. CNGS Progress Report 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Elsener, K; Gaillard, H; López-Hernandez, L A; Meddahi, M; Rangod, Stephane; Roesler, S; Spinks, Alan; Wilhelmsson, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2004-01-01

    The CNGS project is progressing according to schedule, with the aim to be ready for beam in spring 2006. In this paper, the project status and recent changes to the design of systems and components are summarized. The actions taken in response to the recommendations of the 2003 CNGS Review are described. This report has been drafted in view of the third CNGS Review, held in June 2004.

  7. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  8. Monitoring Radiographic Brain Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Sampson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining radiographic progression in primary malignant brain tumors has posed a significant challenge to the neuroncology community. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO Grade IV through its inherent heterogeneous enhancement, growth patterns, and irregular nature has been difficult to assess for progression. Our ability to detect tumor progression radiographically remains inadequate. Despite the advanced imaging techniques, detecting tumor progression continues to be a clinical challenge. Here we review the different criteria used to detect tumor progression, and highlight the inherent challenges with detection of progression.

  9. Multi-Parton Interactions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bartalini, P; Blok, B; Calucci, G; Corke, R; Diehl, M; Dokshitzer, Yu; Fano, L; Frankfurt, L; Gaunt, J R; Gieseke, S; Gustafson, G; Kar, D; Kom, C -H; Kulesza, A; Maina, E; Nagy, Z; Roehr, Ch; Siodmok, A; Schmelling, M; Stirling, W J; Strikman, M; Treleani, D

    2011-01-01

    We review the recent progress in the theoretical description and experimental observation of multiple parton interactions. Subjects covered include experimental measurements of minimum bias interactions and of the underlying event, models of soft physics implemented in Monte Carlo generators, developments in the theoretical description of multiple parton interactions and phenomenological studies of double parton scattering. This article stems from contributions presented at the Helmholtz Alliance workshop on "Multi-Parton Interactions at the LHC", DESY Hamburg, 13-15 September 2010.

  10. Progress in controlling ICRF-edge interactions in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobkov, Vl., E-mail: bobkov@ipp.mpg.de; Ochoukov, R.; Bilato, R.; Braun, F.; Carralero, D.; Dux, R.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Lunt, T.; Potzel, S.; Pütterich, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr.2, D-85748 (Germany); Jacquet, Ph.; Monakhov, I. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Zhang, W.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Stepanov, I. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr.2, D-85748 (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Gent University, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Colas, L.; Meyer, O. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Czarnecka, A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23 Str., 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); and others

    2015-12-10

    RF measurements during variation of the strap voltage balance of the original 2-strap ICRF antenna in ASDEX Upgrade at constant power are consistent with electromagnetic calculations by HFSS and TOPICA, more so for the latter. RF image current compensation is observed at the antenna limiters in the experiment at a local strap voltage of about half of the value of the remote strap, albeit with a non-negligible uncertainty in phasing. The RF-specific tungsten (W) source at the broad-limiter 2-strap antenna correlates strongly with the RF voltage at the local strap at the locations not connected to opposite side of the antenna along magnetic field lines. The trends of the observed increase of the RF loading with injection of local gas are well described by a combined EMC3-Eirene – FELICE calculations, with the most efficient improvement confirmed for the outer-midplane valves, but underestimated by about 1/3. The corresponding deuterium density tailoring is also likely responsible for the decrease of local W sources observed in the experiment.

  11. Strongly interacting ultracold polar molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Gadway, Bryce

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the study of strongly interacting systems of dipolar molecules. Heteronuclear molecules feature large and tunable electric dipole moments, which give rise to long-range and anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions. Ultracold samples of dipolar molecules with long-range interactions offer a unique platform for quantum simulations and the study of correlated many-body physics. We provide an introduction to the physics of dipolar quantum gases, both electric and magnetic, and summarize the multipronged efforts to bring dipolar molecules into the quantum regime. We discuss in detail the recent experimental progress in realizing and studying strongly interacting systems of polar molecules trapped in optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the study of interacting spin systems and non-equilibrium quantum magnetism. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the future prospects for studies of strongly interacting dipolar molecules.

  12. Promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Jasial, Swarit; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In the context of polypharmacology, compound promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple targets. To study promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds in detail, nearly 1 million compounds and more than 5.2 million activity records were analyzed. Compound sets were assembled by applying different data confidence criteria and selecting compounds with activity histories over many years. On the basis of release dates, compounds and activity records were organized on a time course, which ultimately enabled monitoring data growth and promiscuity progression over nearly 40 years, beginning in 1976. Surprisingly low degrees of promiscuity were consistently detected for all compound sets and there were only small increases in promiscuity over time. In fact, most compounds had a constant degree of promiscuity, including compounds with an activity history of 10 or 20 years. Moreover, during periods of massive data growth, beginning in 2007, promiscuity degrees also remained constant or displayed only minor increases, depending on the activity data confidence levels. Considering high-confidence data, bioactive compounds currently interact with 1.5 targets on average, regardless of their origins, and display essentially constant degrees of promiscuity over time. Taken together, our findings provide expectation values for promiscuity progression and magnitudes among bioactive compounds as activity data further grow.

  13. Primary progressive aphasia: clinicopathological correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Murray

    2010-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a disorder of declining language that is a frequent presentation of neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Three variants of PPA are recognized: progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic progressive aphasia. In an era of etiology-specific treatments for neurodegenerative conditions, determining the histopathological basis of PPA is crucial. Clinicopathological correlations in PPA emphasize the contributo...

  14. Mathieu Progressive Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei B. Utkin

    2011-01-01

    A new family of exact solutions to the wave equation representing relatively undistorted progressive waves is constructed using separation of variables in the elliptic cylindrical coordinates and one of the Bateman transforms. The general form of this Bateman transform in an orthogonal eurvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is discussed and a specific problem of physical feasibility of the obtained solutions, connected with their dependence on the cyclic coordinate, is addressed. The limiting case of zero eccentricity, in which the elliptic cylindrical coordinates turn into their circular cylindrical counterparts, is shown to correspond to the focused wave modes of the Bessel-Gauss type.

  15. MEIC Design Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Douglas, D; Hutton, A; Krafft, G A; Li, R; Lin, F; Morozov, V S; Nissen, E W; Pilat, F C; Satogata, T; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Yunn, C; Barber, D P; Filatov, Y; Hyde, C; Kondratenko, A M; Manikonda, S L; Ostroumov, P N

    2012-07-01

    This paper will report the recent progress in the conceptual design of MEIC, a high luminosity medium energy polarized ring-ring electron-ion collider at Jefferson lab. The topics and achievements that will be covered are design of the ion large booster and the ERL-circulator-ring-based electron cooling facility, optimization of chromatic corrections and dynamic aperture studies, schemes and tracking simulations of lepton and ion polarization in the figure-8 collider ring, and the beam-beam and electron cooling simulations. A proposal of a test facility for the MEIC electron cooler will also be discussed.

  16. Rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖伟红; 薛华忠; 韩国柱

    2003-01-01

    Since the sexually transmitted diseases were recognized as a public health problem in China during the early 1980's, the incidence of syphilis has gradually increased. Though there have been case reports of clinical variants of neurosyphilis, including syphilitic cerebrospinal meningitis or meningomyelitis and meningovascular syphilis, occurring in different regions of China,1-3 tabes dorsalis or tabetic neurosyphilis has not yet been reported in China. Here, we report a young man with rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis admitted to our hospital in October 1999.

  17. PROGRESS IN HELIOSPHERIC PHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This is an overview of progresses in heliospheric physics made in China in the period of June, 2000 to May, 2002. The report is focused on theoretical studies,modelling and observational analysis of interplanetary physical phenomena, and consists of five sections: the acceleration and heating of the solar wind, corona structures, coronal mass ejections, magnetic reconnection phenomena, and in terplanetary transient phenomena. The main achievements made recently by Chinese scientists in related areas are simply listed in corresponding sections without any priority, only certain editorial consideration.

  18. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    1977-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  19. [Progress in eyeglass optics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, W

    1995-08-01

    In this article product developments for ophthalmic lenses are discussed: new materials, designs and coatings. High-index plastic substrates allow to offer corrections which are simultaneously light and thin and for the first time there are high performant plastic photochromic lenses. Head and eye movements with latest generation's progressives are very similar to natural vision behaviour. Special aspheric designs have been developed for comfortable vision for near and intermediate distances. Finally there are new coatings which protect the high quality surfaces of plastic lenses distinctly longer than before.

  20. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2006-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  1. Cytokine-Leukotriene Receptor Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rola-Pleszczynski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and pharmacological studies have identified the structure of leukotrienes, the pathways that lead to their synthesis, and the signaling events they trigger when they interact with their cognate receptors. A privileged interaction exists between these lipid mediators and another group of molecules essential for inflammation and immune modulation, namely, cytokines. Whereas leukotrienes can trigger the synthesis and release of selected cytokines in distinct cell populations, many cytokines can affect cellular responsiveness to leukotrienes by modulating leukotriene receptor expression. As we progressively begin to unravel these complex interactions, new areas of cell-cell communication and eventual therapeutic interventions will emerge.

  2. Progress on the DPASS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Sergei A.; Bogatu, I. N.; Svidzinski, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    A novel project to develop Disruption Prediction And Simulation Suite (DPASS) of comprehensive computational tools to predict, model, and analyze disruption events in tokamaks has been recently started at FAR-TECH Inc. DPASS will eventually address the following aspects of the disruption problem: MHD, plasma edge dynamics, plasma-wall interaction, generation and losses of runaway electrons. DPASS uses the 3-D Disruption Simulation Code (DSC-3D) as a core tool and will have a modular structure. DSC is a one fluid non-linear, time-dependent 3D MHD code to simulate dynamics of tokamak plasma surrounded by pure vacuum B-field in the real geometry of a conducting tokamak vessel. DSC utilizes the adaptive meshless technique with adaptation to the moving plasma boundary, with accurate magnetic flux conservation and resolution of the plasma surface current. DSC has also an option to neglect the plasma inertia to eliminate fast magnetosonic scale. This option can be turned on/off as needed. During Phase I of the project, two modules will be developed: the computational module for modeling the massive gas injection and main plasma respond; and the module for nanoparticle plasma jet injection as an innovative disruption mitigation scheme. We will report on this development progress. Work is supported by the US DOE SBIR grant # DE-SC0013727.

  3. Explicit Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwgren, Jonas; Eriksen, Mette Agger; Linde, Per

    2006-01-01

    as an interpretation of palpability, comprising usability as well as patient empowerment and socially performative issues. We present a prototype environment for video recording during physiotherapeutical consultation which illustrates our current thoughts on explicit interaction and serves as material for further......We report an ongoing study of palpable computing to support surgical rehabilitation, in the general field of interaction design for ubiquitous computing. Through explorative design, fieldwork and participatory design techniques, we explore the design principle of explicit interaction...

  4. Floor interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin;

    2005-01-01

    Within architecture, there is a long tradition of careful design of floors. The design has been concerned with both decorating floors and designing floors to carry information. Ubiquitous computing technology offers new opportunities for designing interactive floors. This paper presents three...... different interactive floor concepts. Through an urban perspective it draws upon the experiences of floors in architecture, and provides a set of design issues for designing interactive floors....

  5. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  6. Technological Progress on Multi-Beam Klystrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yaogen

    2006-01-01

    The technological progress on Multi-Beam Klystrons (MBKs) at the Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IECAS) is presented in this paper. Topics to be discussed include the development of cathodes with high current densities and low evaporation rates; multi-beam electron guns with reduced chances for breakdown; multi-beam electron optics systems with high beam transmission; RF systems with wide bandwidth and high efficiency; the oscillation and broad spectrum noise caused by non-operational modes and reflecting electrons; and computer simulations of the multi-beam electron optics system and beam-wave interaction. In addition, the research progress of several types of MBKs developed in IECAS is reported. These MBKs range in frequency from L- to X-band with corresponding peak powers ranging from several tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, average powers from several kilowatts to tens of kilowatts, and bandwidths from 3% to 12%.

  7. Research progress of vasculopathy in portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Zhen Yang

    2005-01-01

    Portal hypertension, one of the vascular diseases, not only has lesions in liver, but also changes in vascular structures and functions of extrahepatic portal system, systemic system and pulmonary circulation. The pathological changes of vasculopathy in portal hypertension include remodeling of arterialized visceral veins, intimal injury of visceral veins and destruction of contractile structure in visceral arterial wall. The mechanisms of vasculopathy in portal hypertension may be attributed to the changes of hemodynamics in portal system, immune response, gene modulation, vasoactive substances, and intrahepatic blood flow resistance. Portal hypertension can cause visceral hyperdynamic circulation, and the development and progression of visceral vasculopathy,while visceral vasculopathy can promote the development and progression of portal hypertension and visceral hyperdynamic circulation in turn. The aforementioned three factors interact in the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosisinduced portal hypertension and are involved in hemorrhage due to varicose vein rupture.

  8. Conceptions of Progress: How Is Progress Perceived? Mainstream versus Alternative Conceptions of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itay, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Progress is a powerful political concept, encompassing different and sometimes contradictory conceptions. This paper examines the results of a survey on progress conducted at the OECD World Forum entitled "Measuring and Fostering the Progress of Societies" held in Istanbul in June 2007. First, a distinction is drawn between the two approaches to…

  9. Interactive chemical reactivity exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Moritz P; Vaucher, Alain C; Bosson, Maël; Redon, Stéphane; Reiher, Markus

    2014-10-20

    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the samson programming environment. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Interactive Chemical Reactivity Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Haag, Moritz P; Bosson, Mael; Redon, Stephane; Reiher, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force-feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the Samson programming environment.

  11. Accelerator physics analysis with interactive tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J.A.; Michelotti, L.

    1993-05-01

    Work is in progress on interactive tools for linear and nonlinear accelerator design, analysis, and simulation using X-based graphics. The BEAMLINE and MXYZPTLK class libraries, were used with an X Windows graphics library to build a program for interactively editing lattices and studying their properties.

  12. Progress in prokaryotic transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault, Melanie J

    2011-10-01

    Genome-wide expression studies transformed the field of transcriptomics and made it feasible to study global gene expression in extraordinary detail. These new methods have revealed an enhanced view of the transcriptional landscape and have yielded many biological insights. It is increasingly clear that the prokaryotic transcriptome is much more complex than once thought. Recent advances in microbial transcriptome analyses are highlighted in this review. Areas of progress include the development of optimized techniques that minimize the abundance of ribosomal RNAs in RNA samples as well as the development of novel methods to create transcriptome libraries. Advances such as these have led to a new emphasis in areas such as metatranscriptomics and single cell gene expression studies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Progress in Induction Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, G J

    2000-09-27

    This presentation will be a broad survey of progress in induction technology over the past four years. Much work has been done on accelerators for hydrodynamic test radiography and other applications. Solid-state pulsers have been developed which can provide unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format and accelerating voltage for both ion and electron induction machines. Induction linacs can now be built which can operate with MHz repetition rates. Solid-state technology has also made possible the development of fast kickers for precision control of high current beams. New insulator technology has been developed which will improve conventional induction linacs in addition to enabling a new class of high gradient induction linacs.

  14. BRIF and CARIF progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is currently constructing Beijing rare ion beam facility (BRIF) and is proposing China advanced rare ion beam facility (CARIF). This paper is aiming at introducing the progress of BRIF project and the con ceptual design CARIF. The ISOL type facility BRIF under construction is composed of a 100 MeV 300 ?A proton cyclotron, an ISOL with mass resolution of 20000, and a super-conducting LINAC of 2 MeV/q, and will be commissioned in 2013. CARIF facility proposed is planned to use both ISOL and PF techniques. It is based on a China advanced research reactor CARR that was critical, with ISOL separation of fission fragment, post acceleration to 150 MeV/u, and fragmentation of neu tron-rich fission fragment beam like 132Sn. Such unique combination will allow CARIF to deliver beam intensity better than the best world facilities by more than one order of magnitude.

  15. Progress in nanophotonics 3

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsui, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology and advanced systems. It reviews light-emitting diodes and lasers made of silicon bulk crystals in which the light emission principle is based on dressed-photon-phonons. Further topics include: theoretical studies of optoelectronic properties of molecular condensates for organic solar cells and light-emitting devices, the basics of topological light beams together with their important properties for laser spectroscopy, spatially localized modes emerging in nonlinear discrete dynamic systems and theoretical methods to explore the dynamics of nanoparticles by the light-induced force of tailored light fields under thermal fluctuations. These topics are reviewed by leading scientists. This overview is a variable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nanophotonics.

  16. Progressive Band Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  17. Progress in nanophotonics 2

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology, and advanced systems. It begins with a review of near-field excitation dynamics in molecules. Further topics include: wavelength up-converting a phonon-assisted excitation process with degenerate beams and non-degenerate beams in dye grains, a fabrication method of semiconductor quantum dots including self-assembly of InAs quantum dots based on the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode, single-nanotube spectroscopy and time-resolved spectroscopy for studying novel excitonic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes. The striking features of ecxitons in the carbon nanotube, multiple-exciton states, and microfluidic and extended-nano fluidic techniques. These topics are reviewed by nine leading scientists. This overview is a variable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nanophotonics.

  18. Aesthetic interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Krogh, Peter;

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing interest in considering aesthetic aspects in the design of interactive systems. A set of approaches are emerging each representing different applications of the terminology as well as different inherent assumptions on the role of the user, designer and interaction ideals....... In this paper, we use the concept of Pragmatist Aesthetics to provide a framework for distinguishing between different approaches to aesthetics. Moreover, we use our own design cases to illustrate how pragmatist aesthetics is a promising path to follow in the context of designing interactive systems......, as it promotes aesthetics of use, rather than aesthetics of appearance. We coin this approach in the perspective of aesthetic interaction. Finally we make the point that aesthetics is not re-defining everything known about interactive systems. We provide a framework placing this perspective among other...

  19. Progress in mitochondrial epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manev, Hari; Dzitoyeva, Svetlana

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondria, intracellular organelles with their own genome, have been shown capable of interacting with epigenetic mechanisms in at least four different ways. First, epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the expression of nuclear genome influence mitochondria by modulating the expression of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Second, a cell-specific mitochondrial DNA content (copy number) and mitochondrial activity determine the methylation pattern of nuclear genes. Third, mitochondrial DNA variants influence the nuclear gene expression patterns and the nuclear DNA (ncDNA) methylation levels. Fourth and most recent line of evidence indicates that mitochondrial DNA similar to ncDNA also is subject to epigenetic modifications, particularly by the 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine marks. The latter interaction of mitochondria with epigenetics has been termed 'mitochondrial epigenetics'. Here we summarize recent developments in this particular area of epigenetic research. Furthermore, we propose the term 'mitoepigenetics' to include all four above-noted types of interactions between mitochondria and epigenetics, and we suggest a more restricted usage of the term 'mitochondrial epigenetics' for molecular events dealing solely with the intra-mitochondrial epigenetics and the modifications of mitochondrial genome.

  20. Recent progress on the Random Conductance Model

    CERN Document Server

    Biskup, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress on the understanding of the Random Conductance Model is reviewed and commented. A particular emphasis is on the results on the scaling limit of the random walk among random conductances for almost every realization of the environment, observations on the behavior of the effective resistance as well as the scaling limit of certain models of gradient fields with non-convex interactions. The text is an expanded version of the lecture notes for a course delivered at the 2011 Cornell Summer School on Probability.

  1. Construction progress of the RHIC electron lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer W.; Altinbas, Z.; Anerella, M.; Beebe, E.; et al

    2012-05-20

    In polarized proton operation the RHIC performance is limited by the head-on beam-beam effect. To overcome this limitation two electron lenses are under construction. We give an overview of the construction progress. Guns, collectors and the warm electron beam transport solenoids with their power supplies have been constructed. The superconducting solenoids that guide the electron beam during the interaction with the proton beam are near completion. A test stand has been set up to verify the performance of the gun, collector and some of the instrumentation. The infrastructure is being prepared for installation, and simulations continue to optimize the performance.

  2. Construction progress of the RHIC electron lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer W.; Altinbas, Z.; Anerella, M.; Beebe, E.; et al

    2012-05-20

    In polarized proton operation the RHIC performance is limited by the head-on beam-beam effect. To overcome this limitation two electron lenses are under construction. We give an overview of the construction progress. Guns, collectors and the warm electron beam transport solenoids with their power supplies have been constructed. The superconducting solenoids that guide the electron beam during the interaction with the proton beam are near completion. A test stand has been set up to verify the performance of the gun, collector and some of the instrumentation. The infrastructure is being prepared for installation, and simulations continue to optimize the performance.

  3. [Recent progress on SELEX and its applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shao-bing; Zeng, Yi

    2013-09-01

    SELEX technology (Systematic Evolution of Ligand by Exponential Enrichment) is a new in vitro screening technology appeared and developed in the past 20 years. SELEX integrate library technology and screening techniques, screening a nucleic acid molecule from nucleic acid library by ligand-aptamer interaction. Similar to the antibodies, aptamers bind with the specific target substance. SELEX screening technology develops rapidly, and aptamer have been widely applied in biomedical field. This article briefly-overviewed the progress and its applications of SELEX technology in recent years.

  4. Progress in photon science basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book features chapters based on lectures presented by world-leading researchers of photon science from Russia and Japan at the first “STEPS Symposium on Photon Science” held in Tokyo in March 2015. It describes recent progress in the field of photon science, covering a wide range of interest to experts in the field, including laser-plasma interaction, filamentation and its applications, laser assisted electron scattering, exotic properties of light, ultrafast imaging, molecules and clusters in intense laser fields, photochemistry and spectroscopy of novel materials, laser-assisted material synthesis, and photon technology.

  5. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1971-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 4 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses waves at interfaces; recent investigations on the thickness of surface layers; and surface analysis by low-energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. The text also describes the anode electrolyte interface; the interactions of adsorbed proteins and polypeptides at interfaces; and peptide-induced ion transport in synthetic and biological membranes. The monolayer adsorption on crystalline surfaces is also considered. Chemists and metallurgi

  6. 病例对照设计为基础的候选基因关联研究中交互作用的统计方法进展%Progress of statistical methods for testing interactions in candidate gene association studies based on case-control design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金如锋

    2011-01-01

    候选基因关联研究中基因-基因、基因-环境交互作用的统计分析有利于揭示疾病的发生机制.本文针对病例对照设计的候选基因关联研究,综述交互作用的统计方法及其进展.交互作用的统计方法包括参数法和非参数法.参数法中最常用的为Logistic回归模型,非参数法主要是数据挖掘方法.有4类数据挖掘方法可用于候选基因关联研究,包括降维法、基于树的方法、模式识别法和贝叶斯法.本文对最常用且可靠的几种数据挖掘方法(多因子降维法、分类回归树、随机森林、贝叶斯上位效应关联图谱)的原理、分析过程和优缺点予以比较.参数法和非参数法分析交互作用时各有优缺点;低维数据的分析可采用参数法和非参数法,高维数据的分析则主要采用非参数法.随着基因分型技术的发展,可检测的SNP规模逐渐增大,使得非参数方法的应用越来越广.%Testing for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in candidate gene association studies will help to reveal possible mechanisms underlying diseases. This article summarized the progress of statistical methods for testing interactions in candidate gene association studies based on case-control design. Parametric and non-parametric methods can be used to detect the interactions. Logistic regression is the most frequently used parametric method,and data mining techniques offer a variety of alternative non-parametric methods. Data mining techniques that can be applied in association studies consist of dimension reduction, tree-based approach, pattern recognition and Bayesian methods. Among alternative non-parametric methods we concentrated on the four methods which have become popular and are reliable for detection of interactions, including multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR),classification and regression tree (CART), random forest, and Bayesian epistasis association mapping (BEAM). The principles

  7. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Ready to create rich interactive experiences with your artwork, designs, or prototypes? This is the ideal place to start. With this hands-on guide, you'll explore several themes in interactive art and design-including 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, computer vision, and geolocation-and learn the basic programming and electronics concepts you need to implement them. No previous experience is necessary. You'll get a complete introduction to three free tools created specifically for artists and designers: the Processing programming language, the Arduino microcontroller, and the openFr

  8. Early detection of emphysema progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S A M; Lo, Pechin;

    2010-01-01

    more sensitive estimates of emphysema progression. The standard CT densitometric score of emphysema is the relative area of voxels below a threshold (RA). The RA score is a global measurement and reflects the overall emphysema progression. In this work, we propose a framework for estimation of local...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...... score. We applied the proposed algorithm on 27 patients with severe emphysema with CT scans acquired five time points, at baseline, after 3, after 12, after 21 and after 24 or 30 months. The results showed consistent emphysema progression with time and the overall progression score correlates...

  9. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baussan Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC refers to heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. The exact prevalence remains unknown, but the estimated incidence varies between 1/50,000 and 1/100,000 births. Three types of PFIC have been identified and related to mutations in hepatocellular transport system genes involved in bile formation. PFIC1 and PFIC2 usually appear in the first months of life, whereas onset of PFIC3 may also occur later in infancy, in childhood or even during young adulthood. Main clinical manifestations include cholestasis, pruritus and jaundice. PFIC patients usually develop fibrosis and end-stage liver disease before adulthood. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT activity is normal in PFIC1 and PFIC2 patients, but is elevated in PFIC3 patients. Both PFIC1 and PFIC2 are caused by impaired bile salt secretion due respectively to defects in ATP8B1 encoding the FIC1 protein, and in ABCB11 encoding the bile salt export pump protein (BSEP. Defects in ABCB4, encoding the multi-drug resistant 3 protein (MDR3, impair biliary phospholipid secretion resulting in PFIC3. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations, liver ultrasonography, cholangiography and liver histology, as well as on specific tests for excluding other causes of childhood cholestasis. MDR3 and BSEP liver immunostaining, and analysis of biliary lipid composition should help to select PFIC candidates in whom genotyping could be proposed to confirm the diagnosis. Antenatal diagnosis can be proposed for affected families in which a mutation has been identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA therapy should be initiated in all patients to prevent liver damage. In some PFIC1 or PFIC2 patients, biliary diversion can also relieve pruritus and slow disease progression. However, most PFIC patients are ultimately candidates for liver transplantation

  10. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, Ronald

    1992-04-01

    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  11. Progress in ultrafast intense laser science XII

    CERN Document Server

    Roso, Luis; Li, Ruxin; Mathur, Deepak; Normand, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This  volume covers a broad range of topics focusing on atoms, molecules, and clusters interacting in intense laser field, laser induced filamentation, and laser plasma interaction and application. The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. .

  12. Progress on the optoelectronic functional organic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Organic crystals constructed by pi-conjugated molecules have been paid great attention to in the field of organic optoelectronic materials. The superiorities of these organic crystal materials, such as high thermal stability, highly ordered structure, and high carrier mobility over the amorphous thin film ma-terials, make them attractive candidates for optoelectronic devices. Single crystal with definite struc-ture provides a model to investigate the basic interactions between the molecules (supramolecular interaction), and the relationship between molecular stacking modes and optoelectronic performance (luminescence and carrier mobility). Through modulating molecular arrangement in organic crystal, the luminescence efficiency of organic crystal has exceeded 80% and carrier mobility has been up to the level of 10 cm2·V?1·s?1. Amplified stimulated emission phenomena have been observed in many crys-tals. In this paper, we will emphatically introduce the progress in optoelectronic functional organic crystals and some correlative principle.

  13. Progress on the optoelectronic functional organic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huan; XIE ZengQi; Ma YuGuang; Shen JiaCong

    2007-01-01

    Organic crystals constructed by pi-conjugated molecules have been paid great attention to in the field of organic optoelectronic materials. The superiorities of these organic crystal materials, such as high thermal stability, highly ordered structure, and high carrier mobility over the amorphous thin film materials, make them attractive candidates for optoelectronic devices. Single crystal with definite structure provides a model to investigate the basic interactions between the molecules (supramolecular interaction), and the relationship between molecular stacking modes and optoelectronic performance (luminescence and carrier mobility). Through modulating molecular arrangement in organic crystal, the luminescence efficiency of organic crystal has exceeded 80% and carrier mobility has been up to the level of 10 cm2·V-1·s-1. Amplified stimulated emission phenomena have been observed in many crystals. In this paper, we will emphatically introduce the progress in optoelectronic functional organic crystals and some correlative principle.

  14. Embarrassing Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deterding, Sebastian; Lucero, Andrés; Holopainen, Jussi;

    2015-01-01

    Wherever the rapid evolution of interactive technologies disrupts standing situational norms, creates new, often unclear situational audiences, or crosses cultural boundaries, embarrassment is likely. This makes embarrassment a fundamental adoption and engagement hurdle, but also a creative design...

  15. Interaction graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Interaction graphs were introduced as a general, uniform, construction of dynamic models of linear logic, encompassing all Geometry of Interaction (GoI) constructions introduced so far. This series of work was inspired from Girard's hyperfinite GoI, and develops a quantitative approach that should...... be understood as a dynamic version of weighted relational models. Until now, the interaction graphs framework has been shown to deal with exponentials for the constrained system ELL (Elementary Linear Logic) while keeping its quantitative aspect. Adapting older constructions by Girard, one can clearly define...... "full" exponentials, but at the cost of these quantitative features. We show here that allowing interpretations of proofs to use continuous (yet finite in a measure-theoretic sense) sets of states, as opposed to earlier Interaction Graphs constructions were these sets of states were discrete (and finite...

  16. Neutrino Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    McFarland, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes a series of three lectures on interactions of neutrinos . The lectures begin with a pedagogical foundation and then explore topics of interest to current and future neutrino oscillation and cross-section experiments.

  17. Interactive Workspaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst

    augmented reality, interactive building elements, and mobile devices to support new ways of working in a diversity of application domains with work situations ranging from individual work, through local collaboration, to distributed collaboration. The work situations may take place in offices/project rooms...... or in the field. The types of tasks may range from adhoc to more planned forms of interaction. We involve users from specific application domains and use settings continuously in our research following a participatory design approach....

  18. Using Learning Progressions to Monitor Progress across Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Karin K.

    2010-01-01

    Learning progressions (LPs)--descriptive continuums of how students develop and demonstrate more sophisticated understanding over time--have become an increasingly important tool in today's science classrooms. Here the author discusses some of the research behind learning progressions and presents The Science Inquiry Profile for PreK-4. This is a…

  19. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation.

  20. PVUSA progress report, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellyn, W. [ed.] [Nesbit (William) and Associates, Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Jennings, C. [ed.] [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. PVUSA participants include Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and eight utilities and other agencies. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1991, and summarizes key findings and conclusions from work to date. PVUSA offers utilities hands-on experience needed to evaluate and utilize maturing PV technology. The project also provides manufacturers a test bed for their products, encourages technology improvement and cost reductions in PV modules and other system components, and establishes communication channels between utilities and the PV industry. The project consists of two types of demonstrations: Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays, which are unproven but promising state-of-the-art PV technologies in 20-kW (nominal) arrays; and Utility Scale (US) systems, which represent more mature PV technologies in 200- to 500-kW turnkey systems.

  1. Quarterly Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gray; Glen Tomlinson

    1998-11-12

    The Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Pittsburgh contracted with the MJTRE Corporation to perform Research Guidance Studies that will assist the Center and other relevant offices in the Department of Energy in evaluating and prioritizing research in the areas of coal and natural gas conversion. MITRE was reorganized in December 1995, which resulted in the formation of Mitretek Systems Inc. Mitretek has been performing this work on MITRE's behalf awaiting completion of contract novation to Mitretek. The contract was novated in February 1998 to Mitretek Systems. The overall objectives of this contract are to provide support to DOE in the following areas: (1) technical and economic analyses of current and future coal-based energy conversion technologies and other similar emerging technologies such as coal-waste coprocessing, natural gas conversion, and biomass conversion technologies for the production of fuels, chemicals and electric power,(2) monitor progress in these technologies with respect to technical, economic, and environmental impact (including climate change), (3) conduct specific and generic project economic and technical feasibility studies based on these technologies, (4) identify long-range R&D areas that have the greatest potential for process improvements, and (5) investigate optimum configurations and associated costs for production of high quality energy products via refining and their performance in end-use applications.

  2. 1993 PVUSA progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generation systems and recent developments in module technology. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, review the status and performance of all PV installations during 1993, and summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions for the year. The PVUSA project has five objectives designed to narrow the gap between a large utility industry that is unfamiliar with PV, and a small PV industry that is aware of a potentially large utility market but unfamiliar with how to meet its requirements. The objectives are: to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of promising PV modules and balance-of-system (BOS) components side-by-side at a single location; to assess PV system operation and maintenance (O and M) in a utility setting; to compare PV technologies in diverse geographic areas; to provide US utilities with hands-on experience in designing, procuring, and operating PV systems; and to document and disseminate knowledge gained from the project.

  3. IPY Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.

    2008-12-01

    We can summarize the IPY goals as: (a) make major advances in polar knowledge and understanding; (b) leave a legacy of new or enhanced observational systems, facilities and infrastructure; (c) excite a new generation of polar scientists and engineers, and (d) elicit exceptional interest and participation from polar residents, schoolchildren, the general public, and decision-makers, worldwide. This talk reports on the progress and prospects in each of those areas from an overall international view; separate talks will describe details of future researcher and the IPY outreach efforts. To achieve major advances in knowledge, IPY has entrained the intellectual resources of thousands of scientists, many more than expected, often from 'non- polar' nations, and representing an unprecedented breadth of scientific specialties; integration of those efforts across disciplines to achieve integrated system-level understanding remains a substantial challenge. Many national and international organizations prepare plans to sustain new and improved observational systems, but clear outcomes and the necessary resources remain elusive. International outreach networks gradually build breadth and strength, largely through IPY Polar Science Days and other internationally- coordinated IPY events. A new Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) devotes talent and energy to shaping the future of polar research. These activities and networks may, with time and with continued international coordination, achieve an exceptional level of interest and participation. In all areas, much work remains.

  4. Nuclear chemistry progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1993-08-01

    This is the annual progress report for the Indiana University nuclear chemistry program for the 1992/1993 year. Accomplishments include the construction, testing, and initial experimental runs of the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} charged particle detector. ISiS is designed to study energy dissipation and multifragmentation phenomena in light-ion-induced nuclear reactions at medium-to-high energies. Its second test run was to examine 3.6 GeV {sup 3}He beam reactions at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS) in Saclay. The development and deployment of this system has occupied a great deal of the groups effort this reporting period. Additional work includes: calculations of isotopic IMF yields in the {sup 4}He + {sup 116,124}Sn reaction; cross sections for A = 6 - 30 fragments from the {sup 4}He + {sup 28}Si reaction at 117 and 198 MeV; charging effects of passivated silicon detectors; neck emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the fission of hot heavy nuclei.

  5. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, Valeri [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2016-05-29

    The research in this program involves theoretical investigations of electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene and its derivatives, such as bi-layer graphene, graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures, strained graphene, as well as graphene on various surfaces. One line of research has been development of theoretical models that support graphene’s large array of possible technological applications. For example one of our goals has been the understanding of surface plasmons and spin relaxation mechanisms in graphene, related to novel optoelectronics and spintronics applications. Our current research focus is on understanding the role of correlations in graphene under mechanical deformations, such as strain. The main goal is to describe the mutual interplay between strain and electron-electron interactions which could lead to the formation of novel elec- tronic phases with strongly modified electronic, magnetic and optical properties. This direction of research contributes to deeper understanding of interactions in graphene and related atomically-thin materials - a subject at the forefront of research on graphene and its derivatives.

  6. Research Performance Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye -Sook [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-10

    The major goals of this project is to develop a suite of diagnostics to probe magnetic fields generated by the dynamics of high velocity interpenetrating plasma flows relevant to astrophysical collisionless shocks. Collisionless shocks are common in the universe and are responsible for decelerating and thermalizing supersonic plasma flows and accelerating a fraction of the incident particles to high energies. When high velocity, low density, plasma flows interact in astrophysics, turbulent electrostatic and electromagnetic waves are generated due to plasma instabilities, such as the Weibel instability. This can lead to localized pockets of very strong magnetic field generation. The net result is that the plasmas stagnate in what is called a collisionless shock. Understanding these enigmatic interactions requires well-controlled laboratory experiments able to validate the theory and the simulations. Time and spatially resolved magnetic field diagnostics are key to probing these frontier plasma dynamics, relevant to both astrophysics and laboratory applications of plasma physics. This project will enable us to develop the necessary diagnostics for this experiment on NIF. Our team has vast experience in performing laser experiments, theory, simulations and diagnostic development and is ideally suited for carrying out this work.

  7. Thematic Progression and Textual Coherence in Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云鹤

    2014-01-01

    Thematic progression can affect the flow of information and directly affect the discourse coherence. This paper analyzes thematic progression patterns of a speech about“people and nature” in the “CCTV Cup”English Speaking Contest and finds that there are three progression patterns in this text, which are parallel progression, continuous progression, and crossing progression.

  8. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  9. Medium Effects of Low Energy Pions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.

    2004-03-01

    Fits of pion--nucleus potentials to large sets of pionic atom data reveal departures of parameter values from the corresponding free π N parameters. These medium effects can be quantitatively reproduced by a chiral-motivated model where the pion decay constant is modified in the medium or by including the empirical on-shell energy dependence of the amplitudes. No consistency is obtained between pionic atoms and the free π N interaction when an extreme off-shell chiral model is used. The role of the size of data sets is briefly discussed.

  10. Progress on multi-waveband observations of supernova remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xuejuan; Lu, Fangjun; Tian, Wenwu

    2008-01-01

    The development of observational techniques has inriched our knowledge of supernova remnants. In this paper, we review the main progresses in the last decade, including new discoveries of supernova remnants and the associated (rare type of) pulsars, nucleosynthesis, the interaction between supernova remnants and molecular clouds, dust in the supernova remnants, shock physics, and cosmic ray accelerations.

  11. Advising and Progress in the Community College STEM Transfer Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Jeffers, Kimberly C.

    2013-01-01

    Community college students enrolled in science and technology fields face many challenges as they pursue transfer pathways to earn a 4-year degree. Despite clear links to student persistence, advising interactions that facilitate or inhibit transfer progress are not clearly understood. In this study, 82 community college students pursuing science…

  12. Video-Conferenced Music Teaching: Challenges and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Patricia E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study that aimed to explore general classroom music teaching and learning via video-conferencing between pre-service music teachers in the USA, and students at an elementary school for underprivileged children in Mexico. This study examines the challenges, progress and lessons learned as interactions within this…

  13. 1997 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchini, M.; Crescentini, L.; Ghezzi, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Nuclear fusion division

    1997-12-31

    1997 was another year of intense activity for the ENEA Nuclear Fusion Division in the evolving scenario of fusion research. With respect to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a major review process has started, originate by the wide perception that the difficult financial situation affecting some of the parties would make it very difficult, practically impossible, to secure funding for the project as it stands. To scale down the size and cost of the machine by reducing the technical objectives, while keeping to the programmatic goal of constructing a demonstration reactor (DEMO) as the following step, appears achievable. Progress in physics was substantial during 1997. Analysis of the huge existing database, complemented by the latest results, had led to a better, more accurate scaling for the confinement time on which to base extrapolation to ITER. Studies of the very promising advanced regimes have been pursued on many tokamaks. The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is well placed in this respect since it is equipped with the right tools, lower hybrid and electron cyclotron radiofrequency heating and current drive systems, to explore the new promised land of low transport from the plasma core. The main highlights of FTU operation in 1997 were related to providing information relevant to these future developments. Transient production of low transport regimes with electron temperatures of 8-9 keV at the plasma center was obtained by taking advantage of the plasma skin effect and precise electron cyclotron power deposition. High-efficiency current drive at high density using lower hybrid waves was demonstrated. High-confinement pellet-enhanced modes of operation and good ion Bernstein wave coupling through the waveguide-type coupler were also achieved. Concerning the IGNITOR experiment, funds were made available only for continuation of the engineering design activities, and nothing has been released so far for manufacturing the additional

  14. HYLIFE-2 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Adamson, M.G.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieri, R.L.; Condit, R.H.; Hartman, C.W.; House, P.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Logan, B.G.; Orth, C.D.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Pitts, J.H.; Post, R.F.; Sacks, R.A.; Tobin, M.T.; Williams, W.H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Dolan, T.J.; Longhurst, G.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Hoffman, M.A. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United S

    1991-12-01

    LIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. This is a progress report of an incomplete and ongoing study. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-11 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li{sub 2}Be{sub 4}) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required.In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-I there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.10 $/kW{center dot} in constant 1990 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost.

  15. HYLIFE-2 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Adamson, M.G.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieri, R.L.; Condit, R.H.; Hartman, C.W.; House, P.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Logan, B.G.; Orth, C.D.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Pitts, J.H.; Post, R.F.; Sacks, R.A.; Tobin, M.T.; Williams, W.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dolan, T.J.; Longhurst, G.R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hoffman, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Schrock, V.E.; Peterson, P.E.; Bai, R.Y.; Chen, X.M.; Liu, J.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Sze, D.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Meier, W.R. [Schafer (W.J.) Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    LIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. This is a progress report of an incomplete and ongoing study. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-11 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li{sub 2}Be{sub 4}) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required.In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-I there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.10 $/kW{center_dot} in constant 1990 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost.

  16. Periodic progress report, 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This is the first progress report of the BriteEuram project named "High Power Laser Cutting for Heavy Industry" ("Powercut"). The report contains a summary of the objectives of the first period, an overview of the technical progress, a comparison between the planed and the accomplished work...

  17. Periodic progress report, 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This is the first progress report of the BriteEuram project named "High Power Laser Cutting for Heavy Industry" ("Powercut"). The report contains a summary of the objectives of the first period, an overview of the technical progress, a comparison between the planed and the accomplished work...

  18. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    Does the RBV represent a case of scientific progress? And has it emerged as the dominant approach to the analysis of competitive advantage for this reason? Conventional criteria for scientific progress, notably those of the growth of knowledge literature, are not particularly helpful for understa...

  19. Construction Progress of CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in 2011 with respect to CYCIAE-100, a key task for the BRIF project. All the work has been fully accomplished in line with the schedule and goals set for the year. 1 General progress for CYCIAE-100

  20. Scientific progress: Knowledge versus understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellsén, Finnur

    2016-04-01

    What is scientific progress? On Alexander Bird's epistemic account of scientific progress, an episode in science is progressive precisely when there is more scientific knowledge at the end of the episode than at the beginning. Using Bird's epistemic account as a foil, this paper develops an alternative understanding-based account on which an episode in science is progressive precisely when scientists grasp how to correctly explain or predict more aspects of the world at the end of the episode than at the beginning. This account is shown to be superior to the epistemic account by examining cases in which knowledge and understanding come apart. In these cases, it is argued that scientific progress matches increases in scientific understanding rather than accumulations of knowledge. In addition, considerations having to do with minimalist idealizations, pragmatic virtues, and epistemic value all favor this understanding-based account over its epistemic counterpart.

  1. Interaction Widget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Mads

    2003-01-01

    This pattern describes the idea of making a user interface of discrete, reusable entities---here called interaction widgets. The idea behind widgets is described using two perspectives, that of the user and that of the developer. It is the forces from these two perspectives that are balanced in t...... in the pattern. The intended audience of the pattern is developers and researchers within the field of human computer interaction.......This pattern describes the idea of making a user interface of discrete, reusable entities---here called interaction widgets. The idea behind widgets is described using two perspectives, that of the user and that of the developer. It is the forces from these two perspectives that are balanced...

  2. Hadronic Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding hadronic interactions is crucial for investigating the properties of unstable hadrons, since measuring physical quantities for unstable hadrons including the resonance mass and decay width requires simultaneous calculations of final scattering states. Recent studies of hadronic scatterings and decays are reviewed from this point of view. The nuceon-nucleon and multi-nucleon interactions are very important to understand the formation of nucleus from the first principle of QCD. These interactions have been studied mainly by two methods, due originally to L\\"uscher and to HALQCD. The results obtained from the two methods are compared in three channels, $I=2$ two-pion, H-dibaryon, and two-nucleon channels. So far the results from the two methods for the two-nucleon channels are different even at the level of the presence or absence of bound states. We then discuss possible uncertainties in each method. Recent results on the binding energy for helium nuclei are also reviewed.

  3. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  4. Interactive benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    distance functions. The frontier is given by an explicit quantile, e.g. “the best 90 %”. Using the explanatory model of the inefficiency, the user can adjust the frontiers by submitting state variables that influence the inefficiency. An efficiency study of Danish dairy farms is implemented......We discuss individual learning by interactive benchmarking using stochastic frontier models. The interactions allow the user to tailor the performance evaluation to preferences and explore alternative improvement strategies by selecting and searching the different frontiers using directional...... in the suggested benchmarking tool. The study investigates how different characteristics on dairy farms influences the technical efficiency....

  5. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  6. Collocated Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Fischer, Joel; Porcheron, Martin; Lucero, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In the 25 years since Ellis, Gibbs, and Rein proposed the time-space taxonomy, research in the ‘same time, same place’ quadrant has diversified, perhaps even fragmented. This one-day workshop will bring together researchers with diverse, yet convergent interests in tabletop, surface, mobile......, and wearable technologies, spaces and spatial interaction, and those interested in the social aspects of interaction, such as conversation analysis and ethnomethodology. These communities have matured considerably, and produced significant exemplars of systems, methods, and studies concerned with collocated...

  7. Kinesthetic Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup; Fritsch, Jonas; Kortbek, Karen Johanne

    2008-01-01

    Within the Human-Computer Interaction community there is a growing interest in designing for the whole body in interaction design. The attempts aimed at addressing the body have very different outcomes spanning from theoretical arguments for understanding the body in the design process, to more...... to reveal bodily potential in relation to three design themes – kinesthetic development, kinesthetic means and kinesthetic disorder; and seven design parameters – engagement, sociality, movability, explicit motivation, implicit motivation, expressive meaning and kinesthetic empathy. The framework is a tool...

  8. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments...... explore some of the more fundamental questions about governance theory. For example, although governance is talked about a great deal political science has done relatively little about how to measure this concept. Likewise, the term multi-level governance has become widely used but its important...

  9. Scaffolds for blocking protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Stefan J; Lee, Song-Gil; Chmielewski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Due to the pivotal roles that protein-protein interactions play in a plethora of biological processes, the design of therapeutic agents targeting these interactions has become an attractive and important area of research. The development of such agents is faced with a variety of challenges. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made in the design of proteomimetics capable of disrupting protein-protein interactions. Those inhibitors based on molecular scaffold designs hold considerable interest because of the ease of variation in regard to their displayed functionality. In particular, protein surface mimetics, alpha-helical mimetics, beta-sheet/beta-strand mimetics, as well as beta-turn mimetics have successfully modulated protein-protein interactions involved in such diseases as cancer and HIV. In this review, current progress in the development of molecular scaffolds designed for the disruption of protein-protein interactions will be discussed with an emphasis on those active against biological targets.

  10. Representation, interaction, and intersubjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Richard

    2007-09-10

    What the participants share, their common "sense" of the world, creates a foundation, a framing, an orientation that enables human actors to see and act in coordination with one another. For recurrent activities, the methods the participants use to understand each other as they act change, making the intersubjective space in which actors operate richer and easier to produce. This article works through some of the issues that emerge from a close examination of intersubjectivity as it is managed through representation and interaction. The data that are presented document, in detail, a sequence of related interactions, within and across episodes of cooperation, where continuity and change can be observed. The emergence of conversational structure and coordinating representations are significant milestones in the long-term development of a representational practice that support the runtime co-construction of intersubjective space. Conversational structures emerge interactively to mediate recurrent points of coordination in the domain activity, and only secondarily the conversation itself. Coordinating representations change the representational practice of the participants by making it easier to manage their "shared view" of the collective work, enabling the participants to make progress, expand the field of the common activity, while exhibiting more control of if and when explicit grounding occurs.

  11. LHC progress report

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Last weekend saw a record physics fill with a tenfold increase in instantaneous luminosity (event rate from collisions), marking an important milestone for the LHC. This physics fill did not only establish luminosities above 1.1 x 1028 cm-2 s-1 in all four experiments but was also kept in "stable beam" mode for a new record length of 30 hours. The particle physics experiments were able to more than double the total number of events so far recorded at 3.5 TeV.   The LHC screen indicating that squeezed stable beams have been achieved for the first time. The very successful weekend had been preceded by hard work on the accelerator side. A factor 5 improvement in luminosity was achieved by "squeezing" (reducing) the beam sizes at all four interaction points. This process, one of the most complex stages in the operation of the accelerator, was finalised the week before. Once the machine is "squeezed", the experimental insertions become aperture bot...

  12. COSMIC monthly progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  13. Interactive Storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2015, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in November/December 2015. The 18 revised full papers and 13 short papers presented together with 9 posters, 9 workshop descriptions, an...

  14. Interactive Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents guiding principles for developing interactive lessons for the World Wide Web. Describes "Amazing Space: Education Online from the Hubble Space Telescope", a program where students study spectacular Hubble Space Telescope images of stars and star-forming regions to learn about the life cycle of stars and the creation of atoms. (JRH)

  15. Interactive Storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2015, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in November/December 2015. The 18 revised full papers and 13 short papers presented together with 9 posters, 9 workshop descriptions...

  16. A Tool for Evaluating, Adapting and Extending Game Progression Planning for Diverse Game Genres

    OpenAIRE

    Neil, Katharine; Vries, Denise,; Natkin, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Digital Games and Interactive Entertainment; International audience; Game progression design is a demanding, data-intensive design activity that is typically performed by game designers without even basic computational support. To address this, a concept for tool-supported “progression planning” has been proposed and implemented by Butler, Smith, Liu & Popovic for the design of their educational puzzle game Refraction. Refraction is a game that has relatively undemanding progression d...

  17. Psychological functioning in primary progressive versus secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vleugels, L; Pfennings, L E; Pouwer, F

    1998-01-01

    (SD 11.1). Patients completed questionnaires measuring among others the following aspects of psychological functioning: depression (BDI, SCL-90), anxiety (STAI, SCL-90), agoraphobia (SCL-90), somatic complaints (SCL-90), hostility (SCL-90) and attitude towards handicap (GHAS). Patients with a PP......Psychological functioning in two types of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is assessed: primary progressive (PP) and secondary progressive (SP) patients. On the basis of differences in clinical course and underlying pathology we hypothesized that primary progressive patients and secondary...... progressive patients might have different psychological functioning. Seventy patients treated in an MS centre were examined cross-sectionally. Forty had an SP course of MS and 30 a PP course. The 33 male and 37 female patients had a mean age of 48.4 years (SD 11.2) and mean age of onset of MS of 30.7 years...

  18. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.

  19. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venning, Freja A.; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression. PMID:26539408

  20. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  1. CBM progress report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, N.; Rami, F.; Roehrich, D.; Stroth, J.; Wessels, J.; Zaitsev, Yu

    2008-02-15

    This report documents the activities within the CBM project in 2007. Significant progress has been made in the optimization of the simulation software, the layout and development of detectors, the design of front-end electronics, and the concepts for data acquisition. The simulation and analysis routines have been completely integrated into the software framework (FAIRoot and CBMroot), and can be used now easily by users outside GSI. A breakthrough has been achieved in the development of fast algorithms for track and vertex reconstruction which have been improved in speed by a factor of 10{sup 5}. These fast routines permit to perform high-statistics simulations for detailed detector layout optimization. Full event reconstruction based on realistic detector properties and particle multiplicities as given by microscopic transport models are routinely used in the feasibility studies. A version of the Silicon Tracking System is now implemented in the simulation software comprising 8 detector layers based on microstrip technology only, including the readout cables, and the mechanical detector structure. The studies of open charm detection have been extended to D{sub s}{sup +} and {lambda}{sub c}, taking into account a realistic layout of the Silicon Pixel Microvertex detector. The identification of electrons has been optimized by improved ring recognition algorithms and transition radiation simulations. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector has been redesigned, resulting in a reduction by a factor of two in mirror size and number of readout channels without reducing the pion rejection capability. The muon detection system has been optimized with respect to the number of detector layers. The muon simulations take into account detector inefficiencies and a segmentation of the muon chambers into pads according to a nominal occupancy of 5% for central Au+Au collisions. Studies for a dimuon trigger show promising results. Radiation dose simulations using the FLUKA

  2. Der Progress Test Medizin [The Progress Test Medizin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osterberg, Katrin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] In 1999 a interdiciplinary, formative progress test for medical students has been established at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. It contents of 200 MC-questions on a graduate level and is performed at the beginning of each semester since then. The ascertained test data is evaluated and reported back in a detailed written feedback to each participant. After initial problems in recruiting new item authors and an efficient administration of test items the progress test now is a well established and accepted feedback instrument and the results of the last years confirmed that knowledge increase of different semesters and different curricula can be shown through a progress test. Since 2000 the workgroup “Progress Test Medizin” cooperates with the university in Witten /Herdecke, and since 2003 the progress test is also performed at four additional medical faculties. This minimizes the effort per participant and therefore allows further development and research. [german] Seit 1999 wird an der Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin ein fächerübergreifender, formativer Progress Test für Medizinstudierende durchgeführt. Er beinhaltet 200 MC-Fragen auf Absolventenniveau und wird zu Anfang jedes Semesters durchgeführt. Die erhobenen Daten werden detailliert in bezug auf die Vergleichsgruppe ausgewertet und als Rückmeldung an die Teilnehmer ausgegeben. Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten vor allem bei der Gewinnung neuer Fragenautoren und der effizienten Verwaltung der Testfragen ist der Progress Test Medizin an der Charité mittlerweile ein etabliertes und anerkanntes Feedbackinstrument. Die Ergebnisse der letzten Jahre haben gezeigt, dass mit dem Progress Test der Wissenszuwachs über mehrere Semester und verschiedene Curricula dargestellt werden kann. Seit 2000 kooperiert die Arbeitsgruppe Progress Test Medizin mit der Universität Witten/Herdecke und seit Herbst 2003 wird der Progress Test an vier weiteren deutschen Fakult

  3. Progressive-Relapsing MS (PRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Local Support Group Ask an MS Navigator Edward M. Dowd Personal Advocate Program Connect with Peers ... relapsing MS (PRMS) Types of MS Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) Primary progressive MS ( ...

  4. Radon | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Nitrate | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Vincent; Baron, Joan

    1977-01-01

    Critically analyzes Neville Bennett's book "Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress," which found that formal teaching styles are more closely associated with student achievement in "basic skills" than are informal styles. (IRT)

  7. Arsenic | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  9. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Janine T. Erler

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic casc...

  10. Annual Progress report - General Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  11. Monomelic amyotrophy with late progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowin, J; Meriggioli, M N; Cochran, E J

    2001-04-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy is a sporadic juvenile-onset disease that presents with gradual onset of weakness and atrophy in the hand muscles unilaterally. Generally, this disease is considered a 'benign' and non-progressive motor neuron disease, which stabilizes within five years of onset. We discuss a case that illustrates that monomelic amyotrophy may rarely exhibit late clinical progression to the lower extremities after a prolonged period of disease stability.

  12. Recent Progress in Regge Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    While there has been some advance in the use of Regge calculus as a tool in numerical relativity, the main progress in Regge calculus recently has been in quantum gravity. After a brief discussion of this progress, attention is focussed on two particular, related aspects. Firstly, the possible definitions of diffeomorphisms or gauge transformations in Regge calculus are examined and examples are given. Secondly, an investigation of the signature of the simplicial supermetric is described. Thi...

  13. Multi-parton interactions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulesza, A. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie; Nagy, Z. (eds.) [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    We review the recent progress in the theoretical description and experimental observation of multiple parton interactions. Subjects covered include experimental measurements of minimum bias interactions and of the underlying event, models of soft physics implemented in Monte Carlo generators, developments in the theoretical description of multiple parton interactions and phenomenological studies of double parton scattering. This article stems from contributions presented at the Helmholtz Alliance workshop on ''Multi-Parton Interactions at the LHC'', DESY Hamburg, 13-15 September 2010. (orig.)

  14. Scientific progress as increasing verisimilitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper's own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees of truthlikeness in terms of similarities between states of affairs. This paper defends the verisimilitude approach against Alexander Bird who argues that the "semantic" definition (in terms of truth or truthlikeness alone) is not sufficient to define progress, but the "epistemic" definition referring to justification and knowledge is more adequate. Here Bird ignores the crucial distinction between real progress and estimated progress, explicated by the difference between absolute (and usually unknown) degrees of truthlikeness and their evidence-relative expected values. Further, it is argued that Bird's idea of returning to the cumulative model of growth requires an implausible trick of transforming past false theories into true ones.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures ( ...

  16. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  17. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  18. Agnosia for accents in primary progressive aphasia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D.; Downey, Laura E.; Agustus, Jennifer L.; Hailstone, Julia C.; Tyndall, Marina H.; Cifelli, Alberto; Schott, Jonathan M.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Warren, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    As an example of complex auditory signal processing, the analysis of accented speech is potentially vulnerable in the progressive aphasias. However, the brain basis of accent processing and the effects of neurodegenerative disease on this processing are not well understood. Here we undertook a detailed neuropsychological study of a patient, AA with progressive nonfluent aphasia, in whom agnosia for accents was a prominent clinical feature. We designed a battery to assess AA's ability to process accents in relation to other complex auditory signals. AA's performance was compared with a cohort of 12 healthy age and gender matched control participants and with a second patient, PA, who had semantic dementia with phonagnosia and prosopagnosia but no reported difficulties with accent processing. Relative to healthy controls, the patients showed distinct profiles of accent agnosia. AA showed markedly impaired ability to distinguish change in an individual's accent despite being able to discriminate phonemes and voices (apperceptive accent agnosia); and in addition, a severe deficit of accent identification. In contrast, PA was able to perceive changes in accents, phonemes and voices normally, but showed a relatively mild deficit of accent identification (associative accent agnosia). Both patients showed deficits of voice and environmental sound identification, however PA showed an additional deficit of face identification whereas AA was able to identify (though not name) faces normally. These profiles suggest that AA has conjoint (or interacting) deficits involving both apperceptive and semantic processing of accents, while PA has a primary semantic (associative) deficit affecting accents along with other kinds of auditory objects and extending beyond the auditory modality. Brain MRI revealed left peri-Sylvian atrophy in case AA and relatively focal asymmetric (predominantly right sided) temporal lobe atrophy in case PA. These cases provide further evidence for the

  19. Agnosia for accents in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Agustus, Jennifer L; Hailstone, Julia C; Tyndall, Marina H; Cifelli, Alberto; Schott, Jonathan M; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Warren, Jason D

    2013-08-01

    As an example of complex auditory signal processing, the analysis of accented speech is potentially vulnerable in the progressive aphasias. However, the brain basis of accent processing and the effects of neurodegenerative disease on this processing are not well understood. Here we undertook a detailed neuropsychological study of a patient, AA with progressive nonfluent aphasia, in whom agnosia for accents was a prominent clinical feature. We designed a battery to assess AA's ability to process accents in relation to other complex auditory signals. AA's performance was compared with a cohort of 12 healthy age and gender matched control participants and with a second patient, PA, who had semantic dementia with phonagnosia and prosopagnosia but no reported difficulties with accent processing. Relative to healthy controls, the patients showed distinct profiles of accent agnosia. AA showed markedly impaired ability to distinguish change in an individual's accent despite being able to discriminate phonemes and voices (apperceptive accent agnosia); and in addition, a severe deficit of accent identification. In contrast, PA was able to perceive changes in accents, phonemes and voices normally, but showed a relatively mild deficit of accent identification (associative accent agnosia). Both patients showed deficits of voice and environmental sound identification, however PA showed an additional deficit of face identification whereas AA was able to identify (though not name) faces normally. These profiles suggest that AA has conjoint (or interacting) deficits involving both apperceptive and semantic processing of accents, while PA has a primary semantic (associative) deficit affecting accents along with other kinds of auditory objects and extending beyond the auditory modality. Brain MRI revealed left peri-Sylvian atrophy in case AA and relatively focal asymmetric (predominantly right sided) temporal lobe atrophy in case PA. These cases provide further evidence for the

  20. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  1. Interactions between Humans and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    introduce a generic model for comparing and contrasting robots (CCM), aiming to provide a common platform for robot designers, developers and users. The framework for HRI we propose stems mainly from the vagueness and the lack of clarity that has been observed in the definitions of both Direct and Indirect......Combining multiple scientific disciplines, robotic technology has made significant progress the last decade, and so did the interactions between humans and robots. This article updates the agenda for robotic research by highlighting the factors that affect Human – Robot Interaction (HRI......), and explains the relationships and dependencies that exist between them. The four main factors that define the properties of a robot, and therefore the interaction, are distributed in two dimensions: (1) Intelligence (Control - Autonomy), and (2) Perspective (Tool - Medium). Based on these factors, we...

  2. Quantum simulation with interacting photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    Enhancing optical nonlinearities so that they become appreciable on the single photon level and lead to nonclassical light fields has been a central objective in quantum optics for many years. After this has been achieved in individual micro-cavities representing an effectively zero-dimensional volume, this line of research has shifted its focus towards engineering devices where such strong optical nonlinearities simultaneously occur in extended volumes of multiple nodes of a network. Recent technological progress in several experimental platforms now opens the possibility to employ the systems of strongly interacting photons, these give rise to as quantum simulators. Here we review the recent development and current status of this research direction for theory and experiment. Addressing both, optical photons interacting with atoms and microwave photons in networks of superconducting circuits, we focus on analogue quantum simulations in scenarios where effective photon-photon interactions exceed dissipative processes in the considered platforms.

  3. Quantum Simulation with Interacting Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We review the theoretical and experimental developments in recent research on quantum simulators with interacting photons. Enhancing optical nonlinearities so that they become appreciable on the single photon level and lead to nonclassical light fields has been a central objective in quantum optics for many years. After this has been achieved in individual micro-cavities representing an effectively zero-dimensional volume, this line of research has now shifted its focus towards engineering devices where such strong optical nonlinearities simultaneously occur in extended volumes of multiple nodes of a network. Recent technological progress in several experimental platforms now opens the possibility to employ the systems of strongly interacting photons these give rise to as quantum simulators. Here we review the recent development and current status of this research direction for theory and experiment. Addressing both, optical photons interacting with atoms and microwave photons in networks of superconducting c...

  4. Interactions between Humans and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Combining multiple scientific disciplines, robotic technology has made significant progress the last decade, and so did the interactions between humans and robots. This article updates the agenda for robotic research by highlighting the factors that affect Human – Robot Interaction (HRI......), and explains the relationships and dependencies that exist between them. The four main factors that define the properties of a robot, and therefore the interaction, are distributed in two dimensions: (1) Intelligence (Control - Autonomy), and (2) Perspective (Tool - Medium). Based on these factors, we...... introduce a generic model for comparing and contrasting robots (CCM), aiming to provide a common platform for robot designers, developers and users. The framework for HRI we propose stems mainly from the vagueness and the lack of clarity that has been observed in the definitions of both Direct and Indirect...

  5. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science VIII

    CERN Document Server

    Nisoli, Mauro; Hill, Wendell; III, III

    2012-01-01

    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science and optical science which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand. These are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This eighth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on molecules interacting with ultrashort and intense laser fields, advanced technologies for the characterization of ultrashort laser pulses and their applications, laser plasma formation and laser acceleration.

  6. Current progress toward vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia JL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available João Luis Garcia,1 Elisabeth A Innes,2 Frank Katzer21Department of Preventative Veterinary Medicine, Center of Agricultural Science, State University of Londrina, Parana, Brazil; 2Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Edinburgh, ScotlandAbstract: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect many warm-blooded animal species and humans. Despite substantial knowledge of the biology, epidemiology, and host-pathogen interactions of T. gondii, there are still very few effective control strategies to prevent oocyst shedding in cats, tissue cysts in livestock for consumption, and infection and disease in humans. This article reviews current progress and targets for vaccination against T. gondii.Keywords: toxoplasmosis, vaccination, livestock animals, cats, immune response, organelles

  7. Interleukin-8 in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša; Milovanović, Jelena

    2013-10-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine that has an autocrine and/or paracrine tumor-promoting role and significant potential as a prognostic and/or predictive cancer biomarker. In breast cancer, which is mostly determined by expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), IL-8 could play a specific role. IL-8 is highly expressed in ER- breast cancers, but it increases invasiveness and metastatic potential of both ER- and ER+ breast cancer cells. It is also highly expressed in HER2+ breast cancers. Because of the complex crosstalk between these receptors and IL-8, its role is mainly determined by delicate balance in their signaling pathways. Therefore, the main point of this review was to analyze the possible influence of IL-8 in breast cancer progression related to its interaction with ER and HER2 and the consequent therapeutic implications of these relations.

  8. Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kumano, S

    2016-01-01

    We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrino-oscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function $b_1$ is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact ...

  9. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Li, Ruxin; Chin, See Leang

    2009-01-01

    The PUILS series presents Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science. PUILS has been stimulated by the recent development of ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume contains approximately 15 chapters, authored by researchers at the forefront. Each chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers, who are not experts in the specific topics, as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of this sub-field of research, and these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This fourth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on strong field ionization of atoms; excitation, ionization and fragmentation of molecules; nonlinear intense optical phenomena and attosecond pulses; and laser - solid interactions and photoemission.

  10. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science III

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Agostini, Pierre; Ferrante, Gaetano

    2008-01-01

    The PUILS series presents Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science. PUILS has been stimulated by the recent development of ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume contains approximately 15 chapters, authored by researchers at the forefront. Each chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers, who are not experts in the specific topics, as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of this sub-field of research, and these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This third volume covers a diverse range of disciplines, focusing on such topics as strong field ionization of atoms, ionization and fragmentation of molecules and clusters, generation of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulses, filamentation and laser plasma interaction, and the development of ultrashort and ultrahigh-intensity light sources.

  11. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science VI

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Bandrauk, André D

    2010-01-01

    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This sixth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on responses of molecules to ultrashort intense laser pulses, generation and characterization of attosecond pulses and high-order harmonics, and filamentation and laser-plasma interaction.

  12. Gene x environment interactions as dynamical systems: clinical implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarah S. Knox

    2015-01-01

    The etiology and progression of the chronic diseases that account for the highest rates of mortality in the US, namely, cardiovascular diseases and cancers, involve complex gene x environment interactions...

  13. Root–Root Interactions:Towards A Rhizosphere Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, L.; Kirkegaard, John; Ruijven, van J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant scientists have made great progress in understanding molecular mechanisms controlling root responses to nutrients of arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants under controlled conditions. Simultaneously, ecologists and agronomists have demonstrated that root–root interactions involve more than

  14. Decision Making Cognition in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Torralva, Teresa; Roca, María; Szenkman, Daniela; Ibanez, Agustin; Richly, Pablo; Pose, Mariángeles; Manes, Facundo

    2012-01-01

    We sought to investigate the decision making profile of Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) by assessing patients diagnosed with this disease (n = 10), patients diagnosed with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n = 35), and matched controls (n = 14) using the Iowa Gambling Task, a widely used test that mimics real-life decision making. Participants were also evaluated with a complete neuropsychological battery. Patients with PPA were unable to adopt an advantageous strategy on the IGT, which resulted in a flat performance, different to that exhibited by both controls (who showed advantageous decision making) and bvFTD patients (who showed risk-appetitive behavior). The decision making profile of PPA patients was not associated with performance on language tasks and did not differ between sub-variants of the disease (namely, semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia). Investigating decision making in PPA is crucial both from a theoretical perspective, as it can shed light about the way in which language interacts with other cognitive functions, as well as a clinical standpoint, as it could lead to a more objective detection of impairments of decision making deficits in this condition. PMID:22207422

  15. Progressive Damage Analysis of Bonded Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.; Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.

    2012-01-01

    The present work is related to the development and application of progressive damage modeling techniques to bonded joint technology. The joint designs studied in this work include a conventional composite splice joint and a NASA-patented durable redundant joint. Both designs involve honeycomb sandwich structures with carbon/epoxy facesheets joined using adhesively bonded doublers.Progressive damage modeling allows for the prediction of the initiation and evolution of damage within a structure. For structures that include multiple material systems, such as the joint designs under consideration, the number of potential failure mechanisms that must be accounted for drastically increases the complexity of the analyses. Potential failure mechanisms include fiber fracture, intraply matrix cracking, delamination, core crushing, adhesive failure, and their interactions. The bonded joints were modeled using highly parametric, explicitly solved finite element models, with damage modeling implemented via custom user-written subroutines. Each ply was discretely meshed using three-dimensional solid elements. Layers of cohesive elements were included between each ply to account for the possibility of delaminations and were used to model the adhesive layers forming the joint. Good correlation with experimental results was achieved both in terms of load-displacement history and the predicted failure mechanism(s).

  16. Summary of Recent Progress in Understanding HVCs

    CERN Document Server

    Wakker, B P; Gibson, B K; Wakker, Bart P.; Woerden, Hugo van; Gibson, Brad K.

    1999-01-01

    The study of high-velocity clouds has progressed much since the appearance of the review article by Wakker & van Woerden (1997), less than two years ago. Much of this progress is described in these workshop proceedings. Here we update the review article, summarizing the topics discussed at the workshop as well as covering the recent literature. We follow the outline of the review, describing HI properties in Sect. 2 and 3, interactions between HVCs and other gas in Sect. 4, observations at wavelengths other than 21-cm in Sects. 5 and 6, absorption-line studies of metallicities and distances in Sects. 7 and 8, extra-galactic HVCs in Sect. 9, the Magellanic Stream in Sect. 10, and a discussion of HVC origins in Sect. 11. Key contributions of the past two years include (a) the first determination of a distance bracket for an HVC: d=4-10 kpc for Complex A (van Woerden et al. 1999); (b) the first determinations of a true metallicity: 1/4 solar for HVC 287+22+240 (Lu et al. 1998), and 1/10 solar Complex~C (Wakk...

  17. Decision Making Cognition in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to investigate the decision making profile of Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA by assessing patients diagnosed with this disease (n = 10, patients diagnosed with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n = 35, and matched controls (n = 14 using the Iowa Gambling Task, a widely used test that mimics real-life decision making. Participants were also evaluated with a complete neuropsychological battery. Patients with PPA were unable to adopt an advantageous strategy on the IGT, which resulted in a flat performance, different to that exhibited by both controls (who showed advantageous decision making and bvFTD patients (who showed risk-appetitive behavior. The decision making profile of PPA patients was not associated with performance on language tasks and did not differ between sub-variants of the disease (namely, semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia. Investigating decision making in PPA is crucial both from a theoretical perspective, as it can shed light about the way in which language interacts with other cognitive functions, as well as a clinical standpoint, as it could lead to a more objective detection of impairments of decision making deficits in this condition.

  18. Sludge Treatment Evaluation: 1992 Technical progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L J; Felmy, A R; Ding, E R

    1993-01-01

    This report documents Fiscal Year 1992 technical progress on the Sludge Treatment Evaluation Task, which is being conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of this task is to develop a capability to predict the performance of pretreatment processes for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste stored at Hanford and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Significant cost savings can be achieved if radionuclides and other undesirable constituents can be effectively separated from the bulk waste prior to final treatment and disposal. This work is initially focused on chemical equilibrium prediction of water washing and acid or base dissolution of Hanford single-shell tank (SST) sludges, but may also be applied to other steps in pretreatment processes or to other wastes. Although SST wastes contain many chemical species, there are relatively few constituents -- Na, Al, NO[sub 3], NO[sub 2], PO[sub 4], SO[sub 4], and F -- contained in the majority of the waste. These constituents comprise 86% and 74% of samples from B-110 and U-110 SSTS, respectively. The major radionuclides of interest (Cs, Sr, Tc, U) are present in the sludge in small molal quantities. For these constituents, and other important components that are present in small molal quantities, the specific ion-interaction terms used in the Pitzer or NRTL equations may be assumed to be zero for a first approximation. Model development can also be accelerated by considering only the acid or base conditions that apply for the key pretreatment steps. This significantly reduces the number of chemical species and chemical reactions that need to be considered. Therefore, significant progress can be made by developing all the specific ion interactions for a base model and an acid dissolution model.

  19. Sibling interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Rosemary H

    2013-01-01

    Sibling interactions traditionally were conceived psychoanalytically in "vertical" and parentified oedipal terms and overlooked in their own right, for complicated reasons (Colonna and Newman 1983). Important work has been done to right this, from the 1980s and onward, with conferences and writings. Juliet Mitchell's 2000 and, in particular, her 2003 books, for example, have brought "lateral" sibling relations forcefully to the forefront of insights, especially about sex and violence, with the added interdisciplinary impact of illuminating upheaval in global community interactions as well as having implications for clinicians. A clinical example from the analysis of an adult woman with a ten-years-younger sister will show here how we need both concepts to help us understand complex individual psychic life. The newer "lateral" sibling emphasis, including Mitchell's "Law of the Mother" and "seriality," can be used to inform the older "vertical" take, to enrich the full dimensions of intersubjective oedipal and preoedipal reciprocities that have been foundational in shaping that particular analysand's inner landscape. Some technical recommendations for heightening sensitivity to the import of these dynamics will be offered along the way here, by invoking Hans Loewald's useful metaphor of the analytic situation as theater.

  20. Advances in modeling of biomolecular interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-zhongCAI; Ze-rongLI; Wan-luWANG; Yu-zongCHEN

    2004-01-01

    Modeling of molecular interactions is increasingly used in life science research and biotechnology development.Examples are computer aided drug design, prediction of protein interactions with other molecules, and simulation of networks of biomolecules in a particular process in human body. This article reviews recent progress in the related fields and provides a brief overview on the methods used in molecular modeling of biological systems.

  1. Treponema denticola interactions with host proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopher Fenno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral Treponema species, most notably T. denticola, are implicated in the destructive effects of human periodontal disease. Progress in the molecular analysis of interactions between T. denticola and host proteins is reviewed here, with particular emphasis on the characterization of surface-expressed and secreted proteins of T. denticola involved in interactions with host cells, extracellular matrix components, and components of the innate immune system.

  2. Isovector correction to the Kerman, McManus, and Thaler formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.

    1983-08-01

    In the derivation of the scaled, first order optical potential of Kerman, McManus, and Thaler it is assumed that all target nucleons have identical isospin character. This makes possible the scaling by (A-1)A that is characteristic of the Kerman-McManus-Thaler formalism. In applications, the difference between the interactions of the projectile with target neutrons and protons is imposed upon the scaled optical potential. The nuclear scattering amplitude calculated in this way differs from the correct first order result which can be obtained by recognizing the isospin difference at the onset of the derivation. A new expression for the Kerman-McManus-Thaler optical potential is obtained. The result is the usual isospin weighted sum of the projectile-proton and projectile-neutron interactions, plus a correction to the scaled first order optical potential which is proportional to the square of the projectile-nucleon isovector interaction. Numerical estimates of the volumes and root mean square radii of this isovector correction are given for proton and pion projectiles. Relative to the usual first order term, the volume integral of this correction is found to be negligible in most cases, except for (3,3) resonant energy pion-nucleus scattering where it can contribute several percent. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Kerman, McManus, and Thaler, and Watson multiple scattering theories, isovector corrections to proton-nucleus and pion-nucleus optical potentials.

  3. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  4. Electromagnetic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  5. Electromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia). Physical Chemistry

    2016-07-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  6. Audiovisual Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karandreas, Theodoros-Alexandros

    Product sound quality evaluation aims to identify relevant attributes and assess their influence on the overall auditory impression. This results in an accurate representation of the product in a singular modality - usually the one primarily associated with the product's main function. However, any...... given product is rarely perceived in isolation, but rather judged within a global context which includes information from all modalities (senses). This PhD thesis investigates the relative importance of audio and visual information in subjective evaluations of a product. A multimodal setup was developed...... importance of each modality with respect to the overall quality evaluation. The results show that this was not due to specific interactions between stimuli but rather because the auditory modality dominated over the visual modality. Furthermore, for all experiments where less than optimal stimuli...

  7. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    , the RBV represents an "unfinished revolution" as there is still considerable potential to dig deeper in the deep structure of competitive advantage. Keywords: Resource-based view, mechanisms, reductionism, competitive advantage, transaction costs, property rights. JEL Code: L2, M1...... for understanding this. Instead, it is argued that in order to understand why the RBV is an instance of scientific progress, we should begin from the notion that reduction is at the heart of progress in science, and that many scientists implicitly or explicitly hold this view. The RBV is a case of scientific...

  8. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  9. Recent progress on intrinsic charm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T. J.

    2017-03-01

    Over the past ˜10 years, the topic of the nucleon's nonperturbative or intrinsic charm (IC) content has enjoyed something of a renaissance, largely motivated by theoretical developments involving quark modelers and PDF-fitters. In this talk I will briefly describe the importance of intrinsic charm to various issues in high-energy phenomenology, and survey recent progress in constraining its overall normalization and contribution to the momentum sum rule of the nucleon. I end with the conclusion that progress on the side of calculation has now placed the onus on experiment to unambiguously resolve the proton's intrinsic charm component.

  10. Early detection of emphysema progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S A M; Lo, Pechin;

    2010-01-01

    Emphysema is one of the most widespread diseases in subjects with smoking history. The gold standard method for estimating the severity of emphysema is a lung function test, such as forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). However, several clinical studies showed that chest CT scans offer...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...

  11. Early Detection of Emphysema Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Jacobs, S.S.A.M.; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau;

    2010-01-01

    Emphysema is one of the most widespread diseases in subjects with smoking history. The gold standard method for estimating the severity of emphysema is a lung function test, such as forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). However, several clinical studies showed that chest CT scans offer...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...

  12. "Human potential" and progressive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cultural constructs of progressive pedagogy in Danish school pedagogy and its emerging focus on the child’s human potential from the 1920s to the 1950s. It draws on Foucault’s notion of ‘dispositifs’ and the ‘elements of history’, encircling a complex transformation...... of continuity and discontinuity of progressive pedagogy. The Danish context is identified as being part of an international and scientific enlightenment movement circulating in, e.g., the New Education Fellowship (NEF). The cultural constructs embedded in progressivism are clarified in the article...

  13. Infrastructures of progress and dispossession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Th is article examines what economic growth and state versions of progress have done to small and medium-scale farmers in an urban setting, in Arequipa in southern Peru. Th e general reorganization of production, resources, and labor in the Peruvian economy has generated a discursive move...... to reposition small and medium-scale farmers as backward. Th is article analyzes how farmers struggle to fi nd their place within a neoliberal urban ecology where diff erent conceptions of what constitutes progress in contemporary Peru infl uence the landscape. Using an analytical lens that takes material...... state and nonstate actors invest aff ects, interests, and desires differently within a given landscape....

  14. Effects of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide on vegetation. Progress report, 1 June--30 September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, L.H.; McCune, D.C.; MacLean, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: effects of NO/sub 2/ on the phytotoxicity of SO/sub 2/; interactions of air pollutants, plants, and plant pathogens; effects of SO/sub 2/ on plant-insect interactions; and mode of action and metabolism of SO/sub 2/ in plants. (HLW)

  15. Le discours oral en elaboration: Directions de recherche (Oral Discourse in Process: Research in Progress).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Francis M.

    Research is in progress on oral interactive discourse, that is, discourse produced by several participants working in collaboration. The intent of the research is to investigate how the discourse is organized at several different levels of structure (acts, sequences of acts, interactive structure, propositional content, and formal realizations).…

  16. Come, See and Experience Affective Interactive Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; van den Broek, Egon; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  17. Come, see and experience affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, D.; Reidsma, Dennis; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  18. Come, see and experience affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Nijholt, Anton; Reidsma, Dennis; Hondorp, Hendri

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  19. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Nijholt, Anton; Reidsma, Dennis; Hondorp, Hendri

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  20. Come, See and Experience Affective Interactive Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Nijholt, A.; Reidsma, D.; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  1. Lattice Studies for hadron spectroscopy and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Sinya

    2014-01-01

    Recent progresses of lattice QCD studies for hadron spectroscopy and interactions are briefly reviewed. Some emphasis are given on a new proposal for a method, which enable us to calculate potentials between hadrons. As an example of the method, the extraction of nuclear potential in lattice QCD is discussed in detail.

  2. Designing "Interaction": How Do Interaction Design Students Address Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgren, Klas; Ramberg, Robert; Artman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Interaction design is usually described as being concerned with interactions with and through artifacts but independent of a specific implementation. Design work has been characterized as a conversation between the designer and the situation and this conversation poses a particular challenge for interaction design as interactions can be elusive…

  3. Progress in multi-waveband observations of supernova remnants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejuan Yang; Fangjun Lu; Wenwu Tian

    2008-01-01

    The development of observational techniques has enriched our knowledge of supernova remnants.In this paper,we review the main progresses in the last decade,including new discoveries of supernova remnants and the associated(rare type of pulsars,nucleosynthesis,the interaction between supernova remnants and molecular clouds,dust in the supernova remnants,shock physics,and cosmic ray accelerations.

  4. Bone marrow myeloid cells in regulation of multiple myeloma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Sarah E; Lin, Cindy; Nefedova, Yulia

    2017-08-01

    Survival, growth, and response to chemotherapy of cancer cells depends strongly on the interaction of cancer cells with the tumor microenvironment. In multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells that localizes preferentially in the bone marrow, the microenvironment is highly enriched with myeloid cells. The majority of myeloid cells are represented by mature and immature neutrophils. The contribution of the different myeloid cell populations to tumor progression and chemoresistance in multiple myeloma is discussed.

  5. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  6. [Eugenics: progress or backward movement?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2007-01-01

    Throughout this article there is a critical analysis of how genetics presents a dilemma for "human progress". So much so, that the legal world aims to create unequivocal norms and guarantees in relation with eugenics in order to avoid attempting against human dignity. The document makes the reader reflect on the ethical problems that eugenics can entail.

  7. Assessing Pupils' Progress in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Good assessment practice is a fundamental part of good teaching and learning. It puts learners at the heart of the process, helping them to recognise achievement and make progress, and enables teachers to shape and adapt their teaching to individual needs and aspirations. Over the past year, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) has…

  8. Joint energy program makes progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ "Clean Energies Facing the Future," a cooperative research program jointly organized by CAS and the BP Group, has made encouraging progress, say experts at an annual sum-up workshop held on 31 July and I August at Tsinghua University in Beijing. The CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics(DICP) has been entrusted as coordinator of the cooperative program between the two sides.

  9. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused

  10. New progress in Organic FET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Co-funded by NSFC,MOST and CAS,researchers from the Key laboratory of Organic Solids,Institute of Chemistry,CAS,made new progress in organic field-effect transistors (FET).The results of the study were published recently in the journal of Advanced Materials (2008,20,1286-1290).

  11. Research Progress of Isotope Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Department; of; Isotope

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive isotope is one of the origins of nonnuclear power technology.In the 12th Five Year Plan period,CIAE made breakthrough progresses on several important fields such as research and development of preparation of radioactive nuclides,preparation of radioactive source and study of radiopharmaceuticals relied on different financial support,successfully

  12. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  13. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused fal

  14. Research progress in advanced melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Shen, Jiayu

    2017-07-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor with high rate of metastasis and poor prognosis. How melanoma develops and how to treat it will continue to be a hot topic. This review briefly summarizes the mechanism of melanoma development and the latest progress in its treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused fal

  16. Progress in Diffraction Enhanced Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with the Topography Station of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation under CAS Institute of High Energy Physics, a research group from the CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM) has made encouraging progress in the diffraction enhanced imaging technology through phase-contrast microscope by hard X-rays.

  17. Skills Underlying Coloured Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, J. R.; Das, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and a battery of ability tests were administered to a sample of 104 male fourth graders for purposes of investigating the relationships between 2 previously identified subscales of the Raven and the ability tests. Results indicated use of a spatial strategy and to a lesser extent, use of reasoning, indicating…

  18. Progress of peripheral nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘

    2002-01-01

    Study on repair of peripheral nerve injury has been proceeding over a long period of time. With the use of microsurgery technique since 1960s,the quality of nerve repair has been greatly improved. In the past 40 years, with the continuous increase of surgical repair methods, more progress has been made on the basic research of peripheral nerve repair.

  19. Symmetrical progressive erythro-keratoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Gupta

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old male child had gradually progressive, bilaterall, symmetrical, erythematous hyperkeratotic plaques over knees, elbows, natal cleft, dorsa of hands and feet with palmoplantar keratoderma. High arched palate, fissured tongue and sternal depression (pectus-excavatum were unusual associations.

  20. DSM-IV Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) will become one of most frequently used reference documents in counseling profession. Describes progress being made in development of DSM-IV, scheduled for publication in 1994. Describes revision process and proposed organizational changes and new diagnostic…

  1. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the ex...

  2. Cloud Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 1 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 258.8 East (101.2 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara

  3. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 8. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) Report Number 8 presents information concerning ongoing technology transfer activities and the mechanisms used to support these activities within geothermal R and D programs. A state-by-state review of major geothermal development activities for the reporting period 1 February 1983 through 31 July 1983 is provided. Recent drilling and exploration efforts and the current status of geothermal electric power plant development in the United States are summarized.

  4. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 5. Progress report, June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Updated information is presented on activities and progress in the areas of electric power plants, direct heat applications, deep well drilling, leasing of federal lands, legislative and regulatory actions, research and development, and others. Special attention is given in this report to 1980 highlights, particularly in the areas of electric and direct heat uses, drilling, and the Federal lands leasing program. This report also includes a summary of the DOE FY 1982 geothermal budget request to Congress.

  5. Global transport processes and interactions with trace constituents. Annual progress report, 1 July 1976--30 September 1977. [Sea surface temperatures of Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in relation to air temperature changes; effects of fossil fuel CO/sub 2/ on air temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, R. E.

    1977-06-15

    Technical progress made in the period 1 July 1976 to 30 September 1977 is summarized. A detailed analysis of monthly mean sea surface temperature has been made for the Pacific and Atlantic down to 30/sup 0/S and is in progress for the Indian Ocean. It has been found that oceanic temperature changes precede tropical air temperature changes by about six months, opening the prospect of predicting tropical mean temperature. It has also been found that fossil fuel CO/sub 2/ changes in the atmosphere are related to equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature in the sense that colder water is followed by smaller rates of increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/. It is suggested that the physical reason for the observed relationship is that cold water, produced by upwelling, is accompanied by more nutrients which encourage photosynthesis in the surface layers and lead to a greater take-up of atmospheric CO/sub 2/.

  6. Strongly interacting ultracold quantum gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui ZHAI

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews recent progresses in ul- tracold quantum gases, and it includes three subjects which are the Fermi gases across a Feshbach resonance, quantum gases in the optical lattices and the fast ro- tating quantum gases. In this article, we discuss many basic physics pictures and concepts in quantum gases, for examples, the resonant interaction, universality and condensation in the lowest Landau level; we introduce fundamental theoretical tools for studying these systems, such as mean-field theory for BEC-BCS crossover and for the boson Hubbard model; also, we emphasize the im- portant unsolved problems in the forefront of this field, for instance, the temperature effect in optical lattices.

  7. Demyelination versus remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramow, Stephan; Frischer, Josa M; Lassmann, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The causes of incomplete remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis are unknown, as are the pathological correlates of the different clinical characteristics of patients with primary and secondary progressive disease. We analysed brains and spinal cords from 51 patients with progressive...... multiple sclerosis by planimetry. Thirteen patients with primary progressive disease were compared with 34 with secondary progressive disease. In patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, we found larger brain plaques, more demyelination in total and higher brain loads of active demyelination...... compared with patients with primary progressive disease. In addition, the brain density of plaques with high-grade inflammation and active demyelination was highest in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and remained ~18% higher than in primary progressive multiple sclerosis after adjustments...

  8. Unification of Electromagnetic Interactions and Gravitational Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUNing

    2002-01-01

    Unified theory of gravitational interactions and electromagnetic interactions is discussed in this paper.Based on gauge principle,electromagnetic interactions and gravitational interactions are formulated in the same manner and are unified in a semi-direct product group of U(1) Abelian gauge group and gravitational gauge group.

  9. Unification of Electromagnetic Interactions and Gravitational Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning

    2002-01-01

    Unified theory of gravitational interactions and electromagnetic interactions is discussed in this paper.Based on gauge principle, electromagnetic interactions and gravitational interactions are formulated in the same mannerand are unified in a semi-direct product group of U(1) Abelian gauge group and gravitational gauge group.

  10. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  11. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed.

  12. Progress in Space Solar Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will summarize the progress in the development of the Chinese Space Solar Telescope (SST) during the past few years. The main scientific objective of SST is to observe the fundamental structure of solar magnetic field with its 1-m optical telescope. The success of 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope and Hinode underscores the importance of this 1-m space telescope. In addition, some key technical problems have been solved.

  13. Progress in NTHMP Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Titov, V.V.; Mofjeld, H.O.; Venturato, A.J.; Simmons, R.S.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.; Eisner, R.K.; Hoirup, D.F.; Yanagi, B.S.; Yong, S.; Darienzo, M.; Priest, G.R.; Crawford, G.L.; Walsh, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Hazard Assessment component of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program has completed 22 modeling efforts covering 113 coastal communities with an estimated population of 1.2 million residents that are at risk. Twenty-three evacuation maps have also been completed. Important improvements in organizational structure have been made with the addition of two State geotechnical agency representatives to Steering Group membership, and progress has been made on other improvements suggested by program reviewers. ?? Springer 2005.

  14. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-05-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  15. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-05-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  16. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the nuclear physics group at Mississippi State University which were performed during 1993. Significant progress has been made in the focus areas: chairing the Gammasphere Software Working Group (SWG); assisting with the porting and enhancement of the ORNL UPAK histogramming software package; and developing standard formats for Gammasphere data products. In addition, they have established a new public ftp archive to distribute software and software development tools and information.

  17. Interdisciplinarity in Medialogy with applications to Sonic Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Serafin, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Medialogy is a novel education developed in Denmark since 2002, whose goal is to combine technology and creativity in the design, contextualization and evaluation of media technology. In this paper we describe the progression of the sonic interaction design curriculum in the Medialogy education......, stressing the importance of a transdisciplinary training for engineers working on interactive sound....

  18. The LHC on the Interactions.org website

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The particle physics news and resources website www.interactions.org has devoted one of its pages to the LHC. Among other items, you can consult updates on the collider's progress, a review of the international press, a description of the experiments and an image bank. You can access this information at: http://www.interactions.org/LHC/

  19. Interdisciplinarity in Medialogy with applications to Sonic Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Serafin, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Medialogy is a novel education developed in Denmark since 2002, whose goal is to combine technology and creativity in the design, contextualization and evaluation of media technology. In this paper we describe the progression of the sonic interaction design curriculum in the Medialogy education......, stressing the importance of a transdisciplinary training for engineers working on interactive sound....

  20. Dietary Patterns and CKD Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tanushree; Liu, Yang; Crews, Deidra C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their clinicians seek ways to mitigate the risk of CKD progression and its associated complications. Emerging data suggest that dietary modifications may be beneficial adjuvant approaches to reducing the risk of adverse CKD outcomes. This review focuses on several different dietary patterns, including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and Mediterranean diets, and their kidney health benefits. We discuss how healthful dietary patterns are lower in dietary acid load and how improving diet quality may slow the progression of CKD. We also discuss some barriers that may impede socially disadvantaged individuals from following healthful diets. Dietary patterns low in dietary acid load might slow the progression of CKD. Current evidence suggests that a reduction in dietary acid load could be beneficial in patients with CKD, but the supremacy of any particular diet is yet to be established. Additional randomized controlled dietary interventions among CKD patients are needed to inform evidence-based recommendations, which can be tailored to an individual's preferences and ability to access healthful foods. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Progress Toward Heavy Ion IFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R; Logan, B G; Waldron, W L; Sabbi, G L; Callahan-Miller, D A; Peterson, P F; Goodin, D T

    2002-01-17

    Successful development of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a -3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLEE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from x-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLEE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HE. A target injector experiment capable of > 5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed.

  2. Statins and progressive renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Senatore, Massimino; Corica, Francesco; Aloisi, Carmela; Romeo, Adolfo; Cavallaro, Emanuela; Floccari, Fulvio; Tramontana, Domenico; Frisina, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Thanks to the administration of hypocholesterolemic drugs, important advances have been made in the treatment of patients with progressive renal disease. In vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that statins, the inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, can provide protection against kidney diseases characterized by inflammation and/or enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells occurring in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, or by increased proliferation of mesangial cells occurring in IgA nephropathy. Many of the beneficial effects obtained occur independent of reduced cholesterol levels because statins can directly inhibit the proliferation of different cell types (e.g., mesangial, renal tubular, and vascular smooth muscle cells), and can also modulate the inflammatory response, thus inhibiting macrophage recruitment and activation, as well as fibrosis. The mechanisms underlying the action of statins are not yet well understood, although recent data in the literature indicate that they can directly affect the proliferation/apoptosis balance, the down-regulation of inflammatory chemokines, and the cytogenic messages mediated by the GTPases Ras superfamily. Therefore, as well as reducing serum lipids, statins and other lipid-lowering agents may directly influence intracellular signaling pathways involved in the prenylation of low molecular weight proteins that play a crucial role in cell signal transduction and cell activation. Statins appear to have important potential in the treatment of progressive renal disease, although further studies are required to confirm this in humans.

  3. Seismic Progressive Collapse: Qualitative Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wibowo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive collapse is a catastrophic structural phenomenon that can occur because of human-made and natural hazards. In progressive collapse mechanism, a single local failure may cause a significant deformation which then may lead to collapse of a structure. The current practices in progressive collapse analysis and design method generally focus on preventing progressive collapse due to abnormal gravity and blast loads. Progressive collapse behaviour of structures due to earthquake loads has not received as much attention. This paper presents a brief overview of the current state-of-knowledge, insights, and issues related to progressive collapse behaviour of structures caused by earthquake loading.

  4. Mass spectrometric analysis of protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jonas; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Roepstorff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for identification of interaction partners and structural characterization of protein interactions because of its high sensitivity, mass accuracy and tolerance towards sample heterogeneity. Several tools that allow studies of protein interaction are now...... available and recent developments that increase the confidence of studies of protein interaction by mass spectrometry include quantification of affinity-purified proteins by stable isotope labeling and reagents for surface topology studies that can be identified by mass-contributing reporters (e.g. isotope...... labels, cleavable cross-linkers or fragment ions. The use of mass spectrometers to study protein interactions using deuterium exchange and for analysis of intact protein complexes recently has progressed considerably....

  5. NN Interaction JISP16: Current Status and Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur E.A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss realistic nonlocal NN interactions of a new type — J -matrix Inverse Scattering Potential (JISP. In an ab exitu approach, these interactions are fitted to not only two-nucleon data (NN scattering data and deuteron properties but also to the properties of light nuclei without referring to three-nucleon forces. We discuss recent progress with the ab initio No-core Shell Model (NCSM approach and respective progress in developing ab exitu JISP-type NN -interactions together with plans of their forthcoming improvements.

  6. Progress Towards a Quantum Degenerate Mixture with Extreme Mass Imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalvo, B. J.; Johansen, Jacob; Chin, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    We report experimental progress towards a quantum degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture of 133 Cs and 6 Li. Beyond providing the largest mass imbalance of any bi-alkali mixture, this system exhibits multiple interspecies Feshbach resonances allowing wide tuning of the interaction strength and Efimov resonances potentially inducing three-body interactions. The use of a dual-color optical dipole trap in our experiment overcomes the large differential gravitational sag due to the mass imbalance and facilitates mixing the species nano-Kelvin temperatures allowing precision studies of interspecies interactions. Turning from few-body physics to many-body, we will present our efforts to reach simultaneous quantum degeneracy as well as discuss prospects of high resolution imaging of both species.

  7. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  8. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Factors Influencing Performance and Progress of Primary School Pupils in ... found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school ... on school progress and performance, however; home language did play a role.

  9. Massachussetts Institute of Technology progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-02-28

    This is the thirty-sixth progress report of the Laboratory for Nuclear Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Progress during the period of November 30, 1954 through February 28, 1955 is reported.

  10. Mechanistic insights into aging, cell cycle progression, and stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Anthony Alan Harkness

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of an organism depends on the health of its cells. Throughout life cells are exposed to numerous intrinsic and extrinsic stresses, such as free radicals, generated through mitochondrial electron transport, and ultraviolet irradiation. The cell has evolved numerous mechanisms to scavenge free radicals and repair damage induced by these insults. One mechanism employed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to combat stress utilizes the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC, an essential multi-subunit ubiquitin-protein ligase structurally and functionally conserved from yeast to humans that controls progression through mitosis and G1. We have observed that yeast cells expressing compromised APC subunits are sensitive to multiple stresses and have shorter replicative and chronological lifespans. In a pathway that runs parallel to that regulated by the APC, members of the Forkhead box (Fox transcription factor family also regulate stress responses. The yeast Fox orthologues Fkh1 and Fkh2 appear to drive the transcription of stress response factors and slow early G1 progression, while the APC seems to regulate chromatin structure, chromosome segregation, and resetting of the transcriptome in early G1. In contrast, under non-stress conditions, the Fkhs play a complex role in cell cycle progression, partially through activation of the APC. Direct and indirect interactions between the APC and the yeast Fkhs appear to be pivotal for lifespan determination. Here we explore the potential for these interactions to be evolutionarily conserved as a mechanism to balance cell cycle regulation with stress responses.

  11. Progress and Prospects in Stretchable Electroluminescent Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2017-03-01

    Stretchable electroluminescent (EL) devices are a new form of mechanically deformable electronics that are gaining increasing interests and believed to be one of the essential technologies for next generation lighting and display applications. Apart from the simple bending capability in flexible EL devices, the stretchable EL devices are required to withstand larger mechanical deformations and accommodate stretching strain beyond 10%. The excellent mechanical conformability in these devices enables their applications in rigorous mechanical conditions such as flexing, twisting, stretching, and folding.The stretchable EL devices can be conformably wrapped onto arbitrary curvilinear surface and respond seamlessly to the external or internal forces, leading to unprecedented applications that cannot be addressed with conventional technologies. For example, they are in demand for wide applications in biomedical-related devices or sensors and soft interactive display systems, including activating devices for photosensitive drug, imaging apparatus for internal tissues, electronic skins, interactive input and output devices, robotics, and volumetric displays. With increasingly stringent demand on the mechanical requirements, the fabrication of stretchable EL device is encountering many challenges that are difficult to resolve. In this review, recent progresses in the stretchable EL devices are covered with a focus on the approaches that are adopted to tackle materials and process challenges in stretchable EL devices and delineate the strategies in stretchable electronics. We first introduce the emission mechanisms that have been successfully demonstrated on stretchable EL devices. Limitations and advantages of the different mechanisms for stretchable EL devices are also discussed. Representative reports are reviewed based on different structural and material strategies. Unprecedented applications that have been enabled by the stretchable EL devices are reviewed. Finally, we

  12. Progress and Prospects in Stretchable Electroluminescent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiangxin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stretchable electroluminescent (EL devices are a new form of mechanically deformable electronics that are gaining increasing interests and believed to be one of the essential technologies for next generation lighting and display applications. Apart from the simple bending capability in flexible EL devices, the stretchable EL devices are required to withstand larger mechanical deformations and accommodate stretching strain beyond 10%. The excellent mechanical conformability in these devices enables their applications in rigorous mechanical conditions such as flexing, twisting, stretching, and folding.The stretchable EL devices can be conformably wrapped onto arbitrary curvilinear surface and respond seamlessly to the external or internal forces, leading to unprecedented applications that cannot be addressed with conventional technologies. For example, they are in demand for wide applications in biomedical-related devices or sensors and soft interactive display systems, including activating devices for photosensitive drug, imaging apparatus for internal tissues, electronic skins, interactive input and output devices, robotics, and volumetric displays. With increasingly stringent demand on the mechanical requirements, the fabrication of stretchable EL device is encountering many challenges that are difficult to resolve. In this review, recent progresses in the stretchable EL devices are covered with a focus on the approaches that are adopted to tackle materials and process challenges in stretchable EL devices and delineate the strategies in stretchable electronics. We first introduce the emission mechanisms that have been successfully demonstrated on stretchable EL devices. Limitations and advantages of the different mechanisms for stretchable EL devices are also discussed. Representative reports are reviewed based on different structural and material strategies. Unprecedented applications that have been enabled by the stretchable EL devices are

  13. Interacting relativistic quantum dynamics for multi-time wave functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienert Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on recent progress about a rigorous and manifestly covariant interacting model for two Dirac particles in 1+1 dimensions [9, 10]. It is formulated using the multi-time formalism of Dirac, Tomonaga and Schwinger. The mechanism of interaction is a relativistic generalization of contact interactions, and it is achieved going beyond the usual functional-analytic Hamiltonian method.

  14. Interacting relativistic quantum dynamics for multi-time wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienert, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we report on recent progress about a rigorous and manifestly covariant interacting model for two Dirac particles in 1+1 dimensions [9, 10]. It is formulated using the multi-time formalism of Dirac, Tomonaga and Schwinger. The mechanism of interaction is a relativistic generalization of contact interactions, and it is achieved going beyond the usual functional-analytic Hamiltonian method.

  15. Progression of HIV in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, M V

    1998-07-01

    The recent elucidation of the life cycle and dynamics of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and technological advances in development of the HIV RNA PCR assay for sensitive detection of viral load have revolutionized the diagnosis, management, and treatment of HIV infection. Beginning with initial infection, there is unremitting, high-level viral replication that persists throughout the course of HIV infection. The measure of the amount of virus present in plasma, HIV viral load, is the single most important predictor of HIV progression, the best indicator of immune system decline, and the best guide for initiating and monitoring antiviral treatment. Further, HIV viral load has become the new yardstick against which other markers, including CD4 number, age, chemokine receptor mutations, cytotoxic T-cell responses, and neutralizing antibody titers are assessed. For individuals with haemophilia, additional 'markers' may have significant impact on the outcome of HIV disease. Chronic factor concentrate treatment has led to transfusion-associated hepatitis, co-infection with hepatitis C (HCV), and chronic liver disease. The latter may become accelerated with HIV progression and may lead to hepatotoxicity with antiviral drug therapy. Chronic factor concentrate treatment has also been associated with immunosuppression, including both B- and T-cell immune defects. In HIV(+) haemophilic men, this immune deficit has led to lower CD4 counts with HIV progression and poorer CD4 response to antiviral drugs than in gay men. The underlying haemophilic bleeding tendency may result in significant haemorrhage with HIV-associated immune thrombocytopenia and with protease inhibitor antiretroviral therapy. Although AIDS is the leading cause of death in this group, the reduction in the size of the haemophilia population over the next two centuries is estimated to be small, and survival should improve as better antiviral therapeutics are identified.

  16. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  17. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  18. Progress toward hydrogen peroxide micropulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C; Dittman, M D; Ledebuhr, A G

    1999-07-08

    A new self-pressurizing propulsion system has liquid thrusters and gas jet attitude control without heavy gas storage vessels. A pump boosts the pressure of a small fraction of the hydrogen peroxide, so that reacted propellant can controllably pressurize its own source tank. The warm decomposition gas also powers the pump and is supplied to the attitude control jets. The system has been incorporated into a prototype microsatellite for terrestrial maneuvering tests. Additional progress includes preliminary testing of a bipropellant thruster, and storage of unstabilized hydrogen peroxide in small sealed tanks.

  19. Genetic progression of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tímár, J; Vizkeleti, L; Doma, V; Barbai, T; Rásó, E

    2016-03-01

    Malignant melanoma of the skin is the most aggressive human cancer given that a primary tumor a few millimeters in diameter frequently has full metastatic competence. In view of that, revealing the genetic background of this potential may also help to better understand tumor dissemination in general. Genomic analyses have established the molecular classification of melanoma based on the most frequent driver oncogenic mutations (BRAF, NRAS, KIT) and have also revealed a long list of rare events, including mutations and amplifications as well as genetic microheterogeneity. At the moment, it is unclear whether any of these rare events have role in the metastasis initiation process since the major drivers do not have such a role. During lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination, the clonal selection process is evidently reflected by differences in oncogenic drivers in the metastases versus the primary tumor. Clonal selection is also evident during lymphatic progression, though the genetic background of this immunoselection is less clear. Genomic analyses of metastases identified further genetic alterations, some of which may correspond to metastasis maintenance genes. The natural genetic progression of melanoma can be modified by targeted (BRAF or MEK inhibitor) or immunotherapies. Some of the rare events in primary tumors may result in primary resistance, while further new genetic lesions develop during the acquired resistance to both targeted and immunotherapies. Only a few genetic lesions of the primary tumor are constant during natural or therapy-modulated progression. EGFR4 and NMDAR2 mutations, MITF and MET amplifications and PTEN loss can be considered as metastasis drivers. Furthermore, BRAF and MITF amplifications as well as PTEN loss are also responsible for resistance to targeted therapies, whereas NRAS mutation is the only founder genetic lesion showing any association with sensitivity to immunotherapies. Unfortunately, there are hardly any data on the

  20. Progress in polymer solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LiGui; LU GuangHao; YANG XiaoNiu; ZHOU EnLe

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines current progresses in polymer solar cell. Compared to traditional silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) technology, the completely different principle of optoelectric response in the polymer cell results in a novel configuration of the device and more complicated photovoltaic generation process. The conception of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) is introduced and its advantage in terms of morphology is addressed. The main aspects including the morphology of photoactive layer, which limit the efficiency and stability of polymer solar cell, are discussed in detail. The solutions to boosting up both the efficiency and stability (lifetime) of the polymer solar cell are highlighted at the end of this review.

  1. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  2. Bilateral Progressive Obliterative Retinal Vasculitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, 10 cases of a special type of retinal vasculitis are reported, which was characterized by progressive obliteration of vessels in both eyes, developed from the periphery to the posterior ploe, and was complicated by vitreous hemorrhage (5 eyes) and neovascular glaucoma (5 eyes) in later stage. The visual acuity was 0. 05 in 10 eyes (50%). Argon laser pho-tocoagulation seemed to be able to retard the natural course of the disease. Fundus changes, differential diagnosis and treatment etc are...

  3. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  4. PROGRESS ON ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Activated carbon fiber is one kind of important adsorption materials. These novel fibrousadsorbents have high specific surface areas or abundant functional groups, which make them havegreater adsorption/desorption rates and larger adsorption capacities than other adsorbents. They canbe prepared as bundle, paper, cloth and felt to meet various technical requirement. They also showreduction property. In this paper the latest progress on the studies of the preparation and adsorptionproperties of activated carbon fibers is reviewed. The application of these materials in drinking waterpurification, environmental control, resource recovery, chemical industry, and in medicine and healthcare is also presented.

  5. Technological Progress, Exit and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in heterogeneous-firms trade models. Accordingly, several of the predictions on exit stemming from new-new trade theory are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher productivity firms survive longer, higher...... productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export, and market exit is typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. We show that the simple inclusion of exogenous economy wide technological progress into the standard Melitz (2003) model generates a tractable dynamic framework...

  6. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1996-01-16

    This report describes progress in the experimental nuclear physics program of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. It presents findings related to properties of high-spin states, low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics, as well as a brief description of the Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research (a collaboration between the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and its activities (particularly those of the last few years), and a list of publications. 89 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. A transcriptional network underlies susceptibility to kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouari, Denise; Burtin, Martine; Phelep, Aurélie; Bienaime, Frank; Noel, Laure-Hélène; Lee, David C; Legendre, Christophe; Friedlander, Gérard; Pontoglio, Marco; Terzi, Fabiola

    2012-08-01

    The molecular networks that control the progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) are poorly defined. We have recently shown that the susceptibility to development of renal lesions after nephron reduction is controlled by a locus on mouse chromosome 6 and requires epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. Here, we identified microphthalmia-associated transcription factor A (MITF-A), a bHLH-Zip transcription factor, as a modifier of CKD progression. Sequence analysis revealed a strain-specific mutation in the 5' UTR that decreases MITF-A protein synthesis in lesion-prone friend virus B NIH (FVB/N) mice. More importantly, we dissected the molecular pathway by which MITF-A modulates CKD progression. MITF-A interacts with histone deacetylases to repress the transcription of TGF-α, a ligand of EGFR, and antagonizes transactivation by its related partner, transcription factor E3 (TFE3). Consistent with the key role of this network in CKD, Tgfa gene inactivation protected FVB/N mice from renal deterioration after nephron reduction. These data are relevant to human CKD, as we found that the TFE3/MITF-A ratio was increased in patients with damaged kidneys. Our study uncovers a novel transcriptional network and unveils novel potential prognostic and therapeutic targets for preventing human CKD progression.

  8. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robyn Ready

    2011-12-31

    The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program conducted education and outreach activities and used the competition's technical goals and vehicle demonstrations as a means of attracting students and the public to learn more about advanced vehicle technologies, energy efficiency, climate change, alternative fuels, and the science and math behind efficient vehicle development. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program comprised three integrated components that were designed to educate the general public and create a multi-tiered initiative to engage students and showcase the 21st century skills students will need to compete in our global economy: teamwork, creativity, strong literacy, math and science skills, and innovative thinking. The elements included an Online Experience, a National Student Contest, and in person education events and activites. The project leveraged online connections, strategic partnerships, in-classroom, and beyond-the-classroom initiatives, as well as mainstream media. This education program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also funded the specification of vehicle telemetry and the full development and operation of an interactive online experience that allowed internet users to follow the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE vehicles as they performed in real-time during the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE competition events.

  9. Role of endocannabinoids in the progression of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Tapan; Kaur, Ishneet; Kotwani, Anita

    2016-03-01

    In the past decades, the role of numerous factors in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy has been explored, following which marked progress has been made in developing several novel therapeutic options, such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and various other anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic agents, for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. However, the involvement of endocannabinoid system in its pathogenesis has not been much explored. This review aims at unveiling every aspect of association of the endocannabinoid system and its interactions with various physiological and pathological pathways to induce disease progression. The various alterations induced by endocannabinoids, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol, in retina during hyperglycaemia clearly demonstrate and verify their involvement in aggravating the pathological conditions, hence leading to the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Exploring this involvement furthermore, in greater depths, might be beneficial in acknowledging and understanding the hidden aspects of the pathogenesis of this complication even better and might provide a therapeutically beneficial alternative target to combat and restrict its progression amongst diabetic patients.

  10. Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumano S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrinooscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function b1 is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact suggests that a new hadronic phenomenon should exist in the tensor-polarized deuteron at high energies, and it will be experimentally investigated at JLab from the end of 2010’s.

  11. Current progress of polymeric gene vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xuan; SUN YunXia; ZHUO RenXi; ZHANG XianZheng

    2011-01-01

    After over 40 years ot progress,gene therapy provides great opportunities for treating diseases from various genetic disorders,infections and cancers.The success of gene therapy largely depends on the availability of suitable gene vectors.As an attractive alternative to virus-based gene therapy,non-viral gene delivery system has been developed and investigated due to their merits including low immunogenecity,convenient operability,and large-scale manufacturability [1].Because polycations can condense with DNA as a result of electrostatic interactions,form nanosize polyplexes,and protect DNA from degradation by DNase,cationic polymer becomes a major type of non-viral gene delivery vectors (Figure 1) [2].A wide range of polymeric vectors have been developed and investigated in the past decade,such as polyethylenimine (PEI)-based vectors,poly(L-lysine) (PLL)-based vectors,dendrimer-based vectors,polypeptide-based vectors,and chitosan-based vectors [3].However,unlike viral vectors that have the ability to infect host cells and overcome cellular barriers through the course of evolution,nonviral gene vectors exhibit Significantly reduced transfection efficiency as they are obstructed by various extra- and intracellular barriers,including serum proteins in blood stream,cell membrane,endosomal compartment and nuclear membrane [4].

  12. The Transition to Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Fiona; Brain, Katherine E.; Edwards, Michelle; Jones, Rhiannon; Wallbank, Rachel; Robertson, Neil P.; Edwards, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying the transition from relapsing-remitting to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) can be challenging for clinicians. Little previous research has explored how professionals experience working with patients during this specific stage of the disease. We explored the experiences of a group of multidisciplinary professionals who support patients in the transition to SPMS to describe this stage from a professional perspective. Methods: This qualitative semistructured interview study included 11 professionals (medical, nursing, and allied health professionals; specialists and generalists) working with patients with MS in South Wales, United Kingdom. Thematic analysis of the interview data was performed. Results: Two overarching themes were identified: the transition and providing support. The transition theme comprised issues related to recognizing and communicating about SPMS. Uncertainty influenced recognizing the transition and knowing how to discuss it with patients. The providing support theme included descriptions of challenging aspects of patient care, providing support for caregivers, using the multidisciplinary team, and working within service constraints. Providing adequate psychological support and engaging patients with self-management approaches were seen as particularly challenging. Conclusions: Caring for patients in the transition to SPMS generates specific challenges for professionals. Further research on health-care interactions and patients'/professionals' experiences regarding the transition phase may help identify strategies for professional development and learning and how to optimize the patient experience at this difficult stage of disease. PMID:27803641

  13. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  14. [Research progress and trend on grassland agroecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jizhou; Li, Xianglin; Hou, Fujiang

    2002-08-01

    The connotation, progress, research frontiers and developmental trend of grassland agroecology are discussed in this paper. The interface theory, structure and function, coupling and discordance, and health assessment of grassland agroecosystems were recognized as the four research frontiers of the discipline. There exist three primary interfaces in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., vegetation-site, grassland-animal and production-management. Research into a series of the ecological processes that occurred at these interfaces is the key to revealing the features of the system behavior. There are four sections in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., pre-plant, plant, animal and post-biotic sections. System coupling and discordance are the two important concepts to describe interactions among the production sections. System coupling among the sections can lead to system improvement by exerting the potential of system capacity. Health of an ecosystem is a reflection of its structure and function, and health assessment is a measurement of its orderliness and service value.

  15. Progress on DCLL Blanket Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Clement; Abdou, M.; Katoh, Yutai; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lumsdaine, A.; Marriott, Edward P.; Merrill, Brad; Morley, Neil; Pint, Bruce A.; Sawan, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Williams, Brian; Willms, Scott; Youssef, M.

    2013-09-01

    Under the US Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Development program, we have selected the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium concept (DCLL) as a reference blanket, which has the potential to be a high performance DEMO blanket design with a projected thermal efficiency of >40%. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steel is used as the structural material. The self-cooled breeder PbLi is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiC-based flow channel insert (FCI) is used as a means for magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop reduction from the circulating liquid PbLi and as a thermal insulator to separate the high-temperature PbLi (~700°C) from the helium-cooled RAF/M steel structure. We are making progress on related R&D needs to address critical Fusion Nuclear Science and Facility (FNSF) and DEMO blanket development issues. When performing the function as the Interface Coordinator for the DCLL blanket concept, we had been developing the mechanical design and performing neutronics, structural and thermal hydraulics analyses of the DCLL TBM module. We had estimated the necessary ancillary equipment that will be needed at the ITER site and a detailed safety impact report has been prepared. This provided additional understanding of the DCLL blanket concept in preparation for the FNSF and DEMO. This paper will be a summary report on the progress of the DCLL TBM design and R&Ds for the DCLL blanket concept.

  16. [Growth and nonlinearity]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savit, R.

    1993-12-31

    The research centered on the physics of growth. One particular focus was the spiral patterns seen in excitable media, such as the chemical reaction of Belousov and Zhabatinskii, and the aggregation of the slime mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum. Another area of interest is the statistical roughness of the growth front itself. For example, when growing thin films, the roughness of the surface is very important for the ultimate quality of the film. Besides its direct technological relevance, this problem is intimately connected to many fundamental problems in statistical physics. In addition work was done in the related area of statistical properties of flux-flow motion in superconductors. Substantial progress was also made on techniques and applications of the analysis of complex systems. Methods of time series analysis were generalized to the analysis of complex spatio-temporal patterns. In the examples studied most, turbulence and electroencephalograms, the spatio-temporal patterns are very complex and fleeting, and can easily be misken for random noise. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made in developing and applying methods to these systems that indicate the presence of nonrandom time-varying spatial patterns.

  17. Progress in BazookaSPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W; Barber, H Bradford; Furenlid, Lars R; Moore, Stephen K; Barrett, Harrison H

    2009-01-01

    Recent progress on a high-resolution, photon-counting gamma-ray and x-ray imager called BazookaSPECT is presented. BazookaSPECT is an example of a new class of scintillation detectors based on integrating detectors such as CCD(charge-coupled device) or CMOS(complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) sensors. BazookaSPECT is unique in that it makes use of a scintillator in close proximity to a microchannel plate-based image intensifier for up-front optical amplification of scintillation light. We discuss progress made in bringing about compact BazookaSPECT modules and in real-time processing of event data using graphics processing units (GPUs). These advances are being implemented in the design of a high-resolution rodent brain imager called FastSPECT III. A key benefit of up-front optical gain is that any CCD/CMOS sensor can now be utilized for photon counting. We discuss the benefits and feasibility of using CMOS sensors as photon-counting detectors for digital radiography, with application in mammography and computed tomography (CT). We present as an appendix a formal method for comparing various photon-counting integrating detectors using objective statistical criteria.

  18. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  19. Progress as Compositional Lock-Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Dardha, Ornela; Montesi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    such definition to capture a more intuitive notion of context adequacy for checking progress. Interestingly, our new catalysers lead to a novel characterisation of progress in terms of the standard notion of lock-freedom. Guided by this discovery, we also develop a conservative extension of catalysers that does...... not depend on types, generalising the notion of progress to untyped session-based processes. We combine our results with existing techniques for lock-freedom, obtaining a new methodology for proving progress. Our methodology captures new processes wrt previous progress analysis based on session types....

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells: key players in cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah M; Sullivan, Francis J; Glynn, Sharon A

    2017-02-01

    Tumour progression is dependent on the interaction between tumour cells and cells of the surrounding microenvironment. The tumour is a dynamic milieu consisting of various cell types such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, cells of the immune system and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs are multipotent stromal cells that are known to reside in various areas such as the bone marrow, fat and dental pulp. MSCs have been found to migrate towards inflammatory sites and studies have shown that they also migrate towards and incorporate into the tumour. The key question is how they interact there. MSCs may interact with tumour cells through paracrine signalling. On the other hand, MSCs have the capacity to differentiate to various cell types such as osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes and it is possible that MSCs differentiate at the site of the tumour. More recently it has been shown that cross-talk between tumour cells and MSCs has been shown to increase metastatic potential and promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. This review will focus on the role of MSCs in tumour development at various stages of progression from growth of the primary tumour to the establishment of distant metastasis.

  1. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  2. Auxin-Cytokinin Interaction Regulates Meristem Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Hua Su; Yu-Bo Liu; Xian-Sheng Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Plant hormones regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. Both auxin and cytokinin have been known for a long time to act either synergistically or antagonistically to control several significant developmental processes, such as the formation and maintenance of meristem. Over the past few years, exciting progress has been made to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying the auxin-cytokinin action and interaction. In this review, we shall briefly discuss the major progress made in auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis, auxin transport, and auxin and cytokinin signaling.The frameworks for the complicated interaction of these two hormones in the control of shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem formation as well as their roles in in vitro organ regeneration are the major focus of this review.

  3. A review of interactive narrative systems and technologies: a training perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Linbo; Cai, Wentong; Zhou, Suiping; Lees, Michael; Yin, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    As an emerging form of digital entertainment, interactive narrative has attracted great attention of researchers over the past decade. Recently, there is an emerging trend to apply interactive narrative for training and simulation. An interactive narrative system allows players to proactively interact with simulated entities in a virtual world and have the ability to alter the progression of a storyline. In simulation-based training, the use of an interactive narrative system enables the poss...

  4. Hidden progress: broadband plasmonic invisibility

    CERN Document Server

    Renger, Jan; Dupont, Guillaume; Aćimović, Srdjan S; Guenneau, Sébastien; Quidant, Romain; Enoch, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The key challenge in current research into electromagnetic cloaking is to achieve invisibility over an extended bandwidth. There has been significant progress towards this using the idea of cloaking by sweeping under the carpet of Li and Pendry, with dielectric structures superposed on a mirror. Here, we show that we can harness surface plasmon polaritons at a metal surface structured with a dielectric material to obtain a unique control of their propagation. We exploit this to control plasmonic coupling and demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally cloaking over an unprecedented bandwidth (650-900 nm). Our non-resonant plasmonic metamaterial allows a curved reflector to mimic a flat mirror. Our theoretical predictions are validated by experiments mapping the surface light intensity at the wavelength 800 nm.

  5. Environmental tester development. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tressler, R.E.

    1998-08-01

    The primary objective is to further develop the environmental tensometer toward commercialization by making key technical refinements, improving the controlling and data-logging software, and testing the system in a potential customer`s laboratory. Progress has been made in Tasks 1 (completed), Task 2 (one half completed), Task 4 (one half completed) of the original work plan. In this report a detailed description of the work completed on the second prototype is explained in detail. A second prototype of the Environmental Tester, a device capable of tensile tests of fibers in controlled environments and at high temperatures, has been designed and is currently being fabricated. The first prototype includes six integrated systems; the testing system, the furnace system, the vacuum system, the mass flow control system, and the computer data acquisition and control (CDAC) system.

  6. Recent progress in anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quark-gluon plasma created in a relativistic heavy-ion collisions possesses a sizable pressure anisotropy in the local rest frame at very early times after the initial nuclear impact and this anisotropy only slowly relaxes as the system evolves. In a kinetic theory picture, this translates into the existence of sizable momentum-space anisotropies in the underlying partonic distribution functions, . In such cases, it is better to reorganize the hydrodynamical expansion by taking into account momentum-space anisotropies at leading-order in the expansion instead of as a perturbative correction to an isotropic distribution. The resulting anisotropic hydrodynamics framework has been shown to more accurately describe the dynamics of rapidly expanding systems such as the quark-gluon plasma. In this proceedings contribution, I review the basic ideas of anisotropic hydrodynamics, recent progress, and present a few preliminary phenomenological predictions for identified particle spectra and elliptic flow.

  7. A progress report on reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, I.M.

    1998-05-01

    In the 1990s, power generation in India has been increasingly opened up to private participation but the road has not been trouble-free. The IPPs experienced problems with the Indian state electricity boards (SEBs) whose financial position was being slowly eroded. In an effort to improve things, steps were taken to improve the operational and financial condition of the SEBs but progress has been slow. There are many political strands affecting energy policy in India and these are discussed. The position is discussed under the headings (i) state reports, (ii) international influence and (iii) the centre (refers to central government). Unless the Indian government takes hold of the situation, then the IPPs will 'set the pace'. (UK)

  8. Progress in Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide primary energy consumption is entering an era of pluralism and high quality under the influence of rapid economic development, increasing energy shortage and strict environmental policies. Although renewable energy technology is developing rapidly, fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are still the dominant energy sources in the world. As a country rich in coal but short ofoil and gas, China's oil imports have soared in the past few years. Government, research organizations and enterprises in China are paying more and more attention to the processes of converting coal into clean liquid fuels. Direct and indirect coal liquefaction technologies are compared in this paper based on China's current energy status and technological progress not only in China itself but also in the world.

  9. [Progress in dedifferentiated fat cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feifei; Yang, Zhi; Qian, Cheng

    2014-10-01

    When mature adipocytes are subjected to an in vitro dedifferentiation strategy referred to as ceiling culture, these mature adipocytes can revert to dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. DFAT cells have many advantages compared with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). For example, DFAT cells are homogeneous and could be obtained from donors regardless of their age. Furthermore, DFAT cells also have the same multi-lineage potentials and low immunogenicity as ASCs. As an excellent source of seed cells for tissue engineering and stem cell transplantation, DFAT cells have better prospects in the treatment of many clinical diseases, such as bone defects, neurological diseases, ischemic heart disease and kidney disease. It is necessary to make more intensive studies of DFAT cells. This article summarizes progresses in the immunological characteristics, differentiation ability and potential clinical applications of DFAT cells.

  10. European Archaeomagnetism: Progress and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. E.; Hoye, G.

    2009-05-01

    Much progress has been made since the seminal work of Giuseppe Folgheraiter (1856-1913) in the late 19th century. So much so that recent advances now make it possible to draw up complete isogonic and isoclinic maps for Europe and adjacent areas spanning the last three millennia (Pavon-Carrasco et al., 2009). Results based on multiple independent studies, with high precision and good age control are crucial and should be recognized as "anchor points" (e.g. Pompeii). On the other hand, the nagging problem of outliers persists. Among the possible causes are magnetic refraction, physical distortion, and inadequate chronological control. Some examples, drawn from our own investigations over the last 30 years, will be discussed in detail. These include previously unpublished data from a detailed study (more than 100 samples) of a kiln in southern Italy, and an apparently good (but aberrant) archaeodirection from a kiln in southern Spain.

  11. Imaging in primary progressive aphasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K. [Department of Neurology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Ukita, H. [Rehabilitation Service, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Yanagihara, T. [Department of Neurology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) presents with aphasia, with or without other minor cognitive dysfunction. We report five patients with PPA to show the correlation between their clinical signs and imaging findings. The patients can be divided into those with nonfluent (group 1) and those with fluent (group 2) aphasia. The characteristic speech impairment was bradylalia in group 1 and word amnesia in group 2. Impairment of comprehension was common but mild in both groups. On MRI, patients in group 1 showed predominantly left frontal and perisylvian atrophy with reduced uptake in the same region on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc HMPAO). Patients in group 2 showed left temporal atrophy involving the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus on MRI and reduced uptake in the same region on SPECT. These findings correlated well with the functional anatomy of speech impairment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Progress on HELIAS systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, Felix; Beidler, Craig D.; Dinklage, Andreas; Feng, Yuehe; Geiger, Joachim; Schauer, Felix; Turkin, Yuriy; Wolf, Robert; Xanthopoulos, Pavlos [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Kemp, Richard; Knight, Peter; Ward, David [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    In order to study and design next-step fusion devices such as DEMO, comprehensive systems codes are commonly employed. For the HELIAS-line, stellarator-specific models have been developed, implemented, and verified within the systems code PROCESS. This systems code ansatz is complemented by self-consistent modeling of plasma scenarios employing a predictive 1-D neoclassical transport code which has been augmented with a model for the edge anomalous transport based on 3-D ITG turbulence simulations. This approach is investigated to ultimately allow one to conduct stellarator system studies, develop design points of HELIAS burning plasma devices, and to facilitate a direct comparison between tokamak and stellarator DEMO and power plant designs. The work reports on the progress towards these goals.

  13. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  14. Green Chemistry: Progress and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sarah A.

    2016-10-01

    Green chemistry can advance both the health of the environment and the primary objectives of the chemical enterprise: to understand the behavior of chemical substances and to use that knowledge to make useful substances. We expect chemical research and manufacturing to be done in a manner that preserves the health and safety of workers; green chemistry extends that expectation to encompass the health and safety of the planet. While green chemistry may currently be treated as an independent branch of research, it should, like safety, eventually become integral to all chemistry activities. While enormous progress has been made in shifting from "brown" to green chemistry, much more effort is needed to effect a sustainable economy. Implementation of new, greener paradigms in chemistry is slow because of lack of knowledge, ends-justify-the-means thinking, systems inertia, and lack of financial or policy incentives.

  15. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: new concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is a demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by reactivation of JC virus (JCV in a setting of cellular immunosuppression. Originally, PML was observed in patients with advanced HIV infection, lymphoproliferative disorders and transplant recipients. However, the widespread use of HIV antiretroviral drugs and the new selective immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive medications, such as Rituximab and Natalizumab, has recently modified the epidemiology, clinical presentation and prognosis of PML. Herein, we discuss the new concepts on PML, emphasizing the recent modification in the epidemiology; the impact of new immunomodulatory treatments in the disease, PML-IRIS (Immune reconstitution inflammatory síndrome, new treatment strategies and other JCV related CNS diseases.

  16. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  17. Interactions between semiconductor nanowires and living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Christelle N

    2015-06-17

    Semiconductor nanowires are increasingly used for biological applications and their small dimensions make them a promising tool for sensing and manipulating cells with minimal perturbation. In order to interface cells with nanowires in a controlled fashion, it is essential to understand the interactions between nanowires and living cells. The present paper reviews current progress in the understanding of these interactions, with knowledge gathered from studies where living cells were interfaced with vertical nanowire arrays. The effect of nanowires on cells is reported in terms of viability, cell-nanowire interface morphology, cell behavior, changes in gene expression as well as cellular stress markers. Unexplored issues and unanswered questions are discussed.

  18. [Progressive supranuclear palsy: what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) has been described as a clinical syndrome characterized by an impairment of voluntary control of gaze (supranuclear palsy), postural and gait instability, and behavioral and cognitive deficits including a frontal syndrome and psychic retardation. However, in the recent years, at least four other clinical forms of PSP have been recognized: PSP-Parkinsonism, "pure akinesia with gait freezing", PSP with cortico-basal syndrome, and PSP with speech apraxia. PSP-Parkinsonism mimics the signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, including a significant reactivity to levodopa. "Pure akinesia with gait freezing" is characterized by a difficulty of self-initiation of motor programs, usually walking program. PSP with cortico-basal syndrome mimics cortico-basal degeneration (CBD) in that unilateral or asymmetric limb dystonia and apraxia are prominent signs. PSP with speech apraxia is an isolated syndrome of progressive anarthria. All these clinical syndromes are due to brain accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein. The differences in clinical expression within the framework of PSP can be explained by the differences in the topographical distribution of the lesions. PSP is considered as a primary tau disease ("tauopathy") such as CBD and some forms of fronto-temporal lobar degeneration. At the level of neuropathology, the pattern of tau abnormal inclusions differentiates PSP from other tau diseases, but some overlaps are reported. Moreover, several of the clinical forms of PSP partially or fully overlap with the other tauopathies. As a whole, the emergence of new clinical forms of PSP challenges the nosology of tauopathies and our understanding of these diseases.

  19. Genetics of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Young Im

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is clinically characterized by progressive postural instability, supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism and cognitive decline. Pathologically, diagnosis of PSP is based on characteristic features, such as neurofibrillary tangles, neutrophil threads, tau-positive astrocytes and their processes in basal ganglia and brainstem, and the accumulation of 4 repeat tau protein. PSP is generally recognized as a sporadic disorder; however, understanding of genetic background of PSP has been expanding rapidly. Here we review relevant publications to outline the genetics of PSP. Although only small number of familial PSP cases have been reported, the recognition of familial PSP has been increasing. In some familial cases of clinically probable PSP, PSP pathologies were confirmed based on NINDS neuropathological diagnostic criteria. Several mutations in MAPT, the gene that causes a form of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tauopathy, have been identified in both sporadic and familial PSP cases. The H1 haplotype of MAPT is a risk haplotype for PSP, and within H1, a sub-haplotype (H1c is associated with PSP. A recent genome-wide association study on autopsyproven PSP revealed additional PSP risk alleles in STX6 and EIF2AK3. Several heredodegenerative parkinsonian disorders are referred to as PSP-look-alikes because their clinical phenotype, but not their pathology, mimics PSP. Due to the fast development of genomics and bioinformatics, more genetic factors related to PSP are expected to be discovered. Undoubtedly, these studies will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PSP and clues for developing therapeutic strategies.

  20. Interactions of neutrinos with matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, F.

    2017-07-01

    Neutrinos are elementary particles electrically neutral which belong to the family of leptons. As a consequence and in first approximation they only undergo weak processes. This gives them very special properties. They are ideal tools to study precisely the weak interactions, but there is a price to pay: neutrinos are characterized by extremely low probabilities of interactions, they easily penetrate large amount of matter without being stopped. Consequently, it is hard to perform neutrino physics measurements. In practice the difficulty is twofold: in order to accumulate enough statistics, experiments must rely on huge fluxes traversing huge detectors, the number of interactions being obviously proportional to these two factors. As a corollary, backgrounds are difficult to handle because they appear much more commonly than good events. Nevertheless, neutrino interactions have been detected from a variety of sources, both man-made and natural, from very low to very large energies. The aim of this review is to survey our current knowledge about interaction cross sections of neutrinos with matter across all pertinent energy scales. We will see that neutrino interactions cover a large range of processes: nuclear capture, inverse beta-decay, quasi-elastic scattering, resonant pion production, deep inelastic scattering and ultra-high energy interactions. All the gathered information will be used to study weak properties of matter but it will also allow to explore the properties of the neutrinos themselves. In particular, the known three different flavors of neutrinos have different behaviors inside matter and this will be relevant to give some precious understanding about their intrinsic parameters in particular their masses and mixings. As a second order process, neutrinos can undergo electromagnetic interactions. This will also be discussed. Although the corresponding phenomena are not yet experimentally proven by actual measurements, the theory is able to calculate

  1. Recent progress on superstrange dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gaitanos, T

    2016-01-01

    We review the present activities related to hypernuclear production in hadronic in-medium reactions at intermediate energies. The status of theoretical predictions and experimental evidences for the in-medium formation of bound superstrange matter is discussed. Heavy-ion collisions and antiproton-induced reactions at energies close to strangeness production thresholds create the conditions of hypermatter formation. This allows to understand better in-medium hyperon interactions and set constraints on the strangeness sector of the nuclear equation of state.

  2. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  3. Progress and Challenges in Short to Medium Range Coupled Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, G. B.; Martin, M. J.; Tolman, H. L.; Akella, Santha; Balmeseda, M.; Chambers, C. R. S.; Cummings, J. A.; Drillet, Y.; Jansen, P. A. E. M.; Laloyaux, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The availability of GODAE Oceanview-type ocean forecast systems provides the opportunity to develop high-resolution, short- to medium-range coupled prediction systems. Several groups have undertaken the first experiments based on relatively unsophisticated approaches. Progress is being driven at the institutional level targeting a range of applications that represent their respective national interests with clear overlaps and opportunities for information exchange and collaboration. These include general circulation, hurricanes, extra-tropical storms, high-latitude weather and sea-ice forecasting as well as coastal air-sea interaction. In some cases, research has moved beyond case and sensitivity studies to controlled experiments to obtain statistically significant metrics.

  4. Lattice QCD computations: Recent progress with modern Krylov subspace methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frommer, A. [Bergische Universitaet GH Wuppertal (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental theory of the strong interaction of matter. In order to compare the theory with results from experimental physics, the theory has to be reformulated as a discrete problem of lattice gauge theory using stochastic simulations. The computational challenge consists in solving several hundreds of very large linear systems with several right hand sides. A considerable part of the world`s supercomputer time is spent in such QCD calculations. This paper presents results on solving systems for the Wilson fermions. Recent progress is reviewed on algorithms obtained in cooperation with partners from theoretical physics.

  5. Patterns of progression, treatment of progressive disease and post-progression survival in the New EPOC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Siân A; Bowers, Megan; Ball, Alexandre; Falk, Stephen; Finch-Jones, Meg; Valle, Juan W; O'Reilly, Derek A; Siriwardena, Ajith K; Hornbuckle, Joanne; Rees, Myrddin; Rees, Charlotte; Iveson, Tim; Hickish, Tamas; Maishman, Tom; Stanton, Louise; Dixon, Elizabeth; Corkhill, Andrea; Radford, Mike; Garden, O James; Cunningham, David; Maughan, Tim S; Bridgewater, John A; Primrose, John N

    2016-08-09

    The addition of cetuximab (CTX) to perioperative chemotherapy (CT) for operable colorectal liver metastases resulted in a shorter progression-free survival. Details of disease progression are described to further inform the primary study outcome. A total of 257 KRAS wild-type patients were randomised to CT alone or CT with CTX. Data regarding sites and treatment of progressive disease were obtained for the 109 (CT n=48, CT and CTX n=61) patients with progressive disease at the cut-off date for analysis of November 2012. The liver was the most frequent site of progression (CT 67% (32/48); CT and CTX 66% (40/61)). A higher proportion of patients in the CT and group had multiple sites of progressive disease (CT 8%, 4/48; CT and CTX 23%, 14/61 P=0.04). Further treatment for progressive disease is known for 84 patients of whom 69 received further CT, most frequently irinotecan based. Twenty-two patients, 11 in each arm, received CTX as a further line agent. Both the distribution of progressive disease and further treatment are as expected for such a cohort. The pattern of disease progression seen is consistent with failure of systemic micrometastatic disease control rather than failure of local disease control following liver surgery.

  6. Problem of interactions: electromagnetic particles interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Sannikov-Proskuryakov, S S

    2001-01-01

    The electromagnetic interactions between charged particles are derived on the basis of the particles dynamic theory, proposed in the work of Sannikov. The electromagnetic interactions exist only in the relativistic model of the bihamiltonian system, based on the Heisenberg algebra. Existence of this type of interactions is connected with the U sub e (1)-degeneration of the basic state of the relativistic bihamiltonian system, lying in the basis of the given theory

  7. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: WML progression is an interesting outcome for proof-of-concept studies in cerebral small vessel disease. If cognitive outcome measures are added to protocols, then sample size estimates increase substantially. Our data support the use of an executive test battery rather than the Vascular Dementia...... sizes for clinical trials with pure WML progression vs combined WML progression-cognitive outcomes. METHODS: Those 394 participants of the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study (LADIS) study with magnetic resonance imaging scanning at baseline and 3-year follow-up were analyzed. WML progression rating...... relied on the modified Rotterdam Progression Scale. The Vascular Dementia Assessment Scale global score and a composite score of specific executive function tests assessed longitudinal change in cognition. Sample size calculations were based on the assumption that treatment reduces WML progression by 1...

  8. Research in theoretical physics. Annual progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domokos, G.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.

    1992-12-01

    Progress made in the following areas is summarized: simulation of extensive air showers induced by interactions existing beyond the currently accepted ``Standard Model`` of elementary particle interactions; search for physics beyond the ``Standard Model`` in gluonic inclusive decays of heavy quarks; obtaining limits on the applicability of the special theory of relativity; an improved method of obtaining upper limits on the masses of primaries of extensive air showers associated with point sources in the sky. 8 figs., 1 tab., 73 refs.

  9. Demyelination versus remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramow, Stephan; Frischer, Josa M; Lassmann, Hans; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Sørensen, Per S; Laursen, Henning

    2010-10-01

    The causes of incomplete remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis are unknown, as are the pathological correlates of the different clinical characteristics of patients with primary and secondary progressive disease. We analysed brains and spinal cords from 51 patients with progressive multiple sclerosis by planimetry. Thirteen patients with primary progressive disease were compared with 34 with secondary progressive disease. In patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, we found larger brain plaques, more demyelination in total and higher brain loads of active demyelination compared with patients with primary progressive disease. In addition, the brain density of plaques with high-grade inflammation and active demyelination was highest in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and remained ~18% higher than in primary progressive multiple sclerosis after adjustments for other plaque types and plaque number (Pprogressive multiple sclerosis. By contrast, there were no group differences in the brain load or frequency of low-grade inflammatory plaques with slowly expanding demyelination. Spinal cord lesion loads and remyelination capacity were also comparable in the two patient groups. Remyelinated areas were more vulnerable than the normal-appearing white matter to new demyelination, including active demyelination in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. 'Recurrent' slowly expanding demyelination, affecting remyelinated areas, and the load of slowly expanding demyelination correlated with incomplete remyelination in both groups. In turn, incomplete remyelination in the spinal cord correlated with higher disease-related disability (determined retrospectively; r = -0.53; Pprogressive multiple sclerosis. These patients may, thereby, be spared symptoms until the spinal cord is affected. By contrast, recurrent active demyelination of repaired myelin could explain why similar symptoms often develop in consecutive relapses in relapsing

  10. Let s make progress together!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriana, Mazare; Liliana, Gheorghian

    2015-04-01

    Let's make progress together! The "Theodor Balan" Secondary School in the urban area of Suceava County in northeastern Romania is involved in several different projects. In order to extend previous successful projects with the students, parents, teachers, businesses and local government representatives in science symposiums for civic projects within the concept of sustainable development, the school is continuing to develop various successful programs. "The battle" continues both in nature and in the classrooms, in order to preserve the environment and to discover new resources. To raise awareness about the importance of existing resources even at the level of individuals there is a constant concern for keeping up to date on what already exists and is well known, but at the same time to remove "barriers" and discover new horizons and resources. Scientific activities held in our school are an effective way to educate students and the community to which they belong. In our community, we discovered sources of drinking water polluted by nitrites from fertilizers used in agriculture. In order to inform and educate people in the area, our teachers have organized several educational activities. Its purpose was: -Knowledge of the importance of water for the environment and human health. -Reducing water pollution. Students have informed their families' about sustainable development acquired at school. In this way, the school manages to educate and change people's ideas. The ways and methods of adults' learning were practiced within a Grundtvig training course "It's never too late learning to learn" in February 2014, in Florence, Italy. The GIFT 2014 was a great occasion for the teachers and students, the county's educational department and the participants at the National Colloquia of Physics to discover new materials provided at the Conference and the latest news and topics in the world of science. The theme trips at the physics laboratories of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza

  11. Biology Division progress report, October 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The body of this report provides summaries of the aims, scope and progress of the research by groups of investigators in the Division during the period of October 1, 1984, through September 30, 1985. At the end of each summary is a list of publications covering the same period. For convenience, the summaries are assembled under Sections in accordance with the current organizational structure of the Biology Division; each Section begins with an overview. It will be apparent, however, tha crosscurrents run throughout the Division and that the various programs support and interact with each other. In addition, this report includes information on the Division's educational activities, Advisory Committee, seminar program, and international interactions, as well as extramural activities of staff members, abstracts for technical meetings, and funding and personnel levels.

  12. New approaches for Helicobacter vaccine development--difficulties and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elzbieta K; Godlewska, Renata

    2008-01-01

    Despite the enormous progress in understanding the process of bacterial pathogenesis and interactions of pathogens with eucaryotic cells the infectious diseases still remain the main cause of human premature deaths. It is now recognized that Helicobacter pylori infects about half of the world's population. Based on results of clinical studies the World Health Organization has assigned H. pylori as a class I carcinogen. The review presents new achievements aimed at construction efficient and safe anti-Helicobacter vaccine. We discuss the new global technologies such as immunoproteomics employed for selecting new candidates for vaccine construction as well as new vaccine delivery systems. The review presents also our knowledge concerning H. pylori interaction with immune system which might facilitate modulation of the host immune system by specific adjuvant included into vaccine.

  13. PIC: Protein Interactions Calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tina, K G; Bhadra, R; Srinivasan, N

    2007-07-01

    Interactions within a protein structure and interactions between proteins in an assembly are essential considerations in understanding molecular basis of stability and functions of proteins and their complexes. There are several weak and strong interactions that render stability to a protein structure or an assembly. Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of 3D structure of a protein or an assembly, computes various interactions such as disulphide bonds, interactions between hydrophobic residues, ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, aromatic-aromatic interactions, aromatic-sulphur interactions and cation-pi interactions within a protein or between proteins in a complex. Interactions are calculated on the basis of standard, published criteria. The identified interactions between residues can be visualized using a RasMol and Jmol interface. The advantage with PIC server is the easy availability of inter-residue interaction calculations in a single site. It also determines the accessible surface area and residue-depth, which is the distance of a residue from the surface of the protein. User can also recognize specific kind of interactions, such as apolar-apolar residue interactions or ionic interactions, that are formed between buried or exposed residues or near the surface or deep inside.

  14. Designing for mobile interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazzi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The theme of this PhD project is designing for mobile interaction with devices and services, for the accessing, making, and sharing of information, taking into account the dynamic physical and social settings that embrace this interaction. To narrow down this theme, the whole project focuses...... on the exploitation of social interaction --- in particular among senior citizens --- to enhance and support mobile interaction....

  15. Interactive pinball business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Gudiksen, Sune Klok

    2012-01-01

    Interaction design expands into new fields. Interaction design and business model innovation is a promising meeting of disciplines: Many businesses see the need to rethink their ways of doing business, and, as business models pose highly dynamic and interactive problems, interaction design has much...

  16. Recent Progress in Quantum Hadrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Dirk Walecka, Brian D. Serot

    1997-01-01

    Quantum hadrodynamics (QHD) is a framework for describing the nuclear many-body problem as a relativistic system of baryons and mesons. Motivation is given for the utility of such an approach and for the importance of basing it on a local, Lorentz-invariant lagrangian density. Calculations of nuclear matter and finite nuclei in both renormalizable and nonrenormalizable, effective QHD models are discussed. Connections are made between the effective and renormalizable models, as well as between relativistic mean-field theory and more sophisticated treatments. Recent work in QHD involving nuclear structure, electroweak interactions in nuclei, relativistic transport theory, nuclear matter under extreme conditions, and the evaluation of loop diagrams is reviewed.

  17. Progressive cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warabi, Yoko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Isozaki, Eiji

    2015-12-01

    We report two cases of neuromyelitis optica patients with progressive cerebral atrophy. The patients exhibited characteristic clinical features, including elderly onset, secondary progressive tetraparesis and cognitive impairment, abnormally elevated CSF protein and myelin basic protein levels, and extremely highly elevated serum anti-AQP-4 antibody titer. Because neuromyelitis optica pathology cannot switch from an inflammatory phase to the degenerative phase until the terminal phase, neuromyelitis optica rarely appears as a secondary progressive clinical course caused by axonal degeneration. However, severe intrathecal inflammation and massive destruction of neuroglia could cause a secondary progressive clinical course associated with cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica patients.

  18. Progression of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiping Xia; Zhi-Hong Mao

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease that is clinically manifested by a triad of cardinal motor symptoms - rigidity,bradykinesia and tremor - due to loss of dopaminergic neurons.The motor symptoms of PD become progressively worse as the disease advances.PD is also a heterogeneous disease since rigidity and bradykinesia are the major complaints in some patients whereas tremor is predominant in others.In recent years,many studies have investigated the progression of the hallmark symptoms over time,and the cardinal motor symptoms have different rates of progression,with the disease usually progressing faster in patients with rigidity and bradykinesia than in those with predominant tremor.The current treatment regime of dopamine-replacement therapy improves motor symptoms and alleviates disability.Increasing the dosage of dopaminergic medication is commonly used to combat the worsenirtg symptoms.However,the drug-induced involuntary body movements and motor comphcations can significantly contribute to overall disability.Further,none of the currently-available therapies can slow or halt the disease progression.Significant research efforts have been directed towards developing neuroprotective or disease-modifying agents that are intended to slow the progression.In this article,the most recent clinical studies investigating disease progression and current progress on the development of disease-modifying drug trials are reviewed.

  19. Interaction for visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Tominski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as

  20. Knowledge, change and the preservation of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-gomez, D A

    1993-04-01

    information about values and customs that guide interaction among people and between people and nature in a systematic way. The "blueprint for remodeling the world order" is still based on a Western notion of correctness, science, and progress. The threat among developing countries is how to preserve the shared knowledge of human learning that has been handed down for generations.