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Sample records for pinus taeda wood

  1. Modeling the longitudinal variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Antony; L. R. Schimleck; R. F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; D. B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is a major plantation species grown in the southern United States, producing wood having a multitude of uses including pulp and lumber production. Specific gravity (SG) is an important property used to measure the quality of wood produced, and it varies regionally and within the tree with height and radius. SG at different height levels...

  2. Hygroscopicity of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda subjected to thermal treatment

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    Karina Soares Modes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the thermal treatment technique under two conditions—autoclave combined with electric oven and electric oven only—on the hygroscopic properties of wood from Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, comparing them with results obtained for untreated wood. Three trees at age 25 years were sampled, with boards being removed at DBH level in order to make specimens 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size in the radial, tangential and axial direction respectively. In the combined treatment, specimens were subjected to thermal treatment in an autoclave set at 130°C/± 3°C and kgf/cm² pressure for 3 hours, then to a conditioning period, followed by heat in an electric oven set at 160°C/±1°C for the same time. Properties being evaluated included water absorption rate, volumetric swelling, water repellency effectiveness and anti-swelling efficiency. Results revealed that the thermal treatments being adopted were effective in reducing hygroscopicity and in increasing the dimensional stability of both species, revealing also that the combined autoclave and electric oven treatment provides best results.

  3. Orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda wood Forças de corte ortogonal na madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda

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    Raquel Gonçalves

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The distinct characteristics of juvenile and mature woods, which are observed particularly in softwoods, have an influence on processing due to their different mechanical resistance properties in relation to cutting operations. In the past, when most of the wood used industrially came from adult trees of natural forests, little importance was given to a distinction between different zones of the tree stem. At present, however, as the supply of mature trees with large diameters from native forests is constantly decreasing, the use of short-cycle trees has become a common practice, through the adoption of species that grow relatively fast, such as pines and eucalyptus. In both softwoods and hardwoods, juvenile wood cells are generally smaller and thinner than in mature wood, and this reflects on their density and mechanical resistance, which should have an effect on the cutting forces developed during processing. The main object of this research was to evaluate orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda woods. Cutting force magnitude differences were observed for those two regions of the trunk, with parallel cutting forces being 33.4% higher, on average, at the mature wood region for 90-0 cutting, and 12% higher for 90-90 cutting. This result is consistent with the distinct anatomical structures of the material, since the forces developed during machining depend directly upon its properties.As características distintas dos lenhos juvenil e adulto, existentes principalmente na formação das coníferas, influenciam na usinagem devido às diferentes propriedades de resistência mecânica ao corte. No passado, quando a maior parte da madeira utilizada industrialmente era proveniente de árvores adultas de florestas naturais, pouca importância era dada à diferenciação de zonas no tronco. Atualmente, no entanto, com o decréscimo constante do suprimento de árvores adultas de grandes diâmetros, provenientes de florestas nativas

  4. Volume de madeira de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento. Wood volume of Pinus taeda L. at different growing spacings.

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    Rodrigo LIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus taeda L. é uma das espécies do gênero Pinus mais plantadas na região Sul do Brasil por apresentar excelente crescimento e ótima adaptação às condições climáticas e de solo. Essa espécie é utilizada em larga escala, principalmente para a produção de celulose, construção civil, laminação, produção de móveis, particulados e serraria. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção volumétrica de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento (entre 1 m2 e 16 m2 por planta propiciados por nove diferentes espaçamentos entre árvores de um ensaio em cinco blocos ao acaso. O trabalho baseou-se nas medidas de altura e DAP em 25 árvores internas da parcela, aos sete anos após plantio das mudas oriundas de pomar de sementes clonal. Valores estimados de volume por hectare foram inversamente proporcionais ao aumento do espaço vital, alcançando entre 74,2 e 274,8 m3 /ha. Os incrementos médios em volume atingiram entre 10,60 e 39,25 m3 /ha/ano. Concluiu-se que, se o objetivo é a produção volumétrica mesmo com diâmetros pequenos, deve-se optar por espaços vitais menores. Quando se deseja maiores diâmetros, a opção é por espaços maiores. No presente caso, o melhor compromisso entre produção volumétrica e diâmetros grandes pode estar nos espaços vitais intermediários, entre 5 e 8 m2 para cada árvore. Pinus taeda L. is one of the most Pinus species planted in southern Brazil, because it presents excellent growth and optimum adaptation to climatic and soil condition. The species is used in large scale, mainly for cellulose production, construction, laminating, production of furniture, particulates and sawmill. It was aimed to evaluate the Pinus taeda L. volumetric production at different growth vital spaces (ranging 1 m² and 16 m² per plant provided by nine different spacings between plants, the trial was installed in a randomized blocks with five replications. The study was based on height and DBH measurements

  5. Dendronutrition as a tool to evaluate Pinus taeda wood productivity and quality Dendronutrição como ferramenta para avaliação da produtividade e da qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda

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    Antonio Francisco Jurado Bellote

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of mineral nutrients on tree growth and wood quality of Pinus taeda, on commercial plantation at 20 years after planting, on different soil types. Experimental plots were set, and from trees representing each population, stem disks were collected at different heights. Tree
    growth, wood quality and growth ring parameters – tracheids diameter and radial density by X-ray densitometry – were analyzed and related to mineral nutrient contents. Results showed negative correlation among Mn and Mg stem disk contents and Pinus taeda tree growth; negative correlation was also obtained among Ca, Mg and Mn contents and tracheids dimensions and wood density. There was no correlation among N, P, K and B contents in stem disks and tree growth or wood quality studied variables.  Dendronutrition concept – study of relationship among tree growth parameters and growth rings to mineral nutrient contents in stem – is discussed in this work.Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos nutrientes minerais na produtividade e qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda, em plantações florestais com 20 anos, em diferentes tipos de solo. Foram demarcadas parcelas experimentais e selecionadas árvores representativas da população para coleta de discos do lenho, a diferentes alturas do tronco. Parâmetros de crescimento das árvores e de qualidade da madeira e dos anéis de crescimento - dimensões dos traqueídeos e densidade radial por densitometria de raios X - foram analisados e relacionados com o teor de nutrientes minerais. Os resultados mostraram correlações negativas entre o teor de Mn e Mg no lenho com o crescimento das árvores e entre os teores de Ca, Mg e o Mn e as dimensões dos traqueídeos e densidade do lenho; não foi verificada correlação entre os teores de N, P, K e B no lenho com as variáveis analisadas. O conceito de dendronutrição - estudo da relação entre os parâmetros de crescimento

  6. Apparent homology of expressed genes from wood-forming tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) with Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Matias; Johnson, Arthur F; Baucom, Christie; Ulrich, Erin; Hubbard, Kristy; Staggs, Rod; Paule, Charles; Retzel, Ernest; Whetten, Ross; Sederoff, Ronald

    2003-06-10

    Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) and Arabidopsis thaliana differ greatly in form, ecological niche, evolutionary history, and genome size. Arabidopsis is a small, herbaceous, annual dicotyledon, whereas pines are large, long-lived, coniferous forest trees. Such diverse plants might be expected to differ in a large number of functional genes. We have obtained and analyzed 59,797 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from wood-forming tissues of loblolly pine and compared them to the gene sequences inferred from the complete sequence of the Arabidopsis genome. Approximately 50% of pine ESTs have no apparent homologs in Arabidopsis or any other angiosperm in public databases. When evaluated by using contigs containing long, high-quality sequences, we find a higher level of apparent homology between the inferred genes of these two species. For those contigs 1,100 bp or longer, approximately 90% have an apparent Arabidopsis homolog (E value < 10-10). Pines and Arabidopsis last shared a common ancestor approximately 300 million years ago. Few genes would be expected to retain high sequence similarity for this time if they did not have essential functions. These observations suggest substantial conservation of gene sequence in seed plants.

  7. Influência dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft Influence of soil attributes on quality of Pinus taeda wood for cellulose Kraft production

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    Patrícia Aparecida Rigatto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados os efeitos dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft, em áreas da Klabin, em Telêmaco Borba-PR. Foram estudados oito sítios com árvores de 12 anos de idade, selecionados pelo tipo de solo, textura e vegetação primária. Para caracterização dos sítios foram realizadas coletas de amostras em três horizontes, tendo sido coletadas amostras indeformadas e compostas, analisando-se as seguintes variáveis no solo: densidade global, porosidade total, macroporosidade, disponibilidade de água, fertilidade e granulometria. Selecionaram-se cinco árvores médias por sítio, nas quais foram medidos as alturas total e comercial e o DAP e retirados discos, sendo este material ensaiado quanto a densidade básica, composição química, características morfológicas dos traqueídeos e produção de celulose Kraft. Com relação às propriedades da madeira, os atributos físicos do solo demonstraram ter maior influência. De modo geral, as madeiras provenientes de sítios com texturas mais argilosas apresentaram menores valores de densidade básica; maiores teores de extrativos e lignina; menores teores de holocelulose e celulose; traqueídeos mais curtos, mais largos, com paredes mais finas e com diâmetros do lúmen maiores; e menor rendimento em celulose. A partir destes resultados, concluiu-se ser possível a previsão de propriedades da polpa através da análise das características da madeira associada às condições edáficas reinantes.To meet the increasing demand for forest products, much of the future timber supply will come from trees grown in managed plantations. This work was carried out to analyze the effects of soil attributes on Pinus taeda wood quality to produce Kraft cellulose at Klabin Parana Cellulose Co., in Telêmaco Borba, PR, Brazil. The study focused on the influence of soil attributes on the anatomical, physical and chemical wood

  8. Characterization and enzymatic hydrolysis of wood from transgenic Pinus taeda engineered with syringyl lignin or reduced lignin content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunds, Charles W.; Peralta, Perry; Kelley, Stephen S.; Chiang, Vincent L.; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R.; Davis, Mark F.; Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert W.; Gjersing, Erica; Cunningham, Michael W.; Rottmann, William; Miller, Zachary D.; Peszlen, Ilona

    2017-02-22

    Softwood is an abundant resource; however, currently its utilization for bioconversion to obtain platform sugars is limited. Pinus taeda trees which were genetically modified to either produce S lignin or to decrease lignin content were characterized with a suite of analytic techniques. Syringyl lignin was visualized in the secondary xylem of one genetic line with Maule staining. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance identified the S lignin units were coupled into the lignin through ..beta..-O-4 linkages, and thioacidolysis measured approximately 13% S lignin content in the same sample. Reductions of the lignin of as much as 33% were observed in the transgenics. To better understand how these modifications affect bioconversion, their amenability to hot water and dilute acid pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. Lignin reductions resulted in 1.9-3.2-fold increases in glucose release compared to the control. However, no apparent benefit was observed by S lignin incorporation at the concentrations reported in this study. These results highlight the potential for softwood cell wall properties to be improved for bioenergy/biochemical applications.

  9. Pinus taeda AND Pinus oocarpa PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING WITH FENOL-FORMALDHEYDE RESIN

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the plywood, manufactured from Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa, with 20 and 24 years old respectively, using three differentformulations of the fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of the glue line shearing tests not showed statistical differences between the species and three resin formulations. In the hot water test, all of the boards were classified as “BR” and, the boards of the Pinus oocarpa produced with formulations (1and (3, were classified as “WBP”. The different resin formulations not influenced on the modulus ofelasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR The boards of Pinus taeda with formulations (1 and(2 showed higher values of MOE in comparison of the Pinus oocarpa. The MOR of the Pinus oocarpa withformulation (2 was higher than Pinus taeda. The mechanical properties of the plywood wereprobably influenced by wood variability related to sapwood and hartwood, thickness of growth ringsand, springwood and summerwood.

  10. Sustainability of Wood Productivity of Pinus TaedaBased on Nutrient Export and Stocks in the Biomass and in the Soil

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    Ricardo Michael de Melo Sixel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The impact of intensive management practices on the sustainability of forest production depends on maintenance of soil fertility. The contribution of forest residues and nutrient cycling in this process is critical. A 16-year-old stand of Pinus taeda in a Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico léptico (Humic Endo-lithic Dystrudept in the south of Brazil was studied. A total of 10 trees were sampled distributed in five diameter classes according to diameter at breast height. The biomass of the needles, twigs, bark, wood, and roots was measured for each tree. In addition to plant biomass, accumulated plant litter was sampled, and soil samples were taken at three increments based on sampling depth: 0.00-0.20, 0.20-0.40, 0.40-0.60, 0.60-1.00, 1.00-1.40, 1.40-1.80, and 1.80-1.90 m. The quantity and concentration of nutrients, as well as mineralogical characteristics, were determined for each soil sample. Three scenarios of harvesting intensities were simulated: wood removal (A, wood and bark removal (B, and wood + bark + canopy removal (C. The sum of all biomass components was 313 Mg ha-1.The stocks of nutrients in the trees decreased in the order N>Ca>K>S>Mg>P. The mineralogy of the Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico léptico showed the predominance of quartz sand and small traces of vermiculite in the silt fraction. Clay is the main fraction that contributes to soil weathering, due to the transformation of illite-vermiculite, releasing K. The depletion of nutrients from the soil biomass was in the order: P>S>N>K>Mg>Ca. Phosphorus and S were the most limiting in scenario A due to their low stock in the soil. In scenario B, the number of forest rotations was limited by N, K, and S. Scenario C showed the greatest reduction in productivity, allowing only two rotations before P limitation. It is therefore apparent that there may be a difference of up to 30 years in the capacity of the soil to support a scenario such as A, with a low nutrient removal

  11. Determinação do módulo de elasticidade da madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda por ultra-som Determination of the modulus of elasticity of juvenile and mature wood of Pinus taeda L.with ultrasonic method

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    Adriano W. Ballarin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A madeira de Pinus sp. tem utilização crescente na indústria madeireira brasileira. O decréscimo constante do suprimento de árvores adultas com grandes diâmetros, provenientes de florestas naturais, tornou comum a produção de madeira em ciclos curtos, com grande proporção de madeira juvenil. Resultados de diversas pesquisas têm reportado que o módulo de elasticidade e a resistência a diferentes solicitações mecânicas são seriamente afetados pela presença de madeira juvenil. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o módulo de elasticidade da madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda L. a partir da constante dinâmica C LL, obtida em ensaios não-destrutivos de ultra-som. A madeira de P. taeda era originária de plantios da Estação Experimental de Itapeva - SP, sendo amostrados seis indivíduos arbóreos com 34 anos de idade. Os corpos-de-prova (4 cm x 4 cm x 45 cm foram obtidos separadamente das regiões de madeira juvenil e adulta da prancha central, previamente submetida à secagem industrial (umidade final de 12%, para a determinação da constante dinâmica por meio de ensaios de ultra-som. Para avaliar a sensibilidade do método do ultra-som, os corpos-de-prova foram ensaiados destrutivamente à compressão paralela. Os resultados mostraram boa sensibilidade do método do ultra-som (R² » 0,90 na avaliação desse parâmetro mecânico da madeira juvenil e adulta.Pinus sp. wood has an increasing importance on supplying brazilian wood industry. The diminution of adult and large diameter trees supply deriving from natural tropical forests, became usual the production of wood on short rotation plantation, with considerable proportion of juvenil wood. Results from several researches have been demonstrated that MOE and mechanical strength are strongly affected by juvenile wood occurrence. This research was developed with the main objective of correlating dynamic modulus of elasticity (non-destructive ultrasound tests and MOE

  12. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

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    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  13. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND RETRANSLOCATION IN THE Pinus taeda L. NEEDLES

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    Márcio Viera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating nutrients concentration and retranslocation in the Pinus taeda L. needles, this study was developed in two stands, in native grass area and in second rotation area, with same species and same age (7.5 years old in Cambará do Sul, RS. The needles were collected in plants in four orthogonal points (South, North, East and West, sampled new needles, mature needles and old needles. The material was dried in a stove, milled and chemically analyzed (macro and micronutrients. The concentrations of N, P, K, B, Cu and Zn had decreased, of Ca, Fe and Mn increased, and the Mg and S have remained constant with the age of the needles. The retranslocation rate (old-new needles was more than 50% for most nutrients, except for Mn and Fe, showed that cumulative effect and the Ca reference element.

  14. Multi-Season Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Analysis of Pinus taeda Needle Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) is one of the worlds most important timber crop and accounts for a significant portion of the southeastern U.S. landcover. Biogenic voltile organic compound (BVOC) content was extracted from the tissue material of P. taeda needles and analyzed over a m...

  15. Modeling seed dispersal distances: implications for transgenic Pinus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Claire G; LaDeau, Shannon L; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel G

    2006-02-01

    Predicting forest-tree seed dispersal across a landscape is useful for estimating gene flow from genetically engineered (GE) or transgenic trees. The question of biocontainment has yet to be resolved, although field-trial permits for transgenic forest trees are on the rise. Most current field trials in the United States occur in the Southeast where Pinus taeda L., an indigenous species, is the major timber commodity. Seed dispersal distances were simulated using a model where the major determinants were: (1) forest canopy height at seed release, (2) terminal velocity of the seeds, (3) absolute seed release, and (4) turbulent-flow statistics, all of which were measured or determined within a P. taeda plantation established from seeds collected from wild forest-tree stands at the Duke Forest near Durham, North Carolina, USA. In plantations aged 16 and 25 years our model results showed that most of the seeds fell within local-neighborhood dispersal distances, with estimates ranging from 0.05 to 0.14 km from the source. A fraction of seeds was uplifted above the forest canopy and moved via the long-distance dispersal (LDD) process as far as 11.9-33.7 km. Out of 10(5) seeds produced per hectare per year, roughly 440 seeds were predicted to be uplifted by vertical eddies above the forest canopy and transported via LDD. Of these, 70 seeds/ha traveled distances in excess of 1 km from the source, a distance too great to serve as a biocontainment zone. The probability of LDD occurrence of transgenic conifer seeds at distances exceeding 1 km approached 100%.

  16. Nitrogen metabolism in Lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures

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    van Heerden, P. S.; Towers, G. H.; Lewis, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The primary metabolic fate of phyenylalanine, following its deamination in plants, is conscription of its carbon skeleton for lignin, suberin, flavonoid, and related metabolite formation. Since this accounts for approximately 30-40% of all organic carbon, an effective means of recycling the liberated ammonium ion must be operative. In order to establish how this occurs, the uptake and metabolism of various 15N-labeled precursors (15N-Phe, 15NH4Cl, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Glu) in lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures was investigated, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography, 15N NMR, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analyses. It was found that the ammonium ion released during active phenylpropanoid metabolism was not made available for general amino acid/protein synthesis. Rather it was rapidly recycled back to regenerate phenylalanine, thereby providing an effective means of maintaining active phenylpropanoid metabolism with no additional nitrogen requirement. These results strongly suggest that, in lignifying cells, ammonium ion reassimilation is tightly compartmentalized.

  17. Genetic transformation of Pinus taeda by particle bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A protocol is presented for genetically engineering loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using particle bombardment. This protocol enabled the routine transformation of loblolly pine plants that were previously difficult to transform. Mature zygotic embryos were used to be bombarded and to generate organogenic callus and transgenic regenerated plants. Plasmid pB48.215 DNA contained a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) cryIAc coding sequence flanked by the double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (Nos) terminator sequences, and the selectable marker gene, neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) controlled by the promoter of the nopaline synthase gene was introduced into loblolly pine tissues by particle bombardment. The transformed tissues were proliferated and selected by kanamycin resistance conferred by the introduced NPTII gene. Shoot regeneration was induced from the kanamycin-resistant callus, and transgenic plantlets were then produced. The presence of the introduced genes in the transgenic loblolly pine plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) analysis, by Southern blot analysis, and insect feeding assays. The recovered transgenic plants were acclimatized and then established in soil.

  18. USE OF RESIDUES OF FORESTRY EXPLORATION OF Pinus taeda FOR PARTICLEBOARD MANUFACTURE

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the quality of particleboards manufactured with forest exploitation waste from Pinus taeda. The material in the form of branches, tree tops, stumps and roots, was obtained from a forest plantation located in the Municipality of Mafra -SC. All the material was processed into wood chips for biomass and transported to the place of studies. The Pinus industrial particles were used as control and mixed with the waste in different proportions. The experimental plan consisted of the panels manufacture with 100% of each type of material and mixture of these com proportions of 75/25%, 50/50% and 25/75% with Pinus industrial particles, in addition to the mixture in equal parts, of the three types of materials. Experimental panels were manufactured with nominal density of 0.75 g/cm3, using the urea-formaldehyde resin, in the proportion of 8% of solids -dry weight basis of the particles. The panels were pressed with specific pressure of 4.0 MPa, temperature of 160ºC and pressing time of 8 minutes. The results of the internal bond tests met the requirements of the standard EN 312, is indicative that there has been a proper bonding of these particles originating forest exploitation wastes. General evaluations of the physical and mechanical properties results of the experimental panels indicate the possibility of use of particles obtained from branches, tree tops, stumps and roots, mixed com the industrial Pinus particles, in proportion of, up to, 50%, for particleboard manufacture.

  19. DENSITY MANAGEMENT DIAGRAM OF Pinus taeda L. UNTHINNED STAND

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    Paulo Sérgio Pigatto Schneider

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed with the purpose of studying the efficiency of the models which express the density-diameter relationship in stands of Pinus taeda L., implanted in several spacing and handled in unthinning density, and were measured every year until the of 18 age. Results indicated that all of the size-density relationship of Tang model presented good statistical precision, was more efficient than the others, presenting excellent coefficient of determination (0.99, low standard error of estimate (0.0948, low coefficient of variation (1.17%, low bias (0.0086 and high efficiency (0.8976. The slope of the size-density didn’t allow proving the universality of the self-tinning law, with value of this slope is equal -3/2. With help of the size-density model, 6 Indexes of Density of the Stands (IDPs were generated, with variation from the maximum 1400 to the minimum 600, with interval of class of IDP equal to 200, having as reference the standard diameter of 25 cm. The population’s Density Management Diagram (DMD, elaborated for the dendrometric variables – average diameter, basal area and volume for hectare (by IDP – presented good efficiency with low mistake in the estimate of the values of these variables. Real volume and estimate volume per hectare in DMD presented an absolute difference of just -7.39 m3ha-1 and a relative difference of -1.79 %, showing a great precision of the DMD model. The estimates volume of DMD per hectare, in relation to the real values, presented a value of efficiency equal to 0.99, what indicates a high precision, and an  value equal to 0.00034, not significant to 0.01% of probability, demonstrating that the real and the estimate values don't differ statistical amongst themselves. 

  20. Viability of litter-stored Pinus taeda L. seeds after simulated prescribed winter burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    1998-01-01

    Stratified loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seeds were placed at three depths in a reconstructed forest floor and subjected to simulated prescribed winter burns. Within the forest floor, pine seeds were placed at the L/upper-F interface, upper-F/lower-F interface, and lower-F/mineral-soil interface. Wind was generated by electric box-fans. Seeds that...

  1. EFEITO DA TERMORRETIFICAÇÃO NAS PROPRIEDADES MECÂNICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Pinus taeda E Eucalyptus grandis

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    Karina Soares Modes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of thermal treatment, employed under two treatment conditions on mechanical properties of wood of Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. From each species, three 25-year tress were sampled, and from each one, it was taken the first 2-meter long log, which was obtained from two boards of size 7,0 x 20,0 cm (thickness x width respectively diametrically opposite from where 30 specimens were saw for each treatment. At the first one, called the combined one, the woods were subjected to heat treatment by autoclaving at 130 / ± 3°C and pressure of 2 kgf / cm ² for 3 hours and, after a conditioning period, subjected to heat in an electric oven at 160 / ± 1°C for the same period. The second treatment consisted only of heat treatment in oven. It was also evaluated the pieces of wood without treatment (control. The mechanical properties were evaluated by means of tests for determining the modulus of elasticity and rupture in bending, maximum resistance to compression parallel to the grain and Janka hardness according to ASTM D 143 (1995, and the impact resistance according to ABNT NBR 7190 (1997. For Pinus taeda wood, it was observed that treatment in an oven gave the worst outcomes, both due to the reduction in the values of supported load of a greater number of mechanical properties evaluated, but also as compared to the lowest increments in resistance when it was observed an increase to the same ones with heat treatment. In Eucalyptus grandis, the combined treatment decreased the greatest number of mechanical properties of wood.

  2. Estimation of Heritability and Combining Ability for Growth, Stem-Straightness and Wood Density of the F1 Generation of Pinus taeda × P.caribaea%火炬松×加勒比松F1代生长、树干通直度和基本密度遗传和配合力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾启福; 姜景民; 张建忠; 张守攻

    2011-01-01

    @@ 松类杂种直到20世纪中期才开始被培育利用,如窄果松X辐射松(Pinus attenuata X P.radiata)、欧洲落叶松X日本落叶松(Larix decidua×L.kaempferi)等(Dungey,2001).%The genetic characteristics and combining ability for growth, stem-straightness and wood density were estimated on 16 seven-year-old F1 families derived from crossing with 4 female and 4 male parents of Pinus taeda × P.caribaea with the NC Ⅱ mating design.Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences( P < 0.01 ) in growth and wood basic density among 16 crosses, and ( P < 0.05 ) in stem-straightness.The heritability ( h2 ) analysis showed that family mean heritability of growth, stem-straightness and wood density for female parents was higher than that for male parents, while the mean h2 for the full-sib families was in the middle of the parents' heritability.The h2 of growth was 0.292 3 -0.469 9 for female parents, and 0.191 9 -0.403 3 for male parents.The family mean and single tree h2 of wood basic density for female parents was 0.176 4 and 0.034 6, respectively, and the single tree h2 of stem-straightness for male and female parents was 0.162 7 and 0.098 3, respectively.The heritability of DBH and volume was increasing in the last 6 years while the heritability of tree height was decreasing.The analysis of genetic correlation showed that growth traits had positive correlation ( |rG| = 0.467 2 -0.351 6) with stem-form, and had a negative one( |rG| = 0.220 30.679 8 ) with wood basic density.The general combining ability (GCA) effect of male or female parents for growth traits and stem-straightness was significantly different, and their special combining ability (SCA) effect for wood basic density was significant.The effective value of combining ability for GCA and SCA was estimated and the better parents and hybrids were evaluated.The correlation between genetic background of the parents and genetic differences of the progenies was discussed.

  3. Physico-Chemical Properties and Biodegradability of Genetically Modified Populus trichocarpa and Pinus taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Charles Warren

    Increasing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions and the finite supply of fossil fuels lead to the goal of utilizing lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuels, platform chemicals, and biocomposites. Lignin is responsible for the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass and is a major barrier to its deconstruction. Great progress has been made in mapping and modifying the lignin biosynthetic pathway. However, the link between the genetic modification, resulting chemical and physical properties of the wood, and how these properties influence the thermomechanical and recalcitrance to biological and chemical degradation needs further investigation. In this dissertation, the study of modified Populus trichocarpa and Pinus taeda were utilized to accomplish this goal. Thermo-mechanical properties of genetically modified P. trichocarpa with altered lignin content and/or lignin structure were measured with a series of tools including; dynamic mechanical analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, and wet chemistry techniques. Results demonstrated lignin content and lignin structure likely influence the glass transition temperature (Tg), and that decreased lignin content and the corresponding higher proportion of cell wall carbohydrates may contribute to increased molecular mobility in the wood polymer structure. The effect of lignin biosynthetic pathway modification on biological degradation of these transgenic wood specimens was of interest. However, experimental methods for fungal treatment on small young greenhouse-grown wood specimens are not well established. Therefore, a project was undertaken to develop a method for fungal inoculation and incubation for these unique specimens. Several parameters were tested, and a fungal treatment method was identified with sufficient weight loss after decay and significant reduction in variation of weight loss between replicates compared to previous experiments by direct inoculation of wood with liquid malt extract fungal culture

  4. [Larvae culture of ovine gastrintestinal nematodes in sawdust substrates of Pinus taeda, P. elliottii and Araucaria angustifolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellato, Valdomiro; de Souza, Antonio P; Sartor, Amélia A; da Silva, Ana Valéria D B; Henschel, Gustavo Dos S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of sawdust substrates obtained from wood treated with sodium tribromophenate and not treated of Pinus elliotti, P. taeda, and Araucaria angustifolia in larval cultures of ovine gastrintestinal helminths. Feces samples were collected between 8 to 12am, from a lamb naturally infected with gastrintestinal nematodes and analysed by the modified Mc Master technique for worm egg counting (epg). Six groups of 20g of feces were prepared. Each group received 5g of one of the sawdust substrates and 5ml of distilled water. The material has been processed, identified and taken to a climatized chamber with a temperature of 27 +/- 1 degrees C, relative humidity above 70%, and in escotophase for seven days. The third stage larvae were recovered by the Baermann technique after four hours of sedimentation for the counting and identification of one hundred larvae per treatment. For each treatment were realized 10 repetitions. The average of EPG of Strongylida Order was 630. The average of the larvae number obtained in 20 grams of feces and the percentage of recovery in the different substrates based on the EPG was: P. taeda treated, 2719 (22.66%) and not treated, 2353 (20.08%); P. elliotti treated, 3069 (22.48%) and not treated, 3181 (24.54%); A. angustifolia treated, 2370 (18.73%) and not treated, 3361 (26.75%). There was no statistic difference in 5% level of significance between the averages and the number of larvae in the different substrates.

  5. Investigation on chemical composition and optimization of essential oil obtainment from waste Pinus taeda L. using hydrodistillation

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    Sirlei Dias Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The extraction of essential oils obtained by the hydrodistillation of needles/twigs waste of Pinus taeda L. was optimized by applying response surface methodology (RSM, with 24 full factorial design, in order to improve oil essential production, and aggregate value to the production chain of pine wood. Through the model it was possible to ascertain the influence of the variables in the average amount of essential oil (0.1032 mL, being the variables analyzed: biomass - Bm (x1, extraction time - ET (x2, Bm:ET (x1x2 and sample size - SS: drying times - DT (x3x4. Only linear terms (biomass and extraction time and your interaction demonstrated significant positive values (0.0344, 0.0206 and 0.0131. The major components of the essential oil identified by GC-MS were: β-phellandrene: (30.39 and 22.44%, tricyclene (26.14 and 20.46%, β-myrcene (14.32 and 11.50%, β-pinene (22.49 and 1.43% and α-pinene (0.25 and 11.26% in the years 2011 and 2012, respectively. Our results show that the essential oil obtained from P. taeda represents a way of using some of the waste generated by the timber industry. The process of obtaining doesn't require treatments such as controlled drying or size reduction of the sample, indicating that it can be used in an industrial scale.

  6. Production of laminated veneer lumber LVL using veneer of Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of laminated veneer lumber - LVL manufactured with veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda. The LVL panels were manufactured in the laboratory conditions composed by seven veneers, 2,0 mm thickness, with different structural compositions, using phenol-formaldehyde resin. The veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum- paricá- were pre-classified by using stress wave machine. The veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda were disposed in the face layer to reinforce the structural strength of LVL panels. The LVL quality was evaluated using glue line shear strength and static bending test (MOE and MOR, edge and flat. Grading of paricá veneers based on MOEd did not affected significantly the results of the glue line shear strength and MOE and MOR edge. For the MOE and MOR flat, the use of veneers of MOEd grade 1 contributed significantly to increasing the average values of these properties. In the same way, using the Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of LVL resulted in higher average values of MOE and MOR, edge and flat.

  7. Liming and fertilisation in Pinus taeda plantations with severe nutrient deficiency in savanna soils

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    Araína Hulmann Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils with high acidity and low exchangeable bases may be responsible for low yields of Pinus taeda in a forest plantation at Jaguariaíva, Paraná State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liming and fertilisation, applied over litter, on two selected areas with Pinus taeda plantations. Soil, litter and pine needles were evaluated for K, Ca and Mg concentrations and soil acidity parameters. Seven treatments were applied: (i complete (N, P, K, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and lime; (ii without N, P, and K; (iii without Zn, Cu, B, and Mo; (iv without K; (v without Zn; (vi without lime; and (vii control (without nutrients and lime. Soil samples were collected at five soil depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm simultaneously with litter samples. Needles were also collected from the first and second pine flushes. Liming induced soil pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increases, and the opposite was observed for Al3+ and Al saturation. Fertilisation increased soil exchangeable K+ concentrations and needle and litter K concentrations. The low Ca and Mg concentrations found in the plant needles might be attributable to their low mobility.

  8. Modeling and mapping basal area of Pinus taeda L. plantation using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos A; Klauberg, Carine; Hudak, Andrew T; Vierling, Lee A; Fennema, Scott J; Corte, Ana Paula D

    2017-08-14

    Basal area (BA) is a good predictor of timber stand volume and forest growth. This study developed predictive models using field and airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data for estimation of basal area in Pinus taeda plantation in south Brazil. In the field, BA was collected from conventional forest inventory plots. Multiple linear regression models for predicting BA from LiDAR-derived metrics were developed and evaluated for predictive power and parsimony. The best model to predict BA from a family of six models was selected based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) and assessed by the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R²) and root mean square error (RMSE). The best model revealed an adj. R²=0.93 and RMSE=7.74%. Leave one out cross-validation of the best regression model was also computed, and revealed an adj. R² and RMSE of 0.92 and 8.31%, respectively. This study showed that LiDAR-derived metrics can be used to predict BA in Pinus taeda plantations in south Brazil with high precision. We conclude that there is good potential to monitor growth in this type of plantations using airborne LiDAR. We hope that the promising results for BA modeling presented herein will stimulate to operate this technology in Brazil.

  9. The Pinus taeda genome is characterized by diverse and highly diverged repetitive sequences

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    Yandell Mark

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In today's age of genomic discovery, no attempt has been made to comprehensively sequence a gymnosperm genome. The largest genus in the coniferous family Pinaceae is Pinus, whose 110-120 species have extremely large genomes (c. 20-40 Gb, 2N = 24. The size and complexity of these genomes have prompted much speculation as to the feasibility of completing a conifer genome sequence. Conifer genomes are reputed to be highly repetitive, but there is little information available on the nature and identity of repetitive units in gymnosperms. The pines have extensive genetic resources, with approximately 329000 ESTs from eleven species and genetic maps in eight species, including a dense genetic map of the twelve linkage groups in Pinus taeda. Results We present here the Sanger sequence and annotation of ten P. taeda BAC clones and Genome Analyzer II whole genome shotgun (WGS sequences representing 7.5% of the genome. Computational annotation of ten BACs predicts three putative protein-coding genes and at least fifteen likely pseudogenes in nearly one megabase of sequence. We found three conifer-specific LTR retroelements in the BACs, and tentatively identified at least 15 others based on evidence from the distantly related angiosperms. Alignment of WGS sequences to the BACs indicates that 80% of BAC sequences have similar copies (≥ 75% nucleotide identity elsewhere in the genome, but only 23% have identical copies (99% identity. The three most common repetitive elements in the genome were identified and, when combined, represent less than 5% of the genome. Conclusions This study indicates that the majority of repeats in the P. taeda genome are 'novel' and will therefore require additional BAC or genomic sequencing for accurate characterization. The pine genome contains a very large number of diverged and probably defunct repetitive elements. This study also provides new evidence that sequencing a pine genome using a WGS approach is

  10. Wildfire mitigation strategies affect soil enzyme activity and soil organic carbon in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.E.J. Boerner; T.A. Waldrop; V.B. Shelburne

    2006-01-01

    We quantified the effects of three wildfire hazard reduction treatments (prescribed fire, thinning from below, and the combination of fire and thinning), and passive management (control) on mineral soil organic C, and enzyme activity in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests on the Piedmont of South Carolina. Soil organic C was reduced by thinning,...

  11. Efeito da idade da muda e da estação do ano no enraizamento de miniestacas de Pinus taeda L. Effect of seedling age and season on rooting of Pinus taeda L. minicuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bomfim de Alcantara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinus taeda L., a principal espécie florestal plantada no Sul do Brasil, tem sua madeira usada como matéria-prima em serrarias, laminadoras e indústrias de aglomerado, MDF, celulose e papel. Devido à sua grande importância econômica, existe interesse no desenvolvimento de técnicas de propagação vegetativa que permitam a clonagem massal de mudas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da idade das mudas (60, 90, 120 e 150 dias e das quatro estações do ano no enraizamento de miniestacas de P. taeda. Miniestacas de 5 cm foram confeccionadas a partir de ramos herbáceos e tratadas com solução de Captan® 0,1%. Seu plantio foi realizado em tubetes com substrato Mecplant® na camada inferior e 2 cm de vermiculita na porção superior. As miniestacas foram mantidas em casa de vegetação durante 120 dias, com temperaturas entre 15 e 25 ºC e umidade relativa do ar em torno de 90%. Avaliaram-se as porcentagens de miniestacas enraizadas, sobreviventes e mortas, o comprimento das três maiores raízes e o número e massa seca de raízes formadas por miniestaca. A idade das mudas influenciou o enraizamento, e a maior porcentagem (85% foi obtida com mudas mais jovens (60 dias. O inverno mostrou-se o período mais favorável para a coleta das miniestacas.Pinus taeda L. is the main forest tree species planted in Southern Brazil and its wood is used for sawlogs, venner, particle board, medium density fiberboard (MDF, pulp and paper industries. Due to its high economic importance, interest exists in developing techniques for vegetative propagation aiming at mass multiplication. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the age of seedlings used as mother plants (60, 90, 120 and 150 day-old and of the four seasons of the year on rooting of P. taeda minicuttings. Minicuttings of 5 cm in length were collected from herbaceous branches and treated with Captan® solution (0.1%. Minicuttings were planted in plastic tubes

  12. MODELLING GROWTH AND YIELD OF Pinus taeda L. USING DIFUSION PROCESS

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    Rozane de Loyola Eisfeld

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work tested a methodology for growth and yield modeling. The diffusion process is not yet widely used incommercial plantations in Brazil, but it can provide predictions comparable to others methodologies, producing satisfactory resultsto simulate growth and yield. For this purpose, 325 permanent samples established in unthinned Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine standsowned by the International Paper of Brazil Co were used. The diffusion process methodology consists in connecting growthincrement and mortality models in Kolmogorov equation . Seventy sample plots were randomly chosen in order to make thecomparison among the observed and predicted values. In general, the diffusion process provided satisfactory estimates of number oftrees, basal area per hectare and stem volume.

  13. Avaliação e seleção precoce para crescimento de Pinus taeda Early evaluation and selection for growth in Pinus taeda

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    Estefano Paludzyszyn Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes métodos de seleção quanto aos caracteres ligados ao crescimento do fuste e o potencial da seleção precoce de genitores. Em 48 progênies de meios-irmãos de Pinus taeda L., foi medido o diâmetro do fuste a 30 cm e a 1,30 m do solo, aos 16 e 84 meses de idade, além da altura total. As progênies foram cultivadas em espaçamento tradicional e reduzido. Os componentes de variância, parâmetros e valores genéticos aditivos foram obtidos a partir de um modelo de análise individual. A seleção indireta foi de eficiência similar à direta quanto ao diâmetro (93% e menor quanto à altura (78%. A seleção seqüencial foi 16% (altura e 28% (diâmetro mais eficiente que a seleção única. A eficiência da seleção combinada foi maior em relação a direta para diâmetro. Vinte genitores selecionados por valores genéticos aditivos quanto ao diâmetro, aos 16 e 84 meses, aumentaram a média em 7,6% e 8,1%, respectivamente. A alta magnitude da correlação genética no que diz respeito ao diâmetro entre idades revelou que esse caráter, avaliado aos 16 meses de idade, prediz o crescimento aos 84 meses. Isso reduz custos de avaliação de progênies, antecipa o desbaste de genitores e a oferta de sementes melhoradas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of selection in growth traits and early selection. Individual total height and stem diameter at 30 cm above the ground in close-spaced early genetic evaluation at 16 months were assessed. In a 84 month sib cohort, as a comparison, height and diameter at breast height were evaluated. Phenotypic and genetic parameters for height and diameter were estimated for 48 open-pollinated families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. planted in Southern Brazil using an individual tree model. In this retrospective study, the indirect selection was of similar effectiveness as direct selection in stem

  14. Modelos de afilamento para o sortimento do fuste de Pinus taeda L Taper function for assortment of Pinus taeda L. stem

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    Carlos Alberto Martinelli de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes modelos de afilamento do fuste de Pinus taeda para estimar variáveis de interesse ao longo do fuste. Foram avaliadas as funções propostas por Anony, Kozak, Munro, Silva & Sterba, Prodan e o Polinômio de 5° grau. O estudo teve como base dados de cubagem rigorosa de 68 árvores, provenientes de plantios com idade de 25 anos, pertencentes à empresa Florestal Gateados Ltda, localizada no município de Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina (SC, Brasil. A partir das estatísticas coeficiente de determinação ajustado (R²aj, erro padrão das estimativas (Syx, desvio médio, média das diferenças (md e desvio padrão das diferenças (dpd foi selecionado o Polinômio do 5° grau para estimar as variáveis ao longo do fuste, como a altura comercial, o volume comercial, os diâmetros e os volumes das 1ª e 2ª toras. Em relação à altura comercial, a equação proveniente do modelo escolhido apresentou resultados sem tendências e com erros oscilando em intervalo pequeno. Em se tratando do volume comercial, pode ser observada certa tendência em subestimativas para as árvores com menores DAP e uma leve tendência para aquelas árvores com maior DAP. Em relação ao diâmetro e ao volume da 1a tora, houve superestimativa dos valores, mas com erros baixos, principalmente para o diâmetro. Para as estimativas do diâmetro e do volume da 2ª tora, os resultados foram melhores do que os encontrados na 1a tora, com leve tendência em subestimar o diâmetro e, praticamente, sem tendência para o volume.This research had as objective to evaluate different taper models for Pinus taeda and select the best one to estimate variables of interest throughout the stem. The functions proposed by Anony, Kozak, Munro, Silva & Sterba, Prodan and the 5° degree Polynomial were evaluated. With data from rigorous cubage of 68 trees, with 25 years old, coming from plantation of Florestal Gateados Ltda, located, in the

  15. FINE ROOT QUANTIFICATION IN A Pinus taeda L. STAND AND IN GRASSLAND AREA IN CAMBARÁ DO SUL (RS

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    Vicente Guilherme Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to comparatively quantify length and biomass of fine roots (≤ 2.0 mm in the soil profile (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 cm  and in the litter of a 15-year-old Pinus taeda L. stand, as well as in an adjacent Grassland area. The samples were obtained through monolith excavation. Roots were separated through washing and collecting and were then distributed over a white sheet of paper, where images were obtained with a digital camera. Using the software Image Tool for Windows version 3.00© the images were processed to quantify root length. Subsequently, roots were dried in a stove and, weighed to determine the biomass. The vegetation in the Grassland area showed 234.28% greater density of fine roots than the adjacent area where the Pinus taeda L.stand is located.

  16. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT MULCH MATERIALS AND SHELTER, IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PLANTS OF Pinus taeda L., BY DIRECT SOWING

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    Marcio Ricardo Serpa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has had as its objectives to evaluate different covering materials and physical protector's use in the forest population of Pinus taeda L. in direct sowing in the field. Three materials were used: vermiculit, dried and pricked pine needles, peel of rice and reference without covering, with and without physical protector (plastic cup of 300 ml, without botton, with five replications. The sowing was accomplished in the first half of May of 1997, being used three seeds per point. The evaluations done were: emergency at the 60 and 90 days, survival at the 120, 180 and 210 days and population density at the 210 days after sowing. The variance and averages analysis (Duncan 5%, has allowed to conclude that: the vermiculit and pine needles affected beneficially the number of plants emerged in the first 60 days, that is the most critical phase for the future of the forest population of Pinus taeda; the physical protector, provides the formation of a microenvironment, that guarantees larger percentage in the emergence, survival and initial density of plants of Pinus taeda; the direct sowing demonstrated to be a viable technique.

  17. Monoterpene synthases of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) produce pinene isomers and enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M A; Savage, T J; Croteau, R

    1999-12-01

    The turpentine fraction of conifer oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene olefins and plays important roles in defense and in the mediation of chemical communication between conifer hosts and insect predators. The stereochemistry of the turpentine monoterpenes is critical in these interactions, influencing host recognition, toxicity, and potency of derived pheromones, and the stereochemical composition of these compounds lends insight into their biogenetic origin, with implications for the numbers and types of enzymes responsible and their corresponding genes. Analysis of the oleoresin from several tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) showed the derived turpentine to consist mainly of (+)-(3R:5R)-alpha-pinene and (-)-(3S:5S)-beta-pinene. Cell-free extracts from xylem tissue yielded three monoterpene synthases which together account for the monoterpene isomer and enantiomer content of the turpentine of this tissue. The major products of these enzymes, produced from the universal precursor of monoterpenes, geranyl diphosphate, were shown to be (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, respectively. In most properties (molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa, K(m) for geranyl diphosphate of 3 microM, requirement for monovalent and divalent cations), these enzymes resemble other monoterpene synthases from conifer species.

  18. Propriedades de resistência e rigidez da madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda L.

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    Ballarin Adriano Wagner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o estudo da variabilidade das propriedades de resistência e rigidez à flexão estática e à densidade aparente (12% entre a madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda L., de 37 anos de idade, procedente do Horto Florestal de Manduri, Estado de São Paulo. Na primeira parte do trabalho foram determinadas a região de madeira juvenil, a região de transição e a região de madeira adulta, por meio de estudos anatômicos (comprimento dos traqueídes axiais, segundo as recomendações das normas ABNT e IAWA. Os resultados mostraram que a região de madeira juvenil dessa espécie ocorre aproximadamente até o 18º anel de crescimento. Na segunda parte do trabalho foram analisados a resistência (módulo de ruptura - MOR à flexão, o módulo de elasticidade (MOE nessa mesma solicitação e a densidade aparente (12% para as madeiras juvenil e adulta. Os resultados mostraram que o MOE e o MOR da madeira juvenil foram menores e mais variáveis que aqueles obtidos para madeira adulta. A densidade apresentou a mesma tendência observada nas propriedades avaliadas no ensaio de flexão estática.

  19. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) female gametophyte and embryo pH changes during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Johnson, Shannon

    2009-06-01

    Stage-specific measurements of female gametophyte (FG) and embryo pH (hydrogen ion concentration) were made through the sequence of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed development. The FG tissue from two open-pollinated trees showed similar pH profiles starting at 5.5 shortly after fertilization, increasing to about 6.1 at stage 7, levelling off at 6.3-6.5 towards the end of development and dropping to 6.0 just before cone opening. Measurements of the chalazal end were 0.05-0.2 pH units less than the micropylar end through early-to-mid-development. In contrast, embryo pH maintained a nearly constant value near 7.0 through development. Profiles of pH through seed development were similar whether portrayed by date or stage of embryo present in the seed. The pH profiles assisted in the development of improved embryogenic tissue initiation techniques. When post-autoclaving maturation medium pH was raised from about 5.3 in control medium to 5.7 or 5.5-5.7 with 2(n-morpholino)ethanesulphonic acid, cotyledonary embryo yields increased.

  20. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities

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    Joshua W. Campbell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensively-managed pine (Pinus spp. have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine (P. taeda plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3–4 year old pine plantations and 9–10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.

  1. Influences of antibiotics on plantlet regeneration via organogenesis in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei; Latoya Harris; Ronald J. Newton

    2003-01-01

    Three antibiotics ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cefotaxime were evaluated for their effects on induction, growth, and differentiation of organogenic calli, as well as rooting of regenerated shoots of three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes. Of the antibiotics administered, cefotaxime maximally increased the frequency of callus formation and growth rate of organogenic calli, carbenicillin maximally increased the frequency of shoot regeneration and the average number of adventitious shoots per piece of organogenic callus, ampicillin maximally decreased the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots and mean number of roots per regenerated shoot, in comparison with antibiotic-free media. Compared with the control, ampicillin minimally increased the frequency of callus formation, cefotaxime minimally increased the frequency of shoot regeneration, and carbenicillin minimally decreased the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots in three loblolly pine genotypes tested. All three antibiotics increased the frequencies of callus formation and shoot regeneration, and reduced the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots suggested that the establishment of an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into loblolly pine need to select a suitable antibiotic. This investigation could be useful for optimizing genetic transformation of conifers.

  2. Soil Physical and Chemical Attributes and Their Relation to Pinus taeda Growth and Productivity. Atributos Físicos e Químicos do Solo e suas Relações com o Crescimento e a Produtividade do Pinus taeda

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    Antonio Francisco Jurado Bellote

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to evaluate the effect of soil chemical and physical attributes on the productivity of 20 year-old Pinus taeda stands planted on different soil types and with different growth rates, four sites were selected based on previous inventory, in two municipalities in the State of Paraná. Experimental plots were established on these areas where dominant trees were selected. Data on DBH and height were recorded and stem cross section disks at different heights were collected. Also, soil samples at different depths were collected. Growth variables and tree volumes were analyzed and correlations with soil chemical and physical traits were estimated. The results showed that wood production was influenced mainly by soil physical traits. Of special importance was the amount of moisture available in the soil and the resistance to root penetration. On poor sites, productivity can be
    increased by adopting some silvicultural measures such as pruning, thinning, fertilization and soil tillage.
    Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo na produtividade do Pinus taeda, plantado em diferentes tipos de solo e com ritmos de crescimento variados, foram selecionadas, através do inventário florestal, quatro plantios com 20 anos de idade, em dois municípios do Estado do Paraná. Nestes sítios foram demarcadas parcelas experimentais, selecionadas árvores representativas do extrato dominante, coletados dados dendrométricos de altura e diâmetro, discos do lenho de diferentes alturas do tronco e amostras de solo em diferentes profundidades. Os parâmetros de crescimento e volume das árvores foram analisados e correlacionados com as propriedades físicas e químicas do solo. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a produtividade de madeira é influenciada
    pelas propriedades, principalmente físicas, do solo, em especial pela quantidade de água dispon

  3. Hydrophobicity of an Entisol under loblolly pine (Pinus taeda plantation Hidrofobicidade em Neossolo litólico sob plantação de Pinus taeda

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    Claudia Maria Branco de Freitas Maia

    2010-10-01

    estruturas  químicas de ácidos húmicos extraídos de solos  coletados a três profundidades de um Neossolo sob plantação de Pinus taeda. Os resultados das análises  espectroscópicas e químicas (ultra-violeta,  fluorescência, ressonância paramagnética eletrônica e difração de raio-X indicaram que a ocorrência de  estruturas conjugadas, grupos aromáticos e radicais orgânicos livres e, portanto, maiores índices de  humificação, aumentaram com a profundidade do  solo. Grupos alifáticos na fração húmica estavam  mais concentrados nas camadas superficiais, o que pode ser explicado pelo constante aporte de liteira na superfície. Testes da repelência à água apontaram
    maior hidrofobicidade na superfície do solo, provavelmente devido a componentes não húmicos da matéria orgânica, tais como suberina e cutina.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.62.93

  4. INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES COMBINAÇÕES DE LÂMINAS DE Eucalyptus saligna E Pinus taeda EM PAINÉIS LVL

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    Marcos Theodoro Müller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the influence of the positioning of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda wood veneers on layers of laminated veneer lumber (LVL panels. The compositions were manufactured in six different combinations of five veneers of 3.2 mm thickness, glued with phenol-formaldehyde, resulting in treatments composed of wood of the same species or with a combination of two wood types. The evaluation of the proposed arrangements was performed under the characterization of physical properties (moisture content and density and mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity – MOE and modulus of rupture – MOR verified in flatwise and edgewise static bending tests. The results obtained indicated that, in most situations, the different positions of the veneers with higher density (in the outer, intermediate and inner layers influenced the mechanical properties of the panels. The influence detected was varied for MOE and MOR, especially when comparing the flatwise and edgewise test values. In certain positions, on the layers of the LVL compositions, the presence of eucalypt veneers resulted in stiffness and strength increases. However, the treatments formed by interposed veneers of eucalypt and pine demonstrated interesting performances for structural use, in either flatwise or edgewise position, once they present values of MOE and MOR that allow to distinguish them as 1st class, according to the North American standard APA/EWS PRL–501 (2001.

  5. Endophytic Bacteria from Pinus taeda L. as Biocontrol Agents of Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O'Donnell Bacterias Endófitas de Pinus taeda L. como Agentes de control Biológico de Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O'Donnell

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    Silvina Soria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O'Donnell, the pitch canker fungus, has been recently reported in Uruguay affecting Pinus taeda L. seedlings. The spread of this pathogen to plantations constitute a risk to forestry production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of live bacteria and their thermostable metabolites on F. circinatum growth in vitro. Four Bacillus subtilis strains and one of Burkholderia sp. isolated as P. taeda endophytes were evaluated as biological control agents of F. circinatum. Dual cultures between live bacteria and pathogen were performed. Furthermore, bacteria metabolites obtained from liquid cultures were sterilized and added to the culture media where fungus was grown. In this study all bacteria showed an antagonist effect on the pathogen growth arresting the mycelia at one cm of the edge of the bacteria colony. Bacteria thermostable metabolites reduced over 50% fungal growth. These results demonstrates that endophytic bacteria, well adapted to live in host tissues, constitute a good alternative to control F. circinatum affecting Pinus seedlings.La presencia de Fusarium circinatum Niremberg & O'Donnell, agente causal del cancro resinoso en pino, ha sido detectada recientemente en plántulas de Pinus taeda L. en Uruguay. La propagación de este patógeno en las plantaciones constituye un riesgo para la producción forestal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la capacidad inhibitoria de bacterias vivas y de sus metabolitos termoestables sobre el crecimiento de F. circinatum in vitro. Cuatro cepas de Bacillus subtilis y una de Burkholderia sp. aisladas como endófitas de P. taeda, fueron evaluadas como potenciales agentes de control biológico sobre F. circinatum. Para ello, se realizaron enfrentamientos directos entre las bacterias vivas y el micelio del patógeno. Por otra parte, los metabolitos bacterianos obtenidos de cultivos líquidos fueron esterilizados en autoclave y se incorporaron al

  6. GENOTYPE BY ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN Pinus taeda L. IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EAST BRAZIL

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    Estefano Paludzyszyn Filho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype x environment interactions of stem volume were investigated by assessing the variation in 46 open-pollinated loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. families from first-generation cloned seed orchard in four genetic trials in the south and south-east Brazil. They were used to obtain least squares and restricted maximum likelihood (REML estimates of variance components. Familie-by- trial interaction effects were evaluated by adjusting the mixed univariate model that contained data of two and four places tested by the likelihood ratio test. Breeding values from local data (univarate procedure and predicted to the others sites (multivariate procedure were obtained from best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP. The adjusted and average (obtained from local and predicted to other sites breeding values were used to select parents and trees. The interaction effects and the adjusting of the mixed models were statistically significant, respectively, by F test and by likelihood ratio test. The loss of potential gain, sustained by not selecting the best families by site was 3.2%. For parents, the loss in mean productivity by indirect selection was respectively 2.3%. In the individual tree selection for seedling seed orchard, no loss of potential gain was observed when selection was carried by average genetic breeding values. For clonal seed orchard with the selection of ten more greater genetic breeding values trees, the interaction cause a inflation of 2% in the average productivity. In this case, the selection by average breeding values was the best procedure and may prove to be a useful tool, in selection stem volume, when genotype x environment interaction is significant.

  7. DIAGRAMA DE MANEJO DA DENSIDADE PARA POVOAMENTO DE Pinus taeda L. CONDUZIDO SEM DESBASTE

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    Paulo Sérgio Pigatto Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed with the purpose of studying the efficiency of the models which express the density-diameter relationship in stands of Pinus taeda L., implanted in several spacing and handled in unthinning density, and were measured every year until the of 18 age. Results indicated that all of the sizedensity relationship of Tang model presented good statistical precision, was more efficient than the others, presenting excellent coefficient of determination (0.99, low standard error of estimate (0.0948, low coefficient of variation (1.17%, low bias (0.0086 and high efficiency (0.8976. The slope of the sizedensity didn¿t allow proving the universality of the self-tinning law, with value of this slope is equal -3/2. With help of the size-density model, 6 Indexes of Density of the Stands (IDPs were generated, with variation from the maximum 1400 to the minimum 600, with interval of class of IDP equal to 200, having as reference the standard diameter of 25 cm. The population¿s Density Management Diagram (DMD, elaborated for the dendrometric variables - average diameter, basal area and volume for hectare (by IDP - presented good efficiency with low mistake in the estimate of the values of these variables. Real volume and estimate volume per hectare in DMD presented an absolute difference of just -7.39 m3ha-1 and a relative difference of -1.79 %, showing a great precision of the DMD model. The estimates volume of DMD per hectare, in relation to the real values, presented a value of efficiency equal to 0.99, what indicates a high precision, and an X 2 value equal to 0.00034, not significant to 0.01% of probability, demonstrating that the real and the estimate values don't differ statistical amongst themselves.

  8. Osmotic measurements in whole megagametophytes and embryos of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Johnson, Shannon

    2009-06-01

    Water potential (Psi) and osmotic potential (Psis) were measured weekly through the sequence of seed development in megagametophytes of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). A Wescor 5500XRS vapor pressure osmometer, modified with a cycle hold switch, was used to measure Psi for whole megagametophytes containing embryos. The Psi measurements for megagametophytes with embryos removed were also attempted but readings were distorted due to cell lysates from the cut surfaces. Six seasonal sets of megagametophyte Psi profiles were generated. Megagametophytes from most of the trees examined showed a consistent Psi pattern: low measurements of -1.0 to -0.75 MPa during early embryo development in late June to early July when embryo Stages 1-2 occur; an increase for one to several weeks to levels of -0.5 to -0.75 MPa, beginning at Stages 3-5 when apical dome formation occurs; followed by a steady drop from -0.85 to -1.7 to -2.0 MPa from Stage 6 onward from late August until just before cone seed release. The Psis was measured for supernatant from centrifuged frozen-thawed megagametophyte tissue (embryos removed). Megagametophyte Psis profiles were similar for seeds analyzed from two trees and resembled Psi observations starting low, rising around Stages 4-7 and then undergoing a major reduction indicating a strong solute accumulation beginning at Stages 7-9.1. Somatic embryos stop growth prematurely in vitro at Stages 8-9.1. The major change in the accumulation of megagametophyte solutes at Stages 8-9.1 correlates with the halt in somatic embryo maturation and suggests that identifying, quantifying and using the major natural soluble compounds that accumulate during mid- to late-stage seed development may be important to improve conifer somatic embryo maturation.

  9. Expression patterns of conserved microRNAs in the male gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Christina R; Iriyama, Rie; Fernando, Danilo D

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate genes involved in various aspects of plant development, but their presence and expression patterns in the male gametophytes of gymnosperms have not yet been established. Therefore, this study identified and compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs from two stages of the male gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), which are the mature (ungerminated) and germinated pollen. Microarray was used to identify conserved miRNAs that varied in expression between these two stages of the loblolly pine male gametophyte. Forty-seven conserved miRNAs showed significantly different expression levels between mature and germinated loblolly pine pollen. In particular, miRNAs representing 14 and 8 families were up- and down-regulated in germinated loblolly pine pollen, respectively. qRT-PCR was used to validate their expression patterns using representative miRNAs. Target genes and proteins were identified using psRNATarget program. Predicted targets of the 22 miRNA families belong mostly to classes of genes involved in defense/stress response, metabolism, regulation, and signaling. qRT-PCR was also used to validate the expression patterns of representative target genes. This study shows that conserved miRNAs are expressed in mature and germinated loblolly pine pollen. Many of these miRNAs are differentially expressed, which indicates that the two stages of the male gametophyte examined are regulated at the miRNA level. This study also expands our knowledge of the male gametophytes of seed plants by providing insights on some similarities and differences in the types and expression patterns of conserved miRNAs between loblolly pine with those of rice and Arabidopsis.

  10. Back to nature: ecological genomics of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; Bower, Andrew D; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Coop, Graham; Neale, David B

    2010-09-01

    Genetic variation is often arrayed in latitudinal or altitudinal clines, reflecting either adaptation along environmental gradients, migratory routes, or both. For forest trees, climate is one of the most important drivers of adaptive phenotypic traits. Correlations of single and multilocus genotypes with environmental gradients have been identified for a variety of forest trees. These correlations are interpreted normally as evidence of natural selection. Here, we use a genome-wide dataset of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) typed from 1730 loci in 682 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees sampled from 54 local populations covering the full-range of the species to examine allelic correlations to five multivariate measures of climate. Applications of a Bayesian generalized linear mixed model, where the climate variable was a fixed effect and an estimated variance-covariance matrix controlled random effects due to shared population history, identified several well-supported SNPs associating to principal components corresponding to geography, temperature, growing degree-days, precipitation and aridity. Functional annotation of those genes with putative orthologs in Arabidopsis revealed a diverse set of abiotic stress response genes ranging from transmembrane proteins to proteins involved in sugar metabolism. Many of these SNPs also had large allele frequency differences among populations (F(ST) = 0.10-0.35). These results illustrate a first step towards a ecosystem perspective of population genomics for non-model organisms, but also highlight the need for further integration of the methodologies employed in spatial statistics, population genetics and climate modeling during scans for signatures of natural selection from genomic data.

  11. Isolamento e seleção de rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de Pinus taeda Isolation and selection of Pinus taeda growth promoting rhizobacteria

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    Juliana Margarido Fonseca Couto Brunetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos isolar e selecionar rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de P. taeda. O isolamento foi realizado a partir de mudas com 150 dias de idade, realizando-se a seleção por meio da inoculação dos isolados (10(8 u.f.c mL-1 na proporção de 0,1 mL de inóculo.cm-3 de substrato. Aos 150 dias de semeadura, avaliaram-se as seguintes variáveis: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro do coleto e pesos de matéria seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Entre 99 isolados testados em P. taeda, apenas seis (UFV-AL9, UFV-AM5, UFV-AM2, UFV-F3, UFV-G2 e UFV-G4 destacaram-se quanto à indução de crescimento e ao melhor índice de qualidade de muda. Não se observaram diferenças significativas entre a testemunha e os demais isolados testados.The objectives of this research were to isolate and select P. taeda growth promoting rhizobacteria. The bacteria were isolated from 150 day-old pine seedlings and the selection was carried out with the strains inoculation (10(8 u.f.c/mL in the proportion of 0.1 mL/cm³. After 150 days of sowing, aerial part height, stem diameter and roots and aerial part dry matter weight were evaluated. From the 99 tested strains, six (UFV AL9, UFV-AM5, UFV-AM2, UFV-F3, UFV-G2 and UFV-G4 stood out due to their capacity of stimulating the growth and quality improvement of P. taeda seedlings. Significant differences were not observed between the control and the other tested strains.

  12. ALTURA DE VOO DE ESCOLITÍNEOS (COLEOPTERA, SCOLYTINAE EM POVOAMENTO DE Pinus taeda L. NO SUL DO BRASIL

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    Leonardo Mortari Machado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scolytids (Curculionidae, Scolytinae are small borer beetles belonging to the order Coleoptera that develop within or under the bark of trees. In northern countries, these insects cause significant damage especially when outbreaks occur. In Brazil, in general, the damage is minor when compared to the northern hemisphere. Given the importance of subfamily Scolytinae, this paper aims at providing a better understanding of the behavior of Scolytids, mainly regarding the flight height in a stand of Pinus taeda L. For the execution of this work 72, intercept flight traps were installed in area belonging to the State Foundation for Agricultural Research (FEPAGRO, located in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul state. The treatments correspond to heights of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; 4.0; 4.5; 5.0; 5.5 and 6.0 meters. It was possible to capture: Hypothenemus eruditus in greater abundance at the range of 1 to 1.5 meters; Xyleborus ferrugineus , Xyleborinus gracilis and Xyleborus affinis to 0.5 meters; Xyleborinus saxeseni and Xylosandrus retusus with no preference. It is concluded that the range between 0.5 and 1.5 meters is ideal to analyze quantitatively the scolytids present in the Pinus taeda.

  13. MODELOS DE AFILAMENTO PARA Pinus taeda L. BASEADOS EM PONTOS DE MUDANÇA DE FORMA

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    Carlos Alberto Martinelli de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi concebido com os objetivos de determinar matematicamente os pontos de mudança da forma do fuste ( pmf , o número de mudanças na forma geométrica, ajustar e comparar modelos matemáticos para estimar os diâmetros ao longo do fuste de Pinus taeda L . Os dados foram amostrados em árvores que cresceram em povoamento implantado em espaçamento de 2,50 x 2,50 m e manejado com dois desbastes, aos 9 e 14 anos, e corte final aos 30 anos pertencentes à Klabin S.A., em Telêmaco Borba, estado do Paraná. Quarenta árvores das classes médias e dominantes foram abatidas e cubadas pelo Método de Smalian, nas posições fixas de 0,10 m; 0,30 m; 0,80 m; 1,30 m; e após em comprimentos de 1 em 1 m, até a altura total. Na parte relativa à copa, os pontos de medição foram deslocados para os entrenós e a seguir foram retiradas fatias para análise de tronco, resultando, quando considerada a idade, em conjunto de dados relativos a 649 árvores com idades entre 8 a 30 anos, das quais foram selecionadas aleatoriamente, 50 árvores em cada classe de pmf para modelagem. As árvores foram agrupadas segundo os pmf de acordo com as quantidades de pontos definidos pela segunda derivada do polinômio do 5° ajustado para cada árvore. Com base nas estatísticas de ajuste e precisão na análise gráfica dos resíduos, nas estatísticas viés ( v , média das diferenças ( md e desvio padrão das diferenças ( dpd foi selecionado o Polinômio de quinto grau para estimar os diâmetros em alturas relativas do tronco e, alternativamente, o modelo de Garay, seguido do modelo de Max e Burkhart com dois ou modificado para um segmento conforme o número de pmf definidos na derivada.

  14. Reserva mineral de potássio em Latossolo cultivado com Pinus taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jonathan Fernandes Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, aproximadamente 1,87 milhões de hectares são plantados com as espécies de Pinus, normalmente em solos pobres quimicamente. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar a mineralogia das frações areia, silte e argila e estimar a reserva mineral de K por diferentes métodos de extrações químicas em solo naturalmente pobre nesse nutriente e cultivado com Pinus taeda L., no Segundo Planalto Paranaense. Foram selecionadas cinco árvores com maior diâmetro (árvores dominantes, em uma área de 500 m², para abertura de uma trincheira (1,6 m na projeção da copa de cada árvore. Todos os perfis foram classificados como Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico típico e apresentaram similaridade na morfologia e na sequência dos horizontes, cujas profundidades médias foram: O = 0,04 m, A1 = 0-0,09 m, A2 = 0,09-0,24 m, BA = 0,24-0,43 m, B1 = 0,43-0,66 m e B2 = 0,66-1,60+ m. As amostras coletadas em cada horizonte foram submetidas a análises físicas (granulometria e químicas (pH, carbono orgânico, acidez potencial, Al3+ e bases trocáveis, P disponível, K total e não trocável, e as frações areia, silte e argila foram estudadas por difratometria de raios-X (DRX. As frações areia e silte dos solos apresentaram mineralogia bastante uniforme, com predomínio absoluto de quartzo e apenas ocorrência de discretas reflexões de mica por DRX. A fração argila também apresentou limitada ocorrência de minerais micáceos. Os tratamentos sequenciais para remoção de óxidos de Fe, gibbsita e caulinita foram eficientes para concentração de mica na fração argila, o que facilitou a identificação de biotita e muscovita por DRX. Os baixos teores de K não trocável obtidos com diferentes concentrações de HNO3 fervente (máximo de 91 mg kg-1 e de K total extraído com HF concentrado (máximo de 202,7 mg kg-1 foram consistentes com a pobreza das frações do solo em minerais primários, fontes desse nutriente. As correla

  15. Short-term impacts of nutrient manipulations on leaf gas exchange and biomass partitioning in contrasting 2-year-old Pinus taeda clones during seedling establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Tyree; John R. Seiler; Chris A. Maier

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a 1-year greenhouse experiment to assess the impact of nutrient manipulations on seedling growth, biomass partitioning, and leaf gas exchange between two fast growing Pinus taeda clones that differed in growth efficiency. After 1 year we observed significant treatment and treatment by clone effects on growth, biomass partitioning, and...

  16. Short-term impacts of soil amendments on belowground C cycling and soil nutrition in two contrasting Pinus taeda L. genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C Tyree; John R Seiler; Christopher Maier

    2011-01-01

    We monitored two Pinus taeda L. genotypes, planted in 170 L lysimeters, subjected to different combinations of fertilization and logging residue (LR) incorporation for 1 year. The objectives were to elucidate how soil amendments modified soil biological properties and belowground C cycling, and secondly, to determine if planting of contrasting genotypes have a...

  17. Soil change and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seedling growth following site preparation tillage in the Upper Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad M. Lincoln; Rodney E. Will; Lawrence A. Morris; Emily A. Carter; Daniel Markewtiz; John R. Britt; Ben Cazell; Vic Ford

    2007-01-01

    To determine the relationship between changes in soil physical properties due to tillage and growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings, we measured soil moisture and penetration resistance for a range of tillage treatments on two Upper Coastal Plain sites in Georgia and correlated these measurements to the growth of individual seedlings. The...

  18. PROPRIEDADES FÍSICO-MECÂNICAS DE PAINÉIS AGLOMERADOS COM Bambusa tuldoides E Pinus taeda

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    Weslley Wilker Corrêa Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the physical and mechanical properties of particleboards formed of bamboo (Bambusa tuldoides and pine (Pinus taeda and combinations between them. To this end, panels were made, defined by the use of each type of particle (pure or mixed, being set 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of proportion to the dry weight, total of 36 panels. The physical tests performed were the moisture content, mass density observed, absorption of water and swelling in thickness and the mechanics were static bending test, screw withdrawal test and internal bond. The results tested for simple correlation and regression analysis. In general, panels pure pine showed better results than just the panels formed by bamboo. The inclusion of bamboo decreases mainly the mechanical properties of panels. All panels were below the minimum standards for the physical and mechanical tests, only internal bond in panels of pine homogeneous had higher values than commercial standards.

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and assessment of factors influencing transgene expression in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This investigation reports a protocol for transfer and expression of foreign chimeric genes in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Transformation was achieved by co-cultivation of mature zygotic embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 which harbored a binary vector (pBI121) including genes for 3-glucuronidase (GUS) and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTI1). Factors influencing transgene expression including seed sources of loblolly pine, concentration of bacteria, and the wounding procedures of target explants were investigated. The expression of foreign gene was confirmed by the ability of mature zygotic embryos to produce calli in the presence of kanamycin, by histochemical assays of GUS activity, by PCR analysis, and by Southern blot. The successful expression of the GUS gene in different families of loblolly pine suggests that this transformation system is probably useful for the production of the genetically modified conifers.

  20. Avaliação de protetores físicos em semeadura direta de Pinus taeda L.

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    Vilmar Luciano Mattei

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O trabalho avalia a eficiência de protetores físicos de pontos, na implantação de Pinus taeda L. por semeadura direta. Como proteção foram utilizados o copo plástico, sem fundo, o  laminado de madeira e maravalha. Ambos colocados sobre pontos semeados com três  sementes cada. A análise de emergência, sobrevivência e número  de pontos com pelo menos uma planta, um ano após a semeadura,  demonstrou que a utilização de um protetor físico, é indispensável para evitar elevadas perdas de sementes, causadas por pássaros e pela movimentação do solo.

  1. 火炬松、湿地松和马尾松采穗圃营建技术%Building Techniques of Cuttings Orchard of Pinus taeda,Pinus elliottii and Pinus massoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来端

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of time and retention hei ght of topping on quantity,length and basal diameter of coppice shoot of Pinus taeda,Pinus elliottii and Pinus massonian a has been studied.The results showed that because of difference of b iological properties among three tree species, suitable time and retention heigh t of topping among three tree species are different.The suitable topping time o f Pinus taeda is August 20 to August 25,the best retention height of topping is 15 cm; The suitable topping time of Pinus masson iana is July 30, the best retention height of topping is 8 cm; The su itable topping time of Pinus elliottii is August 15 to Aug ust 20,the best retention height of topping is 15 cm.%通过不同剪顶时间和剪顶高度对火炬松、湿地松和马尾 松的萌条数量、长度和径粗的影响研究.结果表明:不同树种由于其生物学特性不同,适宜 的截顶时间、截顶高度表现不一致.火炬松适宜的截顶时间为8月20日至8月25日,截顶高度 以15 cm为最宜;马尾松适宜的截顶时间为7月30日,截顶高度为8 cm;湿地松适宜的截顶时 间为8月15日至8月20日,截顶高度为15 cm.

  2. Quantificação das perdas no desenvolvimento de Pinus taeda após o ataque de formigas cortadeiras

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    Edison Bisognin Cantarelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the main purpose was to quantify the diameter, height and productivity index losses in initial development in Pinus taeda seedlings in stands in Argentine, after leaf cutting ants attack. The treatments were: T1 = control without attack; T2 = attacked by ants; and T3 = sequential artificial deneedling. The three development stages of the plants in two distinct slopes were also evaluated. The results allow concluding that there is a significant reduction in Pinus taeda development when attacked by leaf cutting ants during the first 24 months. In the artificially deneedled plants, there was a significant reduction related to the ones deneedled by the ants, for all the analyzed variables

  3. Alelopatia de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de Avena strigosa Allelopathic of Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of Avena strigosa seedlings

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    Laércio Ricardo Sartor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de aveia preta comum (Avena strigosa. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Bioquímica e Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR, Campus de Pato Branco, utilizando o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com tratamento fatorial (bifatorial com parcela subdividida no tempo, com três repetições, sob condições de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade controladas. Os tratamentos foram compostos por cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de extrato bruto de acículas de pínus em estágio vegetativo (acícula verde, moderadamente decomposto (acícula seca e em decomposição avançada (acícula decomposta. As avaliações foram realizadas a cada 24 horas. Foram avaliados os parâmetros porcentagem de germinação, velocidade média de germinação e comprimento de radículas e epicótilos das plântulas de Avena strigosa. O estágio de acícula verde afetou significativamente as variáveis avaliadas e esse problema aumentou com a concentração do extrato.The purpose of this study was to verify the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract from the Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of black oat (Avena strigosa seedlings. The work was carried out at the Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory at the Federal Technological University of Paraná (UTFPR, Campus Pato Branco, using a completely randomized design with factorial distribution in three replicates, under temperature, humidity and light controlled conditions. The extract from the pine needles was composed of five percentages (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the crude extract (EB dilution, composed of distilled water + pine needles in vegetative stage (green needles, moderately decomposed (dry needles and in advanced decomposition (decomposed needles. The

  4. Patterns of population structure and environmental associations to aridity across the range of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L., Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; van Heerwaarden, Joost; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Nelson, C Dana; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; González-Martínez, Santíago C; Neale, David B

    2010-07-01

    Natural populations of forest trees exhibit striking phenotypic adaptations to diverse environmental gradients, thereby making them appealing subjects for the study of genes underlying ecologically relevant phenotypes. Here, we use a genome-wide data set of single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped across 3059 functional genes to study patterns of population structure and identify loci associated with aridity across the natural range of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Overall patterns of population structure, as inferred using principal components and Bayesian cluster analyses, were consistent with three genetic clusters likely resulting from expansions out of Pleistocene refugia located in Mexico and Florida. A novel application of association analysis, which removes the confounding effects of shared ancestry on correlations between genetic and environmental variation, identified five loci correlated with aridity. These loci were primarily involved with abiotic stress response to temperature and drought. A unique set of 24 loci was identified as F(ST) outliers on the basis of the genetic clusters identified previously and after accounting for expansions out of Pleistocene refugia. These loci were involved with a diversity of physiological processes. Identification of nonoverlapping sets of loci highlights the fundamental differences implicit in the use of either method and suggests a pluralistic, yet complementary, approach to the identification of genes underlying ecologically relevant phenotypes.

  5. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  6. Identification and quantitative analysis of stage-specific carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) zygotic embryo and female gametophyte tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Buchanan, Mike

    2008-07-01

    Stage-specific analyses of starch and 18 sugars, including pentoses, hexoses, disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols, were made throughout seed development for zygotic embryo and female gametophyte (FG) tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Tissue was most often analyzed in triplicate from two open-pollinated families grown in different locations and sampled in different years. Carbohydrates were analyzed by enzymatic assay, high performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For all carbohydrates quantified, peak concentrations were higher in embryo tissue than in FG tissue. Significant changes in starch and sugar concentrations occurred over time, with both seed collections showing similar trends in temporal changes. Although concentrations were not always similar, embryo and FG tissues generally showed similar patterns of change in starch and sugar concentrations over time. Total starch concentration was highest during early seed development and decreased as development progressed. The major sugars contributing to osmotic potential during early seed development were D-pinitol, sucrose, fructose and glucose. During mid-seed development, D-pinitol, sucrose, fructose, glucose, melibiose and raffinose provided major contributions to the osmotic environment. During late seed development, sucrose, raffinose, melibiose, stachyose and fructose were the major contributors to osmotic potential. These data suggest stage-specific media composition for each step in the somatic embryogenesis protocol.

  7. PRODUÇÃO DE Pinus taeda L. NA REGIÃO DE CAMBARÁ DO SUL, RS

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    César Augusto Guimarães Finger

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo estruturar a produção de uma floresta de Pinus taeda L., localizada na região de Cambará do Sul, RS, de acordo com a idade, potencial de produção dos sítios e manejo aplicado. Para tanto foram coletados dados em parcelas temporárias, permanentes e de análise de tronco. Funções matemáticas foram ajustadas para estimar o desenvolvimento do povoamento remanescente após o desbaste e o fator K-Magin foi usado para corrigir o volume dos desbastes, e variou de 0,76 a 0,78. Os resultados, agrupados em tabelas de produção para os sítios 16 a 28, apresentaram, respectivamente, volumes de 243,7 m3/ha e 911,0 m3/ha aos 16 anos de idade. O incremento médio anual nesta idade, considerando a idade de corte na empresa, atingiu 15,23 m3/ha/ano no índice de sítio 16 e 56,94 m3/ha/ano para o 28. Os resultados demonstraram, ainda, perda de produção pela execução de desbastes precoces nos sítios menos produtivos e tardios nos sítios mais produtivos.

  8. A comparison of the community diversity of foliar fungal endophytes between seedling and adult loblolly pines (Pinus taeda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oono, Ryoko; Lefèvre, Emilie; Simha, Anita; Lutzoni, François

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endophytes represent one of the most ubiquitous plant symbionts on Earth and are phylogenetically diverse. The structure and diversity of endophyte communities have been shown to depend on host taxa and climate, but there have been relatively few studies exploring endophyte communities throughout host maturity. We compared foliar fungal endophyte communities between seedlings and adult trees of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) at the same seasons and locations by culturing and culture-independent methods. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer region and adjacent partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (ITS-LSU amplicon) to delimit operational taxonomic units and phylogenetically characterize the communities. Despite the lower infection frequency in seedlings compared to adult trees, seedling needles were receptive to a more diverse community of fungal endophytes. Culture-free method confirmed the presence of commonly cultured OTUs from adult needles but revealed several new OTUs from seedling needles that were not found with culturing methods. The two most commonly cultured OTUs in adults were rarely cultured from seedlings, suggesting that host age is correlated with a selective enrichment for specific endophytes. This shift in endophyte species dominance may be indicative of a functional change between these fungi and their loblolly pine hosts.

  9. Alterações na Nutrição e na Produtividade do Pinus taeda L. Provocadas pela Aplicação de Resíduo Celulósico Nutrition and Productivity Alterations in the Pinus taeda L. Caused by Cellulose Residue Application

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    Celina Milani Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    alternatives there is an application proposal of the cellulose residues in the forest growing. Thus, an experiment composed by 5 treatments and 4 repetitions was done entirely randomized. It was installed in 1996, in Arapoti Municipal District, State of Paraná, Brazil. These treatments received increasing doses of cellulose residues, such as: 0 (testimony, 20, 40, 80 and 100 t.ha-1. This soil was classified as red-yellow Oxysol of medium texture and it is under the cultivation of Pinus taeda L. with space of 3 x 2 m. Evaluations for growing trees were done in the area, its nutritional status, biomass production in the different part of the trees, its accumulation, nutrient exportation and quantity of wood production. As a result, the treatment of the trees which received 80 t.ha-1 of residue, presented, till the age of 7 years, larger total elevation and BHP, better concentration of K, Ca, and Mg in aciculas, rising production of biomass in different parts, better accumulation of nutrients and a 147% gain in the production of wood stock. From these results it is possible to conclude that the application of the cellulose residues presented encouraging effects on the growth and nutrition of Pinus taeda L. increasing the production of biomass and wood volume.

  • Propiedades del suelo y productividad de Pinus taeda L. en la Mesopotamia Argentina

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    Rodolfo Andrés Martiarena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo fue establecer la vinculación entre  algunas características edáficas y el crecimiento de P. taeda, en su zona de plantación comercial en la Mesopotamia Argentina. La hipótesis es que la causa principal de la reducción de la productividad de las plantaciones es la profundidad de suelo y el volumen efectivo aprovechable por las plantas, y no el contenido de nutrientes. El trabajo se realizó entre los 28º 30’ S, en la provincia de Corrientes, hasta los 25º 30’ S, en la provincia de Misiones. Se seleccionaron 31 sitios donde, 1- se tomaron muestras de suelo para determinar nutrientes y densidad aparente, 2- se midieron las variables dasométricas de las plantaciones y se calculó el Índice de Sitio (IS, 3- se tomaron muestras foliares y se analizaron las concentraciones de C, N y P. El análisis estadístico se realizó con INFOSTAT 2.0. Los sitios se asignaron a tres grupos edafoclimáticos: 1 sitios con suelos rojos del Norte, 2 sitios con suelos pedregosos del Norte y, 3 sitios con suelos rojos del Sur. El crecimiento de las plantaciones de P. taeda fue menor (menor IS en los suelos pedregosos, con más nutrientes, una menor profundidad efectiva y un  menor volumen ocupado por la fracción fina. En la zona norte, la mayor oferta de nutrientes en los suelos pedregosos (respecto de los rojos, no resultó en un aumento en la concentración de nutrientes foliares. La menor capacidad de retención de agua y un menor volumen a ser explorado por las raíces de las plantas, constituyeron la principal limitante al crecimiento en los suelos pedregosos. A pesar de las diferencias en precipitación, todos los sitios correspondieron a la misma Zona de Vida Bosque Subtropical húmedo. Entre los suelos rojos profundos, de similar concentración y contenido de nutrientes, la zona Sur resultó la más favorable para el crecimiento (mayor IS. Esta respuesta en el menos lluvioso sur  puede relacionarse con una mayor demanda atmosf

  • Transcriptional control of monolignol biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: factors affecting monolignol ratios and carbon allocation in phenylpropanoid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anterola, Aldwin M.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Pinus taeda cell suspension cultures was carried out using quantitative real time PCR analyses of all known genes involved in the biosynthesis of the two monolignols, p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols (lignin/lignan precursors). When the cells were transferred to a medium containing 8% sucrose and 20 mm potassium iodide, the monolignol/phenylpropanoid pathway was induced, and transcript levels for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase were coordinately up-regulated. Provision of increasing levels of exogenously supplied Phe to saturating levels (40 mm) to the induction medium resulted in further up-regulation of their transcript levels in the P. taeda cell cultures; this in turn was accompanied by considerable increases in both p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohol formation and excretion. By contrast, transcript levels for both cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase were only slightly up-regulated. These data, when considered together with metabolic profiling results and genetic manipulation of various plant species, reveal that carbon allocation to the pathway and its differential distribution into the two monolignols is controlled by Phe supply and differential modulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase activities, respectively. The coordinated up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in the presence of increasing concentrations of Phe also indicates that these steps are not truly rate-limiting, because they are modulated according to metabolic demand. Finally, the transcript profile of a putative acid/ester O-methyltransferase, proposed as an alternative catalyst for O-methylation leading

  • Growth of bare root Pinus taeda, L. seedlings cultivated under five densities in nursery Crescimento de mudas em raiz nua de Pinus taeda, L. produzidas em cinco densidades no viveiro

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    José Geraldo de Araújo Carneiro

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings compete for nutrients, water and light. The available area for each seedling affects their behavior related to requirements for these resources. This experiment evaluated the influence of five plant densities on the growth of bare root Pinus taeda, L. seedlings in a nursery after outplanting. The analyzed characteristics were: height (H, root collar diameter (D, H/D ratio, and dry matter weight. Higher densities stimulated H growth and the lowest densities increased D average and dry matter weight and lowered the H/D ratio. Seedlings were distributed by H, D and H/D classes. Higher densities had a larger number of seedlings in larger H classes. Larger numbers of seedlings with larger D and lower H/D ratios were found in lower densities. Ten months after outplanting the seedlings grown in lower densities had higher survival percentages and growth. Some saplings of standardized heights were uprooted with the objective of studying their root systems. The lowest densities stimulated higher numbers of first and second order roots as well as fresh and dry matter weights of thin roots with mycorrhizae presence. In both parts of the experiment, the density of 278 seedlings m-2 yielded equivalent averages as compared to the lowest densities.Mudas competem por nutrientes, água e luz. A área de cada muda afeta seu comportamento na exigência destes recursos. Este experimento avaliou a influência de cinco densidades no crescimento de mudas em raiz nua de Pinus taeda, L. no viveiro e no campo. As características analisadas foram: altura da parte aérea (H, diâmetro de colo (D, relação H/D e pesos de matéria seca. Maiores densidades estimularam o crescimento em H, no viveiro. As mais baixas aumentaram as médias de D, pesos de matéria seca e diminuíram a relação H/D. Distribuíram-se as mudas em classes de H, D e relação H/D, para quantificar seu número, em cada classe. Maiores quantidades de mudas com mais elevados valores de D e com

  • Avaliação da reação de crescimento aos desbastes em Pinus taeda L. = Evaluation of the growth reaction to the thinning in Pinus taeda L.

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    Vitor Cezar Miessa Coelho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avalia o manejo de povoamentos de Pinus taeda L. sob quatro diferentes regimes de manejo: Tratamento 1: sem desbaste, povoamento com 32 anos; Tratamento 2: dois desbastes, povoamento com 36 anos; Tratamento 3: três desbastes, povoamento com 32 anos; Tratamento 4: quatro desbastes, povoamento com 30 anos. Foram coletados dados dessas florestas através do Trado de Presller e fatias de árvores derrubadas para Análise de Tronco Parcial. Com esses dados foram ajustadas funções de crescimento e produção de Prodan e Schumacher para o estudo do comportamento do crescimentoao longo do tempo e dentre os diferentes tratamentos. Os dados, na sua maioria, foram melhor ajustados pela função de Prodan. Foi calculada graficamente a idade de máxima produção biológica (MPB, que é indicada pelo ponto de máxima tangência da curva de crescimento e produção. Foi calculada a reação dos desbastes com base nos incrementos periódicos pós desbastes medidos considerando a última intervenção, o período entre as intervenções e o incremento posterior à intervenção, e comparados à idade de MPB. À medida em que avança a idade das árvores, os incrementos periódicos tendem a diminuir em função da entrada da árvore do período de senilidade. Os incrementos periódicos anuais tenderam a decrescer após a idade deMPB calculada. = This study evaluates the management of population of Pinus taeda under four different regimes: Treatment 1: without thinning and the population is 32 years old; Treatment 2:2 thinnings and the population is 36 years old; Treatment 3: three thinnings and 32 years old; Treatment 4:4 thinnings and 30 years old. Data were collected using the Presller’s auger and slices or discs from trees which wich were cut for Partial Log Analysis. With this data the functions for growth and production were adjusted by using Prodan and Shumacker’s function to study the behavior of the growth over time and among the

  • Microwave vacuum drying characteristics of Pinus massoniana wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xian-jun; Li Wen-jun; Zhang Bi-guang

    2007-01-01

    Microwave-vacuum (MV) drying characteristics of plantation Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) were studied experimentally for various levels of microwave radiation time, initial moisture content (MC), vacuum level and wood thickness. The results show that the process of MV drying for wood can be significantly divided into a short accelerating rate drying period, a long constant rate drying period and falling rate drying period, and the second drying period can extend to levels of mean MC below the fiber saturation point. With the increase of initial MC and microwave radiation time, the drying rate of wood increases significantly. The vacuum level affects the drying rate in a slightly positive way. Within the range of 2 to 6 cm, the effects of sample thickness on the drying rate can be negligible.

  • The bi-directional exchange of oxygenated VOCs between a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Rasmussen, R.; Baker, B.; Jardine, K.; Nemitz, E.

    2005-11-01

    Using new in-situ field observations of the most abundant oxygenated VOCs (methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, C3/C4 carbonyls, MVK+MAC and acetic acid) we were able to constrain emission and deposition patterns above and within a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation with a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) understory. During the day canopy scale measurements showed significant emission of methanol and acetone, while methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, acetaldehyde and acetic acid were mainly deposited during the day. All oxygenated compounds exhibited strong losses during the night that could not be explained by conventional dry deposition parameterizations. Accompanying leaf level measurements indicated substantial methanol and acetone emissions from loblolly pine. The exchange of acetaldehyde was more complex. Laboratory measurements made on loblolly pine needles indicated that acetaldehyde may be either emitted or taken up depending on ambient concentrations, with the compensation point increasing exponentially with temperature, and that mature needles tended to emit more acetaldehyde than younger needles. Canopy scale measurements suggested mostly deposition. Short-term (approx. 2 h) ozone fumigation in the laboratory had no detectable impact on post-exposure emissions of methanol and acetone, but decreased the exchange rates of acetaldehyde. The emission of a variety of oxygenated compounds (e.g. carbonyls and alcohols) was triggered or significantly enhanced during laboratory ozone fumigation experiments. These results suggest that higher ambient ozone levels in the future might enhance the biogenic contribution of some oxygenated compounds. Those with sufficiently low vapor pressures may potentially influence secondary organic aerosol growth. Compounds recently hypothesized to be primarily produced in the canopy atmosphere via ozone plus terpenoid-type reactions can also originate from the oxidation reaction of ozone with leaf surfaces and inside the leaf

  • Atmospheric carbon dioxide, irrigation, and fertilization effects on phenolic and nitrogen concentrations in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, F L; Maier, C A

    2001-06-01

    Concentrations of total soluble phenolics, catechin, proanthocyanidins (PA), lignin and nitrogen (N) were measured in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles exposed to either ambient CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]), ambient plus 175 or ambient plus 350 micromol CO(2) mol(-1) in branch chambers for 2 years. The CO(2) treatments were superimposed on a 2 x 2 factorial combination of irrigation and fertilization treatments. In addition, we compared the effects of branch chambers and open-top chambers on needle chemistry. Proanthocyanidin and N concentrations were measured in needles from branch chambers and from trees in open-top chambers exposed concurrently for two years to either ambient [CO(2)] or ambient plus 200 micromol CO(2) mol(-1) in combination with a fertilization treatment. In the branch chambers, concentrations of total soluble phenolics in needles generally increased with needle age. Concentrations of total soluble phenolics, catechin and PA in needle extracts increased about 11% in response to the elevated [CO(2)] treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on foliar lignin concentrations. Nitrogen concentrations were about 10% lower in needles from the elevated [CO(2)] treatments than in needles from the ambient [CO(2)] treatments. Soluble phenolic and PA concentrations were higher in the control and irrigated soil treatments in about half of the comparisons; otherwise, differences were not statistically significant. Needle N concentrations increased 23% in response to fertilization. Treatment effects on PA and N concentrations were similar between branch and open-top chambers, although in this part of the study N concentrations were not significantly affected by the CO(2) treatments in either the branch or open-top chambers. We conclude that elevated [CO(2)] and low N availability affected foliar chemical composition, which could in turn affect plant-pathogen interactions, decomposition rates and mineral nutrient cycling.

  • Influência da adição de serragem nas propriedades tecnológicas de painéis de madeira aglomerada de Pinus taeda / Influence of sawdust addition in the technological properties of Pinus taeda particleboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Torrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foram analisadas as propriedades físico-mecânicas de painéis de madeira aglomerada, de três camadas, produzidos em laboratório, com a adição de dois tipos de serragem obtidas em serrarias, as quais foram classificadas como tipo “fino” e “grosso” por meio de análise granulométrica. Três proporções de serragem (10, 20 e 30% foram adicionadas às partículas de madeira de Pinus taeda para a confecção dos painéis. Foram, também, confeccionados painéis sem resíduo, constituindo um experimento fatorial com sete tratamentos e três repetições. Utilizou-se adesivo de uréia-formaldeído na proporção de 10% e parafina na proporção de 1%. Os painéis foram produzidos com densidade nominal de 0,65 g/cm³ temperatura dos pratos da prensa de 160°C, pressão de prensagem de 40 Kgf/cm², tempo de prensagem de 8 minutos e tempo de fechamento da prensa de 40 segundos. Após a confecção, os painéis foram esquadrejados ficando com dimensões de 40 x 40 x 1,5 cm. Os ensaios de densidade aparente, estabilidade dimensional, flexão estática, tração perpendicular à superfície dos painéis e arrancamento de parafusos foram realizados de acordo com a norma norte-americana ASTM D 1037 – 93. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística entre tratamentos e entre fatores. Verificou-se que os painéis produzidos com adição de até 10% de serragem apresentaram qualidade semelhante aos produzidos apenas com partículas obtidas de madeira roliça, sendo assim uma alternativa para um melhor aproveitamento da serragem como matéria prima. Para maiores proporções, foi observado que um aumento da proporção de serragem causou diminuição das propriedades mecânicas e efeito negativo na estabilidade dimensional dos painéis

  • 1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase (IDS) is encoded by multicopy genes in gymnosperms Ginkgo biloba and Pinus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Kobayashi, Akio; Sando, Tomoki; Chang, Yung-Jin; Kim, Soo-Un

    2008-01-01

    Isoprenoids are synthesized through the condensation of five-carbon intermediates, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), derived from two distinct biosynthetic routes: cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) and plastidial 2-C-methyl-D: -erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways. 1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase (IDS; EC 1.17.1.2), which catalyzes the last step of MEP pathway, was cloned as a multicopy gene from gymnosperms Ginkgo biloba (GbIDS1, GbIDS2, and GbIDS2-1) and Pinus taeda (PtIDS1 and PtIDS2), and characterized. Phylogenetic tree constructed with other plant IDSs demonstrated gymnosperm IDSs were distinctively different from angiosperm IDSs. The gymnosperm IDS clade contained two subclades, one composed of GbIDS1 and PtIDS1, and the other composed of GbIDS2, GbIDS2-1, and PtIDS2. G. biloba IDSs, except GbIDS2-1, successfully complemented Escherichia coli DLYT1, a lytB disruptant, confirming the in vivo competency of isozymes. During the 4 weeks study period, although transcript levels of GbIDS1s were similar both in roots and leaves of cultured G. biloba embryo, the transcripts of GbIDS2 predominantly occurred in the embryo roots, where diterpene ginkgolides are biosynthesized. Levels of PtIDS2 transcripts in the diterpenoid resin-producing wood were 4-5 times higher than those in other tissues. Higher levels of GbIDS1 transcripts were induced by light, whereas those of GbIDS2 were increased by methyl jasmonate treatment. These results strongly imply GbIDS2 and PtIDS2 have high correlation with secondary metabolism. In Arabidopsis transient expression system, N-terminal 100 amino acid residues of GbIDS1 delivered fused GFP protein into chloroplast as well as cytosol and nucleus, whereas those of GbIDS2, GbIDS2-1, and two PtIDSs delivered GFP only into chloroplast.

  • Fungos Presentes em Acículas de Pinus taeda em Estágios Iniciais de Decomposição no Campo Fungi Present on Pinus taeda Needles in Early Stages of Decomposition in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Michelato Ghizelini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A atividade da micobiota na decomposição e mineralização da matéria orgânica é importante na ciclagem de nutrientes em florestas, garantindo sua produtividade e sustentabilidade. Este estudo determinou a diversidade de fungos durante a decomposição de acículas de Pinus taeda, em um plantio experimental com quatro anos de idade, em Três Barras, SC, Brasil. Acículas senescentes foram coletadas em árvores em novembro de 2003 e colocadas em sacolas seletivas para  microrganismos e deixadas sobre a serapilheira da floresta. O isolamento de fungos foi feito das acículas da primeira coleta (novembro de 2003 e das mantidas em sacolas, nos meses de fevereiro, maio e agosto de 2004. Fragmentos de acículas foram submetidos a 20 lavagens sucessivas em água destilada estéril e implantados em placas de petri contendo meio extrato de malte 2 %. As colônias encontradas foram purificadas, identificadas e preservadas, perfazendo um total de 1.055, pertencentes a 13 fungos: Acremonium sp., lternaria sp., Cladosporium sp., Colletotrichum p., picoccum sp., Fusarium sp., liocladium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp., Pestalotia sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Trichoderma sp. e Verticillium sp. Os fungos Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp. e Verticillium sp. foram significativamente mais freqüentes. Considerou-se que a diversidade fúngica existente é suficiente para o início da decomposição das acículas, pela presença de fungos celulolíticos.
    Knowing of the dependence between local area productivity, nutrient cycling and litter decomposition process, the knowledge of the mycobiota responsible for decomposition is the right way to obtain answers about forest’s productivity and nutrient’s demand. This study determined the fungal diversity during litter decomposition of needle

  • EFECTO DEL RALEO SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y LA DENSIDAD DE LA MADERA DE Pinus taeda IMPLANTADO EN MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Martiarena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El mayor incremento en crecimiento de la plantación puede causar variación en las propiedades físicas de la madera, pudiendo disminuir la calidad de la misma para la industria. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar el efecto de los tratamientos de raleo sobre el crecimiento y densidad de la madera de Pinus taeda implantado en Misiones, Argentina (25º 59’S - 54º24’O. La plantación se estableció en 1985 con densidad inicial de 1644 pl.ha -1 y se manejó con tres intensidades de raleo (0, 33 y 66 % del área basal del testigo sin ralear, bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar (3 bloques. A los 20 años se efectuó tala rasa, cuyas densidades eran 711 (0 %, 364 (33 % y 122 (66 % plantas por hectárea, momento en el cual se seleccionaron 45 árboles para determinar la densidad básica de la madera. La misma se determinó a través de la realización de 2.700 probetas. El crecimiento de la plantación fue afectado por la intensidad de raleo, registrando diámetros promedio de 28,7, 34,8 y 45,9 cm, respectivamente, en los tratamientos 0, 33 y 66 % de raleo. El volumen de la plantación, al momento del apeo, fue superior en el tratamiento sin raleo, no obstante el tratamiento 66 % de raleo generó mayor cantidad de madera de grandes dimensiones. La densidad básica como promedio simple y ponderado por volumen no presentó diferencias significativas entre tratamientos. Los valores de densidad ponderada fueron de 0,406, 0,418 y 0,420 g.cm -3 para los tratamientos 0, 33 y 66 % de raleo, respectivamente, mientras que el análisis de correlación entre diámetro y densidad no fue significativo. El estudio mostró que la intensidad de raleo puede ser manejada para maximizar la producción, manteniendo idéntica la calidad de la madera para la industria.

    1. Genetic effects on total phenolics, condensed tannins and non-structural carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Aspinwall, Michael J; King, John S; Booker, Fitzgerald L; McKeand, Steven E

      2011-08-01

      Carbon allocation to soluble phenolics (total phenolics, proanthocyanidins (PA)) and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; starch and soluble sugars) in needles of widely planted, highly productive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact stand resistance to herbivory, and biogeochemical cycling in the southeastern USA. However, genetic and growth-related effects on loblolly pine needle chemistry are not well characterized. Therefore, we investigated genetic and growth-related effects on foliar concentrations of total phenolics, PA and TNC in two different field studies. The first study contained nine different genotypes representing a range of genetic homogeneity, growing in a 2-year-old plantation on the coastal plain of North Carolina (NC), USA. The second study contained eight clones with different growth potentials planted in a 9-year-old clonal trial replicated at two sites (Georgia (GA) and South Carolina (SC), USA). In the first study (NC), we found no genetic effects on total phenolics, PA and TNC, and there was no relationship between genotype size and foliar biochemistry. In the second study, there were no differences in height growth between sites, but the SC site showed greater diameter (diameter at breast height (DBH)) and volume, most likely due to greater tree mortality (lower stocking) which reduced competition for resources and increased growth of remaining trees. We found a significant site × clone effect for total phenolics with lower productivity clones showing 27-30% higher total phenolic concentrations at the GA site where DBH and volume were lower. In contrast to the predictions of growth-defense theory, clone volume was positively associated with total phenolic concentrations at the higher volume SC site, and PA concentrations at the lower volume GA site. Overall, we found no evidence of a trade-off between genotype size and defense, and genetic potential for improved growth may include increased allocation to some

    2. Avaliação da Dispersão de Sementes de Pinus taeda L. pela Análise dos Anéis de Crescimento de Árvores de Regeneração Natural

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      Mario Tomazello Filho

      Full Text Available RESUMO As árvores de Pinus taeda – introduzidas no Brasil em 1880 e em ensaios experimentais em 1936 – têm sido relacionadas na literatura especializada ao processo de invasão biológica de algumas áreas de campos gerais e de altitude dos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, de cerrado no estado de São Paulo, de restinga no estado de Santa Catarina e de pampas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os anéis de crescimento anuais formados no lenho das árvores de Pinus taeda constituem importante ferramenta na avaliação do processo de invasão biológica. Com esse objetivo, no presente trabalho avaliou-se a dispersão espacial-temporal de sementes analisando-se os anéis de crescimento do lenho de árvores de Pinus taeda de plantações e de regeneração natural na região de Faxinal do Céu, estado do Paraná. Os resultados possibilitaram determinar a idade e a taxa de crescimento do tronco das árvores de Pinus taeda de plantações, a data da germinação, a área de dispersão das sementes e a taxa de crescimento das árvores de regeneração natural. Os resultados permitem, da mesma forma, discutir o processo de invasão de árvores de Pinus taeda pela dispersão das sementes em áreas limítrofes às plantações florestais.

    3. Conformational behaviour of humic substances at different depths along a profile of a Lithosol under loblolly (Pinus taeda) plantation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Conte, P.; Maia, C. M. B. F.; de Pasquale, C.; Alonzo, G.

      2009-04-01

      The conformation of natural organic matter (NOM) plays a key role in many physical and chemical processes including interactions with organic and inorganic pollutants and soil aggregates stability thus directly influencing soil quality. NOM conformation can be studied by solid state NMR spectroscopy with cross polarization and magic angle spinning (CPMAS NMR). In the present study we applied CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy on three humic acid fractions (HA) each extracted from a different horizon in a Lithosol profile under Pinus taeda. Results showed that the most superficial HA was also the most aliphatic in character. Amount of aromatic moieties and hydrophilic HA constituents increased along the profile. Cross polarization (TCH) and longitudinal relaxation protons times in the rotating frame (T1rho(H)) were measured and compared only for the NMR signals generated by carboxyls and alkyls. This because the signal intensity for the aromatic, C-O and C-N systems was very low, thereby preventing suitable evaluation of TCH and T1rho(H) values for such systems. The cross polarization times of carboxyls decreased, whereas those of the alkyl moieties increased with depth. Conversely, T1rho(H) values increased for both COOH and alkyl groups along the profile. Polarization transfer from protons to carbons is affected by the dipolar interactions among the nuclei. The stronger the H-C dipolar interaction, the faster is the rate of the energy exchange. All the factors affecting the dipolar interaction strength also influence the rate of magnetization transfer. Among the others, fast molecular tumbling and poor proton density around the carbons are responsible for long TCH values. Molecular tumbling and proton density also affect T1rho(H) values. Namely, the larger the molecular tumbling and the proton density, the faster is the proton longitudinal relaxation rate in the rotating frame (shorter T1rho(H) values). The decrease of TCH values of COOH groups along the profile was

    4. Propiedades del suelo y sus relaciones con el IS en plantaciones de Pinus taeda L. en la Mesopotamia Argentina

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rodolfo A. Martiarena; Jorge L. Frangi; Alejandra Von Wallis; Marcelo F. Arturi; Hugo E. Fassola; Roberto A. Fernandez

      2014-01-01

      This paper was aimed at establishing the relations between some soil properties and the growth of P. taeda on its main area of commercial plantation in Argentine Mesopotamia. It was hypothesized that main cause of productivity reduction is soil depth and effective plant- available soil volume rather than nutrient content. The study area was located in Corrientes and...

    5. On the Complementary Relationship Between Nitrogen and Water Use Efficiencies Among Pinus taeda L. Leaves Grown Under Ambient and Enriched CO2 Environments

      Science.gov (United States)

      Palmroth, S.; Katul, G. G.; Maier, C.; Ward, E.; Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Oren, R.

      2009-12-01

      Understanding leaf water and nitrogen use strategies is important for predicting vegetation response to climate change. To address this issue from a modeling perspective, two specific hypotheses on the complementary relationship between marginal nitrogen use efficiency (η) and marginal water use efficiency (λ) are formulated based on optimality principles. When a time scale separation exists between variations in stomatal conductance (less than hourly) and in foliar nitrogen (exceeding daily), optimal resource use implies that η and λ1/2 are complementary (hypothesis 1), and that increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration increases both η and λ (hypothesis 2). These two hypotheses are explored at the leaf scale using an extensive gas exchange dataset for Pinus taeda L. collected as part of the Duke Forest Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. At Duke FACE, trees are growing under elevated atmospheric CO2, soil nitrogen fertilization, or their combination. The observed light-saturated net photosynthesis (Asat) and foliar N in P. taeda at various canopy positions span a significant proportion of the entire range of values observed globally across species and functional types. This wide spread in Asat and foliar N for an individual species allows examining linkages between η and λ. When leaf temperature effects on the physiological parameters are accounted for, the gas exchange data are consistent with the two theory-based hypotheses. Thus, the linkages quantified between η and λ can be used to constrain models of the coupled carbon-nitrogen-water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems.

    6. Radial variation of wood physical properties in Pinus patula growing in Mozambique

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Claudio Gumane Francisco Juizo

      2015-09-01

      Full Text Available  This study aimed to evaluate wood physical properties of Pinus patula, aged 38, from a forest stand located in Machipanda, central region of Mozambique. Determination of physical properties, such as basic specific gravity, shrinkage, and moisture content of wood in the pith-bark followed the recommendations of the Panamerican Standard - COPANT. Results showed statistically significant differences at significance level of 5%, in the radial direction for the shrinkage coefficient in the pith-bark. Radial and tangential shrinkage values were 6.06 and 8.80% in juvenile wood and 6.18 and 8.65% in adult wood, respectively, with anisotropy coefficient of 1.43 for juvenile wood and 2.44 for adult wood. Pinus patula growing in Inhamacari forest shows stable wood at age 38. It can be used for structural purposes and for manufacture of joinery and furniture.

    7. Discovering candidate genes that regulate resin canal number in Pinus taeda stems by integrating genetic analysis across environments, ages, and populations

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Westbrook, JW; Walker, AR; Neves, LG; Munoz, P; Resende, MFR; Neale, DB; Wegrzyn, JL; Huber, DA; Kirst, M; Davis, JM; Peter, GF

      2014-09-30

      Genetically improving constitutive resin canal development in Pinus stems may enhance the capacity to synthesize terpenes for bark beetle resistance, chemical feedstocks, and biofuels. To discover genes that potentially regulate axial resin canal number (RCN), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4027 genes were tested for association with RCN in two growth rings and three environments in a complex pedigree of 520 Pinus taeda individuals (CCLONES). The map locations of associated genes were compared with RCN quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in a (P.taedaxPinuselliottii)xP.elliottii pseudo-backcross of 345 full-sibs (BC1). Resin canal number was heritable (h(2)0.12-0.21) and positively genetically correlated with xylem growth (r(g)0.32-0.72) and oleoresin flow (r(g)0.15-0.51). Sixteen well-supported candidate regulators of RCN were discovered in CCLONES, including genes associated across sites and ages, unidirectionally associated with oleoresin flow and xylem growth, and mapped to RCN QTLs in BC1. Breeding is predicted to increase RCN 11% in one generation and could be accelerated with genomic selection at accuracies of 0.45-0.52 across environments. There is significant genetic variation for RCN in loblolly pine, which can be exploited in breeding for elevated terpene content.

    8. EFFECTIVENESS OF A OIL RESIDUE FROM PETROLEUM ON DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF Pinus sp. (Pinus AND Mimosa scabrella Bentham (Bracatinga WOOD

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Alexandre Florian da Costa

      2010-08-01

      Full Text Available In search for alternative uses of a petroliferous oily residue known as “LCO” (Liquid Cycle Oil, its capacity to improve the dimensional stability of the wood was evaluated using Pinus sp. (pinus and Mimosa scabrella Bentham (bracatinga. The LCO was tested in its original composition and also diluted in different proportions into a commercial kerosene. The dimensional stability in the three anatomic axis, volumetric changes, shrinkage and anisotropy coefficients, basic density and 12% relative humidity density changes were evaluated, in different stages during the investigation process. The results show no significant differences in maximum swelling and shrinkage between treated and untreated wood blocks at 5% probability level for both species. However, a reduction in the shrinkage coefficient was observed with the increase of LCO concentration, for both species. In general, pinus showed lowest values in all parameter evaluated. The shrinkage and anisotropy coefficient were higher for bracatinga than pinus, nevertheless, no significant differences were observed between treated and untreated wood blocks. These results indicated that changes between tangential and radial faces were minimal, possible due to a poor penetration of LCO into the cell walls. This result, as a consequence, could be associated with a weak performance of the tested chemical, which could not improve the dimensional stability of wood for both species. The increasing LCO concentrations increased the density of both species at 12% relative humidity. This result could be associated to the presence of part of the chemical remaining in the walls of the cellular lumen and the resiniferous channels. Besides, the external aspect of the treated wood was also other restrictive factor to the use of LCO.

    9. Laboratory Evaluation of the Anti-stain Efficacy of Crude Wood Vinegar for Pinus densiflora

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sabiha Salim

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available In Korea, Pinus densiflora is one of the most important indigenous tree species in terms of making high-value wood products. Therefore, Korean sawmills exercise extreme caution to prevent fungal discoloration such as that caused by sapstains and molds on the timber. In this study, the effectiveness of using natural crude wood vinegar to inhibit sapstains and molds, especially on Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine was examined. Pinus densiflora wood samples were dipped in absolute and diluted wood vinegar at different concentrations (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1; deionized water to wood vinegar dilution ratio for 3 minutes and immediately air-dried. In addition, volatile wood vinegar was also used in this study to imitate the condition of wood vinegar when exposed to open air. The degree of discoloration was examined and evaluated every 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks according to the ASTM D4445-91 Standard Method for laboratory test. Crude wood vinegar inhibited sapstains more efficiently than it inhibited molds. Wood vinegar at a 1:1 concentration was found to be the most optimum treatment for inhibiting sapstains for at least 8 weeks.

    10. Extracting DNA from submerged pine wood.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Reynolds, M Megan; Williams, Claire G

      2004-10-01

      A DNA extraction protocol for submerged pine logs was developed with the following properties: (i) high molecular weight DNA, (ii) PCR amplification of chloroplast and nuclear sequences, and (iii) high sequence homology to voucher pine specimens. The DNA extraction protocol was modified from a cetyltrimehtylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by adding stringent electrophoretic purification, proteinase K, RNAse, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Gene Releaser. Chloroplast rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) could be amplified. Nuclear ribosomal sequences had >95% homology to Pinus taeda and Pinus palustris. Microsatellite polymorphism for PtTX2082 matched 2 of 14 known P. taeda alleles. Our results show DNA analysis for submerged conifer wood is feasible.

    11. Woody species richness and abundance in a reforestation of Pinus taeda L. and an Araucaria Forest in the Center - East Region of Paraná State, BrazilRiqueza e abundância de espécies lenhosas em reflorestamento de Pinus taeda L. e Floresta Ombrófila Mista no Centro - Leste do Estado do Paraná

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gabriela Oliveira Scolari

      2010-02-01

      Full Text Available This study was conducted in two sites (secondary forest and reforestation of Pinus taeda in the Ecological Park of Klabin S. A (Telêmaco Borba, Paraná, Brazil. Six plots were distributed at each site with the aim of record species richness and abundance and search for correlations with to canopy cover, distance from the forest edge and thickness of litter layer, as well as to the dispersal syndrome and propagule size. We sampled 134 individuals belonging to 39 species. Litter did not affect richness and abundance of species at both sites, but richness was positively correlated with canopy cover and distance from the edge. The prevalent dispersion syndrome in both areas was zoochory and diaspores size did not differ between studied sites.Este estudo foi realizado em duas áreas distintas (floresta secundária e um reflorestamento de Pinus taeda no Parque Ecológico da Klabin S. A (Telêmaco Borba, PR, com seis parcelas em cada local. O objetivo foi averiguar a riqueza e abundância de espécies lenhosas, relacionando-as à cobertura do dossel, distância da borda e quantidade de serapilheira, bem como às síndromes de dispersão ocorrentes e ao tamanho dos propágulos. Foram amostrados 134 indivíduos, pertencentes a 39 espécies. A serapilheira não influenciou a riqueza e abundância das espécies em ambos locais, entretanto a riqueza se correlacionou positivamente com a cobertura do dossel e a distância da borda. A síndrome de dispersão predominante nas duas áreas foi a zoocoria, não ocorrendo diferenças no tamanho dos diásporos para os sítios estudados.

    12. DETERMINING THE TRANSITION AGE FROM JUVENILE TO MATURE WOOD IN Pinus patula SCHL. et CHAM.

      OpenAIRE

      David Josué Meza Juárez; J. Jesús Vargas Hernández; Javier López Upton; Humberto Vaquera Huerta; Amparo Borja de la Rosa

      2005-01-01

      In order to compare several criteria to estimate the transition age from juvenile to mature wood formation in a 16-year-old Pinus patula plantation, radial trends of latewood proportion, wood density and tracheid length were identified in a sample of 100 trees. A wood sample from each tree was taken with an increment borer at 50 cm stem height. Latewood proportion increased gradually from pith to bark, but after 14 years old showed a higher rate of increase; wood density decreased initially a...

    13. Experimental Test of Heat Treatment Effect on Physical Properties of Red Oak (Quercus falcate Michx. and Southern Pine (Pinus taeda L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Derya Sevim Korkut

      2014-11-01

      Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment and compression on the swelling and surface roughness of Southern red oak (Quercus falcate Michx. and Southern pine (Pinus taeda L.. Specimens were exposed to temperature levels of 110 °C or 200 °C for 8 h before they were compressed using 2.5 MPa pressure for 5 min. Swelling values of the control and heat-treated samples in three grain orientations were evaluated by soaking them in water for 48 h. A stylus method was employed to determine the surface characteristics of the samples. Three main roughness parameters, namely mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra, mean peak-to-valley height (Rz, and maximum roughness (Rmax were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on surface characteristics of the samples. Oak and pine specimens had 39.8% and 28.7% lower tangential swelling values, respectively, than those of control samples as a result of exposure to a temperature of 200 °C. Heat treatment did not make any significant difference on surface quality. Micrographs taken from cross sections of the specimens revealed that there was some cell distortion and modification due to heat treatment as well as compression. Combination of heat treatment and compression can be considered an alternative method to improve certain physical properties of these two species.

    14. RELAÇÕES ENTRE AS DIMENSÕES DA COPA E A ALTURA DAS ÁRVORES DOMINANTES EM POVOAMENTOS DE Pinus taeda L.

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      Veridiana Padoin

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Aiming at describing and modeling the morphometric relationships among the crown diameter, the crown percentage, the length of the crown exposed to light and the height of the dominant trees in stand of Pinus taeda L., one hundred and eighty seven sample units were studied considering the type proposed by Prodan, modified for twelve trees, distributed on good and bad stands. In each sample unit, two dominant trees were identified and the dimensions of the diameter at breast height, the total height, the crown lengths and the length of crown exposed to light and the crown diameter under eight rays were measured. Results allowed concluding that the crown diameter and the length of the crown exposed to light grow with the increase of the dominant height, and the two relationships can be described with good statistical precision by a curvilinear mathematical model. The relationship of the crown percentage with the dominant height presented high statistical significance described by a decreasing curvilinear model, having been identified by analysis of covariance three different groups of curves according to the place of origin of the data. The crown percentage decreases with the increase of the dominant height.

    15. Desenvolvimento de PVC reforçado com resíduos de Pinus para substituir madeira convencional em diversas aplicações Development of PVC/wood composites for the replacement of conventional wood products

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antonio Rodolfo Jr.

      2006-03-01

      Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a viabilidade técnica da obtenção de compósitos lignocelulósicos de PVC, utilizando-se resíduo de Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda como carga reforçativa. Foi desenvolvido um processo simples e economicamente viável de tratamento de resíduos industriais desta madeira, processo este baseado na secagem e revestimento das partículas com lubrificantes funcionais e agentes de acoplamento utilizados como aditivos na indústria do PVC, bem como no uso de equipamentos tradicionais da indústria de processamento deste termoplástico. Foram avaliados os efeitos da incorporação da farinha de madeira em concentrações variáveis e do tipo de agente de tratamento superficial utilizado na processabilidade do composto de PVC, bem como em propriedades finais do compósito. Os resultados mostram que o desenvolvimento deste tipo de material compósito é uma alternativa viável para a substituição da madeira convencional em diversas aplicações.This work evaluates the technical viability of lignocellulosic vinyl composites, using residues of Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda as the reinforcement fiber. A simple and economically viable process for the treatment of these industrial residues was developed. The process includes sieving, drying and treating the wood particles. Treatment is made with functional lubricants and coupling agents used as additives in the PVC industry. Extrusion was performed using traditional equipment available in the Brazilian PVC processing industry. The effect on the processability of the variable concentrations of the residues incorporated and the type of agent used for the treatment had been evaluated, as well as in the final properties of the composite. The results show that the development of this kind of composite material is a viable alternative for the substitution of conventional wood in diverse applications.

    16. Biodegrading effects of some rot fungi on Pinus caribaea wood

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      STORAGESEVER

      2008-05-16

      May 16, 2008 ... Department of Forestry and Environment, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port ... Wood decay varied along the tree bole but was not related ... same s that the rate of wood degradation appeared to be.

    17. Chemical composition changes in eucalyptus and pinus woods submitted to heat treatment.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brito, J O; Silva, F G; Leão, M M; Almeida, G

      2008-12-01

      This study investigated the influence of heat treatment on the chemical composition of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis woods to understand its role in wood processing. E. saligna and P. caribaea var. hondurensis woods were treated in a laboratorial electric furnace at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C to induce their heat treatment. The chemical composition of the resulting products and those from original wood were determined by gas chromatography. Eucalyptus and Pinus showed a significant reduction in arabinose, manose, galactose and xylose contents when submitted to increasing temperatures. No significant alteration in glucose content was observed. Lignin content, however, increased during the heat process. There was a significant reduction in extractive content for Eucalyptus. On the other hand, a slight increase in extractive content has been determined for the Pinus wood, and that only for the highest temperature. These different behaviors can be explained by differences in chemical constituents between softwoods and hardwoods. The results obtained in this study provide important information for future research and utilization of thermally modified wood.

    18. Strength reduction in slash pine (Pinus elliotii) wood caused by decay fungi

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zhong Yang; Zhehui Jiang; Chung Y. Hse; Todd F. Shupe

      2009-01-01

      Small wood specimens selected from slash pine (Pinus elliotii )trees at three growth rates (fast, medium, and slow) were inoculated with brown-rot and white-rot fungi and then evaluated for work to maximum load (WML), modulus of rupture (MOR), and modulus of elasticity (MOE). The experimental variables studied included a brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum...

    19. Niche of insect borers within Pinus massoniana infected by pine wood nematode

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      SONG Jiying; LUO Youqing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiaosu; CHEN Weiping; JIANG Ping

      2006-01-01

      In November 2003 and June 2004,the insect borers and their spatial distribution within Pinus massoniana were investigated in Zhoushan City,in East China's Zhejiang Province,where pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are typically found.The niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying trees were computed.Results show that five insect species infect and damage Pinus massoniana,which had been infected by pine wood nematodes,among which four are wood boring beetles and one termite.Species within host trees vary from winter to summer and all the species have their own niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap.They can achieve competitive equilibrium and coexistence according to their biological characteristics and life habits.

    20. DNA sequence variation and selection of tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms at candidate genes for drought-stress response in Pinus taeda L.

      Science.gov (United States)

      González-Martínez, Santiago C; Ersoz, Elhan; Brown, Garth R; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Neale, David B

      2006-03-01

      Genetic association studies are rapidly becoming the experimental approach of choice to dissect complex traits, including tolerance to drought stress, which is the most common cause of mortality and yield losses in forest trees. Optimization of association mapping requires knowledge of the patterns of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium and the selection of suitable polymorphisms for genotyping. Moreover, standard neutrality tests applied to DNA sequence variation data can be used to select candidate genes or amino acid sites that are putatively under selection for association mapping. In this article, we study the pattern of polymorphism of 18 candidate genes for drought-stress response in Pinus taeda L., an important tree crop. Data analyses based on a set of 21 putatively neutral nuclear microsatellites did not show population genetic structure or genomewide departures from neutrality. Candidate genes had moderate average nucleotide diversity at silent sites (pi(sil) = 0.00853), varying 100-fold among single genes. The level of within-gene LD was low, with an average pairwise r2 of 0.30, decaying rapidly from approximately 0.50 to approximately 0.20 at 800 bp. No apparent LD among genes was found. A selective sweep may have occurred at the early-response-to-drought-3 (erd3) gene, although population expansion can also explain our results and evidence for selection was not conclusive. One other gene, ccoaomt-1, a methylating enzyme involved in lignification, showed dimorphism (i.e., two highly divergent haplotype lineages at equal frequency), which is commonly associated with the long-term action of balancing selection. Finally, a set of haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs) was selected. Using htSNPs, a reduction of genotyping effort of approximately 30-40%, while sampling most common allelic variants, can be gained in our ongoing association studies for drought tolerance in pine.

    1. Pinus taeda clones and soil nutrient availability: effects of soil organic matter incorporation and fertilization on biomass partitioning and leaf physiology.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tyree, Michael C; Seiler, John R; Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt H

      2009-09-01

      The combined effects of intensive management and planting of improved seedlings have led to large increases in productivity on intensively managed pine forests in the southeastern United States. To best match clones to particular site conditions, an understanding of how specific clones respond to changes in nutrition in terms of biomass partitioning, leaf physiology and biochemistry will be necessary. This study measured the response of biomass partitioning, light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(Sat)) and photosynthetic capacity to a range in soil fertility and fertilization between two contrasting Pinus taeda L. clone ideotypes: a 'narrow crown' clone (NC) that allocates more resources to stem growth and a 'broad crown' clone (BC) that allocates more resources to leaf area (LA). Under field conditions, we found consistent clone by environment (i.e., varying nutrient regimes) interactions in biomass as well as leaf physiology. Nutrient limitations induced by logging residue incorporation resulted in a 25% loss in stem growth in BC, while NC showed no response. We postulated that the decrease in BC was due to the differences in canopy architecture leading to a reduced canopy CO(2) assimilation, as well as to increased belowground maintenance costs associated with fine-root production. In contrast, N and P additions resulted in a 21% greater increase in stem volume in NC relative to BC. Fertilization increased A(Sat) temporarily in both clones, but A(Sat) eventually decreased below control levels by the end of the study. Although we found a clone by fertilization interaction in leaf physiology, the greatest genotype by environment interaction was found in the LA that appeared to have a greater influence than A(Sat) on growth. This research demonstrates the potential importance of selecting appropriate clonal material and silvicultural prescription when implementing site-specific silviculture to maximize productivity in intensively managed southern pine forests.

    2. Identification and characterization of a matrix metalloproteinase (Pta1-MMP) expressed during Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seed development, germination completion, and early seedling establishment.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ratnaparkhe, Supriya M; Egertsdotter, E M Ulrika; Flinn, Barry S

      2009-07-01

      Extracellular matrix (ECM) modifications occur during plant growth, development, and in response to environmental stimuli. Key modulators of ECM modification in vertebrates, the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), have also been described in a few plants. Here, we report the identification of Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) Pta1-MMP and its characterization during seed development and germination. Pta1-MMP protein has the structural characteristics of other plant MMPs, the recombinant protein exhibits Zn(2+)-dependent protease activity, and is inhibited by EDTA and the active site-binding hydroxamate inhibitor GM6001. The Pta1-MMP gene is expressed in both embryo and megagametophyte, with transcript levels increasing in both during the period from proembryo to early cotyledonary stage, then declining during late embryogenesis and maturation drying. Protein extracts exhibited similar developmental-stage MMP-like activity. Seed germination was stimulated by GA(3) and inhibited by ABA, and the timing of germination completion was mirrored by the presence of MMP-like protease activity in both water- and GA(3)-imbibed embryos. Pta1-MMP gene transcript levels increased in association with radicle protrusion for both GA(3)- and water-treated embryos, in agreement with MMP-like activity. In contrast, by 11 days after imbibition, Pta1-MMP gene transcripts in ABA-treated embryos were at levels similar to the other treatments, although MMP-like activity was not observed. The application of GM6001 during Loblolly pine seed germination inhibited radicle protrusion. Our results suggest that MMP activity may be involved in ECM modification, facilitating the cell division and expansion required during seed development, germination completion, and subsequent seedling establishment.

    3. Produção de Pinus taeda L. na região de Cambará do Sul, RS.

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      Gerson Lui Mainardi

      2009-09-01

      Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O trabalho teve como objetivo estruturar a produção de uma floresta de Pinus taeda L., localizada na região de Cambará do Sul, RS, de acordo com a idade, potencial de produção dos sítios e manejo aplicado. Para tanto foram coletados dados em parcelas temporárias, permanentes e de análise de tronco. Funções matemáticas foram ajustadas para estimar o desenvolvimento do povoamento remanescente após o desbaste e o fator K-Magin foi usado para corrigir o volume dos desbastes, e variou de 0,76 a 0,78. Os resultados, agrupados em tabelas de produção para os sítios 16 a 28, apresentaram, respectivamente, volumes de 243,7 m3/ha e 911,0 m3/ha aos 16 anos de idade. O incremento médio anual nesta idade, considerando a idade de corte na empresa, atingiu 15,23 m3/ha/ano no índice de sítio 16 e 56,94 m3/ha/ano para o 28. Os  resultados demonstraram, ainda, perda de produção pela execução de desbastes precoces nos sítios menos produtivos e tardios nos sítios mais produtivos.

    4. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd. (Scion Research.)

      2005-11-30

      divisions in the cambial meristem as expected. We isolated a promoter from a cambial specific gene and commenced development of transformation protocols for loblolly pine. Since our results show that cyclin D expression correlates with increased growth we continued with experiments to demonstrate the effect of cyclin overexpression upon tree growth. Vectors which constitutively express the cyclin D cDNA were constructed and transformed into a transgenic pine system through the collaboration with Forest Research, New Zealand. The transformation system for Pinus radiata is well established and we hoped to gain phenotypic information in a closely related pine, rather than await development of a robust loblolly pine transformation method. Transformation experiments were conducted by a biolistic method developed at Forest Research, NZ. A total of 78 transgenic embryogenic lines were generated and bulked up with a good representation of transgenic lines per construct. Transformed calli were originally identified by resistance to the antibiotic Geneticin contained in the medium. The transgenic nature of the selected lines was subsequently confirmed using histochemical GUS staining. To date, 10 out of 13 selected transgenic lines have produced embryos and we are currently harvesting the first transgenic plantlets. At present time 22 of those plantlets have been moved to GMO facilities. We will soon develop a strategy for assessing potential phenotypic differences between the transclones and non-transformed controls. Transgenic plants are being grown to a stage (approx. 1 year) when meaningful phenotypic evaluation can be conducted. The recent availability of 10,000 element loblolly pine cDNA microarray will permit the evaluation of cyclinD overexpression upon gene expression in transgenic Pinus.

    5. The response of ecosystem carbon pools to management approaches that increase the growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vogel, J. G.; Bacon, A. R.; Bracho, R. G.; Grunwald, S.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Jokela, E. J.; Markewitz, D.; Cucinella, J.; Akers, K.; Ross, C. W.; Peter, G. F.; Fox, T. D.; Martin, T.; Kane, M.

      2015-12-01

      Extending from Virginia to east Texas in the southeastern United States, managed pine forests are an important component of the region's carbon cycle. One objective of the Pine Integrated Network: Education, Mitigation, and Adaptation project (PINEMAP) is to improve estimates of how ecosystem carbon pools respond to the management strategies used to increase the growth of loblolly pine forests. Experimental studies (108 total) that had historically been used to understand forest productivity and stand dynamics by university-forest industry cooperatives have now been measured for the carbon stored in the trees, coarse-wood, forest floor, understory and soils to 1-meter (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-50 cm, and 50-100 cm). The age of the studied forests ranged from 4-26 years at the time of sampling, with 26 years very near the period when these forests are commonly harvested. The study sites encapsulated a wide regional range in precipitation (1080 mm -1780 mm) and potential evapotranspiration (716 mm - 1200 mm). The most prevalent three soil orders measured were Ultisols (62%), Alfisols (19%), and Spodosols (10%) with Entisols, Inceptisols and 1 Histosol making up the remainder (9%). Across all study sites, 455 experimental plots were measured. The plots had as a treatment either fertilization, competition control, and stand density control (thinning), including every possible combination of treatments and also 'no treatment'. The most common treatment regime, at 36% of the total number of plots, was the combination of competition control, fertilization, and thinning. The distribution of treatments relative to soils and climate prevented a simple analysis of single treatment effects and instead necessitated an examination how the carbon accumulation rate in wood, which is commonly measured and modeled in these forests, corresponded to the response of other C pools (e.g. forest floor and soil).

    6. Comparison of biotic and abiotic parameters between a native secondary forest fragment and a Pinus taeda L. reforestation Comparação de parâmetros bióticos e abióticos entre fragmento de floresta secundária nativa e um reflorestamento de Pinus taeda L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Talita Parpinelli Ferracin

      2010-12-01

      Full Text Available The substitution of natural forests for commercial forest plantations can be as damaging as farming or urban occupation. However, studies on natural regeneration in these areas show results in the development of native species in the understory, suggesting a successional process in favor of restoring biodiversity as well as an alternative forrestoration. This work aimed at comparing biotic and abiotic parameters between native secondary forest fragments and Pinus taeda reforestation. The study sites are located at Klabin Ecological Park, Monte Alegre Farm, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná. The following biotic data were evaluated: total height, diameter at breast height (DBH - 1.30 m above the ground and basal area (BA, in tree species with DBH ≥ 2.5 cm. The following abiotic data were also evaluated: pH, soil compaction, herb cover, canopy cover, litter thickness, air temperature, and relative humidity. Most parameters differed between pine reforestation and secondary forest, such as pH and soil compaction, canopy cover, herb presence and the size structure of vegetation (diameter and height. It was also observed a low regeneration in reforestation, evidenced by the difference in the basal area. However, there was regeneration in pine reforestation, suggesting that, over time, there will be an increase in the regeneration of the native vegetation, increasing the wealth of species and the structural complexity of the vegetation. A substituição das florestas naturais por plantios florestais comerciais, pode ser tão prejudicial quanto a agricultura ou a ocupação urbana. Porém, estudos sobre regeneração natural nessas áreas, apresentam resultados no desenvolvimento de espécies nativas no sub-bosque, sugerindo um processo sucessional favorável à recuperação da biodiversidade e também uma alternativa para a restauração. Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar parâmetros bióticos e abióticos entre fragmento de floresta secundária nativa

    7. Identification of putative candidate genes for juvenile wood density in Pinus radiata.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Li, Xinguo; Wu, Harry X; Southerton, Simon G

      2012-08-01

      Wood formation is a complex developmental process driven by the annual activity of the vascular cambium. Conifers usually produce juvenile wood at young ages followed by mature wood for the rest of their lifetime. Juvenile wood exhibits poorer wood quality (i.e., lower density) compared with mature wood and can account for up to 50% of short-rotation harvested logs, thus representing a major challenge for commercial forestry globally. Wood density is an important quality trait for many timber-related products. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of juvenile wood density is critical for the improvement of juvenile wood quality via marker-aided selection. A previous study has identified several candidate genes affecting mature wood density in Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.; however, genes associated with juvenile wood density in conifers remain poorly characterized. Here, cDNA microarrays containing 3320 xylem unigenes were used to investigate genes differentially transcribed in juvenile wood with high (HD) and low density (LD) in Pinus radiata D.Don. In total, 814 xylem unigenes with differential transcription were identified in at least one of two microarray experiments and 73 genes (45 for HD, 28 for LD) were identified in both experiments, thus representing putative candidate genes for juvenile wood density. Interestingly, cellulose synthases (PrCesA3, PrCesA11) and sucrose synthase (SuSy), which are involved in secondary cell wall formation, had stronger transcription in juvenile wood with HD, while genes functioning in primary wall formation (pectin synthesis, cell expansion and other modifications) were more transcribed in LD wood. Cell wall genes encoding monolignol biosynthesis enzymes, arabinogalactan proteins, actins and tubulins were differentially transcribed in either HD or LD juvenile wood; however, the latter had exclusively greater transcription of genes involved in monolignol polymerization (laccase and peroxidase). The

    8. Effect of the heat treatment on physical and chemical properties of Pinus caribaea wood

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      Dallyene da Silva Poubel

      2013-09-01

      Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the heat treatment on physical properties (density, equilibrium moisture content, mass loss, volumetric and linear swelling and shrinkage and chemical composition of normal (opposite side and compression wood of Pinus caribaea Morelet. Samples of 25 x 25 x 50 mm were heat-treated under two different temperatures: 200 and 220 ºC. The results indicated a reduction in equilibrium moisture content and swelling and shrinkage following heat treatment, independent of wood type. The compression wood showed higher longitudinal swelling than normal one, however, after heat treatment, the improvements were similar between both wood types. Samples heat-treated at 200 and 220 ºC had mass losses of 9.94 and 21.03 %, respectively. The heat treatment promoted a relative increase in lignin content and a decrease in holocellulose and α-cellulose contents, indicating the occurrence of thermal degradation of these components.

    9. Influencias de la densidad y podas sobre la producción de Pinus taeda L. a los 7 años de edad.

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      Rubén Costas

      2010-08-01

      Full Text Available En un ensayo con 3 niveles de densidad y 12 tratamientos de poda, se evaluaron los efectos de la densidad, la altura de poda, el número de levantes de poda y la interacción entre la densidad y las podas sobre la producción de la masa de Pinus taeda L. a los 7 años de edad. Las variables evaluadas fueron el diámetro a la altura de pecho medio (DAP, la altura media, el volumen individual, el volumen por unidad de superficie, el área basal, el diámetro máximo sobre muñón (DMSM, el coeficiente de forma de Girard (CFG, el diámetro de ramas (DRBC y el ángulo de inserción de las ramas (ARBC en la base de la copa. En los tratamientos con mayor densidad de plantación se observaron mayores volúmenes por unidad de superficie, área basal y CFG que en los tratamientos con menor densidad. Estos produjeron mayores DAP, volúmenes individuales, DMSM, DRBC y ARBC que los tratamientos con mayores densidades. Los tratamientos con menores alturas finales de poda produjeron mayores DAP, volúmenes individuales, área basal y volúmenes por unidad de superficie que los tratamientos con mayores alturas de poda. Los menores DMSM se obtuvieron con alturas finales de poda de 3,30 m y 4,40 m realizadas a los 4 años de edad y los mayores DMSM ocurrieron al no efectuarse podas a los 5 años hasta 5,50 m y 6,60 m. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los valores medios de DRBC, ARBC y CFG producidos por los 12 tratamientos de poda. La interacción entre densidad y los tratamientos de poda no fue significativa para ninguna de las variables respuestas.

    10. Branch growth and gas exchange in 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees in response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration and fertilization.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt H; Butnor, John; Kress, Lance W; Anderson, Peter H

      2002-11-01

      We used whole-tree, open-top chambers to expose 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees, growing in soil with high or low nutrient availability, to either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 micromol mol-1) carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) for 28 months. Branch growth and morphology, foliar chemistry and gas exchange characteristics were measured periodically in the upper, middle and lower crown during the 2 years of exposure. Fertilization and elevated [CO2] increased branch leaf area by 38 and 13%, respectively, and the combined effects were additive. Fertilization and elevated [CO2] differentially altered needle lengths, number of fascicles and flush length such that flush density (leaf area/flush length) increased with improved nutrition but decreased in response to elevated [CO2]. These results suggest that changes in nitrogen availability and atmospheric [CO2] may alter canopy structure, resulting in greater foliage retention and deeper crowns in loblolly pine forests. Fertilization increased foliar nitrogen concentration (N(M)), but had no consistent effect on foliar leaf mass (W(A)) or light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(sat)). However, the correlation between A(sat) and leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(A) = W(A)N(M)) ranged from strong to weak depending on the time of year, possibly reflecting seasonal shifts in the form and pools of leaf nitrogen. Elevated [CO2] had no effect on W(A), N(M) or N(A), but increased A(sat) on average by 82%. Elevated [CO2] also increased photosynthetic quantum efficiency and lowered the light compensation point, but had no effect on the photosynthetic response to intercellular [CO2], hence there was no acclimation to elevated [CO2]. Daily photosynthetic photon flux density at the upper, middle and lower canopy position was 60, 54 and 33%, respectively, of full sun incident to the top of the canopy. Despite the relatively high light penetration, W(A), N(A), A(sat) and R(d) decreased with crown depth. Although

    11. Wood Density and Mechanical Properties of Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon in Malawi

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      Edward Missanjo

      2016-07-01

      Full Text Available Successful development of an appropriate tree breeding strategy and wood utilization requires information on wood properties. This study was therefore conducted to assess wood density and mechanical properties of Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon grown in Malawi. Wood samples from six families of P. kesiya at the age of 30 years were used for the study. The estimated mean wood density, Modulus of Elasticity (MoE, Modulus of Rupture (MoR and moisture content were 0.593 ± 0.001 g/cm3, 13.46 ± 0.07 GPa, 113.67 ± 0.57 MPa and 12.08% ± 0.03%, respectively. There were statistically significant (p < 0.001 differences in wood density and mechanical properties along the radial direction and stem height. Wood density and mechanical properties increased from pith to bark and decreased from the butt upwards. There were no significant (p > 0.05 differences in wood density and mechanical properties among the families. This is an indication that any tree among the families can be selected for tree improvement programs if density is considered as a variable. Wood density had a strong positive significant linear relationship with both MoE (r = 0.790; p < 0.001 and MoR (r = 0.793; p < 0.001. This suggests that it has the potential to simultaneously improve the wood density and mechanical properties of this species. Therefore, controlling wood density for the tree improvement program of P. kesiya in Malawi would have a positive impact on mechanical properties.

    12. DETERMINING THE TRANSITION AGE FROM JUVENILE TO MATURE WOOD IN Pinus patula SCHL. et CHAM.

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      David Josué Meza Juárez

      2005-05-01

      Full Text Available In order to compare several criteria to estimate the transition age from juvenile to mature wood formation in a 16-year-old Pinus patula plantation, radial trends of latewood proportion, wood density and tracheid length were identified in a sample of 100 trees. A wood sample from each tree was taken with an increment borer at 50 cm stem height. Latewood proportion increased gradually from pith to bark, but after 14 years old showed a higher rate of increase; wood density decreased initially and then increased gradually, slowing down after 12-14 years old. Tracheid length showed a steady radial trend, increasing gradually from the pith and stabilizing after 8-10 years old. A piecewise regression analysis, using mean annual values for tracheid length and wood density showed that age of transition from juvenile to mature wood occurred at age 10 in this plantation. The criterion based on tracheid length was more useful than that based on wood density, since its slope change was more evident. Using this criterion, a broad variation in transition age (from 6 to 16 years was found among trees, which might be related to genetic effects; however, a larger sample size is required to estimate genetic variation in this trait.

    13. PROPERTIES OF THERMO-MECHANICALLY TREATED WOOD FROM PINUS CARIBAEA VAR. HONDURENSIS

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      Cristiane Moreira Tavares Santos,

      2012-02-01

      Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of thermo-mechanical treatment on properties of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis wood. Two pressure levels (25% and 50% of the compression strength perpendicular to grain were evaluated. The treatment was applied in a laboratory hot press in one-step or two-step modes for 50 minutes. In the one-step treatment, the total pressure was applied after the temperature of the center of the wood reached 170°C. In the two-steps treatment, half of the pressure was applied after the center of the wood reached 100°C, and the final pressure was applied when it reached 170°C. The weight loss immediately after treatment was equivalent to the wood moisture content, indicating that degradation of wood polymers did not occur. However, the treatments showed decreasing values of the moisture content, which were reduced from 12.3% to 9.8%. A moderate improvement on surface roughness was achieved, while wood wettability was highly reduced in all treatments, as determined by contact angle measurement. On the other hand, the treatment applied did not improve the wood dimensional stability, but all mechanical properties presented a trend of improvement.

    14. Thermal Conversion of Pine Wood Char to Carbon Nanomaterials in the Presence of Iron Nanoparticles

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sung Phil Mun; Zhiyong Cai; Fumiya Watanabe; Umesh P. Agarwal; Jilei. Zhang

      2012-01-01

      Southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda) wood char powder was thermally treated at 1,000:C in the presence of a 25-nm-size Fe nanoparticle catalyst. The thermally treated carbon materials were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Well-aligned graphitic carbon structures with 15 to 17 layers on...

    15. The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Korkut, Süleyman; Akgül, Mehmet; Dündar, Turker

      2008-04-01

      Heat treatment is often applied to wood species to improve their dimensional stability. This study examined the effect of heat treatment on certain mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens obtained from Bolu, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at varying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 degrees C) for varying durations (2, 6 and 10h). The test results of heat-treated Scots pine and control samples showed that technological properties including compression strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength and tension strength perpendicular to grain suffered with heat treatment, and increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens.

    16. Wood properties of Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus caribaea estimated by colorimetry

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      Patrícia Gomes Ribeiro Amorim

      2013-09-01

      Full Text Available The use of non-destructive technologies has been very effective in characterization and evaluation of wood quality. This study aimed to characterize the technologically wood of Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus grandis by Colorimetry. The study was conducted at the University of Brasilia (UNB in Physics and Engineering Laboratory the Laboratory of Forest Products/LPF - Brazilian Forest Service (SFB. Species were subjected to standard tests of basic density, shrinkage and bending. For the colorimetric determination of the parameters it was used a spectrophotometer according to the methodology adopted by Camargos (1999. The radial surface of the wood is most suitable for the collecting of the colorimetric parameters and prediction of properties. Property best estimated by this technique was the density, followed by modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR.

    17. Dinâmica da distribuição diamétrica de povoamentos de Pinus taeda, na região de Caçador, SC Dynamics of the diameter distribution of Pinus taeda stands, in the region of Caçador, SC, Brazil

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      Saulo Jorge Téo

      2011-09-01

      Full Text Available

      O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar as funções de densidade probabilísticas (fdp’s Normal e SB de Johnson, para descrever as mudanças, com a idade, na estrutura diamétrica de povoamentos de Pinus taeda L., na região de Caçador, SC. Os dados utilizados foram provenientes de parcelas temporárias e permanentes, com idades variando de 5 a 11,9 anos, agrupadas em classes com intervalos de 1 ano. Foram ajustadas as fdp’s e obtidas as estimativas dos parâmetros de assimetria e curtose. Por meio do teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, verificou-se que, para as idades de 5 a 7,9 anos, as fdp’s Normal e SB de Johnson não apresentaram aderência satisfatória. As fdp’s SB de Johnson e Normal apresentaram melhor aderência para as idades de 8 a 9,9 e 10 a 11,9 anos, respectivamente. Utilizando a fdp Normal para analisar a dinâmica da distribuição diamétrica, verificou-se um deslocamento das curvas de distribuição diamétrica para a direita, um “achatamento” e um “alargamento” destas curvas ao longo dos anos. A assimetria foi negativa para todas as idades, exceto para as idades de 8 a 8,9 anos. A curtose foi leptocúrtica para todas as idades, e platicúrtica para as idades de 8 a 8,9 anos.

      doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.183

      The objective of this work was to fit the probability density functions Normal and SB, to describe the changes, with age, in the diameter distribution of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda stands, in the region of Caçador, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The data came from permanent and temporary plots, with ages ranging from 5 to 11,9, grouped in age classes with intervals of 1 year. The probability density functions were fitted and, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the parameters of skewness and kurtosis were calculated. Basing on Kolmogorov-Smirnov test it was verified that, for ages from 5 to 7.9 years old, the Normal and SB functions

    18. Teores e aporte de nutrientes na serapilheira de Pinus taeda L., e sua relação com a temperatura do ar e pluviosidade Contents and input of nutrients in Pinus taeda L. Litter related to air temperature and rainfall

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Márcio Viera

      2010-02-01

      Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os teores e o aporte de nutrientes ao piso florestal num povoamento de Pinus taeda L. e sua relação com a temperatura do ar e pluviosidade, implantado em área anteriormente ocupada por campo nativo, na cidade de Cambará do Sul, RS, através da queda de serapilheira, avaliado durante um período de três anos, contados a partir do quinto ao sétimo ano de idade do povoamento. A serapilheira foi coletada mensalmente através de coletores de 1,0 m² (1,0 x 1,0 m, durante o período compreendido de abril/2004 a março/2007. Após cada coleta, as amostras de serapilheira foram analisadas quimicamente, quanto aos teores de macro e micronutrientes. Os teores de K, Mg e Cu correlacionaram-se positivamente (p The objective of this study was to evaluate the contents and input of nutrients to forest floor in a Pinus taeda L. stand and the relation with rainfall and air temperature, in an area previously occupied with native grass, in Cambará do Sul, RS, through litterfall, evaluated during a three-year period, from the 5th to the 7th year of the stand. Litter was monthly collected in 1.0 m² (1.0 x 1.0 m collectors, from April/ 2004 to March/2007. After each collection, litter samples were chemically analyzed for macro and micronutrients. The contents of K, Mg and Cu showed a positive correlation (p < 0,05 with air temperature, while Fe (p< 0.01, Mn and Zn (p < 0,05 showed a negative correlation with this climatic variable. The contents of N and K showed a negative correlation (p < 0.01 e p < 0,05, respectively. The contents of K, Mg and Cu showed a positive correlation (p < 0,05 with rainfall and the contents of S showed a positive correlation (p < 0,05 with air temperature, while the contents of Fe (p < 0.01, Mn and Zn (p < 0,05 showed a negative correlation with this variable.The contents of N and K showed a negative correlation (p < 0.01 and p < 0,05, respectively with litter amount monthly deposited

    19. Paleophytochemical Constituents from the Pliocene Fossil Wood of Pinus Armandii from Longling, Yunnan

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      ZHAO Youxing; LI Chengsen; YI Tiemei; LUO Xiaodong; ZHOU Jun

      2008-01-01

      Specimens of fossil wood preserved lignified in Pliocene brown coal and identified as Pinus armandii Francher come from an opencast coalmine at Longling in western Yunnan Province, China. Phytochemical investigation of the fossil wood isolated using liquid column chromatography seven compounds (1-7) including a new fluorene derivative named 11,11-dimethy1-11H-benzo[b]fluorene.A further 28 volatiles were detected by gas chromatogrphy-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).Spectroscopic investigation methods,including MS and 1D and 2D-NMR techniques eucidated the structure of the seven compounds.Two types of natural products,isopimara and stilbene commonly occuring in extant and pliocene fossil p. armandii indicate phytochemical fidelith during burial under certain circumstances in sediments.Discovery of stilbenes that can inhibit the activities of wood-destroying fungi in the pliocene p.armandii prompts the assumption that the chemical preservation of this pliocene fossil wood of p.armandii in brown coal might contribute to the presence of inne natural inhibitors against wood-destroying fungi.

    20. Efecto de la disponibilidad de recursos sobre la eficiencia de uso y conservación de los nutrientes en función de las condiciones edafoclimáticas, edad y manejo de las plantaciones de Pinus taeda L. en la Mesopotamia argentina

      OpenAIRE

      Martiarena, Rodolfo Andrés

      2016-01-01

      El objetivo de la presente Tesis fue determinar el efecto de la disponibilidad de recursos sobre la eficiencia de uso y conservación de los nutrientes en función de las condiciones edafoclimáticas, edad y manejo de las plantaciones de Pinus taeda L. en la Mesopotamia Argentina. Materiales y Métodos. El trabajo se realizó entre los 28º 30’ S, en la provincia de Corrientes, hasta los 25º 30’ S, en la provincia de Misiones. Se seleccionaron 31 sitios con plantaciones de P. taeda entre ...

    1. Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING

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      Setsuo Iwakiri

      2008-03-01

      Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

    2. Energy characterization of fresh and torrified pellets produced from Pinus waste wood

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      Thiago de Paula Protásio

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available he objective of this research was to evaluate torrified and fresh pellets produced from Pinus waste wood, used for direct generation of thermal energy. The compaction of Pinus sp. waste wood from lumbermill was performed in a pelletizer with a planar array of 8 mm. Roastings were performed in an electric furnace, type muffle, stabilized at final temperatures of 220 °C and 250 °C for 30 min. The following pellets properties were determined: apparent and unit energy density, bulk density, energy bulk density, immediate chemical composition (volatile materials, ash and fixed carbon, high heating value and moisture. It was observed an increase in high heating value and reduction of moisture content of torrified pellets. However, the gain in calorific value was less than the mass loss of the pellets after roasting, reducing the energy densities of the pellets. The pellets raw have marketing potential in European countries such as Germany, Austria and Sweden. The methodology used for roasting is not suitable for pellets heat treatment. However, further research on pellet roasting in a wider temperature and residence time range is recommended, in order to define parameters that optimize their energetic properties.

    3. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TORREFIED WOOD SAMPLES OF PINUS CARREBEA AND LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA GROWN IN NIGERIA

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      Joseph Adeola FUWAPE

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available Torrefaction of selected wood samples of Pinus Carrebea and Leucaena Leucocephala were carried out at temperatures ranging from 200 to 300°C to improve the energy parameters of biomass and to determine the effect of torrefication temperature on the physical and combustion properties of wood selected from Pinus carrebea and Leuceanea leucocephala grown in Nigeria. In this process the biomass hemicellulose is degraded, maintaining its cellulose and lignin content. The samples were dried and heated to 225, 250, 275, and 300°C. Then the torrefied mass was subjected to basic property testing on proximate analysis and heating value was calculated in order to understand the differences between raw material and its torrefied products. Specifically, the wood blocks changed from light brown to black, stemming from the partial carbonization at the wood surface. When the temperature is 225°C, the color of the wood is between dark brown and once the torrefaction temperatures are 250 and 275°C, the colors of the wood become dark and darker respectively. The results of the proximate analysis also showed that increasing of torrefied temperature; volatile fraction was reduced while fixed carbon was increased with increase in temperature from 21.34 to 52.74 and 18.58 to 56.83 for Leucaena leucocephala and Pinus carreabeanus respectively at 225 to 300°C. The volatile content is decreased from 78.58% to 62.76% with increase in temperature. Ash content of were within 1.57-3.41% of torrefied wood. It could be observed that the High calorific value (HCV for pine ranged between 19.80 and 28.06MJ/Kg for the top, 19.93and 24.96MJ/kg for middle with 19.72and 25.96MJ/Kg for base. The values recorded for raw sample and at 275°C been the lowest and highest respectively. The High calorific value (HCV were found to be on the increase and nose dive at 300°C for the tree parts used in this research. The result revealed that for Leuceana the value increased from raw up to

    4. Genetic Improvement of Wood Properties in Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon for Sawn Timber Production in Malawi

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      Edward Missanjo

      2016-10-01

      Full Text Available Accurate prediction of genetic potential and response to selection in breeding requires knowledge of genetic parameters for important selection traits. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters for wood properties in Khasi pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon grown in Malawi. Data on wood properties and growth traits were collected from six families of Pinus kesiya at the age of 30. The results show that wood density had a higher genetic control (h2 = 0.595 ± 0.055 than wood stiffness (h2 = 0.559 ± 0.038 and wood strength (h2 = 0.542 ± 0.091. The genetic correlation among wood quality traits was significantly moderate (0.464 ± 0.061 to high (0.735 ± 0.025. The predicted genetic response indicated that selection for wood density at 10% selection intensity would increase stiffness and strength by 12.6% and 8.85%, respectively. The genetic correlations between growth and wood quality traits were moderately unfavourable. However, sufficient variation exists within the breeding population to select individuals with both good growth rate and high wood quality traits. It is therefore suggested that all trees with both diameter at breast height (DBH greater than 32.0 cm and density greater than 0.593 g/cm3 must be selected in order to increase the efficiency of the breeding programme. However, in the long term, it is recommended that the best selection strategy would be to develop a multiple-trait selection index. The selection index should be developed using optimal index weights for the advanced Pinus kesiya breeding programme in Malawi.

    5. La préparation du terrain et le contrôle de la végétation adventice affectent la productivité à long terme de Pinus taeda dans les stations des Piémonts du sud et des plaines côtières des États-Unis d'Amérique

      OpenAIRE

      Zhao, Dehai; Kane, Michael; Borders, Bruce E.; Harrison, Mike; Rheney, John W.

      2009-01-01

      International audience; A site preparation study was established in 1986 to evaluate the effect of different site preparation treatments on growth and yield of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations on the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain regions of the southern United States. Site preparation treatments included: (1) burn only, (2) chop-burn, (3) shear-pile-disk, (4) chop-herbicide-burn, (5) herbicide-burn, and (6) herbicide-burn-herbicide.* The data from the available 19 installations a...

    6. Basic density, extractive content and moisture sorption properties of Pinus pinaster wood infected with the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Valeria Reva; Luı´s Fonseca; Jose´ L. Lousada; Isabel Abrantes; Anto´ nio R. Figueiredo; Domingos X. Viegas

      2015-01-01

      The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphe-lenchus xylophilus, has become one of the most severe threats to pine forest worldwide. Nematodes, migrating through resin canals and feeding on the living cells, induce rapid metabolic changes in ray parenchyma cells, create cavitation areas, decrease xylem water content and oleo-resin exudation, and cause necrosis of parenchyma and cambial cells. This study focused on the impact of PWN infection on technological parameters of wood and evalu-ated the impact of anatomic and biochemical incidences of tree defense reactions on basic density, extractive content and moisture sorption properties of Pinus pinaster wood. Samples of infected and uninfected wood were studied. The presence of nematodes reduced wood basic density by 2% and decreased the total content of extractives in infected wood as compared with uninfected (5.98 and 8.90% of dry wood mass, respectively). Extractives in infected trees had inverse distribution along the trunk as compared with uninfected trees. The adsorption isotherms for infected and uninfected wood had similar positioning. We recorded differences (some statistically significant) in the equilibrium moisture content of infected and uninfected wood under varying environmental conditions. Despite the verified differences in wood basic density, extractive con-tent and moisture sorption properties, the overall conclu-sion is that the PWN had a slight impact on these characteristics of wood.

    7. Damage caused by different levels of artificial defoliation, simulating the leaf-cutting ants attack on young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis Danos causados por diferentes níveis de desfolha artificial para simulação do ataque de formigas cortadeiras em Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis

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      Wilson Reis Filho

      2011-03-01

      Full Text Available

      The artificial defoliation allows to measure the defoliation intensity caused by insects. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the damages caused by leaf-cutting ants in young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis using different levels of artificial defoliation. A classification was established according to defoliation levels that were caused by leaf-cutting ants in P. taeda: level 1: 50%, level 2: 75%, level 3: 100% and level 4: 100%, including the cut of the apical meristem. And in E. grandis: level 1: 50% of defoliation; level 2: 75% and level 3: 100%. After one year, the P. taeda seedlings had losses in diameter and height for defoliation level above 75%. Seedlings severely defoliated (level 4, had losses of 37.0% in height and 45.4% in diameter. The E. grandis seedlings had losses since three months old and the reductions were proportional to the defoliation intensity. After one year, the losses of 13.3% in height and 20% in diameter were verified in plants with 100% of defoliation. P. taeda plants are more damaged by leaf-cutting attack.

      doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.65.37

      A desfolha artificial permite mensurar a intensidade do dano devido à desfolha causada por insetos. No presente estudo, buscou-se avaliar os danos causados por formigas cortadeiras em plantios de Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis com 30 dias de idade. Foi estabelecida uma classificação baseada em níveis de desfolha semelhantes aos causados por formigas cortadeiras. Para P. taeda, os níveis foram: N1: 50%, N2: 75%, N3: 100% e N4: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Para E. grandis, os níveis foram N1: 50%, N2: 75% e N3: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Após um ano, as mudas de P. taeda tiveram perdas em altura e diâmetro nos níveis de N2 a N4. Mudas de P. taeda desfolhadas no nível N4 apresentaram perdas de

    8. EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENT ON CALABRIAN PINE (PINUS BRUTIA TEN. WOOD

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      Saim Ates

      2009-08-01

      Full Text Available In this study, the effects of heat treatment on some physical, mechanical, chemical properties, and cellulose crystallinity of calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. were evaluated. Wood specimens were treated with heat under atmospheric pressure at three different temperatures (130, 180, and 230 oC and two different time levels (2 and 8 h. Air-dry density (Dm, oven-dry density (D0, shrinkage (β, swelling (α, fiber saturation point (FSP, compression strength parallel to grain (σc//, bending strength (σb, modulus of elasticity (MOE in bending, equilibrium moisture content (EMC, holocellulose, and alcohol solubility were decreased, whereas 1% NaOH solubility and lignin content were increased, depending on the heating temperature and time. Cellulose crystallinity of the samples was not changed significantly. 130 oC showed a minimal effect; on the other hand, 230 oC showed a maximum effect on all properties of the treated wood. That’s why, for the heat treatment process, 130 oC for 2 h should be applied in situations where mechanical properties such as modulus of elasticity, compression strength, bending strength, and hardness are important. However, 230 oC for 2 h should be used in situations where it is preferred to obtain favorable physical properties, such as density, shrinkage, swelling, and moisture content.

    9. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Villasante, A.; Laina, R.; Rojas, J. A. M.; Rojas, I. M.; Vignote, S.

      2013-07-01

      Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strenght. Area of study: Spain. Material and methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601) and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492). 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative). Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative. Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product) presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole. The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment. The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies. Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending and parallel compression strength. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative. (Author)

    10. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Bruder, Edson Marcelo; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

      2010-07-01

      Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from {sup 241}Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m{sup 3}. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m{sup 3}. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in

    11. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia Wood with Portland Cement

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      Ian D. Hartley

      2010-12-01

      Full Text Available The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5–24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX. CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

    12. Living on the edge: contrasted wood-formation dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean conditions

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      Edurne eMartinez Del Castillo

      2016-03-01

      Full Text Available Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e. in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for Pinus sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for Pinus sylvestris.

    13. Extraction Process and Antioxidant Activity of Pinus taeda L.Polysaccharides%火炬松松针多糖提取工艺及其抗氧化性研究

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      许小向; 尹小莉; 洪艳平; 邹凯; 上官新晨; 梁强

      2016-01-01

      With the polysaccharides yield as target , the polysaccharides from pine needles of Pinus taeda L.was extracted and its antioxidant activity in vitro was determined .The ultrasonic-assisted extraction technology of polysaccharides from pine needles of P.taeda was confirmed by using Box-Behnken response surface methodology .The results showed that the optimal extraction process conditions were ultrasonic time 25 min, water extraction time 1 h, liquid-material ratio of 25∶1 ( mL∶g) and extraction temperature 91 ℃.Under optimal conditions , the yield of polysaccharides was up to 1.867%.The antioxidant activity in vitro was evaluated by measuring the DPPH· , · OH and ABTS + free radical removal ability.As a result, the pine needle polysaccharides had a relatively strong capacity to scavenge DPPH ,OH and ABTS +free radical .They had a better concentration-response relationship .It showed that pine needle polysaccharides had an obvious antioxidant activity .%以多糖得率为指标,从火炬松松针中浸提多糖,并测定其体外抗氧化活性。在单因素试验基础上采用响应面法优化超声波辅助热水浸提火炬松松针多糖,最佳的工艺参数为:30 g松针粉末在超声波作用时间25 min,热水浸提1 h,液料比25∶1(mL∶g),热水浸提温度91℃。在此条件下,火炬松松针多糖得率达1.867%,提取率达91.39%。通过测定松针多糖对苯基苦基肼自由基( DPPH·)、羟基自由基(· OH)和2,2-联氮-二-(3-乙基-苯并噻唑-6-磺酸)自由基(ABTS+)的清除能力评价其体外抗氧化能力。结果显示:火炬松松针多糖对自由基DPPH·、· OH和ABTS+都有较强清除能力,且都呈较好的量效关系,火炬松松针多糖具有较强的体外抗氧化能力。

    14. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      A.M. Villasante

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strength.Area of study: SpainMaterial and Methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601 and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492. 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative. Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative.Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole . The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment.The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies.Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending  and parallel compression strength.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative.Keywords: Light Organic Solvent Preservative; MOE; parallel compression; static bending; waterborne Copper Azole; wood technology.

    15. Expression Profiling in Pinus pinaster in Response to Infection with the Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

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      Daniel Gaspar

      2017-08-01

      Full Text Available Forests are essential resources on a global scale, not only for the ecological benefits, but also for economical and landscape purposes. However, in recent years, a large number of forest species have suffered a serious decline, with maritime pine being one of the most affected. In Portugal, the maritime pine forest has been devastated by the pine wood nematode (PWN, the causal agent of pine wilt disease. In this study, RNA-Seq data was used to characterize the maritime pine response to infection with PWN, by determining the differentially expressed genes and identifying the regulatory networks and pathways associated. The analyses showed clear differences between an early response that occurs immediately after inoculation and a late response that is observed seven days after inoculation. Moreover, differentially expressed genes related to secondary metabolism, oxidative stress and defense against pathogen infection were identified over different time points. These results provide new insights about the molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways involved in the response of Pinus pinaster against PWN infection, which will be a useful resource in follow-up studies and for future breeding programs to select plants with lower susceptibility to this disease.

    16. Estimating basic wood density and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora in the Republic of Korea

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      Jung Kee Pyo

      2012-05-01

      Full Text Available According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC guidelines, uncertainty assessment is an important aspect of a greenhouse gas inventory, and effort should be made to incorporate it into the reporting. The goal of this study was to estimate basic wood density (BWD and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora (Siebold & Zucc. in Korea. In this study, P. densiflora forests throughout the country were divided into two regional variants, which were the Gangwon region variant, distributed on the northeastern part of the country, and the central region variant. A total of 36 representative sampling plots were selected in both regions to collect sampletrees for destructive sampling. The trees were selected considering the distributions of tree age and diameter at breast height. Hypothesis testing was carried out to test the BWD differences between two age groups, i.e. age ≥ 20 and < 20, and differences between the two regions. The test suggested that there was no statistically significant difference between the two age classes. On the other hand, it is suggested a strong evidence of a statistically significant difference between regions. The BWD and its uncertainty were0.418 g/cm3 and 11.9% for the Gangwon region, whereas they were 0.471g/ cm3 and 3.8% for the central region. As a result, the estimated BWD for P.densiflora was more precise than the value provided by the IPCC guidelines.

    17. THE COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED WOOD MATERIALS PREPARED FROM SCOTCH PINE (Pinus sylvestris L.

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      Ramazan ÖZEN

      2001-01-01

      Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of 3 ply laminated wood material, which was produced from scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L. impregnated with Sodium perborat, Sodium tetra borat, Imersol (I-WR 2000 and TanalithCBC (T-CBC by using dipping method has been investigated. Prepared materials have been bonded with Desmodur- VTKA adhesive and tested according to the procedure of ASTM-E 69 standards. As a result, the highest weight loss (60.83 g in laminated sample impregnated with I-WR 2000, CO rate (6340.85 ppm in neutral sample impregnated with T-CBC, CO2 rate (7.48 %, O2 rate (13.03 % and according to the first weight rate the highest combustion rate (82.73 % in control samples, heat increasing (406.55 o C in laminated sample impregnated with T-CBC have been obtained. According to these results, in the combustion tests of laminated samples sodium tetra borat and sodium perborat have been determined as a successful fire retardant chemical.

    18. Interactions Between Pinus taeda (loblolly) Fine Roots and Soil Fungi: Impacts of Elevated CO2, N Availability, and Spatial Distribution of Fungi on Fine Root Persistence and Turnover

      Science.gov (United States)

      Strand, A.; Beidler, K.; McGlinn, D.; Pritchard, S. G.

      2016-12-01

      Fine root turnover represents the most significant mode of flux from plants into soil C pools. Unfortunately fine root senescence and decomposition, processes critical in turnover, are particularly understudied. For example, little is known about either the factors that influence fine-root decomposition or the fate of compounds they contain during root death. Better understanding fine root senescence and decomposition should reduce uncertainty associated with global climate models; including re-uptake of materials in dying leaves into these models has already been shown to increase their accuracy. Over 4400 individual fine-roots and 4734 rhizomorphs were tracked from initiation until disintegration over 12 years using minirhizotrons at the Duke FACE site. Image-based approaches such as minirhizotrons cannot directly assess fine-root physiological status. To assess fine-root function directly, we are now conducting manipulative experiments in P. taeda in which fine-root senescence is induced through two treatments, steam- and direct hand-girdling. Physiological status is then assessed by examining gene-expression, root anatomy and chemical composition of manipulated roots. Changing [CO2] did not change persistence times for roots, but did impact rhizomorph persistence. Both roots and rhizomorphs showed interactions between effects of N and CO2 on persistence. Most interesting is the interaction between fine-roots and rhizomorphs: fine root persistence times are reduced in the presence of rhizomorphs, but this effect depends on the amount of N available. Finally, we found experimentally inducing senescence via steam girdling to be very effective relative to hand-girdling. These results provide evidence of the importance of priming on function of soil fungi and the role of N availability on fine-root turnover. The ability to stimulate fine-root senescence provides a powerful experimental tool to examine the fates of resources contained in fine-root pools as these

    19. Vertical variability of selected macrostructural properties of juvenile wood organization in trunks of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. trees

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Arkadiusz Tomczak

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available The study makes an attempt to analyse the width of annual rings, the width of the latewood zone and the proportion of the latewood within juvenile wood along trunks of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. trees and to verify the hypothesis about the heterogeneous properties of juvenile wood in a single trunk. It was found that the above-mentioned macrostructural elements of wood structure showed a curvilinear correlation with the height of measurement points along the tree trunk. As the distance from the base of trunk increased, the width of the annual ring and the width of the latewood zone decreased, while the proportion of the latewood increased. These types of changes can affect positively physical and mechanical properties of wood tissue. It can be assumed that there is a mechanism which modifies properties of juvenile wood causing axial diversification of the analysed type of wood tissue. It is probable that axial heterogeneity results in advantageous changes in the mechanics of the tree trunk.

    20. Evidence for stage-specific modulation of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA processing components in zygotic embryo and female gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Oh, Thomas J; Wartell, Roger M; Cairney, John; Pullman, Gerald S

      2008-01-01

      MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate plant development, but have not been studied in gymnosperm seed tissues. The presence and characteristics of several miRNAs were examined in zygotic embryos (ZEs) and female gametophytes (FGs) of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Evidence for miRNAs was obtained using northern analyses and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) mediated with poly(A) polymerase. Partial sequences of two miRNAs were verified. Three regions of putative mRNA targets were analyzed by qRT-PCR to monitor the occurrence of stage-dependent miRNA-mediated cleavage. Five miRNAs were identified in ZEs and FGs along with partial sequences of Pta-miR166 and Pta-miR167. Both miRNAs showed differing degrees of tissue-specific and stage-specific modulation. Analysis of HB15L mRNA (a potential Pta-miR166 target) suggested miRNA-guided cleavage in ZEs and FGs. Analysis of ARF8L mRNA (a potential Pta-miR167 target) implied cleavage in ZEs but not in FGs. Argonaute9-like mRNA (ptAGO9L) showed stage-specific modulation of expression in ZEs that appeared to be inverted in the corresponding FGs. MicroRNAs and argonaute genes varied spatiotemporally during seed development. The peak levels of Pta-miR166 in FGs and ptAGO9L in embryos occurred at stage 9.1, a critical transition point during embryo development and a point where somatic embryo maturation often stops. MicroRNAs identified in FG tissue may play a role in embryogenesis.

    1. Relação do quociente do diâmetro pela área basal com o autodesbaste em povoamento equiâneo de Pinus taeda L.

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      Paulo Sérgio Pigatto Schneider

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050988451Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o quociente do diâmetro pela área basal no momento da ocorrência do autodesbaste em povoamentos de Pinus taeda L., em vários espaçamentos, manejado em densidade completa. Para isso, foi utilizado o modelo Tang, relacionando o número de árvores por hectare com o diâmetro médio, a partir de dados de parcelas permanentes, medidas anualmente até os 18 anos de idade. Os resultados indicam que o modelo de autodesbaste proposto por Tang, apresentou ótima precisão e elevada eficiência, porém, com coeficiente angular preconizado por Tang de (-3/2, tendo resultado um valor de -1,6523. No momento da ocorrência do autodesbaste, as árvores atingiram diâmetros de 14 e 17 cm, nos espaçamento de 2 x 2 e 3 x 2 m, com áreas basais de 38,8 e 47,5 m² ha-1, respectivamente. Em todos os espaçamentos a área basal máxima foi de 78 m² ha-1, aos 18 anos de idade, com tendência ascendente. Nesses espaçamentos, os quocientes de diâmetro pela área basal no momento de ocorrência do autodesbaste foram de 0,36 e 0,37, respectivamente.

    2. Estimating basic wood density and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora in the Republic of Korea

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      Jung Kee Pyo

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC guidelines, uncertainty assessment is an important aspect of a greenhouse gas inventory, and effort should be made to incorporate it into the reporting. The goal of this study was to estimate basic wood density (BWD and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora (Siebold & Zucc. in Korea. In this study, P. densiflora forests throughout the country were divided into two regional variants, which were the Gangwon region variant, distributed on the northeastern part of the country, and the central region variant. A total of 36 representative sampling plots were selected in both regions to collect sample trees for destructive sampling. The trees were selected considering the distributions of tree age and diameter at breast height. Hypothesis testing was carried out to test the BWD differences between two age groups, i.e. age over 20 and less than 20, and differences between the two regions. The test suggested that there was no statistically significant difference between the two age classes. On the other hand, it is suggested a strong evidence of a statistically significant difference between regions. The BWD and its uncertainty were 0.418 g/cm3 and 11.9% for the Gangwon region, whereas they were 0.471g/cm3 and 3.8% for the central region. As a result, the estimated BWD for P. densiflora was more precise than the value provided by the IPCC guidelines.

    3. Enzymatic degradation of finely divided wood meal. II. Rollmilling and the subsequent enzymic degradation of Pinus densiflora wood

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Muraki, E.; Yaku, F.; Tanaka, R.; Koshijima, T.

      1982-01-01

      The roll-milling of wood (P. densiflora) gave products with particle size less than 10 mu and high rate of saccharification under enzymic hydrolysis. About 90% of the available polysaccharides in wood could be converted into reducing sugars when roll-milled wood was subjected to enzymic hydrolysis using cellulase.

    4. Delimitação entre os lenhos juvenil e adulto de Pinus elliottii engelm Delimitation the juvenile and mature wood of Pinus elliottii engelm

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      Gilmara Pires de Moura Palermo

      2013-02-01

      Full Text Available Durante o crescimento, as árvores produzem diferentes tipos de tecido lenhoso. O xilema produzido nos primeiros anos até certa idade cambial é denominado lenho juvenil e apresenta propriedades físicas, mecânicas, químicas e anatômicas diferentes do xilema produzido após certa idade cambial, isto é, quando as células do câmbio já amadureceram. Dessa forma, um prévio conhecimento sobre a qualidade da matéria-prima produzida é de fundamental importância para melhor aplicabilidade do material. Com base nesse contexto, este trabalho objetivou, a partir de dados de comprimento de traqueídeos e densidade da madeira, delimitar a idade de transição entre os lenhos juvenil e adulto. Para isso, coletaram-se três árvores de Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm., com 35 anos de idade, provenientes da Estação Experimental de Itapetininga, localizada em São Paulo, Brasil. De cada árvore, retiraram-se discos de aproximadamente 5 cm de espessura, extraídos a 0,05 m do solo, que foram utilizados para determinação radial da densidade pelo método de atenuação da radiação gama e comprimento dos traqueídeos. Os resultados da análise de regressão linear indicaram que o lenho juvenil está limitado aos sete primeiros anos de crescimento da árvore e o lenho adulto é formado após os 20 anos de idade. No lenho adulto há diferenças significativas entre as idades médias obtidas através do comprimento dos traqueídeos e da densidade da madeira.Trees produce different types of woody tissue during growth. The xylem produced in the first years until a certain cambial age is called juvenile wood and has different physical, mechanical, chemical and anatomical characteristics from that produced later, when the cambial cells have matured. Thus, prior knowledge of the quality of the wood is of fundamental importance for choosing the best use of the material. This work aimed at using data from length of the tracheid and wood density to

    5. Análise da madeira do Pinus oocarpa parte II: caracterização estrutural da lignina de madeira moída Chemical analysis of the Pinus oocarpa wood. Part II: characterization of the milled wood lignin

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais

      2005-06-01

      Full Text Available Este estudo caracterizou a Lignina de Madeira Moída (LMM proveniente de Pinus oocarpa cultivado na região do Cerrado brasileiro. A LMM foi isolada e analisada por meio das espectrometrias no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (IVTF, de ressonância magnética nuclear do próton e carbono-13 e por intermédio de métodos químicos de análise por via úmida. A LMM apresentou uma fórmula mínima igual a C9H9,2O2,6(OCH 30,8 e massas molares médias em massa (Mw e numérica (Mn de 3.969 e 1.133 Da, respectivamente. A LMM dessa madeira se enquadra dentro das ligninas típicas de coníferas.This work presents the characterization of the milled wood lignin (MWL of the Pinus oocarpa cultivated in the Brazilian cerrado. FTIR, carbon-13 and proton NMR spectroscopies as well as wet chemical methods were used. The established C9 unit formula for MWL was C9H9,2O2,6(OCH 30,8 and its relative molecular weights (Mw and (Mn were 3969 and 1133 Da, respectively. Pinus oocarpa MWL was typical of softwood lignins.

    6. WEIGHT LOSS AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CASTOR OIL-TREATED Pinus caribaea (Morelet WOOD EXPOSED TO FUNGI

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      Adewunmi Omobolaji ADENAIYA

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available The need for environmental sustainability calls for a radical change from the use of synthetic wood preservatives which persist in the environment even after wood has been taken out of service. There has therefore been a growing interest in the development of efficacious biocides from plants, prompting the exploration of castor seed oil as a potential wood antifungal in this study due to its reported antimicrobial properties. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the resistance of castor oil treated P. caribaea wood against two strains of wood basidiomycetes. Five trees of Pinus caribaea were harvested at Shasha Forest Reserve, Osun State. Wood samples were obtained from the top, middle and base of the trees. The samples were conditioned and treated with four formulated fungicides prepared from mechanically extracted oil of castor seeds. The treated and control samples were inoculated with Sclerotium rolfsii (Brown rot and Ganoderma lucidum (White rot for 24 weeks. Parameters such as oil yield, preservative absorption, weight loss and compressive strength of the treated wood samples were determined. ANOVA was used in analyzing the data generated. Results show that the oil yield of the seed of the plant is 41.75%. The preservative absorption of the wood ranged between 114.85 - 277.12 (Kgm-3 , weight loss (1.36 - 15.85% and MCS// (33.05 - 48.35N/mm2 . Sampling height and preservative concentration significantly influenced weight loss of the wood (p<0.05. The 30% preservative concentration performed best, having the least weight loss (1.71% and 1.61% and highest MCS// (47.06N/mm2 and 44.65N/mm2 after exposure to S. rolfsii and G. lucidum, respectively. The brown rot (4.12% was more virulent than the white rot (3.66% on the basis of wood weight loss, however, the MCS// results indicated otherwise. It is concluded that castor seed oil is effective in protecting wood against white and brown rot fungi.

    7. Impact of drought on the temporal dynamics of wood formation in Pinus sylvestris.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gruber, Andreas; Strobl, Stefan; Veit, Barbara; Oberhuber, Walter

      2010-04-01

      We determined the temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell differentiation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria), where radial growth is strongly limited by drought in spring. Repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree ring of mature trees was carried out during two contrasting years at two study plots that differ in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic sites). In 2007, when air temperature at the beginning of the growing season in April exceeded the long-term mean by 6.4 degrees C, cambial cell division started in early April at both study plots. A delayed onset of cambial activity of c. 2 weeks was found in 2008, when average climate conditions prevailed in spring, indicating that resumption of cambial cell division after winter dormancy is temperature controlled. Cambial cell division consistently ended about the end of June/early July in both study years. Radial enlargement of tracheids started almost 3 weeks earlier in 2007 compared with 2008 at both study plots. At the xeric site, the maximum rate of tracheid production in 2007 and 2008 was reached in early and mid-May, respectively, and c. 2 weeks later at the dry-mesic site. Since in both study years more favorable growing conditions (i.e., an increase in soil water content) were recorded during summer, we suggest a strong sink competition for carbohydrates to mycorrhizal root and shoot growth. Wood formation stopped c. 4 weeks earlier at the xeric compared with the dry-mesic site in both years, indicating a strong influence of drought stress on cell differentiation. This is supported by radial widths of earlywood cells, which were found to be significantly narrower at the xeric than at the dry-mesic site (P analyses during the two growing seasons revealed that, although spatial variability in the dynamics and duration of cell differentiation processes in P. sylvestris exposed to drought is strongly influenced by water

    8. Comparing carbon isotope composition of bulk wood and holocellulose from Quercus cerris, Fraxinus ornus and Pinus radiata tree rings

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      D’Alessandro CM

      2004-01-01

      Full Text Available Tree-ring δ13C is widely employed in ecophysiological studies, because it represents an integrated proxy of the ratio between photosynthesis (A and stomatal conductance (g, which expresses the intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE, strongly affected by the environmental conditions experienced by the plant during its life span. Tree-ring δ13C also reflects long term variations of atmospheric CO2 concentration and of its carbon isotope composition, partly due to increasing anthropogenic emissions. Carbon isotope abundances in tree rings can be assessed on bulk wood as well as on wood? biochemical components, wich show different δ13C values because of secondary discrimination during biosynthesis.We present the results of a comparison between δ13C values of bulk wood and holocellulose samples obtained from the last three (1999, 2000 and 2001 annual growth rings of two hardwood (Quercus cerris L. and Fraxinus ornus L. and one conifer (Pinus radiata D. Don, species. We found that δ13C values differed significantly among tree species, both in the case of holocellulose and bulk wood, but only in the case of P. radiata bulk wood samples tend to provide more negative δ13C values than holocellulose, as reported in the literature. We suggest that, at least for the two hardwood species studied, bulk wood is a suitable material to work with for δ13C assessment, whilst in P. radiata holocellulose could provide a more stable and reliable index, when studying plant ecophysiological responses to changing environmental conditions.

    9. EVALUACIÓN DE PROCEDIMIENTOS DE AJUSTE ÓPTIMO DE TODOS LOS PARÁMETROS DE WEIBULL 3P PARA MODELAR LA ESTRUCTURA HORIZONTAL EN PLANTACIONES DE Pinus taeda

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      O. S. Vallejos-Barra

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Se generó un conjunto de procedimientos de cálculo que permitieran estimar los tres parámetros de la función de densidad de probabilidad Weibull 3P. Además, se estimaron y evaluaron los parámetros óptimos de esta función mediante los procedimientos de cálculo desarrollados, para modelar los diámetros a la altura del pecho de árboles de Pinus taeda. Los árboles fueron medidos durante ocho años en seis parcelas para cada una de las cinco densidades de plantación consideradas. Los parámetros de la Weibull 3P fueron estimados por cuatro métodos alternativos: máxima verosimilitud, momentos, percentiles e híbrido. Los procedimientos de optimización buscaban minimizar tanto el índice de error como los estadísticos de las pruebas de bondad de ajuste: Kolmogorov- Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, Kuiper, Cramer-Von Mises y Watson. Cuatro fueron los resultados principales de esta investigación. Primero, los métodos de estimación de parámetros y la edad de plantación afectaron el valor del parámetro de localización. Segundo, 45 % de los valores del parámetro de localización fueron negativos. En estos casos, se encontró una relación lineal altamente significativa entre los parámetros de localización, de escala y forma. Entonces, el efecto de un valor del parámetro de localización negativo fue compensado por el valor de los otros parámetros. Tercero, el método de percentiles y de máxima verosimilitud producen el menor y mayor valor del parámetro de localización, respectivamente. Cuarto, la mayor exactitud en el ajuste se logró con los métodos de estimación de parámetros de los percentiles y de los momentos. La mayor exactitud en el ajuste de la prueba Anderson-Darling se asoció al método de los momentos y el resto de las pruebas de bondad de ajuste con el método de los percentiles.

    10. The Effect of Wood Specimen Length on the Proportional Saturation of Preservative Fluid in Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican Pine (Pinus nigravar.mantima)

      OpenAIRE

      USTA*, İlker; Arif GÜRAY

      2001-01-01

      In this study, the proportional saturation and the fluid uptake of preservative liquid (that was) applied under the same pressure was investigated comparatively on the various longitudinal length of wood specimens in the two softwood species. Wood specimens of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var.mantima) representative of two different permeability classifications, cut into five different lengths were treated with tanalith-C using the full-cell p...

    11. The Effect of Wood Specimen Length on the Proportional Saturation of Preservative Fluid in Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican Pine (Pinus nigravar.mantima)

      OpenAIRE

      USTA*, İlker; Arif GÜRAY

      2014-01-01

      In this study, the proportional saturation and the fluid uptake of preservative liquid (that was) applied under the same pressure was investigated comparatively on the various longitudinal length of wood specimens in the two softwood species. Wood specimens of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var.mantima) representative of two different permeability classifications, cut into five different lengths were treated with tanalith-C using the full-cell p...

    12. 3种氨基酸对火炬松苗期生长的影响%Effects of Three Kinds of Amino Acids on the Seedling of Pinus taeda

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      王博; 陈珂; 刘天颐; 黄少伟

      2016-01-01

      分析1 a 生火炬松(Pinus taeda)幼苗施复合肥前后氨基酸含量变化,筛选出含量变化较大的3种氨基酸,设置3种氨基酸不同浓度组合,采用土壤施肥和叶面喷施,通过方差分析及 Duncan 多重比较检验,筛选出合适火炬松的氨基酸浓度组合和施肥方法。结果表明:(1)施用复合肥前后氨基酸含量变化较大的有9种,其中缬氨酸、组氨酸、天冬酰胺含量较大,且均为水溶性氨基酸;(2)总整体来看,芭田复合肥对苗木的生长促进效果不如氨基酸施肥;(3)采用土壤施肥,缬氨酸0.192 g/L+组氨酸0.163 g/L+天冬酰胺0.309 g/L 对苗高和生物量的促进效果最好;采用叶面喷施,缬氨酸0.256 g/L+组氨酸0.163 g/L+天冬酰胺0.412 g/L 对苗高和生物量的促进效果最好;(4)在5项生长量指标测定中,叶面喷施的指标值大部分高于土壤施肥。综上所述,对火炬松幼苗生长促进效果最优的施肥方式为叶面喷施缬氨酸0.256 g/L+组氨酸0.163 g/L+天冬酰胺0.412 g/L。%Through the annual loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seedlings compound fertilizer applied to the analysis of amino acid content, screening of three amino acids with a large change in content. Setting different combinations of amino acid concentrations, and sprayed with two different methods of soil and foliar fertilization for processing. By ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple comparison test of different fertilization methods, differences in the concentration of amino acid composition of seedling growth, and select the best combination of amino acid concentration and fertilization. The results showed that: (1) There were nine kinds of amino acids had a great change in content, which meet the test requirements to select three amino acids including valine, histidine and asparagine; (2) Overall, amino acid fertilizer was better than compound fertilizer for seedlings; (3) In terms of soil fertilization, the

    13. 松属GAs相关EST-SSR标记与火炬松×洪都拉斯加勒比松苗高相关性分析%Analysis on correlation of EST-SSR markers relating to GAs metabolism for Pinus L. with the seedling height of Pinus taeda x P. caribaea var. hondurensis

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      栾启福; 姜景民; 张守攻

      2011-01-01

      以火炬松×洪都拉斯加勒比松F1代群体为研究对象,从松树PGI(松类基因索弓1)数据中筛选出13个与赤霉素(GAs)代谢有关的序列.设计了这13条序列的EST-SSR引物对,并筛选出4对引物作为F.代检测的较好的标记.4对引物PCR分析显示在2个亲本和39个子代中共扩增出1 014个多态性位点,其中,杂种F1代扩增出的位点数中有50.19%与父本相同,52.17%与母本相同,这表明母本(火炬松)和父本(加勒比松)杂交能够得到获得双亲遗传物质的新杂种.4个引物检测的26个等位基因位点中有6个与苗龄6个月的苗高有显著或极显著的相关性,有5个位点与苗龄9个月的苗高有显著或极显著相关性.这为早期选择提供了较好的分子标记.%Thirteen EST-SSR molecular markers related to GAs metabolism for Pinus L. were developed from EST sequences in PGI( Pings gene index)database. 1 014 alleles were amplified with two parents and 39 F1 progeny of Pings taeda × P. caribaea var. hondurensis with four primer-pairs, which were selected from the thirteen EST-SSRs. 50. 19 % of the 1 014 alleles were originated from the male parent(P, taeda) and 52. 17 % were shared with the female parent (P. caribaea var. hondurensis), which showed that the progeny of this hybridization inherent genetic materials from both parents. Six locus selected from all 26 locus amplified by four primer pairs were related significantly to six-month old seedling height of the 39 F1 hybrids, and five locus related significantly to nine-month old seedling height. Therefore,this markets can serve as good molecular markers for early selection.

    14. Essential Oils from Wood, Bark, and Needles of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. from Alexandria, Egypt: Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities

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      Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem

      2014-10-01

      Full Text Available The essential oils extracted by hydro-distillation of Pinus roxburghii wood, bark, and needles were analyzed by GC/MS, and their antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Twenty-two, thirty-one, and twenty-eight compounds were identified in the essential oils of wood, bark, and needles, respectively. The major chemical constituents of wood’s essential oil were caryophyllene (16.75%, thunbergol (16.29%, 3-carene (14.95%, cembrene (12.08%, α-thujene (10.81%, and terpinolen (7.17%. In bark, they were α-pinene (31.29% and 3-carene (28.05%, and in needles, they were α-pinene (39% and 3-carene (33.37%. Almost all of the essential oils were active against human pathogen bacteria, and the essential oils from bark and needles were active against the plant pathogen bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum and Pectobacterium carotovorum. Alternatively, Erwinia amylovora was resistant to all tested oils. The total antioxidant activities (TAA% of the essential oils from wood (82 ± 2.12%, and bark (85 ± 1.24% were higher than that of tannic acid (81 ± 1.02%, and the TAA% from the essential oil of needles (50 ± 2.24% was lower than that of tannic acid.

    15. Saturated salt method determination of hysteresis of Pinus sylvestris L. wood for 35 ºC isotherms

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      García Esteban, L.

      2004-12-01

      Full Text Available The saturated salts method was used in this study to quantify hysteresis in Pinus sylvestris L. wood, in an exercise that involved plotting the 35 ºC desorption and sorption isotherms. Nine salts were used, all of which establish stable and known relative humidity values when saturated in water The wood was kept at the relative humidity generated by each of these salts until the equilibrium moisture content (EMC was reached, both in the water loss or desorption, and the water uptake or sorption processes. The Guggenheim method was used to fit the values obtained to the respective curves. Hysteresis was evaluated in terms of the hysteresis coefficient, for which a mean value of 0.87 was found.

      Con este trabajo se ha cuantificado la histéresis de la madera de Pinus sylvestris L. Para ello, se han construido las isotermas de 35 ºC de adsorción y sorción, mediante el método de las sales saturadas. Se han utilizado nueve sales que cuando se saturan en agua dan lugar a unas humedades relativas estables y conocidas. La madera fue colocada bajo las distintas humedades relativas que confieren cada una de las sales hasta que alcanzaron las distintas humedades de equilibrio higroscópico, tanto en el proceso de pérdida de agua o desorción, como en el de adquisición de agua o de sorción. Los valores obtenidos fueron ajustados a las respectivas sigmoides, haciendo uso del método de Guggenheim. La valoración de la histéresis se determinó mediante el coeficiente de histéresis, obteniendo un valor medio de 0,87.

    16. Temporal dynamic of wood formation in Pinus cembra along the alpine treeline ecotone and the effect of climate variables.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gruber, Andreas; Baumgartner, Daniel; Zimmermann, Jolanda; Oberhuber, Walter

      2009-06-01

      We determined the temporal dynamic of cambial activity and xylem development of stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) throughout the treeline ecotone. Repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree ring was carried out during the growing seasons 2006 and 2007 at the timberline (1950 m a.s.l.), treeline (2110 m a.s.l.) and within the krummholz belt (2180 m a.s.l.) and the influence of climate variables on intra-annual wood formation was determined.At the beginning of both growing seasons, highest numbers of cambial and enlarging cells were observed at the treeline. Soil temperatures at time of initiation of cambial activity were c. 1.5 °C higher at treeline (open canopy) compared to timberline (closed canopy), suggesting that a threshold root-zone temperature is involved in triggering onset of above ground stem growth.The rate of xylem cell production determined in two weekly intervals during June through August 2006-2007 was significantly correlated with air temperature (temperature sums expressed as degree-days and mean daily maximum temperature) at the timberline only. Lack of significant relationships between tracheid production and temperature variables at the treeline and within the krummholz belt support past dendroclimatological studies that more extreme environmental conditions (e.g., wind exposure, frost desiccation, late frost) increasingly control tree growth above timberline.Results of this study revealed that spatial and temporal (i.e. year-to-year) variability in timing and dynamic of wood formation of Pinus cembra is strongly influenced by local site factors within the treeline ecotone and the dynamics of seasonal temperature variation, respectively.

    17. Using NIR and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to rapidly detect compression wood in Pinus radiata

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      McLean, J. Paul; Jin, Guangwu; Brennan, Maree; Nieuwoudt, Michel K; Harris, Philip J

      2014-01-01

      .... Traditional methods of detecting it are often time consuming and subjective. This study aimed to rapidly and impartially detect compression wood through the use of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR...

    18. Conversion of Japanese red pine wood (Pinus densiflora) into valuable chemicals under subcritical water conditions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Asghari, Feridoun Salak; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

      2010-01-11

      A comparative study on the decomposition of Japanese red pine wood under subcritical water conditions in the presence and absence of phosphate buffer was investigated in a batch-type reaction vessel. Since cellulose makes up more than 40-45% of the components found in most wood species, a series of experiments were also carried out using pure cellulose as a model for woody biomass. Several parameters such as temperature and residence time, as well as pH effects, were investigated in detail. The best temperature for decomposition and hydrolysis of pure cellulose was found around 270 degrees C. The effects of the initial pH of the solution which ranged from 1.5 to 6.5 were studied. It was found that the pH has a considerable effect on the hydrolysis and decomposition of the cellulose. Several products in the aqueous phase were identified and quantified. The conditions obtained from the subcritical water treatment of pure cellulose were applied for the Japanese red pine wood chips. As a result, even in the absence of acid catalyst, a large amount of wood sample was hydrolyzed in water; however, by using phosphate buffer at pH 2, there was an increase in the hydrolysis and dissolution of the wood chips. In addition to the water-soluble phase, acetone-soluble and water-acetone-insoluble phases were also isolated after subcritical water treatment (which can be attributed mainly to the degraded lignin, tar, and unreacted wood chips, respectively). The initial wood:acid ratio in the case of reactions catalyzed by phosphate buffer was also investigated. The results showed that this weight ratio can be as high as 3:1 without changing the catalytic activity. The size of the wood chips as one of the most important experimental parameters was also investigated.

    19. WOOD ANATOMICAL STUDY AMONG THREE ECOTYPES OF Pinus merkusii IN SUMATRA AND THE POTENTIAL AS CLIMATE CHANGE INDICATOR

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yulia Sandri

      2016-09-01

      Full Text Available Recently, climate change is the one of most important environmental issue. Climate variability can be recorded by tree growing through the growth ring. Growth ring formed by cambial activity were examined in wood anatomy. In Sumatra, there are three ecotypes Pinus merkusii, namely ecotypes Kerinci, Tapanuli, and Aceh which can be distinguished morphologically. This study aims to knowing the wood anatomical characteristics of the three ecotypes and determine the potential as climate indicator. This study was conducted in October 2014 until June 2015. Sample of Kerinci ecotype was collected in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Tapanuli ecotype in Dolok Sibualbuali Natural Reserve and Aceh ecotype in Gunung Leuser National Park on a height of 130 cm using increment borer and cut on the main stem 5×5 cm for anatomical sample. Results from this study indicate that ecotype Kerinci and Tapanuli showed earlywood and latewood boundary exposing the clear growth ring, whereas in Aceh ecotype unclear. Tapanuli ecotype have the thickest tracheid diameter than ecotype Kerinci and Aceh. Ecotypes of Kerinci, Tapanuli, and Aceh has homoceluler and uniseriate ray where Aceh ecotype have the longest ray. Furthermore, Kerinci and Tapanuli ecotype have potential as climate indicator eventhough showed negative correlation, that Tapanuli ecotype show the best result and recommended in dendrochronology study.

    20. Effects of Recent Minimum Temperature and Water Deficit Increases on Pinus pinaster Radial Growth and Wood Density in Southern Portugal.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kurz-Besson, Cathy B; Lousada, José L; Gaspar, Maria J; Correia, Isabel E; David, Teresa S; Soares, Pedro M M; Cardoso, Rita M; Russo, Ana; Varino, Filipa; Mériaux, Catherine; Trigo, Ricardo M; Gouveia, Célia M

      2016-01-01

      Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events. To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a Pinus pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI) multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011. We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster's vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster's production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region.

    1. Effects of Recent Minimum Temperature and Water Deficit Increases on Pinus pinaster Radial Growth and Wood Density in Southern Portugal

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kurz-Besson, Cathy B.; Lousada, José L.; Gaspar, Maria J.; Correia, Isabel E.; David, Teresa S.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Russo, Ana; Varino, Filipa; Mériaux, Catherine; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Gouveia, Célia M.

      2016-01-01

      Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events. To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a Pinus pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI) multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011. We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster’s vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster’s production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region. PMID:27570527

    2. Transcriptome profiling of Pinus radiata juvenile wood with contrasting stiffness identifies putative candidate genes involved in microfibril orientation and cell wall mechanics

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Wu Harry X

      2011-10-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanical properties of wood are largely determined by the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in secondary cell walls. Several genes and their allelic variants have previously been found to affect microfibril angle (MFA and wood stiffness; however, the molecular mechanisms controlling microfibril orientation and mechanical strength are largely uncharacterised. In the present study, cDNA microarrays were used to compare gene expression in developing xylem with contrasting stiffness and MFA in juvenile Pinus radiata trees in order to gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying microfibril orientation and cell wall mechanics. Results Juvenile radiata pine trees with higher stiffness (HS had lower MFA in the earlywood and latewood of each ring compared to low stiffness (LS trees. Approximately 3.4 to 14.5% out of 3, 320 xylem unigenes on cDNA microarrays were differentially regulated in juvenile wood with contrasting stiffness and MFA. Greater variation in MFA and stiffness was observed in earlywood compared to latewood, suggesting earlywood contributes most to differences in stiffness; however, 3-4 times more genes were differentially regulated in latewood than in earlywood. A total of 108 xylem unigenes were differentially regulated in juvenile wood with HS and LS in at least two seasons, including 43 unigenes with unknown functions. Many genes involved in cytoskeleton development and secondary wall formation (cellulose and lignin biosynthesis were preferentially transcribed in wood with HS and low MFA. In contrast, several genes involved in cell division and primary wall synthesis were more abundantly transcribed in LS wood with high MFA. Conclusions Microarray expression profiles in Pinus radiata juvenile wood with contrasting stiffness has shed more light on the transcriptional control of microfibril orientation and the mechanical properties of wood. The identified candidate genes provide an

    3. Slow pyrolysis of wood barks from Pinus brutia Ten. and product compositions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sensöz, Sevgi

      2003-09-01

      Biomass in the form of pine bark (Pinus brutia Ten.) was pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effects of temperature and heating rate on the yields and compositions of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures between 300 and 500 degrees C with heating rates of 7 and 40 degrees Cmin(-1). The product yields were significantly influenced by the process conditions. The bio-oil obtained at 450 degrees C, at which the liquid product yield was maximum, was analysed. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the solid and liquid products were analysed to determine their elemental composition and calorific value. Chemical fractionation of bio-oil showed that only low quantities of hydrocarbons were present, while oxygenated and polar fractions dominated. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.03 MJkg(-1) was established as CH(1.43)O(0.332)N(0.0013).

    4. Estimating Wood Volume for Pinus Brutia Trees in Forest Stands from QUICKBIRD-2 Imagery

      Science.gov (United States)

      Patias, Petros; Stournara, Panagiota

      2016-06-01

      Knowledge of forest parameters, such as wood volume, is required for a sustainable forest management. Collecting such information in the field is laborious and even not feasible in inaccessible areas. In this study, tree wood volume is estimated utilizing remote sensing techniques, which can facilitate the extraction of relevant information. The study area is the University Forest of Taxiarchis, which is located in central Chalkidiki, Northern Greece and covers an area of 58km2. The tree species under study is the conifer evergreen species P. brutia (Calabrian pine). Three plot surfaces of 10m radius were used. VHR Quickbird-2 images are used in combination with an allometric relationship connecting the Tree Crown with the Diameter at breast height (Dbh), and a volume table developed for Greece. The overall methodology is based on individual tree crown delineation, based on (a) the marker-controlled watershed segmentation approach and (b) the GEographic Object-Based Image Analysis approach. The aim of the first approach is to extract separate segments each of them including a single tree and eventual lower vegetation, shadows, etc. The aim of the second approach is to detect and remove the "noisy" background. In the application of the first approach, the Blue, Green, Red, Infrared and PCA-1 bands are tested separately. In the application of the second approach, NDVI and image brightness thresholds are utilized. The achieved results are evaluated against field plot data. Their observed difference are between -5% to +10%.

    5. Classificação e caracterização de horizontes organicos sob povoamentos de Pinus taeda L. na Região de Ponta Grossa PR - 1. aproximação

      OpenAIRE

      2013-01-01

      Os horizontes orgânicos sob povoamentos de Plnua taeda com 17 anos de idade, no município de Ponta Grossa - PR, localizados em sítios de baixa, média e alta produtividade foram estudados, sendo caracterizados morfológica e quimicamente e classificados com base em padrões internacionais. Segundo o grau de decomposição foram distintos com mais freqüência seis suborizontes: Lnl, material recém-caído, apresentando tamanho original e elasticidade com fragmentação pequena ou nula; Ln2, material sem...

    6. Characterization of resistance to pine wood nematode infection in Pinus thunbergii using suppression subtractive hybridization

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hirao Tomonori

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Pine wilt disease is caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens pine forests and forest ecosystems worldwide and causes serious economic losses. In the 40 years since the pathogen was identified, the physiological changes occurring as the disease progresses have been characterized using anatomical and biochemical methods, and resistant trees have been selected via breeding programs. However, no studies have assessed the molecular genetics, e.g. transcriptional changes, associated with infection-induced physiological changes in resistant or susceptible trees. Results We constructed seven subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH cDNA libraries using time-course sampling of trees inoculated with pine wood nematode at 1, 3, or 7 days post-inoculation (dpi in susceptible trees and at 1, 3, 7, or 14 dpi in resistant trees. A total of 3,299 sequences was obtained from these cDNA libraries, including from 138 to 315 non-redundant sequences in susceptible SSH libraries and from 351 to 435 in resistant SSH libraries. Using Gene Ontology hierarchy, those non-redundant sequences were classified into 15 subcategories of the biological process Gene Ontology category and 17 subcategories of the molecular function category. The transcriptional components revealed by the Gene Ontology classification clearly differed between resistant and susceptible libraries. Some transcripts were discriminative: expression of antimicrobial peptide and putative pathogenesis-related genes (e.g., PR-1b, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 was much higher in susceptible trees than in resistant trees at every time point, whereas expression of PR-9, PR-10, and cell wall-related genes (e.g., for hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein precursor and extensin was higher in resistant trees than in susceptible trees at 7 and 14 dpi. Conclusions Following inoculation with pine wood nematode, there were marked differences between resistant and susceptible trees

    7. Effect of Tree Spacing on Tree Level Volume Growth, Morphology, and Wood Properties in a 25-Year-Old Pinus banksiana Plantation in the Boreal Forest of Quebec

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      François Hébert

      2016-11-01

      Full Text Available The number of planted trees per hectare influences individual volume growth, which in turn can affect wood properties. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of six different plantation spacings of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. 25 years following planting on tree growth, morphology, and wood properties. Stem analyses were performed to calculate annual and cumulative diameter, height, and volume growth. For morphological and wood property measurements several parameters were analyzed: diameter of the largest branch, live crown ratio, wood density, and the moduli of elasticity and rupture on small clear samples. The highest volume growth for individual trees was obtained in the 1111 trees/ha plantation, while the lowest was in the 4444 trees/ha plantation. Wood density and the moduli of elasticity and rupture did not change significantly between the six plantation spacings, but the largest branch diameter was significantly higher in the 1111 trees/ha (3.26 cm mean diameter compared with the 4444 trees/ha spacing (2.03 cm mean diameter. Based on this study, a wide range of spacing induced little negative effect on the measured wood properties, except for the size of knots. Increasing the initial spacing of jack pine plantations appears to be a good choice if producing large, fast-growing stems is the primary goal, but lumber mechanical and visual properties could be decreased due to the larger branch diameter.

    8. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) wood . Part I: Lipophilic compounds

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nuopponen, M.; Willför, S.; Jääskeläinen, A.-S.; Sundberg, A.; Vuorinen, T.

      2004-11-01

      The wood resin in Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) stemwood and branch wood were studied using UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. UVRR spectra of the sapwood and heartwood hexane extracts, solid wood samples and model compounds (six resin acids, three fatty acids, a fatty acid ester, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate) were collected using excitation wavelengths of 229, 244 and 257 nm. In addition, visible Raman spectra of the fatty and resin acids were recorded. Resin compositions of heartwood and sapwood hexane extracts were determined using gas chromatography. Raman signals of both conjugated and isolated double bonds of all the model compounds were resonance enhanced by UV excitation. The oleophilic structures showed strong bands in the region of 1660-1630 cm -1. Distinct structures were enhanced depending on the excitation wavelength. The UVRR spectra of the hexane extracts showed characteristic bands for resin and fatty acids. It was possible to identify certain resin acids from the spectra. UV Raman spectra collected from the solid wood samples containing wood resin showed a band at ˜1650 cm -1 due to unsaturated resin components. The Raman signals from extractives in the resin rich branch wood sample gave even more strongly enhanced signals than the aromatic lignin.

    9. Análise da madeira de Pinus oocarpa parte I: estudo dos constituintes macromoleculares e extrativos voláteis Chemical analysis of Pinus oocarpa wood part I: quantification of macromolecular components and volatile extractives

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais

      2005-06-01

      Full Text Available Neste estudo foram analisados os principais componentes químicos da madeira de Pinus oocarpa, cultivado na região do cerrado. A composição química dessa madeira foi: 59,05% de a-celulose, 21,22% de hemiceluloses A e B, 25,18% de lignina, 2,78% de extrativos em diclorometano, 4,38% de extrativos em etanol:tolueno, 4,31% de extrativos em água quente e 1,26% de cinzas. O conteúdo de celulose foi relativamente elevado, indicando que essa madeira possui grande potencial para produção de pasta de celulose. Investigou-se, também, a composição dos extrativos. Os principais constituintes do extrato diclorometano dessa madeira foram os ácidos diterpênicos, além dos ácidos palmítico e oléico. No óleo essencial, extraído por aparelho de Clevenger, os principais componentes identificados foram aromadendreno, ledano, hexadecanal e ácido oléico.The chemical composition of Pinus oocarpa wood cultivated in the Brazilian cerrado was established. The obtained results were: a-cellulose (59.05%, hemicelluloses A and B (21.22%, lignin (25.18%, dichloromethane extractives (2.78%, ethanol:toluene extractives (4.38%, hot water extractives (4.31% and ash (1.26%. The cellulose content was high. This result opens perspectives for using Pinus oocarpa wood in pulp and paper industries. Most of the dichloromethane extractives were diterpenic, palmitic and oleic acids. The volatile composition, obtained by means of the Clevenger method followed by GC-MS analysis was constituted mainly by aromadendrene, ledane, hexadecanal and oleic acid.

    10. Biophysical modelling of intra-ring variations in tracheid features and wood density of Pinus pinaster trees exposed to seasonal droughts.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wilkinson, Sarah; Ogée, Jérôme; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Rayment, Mark; Wingate, Lisa

      2015-03-01

      Process-based models that link seasonally varying environmental signals to morphological features within tree rings are essential tools to predict tree growth response and commercially important wood quality traits under future climate scenarios. This study evaluated model portrayal of radial growth and wood anatomy observations within a mature maritime pine (Pinus pinaster (L.) Aït.) stand exposed to seasonal droughts. Intra-annual variations in tracheid anatomy and wood density were identified through image analysis and X-ray densitometry on stem cores covering the growth period 1999-2010. A cambial growth model was integrated with modelled plant water status and sugar availability from the soil-plant-atmosphere transfer model MuSICA to generate estimates of cell number, cell volume, cell mass and wood density on a weekly time step. The model successfully predicted inter-annual variations in cell number, ring width and maximum wood density. The model was also able to predict the occurrence of special anatomical features such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in growth rings. Since cell wall thickness remained surprisingly constant within and between growth rings, variations in wood density were primarily the result of variations in lumen diameter, both in the model and anatomical data. In the model, changes in plant water status were identified as the main driver of the IADFs through a direct effect on cell volume. The anatomy data also revealed that a trade-off existed between hydraulic safety and hydraulic efficiency. Although a simplified description of cambial physiology is presented, this integrated modelling approach shows potential value for identifying universal patterns of tree-ring growth and anatomical features over a broad climatic gradient.

    11. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gündüz, Gökhan; Korkut, Süleyman; Korkut, Derya Sevim

      2008-05-01

      Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Yenice-Zonguldak Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and for varying durations. The physical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties were determined. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and compression strength, and Janka-hardness were determined. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements by the stylus method were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Four main roughness parameters, mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), root mean square roughness (Rq), and maximum roughness (Ry) obtained from the surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant difference was determined (p=0.05) between physical and technological properties, and surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Ry, Rq) for three temperatures and three durations of heat treatment. Based on the findings in this study, the results showed that density, swelling, compression strength, Janka-hardness and surface roughness values decreased with increasing treatment temperature and treatment times. Increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens. Camiyani Black Pine wood could be utilized by using proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in strength values in areas where working, stability, and surface smoothness, such as in window frames, are important factors.

    12. Effect of Hydro- and Hygro-Thermal Treatments on Some Wood Properties of Pinus Radiata and Pseudotsuga Menziesii

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Francisco Burgos

      2012-09-01

      Full Text Available Heat treatments are related to the action of temperature in successive stages and under controlled conditions, changing the chemical structure of wood. However, the method of treatment used may have a significant effect on the properties of the heat treated wood. In order to assess the effect of the heat treatments on the wood properties, two conifer species were considered, as well as the absence of the air through water and vapor and three levels of temperature (130, 145 and 160 °C. The experiments resulted in twelve treatments or interactions plus controls. This study describes the changes in chemical composition of wood at relatively low temperatures and its interactions with the physical and mechanical properties of the new thermally-modified wood. The analysis of the results indicates that the extractives and degradation products that remain in the wood processed in a closed reactor seem to be a very important factor affecting the results.

    13. Nutritional ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): growth and survival of incipient colonies feeding on preferred wood species.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

      2003-02-01

      The wood of 11 plant species was evaluated as a food source significantly impacting the growth and survival of incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.), and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., produced significantly more progeny than colonies feeding on other wood species tested. Progeny of colonies feeding on pecan and American ash, Fraxinus americana L., had significantly greater survival than progeny of colonies feeding on other wood species. Colonies feeding on a nutritionally supplemented cellulose based matrix showed similar fitness characteristics as colonies feeding on the best wood treatments. These results indicate that differences observed in colony fitness can be partially explained by nutritional value of the food treatment, raising the possibility that wood from different tree species have different nutritional values to the Formosan subterranean termites. Colonies feeding on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., had significantly lower survival and produced significantly fewer workers and soldiers than colonies feeding on other wood species. Colony survival from 90 to 180 d of age and from 90 to 360 d of age was significantly correlated with the number of workers present at 90 d of colony age, indicating that colony survival depends on the presence of workers. Wood consumption in a multiple-choice study was significantly correlated with colony fitness value. This suggests that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the nutritional value of the food source.

    14. EFFECT OF LAMINATE INCLUSION AND THE TYPE OF ADHESIVE IN THE PROPERTIES OF OSB PANELS OF THE WOOD FROM Pinus oocarpa

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      José Benedito Guimarães júnior

      2012-11-01

      Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of laminate inclusion and the type of adhesive on the physical and mechanical properties of OSB panels produced from the wood of Pinus oocarpa. The experimental design consisted of four treatments. Laminateinclusion and urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde adhesives applied in combination with the panel layer were evaluated. For each treatment, three panels with nominal density of 0.65 g.cm-3, 1% to 6% paraffin and adhesive were produced. In the manufacturing of thepanels, temperature of 180 ° C, pressure of 3.95 MPa and pressing time of 8 minutes were adopted. From the results it is concluded that: the species Pinus oocarpa has great potential for use in the production of OSB panels; the laminate inclusion resulted in significant improvement in the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling after immersion for two hours, as well as in the modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in parallel direction; and the panels made with urea-formaldehyde adhesives in the core and phenol-formaldehydeon the faces statistically equal to panels only with the phenol-formaldehyde adhesive in statistically, except in the internal bonding property.

    15. Temporal Variation of Wood Density and Carbon in Two Elevational Sites of Pinus cooperi in Relation to Climate Response in Northern Mexico

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pompa-García, Marín; Venegas-González, Alejandro

      2016-01-01

      Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of carbon uptake in forest ecosystems is much needed. Pinus cooperi is a widely distributed species in the Sierra Madre Occidental in northern Mexico and future climatic variations could impact these ecosystems. Here, we analyze the variations of trunk carbon in two populations of P. cooperi situated at different elevational gradients, combining dendrochronological techniques and allometry. Carbon sequestration (50% biomass) was estimated from a specific allometric equation for this species based on: (i) variation of intra-annual wood density and (ii) diameter reconstruction. The results show that the population at a higher elevation had greater wood density, basal area, and hence, carbon accumulation. This finding can be explained by an ecological response of trees to adverse weather conditions, which would cause a change in the cellular structure affecting the within-ring wood density profile. The influence of variations in climate on the maximum density of chronologies showed a positive correlation with precipitation and the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index during the winter season, and a negative correlation with maximum temperature during the spring season. Monitoring previous conditions to growth is crucial due to the increased vulnerability to extreme climatic variations on higher elevational sites. We concluded that temporal variability of wood density contributes to a better understanding of environmental historical changes and forest carbon dynamics in Northern Mexico, representing a significant improvement over previous studies on carbon sequestration. Assuming a uniform density according to tree age is incorrect, so this method can be used for environmental mitigation strategies, such as for managing P. cooperi, a dominant species of great ecological amplitude and widely used in forest industries. PMID:27272519

    16. Temporal Variation of Wood Density and Carbon in Two Elevational Sites of Pinus cooperi in Relation to Climate Response in Northern Mexico.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marín Pompa-García

      Full Text Available Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of carbon uptake in forest ecosystems is much needed. Pinus cooperi is a widely distributed species in the Sierra Madre Occidental in northern Mexico and future climatic variations could impact these ecosystems. Here, we analyze the variations of trunk carbon in two populations of P. cooperi situated at different elevational gradients, combining dendrochronological techniques and allometry. Carbon sequestration (50% biomass was estimated from a specific allometric equation for this species based on: (i variation of intra-annual wood density and (ii diameter reconstruction. The results show that the population at a higher elevation had greater wood density, basal area, and hence, carbon accumulation. This finding can be explained by an ecological response of trees to adverse weather conditions, which would cause a change in the cellular structure affecting the within-ring wood density profile. The influence of variations in climate on the maximum density of chronologies showed a positive correlation with precipitation and the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index during the winter season, and a negative correlation with maximum temperature during the spring season. Monitoring previous conditions to growth is crucial due to the increased vulnerability to extreme climatic variations on higher elevational sites. We concluded that temporal variability of wood density contributes to a better understanding of environmental historical changes and forest carbon dynamics in Northern Mexico, representing a significant improvement over previous studies on carbon sequestration. Assuming a uniform density according to tree age is incorrect, so this method can be used for environmental mitigation strategies, such as for managing P. cooperi, a dominant species of great ecological amplitude and widely used in forest industries.

    17. Scientific Opinion on comments provided by Portugal on the phytosanitary risk associated with Pinus pinea for the spread of pine wood nematode

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available Following a request from European Commission, the PLH Panel examined the comments of the Portuguese plant health authorities on a previous EFSA opinion with regard to pine wood nematode (PWN and Pinus pinea and a report on PWN surveys in Portugal. Regarding the comment, based on behavioural responses of PWN to CO2 and to ß-myrcene, that Monochamus galloprovincialis can feed on P. pinea without implying PWN infestation, the Panel noted the uncertainties on how chemical attraction influences the exit of PWN from the vector. The Panel agreed that P. pinea is not a preferred breeding host of M. galloprovincialis, but it noted the evidence from Italy of breeding of M. galloprovincialis in fallen woods of P. pinea, suggesting P. pinea to be an occasional host. The Panel agreed that, although pathogenicity of PWN has been recorded on P. pinea in inoculation experiments on small plants, this does not necessarily relate to pathogenicity on larger trees in the field. The additional information on Portuguese PWN surveys is not sufficient to conclude that P. pinea is resistant to PWN. The Panel also noted that asymptomatic infestations by PWN are well known in other areas, and pine species considered tolerant to PWN could still maintain it at low levels in restricted parts of a tree. The Panel concluded that there is high uncertainty concerning the classification of the risk of spread of PWN with plants and wood of P. pinea, owing to the scarcity of information on the interaction of M. galloprovincialis, PWN and P. pinea, as well as on the field resistance of P. pinea to PWN. Owing to high uncertainty related to the host potential of P. pinea, more studies on the transmission of PWN at feeding wounds and on its survival in trees and wood of P. pinea are needed.

    18. Temporal Variation of Wood Density and Carbon in Two Elevational Sites of Pinus cooperi in Relation to Climate Response in Northern Mexico.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pompa-García, Marín; Venegas-González, Alejandro

      2016-01-01

      Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of carbon uptake in forest ecosystems is much needed. Pinus cooperi is a widely distributed species in the Sierra Madre Occidental in northern Mexico and future climatic variations could impact these ecosystems. Here, we analyze the variations of trunk carbon in two populations of P. cooperi situated at different elevational gradients, combining dendrochronological techniques and allometry. Carbon sequestration (50% biomass) was estimated from a specific allometric equation for this species based on: (i) variation of intra-annual wood density and (ii) diameter reconstruction. The results show that the population at a higher elevation had greater wood density, basal area, and hence, carbon accumulation. This finding can be explained by an ecological response of trees to adverse weather conditions, which would cause a change in the cellular structure affecting the within-ring wood density profile. The influence of variations in climate on the maximum density of chronologies showed a positive correlation with precipitation and the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index during the winter season, and a negative correlation with maximum temperature during the spring season. Monitoring previous conditions to growth is crucial due to the increased vulnerability to extreme climatic variations on higher elevational sites. We concluded that temporal variability of wood density contributes to a better understanding of environmental historical changes and forest carbon dynamics in Northern Mexico, representing a significant improvement over previous studies on carbon sequestration. Assuming a uniform density according to tree age is incorrect, so this method can be used for environmental mitigation strategies, such as for managing P. cooperi, a dominant species of great ecological amplitude and widely used in forest industries.

    19. 永顺县马尾松干材密度变化特征%Characteristics of wood density variation of Pinus massomiana in Yongshun County, Hunan province

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      黄湘南; 张丽云

      2013-01-01

      采用标准地调查与方差分析、统计假设检验相结合的方法,从整树和相对高度两个角度对湖南省永顺县马尾松干材密度进行分析.结果表明:同一马尾松人工林中被压木干材密度最大,平均木次之,优势木最小;各高度干材密度变化范围为364.73~516.39 kg·m-3,样木内干材密度的变动系数在1.96%~13.36%之间,平均变动系数为7.24%,0.2~0.8H(H为树高)处双样本分析的t检验大于临界值2.042,0.1H处t检验值绝对值最小,为-0.740,在外业调查中可以用树干基部密度代替整株树干密度.样木DBH处密度t检验值为-2.717,因此不能把胸径处的密度等同于整株干材密度,建立胸径密度与整株干材密度的回归模型.采用3种一元回归模型研究干材密度与林分年龄之间的相互关系,增加DBH作为自变量,建立二元回归模型,提高模型模拟的精度.%By combining standard investigation method,variance analysis and statistical hypothesis test,the wood density of Pinus massoniana plantation in Yongshun county,Hunan province was investigated from two aspects,i.e.,whole-tree and relative height.The suppressed trees had the largest wood density,following with the mean trees,while that of the dominant trees was the smallest.The stem wood densities with different height varied from 364.73 kg·m-3 to 516.39 kg·m-3,the variation coefficients of sample trees with different height changed from 1.96% to 13.36%,the average coefficient was 7.24%,and the relative height had not significant effects on the wood density.The absolute values of t-test on the height of 0.2 H to 0.8 H were bigger than the critical value,and that on the height of 0.1 H was-0.740,which was the smallest.When there is a need to estimate wood density in outdoor investigation,the trunk base wood density could be used to replace the wood density of the whole tree.The paired two sample t-test indicated that the density of DBH was not equal to

    20. EFFECTS OF SOME BORON COMPOUNDS AND/OR WATER REPELLENTS ON THE HIGROSCOPICITY OF BRUTIA PINE (Pinus brutia Ten. WOOD

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M. Kemal YALINKILIÇ

      1995-03-01

      Full Text Available As a water borne salt type, boron salts also tend to increase in hygroscopicity of wood. This phonomenon is known as one of the disadvantages of these salts in wood preservation in spite of their protective effectiveness against biological agents and fire. This study was designed to determine the rate of higroscopicity both treated and untreated Brutia pine wood. Impregnation solutions of boric acid (BA and sodium perborate (SP was prepared by water and polyethylene glycol (PEG-400 (P4. Additionally, some water repellents (WRs such as paraffin wax (P, styrene (St, methylmethacrylate (MMA and isocyanate (ISO were used to keep the hygroscopicity level of wood at an acceptable level. Results indicated that paraffin wax and WRs were considerably lowered the hygroscopicity of wood. 4 homogenity groups were formed from the statistical analysis as follows (from the most hygroscopic treatments to lesser, respectively: (1 P4, (2 P4+BA or SP, control, (3 WRs, BA or SP+WRs and, (4 P+BA+Bx (% 15 aqueous solution. None of the solutions increased the hygroscopicity of wood than control treatments, but P4 (P? 0.05.

    1. Wood

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Unterrainer, Walter

      2014-01-01

      come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

    2. Painéis de partículas aglomeradas de madeira de Pinus elliottii Engelm., poliestireno (PS e polietileno tereftalato (PET Particleboards of Pinus elliottii Engelm. wood, polystyrene and polyethylene therephthalate particles

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antônio da Silva Maciel

      2004-04-01

      Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as propriedades de painéis fabricados com partículas de madeira, poliestireno (PS e polietileno tereftalato (PET. Foram utilizadas três proporções, em relação à massa seca de madeira, de poliestireno (0, 25 e 50% e duas proporções de PET/PS (5/20 e 10/40%, combinadas com 50, 75 ou 100% de partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii. Os painéis foram produzidos com adesivos à base de uréia-formaldeído ou de fenol-formaldeído, em três teores (0, 4 ou 6% e três níveis de solução de poliestireno em tolueno (0 , 4 e 6%, todos calculados em relação à massa seca total dos painéis. Foram produzidos painéis de aproximadamente 400 x 400 x 10 mm, em camada única, com densidade aproximada de 0,6 g/cm³. Determinou-se a resistência dos painéis à tração perpendicular à superfície, à flexão estática (módulos de ruptura (MOR e elasticidade (MOE, ao arrancamento de parafusos, bem como a absorção de água e o inchamento em espessura, após 24 horas de imersão. Todas as propriedades mecânicas dos painéis foram superiores às exigidas pela norma ANSI/A 208.1-1993. Contudo, todos os painéis absorveram água em valores superiores àqueles normalmente observados em painéis comerciais. Apesar disto, o inchamento em espessura foi compatível com o dos painéis de partículas de madeira existentes no mercado. Os painéis nos quais se aplicou a solução de poliestireno foram, de modo geral, os que apresentaram os melhores valores para todas as propriedades.This work aimed determine the properties of wood particleboards containing particles of polystyrene (PS and polyethylene therephthalate (PET. Three amounts of polystyrene (0, 25 and 50%, two amounts of PET/PS (5/20 and 10/40%, three amounts (0, 4 and 6% of urea-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde adhesive and three amounts of polystyrene in toluene solution (0, 4 and 6%, combined with 50, 75 or 100% of particles of Pinus elliottii wood were

    3. Overexpression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 from Pinus densiflora results in enhanced wood formation with gelatinous fiber development in a transgenic hybrid poplar.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Park, Eung-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Choi, Young-Im; Lee, Chanhui; Nguyen, Van Phap; Jeon, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Jin-Seong; Funada, Ryo; Pharis, Richard P; Kurepin, Leonid V; Ko, Jae-Heung

      2015-11-01

      Gibberellins (GAs) are important regulators of plant shoot biomass growth, and GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox) is one of the major regulatory enzymes in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Previously, we showed that the expression levels of a putative GA20ox1 (i.e., PdGA20ox1) in stem tissue of 3-month-old seedlings of 12 families of Pinus densiflora were positively correlated with stem diameter growth across those same families growing in an even-aged 32-year-old pine forest (Park EJ, Lee WY, Kurepin LV, Zhang R, Janzen L, Pharis RP (2015) Plant hormone-assisted early family selection in Pinus densiflora via a retrospective approach. Tree Physiol 35:86-94). To further investigate the molecular function of this gene in the stem wood growth of forest trees, we produced transgenic poplar lines expressing PdGA20ox1 under the control of the 35S promoter (designated as 35S::PdGA20ox1). By age 3 months, most of the 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplar trees were showing an exceptional enhancement of stem wood growth, i.e., up to fourfold increases in stem dry weight, compared with the nontransformed control poplar plants. Significant increases in endogenous GA1, its immediate precursor (GA20) and its catabolite (GA8) in elongating internode tissue accompanied the increased stem growth in the transgenic lines. Additionally, the development of gelatinous fibers occurred in vertically grown stems of the 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplars. An analysis of the cell wall monosaccharide composition of the 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplars showed significant increases in xylose and glucose contents, indicating a qualitative increase in secondary wall depositions. Microarray analyses led us to find a total of 276 probe sets that were upregulated (using threefold as a threshold) in the stem tissues of 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplars relative to the controls. 'Cell organization or biogenesis'- and 'cell wall'-related genes were overrepresented, including many of genes that are involved in cell wall modification. Several transcriptional

    4. Juvenile wood volume and its proportion to stem volume vs. selected biometric features of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. trees

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Arkadiusz Tomczak

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether there is a correlation between breast height diameter, tree height and stem total volume of Scots pines, on the one hand, and volume and proportion of juvenile wood, on the other. The investigations comprised pure pine stands of the IInd, IIIrd, IVth and Vth age classes developed in conditions of fresh mixed coniferous forest. A distinct curvilinear correlation was found between volume and proportion of juvenile wood in tree stems and breast height diameter, height and stem total volume. Because of high values of determination coefficients (R2, which characterised the above-mentioned correlations, it seems appropriate to use these regularities to assess the quality of the timber raw material regarding the proportions of its volume and juvenile wood in stems of Scots pine trees.

    5. Analysis of diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi retrieved from a Mediterranean forest dominated by Pinus pinaster Aiton

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Maria D'Aguanno

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available The present paper is focused on the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in a poorly investigated habitat: a Mediterranean forest dominated by maritime pine. The sampling area lies in Tocchi biogenetic Reserve, located in the province of Siena (Tuscany, Italy. The monitoring campaign was carried out in 10 permanents plots, taking note of all the fungal species found on each piece of dead wood, irrespective of size and stage of decay. Over one year of surveys, 56 taxa of wood-inhabiting fungi were recorded, among which 39 are corticoids species, 16 polypores and 1 Heterobasidiomycetes. The fungal community seems to be dominated by a small number of species, which are more abundant than the others. Moreover, there are some specific features of deadwood influencing the species composition, such as the presence of coarse woody debris at the first decay stage and fine woody debris at the late decay stages. The results allowed characterizing the wood-inhabiting fungal community in this forest reserve, broadening our knowledge on several species and providing a preliminary database for further studies in Mediterranean areas.

    6. Analysing variance for determining humidity content and measuring directional effect on ultrasound speed in Pinus radiata D. Don wood samples

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rodrigo Ortíz Mansilla

      2010-05-01

      0% and 15% moisture content, 1644 m/s and 2130 m/s, respectively. The results of this study showed that wave propagation direction is the most important factor during wood structure ultrasound evaluation. Future studies with combined planes are un- derway.

    7. Effects of Small-Scale Dead Wood Additions on Beetles in Southeastern U.S. Pine Forests

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Chris E. Carlton

      2012-08-01

      Full Text Available Pitfall traps were used to sample beetles (Coleoptera in plots with or without inputs of dead loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. wood at four locations (Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina and Texas on the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The plots were established in 1998 and sampling took place in 1998, 1999, and 2002 (only 1998 for North Carolina. Overall, beetles were more species rich, abundant and diverse in dead wood addition plots than in reference plots. While these differences were greatest in 1998 and lessened thereafter, they were not found to be significant in 1998 due largely to interactions between location and treatment. Specifically, the results from North Carolina were inconsistent with those from the other three locations. When these data were excluded from the analyses, the differences in overall beetle richness for 1998 became statistically significant. Beetle diversity was significantly higher in the dead wood plots in 1999 but by 2002 there were no differences between dead wood added and control plots. The positive influence of dead wood additions on the beetle community can be largely attributed to the saproxylic fauna (species dependent on dead wood, which, when analyzed separately, were significantly more species rich and diverse in dead wood plots in 1998 and 1999. Ground beetles (Carabidae and other species, by contrast, were not significantly affected. These results suggest manipulations of dead wood in pine forests have variable effects on beetles according to life history characteristics.

    8. Wood stakes as an index of soil organic matter decomposition in a climatic gradient along the Spanish Mediterranean Coast

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jurgensen, M. F.; Page-Dumroese, D. S.; Cerdà, A.; Úbeda, X.; M-Mena, M.; Rey, A.

      2009-04-01

      Organic matter (OM) decomposition is a critical factor in assessing the possible impacts of future climate change and management on soil carbon cycling and sequestration. Soil OM decomposition is a function of abiotic (e.g. moisture, temperature, nutrient content, pH), and biotic (microbial biomass, functional diversity) conditions, which makes this soil process ideally suited to study across a range of soil and climatic conditions. We used wood stakes of four tree species (Populus alba, Populus tremuloides, Pinus halenensis, Pinus taeda) as standard indices of OM decomposition rates on the soil surface and in the mineral soil of three sites along the Spanish Mediterranean Coast with different soils, land use and climatic conditions: 1) Quercus suber forest - 700 mm rainfall /year, 2) Quercus coccifera and Pinus halepenis forest - 300 mm rainfall/year, and 3) tussock grasses - 150 mm rainfall /year. Our results show significant differences in wood stake decomposition as a function of climatic conditions, land use management, and wood stake species.

    9. Effects of ThermoWood® Process Combined with Thermo-Mechanical Densification on some Physical Properties of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hüseyin Pelit

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Effects of heat treatment on some physical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. wood densified using a thermo-mechanical method were determined. Samples were densified in the radial direction with a specially designed hydraulic press machine with target compression ratios of 20% and 40%, and at 110 °C and 150 °C. Then, heat treatment was applied to the samples during 2 h at three different temperatures (190 °C, 200 °C, and 210 °C. In order to determine the changes occurring in physical properties, tests of actual compression ratio, spring-back, compression ratio recovery effect, swelling (TS 4084 in compression direction (radial, and density (TS 2472 were conducted. According to results of the research, at the same target compression ratio (20% or 40%, higher actual compression ratio and density increase were observed in the samples densified at 110 ºC in comparison to those densified at 150 ºC. While an increase of 42% in density was being obtained, small rates of decreases up to 4% were observed after heat treatment. Application of heat treatment and increase of treatment temperature significantly influenced dimensional stability of densified Scots pine. Furthermore in comparison to samples without heat treatment, effects of compression ratio recovery were reduced by 80%.

    10. Wood

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Unterrainer, Walter

      2014-01-01

      has shrinked by 30% since the preindustrial times and in countries like China (with a historic tradition for wooden architecture) we could observe enormous desertification. What does this mean for the use of wood in modern architecture ? A critical reflection is needed. In too many cases...

    11. Wood

      Science.gov (United States)

      David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

      2006-01-01

      Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

    12. 柴松与油松针叶和木材解剖结构的差异%Anatomy of Pinus tabulaeformis f.shekanensis and Pinus tabulaeformis in Needle and Wood

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      李龙; 解庆; 李周岐; 刘志红

      2013-01-01

      Anatomic structures of needles of Pinus tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis and P.tabulaeformis were studied by free-hand section method and their wood structures were studied by xylotomy.The thickness and width of needles of P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis are much shorter than that of P.tabulaeformis.The average of resin canal area and quantity of needles of P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis are 1 394.40μm2 and 4.87, respectively, and 1 651.81μm2 and 6.70 for P.tabulaefor-mis, respectively .The width values of early wood and late wood of P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis are wider than that of P.tabulaeformis.The average of the width of early wood to late wood ratio for P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis is 1.97, and 1.94 for P.tabula eformsi .The average of tracheid walls to lumen ratio of early wood of P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanen-sis and P.tabulaeform is are 0.188 and 01.93 , respectively, and the average of tracheids’ walls to lumen ratio ofthe late wood of P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis and P.tabulaeformis are 0.550 and 0.617, respectively.The average area of lengthways resin ducts and amphitropous resin ducts of P.tabulaeformis f. Shekanensis are 3 620.69μm2 and 2 727.62μm2, respectively, 5 113.65μm2 and 3 571.54μm2 for P.tabulaeformis, respectively.There is significant difference in the anatomical characters of tissues from P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis and P.tabulaeformis such as size, area and den-sity, but there is no significant difference in composition of anatomy structures between two kinds of pines.%对柴松、油松的针叶(徒手切片法)和木材(木材切片法)解剖结构比较研究发现:柴松针叶的厚度、宽度均小于油松。柴松和油松针叶的单个纵生树脂道平均面积分别为1394.40、1651.81μm2,单个针叶横截面的平均树脂道分别为4.87个和6.70个。柴松的早材宽度、晚材宽度均小于油松,早晚材宽度比柴松为1.97,油松为1.94。柴松和油松的早

    13. CALIBRATIONS BASED ON NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC DATA TO ESTIMATE WOOD-CEMENT PANEL PROPERTIES

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein

      2009-11-01

      Full Text Available Some scientific contributions have used near infrared (NIR spectroscopy as a rapid and reliable tool for characterizing engineered wood products. However, to our knowledge, there are no published papers that used this technique in order to evaluate wood-cement panels. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the ability of NIR spectroscopy to estimate physical and mechanical properties in wood-cement panels. The wood-cement panels were produced using Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, Pinus taeda, and Toona ciliata woods with Portland cement under different manufacturing conditions. Wood-cement panels were characterized by traditional methods, and Partial Least Squares regressions were used to build calibrations. Our cross-validated models for MOR, IB, and TS24h of the panels yielded good coefficients of determination (0.80, 0.82, and 0.91, respectively. Based on the significant absorption bands and regression coefficients of the PLS models, our results indicate that cellulose and aromatic groups in lignin are components that play an important role in the calibrations.

    14. Fractal study on wood carbon storage of man-planted Pinus Koraiensis under different exposure%不同坡向人工林红松木材碳素储存量的分形研究

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      秦磊; 郭明辉

      2014-01-01

      本文以东北林业大学老山生态站阳坡和阴坡的人工林红松为研究对象,基于分形理论,从非线性角度出发,对红松木材碳素储存量进行分形分析,研究其规律性变化,旨在明确不同地理位置间木材碳素储存能力的差异。研究结果表明,老山生态站阳坡和阴坡红松木材碳素储存量的径向变异趋势相近;阴坡的碳素储存能力高于阳坡;阴坡红松幼龄材和成熟材碳素储存量的分形维数平均值明显高于阳坡,其碳素储存量的梯度分布较阳坡更复杂,且木材碳素储存效果明显优于阳坡。这为选择有利于提高木材碳素储存效果的人工林红松立地条件提供了理论依据。%The paper took the man-planted Pinus Koraiensis of Northeast Forestry University Laoshan Forest Farm in sunny slope and shady slope as research object,based on the fractal the-ory,studied the Pinus Koraiensis wood carbon storage through fractal analysis from the nonli-near perspective,and discussed the regular change. It aimed to ensure the difference among the capacity of wood carbon storage under different geographical location. The research results showed that,the radial variation trend of Pinus Koraiensis carbon storage of Laoshan Forest Farm in sunny slope was close to the shady slope,and the carbon storage capacity of shady slope was higher than that of sunny slope. The mean fractal dimension of juvenile wood and ma-ture wood carbon storage of shady slope was obviously higher than that of sunny slope,its gra-dient distribution of carbon storage was more complex than sunny slope and the effect of carbon storage was superior to sunny slope. Thus,it would provide the theoretical basis for choosing the site conditions of man-planted Pinus Koraiensis which was beneficial to improve the wood carbon storage effect.

    15. N2热处理马尾松木材的耐腐性能%The decay resistance property of Pinus massoniana Lamb.wood with heat treatment of N2

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      陈居静; 陈瑞英; 马军军

      2013-01-01

      以氮气(N2)为介质,采用均匀设计法对人工林马尾松木材进行热处理,探讨处理工艺对木材耐腐性能及物理力学性质的影响.结果表明:经过N2热处理的木材,尺寸稳定性能明显提高,密度、顺纹抗压强度略有下降.处理材腐朽后质量损失率为16.4%,耐腐性能达到Ⅱ级.SEM分析表明:处理材的结构基本完好,腐朽程度较素材轻得多,说明木材的耐腐性能明显提高.马尾松木材N2热处理的较佳工艺条件为:处理温度220℃,保温时间4h,升温速率15℃·min-1.%By uniform design experimentation, the effects of heat treatment technology in the medium of N2 on the decay resistance and physical-mechanical properties of Pinus massoniana Lamb, wood were investigated. The results were as follows; the dimensional stability of heat treated wood improved obviously, and the density and compressive strength parallel to grain decreased a bit; the mass loss ratio of treated wood was 16.4% after decay, reached level 2 (decay resistance level). SEM analysis showed the structure of treated wood was basically intact, and the decayed degree was lower than untreated wood, thus the decay resistance property of wood improved obviously. The optimum process of heat treated Pinus massoniana Lamb, wood treated with N2 as medium was as follows; temperature of 220 ℃ , heat preservation time of 4 hour, heating rate of 15 ℃·min-1.

    16. Population dynamics of bacteria associated with different strains of the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus after inoculation in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Roriz, Mariana; Santos, Carla; Vasconcelos, Marta W

      2011-08-01

      For a long time it was thought that Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was the only agent of the pine wilt disease. Recently, it was discovered that there are bacteria associated with the nematodes that contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease, mainly through the release of toxins that promote the death of the pines. Among the species most commonly found, are bacteria belonging to the Bacillus, Pantoea, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas genera. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of inoculation of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) with four different nematode isolates, in the bacterial population of nematodes and trees, at different stages of disease progression. The monitoring of progression of disease symptoms was also recorded. Also, the identification of bacteria isolated from the xylem of trees and the surface of nematodes was performed by classical identification methods, by the API20E identification system and by sequencing of bacterial DNA. The results showed that for the symptoms progression, the most striking difference was observed for the pines inoculated with the avirulent isolate, C14-5, which led to a slower and less severe aggravation of symptoms than in pines inoculated with the virulent isolates. In general, it was found that bacterial population, inside the tree, increased with disease progression. A superior bacterial quantity was isolated from pines inoculated with the nematode isolates HF and 20, and, comparatively, few bacteria were isolated from pines inoculated with the avirulent isolate. The identification system API20E was insufficient in the identification of bacterial species; Enterobacter cloacae species was identified in 79% of the isolated bacterial colonies and seven of these colonies could not be identified by this method. Molecular identification methods, through bacterial DNA sequencing, allowed a more reliable identification: eleven different bacterial species within the Bacillus, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia

    17. Interacting effects of insects and flooding on wood decomposition.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Michael D Ulyshen

      Full Text Available Saproxylic arthropods are thought to play an important role in wood decomposition but very few efforts have been made to quantify their contributions to the process and the factors controlling their activities are not well understood. In the current study, mesh exclusion bags were used to quantify how arthropods affect loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. decomposition rates in both seasonally flooded and unflooded forests over a 31-month period in the southeastern United States. Wood specific gravity (based on initial wood volume was significantly lower in bolts placed in unflooded forests and for those unprotected from insects. Approximately 20.5% and 13.7% of specific gravity loss after 31 months was attributable to insect activity in flooded and unflooded forests, respectively. Importantly, minimal between-treatment differences in water content and the results from a novel test carried out separately suggest the mesh bags had no significant impact on wood mass loss beyond the exclusion of insects. Subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: Reticulitermes spp. were 5-6 times more active below-ground in unflooded forests compared to flooded forests based on wooden monitoring stakes. They were also slightly more active above-ground in unflooded forests but these differences were not statistically significant. Similarly, seasonal flooding had no detectable effect on above-ground beetle (Coleoptera richness or abundance. Although seasonal flooding strongly reduced Reticulitermes activity below-ground, it can be concluded from an insignificant interaction between forest type and exclusion treatment that reduced above-ground decomposition rates in seasonally flooded forests were due largely to suppressed microbial activity at those locations. The findings from this study indicate that southeastern U.S. arthropod communities accelerate above-ground wood decomposition significantly and to a similar extent in both flooded and unflooded forests

    18. The significance of compression wood in restoration of the leader in Pinus sihestris L. damaged by moose (Alces alces. II. Structure of growth rings in regenerating stems in relation to juvenile wood formation

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      B. A. Molski

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available The corewood of pine ds very prone to compression wood formation, this changing the whole pattern of the tree ring structure and the siz.es of early and late wood. Compression wood always increases the formation of late wood at the expense of early wood. Tree rings with compression wood are generally wider than those without it, but there occur also tree rings wihout compression wood wider than those in which it is present, formed in the same year and in the same tree.

    19. The Acoustic Properties of Water Submerged Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta and Spruce (Picea spp. Wood and Their Suitability for Use as Musical Instruments

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Calvin Hilde

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available Wood is a common material used for the manufacture of many products, and submerged wood, in particular, has been used in niche markets and musical instruments. In order to examine if submerged wood in British Columbia, Canada, would be appropriate for use as musical instruments, a study was performed in 2007 on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, Canada. The results of that study showed the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. In this paper, the wood samples were allowed to age untouched in a laboratory setting and were then retested under the hypothesis that physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to dry over time. This article describes the density, speed of sound, acoustic constant and characteristic impedance properties for submerged wood and a comparison is made for different applications for musical instruments.

    20. Influence of different degrees of acetylation in the physical and mechanical properties of particleboards and wood-cement composites

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Setsuo Iwakiri

      2014-12-01

      Full Text Available Chemical modified wood particles used to particleboards manufacture may, at the same time, improve the dimensional stability and damage the internal bond. The aim of this research was find the optimal point of acetylation for particleboards. Pinus taeda particles with different degrees of acetylation, 8, 15 and 20% of weight percentage gain (WGP, were used in the production of particleboards with urea-formaldehyde resin and wood-cement composites produced by mechanical and vibratory compaction. It was evaluated the water absorption, thickness swelling and internal bind of the particleboards according to the European standards EN 317 and EN 319. Particleboards produced with 15 WPG showed the lowest water absorption and thickness swelling values. However, the use of chemically modified wood had a negative influence in the internal bind of the boards. This phenomenon can be explain due to the similar behavior between resin and water, that way, the high degree acetylation stops the adhesive and adherent bind. In the case of wood-cement composites, the internal bind improves as the acetylation degrees get higher. Nevertheless the inhibition of acetylated wood particles to the cement hydration got higher when the WPG was higher than 8%.

    1. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

      2001-04-01

      The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

    2. Comparison of VOC emissions between air-dried and heat-treated Norway spruce ( Picea abies), Scots pine ( Pinus sylvesteris) and European aspen ( Populus tremula) wood

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hyttinen, Marko; Masalin-Weijo, Marika; Kalliokoski, Pentti; Pasanen, Pertti

      2010-12-01

      Heat-treated wood is an increasingly popular decoration material. Heat-treatment improves dimensional stability of the wood and also prevents rot fungus growth. Although production of heat-treated wood has been rapidly increasing, there is only little information about the VOC emissions of heat-treated wood and its possible influences on indoor air quality. In the present study, VOC emissions from three untreated (air-dried) and heat-treated wood species were compared during a four weeks test period. It appeared that different wood species had clearly different VOC emission profiles. Heat-treatment was found to decrease VOC emissions significantly and change their composition. Especially, emissions of terpenes decreased from softwood samples and aldehydes from European aspen samples. Emissions of total aldehydes and organic acids were at the same level or slightly higher from heat treated than air-dried softwood samples. In agreement with another recent study, the emissions of furfural were found to increase and those of hexanal to decrease from all the wood species investigated. In contrast to air-dried wood samples, emissions of VOCs were almost in steady state from heat treated wood samples even in the beginning of the test.

    3. Soil properties and variability of tracheid dimensions and wood density in Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Solo, dimensão dos traqueídeos e densidade da madeira em Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Robson Schaff Corrêa

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available

      The understanding of wood quality in relation to different forest sites is of fundamental relevance in current timber market. There are only few studies available concerning soil and wood quality of tropical pinots. So, the goal of this work was to characterize tracheid dimensions and wood density of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, correlating these variables with soil properties at different sites. Discs were taken at 1.3 m height and comprised two radial samples in each of the four dominant trees removed at four different sites. Measurements for wood density were made from the third to the eleventh year old rings, and the measurement of tracheid dimensions were made in the fourth, eighth and eleventh year sold rings. The soil, collected in the canopy projection area of each tree was analyzed chemically and physically in different layers. The tracheid dimensions and wood density showed stabilization between the eighth and the eleventh years old rings. Moreover, the tracheid dimensions varied between sites and did not present a pattern of variation in relation to soil properties at the different sites.

      doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.93

    1. From lifting to planting: Root dip treatments affect survival of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tom E. Starkey; David B. South

      2009-01-01

      Hydrogels and clay slurries are the materials most commonly applied to roots of pines in the southern United States. Most nursery managers believe such applications offer a form of "insurance" against excessive exposure during planting. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of root dip treatments to: (1) support fungal growth; and (2) protect...

    2. Water availability and genetic effects on water relations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A; Martin, Timothy A

      2010-03-01

      The effect of water availability on water relations of 11-year-old loblolly pine stands was studied over two growing seasons in material from two contrasting seed sources. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased transpiration rate, and maximum daily transpiration rate on irrigated plots was similar for both seasons, reaching values of 4.3 mm day(-)(1). Irrigation also changed soil water extraction patterns. In the rain-fed control plots, 73% of the average daily transpiration was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of the soil profile. Under irrigated conditions, 92% of transpired water was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of soil, with 79% of transpired water coming from the upper 0.35 m of the profile; only 10% of total transpiration in this treatment was extracted from the soil below 1 m. There was an irrigation x seed source interaction in the response of canopy conductance to water vapor (G(C)) to vapor pressure deficit (D). Under water-limited conditions, trees from the South Carolina seed source (SC) had stronger stomatal control than trees from the Florida seed source (FL), but this difference was not present when water was not limiting. The transpiration-induced water potential gradient from roots to shoots (DeltaPsi) was relatively constant across treatments (P = 0.52) and seed sources (P = 0.72), averaging 0.75 MPa. This reflects strong stomatal control that maintains relatively constant DeltaPsi but at the same time allows leaf water potential (Psi(l)) to fluctuate dramatically in synchrony with soil water potential (Psi(s)). The two seed sources evaluated also showed differences in foliar N and delta(13)C, possibly reflecting differences in adaptation to ambient humidity and water availability regimes in their respective ranges. These differences among seed sources under different water availability scenarios may be informative to natural resource managers and breeders as they design tree improvement and genetic deployment programs for future climate scenarios. For example, the increased stomatal control of SC under decreased soil moisture availability may make this taxon a more conservative deployment choice than FL under future, drier climate scenarios but perhaps at the risk of lower productivity.

    3. QTL and Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Pinus Taeda L

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Claire G. Williams

      2002-10-01

      The reason for the project is to find the genetic factors which control growth at ages closer to commercial harvest (also known as QTL detection). To date, efforts to find genetic factors which control growth have been limited to seedlings. Because tree breeders want to find molecular markers which are linked to traits of direct economic value, finding linkage to factors controlling older-tree growth is more critical than seedling growth. Our current research interest includes both absolute height at ages 10-13 years but also growth trajectory or the rate of growth from seedling to half-rotation.

    4. Polyphenols in ceratocystis minor infected Pinus Taeda: fungal metabolites, phloem, and xylem phenols

      Science.gov (United States)

      R.W. Hemingway; G.W. McGraw; S.J. Barras

      1977-01-01

      Since Ceratocystis minor is central to the death of pines infested by southern pine beetles, changes in polyphenols of infected loblolly pine were examined with regard to accumulation of fungal metabolites and changes in concentrations of fungitoxic and fungistatic phloem and xylem constitutents. C. minor grown in liquid culture...

    5. Avaliação do potencial de utilização da madeira de Schizolobium amazonicum "Paricá" e Cecropia hololeuca "Embaúba" para produção de painéis aglomerados Evaluation of potential use of the wood of Schizolobium amazonicum "Paricá" and Cecropia hololeuca "Embaúba" to particleboard manufacture

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Setsuo Iwakiri

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de madeira de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba para produção de painéis aglomerados. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com densidade nominal de 0,70 g/cm³, utilizando a resina uréia-formaldeído e partículas de madeira de Paricá e Embaúba, e mistura destas, em proporções de 75, 50 e 25%. A madeira de Pinus taeda foi utilizada como testemunha. Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 40 kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC e tempo de prensagem de 8 minutos. Os resultados das avaliações de propriedades de absorção de água, inchamento em espessura, ligação interna, módulo de elasticidade e módulo de ruptura, indicaram que as madeiras de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba são tecnicamente viáveis para produção de painéis aglomerados.This research was developed to evaluate the potential use of the woods Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá and Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba for manufacturing particleboard. Were made panels with the densities of 0.70 g/cm³, using mixtures of urea-formaldehyde resin and wood particles of Paricá and Embaúba, in proportions of 75, 50 and 25%. The Pinus taeda wood was used as the reference. The panels were pressed at the temperature of 160ºC, pressure of 40 kgf/cm², for 8 minutes. The evaluations of the properties of water absorption, thickness swelling, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of ruptures, showed that the woods of Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba are technically feasible for particleboard manufacture.

    6. USE OF CANDEIA’S (Eremanthus erythropappus WASTE WOOD

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

      2008-09-01

      Full Text Available The candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus is a native forest species with multiple uses and specially utilized as essential oils source. The use of the candeia´s waste wood after oil extraction for particle panels production becomes a viable alternative, avoiding environmental problems and increasing the availability of these products in the consuming market. This work verified the viability of producing wood-cement panels using waste wood generated after the extraction of candeia’s oil, in association with pinus and eucalipto woods. The experiment was installed according to a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The treatments were arranged according to a factorial 2 x 3 scheme (two wooden species and three replacement percentages of the woods by candeia’s waste. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of candeia waste wood, after oil extraction, in association with pinus and eucalipto wood for manufacturing wood-cement panels.

    7. Dicty_cDB: SSG487 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available ts) Value N BQ697049 |BQ697049.1 NXPV_048_F08_F NXPV (Nsf Xylem Planings wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clo... NXLV_008_G12_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXLV_008_G12 5', mRNA sequence. 4...2567370 strain AX4, complete sequence. 36 0.002 13 BQ696401 |BQ696401.1 NXPV_040_G03_F NXPV (Nsf Xylem Planings wood Vertical...698136 |BQ698136.1 NXPV_064_H11_F NXPV (Nsf Xylem Planings wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXPV_064_H1

    8. Dicty_cDB: SHE480 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available _D Pinus taeda cDNA clone PWABK24 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.30 1 BQ699661 |BQ699661.1 NXRV125_B09_F NXRV (Nsf Xylem Root wood Verti...cal) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXRV125_B09 5', mRNA sequenc

    9. Steps in the diagnosis of energy for the establishment of a rational use of energy in an agroprocessing of wood forest planting in the southwest of the state of Sao Paulo; Etapas do diagnostico energetico para a implantacao de um programa de uso racional de energia em um agroindustria de beneficiamento de madeira de florestas plantadas na regiao sudoeste do estado de Sao Paulo

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Caneppele, Fernando de Lima; Souza, Caroline Mazzini de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental], E-mail: fernando@itapeva.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

      2010-07-01

      This work shows the steps for implementing a program of rational use of electricity in a pine sawmill processing through energy diagnosis and also provide an energy efficiency index, the reference consumption in Kw.h power and volume of timber in cubic meters. The study was conducted in a sawmill located at Itapeva, southwest of Sao Paulo. The region's economic potential is based on the processing of wood with the main export destination. Much of the lumber does not have advanced technology, because it may present with excessive spending power. The species used are Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda. We collected data on the electrical installation of the mill and the main parts of the installation as tables and distribution lines and equipment engines were studied. The diagnostic results show that while the industry had a good general appearance, electrical installations and equipment using electric power for its functioning need more care, both in maintenance and in use. An energy efficiency program, if effected, could reduce the cost of the process and provides environmental benefits by less need for electric power generation. (author)

    10. Conifer R2R3-MYB transcription factors: sequence analyses and gene expression in wood-forming tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Grima-Pettenati Jacqueline

      2007-03-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Several members of the R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors act as regulators of lignin and phenylpropanoid metabolism during wood formation in angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The angiosperm Arabidopsis has over one hundred R2R3-MYBs genes; however, only a few members of this family have been discovered in gymnosperms. Results We isolated and characterised full-length cDNAs encoding R2R3-MYB genes from the gymnosperms white spruce, Picea glauca (13 sequences, and loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (five sequences. Sequence similarities and phylogenetic analyses placed the spruce and pine sequences in diverse subgroups of the large R2R3-MYB family, although several of the sequences clustered closely together. We searched the highly variable C-terminal region of diverse plant MYBs for conserved amino acid sequences and identified 20 motifs in the spruce MYBs, nine of which have not previously been reported and three of which are specific to conifers. The number and length of the introns in spruce MYB genes varied significantly, but their positions were well conserved relative to angiosperm MYB genes. Quantitative RTPCR of MYB genes transcript abundance in root and stem tissues revealed diverse expression patterns; three MYB genes were preferentially expressed in secondary xylem, whereas others were preferentially expressed in phloem or were ubiquitous. The MYB genes expressed in xylem, and three others, were up-regulated in the compression wood of leaning trees within 76 hours of induction. Conclusion Our survey of 18 conifer R2R3-MYB genes clearly showed a gene family structure similar to that of Arabidopsis. Three of the sequences are likely to play a role in lignin metabolism and/or wood formation in gymnosperm trees, including a close homolog of the loblolly pine PtMYB4, shown to regulate lignin biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco.

    11. Dicty_cDB: AFK117 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available f09, mRNA sequence. 80 6e-11 1 AW290132 |AW290132.1 NXNV012E07F Nsf Xylem Normal wood Vertical... 4e-10 3 BQ695627 |BQ695627.1 NXPV_030_G06_F NXPV (Nsf Xylem Planings wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone ...7 Nsf Xylem Normal wood Vertical Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXNV012E07 5' similar to Arabidopsis thaliana sequen... Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXNV012E07 5', mRNA sequence. 58 3e-10 2 CD026805 |CD026805.1 NXNV012E0

    12. Dicty_cDB: VSE884 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available lone PP095G12 similar to RAS RELATED PROTEIN RAB7. 68 6e-08 1 AW290476 |AW290476.1 NXNV027C10F Nsf Xylem Normal wood Vertical...27C10 Nsf Xylem Normal wood Vertical Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXNV027C10 5' similar... |CD018114.1 NXLV_002_C09_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXLV_002_C09 5' simil

    13. Retención de carbono en rodales para la producción de madera en Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea B. & G., en la región de Tope de Collantes, Guamuhaya, Provincia Sancti Spiritus. Carbon retention in forest stands in Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea B. & G. for wood production in the region of Tope de Collantes, Guamuhaya, Sancti Spiritus Province.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Alicia MERCADET

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available En Cuba no existen antecedentes sobre cómo abordar de forma integrada la producción de madera para aserrío y la retención de carbono. Se establecieron 30 parcelas temporales de 500 m 2 en plantaciones de Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea Barret y Golfari en la región de Tope de Collantes, ubicada en el macizo montañoso de Guamuhaya, provincia Sancti Spiritus, Cuba; en ellas se midieron el diámetro normal (d 1,30 , la altura total y el grosor de corteza por árbol (GCa, calculando el volumen total con corteza por árbol (VTcca, el rendimiento por hectárea (R y la retención de carbono (C. Se analizaron las tendencias de variación de estas variables con el espaciamiento manteniendo fijos los efectos sitio y edad primero y confundiendo el efecto sitio dentro del efecto espaciamiento después. En todos los casos el d 1,30 y el VTcca presentaron tendencias ascendentes con el aumento del espaciamiento, en tanto que el GCa, el R y el C presentaron tendencias descendentes, sugiriendo que para combinar la producción de madera para aserrío con la retención de carbono, resulta conveniente identificar un espaciamiento de compromiso entre ambas variables, que para esta especie y en estas condiciones resultó ser de 990 árboles*ha -1 , equivalente a 3,2 m x 3,2 m. In Cuba there are no precedents about how to manage wood plantations for sawmill, together with carbon retention. There were used 30 temporal plots (500 m 2 each in plantations of Pinus caribaea M. var. caribaea B. & G. in Tope de Collantes, region of Cuban south-centre mountains in Sancti Spiritus province. In each plot were measured normal diameter (d 1,30 , total height and bark thickness by tree, and then it was calculated total volume with bark per tree, yield per hectare and carbon retention in order to analyse variation tendencies of those variables with spacing, using first as fixed effects site and age and then, confounding site effect within spacing. In all cases normal

    14. Wood-inhabiting dematiaceous Hyphomycetes in the Kampinos National Park

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      A. Borowska

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available In this work the results of investigations of wood-inhabiting fungal communities in several forest associations arę presented. The populations of these fungi on the wood of Carpinus betulus, Quercus robur, Betula verrucosa, Tilia cordata and Pinus sylvestris are also analyzed.

    15. Wood preservation of low-temperature carbonisation

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Gosselink, R.J.A.; Krosse, A.M.A.; Putten, van der J.C.; Kolk, van der J.C.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Dam, van J.E.G.

      2004-01-01

      Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood with dimensions (100 x 10 x 10mm) was thermally treated at 275degreesC in a muffle oven to impart resistance to microbial degradation. Low-temperature carbonised pine resulted in a visually homogeneously treated product with a substantial (about 70% w/w) reduced non-c

    16. Effects of air pollution on some wood properties of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L. ) from different stands in Northwest-Germany. Untersuchung der Holzeigenschaften von Kiefern aus immissionsgeschaedigten Bestaenden auf unterschiedlichen Standorten Nordwestdeutschlands

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Hapla, F.; Knigge, W.; Nimmann, B.

      1989-01-01

      The object of the present study was the question of the extent to which seriously damaged trees differed in the quality of their wood from phenotypically undamaged ones. The result of the analysis of 60 trees from two forestry stations of different locations, half of which were categorized as degree of decline 0, the rest being degree 3, was as follows: the anatomical properties (tracheid length, diameter of the cell wall, width of lumina) showed no difference in weighting. However resin canals appeared more frequently in the narrow annual rings of the damaged pines. At the same time the growth in diameter of the damaged trees was clearly less than in the last decade. The measurements of the water content produced no variation in the heartwood; the sapwood of the damaged trees, however, showed a lower reading. The measurement of the degree of water-saturation led to similar results. The specific gravity of the damaged trees was higher than that of still healthy trees over the same period of time. The sapwood area of the trees of degree of decline 3 proved to have been reduced, which was not the case with the very varied heartwood area. Radiodensitometric measurements showed a slightly stronger contrast of density in the damaged species. The damaged wood had greater static strength properties (compression and bending) and similar dynamic strength (impact bending). Storage in forest and timber yards for a year led to an equal degree of blue staining, but not to a reduction of strength properties. The examination of water-stored wood will not be able to be undertaken until the year 1990. The quality of the wood and the usability of damaged trees can therefore be regarded as equal to that of healthy trees.

    17. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

      OpenAIRE

      António J. A. Santos; Ofélia Anjos; Maria Cristina Morais; Graça Diogo; Rogério Simões; Helena Pereira

      2014-01-01

      Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal) and P. sylvestris (Finland) were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05) tracheid diameter and wall thick...

    18. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for determining As, Br, K, La, Mn, Na and Sm in samples of pine wood; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao neutronica instrumental para determinacao de As, Br, K, La, Mn, Na e Sm em amostras de madeiras de Pinus

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Oliveira, Helder de; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Sarries, Gabriel Adrian [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz

      1999-11-01

      Multi-elementary and considered non destructive, the neutron activation analysis is a technique that allows simultaneous and instrumental determination of several elements, becoming especially useful when it is fundamental the knowledge of the total chemical composition, as in the certification of reference materials, application in geochemistry, analyses of aerosols, determination of origin of materials, forensic analyzes and of environmental pollution. However, the dependence of reactors, or other neutrons sources, the generation of radioactive material and the time waiting needed for some determinations are the main barriers pointed int he application of that technique. The present work aimed at establishing the best conditions for the detection of elements of short half-life Br, K, La, Mn, Na and Sm in samples of wood of Pinus, because the reactor used is located distant of the laboratory where the measures of the induced radioactivity are made, to determine trace elements that possess half-lives smaller than two days. For such, suitable equations, using the Surface of Response technique in the SAS software, to minimize the uncertainties of detection of the photopeak function of the elementary concentration and as a decay time.(author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

    19. [Biological effect of wood dust].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A

      1993-01-01

      The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.

    20. Dicty_cDB: VFD577 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available BM158719.1 NXLV_039_C05_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA cl...tical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXLV_039_C04 5', mRNA sequence. 46 0.017 2 BM158719 |...p library Pinus taeda cDNA clone ST11A05, mRNA sequence. 46 0.016 2 BM158718 |BM158718.1 NXLV_039_C04_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Ver

    1. Dicty_cDB: SSE142 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available _113_C08_F NXPV (Nsf Xylem Planings wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXPV_11...F Nsf Xylem Normal wood Vertical Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXNV_150_F08 5', mRNA sequence. 42 3.2 1 BX537264 |B...ne SALK_126323.44.45.x, DNA sequence. 42 3.2 1 BE123655 |BE123655.1 NXNV_150_F08_

    2. Improvement of termite resistance, dimensional stability and mechanical properties of pine wood by paraffin impregnation

      OpenAIRE

      Esteves,Bruno; Nunes, Lina; Domingos, Idalina; Pereira, Helena

      2014-01-01

      Paraffin has been used as surface protection of wood throughout the ages but its use for impregnation to improve wood resistance to biodegradation is recent. This study determined the main improvements on wood properties with paraffin impregnation. Healthy Pinus pinaster Ait. wood was impregnated with paraffin at different levels using a hot–cold process. Weight gain, equilibrium moisture content and dimensional stability (ASE) at 35 and 65 % relative humidity, termite durability against Reti...

    3. 人工林赤松幼龄材与成熟材力学性质的比较%Mechanical properties of juvenile and mature wood of Pinus densiflora from plantations

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      金春德; 张美淑; 文桂峰; 汤燕平; 徐策

      2006-01-01

      根据人工林赤松Pinus densiflora木材的管胞长度、微纤丝角、管胞长宽比、基本密度、晚材率及生长轮宽度等材性指标的测试数据,采用最优分割法划分出人工林赤松的幼龄材与成熟材的界限,分析了人工林赤松幼龄材与成熟材力学性质差异的表现.结果表明:赤松的幼龄期为小于12 a,抗弯强度、抗弯弹性模量、顺纹抗拉强度、顺纹抗压强度和弦向横纹抗压强度等指标成熟材高于幼龄材,径向横纹抗压强度、弦面抗剪强度、径面抗剪强度、弦向抗劈强度和径向抗劈强度等项指标幼龄材高于成熟材.其中,抗弯强度、抗弯弹性模量、径向横纹抗压强度和弦面抗剪强度差异达0.01显著水平,顺纹抗拉强度差异达0.05显著水平.图1表6参6

    4. Wood Smoke

      Science.gov (United States)

      Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

    5. Development of a pathway model to assess the exposure of European pine trees to pine wood nematode via the trade of wood

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Douma, J.C.; Werf, Van Der W.; Hemerik, L.; Magnusson, C.; Robinet, C.

      2017-01-01

      Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a threat for pine species (Pinus spp.) throughout the world. The nematode is native to North America, and invaded Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, and more recently Portugal and Spain. PWN enters new areas through trade in wood products. Once

    6. Quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber from tapped forests

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber extracted from tapped forests and processed in a sawmill in São José do Norte (RS. Four butt logs and four upper logs for each of the three existing diameter grades were selected and sawed. The wood pieces were analyzed after sawing and after kiln drying. The presence of knots, which occurred due to the absence of forest management and influenced the qualitative classification of the wood pieces, was observed mainly in the samples from upper logs. The process of resin tapping contributed to a higher incidence of resin pockets in the samples from butt logs, also influencing the qualitative classification of the samples. The appearance of drying defects did not modify the classification of the wood samples from butt and upper logs.

    7. Dicty_cDB: VSB583 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available nslation factor. 38 1.5 2 BI202711 |BI202711.1 NXPV_097_C04_F NXPV (Nsf Xylem Planings wood Vertical) Pinus .... 38 2.0 2 BG319073 |BG319073.1 NXPV_023_D07_F NXPV (Nsf Xylem Planings wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clon

    8. Dicty_cDB: SSB339 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available NV_122_H04_F Nsf Xylem Normal wood Vertical Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXNV_122_H04 5', mRNA sequence. 52 4e-10 ...2 BQ699659 |BQ699659.1 NXRV125_B07_F NXRV (Nsf Xylem Root wood Vertical) Pinus ta

    9. Biomass and nutrients of Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China: simulations for different management practices.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Huixia Yang; Silong Wang; Jianwei Zhang; Bing Fan; Weidong Zhang

      2011-01-01

      We measured the dynamics of both biomass and nutrient pools on 7-, 17-, 31- and 51-year-old Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China. Using a chronosequence approach, we found that biomass of each component increased with aging while its proportion decreased except stem-wood. Nutrient pools varied with biomass pools except for foliage. For all harvest intensities...

    10. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

      2016-03-01

      Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp.

    11. Comparação entre modelos para determinação da porcentagem de madeira em árvores de Pinus caribaea Morelet var. hondurensis Barr. et Golf. em Itirapina. Comparison between models to estimate the percentage of wood in Pinus caribaea Morelet var . hondurensis Barr. et Golf . Trees in Itirapina.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gilberto de Souza PINHEIRO

      2005-06-01

      Full Text Available Efetuou-se a comparação de doismodelos para determinação da porcentagem demadeira com a obtida pela razão entre o volumecom casca com o volume sem casca. As análises devariância efetuadas com aplicação do teste deTukey permitem concluir que a porcentagem demadeira obtida pela média aritmética dos valoresquadráticos do fator casca, encontrados ao longodo fuste aproxima-se mais do valor real que oestimado através do modelo simplificado obtidopelo quadrado da razão entre o DAP sem casca e oDAP com casca. A análise da somatória dosdesvios em valores relativos mostra que o modelosimplificado subestima o valor da porcentagem demadeira, enquanto o modelo da média aritmética osuperestima. Dessa forma se sugere a utilizaçãoapenas do valor obtido pelo cociente do volumesem casca pelo volume com casca.The aim of this study was to comparetwo different models with estimate the percentageof wood obtained by quotient between volume of atree without bark and volume of a tree with bark( 1 K with two different models: 22 K , obtainedby the square of mean of the values along thesteam and 23 K , the simplified model, obtained byonly two measures: the square of the quotientbetween DBH without bark and DBH with bark.Effectuated the statistical analysis by analysis ofvariance procedure, Tukey’s Test and sum ofrelatives values of deviation, it was concluded thatthe best model to calculate the percentage of woodis the one obtained by the quotient between thevolume without bark and the volume with bark.

    12. Unthinned slow-growing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees contain muted isotopic signals in tree rings as compared to thinned trees

      Science.gov (United States)

      We analysed the oxygen isotopic values of wood (δ18Ow) of 12 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees from control, moderately, and heavily thinned stands and compared them with existing wood-based estimates of carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C), basal area increment (BAI), and g...

    13. Occurrence of Euplatypus parallelus, Euplatypus sp. (col.: Euplatypodidae and Xyleborus affinis (col.: Scolytidae in Pinus sp. in Ribas do Rio Pardo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zanuncio José Cola

      2002-01-01

      Full Text Available Wood borer species of the families Euplatypodidae and Scolytidae were observed attacking trees of Pinus sp. in the Municipality of Ribas do Rio Pardo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in March 2000. This plantation had been previously burned in an accidental fire in January 2000, causing the trees to become partially or totally unhealthy, rendering them more susceptible to attack of these pests. Galleries of these wood borers were opened with a chisel to observe parameters such as their direction and form of these galleries. Species observed as wood borers of Pinus sp. were Euplatypus parallelus, Euplatypus sp. (Coleoptera: Euplatypodidae and Xyleborus affinis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae.

    14. Needles stable carbon isotope composition and traits of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica in sparse wood grassland in south edge of Keerqin Sandy Land under the conditions of different precipitation%不同降水条件下科尔沁沙地南缘疏林草地樟子松针叶δ13C和叶性状特征

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      宋立宁; 朱教君; 李明财; 闫涛; 张金鑫

      2012-01-01

      通过比较不同自然降水年份(极端干旱和极端湿润)19年生疏林草地樟子松的针叶δ13C、比叶面积和干物质含量,结合土壤含水量和地下水埋深,探讨了极端降水对樟子松水分利用的影响.结果表明:干旱年份(2009)樟子松林土壤含水量显著低于湿润年份(2010),但樟子松当年生针叶的δ13C在两年间没有显著差异,且两年相同月份间亦无显著差异;干旱年份当年生针叶的比叶面积显著低于湿润年份,而不同年份间干物质含量的差异不显著.在两种极端降水条件下,樟子松的水分利用效率没有明显变化,主要通过改变当年生针叶的比叶面积来适应降水量的变化.对于地下水埋深高于3.0m的疏林草地樟子松人工林生态系统,极端干旱不会严重影响樟子松的存活和生长.%A comparative study was conducted on the needles stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) , specific leaf area (SLA) , and dry matter content (DMC) of 19-year-old Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica trees in a sparse wood grassland in the south edge of Keerqin Sandy Land under the conditions of extreme drought and extreme wetness, aimed to understand the water use of Pinus sylvestris under the conditions of extreme precipitation. The soil water content and groundwater level were also measured. In the dry year (2009 ) , the soil water content in the grassland was significantly lower than that in the wet year (2010) , but the δ13C values of the current year-old needles had no significant difference between the two years and between the same months of the two years. The SLA of the current year-old needles was significantly lower in the dry year than in the wet year, but the DMC had no significant difference between the two years. Under the conditions of the two extreme precipitations, the water use efficiency of the trees did not vary remarkably, and the trees could change their needles SLA to adapt the variations of precipitation. For

    15. Effects of stand development and weather on monthly leaf biomass dynamics of a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand

      Science.gov (United States)

      P.M. Dougherty; T.C. Hennessey; Stanley J. Zarnoch; P.t> Stenberg; R.T. Holeman; R.F. Witter

      1995-01-01

      Annual leaf biomass production, monthly needle accretion and monthly needlefall were measured in an 1l- to 17-year-old thinned stand of loblolly pine. Initial thinning levels were 7.8 m2 ha-1, 12.6 m2 ha-1, and 25.5 m2 ha-1...

    16. Managing Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Stands for the Restoration of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) Habitat

      Science.gov (United States)

      2014-03-01

      field hairsedge graminoid/herb Carex glaucescens southern waxy sedge graminoid/herb Cyperus grayi Gray’s flatsedge graminoid/herb Cyperus...scandens 41.7 0.0018 Bignonia capreolata 34.0 0.0198 Carex glaucescens 34.7 0.0116

    17. Identification of nine pathotype-specific genes conferring resistance to fusiform rust in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Henry Amerson; C. Dana Nelson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; E.George Kuhlman; Saul Garcia

      2015-01-01

      Nearly two decades of research on the host-pathogen interaction in fusiform rust of loblolly pine is detailed. Results clearly indicate that pathotype-specific genes in the host interacting with pathogen avirulence cause resistance as defined by the non-gall phenotype under favorable environmental conditions for disease development. In particular, nine fusiform rust...

    18. Variabilidade da massa específica de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes classes de sítio

      OpenAIRE

      Siqueira, Karinne Pereira de

      2013-01-01

      Fatores ambientais e tratos silviculturais podem influenciar na qualidade final da madeira, por meio de sua interferência no crescimento de sítios florestais. Entre as diversas propriedades da madeira, a que melhor permite tirar conclusões sobre a adaptabilidade da madeira para diversos fins é a massa específica. Por isso existe a necessidade de se procurar técnicas mais ágeis e precisas para determinação dessa propriedade. Entre as tecnologias existentes, a densitometria de raios-X vêm sendo...

    19. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

      1999-01-01

      Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

    20. Avaliação técnica de um carregador florestal com diferentes sortimentos de madeira / Technical assessment of a forest loader with different assortments of wood

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Maria Dolores dos Santos

      2009-04-01

      Full Text Available ResumoEste trabalho teve por objetivo realizar a avaliação técnica de um carregador florestal na operação de carregamento com diferentes sortimentos de madeira. Os dados foram coletados em áreas de colheita de madeira de uma empresa florestal na região Sul do Brasil, no carregamento de toras de Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis. A análise técnica abordou o estudo de tempos e movimentos, onde a operação de carregamento foi dividida em fases do ciclo de trabalho, analisadas individualmente. Para análise dos dados consideraram-se como tratamentos os diferentes tipos e comprimentos de toras e, como repetição, o número de veículos. Os dados foram submetidos ao Teste de Bartllet para verificação da homogeneidade das variâncias dos tratamentos e (submetidos à Análise de Variância. Os resultados mostraram que os elementos arrumação de pilha e arrumação de carga contribuíram juntos com mais de 70% do tempo total do ciclo operacional; estes foram influenciados pela baixa qualidade das pilhas de madeira localizadas nas margens das estradas. O tempo total médio da operação de carregamento foi de dezoito minutos, equivalente a uma produtividade média de 140,7 toneladas por hora efetiva de trabalho e eficiência média 31,8%. A eficiência no carregamento das toras de comprimento de 5,30 m foi superior ao carregamento de toras de menor comprimento.AbstractThe research objective was to technically assess a forestry loader in the operation of loading different assortments of wood. The data were collected at wood harvest areas of a forest company in the South Region of Brazil, during the log loading of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis. The technical analysis included a motion and time study. The log loading operation was divided into phases of the job cycle, which were analyzed individually. For the purposes of data analyses, the different log types and lengths were considered as treatments, and the amount of vehicles as

    1. Protetores físicos para semeadura direta de Pinus elliottii Engelm Shelters for direct seeding of Pinus elliottii Engelm

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vilmar Luciano Matteiq

      2001-10-01

      Full Text Available A utilização de protetores físicos tem se revelado uma eficiente técnica para o sucesso da semeadura direta de pinus. O presente trabalho avaliou diferentes tipos e tamanhos de protetores físicos de pontos de semeadura para a implantação de povoamentos de Pinus elliottii por semeadura direta. Como protetores, foram utilizados copos plástico, copos de papel e laminado de madeira. Esses protetores foram colocados sobre os pontos semeados com três sementes cada. Foi avaliada a emergência, sobrevivência, perdas por pássaros, perdas por tombamento e número de pontos com, pelo menos, uma planta viva, seis meses após a semeadura. Os protetores utilizados influenciaram positivamente, nos resultados, para todas as variáveis analisadas, por evitar perdas de sementes causadas por arraste ou soterramento e, principalmente por diminuíram os danos causados por pássaros que juntamente com as formigas, foram os principais problemas encontrados na implantação do povoamento de pinus por semeadura direta.The use of individual shelters has become an efficient method for direct seeding of pine. This work investigated the use of different kinds and sizes of shelters placed at sowing sites to establish new populations of directly seeded Pinus elliottii. Plastic and paper cups with open bottoms, or wood slats were used as protective shields. These were placed at sowing sites, each one containing 3 seeds. Emergencies, survival, losses due to birds or lodging, and number of sites with at least one live plant were analyzed six months after sowing. Shelters had positive effects on all variables analyzed both for avoiding losses resulted from dragging or burying of seeds, and for diminidhing the harm caused by birds which along with ants were the main problems found during the establishment of directly seeded pinus population.

    2. Dicty_cDB: SHF296 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available _D Pinus taeda cDNA clone PWABK24 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.30 1 BQ699661 |BQ699661.1 NXRV125_B09_F NXRV (Nsf Xylem Root wood Verti...cal) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXRV125_B09 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.30 1 BP290409 |BP29

    3. Wooded areas

      Data.gov (United States)

      US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

    4. Chemical properties of tannic extracts from bark of Pinus oocarpa and their use as adhesive

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Michel Cardoso Vieira

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available This work evaluated the properties of aqueous extracts obtained from the bark of Pinus oocarpa under addition of sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite and the possibility of employment of tannins from the bark as an adhesive for bonding wood. After evaluation of the chemical properties of tannic extracts it was decided to employ the extraction with distilled water under addition of / 5% sodium sulfite to prepare for the tannin-formaldehyde adhesive. Adhesive phenol formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde were modified with 10% tannin Pinus oocarpa and the effect of this addition on the quality of the adhesive was evaluated. The addition from the bark of Pinus oocarpa showed that it is possible to use pure tannin as an adhesive because of its good gluing characteristics. The addition of tannic extract to synthetic adhesives contributed to increase viscosity values. Thus the substitution of synthetic adhesives by tannins is possible only up to 10%.

    5. Taxonomy Icon Data: loblolly pine [Taxonomy Icon

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available nus_taeda_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=NS ...

    6. Effect of wood acetylation with vinyl acetate and acetic anhydride on the properties of wood-plastic composites

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nilgül Özmen

      2013-02-01

      Full Text Available Chemical modifications of Scots pine (Pinus slyvestris wood flour were performed with vinyl acetate (VA and acetic anhydride (AA in the presence of potassium carbonate as a catalyst. Scots pine wood flour samples were successfully acetylated with VA (19 wt% gain and AA (24 wt% gain. The effect of chemical modification of the Scots pine wood flour with AA and VA on the mechanical properties of wood high-density polyethylene composites (WPC were determined. It was observed that acetylation of wood flour allowed a significant increase in both the mechanical properties and the thermal stability of the WPCs. It was concluded that acetylation of lignocellulosic fibers improves thermal stability, dispersion in the polymer matrix, and compatibility with the polymer matrix.

    7. Characteristics of heat-treated Turkish pine and fir wood after ThermoWood processing.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kol, Hamiyet Sahin

      2010-11-01

      The Finnish wood heat treatment technology ThermoWood, was recently introduced to Turkey. Data about the mechanical and physical properties of Turkish wood species are important for industry and academia. In this study two industrially important Turkish wood species, pine (Pinus nigraArnold.) and fir (Abies bornmülleriana Matf.) were heat-treated using the ThermoWood process. Pine and fir samples were thermally modified for 2 hr at 212 and 190 degrees C, respectively. The modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity in bending (MOE), impact bending strength (IBS), and compression strength (CS), in addition to swelling (Sw) and shrinkage (Sh) of thermally-modified wood were examined. The results indicate that the heat treatment method clearly decreased the MOR, MOE and lBS of pine and fir. However, a small increase was observed for CS values of heat treated wood species. The most affected mechanical properties were MOR and lBS for both pine and fir. The reduction in MOE was smaller than that in MOR and lBS. Volumetric shrinkage and swelling of these species were also improved by approximately half. In Addition, the changes in the mechanical and physical properties studied in pine were larger than that of fir.

    8. Ophiostoma ips asociado al insecto descortezador (Dendroctonus adjunctus ) del pino de las alturas (Pinus hartwegii )

      OpenAIRE

      2009-01-01

      In the pino de las alturas (Pinus hartwegii Lindl) it has been reported the presence of the bark beetle Dendroctonus adjunctus associated with the genus Ophiostoma spp., which causes the blue-stain of the wood. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the Ophiostoma species associated with the bark beetle D. adjunctus in P. hartwegii. Galleries and insects were collected in the Zoquiapan Experimental Forest Station (ZEFS), of the Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, in Zoquiap...

    9. Climatic signal from Pinus leucodermis axial resin ducts: a tree-ring time series approach

      OpenAIRE

      Antonio Saracino; Angelo Rita; Sergio Rossi; Laia Andreu-Hayles; G. Helle; Luigi Todaro

      2016-01-01

      Developing long-term chronologies of tree-ring anatomical features to evaluate climatic relationships within species might serve as an annual proxy to explore and elucidate the climatic drivers affecting xylem differentiation. Pinus leucodermis response to climate was examined by analyzing vertical xylem resin ducts in wood growing at high elevation in the Apennines of peninsular Southern Italy. Early- and latewood tree-ring resin duct chronologies, spanning the 1804–2010 time period, were co...

    10. APPLICATION OF NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY TO INVESTIGATE CHANGES IN PERMEABILITY IN BACTERIA TREATED PINUS RADIATA TIMBER

      OpenAIRE

      Nijdam,J. J.; Lehmann, E.; Keey,R B

      2004-01-01

      The permeability of softwoods can be enhanced by selective bacterial attack of the pit membranes. In this paper, green flat-sawn Pinus radiata sapwood boards were sprinkled for various exposure times with a nutrient solution containing a mixed bacterial population. The timber samples were subsequently dried and the tangential absorption of water was measured using neutron radiography to track the movement of moisture within the wood. There was a significant increase in water absorption after ...

    11. Dicty_cDB: VSD474 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 42 5.3 1 BQ198350 |BQ198350.1 NXLV127_F04_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical) Pinus taeda ...lone eef1c.pk003.f2 5' end, mRNA sequence. 42 5.3 1 BQ197303 |BQ197303.1 NXLV112_C05_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical...B11_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXLV_057_B11 5',... mRNA sequence. 42 5.3 1 CD018503 |CD018503.1 NXLV_032_D07_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical) Pinus taeda

    12. Investigation on Effect of Forestation by Mixing Pinus massoniana with Schima superba

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      HUANGWenchao; HUANGLili

      2004-01-01

      Since forestation of pure forest of Pinus massoniana is liable to suffer from pest calamity, soil erosion, decrease of soil fertility, and difficulty in wood production in the hilly areas of southern China, we conducted an investigation on the three types of forests in Gao'an County of Jiangxi Province, namely, the pure forest of Pinus massoniana, the pure forest of Schima superba, and the mixed forest consisting of the two species, setting up standard stand, measuring and studying the growing stock, biomass, leaf area, roots,soil, vegetation, pests, litters, soil erosion, microclimate, etc., with the following results. ① The average height, diameter at chest height, and volume of the mixed forest are higher than those of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana by 30.9%, 31.7% and 10.6%, respectively. ② The biomass of the mixed forest is 2.24 times as much as that of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana. ③ The litters of the mixed forest is 3.37 times and 1.96 times as much as the litters of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana and the pure forest of Schima superba respectively. ③ The occurrence of pest calamity per tree is lower and the conditions of soil erosion and microclimate are better than those of the pure forest ofPinus massoniana. ④ The mixed forest of the two species is an excellent mixed type of needle-leaf and deciduous forest worth being popularized in China's subtropical areas, especially in the low hilly areas. It is recommended in plantation that the mixed patterns be between trees, lines, small blocks, or scattered-dots, the ratio of mixture of Pinus massoniana and Schima superba be 5 to 1, or 3 to 1, and the initial space between trees be 1.2, 1.5, or 2.0 m while the initial density be 6 944 to 4 440 trees per square hectare.

    13. Dicty_cDB: AFJ562 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available pinaster xylem EST, clone PP058D07. 46 5e-13 4 BQ695627 |BQ695627.1 NXPV_030_G06_F NXPV (Nsf Xylem Planings wood Vertical... 2e-09 2 AW290132 |AW290132.1 NXNV012E07F Nsf Xylem Normal wood Vertical Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXNV012E07 5...', mRNA sequence. 54 4e-09 2 CD026805 |CD026805.1 NXNV012E07 Nsf Xylem Normal wood Vertical Pinus taeda cDNA

    14. Pinus afforestation in South Brazilian highlands: soil chemical attributes and organic matter composition Florestamento com Pinus em solos de altitude do Sul do Brasil: atributos químicos e matéria orgânica do solo

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Deborah Pinheiro Dick

      2011-04-01

      Full Text Available In the last three decades, exotic tree species are being introduced in the natural pastures of the highlands located at the northeastern part of Rio Grande do Sul State (RS, Brazil. This alteration of land use may impart drastic changes in the soil attributes. In this context, this work aimed to evaluate the impact of Pinus taeda afforestation on soil chemical attributes and organic matter (SOM composition in Leptosols from Campos de Cima da Serra, RS. Soil samples under eight year old (Pi8 and 30 year old (Pi30 Pinus plantations and under native pasture (NP were studied. Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses and FTIR spectroscopy. The soil under pasture had a higher content of nutrients and of SOM in comparison to Pinus soils, reflecting the higher input and decomposition rate of the below ground added residue in the grassland environment. The SOM in pasture soils showed a higher content of carbohydrate and of structures derived from microbial metabolism. Besides the depletion of nutrients and of SOM, Pinus afforestation affected the SOM quality: following afforestation, the proportion of chemically recalcitrant structures and of carboxylic groups increased, whereas N-containing groups decreased.Nas três últimas décadas, o cultivo de espécies exóticas vem sendo introduzido nas áreas de pastagem de solos de altitude localizados na região nordeste do Estado do rio Grande do Sul. Essa alteração de uso do solo pode causar mudanças drásticas nos atributos do solo. Avaliou-se o impacto do florestamento com Pinus Taeda nos atributos químicos e na composição da matéria orgânica (MOS de Neossolos Litólicos dos Campos de Cima da Serra, RS. Foram estudadas amostras de solo sob plantação de Pinus há oito (Pi8 e há 30 anos (Pi30 e sob pastagem natural (NP, sendo determinados os teores de cátions trocáveis e de

    15. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

      OpenAIRE

      Wiesław Prus-Głowacki; Ewa Bajus; Halina Ratyńska

      2014-01-01

      Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the result...

    16. Finishes for Wood Decks

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mark Knaebe

      2013-01-01

      Wood decks have become an important part of residential construction. Wood decks can add versatile living space to a home and, with minimal maintenance, provide decades of use. However, wood decks are exposed to high levels of stress from severe weather conditions that shrink and swell the wood. Without proper maintenance, wood decks can develop problems such as checks...

    17. Conifer Woods of the Pliocene Age from Yunnan, China

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Tie-Mei YI; Cheng-Sen LI; Xiao-Mei JIANG

      2005-01-01

      The Tertiary floras play an integral role in understanding the biodiversity and interactions between climate and vegetation in Yunnan, China. The fossil spores, pollen grains, and leaves in this region have been investiagedintensively. In comparison, the woods have been studied relatively little. A large number of Pliocene wood specimens was collected from the opencast lignite coal mine of Hongxing situated in Changning County of Yunnan Province. Among the collection, Tsuga cf. dumosa (D. Don) Eichler and Pinus cf. armandii Franchet were identified based on wood structures. The subtle feature of tori extensions is reported in the wood of T. cf. dumosa. Considering the climatic requirements of modern T. dumosa and P.armandii, the two species of conifer described from Pliocene sediments probably grew in mountainous terrain at an elevation of approximately 2 300 m, in a cool and humid environment.

    18. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

      2010-12-15

      We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

    19. Examination of water phase transitions in Loblolly pine and cell wall components by differential scanning calorimetry

      Science.gov (United States)

      Samuel L. Zelinka; Michael J. Lambrecht; Samuel V. Glass; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Daniel J. Yelle

      2012-01-01

      This paper examines phase transformations of water in wood and isolated wood cell wall components using differential scanning calorimetry with the purpose of better understanding "Type II water" or "freezable bound water" that has been reported for cellulose and other hydrophilic polymers. Solid loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

    20. Dicty_cDB: SLJ310 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available BM493927 |BM493927.1 NXLV_071_F02_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXLV_071_F02 ...ce 7 from patent US 6333164. 62 2e-06 2 BQ634402 |BQ634402.1 NXRV068_E06_F NXRV (Nsf Xylem Root wood Vertical

    1. Dicty_cDB: AFE557 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available quence. 46 0.018 2 BM158718 |BM158718.1 NXLV_039_C04_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical...5_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXLV_039_C05 5', mRNA sequence. 46 0.019 2 AW

    2. Dicty_cDB: VSI818 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available 21N12 in linkage group 20. 42 2.6 1 BQ198350 |BQ198350.1 NXLV127_F04_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical) P... NXLV112_C05_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXLV112_C05 5', mRNA sequence. 42

    3. Dicty_cDB: VSA296 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available NXPV (Nsf Xylem Planings wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXPV_097_C04 5', mRNA sequence. 38 2.0 2 CC3...12 5', mRNA sequence. 38 2.4 2 BG319073 |BG319073.1 NXPV_023_D07_F NXPV (Nsf Xylem Planings wood Vertical

    4. Dicty_cDB: AFK713 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available 718 |BM158718.1 NXLV_039_C04_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cD...NA clone NXLV_039_C04 5', mRNA sequence. 46 0.018 2 BM158719 |BM158719.1 NXLV_039_C05_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical

    5. Dicty_cDB: AFH440 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available quence. 28 0.094 4 BE209106 |BE209106.1 NXNV_139_H05_F Nsf Xylem Normal wood Vertical Pinus taeda cDNA clone... NXNV_139_H05 5', mRNA sequence. 34 0.45 2 BE123722 |BE123722.1 NXNV_153_C06_F Nsf Xylem Normal wood Vertical

    6. Properties of blue-stained wood

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Miha Humar

      2008-07-01

      Full Text Available Discoloration of wood is frequently caused by blue-stain fungi. Among them Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila are reported as the most important staining organism. In previous researches, it was generally considered that blue-stain fungi do not influence mechanical properties. However, there were some opposite results published as well. In order to elucidate this issue, specimens made of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris sapwood were exposed to two blue stain fungi A. pullulans and S. pithyophila for periods between two and eight weeks. FTIR, weight, colour and non-destructive modulus of elasticity measurements were performed before and after exposure. The results showed that blue stain fungi, besides considerable discoloration, do not cause any significant damage to wood. Surprisingly the non-destructive MoE analysis showed that modulus of elasticity even slightly increase after fungal exposure.

    7. Biomass production of young lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia stands in Latvia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jansons A

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Biomass as a source of renewable energy is gaining an increasing importance in the context of emission targets set by the European Union. Large areas of abandoned agricultural land with different soils are potentially available for establishment of biomass plantations in the Baltic states. Considering soil and climatic requirements as well as traits characteristic for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm and the scarcity of published knowledge, we assessed the above-ground biomass of Pinus contorta in comparison to that of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and factors affecting biomass production. Data were collected in 3 experimental trials, located in two sites in central part of Latvia: Zvirgzde and Kuldiga (56°41’ N, 24°28’ E and 57°03’ N, 21°57’ E, respectively. Trials were established with density 5000 tree ha-1, using seed material from Canada (50°08’-60°15’ N, 116°25’-132°50’ W and two Pinus contorta stands with unknown origin growing in Latvia. Results reveal that absolute dry aboveground biomass of Pinus contorta reaches 114 ± 6.4 t ha-1 at age 16 on a fertile former arable land, 48 ± 3.6 and 94 ± 9.4 t ha-1 at age 22 and 25, respectively, on a sandy forest land (Vacciniosa forest type. The biomass is significantly (p < 0.01 and considerably (more than two-fold higher than that of the native Pinus sylvestris and the productivity is similar (in fertile soils or higher (on poor soils than reported for other species in energy-wood plantations. Provenance was a significant factor affecting the above-ground biomass, and the ranking of provenances did not change significantly between different soil conditions. It provides opportunities for further improvement of productivity using selection.

    8. Use of DNA sequencing to detect pathogenic, saprotrophic, and stain fungi in sapwood of declining red pine (Pinus resinosa) in the Upper Midwest

      Science.gov (United States)

      M.T. Banik; D.L. Lindner; J. Juzwik; J.A. Glaeser

      2013-01-01

      An inexpensive kit was developed to collect wood samples for molecular detection of pathogenic, saprotrophic and stain fungi in declining Pinus resinosa in the Upper Midwest. The kit contained materials for "clean" collection of sapwood drill shavings, which were then subjected to PCR of the rDNA ITS region with fungal-specific primers,...

    9. Pondering the monoterpene composition of Pinus serotina Michx.: can limonene be used as a chemotaxonomic marker for the identification of old turpentine stumps?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Thomas L. Eberhardt; Jolie M. Mahfouz; Philip M. Sheridan

      2010-01-01

      Wood samples from old turpentine stumps in Virginia were analyzed by GC-MS to determine if the monoterpene compositions could be used for species identification. Given that limonene is reported to be the predominant monoterpene for pond pine (Pinus serotina Michx.), low relative proportions of limonene in these samples appeared to suggest that these...

    10. Relations Between Permeability and Structure of Wood

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Bao Fucheng; Zhao Youke; Lü Jianxiong

      2003-01-01

      The permeability and the structure of heartwood and sapwood of the solvent-exchange dried and the air-dried green-wood of Chinese-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) and masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) were measured inorder to study the relations between the permeability and the structure. The results showed that the permeability of sapwood of boththe air-dried and the solvent-exchange dried wood was higher than that of heartwood, and the permeability of the solvent-exchangeddried heartwood and sapwood was higher than that of the air-dried. A higher permeability of wood was attributed to, on the one hand,a bigger number of flow path per unit area of the wood perpendicular to the flow direction resulted from a bigger number ofunaspirated pits per unit area and a bigger number of effective pit openings per membrane, and on the other hand, a smaller numberof tracheid in series connection per unit length parallel to flow direction resulted from a longer tracheid length and an effectivetracheid length for permeability.

    11. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

      Science.gov (United States)

      Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

      (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factors affecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.

    12. Cutting Power during Milling of Thermally Modified Pine Wood

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Andrzej Krauss

      2016-09-01

      Full Text Available The paper presents experimental testing results of cutting power of thermally modified wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. during lengthwise milling. The process of heat treatment was performed in the atmosphere of superheated steam, at temperatures of 130, 160, 190 and 220 °C, maintaining an identical heating time of 4 h for all modification variants. Cutting power was determined during milling of the radial surface of modifi ed and non--modified samples. It was calculated as the difference of power used by a milling machine during wood machining and at idling. Based on the results of measurements, it was found that, in the case of modified wood, cutting power decreases with an increase in modifi cation temperature (the dependence being linear and increases with an increase in the working engagement. At temperatures exceeding 160 °C, the power required for milling of modified wood is lower than cutting power for non-modified wood. The experiment indicated a significant reduction of cutting power with an increase in wood modification temperature. It was also found that an increase in the working engagement results in an increase of cutting power both in thermally modifi ed and non-modified wood.

    13. Dicty_cDB: AFA213 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available te sequence, segment 1/2. 60 1e-08 4 BM493927 |BM493927.1 NXLV_071_F02_F NXLV (Nsf Xylem Late wood Vertical)... Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXLV_071_F02 5', mRNA sequence. 50 5e-08 2 BQ634402 |BQ634402.1 NXRV068_E06_F NXRV (Nsf Xylem Root wood Verti...cal) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXRV068_E06 5', mRNA sequence. 50 6e-08 2 BI416760 |BI4

    14. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

      2016-01-01

      Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact.

    15. Efeito do monocultivo de Pinus e da queima do campo nativo em atributos biológicos do solo no Planalto Sul Catarinense Effects of native pasture burning and Pinus monoculture on changes in soil biological attributes on the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina - Brazil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Dilmar Baretta

      2005-10-01

      Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o impacto da queima tradicional de campo nativo e do monocultivo de Pinus sp. em Lages (SC, no CO total do solo (COT, carbono da biomassa microbiana (CBM, respiração basal (C-CO2, quociente metabólico microbiano (qCO2 e relação CBM:COT. Foram selecionadas quatro áreas representativas da região, de 0,5 ha cada, sendo: (a Campo nativo, sem queima nos últimos 50 anos (CN; (b Campo nativo submetido à queima tradicional (CNQ, ambas, pastagens naturais; (c Mata natural com predominância de Araucaria angustifolia (MATA; e (d Reflorestamento de Pinus taeda com oito anos (PINUS. Para tanto, coletaram-se seis amostras, compostas de nove subamostras de solo em cada área, na profundidade de 0-5 cm, em dezembro de 2002. Para avaliar o CBM, foi utilizado o método da fumigação-extração. O C-CO2 foi determinado em laboratório. Os maiores valores de liberação de C-CO2 foram encontrados na MATA e no PINUS, seguidos de CNQ e CN, respectivamente. Os maiores valores de CBM, COT e relação CBM:COT foram encontrados na MATA, não tendo as demais áreas estudadas apresentado diferenças entre si. O qCO2 foi maior no PINUS, seguido de CNQ, em comparação com MATA e CN. A análise multivariada mostrou ser uma ferramenta auxiliar importante ao discriminar o CBM como sendo o atributo que mais contribuiu na separação entre as áreas estudadas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of burning native pastures and of cultivating Pinus sp in monoculture in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, microbial basal respiration (C-CO2, the microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2, and the ratio MBC/TOC were analyzed. Four representative areas of the region with 0.5 ha each were selected: (a native pasture without burning for at least 50 years (NP; (b native pasture burnt off every year (NPF; (c natural forest (NF with predominance of Araucaria angustifolia

    16. Resistance of pine, australian red cedar woods and their derivate products to Cryptotermes brevis attack

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marcelo Xisto Ribeiro

      2014-09-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the resistance of Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata and pine (Pinus sp. woods and particleboards made from these species to dry-wood termite Cryptotermes brevis attack, as much as to quantify the mortality of the insects. 30 termite pseudo-workers were put in each 9,5 cm-diameter Petri dishes containing the samples (1,5 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm and cotton sheets positioned on the perforated covers, daily moisturized with 5 ml of water. The dishes were maintained in BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand at 24±5 ºC and 24 h of escotophase. A control sample without any feed source was included in the bioassay. The deterioration index (ID and mortality of the insects were evaluated after 60 days. Termites from the control sample presented higher termite mortality than the other treatments, which did not differ among each other. Toona ciliata wood was more resistant than Pinus sp. wood to Cryptotermes brevis attack. The average deterioration indexes were 1.74% and 6.62% respectively for those woods. The average deterioration index of the panels made with 100% Toona ciliata (ID=1.58% was similar to the deterioration index of particleboards made with this specie mixed with Pinus sp. (ID=1.87%.

    17. Wind pollination in Pinus roxburghii

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Vinod Prasad KHANDURI; Chandra Mohan SHARMA

      2007-01-01

      Stigmatic pollen load and pollen concentration in the air were studied in the natural population of Pinus roxburghii at Ashtavakra (900 m asl), in the Pauri forest division of Garhwal Himalaya, India. The results reflect diurnal pollen occurrence in P. roxburghii, with the strong significant correlations between pollen concentrations in the air and wind speed, air temperature and relative air humidity. A significant correlation was also observed between microsporangium dehiscence and pollen occurrence in the air. The maximum concentration of pollen grains in the air and higher rates of pollen deposition onto the megasporophylls were between 12 pm and 16 pm of the day, which conforms the best time for pollination in a day in P. roxburghii. The receptivity of Ovulate strobili varied from 3 to 5days, however, the bagged strobili remained receptive up to 6 days.

    18. Fossil records of subsection Pinus (genus Pinus, Pinaceae) from the Cenozoic in Japan.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

      2014-03-01

      Extant pines of subsection Pinus (section Pinus, genus Pinus, Pinaceae) are predominantly distributed in Eastern Asia. However, the extent of diversification in the section has yet to be fully clarified. We reviewed fossil records of subsection Pinus from Japan and collected permineralized materials, in which anatomical details are preserved for better understanding of the diversification. Our results suggest that this subsection appeared in Japan no earlier than the Middle Eocene, with extant species (i.e., Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii) appearing around the beginning of the Pleistocene. Pinus fujiii (Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene) is inferred to have a close affinity to P. thunbergii based on the medial arrangement of its leaf resin canals. Additionally, P. fujiii has a similar cone morphology to those of extant species living in China, bridging the morphological gap between P. thunbergii and Chinese relatives of P. thunbergii as inferred by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Our results also suggest that taxonomic revisions of Pinus miocenica and Pinus oligolepis are required among the Japanese fossil species reported to date.

    19. Physical and mechanical characteristics of poor-quality wood after heat treatment

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Romagnoli M

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Poor-quality Corsican pine (Pinus nigra subsp. laricio (Poir. Maire and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco wood samples were heat treated with the aim of testing the improvement of wood quality that could increase their economic value. Wood properties were measured to assess quality in treated and non-treated materials, including density, hardness, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE, modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR, and compression strength. The results showed higher dimensional stability in heat-treated wood, yet mechanical performance in compression and bending strength were only marginally affected by loss of density. Despite having a re­latively low density after heat treatment, Corsican pine sapwood has potential in manufacturing higher-value products. In contrast, heat treatment applied to Douglas fir wood did not appear economically viable; insufficient differences were detected between the naturally desirable characteristics of this species and heat-treated samples.

    20. Evaluation of aluminum phosphide against wood-destroying insects.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pant, Himani; Tripathi, Sadhna

      2012-02-01

      Aluminum phosphide, a well-known stored grain fumigant, available in solid formulation, has shown promise as wood fumigant. This chemical decomposes to phosphine when exposed to moisture. The feasibility of fumigant treatment to extend the service life of wood was evaluated in a small block test of two wood species. Hard wood (Mangifera indica L.) and conifer blocks (Pinus roxburghii Sargent) were fumigated with different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%) of aluminum phosphide. Fumigated blocks were exposed to Lyctus africanus Lesne (Coleoptera; Lyctidae) larvae. Results revealed that aluminum phosphide showed complete mortality of Lyctus larvae at 0.2% concentration, that is, 0.93 g/m3 retention level. Mean mortality of 74% of Lyctus larvae was observed in soft wood blocks fumigated with lowest concentration, that is, 0.05% of aluminum phosphide, whereas in hard wood blocks > 85% mortality was observed at this concentration.

    1. Mechanics of Wood Machining

      CERN Document Server

      Csanády, Etele

      2013-01-01

      Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

    2. Fire retardants for wood

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vlatka Jirouš-Rajković

      2009-06-01

      Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

    3. Request for wood samples

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      NN,

      1977-01-01

      In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions (

    4. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Wiesław Prus-Głowacki

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the results the supposition that Pinus uliginosa from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog is a marginal population of P. uncinata can be excluded, because of their significant difference in genetic structure. The presumable reasons of specificity of P. uliginosa population are disscused.

    5. ANÁLISE ECONÔMICA DA PRODUÇÃO DE Pinus elliottii NA SERRA DO SUDESTE, RIO GRANDE DO SUL

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Eduardo Pagel Floriano

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available This study was conducted for Pinus elliottii Engelm. at Serra do Sudeste, Rio Grande do Sul, with the following objectives: to check production costs and possible revenues; to perform the economic and financial analysis of Pinus elliottii's wood production under regional conditions; and to determine the rotation of maximum Net Present Value (NPV. The costs for planting the stands were estimated at $2,292.09/ha and the annual maintenance ranged from R$ 134.84 to R$ 363.98 per hectare. Departing from the Site Index 28, with NPV of R$ 1,147.17/ha, Pinus' wood production becomes interesting. At the IS 26, with 6.86% Internal Rate of Return (IRR, it would be possible to pay the 6.75% Propflora's interest. Analysis of different rotations for IS 28 showed maximum VPL with rotation of 26 years, thinning in cycle of 4 years, starting up the cuts to 10 years. The economic analysis was performed with considerable caution, using productivity moderated levels, costs within patterns that can be considered between middle and high and moderated prices for today's wood market. Even with the restrictions imposed on the analysis, results are promising; especially in view of the regional market prices' increase tendency and the probability of wood veneer industries comes to absorb the larger log's size production in a closed future.

    6. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

      2013-08-01

      Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

    7. Studies on the utilization from (i. e. of) forest wood residues. Report I. Study on the chipping from forest wood residues. [Korea

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Jo, J.; Lee, Y.; Cheon, J.

      1972-01-01

      This study tabulates and discusses data from a trial of chip production with a portable chipper from wood residues and small logs of Quercus aliena, Q. serrata, and Pinus densiflora left in an exploited logging area at Kangneung. The results showed that barked chips for paper-pulp and unbarked chips for fiberboard manufacture could be economically produced and supplied at distances of up to 500 and 240 km respectively.

    8. Green liquor impregnation and Kraft pulping of South African Pinus Patula – “A practical approach to provide cost savings in a Kraft mill’s pulping operation”

      CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

      Johakimu, Jonas K

      2011-02-01

      Full Text Available The effect of green liquor pre-treatment (GLP) on Kraft pulping of Pinus Patula has been investigated. Wood chips were pre-treated with green liquor, and subsequently subjected to Kraft pulping to achieve a target Kappa number of 65-70. The results...

    9. Effects of Different Wood Preservatives on The Some Physical Properties of Wood Species Used in Furniture and Building Industry

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Abdi Atılgan

      2012-04-01

      Full Text Available This study aims to determine the combustion, density values of Fagus and Pinus sylvestris’ woods impregranted with Ammonium tetra fluoro borate (1 - 3 % and the mixture of cement and borax (6 % – 9 % according to ASTM-D 1413-76 standards. In the combustion test carried out according to ASTM-D 160-50, the combustion resulted from flame, the self-combustion and the combustion as glowing processes were completed and the amount of lux, combustion duration, decomposition and ash were determined. According to experimental results, it is determined that Fogus’ wood has the highest retention (42,43 kg/m3 in the mixture of cement and borax 9 %, combustion tempature (587 o C in the mixture of cement and borax 6 % , the value of lux (267 lux in the the combustion as glowing and Pinus sylvestris’ wood has the longest combustion duration (29,03 min. Ammonium tetrafluoro borate 1%, the most weight loss (94 %.

    10. Contrasting genotypes, soil amendments, and their interactive effects on short-term total soil CO2 efflux in a 3-year-old Pinus taeda L

      Science.gov (United States)

      Michael C. Tyree; John R. Seiler; Chris A. Maier

      2014-01-01

      Intensively managed pine forests in the southeastern United States are considered an important C sink and may play a critical role in offsetting increased global CO2 emissions. The combination of improved silvicultural methods and the use of superior genotypes are estimated to result in future volume gains of up to 60 percent. However to date, no work has looked at...

    11. Seasonal response of photosynthetic electron transport and energy dissipation in the eighth year of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 (FACE) in Pinus taeda (loblolly pine).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Logan, Barry A; Combs, Andrew; Myers, Kalisa; Kent, Rose; Stanley, Lela; Tissue, David T

      2009-06-01

      To determine the effect of growth under elevated CO(2) partial pressures (pCO(2)) on photosynthetic electron transport and photoprotective energy dissipation, we examined light-saturated net photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation (A(sat)), the capacity for photosynthetic O(2) evolution, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and the pigment composition of upper-canopy loblolly pine needles in the eighth year of exposure to elevated pCO(2) (20 Pa above ambient) at the free-air CO(2) enrichment facility in the Duke Forest. During the summer growing season, A(sat) was 50% higher in current-year needles and 24% higher in year-old needles in elevated pCO(2) in comparison with needles of the same age cohort in ambient pCO(2). Thus, photosynthetic down-regulation at elevated pCO(2) was observed in the summer in year-old needles. In the winter, A(sat) was not significantly affected by growth pCO(2). Reductions in A(sat), the capacity for photosynthetic O(2) evolution and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency in the light-acclimated and fully-oxidized states were observed in the winter when compared to summer. Growth at elevated pCO(2) had no significant effect on the capacity for photosynthetic O(2) evolution, PSII efficiencies in the light-acclimated and fully-oxidized states, chlorophyll content or the size and conversion state of the xanthophyll cycle, regardless of season or needle age cohort. Therefore, we observed no evidence that photosynthetic electron transport or photoprotective energy dissipation responded to compensate for the effects of elevated pCO(2) on Calvin cycle activity.

    12. Effect of Removal of Woody Biomass after Clearcutting and Intercropping Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum with Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda on Rodent Diversity and Populations

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Matthew M. Marshall

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available Plant-based feedstocks have long been considered viable, potential sources for biofuels. However, concerns regarding production effects may outweigh gains like carbon savings. Additional information is needed to understand environmental effects of growing feedstocks, including effects on wildlife communities and populations. We used a randomized and replicated experimental design to examine initial effects of biofuel feedstock treatment options, including removal of woody biomass after clearcutting and intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, on rodents to 2 years post-treatment in regenerating pine plantations in North Carolina, USA. Rodent community composition did not change with switchgrass production or residual biomass removal treatments. Further, residual biomass removal had no influence on rodent population abundances. However, Peromyscus leucopus was found in the greatest abundance and had the greatest survival in treatments without switchgrass. In contrast, abundance of invasive Mus musculus was greatest in switchgrass treatments. Other native species, such as Sigmodon hispidus, were not influenced by the presence of switchgrass. Our results suggest that planting of switchgrass, but not biomass removal, had species-specific effects on rodents at least 2 years post-planting in an intensively managed southern pine system. Determining ecological mechanisms underlying our observed species associations with switchgrass will be integral for understanding long-term sustainability of biofuels production in southern pine forest.

    13. Differential gene expression in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) challenged with the fusiform rust fungus, Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme

      Science.gov (United States)

      Henrietta Myburg; Alison M. Morse; Henry V. Amerson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; Dudley Huber; Jason A. Osborne; Saul A. Garcia; C. Dana Nelson; John M. Davis; Sarah F. Covert; Leonel M. van Zyle

      2006-01-01

      Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme is the pathogen that incites fusiform rust disease of southern pine species. To date, a number of host resistance genes have been mapped. Although genomic mapping studies have provided valuable information on the genetic basis of disease interactions in this pine-rust pathosystem, the interaction...

    14. Interactive effects of carbon dioxide and nitrogen supply on above-and belowground chemical composition of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gebauer, R.L.E.; Reynolds, J.F.; Strain, B.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

      1995-09-01

      Changes in the whole plant carbon/nitrogen balance of loblolly pine grown at ambient and elevated CO{sub 2}-levels (35 and 70 Pa) and four N levels (0.5, 1.5, 3.5 and 6.5 mM NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) were determined by measuring concentrations of total proteins, free amino acids, carbohydrates, and phenolic compounds. Free amino acids and protein concentrations increased with N availability in needles and lateral roots, but were unchanged in stems and tap roots. Under elevated CO{sub 2} starch content was increased in needles but not in roots or stems. Changes in phenolic content in response to elevated CO{sub 2} or N availability generally followed the pattern of soluble sugar concentrations. Phenolic content was in primary needles>lateral roots>tap roots>fascicular needles>stems and decreased with increasing N availability (at>1.5 mM NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}). Phenolic content was significantly increased at 70 Pa CO{sub 2} only in needles and stems, but not in roots.

    15. Leveraging 35 years of Pinus taeda research in the southeastern US to constrain forest carbon cycle predictions: regional data assimilation using ecosystem experiments

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      R. Q. Thomas

      2017-07-01

      Full Text Available Predicting how forest carbon cycling will change in response to climate change and management depends on the collective knowledge from measurements across environmental gradients, ecosystem manipulations of global change factors, and mathematical models. Formally integrating these sources of knowledge through data assimilation, or model–data fusion, allows the use of past observations to constrain model parameters and estimate prediction uncertainty. Data assimilation (DA focused on the regional scale has the opportunity to integrate data from both environmental gradients and experimental studies to constrain model parameters. Here, we introduce a hierarchical Bayesian DA approach (Data Assimilation to Predict Productivity for Ecosystems and Regions, DAPPER that uses observations of carbon stocks, carbon fluxes, water fluxes, and vegetation dynamics from loblolly pine plantation ecosystems across the southeastern US to constrain parameters in a modified version of the Physiological Principles Predicting Growth (3-PG forest growth model. The observations included major experiments that manipulated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration, water, and nutrients, along with nonexperimental surveys that spanned environmental gradients across an 8.6  ×  105 km2 region. We optimized regionally representative posterior distributions for model parameters, which dependably predicted data from plots withheld from the data assimilation. While the mean bias in predictions of nutrient fertilization experiments, irrigation experiments, and CO2 enrichment experiments was low, future work needs to focus modifications to model structures that decrease the bias in predictions of drought experiments. Predictions of how growth responded to elevated CO2 strongly depended on whether ecosystem experiments were assimilated and whether the assimilated field plots in the CO2 study were allowed to have different mortality parameters than the other field plots in the region. We present predictions of stem biomass productivity under elevated CO2, decreased precipitation, and increased nutrient availability that include estimates of uncertainty for the southeastern US. Overall, we (1 demonstrated how three decades of research in southeastern US planted pine forests can be used to develop DA techniques that use multiple locations, multiple data streams, and multiple ecosystem experiment types to optimize parameters and (2 developed a tool for the development of future predictions of forest productivity for natural resource managers that leverage a rich dataset of integrated ecosystem observations across a region.

    16. Seasonal response of photosynthetic electron transport and energy dissipation in the eighth year of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} (FACE) in Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Logan, B.A.; Combs, A.; Kent, R.; Stanley, L. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Biology; Myers, K. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tissue, D.T. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Western Sydney Univ., Richmond, NSW (Australia). Centre for Plant and Food Science

      2009-06-15

      This study investigated the biological adaptation of loblolly pine following long-term seasonal exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) partial pressures (pCO{sub 2}). Exposure to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) usually results in significant stimulation in light-saturated rates of photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation. Plants are protected against photoinhibition by biochemical processes known as photoprotection, including energy dissipation, which converts excess absorbed light energy into heat. This study was conducted in the eighth year of exposure to elevated pCO{sub 2} at the Duke FACE site. The effect of elevated pCO{sub 2} on electron transport and energy dissipation in the pine trees was examined by coupling the analyses of the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen (O{sub 2}) evolution, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and photosynthetic pigment composition with measurements of net photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation (Asat). During the summer growing season, Asat was 50 per cent higher in current-year needles and 24 per cent higher in year-old needles in elevated pCO{sub 2} in comparison with needles of the same age cohort in ambient pCO{sub 2}. Thus, older needles exhibited greater photosynthetic down-regulation than younger needles in elevated pCO{sub 2}. In the winter, Asat was not significantly affected by growth pCO{sub 2}. Asat was lower in winter than in summer. Growth at elevated pCO{sub 2} had no significant effect on the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photosystem 2 efficiencies, chlorophyll content or the size and conversion state of the xanthophyll cycle, regardless of season or needle age. There was no evidence that photosynthetic electron transport or photoprotective energy dissipation responded to compensate for the effects of elevated pCO{sub 2} on Calvin cycle activity. 73 refs., 4 figs.

    17. A Multi-Attribute Assessment of Site Preparation Effects on the Socioeconomical and Ecological Attributes of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Stands

      Science.gov (United States)

      James H. Miller; Jianbang Gan; Stephen H. Kolison; Robert S. Boyd; Kenneth L. McNabb; B. Graeme Lockaby

      1998-01-01

      The public demands both commodity and non-commodity goods and srvices from our forests. This requires management options that not only provide fiber, clean water, wildlife habitat, and mcreation, but do so in a biologically sustainable manner, resulting in healthy productive forests into perpetuity. A common forest management activity used to enhance fiber production...

    18. 火炬松光合生理生态特性研究%Research on Photosynthetic Eco-Physiology of Pinus Taeda

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      虞沐奎; 姜志林; 谢会成; 胡一民; 吴福金

      2004-01-01

      采用Licor-6400便携式光合作用测定系统,对11年生不同间伐处理火炬松光合生理生态因子进行了离体测定,并应用DPS系统对主要生理生态指标的特点及其与环境因子的关系进行了逐步回归分析和通径分析. 结果表明,影响蒸腾速率的主导环境因子是湿度和温度因子,蒸腾速率与环境因子建立的回归方程达到极显著水平.

    19. Avaliação do impacto no ambiente de compostos hidrossolúveis de Pinus taeda e Araucaria angustifolia (Coniferae) utilizando indicadores biológicos

      OpenAIRE

      Dutra, Bibiana Kaiser

      2012-01-01

      O impacto mais importante das coníferas no ambiente é atribuído à liberação de fitotoxinas/aleloquímicos (predominantemente compostos fenólicos) da biomassa no solo (Singh et al. , 1999). Os polifenóis são considerados um dos grupos mais amplamente distribuídos entre as substâncias químicas produzidas pelas plantas e têm potencial aleloquímico devido à sua alta solubilidade em água e sua propriedade de inibir o crescimento de outras espécies de plantas (Inderjit 1996;. Graça et al 2002 ). A p...

    20. Leveraging 35 years of Pinus taeda research in the southeastern US to constrain forest carbon cycle predictions: regional data assimilation using ecosystem experiments

      Science.gov (United States)

      Quinn Thomas, R.; Brooks, Evan B.; Jersild, Annika L.; Ward, Eric J.; Wynne, Randolph H.; Albaugh, Timothy J.; Dinon-Aldridge, Heather; Burkhart, Harold E.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Fox, Thomas R.; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A.; Martin, Timothy A.; Noormets, Asko; Sampson, David A.; Teskey, Robert O.

      2017-07-01

      Predicting how forest carbon cycling will change in response to climate change and management depends on the collective knowledge from measurements across environmental gradients, ecosystem manipulations of global change factors, and mathematical models. Formally integrating these sources of knowledge through data assimilation, or model-data fusion, allows the use of past observations to constrain model parameters and estimate prediction uncertainty. Data assimilation (DA) focused on the regional scale has the opportunity to integrate data from both environmental gradients and experimental studies to constrain model parameters. Here, we introduce a hierarchical Bayesian DA approach (Data Assimilation to Predict Productivity for Ecosystems and Regions, DAPPER) that uses observations of carbon stocks, carbon fluxes, water fluxes, and vegetation dynamics from loblolly pine plantation ecosystems across the southeastern US to constrain parameters in a modified version of the Physiological Principles Predicting Growth (3-PG) forest growth model. The observations included major experiments that manipulated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, water, and nutrients, along with nonexperimental surveys that spanned environmental gradients across an 8.6 × 105 km2 region. We optimized regionally representative posterior distributions for model parameters, which dependably predicted data from plots withheld from the data assimilation. While the mean bias in predictions of nutrient fertilization experiments, irrigation experiments, and CO2 enrichment experiments was low, future work needs to focus modifications to model structures that decrease the bias in predictions of drought experiments. Predictions of how growth responded to elevated CO2 strongly depended on whether ecosystem experiments were assimilated and whether the assimilated field plots in the CO2 study were allowed to have different mortality parameters than the other field plots in the region. We present predictions of stem biomass productivity under elevated CO2, decreased precipitation, and increased nutrient availability that include estimates of uncertainty for the southeastern US. Overall, we (1) demonstrated how three decades of research in southeastern US planted pine forests can be used to develop DA techniques that use multiple locations, multiple data streams, and multiple ecosystem experiment types to optimize parameters and (2) developed a tool for the development of future predictions of forest productivity for natural resource managers that leverage a rich dataset of integrated ecosystem observations across a region.

    1. Biogeochemical assessment of environmental risk by the example of Pinus sylvestris L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rybakov Dmitry Sergeevich

      2016-06-01

      Full Text Available The possibility of using annual rings of Pinus sylvestris L. to assess chemical pollution in the Republic of Karelia is discussed. With the help of principal component factor analysis the relationship between the contents of chemical elements and dendrological parameters – the width of annual rings and wood density - was revealed. The main factors contributing to the pollution of the northern part of the Republic of Karelia by the emission from iron-ore enterprise JSC «Karelsky Okatysh» are frequent ecologically significant wind directions, the distance from the source and the total mass of the emission. The value of radial growth (the average width of annual rings for five-years of Pinus sylvestris L. is connected negatively with the content of Cu, Cd, Ni and Fe. As an element of nutrition, Mn is positively correlated with the density of wood wherein it is an antagonist of Fe and partially of Cr in northern areas . Several peaks of Pb content coincide with the most intense tests of atomic weapons. Sharp maximums of Pb can also be due to a cross-border pollution and emission from regional sources.

    2. Golgi enrichment and proteomic analysis of developing Pinus radiata xylem by free-flow electrophoresis.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Harriet T Parsons

      Full Text Available Our understanding of the contribution of Golgi proteins to cell wall and wood formation in any woody plant species is limited. Currently, little Golgi proteomics data exists for wood-forming tissues. In this study, we attempted to address this issue by generating and analyzing Golgi-enriched membrane preparations from developing xylem of compression wood from the conifer Pinus radiata. Developing xylem samples from 3-year-old pine trees were harvested for this purpose at a time of active growth and subjected to a combination of density centrifugation followed by free flow electrophoresis, a surface charge separation technique used in the enrichment of Golgi membranes. This combination of techniques was successful in achieving an approximately 200-fold increase in the activity of the Golgi marker galactan synthase and represents a significant improvement for proteomic analyses of the Golgi from conifers. A total of thirty known Golgi proteins were identified by mass spectrometry including glycosyltransferases from gene families involved in glucomannan and glucuronoxylan biosynthesis. The free flow electrophoresis fractions of enriched Golgi were highly abundant in structural proteins (actin and tubulin indicating a role for the cytoskeleton during compression wood formation. The mass spectrometry proteomics data associated with this study have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000557.

    3. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

      2013-06-01

      A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

    4. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Liu, Le; Zhang, Shijie; Lian, Chunlan

      2015-12-04

      Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98%) unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%), Amborella trichopoda (9.83%), and Pinus taeda (4.15%). A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite) software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18%) and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats) primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s) mapping for pine for P. densiflora.

    5. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Le Liu

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98% unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%, Amborella trichopoda (9.83%, and Pinus taeda (4.15%. A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18% and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s mapping for pine for P. densiflora.

    6. Specific gravity responses of slash and loblolly pine following mid-rotation fertilization

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kimberly R. Love-Myers; Alexander Clark III; Laurence R. Schimleck; Eric J. Jokela; Richard F. Daniels

      2009-01-01

      Wood quality attributes were examined in six stands of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) in the lower Coastal Plain of Georgia and Florida. Several plots comprised each stand, and each plot was divided so that it received three fertilizer treatments: a control treatment with herbaceous weed control at planting...

    7. Patterns of saproxylic beetle succession in loblolly pine.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Michael Ulyshen; James Hanula

      2010-01-01

      Patterns of insect succession in dead wood remain unclear, particularly beyond the first several years of decay. In the present study, saproxylic beetles were sampled from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) logs aged between 1 month and 9 years old using both emergence traps attached to logs in the field and rearing bags in the laboratory.

    8. The effects of irrigation and fertilization on specific gravity of loblolly pine

      Science.gov (United States)

      K. R. Love-Myers; Alexander Clark; L. R. Schimleck; P. M. Dougherty; R. F. Daniels

      2010-01-01

      The effects of two treatments, irrigation and fertilization, were examined on specific gravity (SG)-related wood properties of loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) grown in Scotland County, North Carolina. The effects on the core as a whole, on the juvenile core, on the mature core, and from year to year were all analyzed. The results indicate that fertilization...

    9. Dicty_cDB: AFJ862 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available Nsf Xylem Planings wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXPV_030_G06 5', mRNA sequence. 58 6e-20 3 AV898577... xylem EST, clone PP058D07. 54 3e-20 4 BQ695627 |BQ695627.1 NXPV_030_G06_F NXPV (

    10. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1195 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available ica cDNA, clone: 04458_HH, expressed in the head. 48 1e-13 5 BI202833 |BI202833.1 NXPV_091_B06_F NXPV (Nsf Xylem Planings wood Vertic...al) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXPV_091_B06 5', mRNA sequence. 72 1e-13 2 CC817046 |CC8

    11. Dicty_cDB: CHN835 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available tical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXRV120_G11 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.22 1 BA000026 |BA...005344.13 Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone CH211-219E17. 40 0.097 2 BQ699205 |BQ699205.1 NXRV120_G11_F NXRV (Nsf Xylem Root wood Ver

    12. Dicty_cDB: SSB424 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available V (Nsf Xylem Root wood Vertical) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXRV092_H08 5' similar to Arabidopsis thaliana seque...f library BD0AA from strain CBS 94 of Candida tropicalis. 107 5e-26 2 BQ655324 |BQ655324.1 NXRV092_H08_F NXR

    13. Maximum growth potential in loblolly pine: results from a 47-year-old spacing study in Hawaii

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas L. Eberhardt; John R. Butnor; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen

      2010-01-01

      Growth, allocation to woody root biomass, wood properties, leaf physiology, and shoot morphology were examined in a 47-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) density trial located in Maui, Hawaii, to determine if stands continued to carry the high density, basal area, and volume reported at younger ages and to identify potential factors controlling...

    14. Aboveground Tree Biomass for Pinus ponderosa in Northeastern California

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Todd A. Hamilton

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for spatial or temporal variability. Individual-tree aboveground biomass allometric equations are presented from an analysis of 79 felled trees from four separate management units at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: one unthinned and three separate thinned units. A simultaneous set of allometric equations for foliage, branch and bole biomass were developed as well as branch-level equations for wood and foliage. Foliage biomass relationships varied substantially between units while branch and bole biomass estimates were more stable across a range of stand conditions. Trees of a given breast height diameter and crown ratio in thinned stands had more foliage biomass, but slightly less branch biomass than those in an unthinned stand. The observed variability in biomass relationships within Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest suggests that users should consider how well the data used to develop a selected model relate to the conditions in any given application.

    15. Lignification and tension wood.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pilate, Gilles; Chabbert, Brigitte; Cathala, Bernard; Yoshinaga, Arata; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Laurans, Françoise; Lapierre, Catherine; Ruel, Katia

      2004-01-01

      Hardwood trees are able to reorient their axes owing to tension wood differentiation. Tension wood is characterised by important ultrastructural modifications, such as the occurrence in a number of species, of an extra secondary wall layer, named gelatinous layer or G-layer, mainly constituted of cellulose microfibrils oriented nearly parallel to the fibre axis. This G-layer appears directly involved in the definition of tension wood mechanical properties. This review gathers the data available in the literature about lignification during tension wood formation. Potential roles for lignin in tension wood formation are inferred from biochemical, anatomical and mechanical studies, from the hypotheses proposed to describe tension wood function and from data coming from new research areas such as functional genomics.

    16. Complex geometries in wood

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

      2009-01-01

      The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

    17. Recovery and reutilization of cellulases used for the hydrolysis of wood. I. Fundamentals

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Fujishima, S; Yaku, F.; Koshijima, T.

      1984-01-01

      A method was developed to determine the quantity of enzyme from the CD spectrum of cellulase without interference due to coexisting lignin and saccharides in solution, and the properties of cellulase from Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger used for the enzymic degradation of Pinus densiflora, were investigated. The cellulase from T. viride has an intense affinity with wood, 50% of the enzyme added to the reaction system was adsorbed by the wood after 30 minutes and kept its activity in the adsorbed state, whereas the cellulase from A. niger had little affinity with wood, and activity remaining in the solution was twice as high as that in the residual wood after enzymic hydrolysis for 24 hours. The activity remaining in the solution decreased with an increase in reaction time and a decrease in pH of the solution.

    18. Moisture Transport in Wood

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.

      2005-01-01

      Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

    19. Moisture Transport in Wood

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.;

      2005-01-01

      Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

    20. Study of Penetration Kinetics of Sodium Hydroxide Aqueous Solution into Wood Samples

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lubomír Lapčík

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available The kinetics of unidirectional penetration of NaOH aqueous solution into rectangular samples of wood oriented parallel to a stern axis were studied. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, European larch (Larix decidua, blackthorn (Prunus spinosa, white willow (Salix alba, and horse-chestnut wood (Aesculus hippocastanum were studied in this work. The time dependence of liquid incorporation was measured by the volumetric method as a change of total volume of coexisting liquid (NaOH/H2O phase. The total thickness of the swollen surface layer d and mean value of the apparent diffusion coefficient of aqueous NaOH solution at 22 °C were determined.

    1. Modelling inorganic biocide emission from treated wood in water

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: Ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR792, Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Universite Paris-Est, CSTB- Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, ESE/Environment, 24, rue Joseph Fourier, 38400 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

      2011-09-15

      Highlights: {center_dot} We developed a mechanistic model for biocide metals fixation/mobilisation in wood. {center_dot} This is the first chemical model explaining the biocide leaching from treated wood. {center_dot} The main fixation mechanism is the surface complexation with wood polymers. {center_dot} The biocide mobilization is due to metal-DOC complexation and pH effect. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to develop a chemical model for explaining the leaching behaviour of inorganic biocides from treated wood. The standard leaching test XP CEN/TS14429 was applied to a commercial construction material made of treated Pinus sylvestris (Copper Boron Azole preservative). The experimental results were used for developing a chemical model under PHREEQC (a geochemical software, with LLNL, MINTEQ data bases) by considering the released species detected in the eluates: main biocides Cu and B, other trace biocides (Cr and Zn), other elements like Ca, K, Cl, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, dissolved organic matter (DOC). The model is based on chemical phenomena at liquid/solid interfaces (complexation, ion exchange and hydrolysis) and is satisfactory for the leaching behaviour representation. The simulation results confronted with the experiments confirmed the hypotheses of: (1) biocide fixation by surface complexation reactions with wood specific sites (carboxyl and phenol for Cu, Zn, Cr(III), aliphatic hydroxyl for B, ion exchange to a lesser extent) and (2) biocide mobilisation by extractives (DOC) coming from the wood. The maximum of Cu, Cr(III) and Zn fixation occurred at neutral pH (including the natural pH of wood), while B fixation was favoured at alkaline pH.

    2. Diagnostic technique of pine wood nematode disease based on THz spectrum

      Science.gov (United States)

      Liu, Yunfei; Tan, Jiajin; Jiang, Liang; Shi, Shengcai; Jin, Biaobing; Ma, Jinlong

      2008-12-01

      Pine wood nematode disease, namely pine wilt disease, is caused by the invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Bx) into pines. Once susceptible pines are infected by the nematode, the disease develops rapidly, the infected pines cease to exude oleoresin and die quickly. Hence it is called pine cancer. Given the fact that there are still no good methods in diagnosing the disease, here we propose to study the spectroscopic characteristics of pine wood nematode and diseased pine wood in the THz regime in order to look for a rapid spectroscopic discrimination method for the disease. Firstly, we measure the transmittances of a Bx sample, a B. mucronatus (Bm) sample, a healthy Pinus massoniana wood sample and a diseased P. massoniana wood sample by a superconducting heterodyne mixer at 500 GHz. And their characteristics are compared. Secondly, we measure the transmission characteristics of a Bx sample and a Bm sample by terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The measured time domain spectrums and corresponding frequency domain spectrums are compared to distinguish them from their absorption characteristics. Thirdly, we measure the transmission characteristics of a healthy P. massoniana wood sample and a diseased P. massoniana wood sample by THz TDS and compare their difference in THz absorption spectrum and diffraction dispersive spectrum to confirm the effect of Bx on P. massoniana by the absorption coefficient and refractive index. Some discussions are given for future development of the diagnostic technique of pine wood nematode disease based on THz spectrum.

    3. Correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Wang, Wang; Zhu, Yuan; Cao, Jinzhen, E-mail: caoj@bjfu.edu.cn; Sun, Wenjing

      2015-01-01

      Highlights: • We studied the dynamic wetting behavior of thermally modified wood by wetting models. • We found lower wetting speed of water droplets on thermally modified wood surface. • Dynamic wetting behavior and surface chemical components show a strong correlation. - Abstract: In order to investigate the dynamic wetting behavior of thermally modified wood, Cathay poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) samples were thermally modified in an oven at 160, 180, 200, 220 or 240 °C for 4 h in this study. The dynamic contact angles and droplet volumes of water droplets on modified and unmodified wood surfaces were measured by sessile drop method, and their changing rates (expression index: K value and wetting slope) calculated by wetting models were illustrated for mapping the dynamic wetting process. The surface chemical components were also measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS), thus the relationship between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood were determined. The results indicated that thermal modification was capable of decreasing the dynamic wettability of wood, expressed in lowing spread and penetration speed of water droplets on wood surfaces. This change was more obvious with the increased heating temperature. The K values varied linearly with the chemical components parameter (mass loss, O/C ratio, and C{sub 1}/C{sub 2} ratio), indicating a strong correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood.

    4. A Potential Criterion to Evaluate Copper Adsorption in Wood Cell Wall

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Jinzhen Cao; Donatien P. Kamdem

      2003-01-01

      A geometrical definition, fractal dimension, was introduced in this study to evaluate copper adsorption in wood treated with copper-containing preservatives. It is based on the assumption that some copper would compete the hydroxyl groups in wood cell wall with water molecules, and therefore influence the fractal dimension of internal wood surfaces revealed by the moisture adsorption in wood. Southern yellow pine (Pinus spp.) specimens were treated with different concentrations of copper ethanolamine (Cu-EA) solution to obtain different copper retention levels. Then the adsorption isotherms of untreated and Cu-EA treated specimens were determined at 4, 15, 30, and 40 ℃ to provide the source data for fractal dimension calculation. The results showed that, at all temperatures, the fractal dimension of the internal wood surfaces had a decreasing trend with increasing copper retention. That is, the internal spaces in wood become "thinner" due to the copper adsorption on some hydroxyl groups in wood cell wall. The correlation between the fractal dimension and adsorbed copper ions makes it possible to evaluate the copper adsorption in wood cell wall.

    5. Functional Genomics of Wood Quality and Properties

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Wei Tang; Xiaoyan Luo; Aaron Nelson; Hilary Collver; Katherine Kinken

      2003-01-01

      Genomics promises to enrich the investigations of biology and biochemistry. Current advancements in genomics have major implications for genetic improvement in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and for our understanding of cell growth, development, differentiation, and communication. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of plant genomics in recent years, and the area continues to progress rapidly. Functional genomics offers enormous potential to tree improvement and the understanding of gene expression in this area of science worldwide.In this review we focus on functional genomics of wood quality and properties in trees, mainly based on progresses made in genomics study of Pinus and Populus.The aims of this review are to summarize the current status of functional genomics including: (1) Gene discovery; (2) EST and genomic sequencing; (3) From EST to functional genomics; (4) Approaches to functional analysis; (5) Engineering lignin biosynthesis; (6) Modification of cell wall biogenesis; and (7) Molecular modelling.Functional genomics has been greatly invested worldwide and will be important in identifying candidate genes whose function is critical to all aspects of plant growth, development, differentiation, and defense. Forest biotechnology industry will significantly benefit from the advent of functional genomics of wood quality and properties.

    6. Co-gasification of pelletized wood residues

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Carlos A. Alzate; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Arturo Berrio; Javier De La Cruz; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

      2009-03-15

      A pelletization process was designed which produces cylindrical pellets 8 mm in length and 4 mm in diameter. These ones were manufactured using a blend of Pinus Patula and Cypress sawdust and coal in proportions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% v/v of coal of rank sub-bituminous extracted from the Nech mine (Amaga-Antioquia). For this procedure, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as binder at three different concentrations. The co-gasification experiments were carried out with two kinds of mixtures, the first one was composed of granular coal and pellets of 100% wood and the second one was composed of pulverized wood and granular coal pellets. All samples were co-gasified with steam by using an electrical heated fluidized-bed reactor, operating in batches, at 850{sup o}C. The main components of the gaseous product were H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} with approximate quantities of 59%, 6.0%, 20%, 5.0%, and 9.0% v/v, respectively, and the higher heating values ranged from between 7.1 and 9.5 MJ/Nm{sup 3}.

    7. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

      2012-07-01

      The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

    8. Monitoramento do teor de umidade de madeiras de Pinus elliottii Engelm. E Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, sob diferentes temperaturas de secagem, através do ultra-som

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Leandro Calegari

      2007-01-01

      Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the viability of use of ultrasonic technique to estimate the wood moisture content during the drying process, samples of Pinus elliottii Engelm. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with dimensions of 3.5 cm thick, 10 cm width and 25 cm long were submitted to drying temperatures of 20, 40 and 70ºC. A PUNDIT ultrasonic equipment with plane face transducers by 50 KHz was used to measure sound velocity in the longitudinal direction of the wood. Results indicated increase of estimated ultrasonic speed with reduction of moisture content. This relationship showed to be valid for the wood from green to the end of the drying process, and the best determination coefficients were found in the eucalypt wood (R² = 81%. Although no influence of the species in the ultrasonic speed has been observed, this one was influenced by the wood specific gravity and by the drying temperature. The effect of the specific mass was directly proportional for the pinus wood. Opposite effect was observed in eucalypt wood. The ultrasonic speed tended to decrease as drying temperature increased for both species. Results suggest that this method presents good potential for the control of the drying process.

    9. Identification of seeds of Pinus species by Microsatellite Markers%利用微卫星标记(SSR)鉴定松属近缘种

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      洑香香; 施季森

      2005-01-01

      用从松科7个树种中开发出来的276对SSR引物,利用分群法(bulked segregate analysis, BSA)对引物在黑松组的10个近缘种进行了筛选和鉴定.结果表明:276对引物中有23对在10个松树种中获得了扩增产物,其中有5对引物在种间具有多态性,而在种内具有保守性;用单个引物、2个或多个引物组合可以把10个松树种的8个完全区分开来,但目前还没有有效的SSR引物把高山松和思茅松区分开来. 图2表1参21.%The 276 pair-primers (nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite) developed from seven species of Pinaceae were selected and identified for cross-species transferability to ten Pinus species (P. Massoniana, P. Kesiya, P. Tabulaeformis, P. Densiflora, P. Thunbergii, P. Caribaea, P. Taeda, P. Yunnanensis, P. Densata, P. Sylvestris) belonging to Sect. Pinus by BSA (bulked segregate analysis) method. The results showed that 23 of 276 (8.0%) markers were successful to have amplification product in ten species, and 5 of 23 (21.7%) were polymorphic cross species and lack of polymorphic within species. Eight of 10 Pinus species were identified by using single primer, two and more combination of primers, but there were still no effective SSR primers for identifying other 2 species (P. Kesiya and P. Densata).

    10. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yazaki, Yoshikazu

      2015-03-01

      Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol

    11. Mineralization of fossil wood

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Buurman, P.

      1972-01-01

      Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

    12. Wood supply and demand

      Science.gov (United States)

      Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

      2011-01-01

      At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

    13. Heat sterilization of wood

      Science.gov (United States)

      Xiping Wang

      2010-01-01

      Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

    14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of wood. III. Pretreatment of woods with acidic methanol-water mixture

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Shimizu, K.; Usami, K.

      1980-01-01

      Wood meal of Pinus densiflora (I) and Fagus crenata (II) was heated in aqueous methanol containing 0.1-0.6% HCl for 15-90 minutes at 120-170 degrees Centigrade to remove lignin and hydrolyse hemicelluloses. About 75% of the lignin could be removed from (I) and 90% from (II) under appropriate conditions. The cellulosic residues were hydrolysed with Trichoderma viride; it was necessary to remove more than 70% of the lignin from (I) and 80% from (II) for complete hydrolysis of the cellulose. Lignin was precipitated from the hydrolysis liquor by distilling off the methanol. The effects of composition of the MeOH-H/sub 2/O mixture, temperature, reaction time and HC1 concentration were studied.

    15. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      António J. A. Santos

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal and P. sylvestris (Finland were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05 tracheid diameter and wall thickness in the earlywood. The total extractives contents were 3.9%, 3.3%, and 2.5% for C. lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica, respectively, lower than the 5.1% for P. pinaster and 4.5% for P. sylvestris. Klason lignin content ranged from 33.0 to 35.6%, higher than the 28.0 to 28.7% for the pinewoods. The kraft pulp yields for C. arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were 37.7%, 36.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, with kappa numbers of 32.0, 31.6, and 28.7, respectively; the yield values were 40.8% and 42.8%, with kappa numbers of 23.4 and 21.0, for P. pinaster and P. sylvestris, respectively. The cypress species are clearly different from pine in relation to wood pulping behavior. Among the cypress, C. sempervirens provided the best pulping results.

    16. Modelling inorganic biocide emission from treated wood in water.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Schiopu, Nicoleta

      2011-09-15

      The objective of this work is to develop a chemical model for explaining the leaching behaviour of inorganic biocides from treated wood. The standard leaching test XP CEN/TS14429 was applied to a commercial construction material made of treated Pinus sylvestris (Copper Boron Azole preservative). The experimental results were used for developing a chemical model under PHREEQC(®) (a geochemical software, with LLNL, MINTEQ data bases) by considering the released species detected in the eluates: main biocides Cu and B, other trace biocides (Cr and Zn), other elements like Ca, K, Cl, SO(4)(-2), dissolved organic matter (DOC). The model is based on chemical phenomena at liquid/solid interfaces (complexation, ion exchange and hydrolysis) and is satisfactory for the leaching behaviour representation. The simulation results confronted with the experiments confirmed the hypotheses of: (1) biocide fixation by surface complexation reactions with wood specific sites (carboxyl and phenol for Cu, Zn, Cr(III), aliphatic hydroxyl for B, ion exchange to a lesser extent) and (2) biocide mobilisation by extractives (DOC) coming from the wood. The maximum of Cu, Cr(III) and Zn fixation occurred at neutral pH (including the natural pH of wood), while B fixation was favoured at alkaline pH.

    17. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

      2014-06-30

      EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

    18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03294-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available CH251-549D21 from chrom... 44 4.8 1 ( FJ052986 ) Pinus taeda isolate 5005 anonymous... locus 0_13684_... 44 4.8 1 ( FJ052985 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4998 anonymous locus 0_13684_... 44 4.8 1 ( ...FJ052984 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4989 anonymous locus 0_13684_... 44 4.8 1 ( FJ052983 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4991 anonymous... locus 0_13684_... 44 4.8 1 ( FJ052982 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4999 anonymous locus 0_13684_... 44... 4.8 1 ( FJ052981 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4988 anonymous locus 0_13684_... 44 4.8 1

    19. Wood saccharification by enzyme systems without prior delignification

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Koshijima, T.; Yaku, F.; Muraki, E.; Tanaka, T.; Azuma, J.

      1983-01-01

      Around 80% of the polysaccharides contained in Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora) wood was hydrolyzed by using Cellulosin AP originated from Aspergillus niger without prior delignification when wood meal had been previously finely divided for 24 h by a vibration-type ball mill. The substrate concentration used in the enzymatic hydrolysis was 1 g/100 ml. It has been found that the hydrolysis rate increases to 86% by using a 1:1 mixture of Cellulosin AP and Onozuka R-10 cellulases and wood milled for 2 h. When the hydrolysis is performed at the substrate concentration 4 g/100 ml, however, 2 h of milling allows only a 42.5% hydrolysis rate, and it is necessary to take more than 24 h to degrade 80% of the polysaccharides contained. The reaction rate of enzymatic hydrolysis increased with increasing number of roll millings, thus 22 times of roll milling resulted in a twofold increase in reaction rate of the enzymatic hydrolysis compared with that of no milling. Plotting of the reaction rate V of the enzymatic hydrolysis against substrate concentration (S) showed that V leveled off at 10 g/100 ml of (S) in the 22 times roll-milled wood, and the value was only 4 g/100 ml in case of the untreated wood. The enzymatic hydrolysis rate has been compared for cellulose and wood, both of which were previously milled to different extents. In the case of cellulose, the hydrolysis rate showed a maximum at 24 h of milling, then decreased thereafter. This is not the case with woodmeal, where the existence of lignin as a radical scavenger may prevent the radicals formed in cellulose molecules from acting as retardant for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. 9 references, 9 figures, 7 tables.

    20. Fire Occurrence Environments in Pinus pumila Forests

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      2010-01-01

      In recent years, many serious forest fires occurred in precious Pinus pumila forests in Daxing'anling Mountains of Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia. But up to now, there is still a lack of proper understanding of fire occurrence environments in P. pumila forests. In present paper, we investigated and studied the fire occurrence environments. The results showed that fires in P. pumila forests had their own special fire environments. Abundant fuel, drought weather, dry thunder and high altitude terrai...

    1. Two new antitumor diterpenes from Pinus sylvestris

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Qiang Wang; Zhang Rong; Jie Teng; Yoshihisa Takaishi; Hong Quan Duan

      2008-01-01

      Two new diterpenes,15-ethyl- 18-methyl pinifolate (1)and 18-hydroxy-labda-8(17),13E-dien-15-acetate (2),were isolated fromthe needles of Pinus sylvestris.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods,including 2D-NMR spectra.Compound1 exhibited the significant eytotoxic activity against the human carcinoma cell lines Hela,SK-N-SH and BEL-7402 in vitro.

    2. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Arinana; Tsunoda, Kunio; Herliyana, Elis N; Hadi, Yusuf S

      2012-03-28

      Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006) (SNI) has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control). This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004) were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006).

    3. Active Anti-Microbial Effects of Larch and Pine Wood on Four Bacterial Strains

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Christina M. Laireiter

      2013-11-01

      Full Text Available Active anti-microbial effects of larch (Larix decidua Mill. and pine (Pinus sylvestris L. wood materials on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, and Bacillus subtilis were tested. The agar-diffusion test, a method used in routine diagnostics, was implemented to detect anti-microbial effects of wooden discs and filter paper discs containing methanol extracts of different wood parts. The results showed that the bark of larch had an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, and the heart wood of pine showed a significant anti-microbial effect on the gram-positive bacteria tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, and Bacillus subtilis. These results were confirmed by using methanol-extracts. An anti-microbial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not found. Anti-bacterial effects of other parts of larch wood and of pine sapwood were also not found. The results of this study showed for the first time that certain parts of wood contain compounds that directly reduce microbial growth. These data are a further demonstration of the positive effects of specific wood species and could promote the usage of wood in hygienically sensitive areas.

    4. Mechanical trunk in pine wood for cattle

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antonio Orlando da Luz Freire Neto

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available The timber reforestation, mainly by Eucalyptus and Pinus sp., has low power processing, strength, good natural durability and, most importantly, provide reduce pressure on native forests. The concern with native forests and the high price of some of these woods force the market to replace those species by other, more abundant and available at most competitive prices. Anything that involves the handling of animals in its various phases has a direct dependency of husbandry facilities, pastures and actions of the people involved (best practices. With the segment of the production and export of meat increasingly competitive and globalized world, the adoption of best practices and animal welfare criteria are striking and decision makers for the acceptance of Brazilian beef in the world market, especially the European market. The use of appropriate animal husbandry facilities is critical to the proper rational management ("action with knowledge" of animals and increased productivity. The trunk restraint carries important role in the implementation and conduct of good animal welfare as having desirable features strength, durability, ability to contain cattle of various sizes, as well as easy to manipulate when the animal inside. Available on the market in the form of different models and costs, is an installation manufactured in wood and iron or galvanized, and may or may not be coupled with an analytical balance or digital, still and mechanical and other systems or electronics. The concern in this installation is perceived improvement in the number of patents filed and recorded and the constant evolution of their functions, with various companies operating in this segment. However, the development and validation of containment trunks with alternative materials, reflecting mainly the reduction of the final cost are poorly studied. In this first phase of the project will be considered the construction of trunk restraint coupled with analytical balance

    5. Response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations

      CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

      Lesch, W

      1997-12-15

      Full Text Available ELSEVIER Forest Ecology and Management 99 (1997) 295-307 The response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations W. Lesch, David F. Scott * Jonkershoek Forestry Research Centre....304 1.052(p,) 0.96 2nd ?/-= eP?CbE - 3.456 7.134( /3>) 0.95 Cathedral Total streamflow 1 st T= e6c1Clil - 0.727 1.114(/3,) 0.95 Peak Dry season streamflow 1 St Tz e6?C?? -0.871 I .207( p, ) 0.88 W. Lesch, D.F. Scott...

    6. Biocide leaching from CBA treated wood — A mechanistic interpretation

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Lupsea, Maria [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, ESE/Environment, 24 rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Mathies, Helena; Schoknecht, Ute [BAM — Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.1, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, ESE/Environment, 24 rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France)

      2013-02-01

      Treated wood is frequently used for construction. However, there is a need to ensure that biocides used for the treatment are not a threat for people or environment. The paper focused on Pinus sylvestris treated with copper–boron–azole (CBA), containing tebuconazole as organic biocide and monoethanolamine (Mea). This study investigates chemical mechanisms of fixation and mobilisation involved in the leaching process of the used inorganic and organic biocides in CBA. A pH dependent leaching test was performed, followed by a set of complementary analysis methods in order to identify and quantify the species released from wood. The main findings of this study are: -Organic compounds are released from untreated and treated wood; the quantity of released total organic carbon, carboxylic and phenolic functions increasing with the pH. -Nitrogen containing compounds, i.e. mainly Mea and its reaction products with extractives, are released in important quantities from CBA treated wood, especially at low pH. -The release of copper is the result of competitive reactions: fixation via complexation reactions and complexation with extractives in the liquid phase. The specific pH dependency of Cu leaching is explained by the competition of ligands for protonation and complexation. -Tebuconazole is released to a lesser extent relative to its initial content. Its fixation on solid wood structure seems to be influenced by pH, suggesting interactions with -OH groups on wood. Boron release appears to be pH independent and very high. This confirms its weak fixation on wood and also no or weak interaction with the extractives. - Highlights: ► A pH dependent leaching mechanism for CBA treated wood is described. ► The fixation and mobilisation of inorganic and organic biocides was investigated. ► Extractives' quantity and nature depend on pH. ► Competition of ligands for protonation and complexation explains Cu behaviour. ► Tebuconazole seems to interact with -OH groups

    7. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ximenes, Fabiano; Björdal, Charlotte; Cowie, Annette; Barlaz, Morton

      2015-07-01

      Wood products in landfill are commonly assumed to decay within several decades, returning the carbon contained therein to the atmosphere, with about half the carbon released as methane. However, the rate and extent of decay is not well known, as very few studies have examined the decay of wood products in landfills. This study reports on the findings from landfill excavations conducted in the Australian cities of Sydney and Cairns located in temperate and tropical environments, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether burial of the wood in warmer, more tropical conditions in Cairns would result in greater levels of decay than occurs in the temperate environment of Sydney. Wood samples recovered after 16-44years in landfill were examined through physical, chemical and microscopic analyses, and compared with control samples to determine the carbon loss. There was typically little or no decay in the wood samples analysed from the landfill in Sydney. Although there was significant decay in rainforest wood species excavated from Cairns, decay levels for wood types that were common to both Cairns and Sydney landfills were similar. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2006) default decay factor for organic materials in landfills is 50%. In contrast, the carbon loss determined for Pinus radiata recovered from Sydney and Cairns landfills was 7.9% and 4.4%, respectively, and 0% for Agathis sp. This suggests that climate did not influence decay, and that the more extensive levels of decay observed for some wood samples from Cairns indicates that those wood types were more susceptible to biodegradation. Microscopic analyses revealed that most decay patterns observed in samples analysed from Sydney were consistent with aerobic fungal decay. Only a minor portion of the microbial decay was due to erosion bacteria active in anaerobic/near anaerobic environments. The findings of this study strongly suggest that models that adopt

    8. Welding of solid wood

      OpenAIRE

      Ivica Župčić; Goran Mihulja; Andrija Bogner; Ivica Grbac; Ivica @up~i}, Goran Mihulja, Andrija Bogner, Ivica Grbac,; Božidar Hrovat

      2008-01-01

      This paper presents the up-to-date knowledge and results of the application of wood welding techniques at the Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb. Wood welding technologies have been developed as a new way of bonding timber by using high temperature generatedby friction and pressure. Timber is assembled without any adhesives. During the process the surface layer of timber (lignin), which is in direct contact with its counterpart, melts due to high pressure and temperature, which is usual...

    9. Quantification and characterization of Si in Pinus Insignis Dougl by TXRF

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Navarro, Henry; Bennun, Leonardo [Universidad de Concepcion, Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Marco, Lue M. [Universidad Centro Lisandro Alvarado, Decanato de Agronomia, Depto. de Quimica, Barquisimeto (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

      2014-12-09

      A simple quantification of silicon is described, in woods such as Pinus Insigne Dougl obtained from the 8th region of Bio-Bio, 37 15'' South-73 19'' West, Chile. The samples were prepared through fractional calcination, and the ashes were directly analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique. The analysis of 16 samples that were calcined is presented. The samples were weighed on plastic reflectors in a microbalance with sensitivity of 0.1 μg. Later, the samples were irradiated in a TXRF PICOFOX spectrometer, for 350 and 700 s. To each sample, cobalt was added as an internal standard. Concentrations of silicon over the 1 % in each sample and the self-absorption effect on the quantification were observed, in masses higher than 100 μg. (orig.)

    10. Above-ground biomass equations for Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      E. Canga

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to develop a model for above-ground biomass estimation for Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias.Area of study: Asturias (NE of Spain.Material and methods: Different models were fitted for the different above-ground components and weighted regression was used to correct heteroscedasticity. Finally, all the models were refitted simultaneously by use of Nonlinear Seemingly Unrelated Regressions (NSUR to ensure the additivity of biomass equations.Research highlights: A system of four biomass equations (wood, bark, crown and total biomass was develop, such that the sum of the estimations of the three biomass components is equal to the estimate of total biomass. Total and stem biomass equations explained more than 92% of observed variability, while crown and bark biomass equations explained 77% and 89% respectively.Keywords: radiata pine; plantations; biomass.

    11. Effects of SO/sub 2/ on the germination of conifer pollen. [Pinus mugo; Pinus nigra; Pinus sylvestris

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Keller, T.; Beda, H.

      1984-01-01

      Collections on agar of fresh and stored pollen grains of Pinus mugo, P. nigra and P. sylvestris were fumigated with SO/sub 2/ for 16 or 24 h. The ability of pollen of P. mugo and P. sylvestris to germinate was decreased by storage but sensitivities to SO/sub 2/ were not greatly altered. Germination was inhibited consistently by atmospheres with 0.225 ppm SO/sub 2/. At 0.075 ppm - a typical ambient concentration during temperature inversions - P. nigra and P. sylvestris were more sensitive than P. mugo which responded in the same way as pollen of Abies alba.

    12. THE EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE WOOD ON LAYER PERFORMANCE OF WATER BORNE VARNISHES

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Abdullah Sönmez

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available The test panels obtained from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Eastern beech (Fagus orientalis L. were initially adjusted to have 8%, 10%, and 12% moisture content in this study. One-component semi-matte and two-component water borne varnishes were applied on the surfaces in order to investigate the effect of the type and the moisture content of the wood on the hardness and the gloss values as well as the adhesion strength of the varnishes. The hardness of the test samples was evaluated based on the standard ANS/ISO1522, the gloss based on TS.4318 EN ISO 2813, and the adhesive strength based on ASTM D-4541. The results indicated that variations in the moisture content of the wood material adversely affected the layer performance of water-borne varnishes and that the best performance was obtained for the wood with moisture contents of 8% and 10%.

    13. THE EFFECT OF GRAIN ANGLE AND SPECIES ON THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOME SELECTED WOOD SPECIES

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rasit Esen

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available In this study the thermal conductivity of different wood materials was determined. For this purpose, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Uludag fir (Abies Bornmülleriana Matff, Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L, Oak (Quercus robur L., and Chestnut of Anatolia (Castanea sativa Mill. woods were used. In the test, the thermal conductivity of the woods was measured according to procedure of ASTM C 1113-99 standards. The lowest thermal conductivity was obtained in the perpendicular direction of Scots pine samples as 0.156 Kcal/mh°C. The highest thermal conductivity was obtained from perpendicular direction of samples in Oriental beech as 0.331 Kcal/mh°C.

    14. Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko & Sutton - agents of pinus species decline

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Milijašević Tanja

      2002-01-01

      Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage is caused on the introduced Pinus species and on those cultivated in artificial plantations, shelterbelts and in urban environments. In Yugoslavia S. sapinea is widely distributed both in the continental and in the Mediterranean parts. It was identified from ten pine species and six hosts from other coniferous genera. By the study in our country, the new hosts of this fungus were detected - Pinus jeffrey, P. peuce and P. heldreichii. The most endangered species in our country is Austrian pine, both in urban environments, and in plantations The symptoms of the disease are bud wilt, curling, stunting and necrosis of current year shoots and needles, dieback of top shoots, parts of crown or tree tops, branch and stem bark canker, root collar rot on the young plants in nurseries and their dying. This fungus also prevents seed germination of Pinus species and causes blue sap stain of the freshly cut wood, although sap stain was also observed on standing trees. More rarely it causes root rot and crown wilt of Pinus species. The main symptoms of infection, both of young plants and older trees, are the dieback of current year shoots S. sapinea can penetrate through buds, bark of young shoots and needles. The critical time of infection is the period from mid April to mid May. Then infection mainly penetrates through the bark of young shoots, which results in their dying. Infection through the needles occurs mainly at the time of their sudden growth or during summer

    15. Determination of chemical changes in heat-treated wood using ATR-FTIR and FT Raman spectrometry

      Science.gov (United States)

      Özgenç, Özlem; Durmaz, Sefa; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Eksi-Kocak, Haslet

      2017-01-01

      In this study, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy techniques were used to determine changes in the chemical structure of heat-treated woods. For this purpose, scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.), and oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.) wood species were heat-treated at different temperatures. The effect of chemical changes on the FT-Raman and ATR-FTIR bands or ratios of heat-treated wood was related with the OH association of cellulose, functional groups, and the aromatic system of lignin. The effects of heat treatment on the carbohydrate and lignin peaks varied depending on the wood species. The spectral changes that occurred after heat treatment reflected the progress of the condensation reaction of lignin. Degradation of hemicelluloses led to a decrease in free hydroxyl groups. High temperature caused crystalline cellulose to increase due to the degradation of amorphous cellulose.

    16. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Danusevicius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas;

      2012-01-01

      We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the i...

    17. Wood for the trees

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rob Garbutt

      2013-10-01

      Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

    18. Thermal analysis of wood of the main tree species of Central Siberia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      S. R. Loskutov

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Thermal decomposition of wood from coniferous and deciduous species of Siberia has been studied using thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The tree species were larch Larix sibirica Ledeb., Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L., spruce Picea obovata Ledeb., fir Abies sibirica Ledeb., Siberian pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour., birch Betula pendula Roth., and aspen Populus tremula L. Thermal analysis of wood samples was carried out under oxidative (air and inert (argon atmospheres from 25 to 700 °С at heating rates 10, 20, 40 °С • min–1 (TG/DTG and from 25 to 590 °С at heating rates 10, 40 °С • min–1 (DSC. The stages of thermal decomposition, the temperature intervals, the mass loss, the mass loss rate, the temperature of DTG/DSC peaks, and heating effects were determined for each tree species. The kinetic thermal degradation parameters of wood were obtained by the Broido and Ozawa–Flynn–Wall models. The wood of coniferous and deciduous species of Siberia was characterized on the base of analysis of activation energy values at various stages of thermal decomposition and the relations of activation energy on conversion level of wood substance of different tree species, and also the comparison of mass loss at the same stages of thermal destruction, heating effects, residual mass and other parameters of TG/DTG, DSC. In our opinion, the results of this work present interest for researchers and specialists in the field of forest pyrology, wood science, dendrochemistry.

    19. Quantification of (1→4-β-d-Galactans in Compression Wood Using an Immuno-Dot Assay

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ramesh R. Chavan

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available Compression wood is a type of reaction wood formed on the underside of softwood stems when they are tilted from the vertical and on the underside of branches. Its quantification is still a matter of some scientific debate. We developed a new technique that has the potential to do this based on the higher proportions of (1→4-β-d-galactans that occur in tracheid cell walls of compression wood. Wood was milled, partially delignified, and the non-cellulosic polysaccharides, including the (1→4-β-d-galactans, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide. After neutralizing, the solution was serially diluted, and the (1→4-β-d-galactans determined by an immuno-dot assay using the monoclonal antibody LM5, which specifically recognizes this polysaccharide. Spots were quantified using a dilution series of a commercially available (1→4-β-d-galactan from lupin seeds. Using this method, compression and opposite woods from radiata pine (Pinus radiata were easily distinguished based on the amounts of (1→4-β-d-galactans extracted. The non-cellulosic polysaccharides in the milled wood samples were also hydrolysed using 2 M trifluoroacetic acid followed by the separation and quantification of the released neutral monosaccharides by high performance anion exchange chromatography. This confirmed that the compression woods contained higher proportions of galactose-containing polysaccharides than the opposite woods.

    20. Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

      2012-12-01

      Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (ΔE(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers.

    1. Variation analysis and fine family selection on half-sib progenies from clonal seed orchard of Pinus massoniana

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      JI Kongshu; FAN Minliang; XU Li'an

      2007-01-01

      Variation of traits that include height,diameter at breast height (DBH),stem volume,crown width,straightness,wood basic density,tracheid length and width of open-pollinated progenies from clonal seed orchard of Pinus massoniana was analyzed.Differences in traits such as growth,tree form and wood quality among families was significant,which indicated that the improvement potential was notable.Heritability of height and wood basic density reached 0.691 and 0.640,respectively.According to a correlation analysis between traits,stem straightness could be improved indirectly when growth traits are improved;growth traits were significantly correlated with wood basic density;and wood basic density was not significantly correlated with length and width of the tracheid.Under the selection ratio of 10%,genetic gains were 19.74% and 19.32% respectively,and selected families from the progeny test stands at the age of five years and eight years were the same.Genetic correlation of height,DBH and stem volume was also significant at the level of 0.01.These show that selection of the short rotation of P.massoniana for pulp and paper use would be efficient for five-year-old trees.According to the comparison of the heritability of all the traits and taking into account the result of canonical correlation analysis,height could be considered as the most important index for selection.Given wood quality of all the families,and flowering and fruit settings of the clones in a seed orchard,twelve fine families were selected at 10% selection ratio of height growth and stem volume.

    2. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Full-Length cDNA of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase of Pinus Massoniana%马尾松苯丙氨酸解氨酶基因cDNA全长克隆与序列分析

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      曹福祥; 王猛; 龙绛雪

      2010-01-01

      苯丙氨酸解氨酶(Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase,PAL)是连接植物初级代谢和次级代谢途径关键酶、限速酶,催化苯丙氨酸转化为肉桂酸,促进黄酮、木质素等次生代谢产物的合成,在植物抗病过程中有重要意义.采用RT-PCR和RACE技术,从马尾松中克隆到PAL基因的cDNA全长.此cDNA全长2 700 bp,包括2 154 bp的完整ORF,编码717个氨基酸的蛋白,相对分子质量与等电点分别为78 200和5.81.其推导的蛋白序列与火炬松(Pinus taeda)、欧洲赤松(Pinus sylvestris)和海岸松(Pinus pinaster)的苯丙氨酸解氨酶同源性分别为98.2%、99.4%和97.8%.

    3. Correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wang, Wang; Zhu, Yuan; Cao, Jinzhen; Sun, Wenjing

      2015-01-01

      In order to investigate the dynamic wetting behavior of thermally modified wood, Cathay poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) samples were thermally modified in an oven at 160, 180, 200, 220 or 240 °C for 4 h in this study. The dynamic contact angles and droplet volumes of water droplets on modified and unmodified wood surfaces were measured by sessile drop method, and their changing rates (expression index: K value and wetting slope) calculated by wetting models were illustrated for mapping the dynamic wetting process. The surface chemical components were also measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS), thus the relationship between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood were determined. The results indicated that thermal modification was capable of decreasing the dynamic wettability of wood, expressed in lowing spread and penetration speed of water droplets on wood surfaces. This change was more obvious with the increased heating temperature. The K values varied linearly with the chemical components parameter (mass loss, O/C ratio, and C1/C2 ratio), indicating a strong correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood.

    4. Mechanical behaviour of wood T-joints. Experimental and numerical investigation

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      C.L. dos Santos

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available Results of a double-shear single-dowel wood connection tested under monotonic quasi-static compression loading are presented and discussed in this paper. The wood used in this study was a pine wood, namely the Pinus pinaster species, which is one of the most important Portuguese species. Each connection (specimen consists of three wood members: a centre member, loaded in compression along the parallel-tograin direction and two simply supported side members, loaded along the perpendicular-to-grain direction (Tconnection. The load transfer between wood members was assured by means of a steel dowel, which is representative of the most common joining technique applied for structural details in wooden structures. The complete load-slip behaviour of the joint is obtained until failure. In particular, the values of the stiffness, the ultimate loads and the ductility were evaluated. Additionally, this investigation proposed non-linear 3D finite element models to simulate the T-joint behaviour. The interaction between the dowel and the wood members was simulated using contact finite elements. A plasticity model, based on Hill’s criterion, was used to simulate the joint ductility and cohesive damage modelling was applied to simulate the brittle failure modes (splitting observed in the side members of the joint. The simulation procedure allowed a satisfactory description of the non-linear behaviour of the T-joint including the collapse prediction.

    5. Preferences of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae among Three Commercial Wood Species

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nirmala K. Hapukotuwa

      2011-11-01

      Full Text Available The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann, are both pests of wood in service in Hawaii and Florida. We conducted a laboratory study using method modified from those described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009 to assess the termite resistance of three commercially available wood species used in regions of the USA where both termite species occur: Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziessii, southern yellow pine, Pinus spp. and redwood, Sequoia sempervirens. A multiple-choice (three-choice assay was used for four weeks (28 days in order to simulate field conditions of food choice and assess termite feeding preferences under 28 °C and 72–80% RH. 400 termites (360 workers: 40 soldiers were released into each test jar. Five replicates and two controls of each wood species were used with each termite species. Termite mortality was recorded at the end of the test; and wood wafers were oven-dried and weighed before and after termite exposure to determine the mass loss due to termite feeding, and rated visually on a 0 (failure to 10 (sound scale. There were significant differences in mean mass loss values among the three wood species and between two termite species. The mean mass loss value for redwood was significantly lower than Douglas fir and southern yellow pine with both termite species. However, C. formosanus showed increased feeding on Douglas fir and southern yellow pine compared to C. gestroi.

    6. Effect of heat treatment on wettability and MOE of pine and spruce wood

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Povilas Navickas

      2015-09-01

      Full Text Available This research was performed in order to determine how the heating process affects the wettability and mechanical properties of spruce (Picea abies and pine (Pinus silvestris wood. Studies were carried out using wood heated in laboratory. The measurements of specimens were 315x20x20mm. Specimens were divided into the following four groups: specimens of one group were not exposed to heating, whereas specimens of three other groups were subjected to heating at the temperature of 190○C for 1 to 3 hours respectively, in the air under atmospheric pressure. Both heated and unheated specimens were moistened and dried in a climatic chamber. Before and after treatment the mechanical properties of specimens were assessed using the original method of transverse vibrations and contact angle measurements were carried out using the water drop method. The results showed a significant increase in wood hydrophobicity after treatment. Spruce contact angle after treatment increased from 1.3 to 1.45, pine from 1.4 to 2 times. MOE of pine wood decreased, while MOE of spruce slighty increased after heat treatment. Wood equilibrium moisture content after treatment is redused and it is known, that the drier the wood  - the better its mechanical properties. This factor may have the biggest influence to such result.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7304

    7. Precision wood particle feedstocks

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

      2013-07-30

      Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

    8. Fatigue Damage in Wood

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

      1996-01-01

      An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... failure explanation under fatigue and static load conditions is observed. In the present study small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

    9. Wood for sound.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wegst, Ulrike G K

      2006-10-01

      The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

    10. Methane from wood

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

      2005-07-15

      The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

    11. Variation in root wood anatomy

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Cutler, D.F.

      1976-01-01

      Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

    12. Variation in root wood anatomy

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Cutler, D.F.

      1976-01-01

      Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

    13. Morphometric traits of Picea abies L. and Pinus sylvestris L. on the copper dump-field Maximilián in Špania Dolina (Starohorské vrchy Mts., Slovakia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tomáš Štrba

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available The main aim of the work was to determine difference in length of needles and annual wood increments of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies L. on the dump-field and for comparison on referential site. We performed 500 measurements of needles for each tree species and for each study area. The annual wood increments were measured on wood bores from five tree individuals from each species and from both study areas – dump-field and referential site. Student t-test and indicators of central values evaluated differences of the measured attributes. The results show statistically significant difference at 99% level of confidence for both attributes – length of needles and annual wood increments. The results support the hypothesis about influence of heavy metals on the plants growing.

    14. 乔松Pinus wallichiana与不丹松Pinus bhutanica之初步辨析%A preliminary analysis of the difference between Pinus wallichiana and Pinus bhutanica

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      郑维列; 徐阿生

      2003-01-01

      根据最新的文献资料,初步分析了乔松Pinus wallichiana与不丹松Pinus bhutanica在一年生小枝、针叶(主要是树脂道)、球果、种鳞、鳞脐和种子等六个方面的性状区别特征,结合以前对藏东南和藏南地区单维管束松树的调查所掌握的材料,认为不丹松是从乔松中分出来的;它们的分布区存在重叠,但各自构成的群落具有较大的生态学差异;通过性状差异性质的辨析,讨论了不丹松种级地位成立所需的关键特征,初步得出不丹松种级地位难以成立的结论.

    15. TCP HolyWood

      OpenAIRE

      Oscar Núñez Mori

      2005-01-01

      We introduce a new end-to-end, sender side Transport Control Protocol called TCP HolyWood or in short TCP-HW. In a simulated wired environment, TCP HolyWood outperforms in average throughput, three of the more important TCP protocols ever made, we are talking about TCP Reno, TCP Westwood, and TCP Vegas; and in average jitter to TCP Reno and TCP Vegas too. In addition, according to Jain’s index, our proposal is as fair as TCP Reno, the Standard. Apresentamos um novo Protocolo de Controle de...

    16. Development of a pathway model to assess the exposure of European pine trees to pine wood nematode via the trade of wood.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Douma, J C; van der Werf, W; Hemerik, L; Magnusson, C; Robinet, C

      2017-04-01

      Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a threat for pine species (Pinus spp.) throughout the world. The nematode is native to North America, and invaded Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, and more recently Portugal and Spain. PWN enters new areas through trade in wood products. Once established, eradication is not practically feasible. Therefore, preventing entry of PWN into new areas is crucial. Entry risk analysis can assist in targeting management to reduce the probability of entry. Assessing the entry of PWN is challenging due to the complexity of the wood trade and the wood processing chain. In this paper, we develop a pathway model that describes the wood trade and wood processing chain to determine the structure of the entry process. We consider entry of PWN through imported coniferous wood from China, a possible origin of Portuguese populations, to Europe. We show that exposure increased over years due to an increase in imports of sawn wood. From 2000 to 2012, Europe received an estimated 84 PWN propagules from China, 88% of which arose from imported sawn wood and 12% from round wood. The region in Portugal where the PWN was first reported is among those with the highest PWN transfer per unit of imported wood due to a high host cover and vector activity. An estimated 62% of PWN is expected to enter in countries where PWN is not expected to cause the wilt of pine trees because of low summer temperatures (e.g., Belgium, Sweden, Norway). In these countries, PWN is not easily detected, and such countries can thus serve as potential reservoirs of PWN. The model identifies ports and regions with high exposure, which helps targeting monitoring and surveillance, even in areas where wilt disease is not expected to occur. In addition, we show that exposure is most efficiently reduced by additional treatments in the country of origin, and/or import wood from PWN-free zones. Pathway modelling assists plant health managers in analyzing risks along the

    17. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

      2014-01-01

      Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

    18. Cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra and Pinus sylvestris at their climatic limits in the Eastern Alps in 2007.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Oberhuber, Walter

      2011-12-20

      It has been frequently stressed that at distributional boundaries, like at the Alpine timberline and within dry inner Alpine environments, tree growth will be affected first by changing climate conditions. Climate in 2007 was characterized by the occurrence of exceptionally mild temperatures in spring (3.4 and 2.7 °C above long-term mean (LTM) at timberline and the valley sites, respectively) with an almost continuous drought period recorded in April and slightly warmer than average temperatures throughout summer (1.3 °C above LTM at both sites). We compared temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra at the Alpine timberline (1950 m a.s.l.) and Pinus sylvestris at a xeric inner Alpine site (750 m a.s.l.) by repeated cellular analyses of micro-cores (n = 5 trees/site). While onset of wood formation in P. sylvestris and P. cembra differed by about two weeks (12 and 27 April, respectively), maximum daily growth rates peaked on 6 May at the valley site and on 23 June at timberline. At both sites maximum tracheid production was reached prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions during summer, i.e. an increase in precipitation and temperature. Xylem formation ended on 31 August and 28 October at the xeric site and at timberline, respectively. This study demonstrates the plasticity of tree-ring formation along an altitudinal transect in response to water availability and temperature. Whether early achievement of maximum growth rates is an adaptation to cope with extreme environmental conditions prevailing at limits of tree growth needs to be analysed more closely by taking belowground carbon allocation into account.

    19. Particleboards with waste wood from reforestation

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Juliano Fiorelli

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available This paper examined the potential of manufacturing bonded particleboards using timber industry waste of Pinus spp. Panels were evaluated with 0.6 and 0.8 g cm-3 of density and produced with urea-formaldehyde resin and bi-component polyurethane resin based on castor oil. Panels were made of particles with nominal dimensions 40 x40 cm and a thickness of1 cm. As process parameters was adopted 2 - 5% moisture content, temperature ranging from 90 to130°C, average pressure of 5.0 MPa and resin content from 10 to 15% of the weight particles. This study determined physical-mechanical properties of the panels, following the recommendations of ABNT (2006 NBR 14810. The results indicated statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 in physical and mechanical properties of the panels studied. Panels were classified by ANSI (1993 A208.1 – Mat-formed wood particleboard: Specification, as of low and medium density. Scanning electron microscopy images (SEM illustrated the agglomeration of particles for the different resins. The polyurethane resin based on castor oil stood out as a viable alternative in the production of particleboards with timber waste.

    20. Influence of drying schedules on the redistribution of low-molecular sugars in pinus sylvestris l

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Terziev, N.; Boutelje, J.; Soederstroem, O.

      1993-01-01

      The distribution of the water soluble substances in green wood and subsequent redistribution during drying, is of importance for the colonization by microorganisms. In the study the influence of a fast and a slow drying schedule on the redistribution of low-molecular sugars in the wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was investigated and for this purpose through-and-through sawn, 50 mm thick planks, were dried in a mobile batch kiln. There is a considerably greater amount of sugars at the surface of the planks after the fast drying schedule compared with the slow drying schedule, but for both schedules there is always a high gradient of the sugars from the inside to the surface of the planks. Obviously, sucrose is very liable to be hydrolysed during handling or/and drying. The distribution of the sugars along the height of the tree after drying is also given. A selective choice of the drying schedule could be a means to regulate the redistribution and thereby decreasing risk of deterioration.

    1. Wood dust exposure in wood industry and forestry.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Puntarić, Dinko; Kos, Ankica; Smit, Zdenko; Zecić, Zeljko; Sega, Kresimir; Beljo-Lucić, Ruzica; Horvat, Dubravko; Bosnir, Jasna

      2005-06-01

      The aim of the study was to determine occupational exposure in Croatian wood processing industry and forest workers to harmful effects of wood dust on the risk of nose, nasal cavity and lung carcinoma. Mass concentrations of respirable particles and total wood dust were measured at two wood processing plants, three woodwork shops, and one lumbering site, where 225 total wood dust samples and 221 respirable particle samples were collected. Wood dust mass concentration was determined by the gravimetric method. Mass concentrations exceeding total wood dust maximal allowed concentration (MAC, 3 mg/m3) were measured for beechwood and oakwood dust in 38% (79/206) of study samples from wood processing facilities (plants and woodwork shops). Mass concentrations of respirable particles exceeding MAC (1 mg/m3) were recorded in 24% (48/202) of samples from wood processing facilities (mean 2.38 +/- 2.08 mg/m3 in plants and 3.6 +/- 2.22 mg/m3 in woodwork shops). Thus, 13% (27/206) of work sites in wood processing facilities failed to meet health criteria according to European guidelines. Launching of measures to reduce wood dust emission to the work area is recommended.

    2. The utility of Pinus sylvestris L. in dendrochemical investigations: Pollution impact of lead mining and smelting in Darley Dale, Derbyshire, UK

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Lageard, J.G.A. [Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, John Dalton Building, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.a.lageard@mmu.ac.uk; Howell, J.A. [Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Manchester Metropolitan University Cheshire, Hassall Road, Alsager, Stoke-on-Trent ST7 2HL (United Kingdom); Rothwell, J.J.; Drew, I.B. [Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, John Dalton Building, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

      2008-05-15

      This research investigates atmospheric pollution from an isolated and increasingly productive lead-smelting site by examining the dendrochemistry of Pinus sylvestris growing in the local environment and at control sites. Tree increment cores and soil in the rooting environment were analysed for lead content. Inter-site comparisons of lead-in-soil suggest that contamination of the soil may be a less important pathway for lead inclusion within wood than pathways via bark or needles. Levels of lead-in-wood (up to 38 mg kg{sup -1}) are at the upper end of those previously reported. There is evidence of radial translocation of lead towards the heartwood and variability in intra-site dendrochemical records. Mean site lead-in-wood records can however be related to a well-documented pollution chronology and also suggest the importance of local topography in the dispersal and deposition of particulate lead. This study demonstrates that P. sylvestris can be used to estimate the scale and timing of past pollution episodes in similar environmental contexts to those investigated at Darley Dale, where precisely dated pollution chronologies are lacking. - Mean site dendrochemical records for Pinus sylvestris can be used to estimate the general scale and timing of atmospheric pollution episodes.

    3. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fitzgerald, Diane M.

      1988-01-01

      Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

    4. Wood waste in Europe

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

      1997-12-31

      The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

    5. Tannins in tropical woods

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Doat, J.

      1978-01-01

      A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

    6. Identification of coniferous woods

      Science.gov (United States)

      B. Francis Kukachka

      1960-01-01

      The identification of coniferous woods is generally regarded as being more difficult than for the hardwood species. This is due to the fact that conifers are more elemental in their structure and, as a consequence, the number of diagnostic features that may he employed is proportionately smaller. Instructions are given here in the sequential use of primary diagnostic...

    7. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

      OpenAIRE

      Darius Danusevičius; Vitas Marozas; Gediminas Brazaitis; Raimundas Petrokas; Knud Ib Christensen

      2012-01-01

      We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylv...

    8. Partial transparency of compressed wood

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Masatoshi

      2016-05-01

      We have developed novel wood composite with optical transparency at arbitrary region. Pores in wood cells have a great variation in size. These pores expand the light path in the sample, because the refractive indexes differ between constituents of cell and air in lumen. In this study, wood compressed to close to lumen had optical transparency. Because the condition of the compression of wood needs the plastic deformation, wood was impregnated phenolic resin. The optimal condition for high transmission is compression ratio above 0.7.

    9. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

      2010-03-01

      Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

    10. Comparison of five pretreatments for the production of fermentable sugars obtained from Pinus pseudostrobus L. wood

      Science.gov (United States)

      Farías-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; López-Miranda, Javier; Castro-Montoya, Agustín Jaime; Saucedo-Luna, Jaime; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; López-Albarrán, Pablo; Pineda-Pimentel, María Guadalupe; Rutiaga-Quiñones, José Guadalupe

      2015-01-01

      To benefit from the use of a waste product such as pine sawdust from a sawmill in Michoacán, Mexico, five different pretreatments for the production of reducing sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated (sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, steam explosion, organosolv and combined method nitric acid / sodium hydroxide). The main finding of the study was that the pretreatment with 6 % HNO3 and 1 % NaOH led to better yields than those obtained with sodium hydroxide, dilute sulfuric acid, steam explosion, and organosolv pretreatments. Also, HNO3 yields were maximized by the factorial method. With those results the maxima concentration of reducing sugar found was 97.83 ± 1.59, obtained after pretreatment with 7.5 % HNO3 at 120 °C for 30 minutes; followed by 1 % of NaOH at 90 °C for 30 minutes at pH 4.5 for 168 hours with a load enzyme of 25 FPU/g of total carbohydrates. Comparing the results obtained by the authors with those reported in the literature, the combined method was found to be suitable for use in the exploitation of sawdust. PMID:26535036

    11. PINE WOOD MODIFICATION BY HEAT TREATMENT IN AIR

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Bruno Esteves

      2008-02-01

      Full Text Available Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster wood has low dimensional stability and durability. Heat treatment was made in an oven using hot air during 2 to 24 h and at 170-200 ºC. A comparison was made against steam heat treatment. The equilibrium moisture content and the dimensional stability (ASE in radial and tangential directions were evaluated at 35%, 65%, and 85% relative humidity. MOE, bending strength and wettability were also determined. At the same mass loss, improvements of equilibrium moisture content and dimensional stability were higher for oven heat treatment, but the same was true for mechanical strength degradation. A 50% decrease in hemicellulose content led to a similar decrease in bending strength.

    12. THE OPTIMIZATION OF WOOD TRUSSES CONNECTED WITH METAL PLATES USING ANSYS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      İbrahim Halil BAŞBOĞA

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available The rapid growth of the world population causes an increasing demand for wood materials. As one of the most common problems seen in today's forest destructions may be able to avoided by means of the rational use of forests and processing of trees cut with optimal level and also it helps to fulfill demand of wood materials. In this study, ANSYS software has been used in order to optimize wood usage in metal plate connected wood trusses which save 25% or higher rates of wood raw material comparing to massive beams. Three different types of flat- wood truss systems have been considered in the study. The first cross sectional dimension of the truss elements was accepted as 5 x 10 nominal dimensions as can be found in the market. The elements of the truss systems have been modeled using Link1 ANSYS element. The parameters used in modeling of the link1 element were; modulus elasticity and Poisson’s ratio. First order optimization method was chosen for the optimization process. The constraints of the truss systems in optimization process were deformation and stress. The optimized trusses were manufactured in laboratory in order to check the methods appropriateness. Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten. lumber and metal plate connectors were used in the construction of the optimized truss systems. The obtained values of deformation in the laboratory were similar to the calculated values of deformation in the ANSYS software. Results show that metal plate connected wood truss systems optimization can be achieved by the ANSYS software. Optimization process proves that more than 25% or higher in wood usage can be gained.

    13. Biological pretreatment of softwood Pinus densiflora by three white rot fungi.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lee, Jae-Won; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Park, Jun-Yeong; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Don-Ha; Kwon, Mi; Choi, In-Gyu

      2007-12-01

      The effects of biological pretreatment on the Japanese red pine Pinus densiflora, was evaluated after exposure to three white rot fungi Ceriporia lacerata, Stereum hirsutum, and Polyporus brumalis. Change in chemical composition, structural modification, and their susceptibility to enzymatic saccharification in the degraded wood were analyzed. Of the three white rot fungi tested, S. hirsutum selectively degraded the lignin of this sortwood rather than the holocellulose component. After eight weeks of pretreatment with S. hirsutum, total weight loss was 10.7%, while lignin loss was the highest at 14.52% among the tested samples. However, holocellulose loss was lower at 7.81% compared to those of C. lacerata and P. brumalis. Extracelluar enzymes from S. hirsutum showed higher activity of ligninase and lower activity of cellulase than those from other white rot fungi. Thus, total weight loss and changes in chemical composition of the Japanese red pine was well correlated with the enzyme activities related with lignin- and cellulose degradation in these fungi. Based on the data obtained from analysis of physical characterization of degraded wood by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) and pore size distribution, S. hirsutum was considered as an effective potential fungus for biological pretreatment. In particular, the increase of available pore size of over 120 nm in pretreated wood powder with S. hirsutum made enzymes accessible for further enzymatic saccharification. When Japanese red pine chips treated with S. hirsutum were enzymatically saccharified using commercial enzymes (Cellulclast 1.5 L and Novozyme 188), sugar yield was greatly increased (21.01%) compared to non-pretreated control samples, indicating that white rot fungus S. hirsutum provides an effective process in increasing sugar yield from woody biomass.

    14. [Individual biomass of natural Pinus densiflora].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wang, C; Jin, Y; Jin, C; Liu, J; Jin, Y

      2000-02-01

      The aboveground biomass of individuals with different growth potentials in natural Pinus densiflora forest with different stand densities was measured in Yanbian, Jilin Province. The variation of individual biomass affected by densities was in order of dominant tree branch > needle > bark. The biomass components of P. densifliora with different growth potentials varied markedly with the approaching of density class III, and the change of intermediate trees was similar to the whole stand. The vertical distributions of biomass of different trees were different from each other, but all showed that the biomass of trunks and barks was mainly distributed below 6 m high from ground, that of branches was within 6-10 m high, that of needles was uniform in the upper, middle and lower layers, and that of branches and needles in upper layer was least affected by density.

    15. Nanoscale in Wood, Nanowood and Wood-Inorganic Nanocomposites

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Zhao Guangjie; Lu Wenhua

      2003-01-01

      In order to introduce nano science and technology (NST) into the research field of wood science and technology, andpromote the research of wood science and wood-inorganic composites to nanoscale, some new concepts, such as the nano space inwood, nano structure units of wood and nanowood are put forward in this paper based on the layer structure of wood cell wall and thepile-up model of its main components. Furthermore, the process of preparing nanowood is discussed, and wood-inorganic nanocom-posites may be operated in three ways with wood (matrix) and inorganic filler phase in 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3 dimensions respectively. Thefollowing results are obtained: (1) The nanoscale voids in wood indicate that wood has inherent space to accommodate nanosizedmaterials, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanosticks; (2) According to the size from top down, the nano structure units in woodcan be classified as: nanolayers, nano CMF (cellulose microfibril) and matrix, nano crystallite units and cellulose chain clusters, andthese can theoretically form nanowood; (3) The preparation of wood-inorganic nanocomposites can be operated on 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3dimensions.

    16. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Prabodh Satyal

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Background: Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. Objective: To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Results: GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5% and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3% as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1% and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%. The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL. The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL. Conclusion: The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

    17. RHIZOGENIC RESPONSE OF PINUS MAXIMARTINEZII RZEDOWSKI

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M. C. Ojeda-Zacaría

      2015-11-01

      Full Text Available El piñón azul o maxi piñónPinus maximartineziiRzedowski es una especie endémica en peligro de extinción debido a la alteración de sus poblaciones en su hábitat natural y que ha sobrevivido a una restricción genética extrema, además es considerado el más raro de los pinos piñoneros. En este trabajo se evaluó la respuesta rizogénica de brotes dePinus maximartinezii, obtenidos a partir de embriones cigóticos regenerado vía organogénesis, los cuales se sometieron a tratamientos de enraizamientoin vitro. La mayor respuesta de enraizamiento se presentó con pulso de 24 h en presencia de 2.0 mg L-1 de IBA en los medios de cultivo DCR, GD y MS, al 100 y 50% de su concentración original más 0.5% de carbón activado por L-1. Después de ocho semanas se evaluó la variable conforme al número de brotes con raíces, la prueba de X2 mostró que el enraizamiento es independiente de los medios de cultivo así como la concentración de los mismos y dependiente al tiempos de pulso. La formación de raíces obtenidas en los brotes permite proponer esta especie con capacidad para ser propagadain vitro.

    18. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

      2014-01-01

      Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%).

    19. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Adrián Cardil Forradellas

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

    20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15762-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available 9 Root cold Pinus taeda cDNA c... 46 6.7 1 ( CO166910 ) FLD1_65_A02.g1_A029 Root flood...ed Pinus taeda cDNA... 46 6.7 1 ( CO161061 ) FLD1_26_H12.b1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 46 6.

    1. The carbon budget of Pinus radiata plantations in south-western Australia under four climate change scenarios.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Simioni, Guillaume; Ritson, Peter; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; McGrath, John; Dumbrell, Ian; Copeland, Beth

      2009-09-01

      We conducted a comprehensive modelling study to estimate future stem wood production and net ecosystem production (NEP) of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in south-western Australia, a region that is predicted to undergo severe rainfall reduction in future decades. The process-based model CenW was applied to four locations where it had previously been tested. Climate change scenarios under four emission scenarios for the period from 2005 to 2066 were considered, in addition to simulations under the current climate. Results showed that stem wood production and NEP were little affected by moderate climate change. However, under the most pessimistic climate change scenario (Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2), stem wood production and NEP decreased strongly. These results could be explained by the trade-off between the positive effect of rising atmospheric CO(2) on plant water use efficiency and the negative effects of decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures. Because changes in heterotrophic respiration (R(H)) lagged behind changes in plant growth, and because R(H) rates were increased by higher temperatures, NEP was more negatively affected than stem wood production. Stem wood production and NEP also strongly interacted with location, with the site currently having the wettest climate being least affected by climatic change. These results suggest that realistic predictions of forest production and carbon sequestration potential in the context of climate change require (1) the use of modelling tools that describe the important feedbacks between environmental variables, plant physiology and soil organic matter decomposition, (2) consideration of a range of climate change scenarios and (3) simulations that account for a gradual climate change to capture transient effects.

    2. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness

      Science.gov (United States)

      Carvalho, Ana; Nabais, Cristina; Vieira, Joana; Rossi, Sergio; Campelo, Filipe

      2015-01-01

      The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT) to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD) or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT) in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010–2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate. PMID:26305893

    3. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Carvalho, Ana; Nabais, Cristina; Vieira, Joana; Rossi, Sergio; Campelo, Filipe

      2015-01-01

      The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT) to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD) or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT) in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate.

    4. Análise de empreendimentos florestais (pinus) como alternativa de renda para o produtor rural na região dos Campos de Palmas

      OpenAIRE

      2004-01-01

      The present study, using a group of analysis of investments indicators, analyzes the risk-return relationship for different modalities of contracts so as to undertake reforestation activities in the area of “Campos de Palmas†in the South of Brazil. Due to the existing soil and climate conditions in that area, the pinus culture comes as a natural option of entrepreneurship for the rural landowners. Also, due to the world demand for wood, the companies of that region search for alternative ...

    5. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Ximenes, Fabiano, E-mail: fabiano.ximenes@dpi.nsw.gov.au [Forest Science, Agriculture NSW, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Level 12, 10 Valentine Ave, Parramatta, NSW 2150 (Australia); Björdal, Charlotte [Department of Conservation, Gothenburg University, Guldhedsgatan 5A, Box 130, SE-405 30 Göteborg (Sweden); Cowie, Annette [NSW Department of Primary Industries, Beef Industry Centre, Trevenna Rd., University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Barlaz, Morton [Dept. of Civil, Construction, & Environmental Eng., North Carolina State University, Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

      2015-07-15

      Highlights: • We examine decay in wood from landfills in contrasting environments in Australia. • Analysis is based on changes in chemical composition and microscopy. • Climate did not influence levels of decay observed. • Microscopy of retrieved samples revealed most of the decay was aerobic in nature. • Current default factors for wood decay in landfills overestimate methane emissions. - Abstract: Wood products in landfill are commonly assumed to decay within several decades, returning the carbon contained therein to the atmosphere, with about half the carbon released as methane. However, the rate and extent of decay is not well known, as very few studies have examined the decay of wood products in landfills. This study reports on the findings from landfill excavations conducted in the Australian cities of Sydney and Cairns located in temperate and tropical environments, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether burial of the wood in warmer, more tropical conditions in Cairns would result in greater levels of decay than occurs in the temperate environment of Sydney. Wood samples recovered after 16–44 years in landfill were examined through physical, chemical and microscopic analyses, and compared with control samples to determine the carbon loss. There was typically little or no decay in the wood samples analysed from the landfill in Sydney. Although there was significant decay in rainforest wood species excavated from Cairns, decay levels for wood types that were common to both Cairns and Sydney landfills were similar. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2006) default decay factor for organic materials in landfills is 50%. In contrast, the carbon loss determined for Pinus radiata recovered from Sydney and Cairns landfills was 7.9% and 4.4%, respectively, and 0% for Agathis sp. This suggests that climate did not influence decay, and that the more extensive levels of decay observed for some wood samples

    6. Investigation Of The Color Changing Properties Of Wood Stain Derived From Pinar Leaves

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Abdi Atılgan

      2011-11-01

      Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an environmentally friendly wood stain derived pinar (Quercus aucheri leaves and determine the color stability of this stain when exposed to UV light irradiation. Wood stains derived from pinar leaves were prepared from aqueous solution with %3 iron (FeSO4.7H2O , % 5 alum ((KAl(SO42.12H2O, and % 10 vinegar mordant mixtures. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Turkish oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky and oak (Quercus petraea L. wood specimens were used as staining substrates. After treatment with the stain, the wood panels were exposed to UV light irradiation for periods of 100, 200, and 300 hours and determinated the total color changes was according to ISO 2470 standards. Results showed that wood stain derived from pinar extract provided some color stability after UV irradiation. According to results, Scots pine specimens treated with the pinar extract + iron mixture provided the smallest total color changes. Meanwhile the highest total color change provided on the Scots pine treated with pinar extract+alum mixture.

    7. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Das, Oisik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Advanced Composite Materials, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

      2015-04-15

      Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

    8. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

      2017-09-11

      Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK(-1) , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m(-3) (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

    9. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

      1999-01-01

      An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...... is observed between stiffness reduction and accumulated creep. A failure model based on the total work during the fatigue life is rejected, and a modified work model based on elastic, viscous and non-recovered viscoelastic work is experimentally supported, and an explanation at a microstructural level...

    10. Tree rings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

      2012-01-01

      Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology.

    11. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

      OpenAIRE

      Nacide Kizildag; Husniye Aka Sagliker; Ahu Kutlay; Sahin Cenkseven; Cengiz Darici

      2012-01-01

      Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the...

    12. Changes of reducing sugar and mineral nutrient elements in Pinus thunbergii and Pinus massoniana at different stage naturally infected by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus%松材线虫自然侵染后松树还原糖与矿质营养元素的变化

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      黄秀凤; 张慧; 徐华潮

      2013-01-01

      We have analyzed the contents of reducing sugar and mineral nutrient nutrients in Pinus thunbergii and Pinus massoniana at different Pine wilt disease stage naturally infected by the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in P. thunbergii and P. massoniana at different Pine Wilt disease stage naturally infected by the pine wood nematode B. xylophilus conifers. With disease progression, the contents of reducing sugar and nitrogen element decreased in both lodgepole and red pines. The changes in other minerals were inconsistent between the two types of pines. These results indicated that the structural damage caused by nematode infection significantly compromised metabolism, and affected the absorption, movement and utilization of different nutrients in the host plants.%实验测定了马尾松Pinus massoniana、黑松Pinus thunbergii在松材线虫Bursaphelenchus xylophilus自然侵染状态下针叶内还原糖及矿质营养元素的变化趋势.结果表明,两种松树随病程发展针叶内还原糖及N元素含量均逐渐降低;其余矿质元素含量变化不一.表明由于松材线虫的侵入,破坏了植物的组织结构,影响了寄主的新陈代谢和物质循环,继而影响到对各种元素的吸收、转移及利用.

    13. Emissions from fireplace and woodstove combustion of prevalent Portuguese woods

      Science.gov (United States)

      Alves, Célia

      2010-05-01

      P. Fernandes, C. Gonçalves, C.A. Alves, L. Tarelho, F. Mirante, T. Nunes and C. Pio Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal In Portugal, it was estimated that around 390000 ton/year of wood is burned in fireplaces, although the chemical characterisation of emission profiles has not yet been performed. Emission inventories and source apportionment, photochemistry and climate change models use values obtained for American or Alpine wood-fuels, uncommon in South Europe. Previous work has suggested that the species of wood used can have a huge influence on the particle emissions. Since the distribution of compounds emitted differs by species and burning conditions and there are many variations among published profiles, it is desirable to obtain specific data at a regional level on the chemical characterisation of wood smoke. A series of source tests was performed to compare the emission profiles from the woodstove combustion to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: seven species of wood grown in Portugal (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europea, Quercus ilex rotundifolia), and briquettes of biomass residues. The gas sampling was carried out in the exhaust ducts of both combustion systems. The collection of particles (PM2.5) was conducted in the dilution tunnel that was directly coupled to the chimney. Dilution sampling was used to characterise fine particle emissions from the combustion sources because it simulates the rapid cooling and dilution that occurs as exhaust mixes with the atmosphere. During each burning cycle, the concentrations of O2, CO2 and CO, as well as operational parameters (e.g. temperatures, flows, etc.), were automatically monitored. The PM2.5 samples were analysed by a thermal optical technique in order to obtain their organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content

    14. Controlling mold on wood Pallets

      Science.gov (United States)

      Carol A. Clausen

      2012-01-01

      THE WOOD PALLET AND CONTAINER INDUSTRY CONSUMES 4.5 billion board feet (BBF) of hardwoods and 1.8 BBF of softwoods for the annual production of 400-500 million solid wood pallets. While alternative materials such as plastic, corrugated paperboard and metal have entered the market, solid wood remains the material of choice for a majority of pallets on the market (more...

    15. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

      OpenAIRE

      Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.

      2014-01-01

      This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...

    16. Subterranean Termite Resistance of Polystyrene-Treated Wood from Three Tropical Wood Species

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yusuf Sudo Hadi

      2016-07-01

      Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the resistance of three Indonesian wood species to termite attack. Samples from sengon (Falcataria moluccana, mangium (Acacia mangium, and pine (Pinus merkusii were treated with polystyrene at loading levels of 26.0%, 8.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Treated and untreated samples were exposed to environmental conditions in the field for 3 months. Untreated specimens of sengon, mangium, and pine had resistance ratings of 3.0, 4.6, and 2.4, respectively, based on a 10-point scale from 0 (no resistance to 10 (complete or near-complete resistance. Corresponding resistance values of 7.8, 7.2, and 8.2 were determined for specimens treated with polystyrene. Overall weight loss values of 50.3%, 23.3%, and 66.4% were found for untreated sengon, mangium, and pine samples, respectively; for treated samples, the values were 7.6%, 14.4%, and 5.1%, respectively. Based on the findings in this study, overall resistance to termite attack was higher for treated samples compared to untreated samples.

    17. Subterranean Termite Resistance of Polystyrene-Treated Wood from Three Tropical Wood Species.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hadi, Yusuf Sudo; Massijaya, Muh Yusram; Arinana, A

      2016-07-21

      The objective of this work was to investigate the resistance of three Indonesian wood species to termite attack. Samples from sengon (Falcataria moluccana), mangium (Acacia mangium), and pine (Pinus merkusii) were treated with polystyrene at loading levels of 26.0%, 8.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Treated and untreated samples were exposed to environmental conditions in the field for 3 months. Untreated specimens of sengon, mangium, and pine had resistance ratings of 3.0, 4.6, and 2.4, respectively, based on a 10-point scale from 0 (no resistance) to 10 (complete or near-complete resistance). Corresponding resistance values of 7.8, 7.2, and 8.2 were determined for specimens treated with polystyrene. Overall weight loss values of 50.3%, 23.3%, and 66.4% were found for untreated sengon, mangium, and pine samples, respectively; for treated samples, the values were 7.6%, 14.4%, and 5.1%, respectively. Based on the findings in this study, overall resistance to termite attack was higher for treated samples compared to untreated samples.

    18. Subterranean Termite Resistance of Polystyrene-Treated Wood from Three Tropical Wood Species

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hadi, Yusuf Sudo; Massijaya, Muh Yusram; Arinana, A.

      2016-01-01

      The objective of this work was to investigate the resistance of three Indonesian wood species to termite attack. Samples from sengon (Falcataria moluccana), mangium (Acacia mangium), and pine (Pinus merkusii) were treated with polystyrene at loading levels of 26.0%, 8.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Treated and untreated samples were exposed to environmental conditions in the field for 3 months. Untreated specimens of sengon, mangium, and pine had resistance ratings of 3.0, 4.6, and 2.4, respectively, based on a 10-point scale from 0 (no resistance) to 10 (complete or near-complete resistance). Corresponding resistance values of 7.8, 7.2, and 8.2 were determined for specimens treated with polystyrene. Overall weight loss values of 50.3%, 23.3%, and 66.4% were found for untreated sengon, mangium, and pine samples, respectively; for treated samples, the values were 7.6%, 14.4%, and 5.1%, respectively. Based on the findings in this study, overall resistance to termite attack was higher for treated samples compared to untreated samples. PMID:27455331

    19. Pinus monophylla establishment in an expanding Pinus-Juniperus woodland: Environmental conditions, facilitation and interacting factors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Chambers, Jeanne C. [USDA Forest Service, Reno, NV (United States). Rocky Mountain Research Station

      2001-02-01

      The tree species comprising Pinus-Juniperus woodlands are rapidly expanding into shrub-grasslands throughout their range. Observational studies indicate that establishment is facilitated by nurse plants, but little information exists on the mechanisms involved. I examined both abiotic and biotic factors influencing Pinus monophylla establishment in Artemisia tridentata steppe with expanding populations of P. monophylla and Juniperus osteosperma. I also examined the effects of seed burial and predation on seedling establishment. Microhabitats under trees and shrubs had higher extractable P and K, higher organic matter, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity than interspace microhabitats. Soil water contents (0-15 cm) were lower in interspaces than under shrubs or trees due to dry surface (0-5 cm) soils. Soil temperatures (at 1 and 15 cm) were lowest under trees, intermediate under shrubs, and highest in interspaces. Timing and rate of seedling emergence were temperature dependent with the order of emergence paralleling mean growing season temperatures: tree interspace = shrub interspace > under shrub > under Juniperus {>=} under Pinus. Seed burial was required for rooting and the highest emergence occurred from depths of 1 and 3 cm indicating that caching by birds and rodents is essential and that animals bury seeds at adequate if not optimal depths for emergence. Seedlings required micro-environmental modification for survival; all seedlings, including those that emerged from seeds and transplants, died within the first year in interspace microhabitats. Survival in under-tree or under-shrub microhabitats depended on soil water availability and corresponded closely to soil water contents over the 3-yr study. Under-shrub microhabitats had more favourable soil and micro-environmental characteristics than under-tree microhabitats and had the highest seedling life spans for the first-year seedling cohort. Predation of Pinus seedlings by rodents was a significant

    20. Chemical characterisation of PM10 emissions from combustion in a closed stove of common woods grown in Portugal

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gonçalves, C.; Alves, C.; Pio, C.; Rzaca, M.; Schmidl, C.; Puxbaum, H.

      2009-04-01

      A series of source tests were conducted to determine the wood elemental composition, combustion gases and the chemical constitution of PM10 emissions from the closed stove combustion of four species of woods grown in Portugal: Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia. The burning tests were made in a closed stove with a dilution source sampler. To ascertain the combustion phase and conditions, continuous emission monitors measured O2, CO2, CO, NO, hydrocarbons, temperature and pressure, during each burning cycle. Woodsmoke samples have been collected and analysed to estimate the contribution of plant debris and biomass smoke to atmospheric aerosols. At this stage of work, cellulose, anhydrosugars and humic-like substances (HULIS) have been measured. Cellulose was determined photometrically after its conversion to D-Glucose. The determination of levoglucosan and other anhydrosugars, including mannosan and galactosan, was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. HULIS determination was made with a total organic carbon analyser and an infrared non dispersive detector, after the isolation of substances. Cellulose was present in PM10 at mass fractions (w/w) of 0.13%, 0.13%, 0.05% and 0.08% for Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major anhydrosugar present in the samples, representing mass fractions of 14.71%, 3.80%, 6.78% and 1.91%, concerning the above mentioned wood species, respectively. The levoglucosan-to-mannosan ratio, usually used to evaluate the proportion of hardwood or softwood smoke in PM10, gave average values of 34.9 (Eucalyptus globulos), 3.40 (Pinus pinaster), 24.8 (Quercus suber) and 10.4 (Acacia longifolia). HULIS were present at mass fractions of 2.35%, 2.99%, 1.52% and 1.72% for the four wood species listed in the same order as before.

    1. Phytosociology, structure and dynamics of Pinus roxburghii associations from Northern Pakistan

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Nasrullah Khan; Kishwar Ali; Shahid Shaukat

      2014-01-01

      We investigated the phytosociology, structure and dynamics of Pinus roxburghii in 40 stands in northern areas of Pakistan by using cluster analysis (Ward’s agglomerative clustering) and ordination (Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling). Cluster analysis revealed three major groups associated with specific environmental characteristics: (1) P. roxburghii (2) Pinus-Quercus baloot and (3) Pinus-Olea ferruginea community types. NMS-ordination showed the major gradient as an amalgam of elevation (r2=0.441, p<0.01) and slope (r2=0.391, p<0.05) as the two topographic factors correlated with species distribution. The first ordination axis also showed positive correlation with soil variables like pH and electrical conductivity, suggesting that soil chemistry was related to topographic characteristics and probably acted as a secondary gradient. We also examined size class distributions, age structures and growth rates of the three communities in order to describe community development and dynamics. Total tree density was 14700 plants/ha, with P. roxburghii having a relative density of 82%to 100%. Density of juve-nile and total density and basal area of the subordinate tree species were low. The low density of trees in the smallest diameter size-class sug-gested that the recruitment of small P. roxburghii plants into the adult population may be lower than the required replacement rate for the stands. Pooled size-class distributions for the species showed a multimo-dal pattern with some regeneration gaps. Browsing, heavy logging and other anthropogenic activities were the overriding factors responsible for the poor recruitment of P. roxburghii. We concluded from the age struc-ture that the forests were characterized by the dominance of young trees. Growth rate analysis revealed that P. roxburghii was the fastest growing species among the conifers species in Pakistan. In view of its relatively fast growth and longevity, P. roxburghii seems to be a suitable choice for short

    2. Effect of Bleaching on Hardness, Gloss, and Color Change of Weathered Woods

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mehmet Budakçı

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study was to eliminate the problems of hardness, gloss, and color change of some wood materials exposed to weathering conditions using a bleaching procedure to attempt to return the wood material to its natural state. For this, wood samples of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Eastern beech (Fagus orientalis L., sessile oak (Quercus petraea L., and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. were exposed to weathering conditions based on 12 months ASTM D-1641, followed by a bleaching procedure using 18% solutions of S1 (NaOH + H2O2, S2 (NaOH + Ca(OH2, S3 (KMnO4 + NaHSO3 + H2O2, S4 (NaSiO3 + H2O2, and the commercial product S5 (Cuprinol Decking Restorer- (H2C2O4 + C2H4(OH2. The color, gloss, and hardness changes of samples were determined according to ASTM D 2244-2, EN ISO 2813, and ASTM D 2240 standards. As a result, hardness and gloss values of all woods decreased due to weathering conditions and the wood color turned grey due to degradation. When comparing the weathered samples to the bleached samples, the hardness value was found to be highest in pine wood bleached with the S2 solution, and the gloss value was highest in oak wood bleached with the S1 solution. The greatest color change was found in pine, beech, and chestnut samples bleached with the S4 solution and in oak samples bleached with the S1 solution.

    3. Multi-Physics Simulation of Wood Drying in COMSOL Multiphysics 3.4.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sandoval-Torres Sadoth

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available In this work, the numerical simulation of drying of Pinus pesudostrobus wood is presented by using a phenomenological model. The model is developed by considering the heat and mass balance in the representative elementary volume (REV, which involves the solid, liquid and gas phases. We obtained a system of partial differential equations which was solved by numerical factorization by using COMSOL multiphysics 3.4. Three primary variables were solved: the moisture content, the temperature, and the dry-air mass. The numerical results were compared against experimental data and the semi-empirical model. Our results are satisfactory; we describe the drying kinetics, the moisture distribution within the wood, the dry-air mass evolution and the temperature profiles.

    4. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

      Science.gov (United States)

      Samuel L. Zelinka

      2013-01-01

      This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

    5. by Pinus virginiana in Mine Restoration

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jenise M. Bauman

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of planting sites on the establishment and ectomycorrhizal (ECM colonization of American chestnut (Castanea denetata (Marsh. Borkh. on an abandoned coal mine in an Appalachian region of the United States. Root morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region were used to identify the ECM species associated with the chestnut seedlings. Germination, survival, ECM root colonization, and growth were assessed in three habitats: forest edge, center (plots without vegetation, and pine plots (a 10-year-old planting of Pinus virginiana. Seedlings in pine plots had higher survival (38% than the other plot types (center 9% and forest edge 5%; P=0.007. Chestnuts found colonized by ECM within the pine plots were larger (P=0.02, contributed by a larger root system (P=0.03. Forest edge and pine plots had more ECM roots than seedlings in center plots (P=0.04. ITS fungal sequences and morphotypes found among chestnut and pine matched Scleroderma, Thelephora, and Pisolithus suggesting these two plant species shared ECM symbionts. Results indicated that the presence of P. virginiana had a greater facilitative effect on growth and survival of chestnut seedlings.

    6. Susceptibility of hornbeam and Scots pine woods to destruction by the subterranean termite Reticulitermes lucifugus ROSSI, 1792 (Blattodea: Isoptera

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Krajewski Adam

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available The article presents the results of tests of the degree of damage to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus woods by the termite Reticulitermes lucifugus. Both wood species are classified as “susceptible to destruction by termites” in the EN 350-2:2000 standard. The procedures described in the ASTM D 3345-08 standard (2009 were applied in the experiments. During laboratory coercion tests, wood samples from these two species were damaged to a degree between light attack and moderate attack with penetration. Recent Scots pine sapwood was damaged to a heavy degree. The results can be associated with the much higher density of hornbeam wood as compared to Scots pine sapwood. The mortality rate of the termites in the test containers with both wood species was similar and low, no greater than 10%. In the light of the results, the classification of the susceptibility of native wood species to termite feeding, as stated in the EN 350-2:2000 standard, appears to be oversimplified.

    7. Molecular and phenotypic profiling from the base to the crown in maritime pine wood-forming tissue.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Paiva, Jorge A P; Garcés, Marcelo; Alves, Ana; Garnier-Géré, Pauline; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Lalanne, Céline; Porcon, Stéphane; Le Provost, Grégoire; Perez, Denilson da Silva; Brach, Jean; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Claverol, Stéphane; Barré, Aurélien; Fevereiro, Pedro; Plomion, Christophe

      2008-01-01

      Environmental, developmental and genetic factors affect variation in wood properties at the chemical, anatomical and physical levels. Here, the phenotypic variation observed along the tree stem was explored and the hypothesis tested that this variation could be the result of the differential expression of genes/proteins during wood formation. Differentiating xylem samples of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) were collected from the top (crown wood, CW) to the bottom (base wood, BW) of adult trees. These samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and analytical pyrolysis. Two main groups of samples, corresponding to CW and BW, could be distinguished from cell wall chemical composition. A genomic approach, combining large-scale production of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), gene expression profiling and quantitative proteomics analysis, allowed identification of 262 unigenes (out of 3512) and 231 proteins (out of 1372 spots) that were differentially expressed along the stem. A good relationship was found between functional categories from transcriptomic and proteomic data. A good fit between the molecular mechanisms involved in CW-BW formation and these two types of wood phenotypic differences was also observed. This work provides a list of candidate genes for wood properties that will be tested in forward genetics.

    8. Uptake of {sup 137}Cs by berries, mushrooms and needles of Scots pine in peatland forests after wood ash application

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Vetikko, Virve, E-mail: virve.vetikko@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance, P.O.Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Rantavaara, Aino, E-mail: aino.rantavaara@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance, P.O.Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Moilanen, Mikko, E-mail: mikko.moilanen@metla.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA), Muhos Research Unit, Kirkkosaarentie 7, FI-91500 Muhos (Finland)

      2010-12-15

      Increasing use of wood fuels for energy production in Finland since the 1990s implies that large quantities of the generated ashes will be available for forest fertilization. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of wood ash application on {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and certain berries and mushrooms on drained peatlands. The study was based on field experiments carried out on two mires in Finland in 1997-1998. Two different types of wood ash were applied at dosages of 3500, 3700, 10 500 and 11 100 kg ha{sup -1}. Wood ash did not increase {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in plants in the second growing season following application. On the contrary, a decrease in {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was seen in the plants of the ecosystem on drained peatlands. This result is of importance, for instance, when recycling of ash is being planned. -- Research highlights: {yields} The study confirmed the fast response of Scots pine to ash application. {yields} Wood ash decreased the 137Cs activity concentration in Scots pine needles. {yields} Wood ash did not increase the 137Cs contamination in wild berries and mushrooms. {yields} The results are of importance when recycling of ash is being planned.

    9. Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov., associated with the root collar weevil Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii on Pinus wallichiana in Bhutan.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zhou, X D; Jacobs, K; Kirisits, T; Chhetri, D B; Wingfield, M J

      2008-12-01

      Leptographium spp. are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some are important tree pathogens. In a recent survey of diseases and insect pests of conifer trees in Bhutan, the root collar weevil, Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii was found girdling young Himalayan blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) trees in Central Bhutan. Intensive wood staining and a Leptographium sp. were associated with damage by this insect. The fungus was also isolated from individuals of H. chenkupdorjii. It was tentatively identified based on morphology and then compared with other Leptographium spp. using DNA sequences for three gene regions. Morphological characteristics showed that the Leptographium sp. from H. chenkupdorjii is similar to, but distinct from L. procerum and L. profanum. DNA sequence comparisons revealed that the isolates from Bhutan resided in a distinct well-supported clade and confirmed that they represent an undescribed taxon for which the name Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov. is provided.

    10. Wood pole overhead lines

      CERN Document Server

      Wareing, Brian

      2005-01-01

      This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

    11. Wood construction under cold climate

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror;

      2014-01-01

      ) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) joints (150mm x 20mm x 10mm) were bonded with seven commercially available resins (PUR, PVAc, EPI, MF, MUF1, PRF and MUF2) and tested at six temperatures (20, -20, -30, -40, -50 and -60 °C), respectively. Generally, for both species, temperature changes significantly...

    12. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

      1986-10-01

      A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

    13. Design Wood Nanocomposites from Polymer Nanocomposites

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      LVWenhua; ZHAOGuangjie

      2004-01-01

      Researches on wood nanocomposites, which involve nano science and technology, wood science,materials science and other related subjects, have important science signification and promising prospect for the development and study of new wood composites with high appending values and multi-properties. This paper reviewed the conventional wood composites, and then discussed the approaches to prepare wood nanocomposites. Based on the achievements of researches on polymer/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites, the design ideas of preparing nanocomposites of wood and inorganic MMT were systematically put forward. Nano compounding of wood and other materials is an effective approach to greatly improve or modify wood.

    14. Wood gas; Holz gibt Gas

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Hilgers, Claudia

      2011-06-17

      Sixty years ago, wood gas was even used as a car fuel. Today, this ancient technology is experiencing a renaissance. Small cogeneration plants with wood gasifiers are ideal for renewable and decentral power supply concepts for tomorrow. Until then, there is much pioneering work to do until plants will be ready for serial production.

    15. IMPROVEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL WOOD TRANSPORTATION

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sokolov A. P.

      2014-10-01

      Full Text Available The article gives an example of usage of the tool for round-wood transport planning from the Decision Support System “Forest Logistic Toolset” for com-pare of two approaches to the organization of international wood transportation

    16. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

      Science.gov (United States)

      Robert F. Powers

      2001-01-01

      Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

    17. Composites from wood and plastics

      Science.gov (United States)

      Craig Clemons

      2010-01-01

      Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

    18. Preservation of forest wood chips

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

      1999-01-01

      As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

    19. Moisture transport in coated wood

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

      2011-01-01

      Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture abso

    20. Bio-engineering traits of Pinus radiata D.Don

      Science.gov (United States)

      Giadrossich, Filippo; Marden, Michael; Marrosu, Roberto; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Phillips, Chris John; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

      2017-04-01

      Pinus radiata is widely cultivated in New Zealand. Due to steep slopes and intense rainfall, the silviculture of Pinus radiata forests is important to control erosion and slope stability. Bio-engineering traits such as root distribution and root tensile strength are fundamental to understand the effectiveness of Pinus radiata. This information is needed to use the state of the art root reinforcement model (the Root Bundle Model) and the physically-based slope stability model SOSlope. Yet, little is known about root distribution and tensile strength for this specie. We measured soil moisture and carried out 30 field tensile tests on roots of Pinus radiata. We also measured root distribution data from 5 plants, digging arc of circles 0.6 radian around the trees in four opposite directions. We fully excavated the root system of two trees. Using the Root Bundle Model, results of our measurements allow estimation of root reinforcement. With the slope stability model SOSlope, information on the intensity and frequency of harvesting and on the development of weak zones that can be supported by a stand of Pinus radiata in relation to slope stability can be calculated. An added value is that the collected data allow us to make inferences between number and sizes of roots, and growth direction.

    1. 蒸汽热处理马尾松木材工艺初探%Preliminary Exploration on Steam Heat Treated Pinus massoniana

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      李延军; 朱劲; 林勇; 刘红征; 孙会

      2012-01-01

        With the local Pinus massoniana in Zhejiang as test material, a self-made experimental device intended for heat treated wood is used to conduct experiment on heat treated wood at high temperature. Through the comparison of the mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the Pinus massoniana before and after heat treatment, the effect of heat treatment temperature, processing time and heating rate on wood properties is discussed. The experimental result shows that heat treatment temperature has a significant effect on the bending strength of heat-treated Pinus massoniana. Compared with untreated material, the compressive strength parallel to the grain has dropped by 1.823%~11.084%, the bending strength has dropped by 0.259% ~34.451% and volume shrinkage and volume swelling rates have also dropped to a certain degree. Comprehensive analysis and heat source loss and dimensional stability considerations show the optimum heat treatment parameters of Pinus massoniana : heat treatment temperature, 190℃; heat treatment time, 2 hours; heating rate, 15℃/h.%  以浙江本地的马尾松为试材,采用自制的小型热处理木材实验装置进行高温热处理木材工艺实验.通过对热处理前后马尾松木材力学性能和尺寸稳定性的比较,探讨了热处理温度、热处理时间以及升温速度对其性能的影响.研究结果表明:热处理温度对热处理马尾松木材的抗弯强度有显著影响,经热处理后的马尾松木材与未处理材相比,其顺纹抗压强度下降了1.823%~11.084%,抗弯强度下降了0.259%~34.451%,体积干缩湿胀率也有所降低.经综合分析并考虑到热源损耗及尺寸稳定性,得出马尾松木材的热处理最佳工艺为:热处理温度190℃,热处理时间2h,升温速度15℃/h

    2. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

      2015-07-01

      Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

    3. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

      2016-07-01

      Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

    4. Distribution of lignin and its coniferyl alcohol and coniferyl aldehyde groups in Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris as observed by Raman imaging.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hänninen, Tuomas; Kontturi, Eero; Vuorinen, Tapani

      2011-10-01

      Wood cell wall consists of several structural components, such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, whose concentrations vary throughout the cell wall. It is a composite where semicrystalline cellulose fibrils, acting as reinforcement, are bound together by amorphous hemicelluloses and lignin matrix. Understanding the distribution of these components and their functions within the cell wall can provide useful information on the biosynthesis of trees. Raman imaging enables us to study chemistry of cell wall without altering the structure by staining the sample or fractionating it. Raman imaging has been used to analyze distributions of lignin and cellulose, as well as the functional groups of lignin in wood. In our study, we observed the distribution of cellulose and lignin, as well as the amount of coniferyl alcohol and aldehyde groups compared to the total amount of lignin in pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) wood samples. No significant differences could be seen in lignin and cellulose distribution between these samples, while clear distinction was observed in the distribution of coniferyl alcohols and coniferyl aldehyde in them. These results could provide valuable insight on how two similar wood species control biosynthesis of lignin differently during the differentiation of cell wall.

    5. Studies on Some Properties of Quality and Performance in Wood Windows

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tuncer Dilik

      2007-01-01

      Full Text Available The determination of some quality and performance properties of windows, made of tree species used frequently in industrial window manufacturing and the effects of tree species on those properties have been examined. According to the results of the study by considering regular standards, in the air resistance tests, the classification has been determined as follows: those made of Scots pine as (Pinus sylvestris A4, European larch (Larix decidua as A3 and Sapele (Entandrophragma cylindiricum as A2. The water resistance test has classified those made of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris as in between RA6 and RA7, European Larch (Larix decidua as in between RA1 and RA3 and Sapele (Entandrophragma cylindiricum as RA1. As for wind resistance test, all species have been found in the class W5. When having made the same test in PVC for the purpose of controlling and making comparison and to verify the outcomes obtained from regular test, it was found that air permeability was A4, water tightness was RA9 and wind resistance test was W5. As can be seen from the given results, PVC has proved to show best performance among all, whereas Scots pine samples has shown the the best performance among all the other wood products followed by European Larch and Sapele. The reasons for that are the woodworking and workmanship quality rather than changeable physical, mechanical and technical properties of the wood species.

    6. Colorability of Wood Material with Punica granatum and Morus nigra Extracts

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ertan Özen

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study was the development of an eco-friendly dye that may be used in furniture, woodworking, and upper surface treatment, with no ill effects to human health. The plant dyestuff was extracted from pomegranate skin (Punica granatum and black mulberry (Morus nigra using an ultrasonic method at different rates. The extraction percentage ratios were, by weight in distilled water, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% and were applied to Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L. through an immersion method. After that, the determination of color change under the accelerated weathering conditions and the feasibility as the upper surface stain of this dyestuff were studied. The values of total color change of the natural dye samples that were applied to the test material were determined after accelerated weathering processes lasting 50, 100, and 150 h, according to ISO 2470. The results showed the best color stability in Oriental beech wood that was treated with 30% pomegranate skin or black mulberry extract as well as Scotch pine wood that was treated with 25% pomegranate skin extract or 50% black mulberry extract. Exactly the same ΔE* values were obtained with the same dyestuff and same wood type, indicating close color stability behaviors. According to the results, both pomegranate skin (Punica granatum and black mulberry (Morus nigra can be used to color wood materials.

    7. [Storage proteins from seeds of Pinus pinea L].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nasri, Nizar; Triki, Saïda

      2007-05-01

      The Mediterranean stone pine Pinus pinea L. (gymnosperm, Pinaceae) is much appreciated for its seed production, widely used in food preparation in the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds contain 25% proteins on a dry-weight basis. Pinus pinea accumulate globulins as major storage proteins in seeds (75% of total storage proteins), composed of several subunits of 10 to 150 kDa, revealed by SDS-PAGE. The albumin fraction (15%) represents three subunits of 14, 24 and 46 kDa. Glutelins, the least soluble fraction, represents a small proportion (10%). Their constitutive units have frequent PM of 43 kDa. Prolamins also represent a very small percentage (1 to 2%).

    8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15834-1 [Dicty_cDB

      Lifescience Database Archive (English)

      Full Text Available -128A24, m... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096093 ) Pinus taeda isolate 6064 anonymous locus 2_4412_0... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096092... ) Pinus taeda isolate 6060 anonymous locus 2_4412_0... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096091 ) Pinus taeda isolate 6066 anonymous... locus 2_4412_0... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096090 ) Pinus taeda isolate 6058 anonymous l...ocus 2_4412_0... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096089 ) Pinus taeda isolate 6053 anonymous locus 2_4412_0... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096...088 ) Pinus taeda isolate 6051 anonymous locus 2_4412_0... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096087 ) Pinus taeda isolate 6067 anonymous

    9. Non_standard Wood

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Tamke, Martin

      Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material......- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential for performance due to digital fabrication in this sustainable material. The production of a custom made design tool helped not only to explore design variations while keeping up the link to digital production machinery....... Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software...

    10. Cooling of wood briquettes

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Adžić Miroljub M.

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

    11. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Darius Danusevičius

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

    12. Spontaneous hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian seaside: a morphological survey.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Petrokas, Raimundas; Christensen, Knud Ib

      2012-01-01

      We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

    13. Pinus tropical com potencial para uso em plantios comerciais no Brasil. Tropical pine for commercial planting in Brazil.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marcos Silveira WREGE

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Entre os pinus tropicais, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis é uma variedade natural, oriunda de região com clima tropical na América Central. A espécie se aclimatou bem em várias partes do mundo, em regiões com alta pluviosidade e temperaturas elevadas. Embora não tolere geadas severas, pode ser plantada em partes da região Sul do Brasil onde o clima é mais quente e a frequência de geadas é menor e é indicado para plantio em boa parte do Brasil, em mais de 3,5 milhões de km2 . Essa é uma variedade que apresenta alto rendimento em madeira de boa qualidade, além de possibilitar a exploração da resina. Neste trabalho, são apresentadas as regiões no Brasil que apresentam potencial para cultivo dessa variedade em regime de silvicultura intensiva, tomando como base sua região de origem no mundo. São indicadas para plantio comercial as zonas com os menores riscos de geada nos estados da região Sul, no Estado de São Paulo e nas demais regiões que oferecem condições climáticas favoráveis, principalmente de disponibilidade hídrica para o desenvolvimento dessa variedade de pinus. – Among tropical pines, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis is a natural variation from the tropical regions of Central America. The species has adapted well in various parts of the world, in regions with high rainfall and high temperatures. Although intolerance to severe frosts, it can be grown in parts of southern Brazil, where the climate is hot, with infrequent frosts and even can be used for commercial planting in over 3.5 million square kilometers.This variety presents high yield in quality wood as well as resin. This work shows regions in Brazil where environmental conditions are favorable for commercial plantations with this variety, by making comparisons with the conditions in its origin. Climatic zones within the Southern Region, as well as in the state of São Paulo and elsewhere with the lowest risks of frost and plenty of water for the

    14. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Kim, C.H.; Lee, J.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M.H. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

      2015-10-15

      We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

    15. Characterization of the Pinus massoniana transcriptional response to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus infection using suppression subtractive hybridization.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Xu, Liang; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Kai; Lu, Quan; Liang, Jun; Zhang, Xing-Yao

      2013-05-28

      Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the most destructive diseases of pine and poses a threat of serious economic losses worldwide. Although several of the mechanisms involved in disease progression have been discovered, the molecular response of Pinus massoniana to PWN infection has not been explored. We constructed four subtractive suppression hybridization cDNA libraries by taking time-course samples from PWN-inoculated Masson pine trees. One-hundred forty-four significantly differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified, and 124 high-quality sequences with transcriptional features were selected for gene ontology (GO) and individual gene analyses. There were marked differences in the types of transcripts, as well as in the timing and levels of transcript expression in the pine trees following PWN inoculation. Genes involved in signal transduction, transcription and translation and secondary metabolism were highly expressed after 24 h and 72 h, while stress response genes were highly expressed only after 72 h. Certain transcripts responding to PWN infection were discriminative; pathogenesis and cell wall-related genes were more abundant, while detoxification or redox process-related genes were less abundant. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the biochemical and physiological responses of pine trees to PWN infection, particularly during the initial stage of infection.

    16. Characterization of the Pinus massoniana Transcriptional Response to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Xing-Yao Zhang

      2013-05-01

      Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD caused by pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the most destructive diseases of pine and poses a threat of serious economic losses worldwide. Although several of the mechanisms involved in disease progression have been discovered, the molecular response of Pinus massoniana to PWN infection has not been explored. We constructed four subtractive suppression hybridization cDNA libraries by taking time-course samples from PWN-inoculated Masson pine trees. One-hundred forty-four significantly differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs were identified, and 124 high-quality sequences with transcriptional features were selected for gene ontology (GO and individual gene analyses. There were marked differences in the types of transcripts, as well as in the timing and levels of transcript expression in the pine trees following PWN inoculation. Genes involved in signal transduction, transcription and translation and secondary metabolism were highly expressed after 24 h and 72 h, while stress response genes were highly expressed only after 72 h. Certain transcripts responding to PWN infection were discriminative; pathogenesis and cell wall-related genes were more abundant, while detoxification or redox process-related genes were less abundant. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the biochemical and physiological responses of pine trees to PWN infection, particularly during the initial stage of infection.

    17. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kim, C. H.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M. H.; Kim, J. C.

      2015-10-01

      We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

    18. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Hertz, Kristian Dahl

      2006-01-01

      Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

    19. Bioprocessing preservative-treated waste wood

      Science.gov (United States)

      Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang; Les. Ferge

      2000-01-01

      Disposal of preservative-treated waste wood is a growing problem worldwide. Bioprocessing the treated wood offers one approach to waste management under certain conditions. One goal is to use wood decay fungi to reduce the volume of waste with an easily managed system in a cost-effective manner. Wood decay fungi were obtained from culture collections in the Mycology...

    20. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

      Science.gov (United States)

      Oatman, Olan

      1975-01-01

      Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

    1. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

      Science.gov (United States)

      PURCELL, FRANK X.

      A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

    2. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

      2004-01-01

      Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the phy

    3. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF WOOD AND WOOD BASED MATERIALS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rafael Rodolfo de Melo

      2010-05-01

      Full Text Available The wood, as well as other construction materials, presents changes in this stiffness and strength when submitted to a long time loading. This phenomenon is important in the analyses resistance capacity of structural materials. Mechanically, the wood behaves as aviscous-elastic solid. However, over time, the structural elements submitted to permanent or cyclic loading presents some deformation, which denotes a viscous-elastic behavior. This characteristic is influenced mainly on the intensity and duration of loading. In this study a review of rheological phenomenon is presented, showing up the causes and effects for a better understanding, which is essential for the appropriate and efficient use of the wood and wood composites as structural materials.

    4. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yalçın ÖRS

      1999-03-01

      Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

    5. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lauri Ilmari Salminen

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.

    6. A CONTINUING REVERENCE FOR WOOD

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Martin A. Hubbe

      2010-02-01

      Full Text Available Our ancestors knew a great deal about wood. They had to in order to do well in life. Wood has played a dominant role in human infrastructure for many generations, and for most of that time woodcraft has depended on the decentralized knowledge passed down among families and guilds. This editorial, while celebrating the knowledge, skills, and insights of the woodworkers of past generations, also calls for a renewed attention to wood’s unique character, including characteristics that today are too often classified as “defects.” We may need to take lessons from generations past to truly derive the best value from wood resources.

    7. Effect of odors from coniferous woods on contingent negative variation (CNV); Shinyojuzai no nioi ga zuihansei insei hendo (CNV) ni oyobosu eikyo

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Terauchi, F. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kubo, M.; Aoki, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ogama, T. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Education

      1996-04-15

      In order to clarify the effect of odors of seven coniferous woods on human, contingent negative variation (CNV) and electroencephalogram (EEG) were measured. Four of the species used, hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtuse), sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), akamatsu (Pinus densiflora), and hiba (Thujopsis dolabrata var.hondai), were grown in Japan, and three of them, Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and western red cedar (Thuja plicata), were grown in the United States. The concentrations of their wood odors were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography. The total concentration of monoterpene hydrocarbon in the wood odors was held to less than 3ppb. The amplitudes of early components of CNV and the {alpha}/{beta} wave ratio of EEG at the frontal (Fz) and central (Cz) regions between in the presence and absence of wood odors were compared. 5 male and 5 female volunteers ranging in age from 20 to 26 were examined. The result obtained are summarized as follows: (1) In the presence of wood odors, the early CNV amplitudes at Fz decreased at a statistical level of significance of 5% or better. (2) The {alpha}/{beta} wave ratio of EEG increased significantly at Cz with bibs wood odor (p<0.01). (3) The decrease of the early CNV amplitude at Fz is related to the concentration of {alpha}-pinene in the wood odors. 19 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

    8. Estudio de potenciales alelopáticos originados por Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D.

      OpenAIRE

      Ballester, A.; Arias, A. M.; Cobián, B.; López Calvo, E.; Vieitez, E.

      2011-01-01

      Se ha estudiado el potencial alelopático de Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D. sobre el crecimiento y la germinación de diferentes especies herbáceas. Extractos acuosos de hojas y acículas recogidas en los meses de enero y abril inhiben fundamentalmente la germinación de las semillas de festuca, siendo la acción más importante en el mes de abril que en el de enero. El contacto directo entre hojas y acículas y las semillas a ensayar produce una inhibición muy f...

    9. Parâmetros morfométricos e biológicos de populações monoclonais e multiclonais do pulgão-gigante-do-pinus

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Susete do Rocio Chiarello Penteado

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available O pulgão-gigante-do-pinus, Cinara atlantica, originário da América do Norte, foi introduzido no Brasil na década de 1990 e encontra-se amplamente distribuído nos plantios comerciais de pínus. Este estudo teve como objetivo correlacionar os parâmetros morfométricos de insetos oriundos de colônias mono e multiclonais de C. atlantica com seu desempenho reprodutivo em mudas de viveiros comerciais e em progênies de Pinus taeda. Foi registrado o número de ninfas produzidas fêmea dia-1. Após a morte destas fêmeas, foram realizadas medições dos caracteres morfológicos, utilizando o programa, Axion Vision 4,5. O comprimento da tíbia, fêmur posterior e antena foram os parâmetros morfométricos que apresentaram maior correlação com o comprimento do corpo dos insetos, representando 98% da variação total. Com os valores destas variáveis foi criada uma nova variável, denominada “tamanho do inseto”, que foi utilizada para comparação dos tratamentos. Os insetos de colônias multiclonais apresentaram os maiores valores para a maioria dos parâmetros morfométricos e maior produção de descendentes. Insetos maiores e maior produção de ninfas foram observados em mudas originárias dos viveiros comerciais, sugerindo que as progênies estudadas podem apresentar algum fator de resistência que as torna candidatas para uso em programas de manejo integrado desta praga.

    10. A new C-methylated flavonoid glycoside from Pinus densiflora.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jung, M J; Choi, J H; Chung, H Y; Jung, J H; Choi, J S

      2001-12-01

      A new C-methyl flavonol glycoside, 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from the needles of Pinus densiflora, together with kaempferol 3-O-beta-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside.

    11. Evolution of genome size and complexity in Pinus.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Alison M Morse

      Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome evolution in the gymnosperm lineage of seed plants has given rise to many of the most complex and largest plant genomes, however the elements involved are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gymny is a previously undescribed retrotransposon family in Pinus that is related to Athila elements in Arabidopsis. Gymny elements are dispersed throughout the modern Pinus genome and occupy a physical space at least the size of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In contrast to previously described retroelements in Pinus, the Gymny family was amplified or introduced after the divergence of pine and spruce (Picea. If retrotransposon expansions are responsible for genome size differences within the Pinaceae, as they are in angiosperms, then they have yet to be identified. In contrast, molecular divergence of Gymny retrotransposons together with other families of retrotransposons can account for the large genome complexity of pines along with protein-coding genic DNA, as revealed by massively parallel DNA sequence analysis of Cot fractionated genomic DNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the enormous genome complexity of pines can be explained by divergence of retrotransposons, however the elements responsible for genome size variation are yet to be identified. Genomic resources for Pinus including those reported here should assist in further defining whether and how the roles of retrotransposons differ in the evolution of angiosperm and gymnosperm genomes.

    12. Pathways of stand development in ageing Pinus sylvestris forests

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Kint, Vincent; Mohren, G.M.J.; Geudens, Guy; Wulf, de R.; Lust, Noel

      2004-01-01

      Question: What are the main pathways of long-term stand development in forest ecosystems on oligotrophic and acidic sandy soils? Location: Nine forest reserves at different locations in The Netherlands: all ageing Pinus sylvestris forests that are no longer managed and where massive regeneration of

    13. Rainfall interception and partitioning by pinus monophylla and juniperus osteosperma

      Science.gov (United States)

      This study investigated canopy interception of simulated rainfall by singleleaf piñon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) in central Nevada. Research has shown that although piñon and juniper occurred historically throughout the western United States, the infilling of woodlan...

    14. Understory plant biomass dynamics of prescribed burned Pinus palustris stands

      Science.gov (United States)

      C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; L.J. Samuelson; T.A. Stokes; W.P. Cropper Jr; T.A. Martin; K.H. Johnsen

      2015-01-01

      Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are characterized by unusually high understory plant species diversity, but models describing understory ground cover biomass, and hence fuel load dynamics, are scarce for this fire-dependent ecosystem. Only coarse scale estimates, being restricted on accuracy and geographical extrapolation,...

    15. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jerzy Szweykowski

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

    16. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nielsen, N H

      1990-11-26

      An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

    17. Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Fernandez, M. E.; Gyenge, J. E.; Urquiza, M. M.; Varela, S.

      2012-11-01

      More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to understand how management practices can help to increase their adaptability to climate change. Growth magnitude and period, specific hydraulic conductivity, and anatomical traits (early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter, cell-wall thickness, tracheid length and bordered pit dimensions) were measured in the ring 2008-2009, which was formed during drought conditions. This drought event decreased annual stem growth by 30-38% and 58-65% respect to previous mean growth, in open vs. closed stand trees, respectively, indicating a higher sensitivity of the latter, which is opposite to reports from the same species growing in managed native forests in USA. Some wood anatomical variables did differ in more water stressed trees (lower cell wall thickness of early wood cells and higher proportion of small-lumen cells in late wood), which in turn did not affect wood function (hydraulic conductivity and resistance to implosion). Other anatomical variables (tracheid length, pit dimensions, early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter of early wood cells) did not differ between tree sizes and plantation density. The results suggest that severe drought affects differentially the amount but not the function and quality of formed wood in ponderosa pine growing at different competition levels. (Author) 41 refs.

    18. Biochemical modification of wood components

      OpenAIRE

      Josefsson, Peter

      2006-01-01

      The degradation of cellulose found in wood is one of the most important degradation processes for the carbon flux on earth. The degradation is performed by microorganisms that typically use enzymes. Since the cellulose in wood is crystalline and embedded in other polymers, making it inaccessible and durable, the enzymatic methods of cellulose degradation is also complex. In this thesis, the action of some of these enzymes, called cellulases, have been studied both fundamentally and for indust...

    19. Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Omil, Beatriz; Merino, Agustin [Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Escuela Politecnica Superior, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002 Lugo (Spain); Pineiro, Veronica [Centro de Apoyo Tecnologico (CACTUS), University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002 Lugo (Spain)

      2007-08-01

      Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha{sup -} {sup 1} (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem - soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed. (author)

    20. Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Omil, Beatriz; Piñeiro, Verónica; Merino, Agustín

      2007-08-01

      Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha(-1) (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem--soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed.