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Sample records for pinus taeda stands

  1. DENSITY MANAGEMENT DIAGRAM OF Pinus taeda L. UNTHINNED STAND

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    Paulo Sérgio Pigatto Schneider

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed with the purpose of studying the efficiency of the models which express the density-diameter relationship in stands of Pinus taeda L., implanted in several spacing and handled in unthinning density, and were measured every year until the of 18 age. Results indicated that all of the size-density relationship of Tang model presented good statistical precision, was more efficient than the others, presenting excellent coefficient of determination (0.99, low standard error of estimate (0.0948, low coefficient of variation (1.17%, low bias (0.0086 and high efficiency (0.8976. The slope of the size-density didn’t allow proving the universality of the self-tinning law, with value of this slope is equal -3/2. With help of the size-density model, 6 Indexes of Density of the Stands (IDPs were generated, with variation from the maximum 1400 to the minimum 600, with interval of class of IDP equal to 200, having as reference the standard diameter of 25 cm. The population’s Density Management Diagram (DMD, elaborated for the dendrometric variables – average diameter, basal area and volume for hectare (by IDP – presented good efficiency with low mistake in the estimate of the values of these variables. Real volume and estimate volume per hectare in DMD presented an absolute difference of just -7.39 m3ha-1 and a relative difference of -1.79 %, showing a great precision of the DMD model. The estimates volume of DMD per hectare, in relation to the real values, presented a value of efficiency equal to 0.99, what indicates a high precision, and an  value equal to 0.00034, not significant to 0.01% of probability, demonstrating that the real and the estimate values don't differ statistical amongst themselves. 

  2. FINE ROOT QUANTIFICATION IN A Pinus taeda L. STAND AND IN GRASSLAND AREA IN CAMBARÁ DO SUL (RS

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    Vicente Guilherme Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to comparatively quantify length and biomass of fine roots (≤ 2.0 mm in the soil profile (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 cm  and in the litter of a 15-year-old Pinus taeda L. stand, as well as in an adjacent Grassland area. The samples were obtained through monolith excavation. Roots were separated through washing and collecting and were then distributed over a white sheet of paper, where images were obtained with a digital camera. Using the software Image Tool for Windows version 3.00© the images were processed to quantify root length. Subsequently, roots were dried in a stove and, weighed to determine the biomass. The vegetation in the Grassland area showed 234.28% greater density of fine roots than the adjacent area where the Pinus taeda L.stand is located.

  3. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

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    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  4. Water availability and genetic effects on water relations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands.

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    Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A; Martin, Timothy A

    2010-03-01

    The effect of water availability on water relations of 11-year-old loblolly pine stands was studied over two growing seasons in material from two contrasting seed sources. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased transpiration rate, and maximum daily transpiration rate on irrigated plots was similar for both seasons, reaching values of 4.3 mm day(-)(1). Irrigation also changed soil water extraction patterns. In the rain-fed control plots, 73% of the average daily transpiration was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of the soil profile. Under irrigated conditions, 92% of transpired water was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of soil, with 79% of transpired water coming from the upper 0.35 m of the profile; only 10% of total transpiration in this treatment was extracted from the soil below 1 m. There was an irrigation x seed source interaction in the response of canopy conductance to water vapor (G(C)) to vapor pressure deficit (D). Under water-limited conditions, trees from the South Carolina seed source (SC) had stronger stomatal control than trees from the Florida seed source (FL), but this difference was not present when water was not limiting. The transpiration-induced water potential gradient from roots to shoots (DeltaPsi) was relatively constant across treatments (P = 0.52) and seed sources (P = 0.72), averaging 0.75 MPa. This reflects strong stomatal control that maintains relatively constant DeltaPsi but at the same time allows leaf water potential (Psi(l)) to fluctuate dramatically in synchrony with soil water potential (Psi(s)). The two seed sources evaluated also showed differences in foliar N and delta(13)C, possibly reflecting differences in adaptation to ambient humidity and water availability regimes in their respective ranges. These differences among seed sources under different water availability scenarios may be informative to natural resource managers and breeders as they design tree improvement and genetic deployment programs for

  5. Effects of stand development and weather on monthly leaf biomass dynamics of a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand

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    P.M. Dougherty; T.C. Hennessey; Stanley J. Zarnoch; P.t> Stenberg; R.T. Holeman; R.F. Witter

    1995-01-01

    Annual leaf biomass production, monthly needle accretion and monthly needlefall were measured in an 1l- to 17-year-old thinned stand of loblolly pine. Initial thinning levels were 7.8 m2 ha-1, 12.6 m2 ha-1, and 25.5 m2 ha-1...

  6. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND RETRANSLOCATION IN THE Pinus taeda L. NEEDLES

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    Márcio Viera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating nutrients concentration and retranslocation in the Pinus taeda L. needles, this study was developed in two stands, in native grass area and in second rotation area, with same species and same age (7.5 years old in Cambará do Sul, RS. The needles were collected in plants in four orthogonal points (South, North, East and West, sampled new needles, mature needles and old needles. The material was dried in a stove, milled and chemically analyzed (macro and micronutrients. The concentrations of N, P, K, B, Cu and Zn had decreased, of Ca, Fe and Mn increased, and the Mg and S have remained constant with the age of the needles. The retranslocation rate (old-new needles was more than 50% for most nutrients, except for Mn and Fe, showed that cumulative effect and the Ca reference element.

  7. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

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    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

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    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  8. Modeling seed dispersal distances: implications for transgenic Pinus taeda.

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    Williams, Claire G; LaDeau, Shannon L; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel G

    2006-02-01

    Predicting forest-tree seed dispersal across a landscape is useful for estimating gene flow from genetically engineered (GE) or transgenic trees. The question of biocontainment has yet to be resolved, although field-trial permits for transgenic forest trees are on the rise. Most current field trials in the United States occur in the Southeast where Pinus taeda L., an indigenous species, is the major timber commodity. Seed dispersal distances were simulated using a model where the major determinants were: (1) forest canopy height at seed release, (2) terminal velocity of the seeds, (3) absolute seed release, and (4) turbulent-flow statistics, all of which were measured or determined within a P. taeda plantation established from seeds collected from wild forest-tree stands at the Duke Forest near Durham, North Carolina, USA. In plantations aged 16 and 25 years our model results showed that most of the seeds fell within local-neighborhood dispersal distances, with estimates ranging from 0.05 to 0.14 km from the source. A fraction of seeds was uplifted above the forest canopy and moved via the long-distance dispersal (LDD) process as far as 11.9-33.7 km. Out of 10(5) seeds produced per hectare per year, roughly 440 seeds were predicted to be uplifted by vertical eddies above the forest canopy and transported via LDD. Of these, 70 seeds/ha traveled distances in excess of 1 km from the source, a distance too great to serve as a biocontainment zone. The probability of LDD occurrence of transgenic conifer seeds at distances exceeding 1 km approached 100%.

  9. Dinâmica da distribuição diamétrica de povoamentos de Pinus taeda, na região de Caçador, SC Dynamics of the diameter distribution of Pinus taeda stands, in the region of Caçador, SC, Brazil

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    Saulo Jorge Téo

    2011-09-01

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    O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar as funções de densidade probabilísticas (fdp’s Normal e SB de Johnson, para descrever as mudanças, com a idade, na estrutura diamétrica de povoamentos de Pinus taeda L., na região de Caçador, SC. Os dados utilizados foram provenientes de parcelas temporárias e permanentes, com idades variando de 5 a 11,9 anos, agrupadas em classes com intervalos de 1 ano. Foram ajustadas as fdp’s e obtidas as estimativas dos parâmetros de assimetria e curtose. Por meio do teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, verificou-se que, para as idades de 5 a 7,9 anos, as fdp’s Normal e SB de Johnson não apresentaram aderência satisfatória. As fdp’s SB de Johnson e Normal apresentaram melhor aderência para as idades de 8 a 9,9 e 10 a 11,9 anos, respectivamente. Utilizando a fdp Normal para analisar a dinâmica da distribuição diamétrica, verificou-se um deslocamento das curvas de distribuição diamétrica para a direita, um “achatamento” e um “alargamento” destas curvas ao longo dos anos. A assimetria foi negativa para todas as idades, exceto para as idades de 8 a 8,9 anos. A curtose foi leptocúrtica para todas as idades, e platicúrtica para as idades de 8 a 8,9 anos.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.183

    The objective of this work was to fit the probability density functions Normal and SB, to describe the changes, with age, in the diameter distribution of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda stands, in the region of Caçador, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The data came from permanent and temporary plots, with ages ranging from 5 to 11,9, grouped in age classes with intervals of 1 year. The probability density functions were fitted and, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the parameters of skewness and kurtosis were calculated. Basing on Kolmogorov-Smirnov test it was verified that, for ages from 5 to 7.9 years old, the Normal and SB functions

  10. Pinus taeda AND Pinus oocarpa PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING WITH FENOL-FORMALDHEYDE RESIN

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the plywood, manufactured from Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa, with 20 and 24 years old respectively, using three differentformulations of the fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of the glue line shearing tests not showed statistical differences between the species and three resin formulations. In the hot water test, all of the boards were classified as “BR” and, the boards of the Pinus oocarpa produced with formulations (1and (3, were classified as “WBP”. The different resin formulations not influenced on the modulus ofelasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR The boards of Pinus taeda with formulations (1 and(2 showed higher values of MOE in comparison of the Pinus oocarpa. The MOR of the Pinus oocarpa withformulation (2 was higher than Pinus taeda. The mechanical properties of the plywood wereprobably influenced by wood variability related to sapwood and hartwood, thickness of growth ringsand, springwood and summerwood.

  11. Multi-Season Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Analysis of Pinus taeda Needle Tissue

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    Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) is one of the worlds most important timber crop and accounts for a significant portion of the southeastern U.S. landcover. Biogenic voltile organic compound (BVOC) content was extracted from the tissue material of P. taeda needles and analyzed over a m...

  12. Modeling and mapping basal area of Pinus taeda L. plantation using airborne LiDAR data.

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    Silva, Carlos A; Klauberg, Carine; Hudak, Andrew T; Vierling, Lee A; Fennema, Scott J; Corte, Ana Paula D

    2017-08-14

    Basal area (BA) is a good predictor of timber stand volume and forest growth. This study developed predictive models using field and airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data for estimation of basal area in Pinus taeda plantation in south Brazil. In the field, BA was collected from conventional forest inventory plots. Multiple linear regression models for predicting BA from LiDAR-derived metrics were developed and evaluated for predictive power and parsimony. The best model to predict BA from a family of six models was selected based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) and assessed by the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R²) and root mean square error (RMSE). The best model revealed an adj. R²=0.93 and RMSE=7.74%. Leave one out cross-validation of the best regression model was also computed, and revealed an adj. R² and RMSE of 0.92 and 8.31%, respectively. This study showed that LiDAR-derived metrics can be used to predict BA in Pinus taeda plantations in south Brazil with high precision. We conclude that there is good potential to monitor growth in this type of plantations using airborne LiDAR. We hope that the promising results for BA modeling presented herein will stimulate to operate this technology in Brazil.

  13. Nitrogen metabolism in Lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures

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    van Heerden, P. S.; Towers, G. H.; Lewis, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The primary metabolic fate of phyenylalanine, following its deamination in plants, is conscription of its carbon skeleton for lignin, suberin, flavonoid, and related metabolite formation. Since this accounts for approximately 30-40% of all organic carbon, an effective means of recycling the liberated ammonium ion must be operative. In order to establish how this occurs, the uptake and metabolism of various 15N-labeled precursors (15N-Phe, 15NH4Cl, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Glu) in lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures was investigated, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography, 15N NMR, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analyses. It was found that the ammonium ion released during active phenylpropanoid metabolism was not made available for general amino acid/protein synthesis. Rather it was rapidly recycled back to regenerate phenylalanine, thereby providing an effective means of maintaining active phenylpropanoid metabolism with no additional nitrogen requirement. These results strongly suggest that, in lignifying cells, ammonium ion reassimilation is tightly compartmentalized.

  14. Genetic transformation of Pinus taeda by particle bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A protocol is presented for genetically engineering loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using particle bombardment. This protocol enabled the routine transformation of loblolly pine plants that were previously difficult to transform. Mature zygotic embryos were used to be bombarded and to generate organogenic callus and transgenic regenerated plants. Plasmid pB48.215 DNA contained a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) cryIAc coding sequence flanked by the double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (Nos) terminator sequences, and the selectable marker gene, neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) controlled by the promoter of the nopaline synthase gene was introduced into loblolly pine tissues by particle bombardment. The transformed tissues were proliferated and selected by kanamycin resistance conferred by the introduced NPTII gene. Shoot regeneration was induced from the kanamycin-resistant callus, and transgenic plantlets were then produced. The presence of the introduced genes in the transgenic loblolly pine plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) analysis, by Southern blot analysis, and insect feeding assays. The recovered transgenic plants were acclimatized and then established in soil.

  15. Viability of litter-stored Pinus taeda L. seeds after simulated prescribed winter burns

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    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    1998-01-01

    Stratified loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seeds were placed at three depths in a reconstructed forest floor and subjected to simulated prescribed winter burns. Within the forest floor, pine seeds were placed at the L/upper-F interface, upper-F/lower-F interface, and lower-F/mineral-soil interface. Wind was generated by electric box-fans. Seeds that...

  16. ALTURA DE VOO DE ESCOLITÍNEOS (COLEOPTERA, SCOLYTINAE EM POVOAMENTO DE Pinus taeda L. NO SUL DO BRASIL

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    Leonardo Mortari Machado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scolytids (Curculionidae, Scolytinae are small borer beetles belonging to the order Coleoptera that develop within or under the bark of trees. In northern countries, these insects cause significant damage especially when outbreaks occur. In Brazil, in general, the damage is minor when compared to the northern hemisphere. Given the importance of subfamily Scolytinae, this paper aims at providing a better understanding of the behavior of Scolytids, mainly regarding the flight height in a stand of Pinus taeda L. For the execution of this work 72, intercept flight traps were installed in area belonging to the State Foundation for Agricultural Research (FEPAGRO, located in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul state. The treatments correspond to heights of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; 4.0; 4.5; 5.0; 5.5 and 6.0 meters. It was possible to capture: Hypothenemus eruditus in greater abundance at the range of 1 to 1.5 meters; Xyleborus ferrugineus , Xyleborinus gracilis and Xyleborus affinis to 0.5 meters; Xyleborinus saxeseni and Xylosandrus retusus with no preference. It is concluded that the range between 0.5 and 1.5 meters is ideal to analyze quantitatively the scolytids present in the Pinus taeda.

  17. Quantificação das perdas no desenvolvimento de Pinus taeda após o ataque de formigas cortadeiras

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    Edison Bisognin Cantarelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the main purpose was to quantify the diameter, height and productivity index losses in initial development in Pinus taeda seedlings in stands in Argentine, after leaf cutting ants attack. The treatments were: T1 = control without attack; T2 = attacked by ants; and T3 = sequential artificial deneedling. The three development stages of the plants in two distinct slopes were also evaluated. The results allow concluding that there is a significant reduction in Pinus taeda development when attacked by leaf cutting ants during the first 24 months. In the artificially deneedled plants, there was a significant reduction related to the ones deneedled by the ants, for all the analyzed variables

  18. DIAGRAMA DE MANEJO DA DENSIDADE PARA POVOAMENTO DE Pinus taeda L. CONDUZIDO SEM DESBASTE

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    Paulo Sérgio Pigatto Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed with the purpose of studying the efficiency of the models which express the density-diameter relationship in stands of Pinus taeda L., implanted in several spacing and handled in unthinning density, and were measured every year until the of 18 age. Results indicated that all of the sizedensity relationship of Tang model presented good statistical precision, was more efficient than the others, presenting excellent coefficient of determination (0.99, low standard error of estimate (0.0948, low coefficient of variation (1.17%, low bias (0.0086 and high efficiency (0.8976. The slope of the sizedensity didn¿t allow proving the universality of the self-tinning law, with value of this slope is equal -3/2. With help of the size-density model, 6 Indexes of Density of the Stands (IDPs were generated, with variation from the maximum 1400 to the minimum 600, with interval of class of IDP equal to 200, having as reference the standard diameter of 25 cm. The population¿s Density Management Diagram (DMD, elaborated for the dendrometric variables - average diameter, basal area and volume for hectare (by IDP - presented good efficiency with low mistake in the estimate of the values of these variables. Real volume and estimate volume per hectare in DMD presented an absolute difference of just -7.39 m3ha-1 and a relative difference of -1.79 %, showing a great precision of the DMD model. The estimates volume of DMD per hectare, in relation to the real values, presented a value of efficiency equal to 0.99, what indicates a high precision, and an X 2 value equal to 0.00034, not significant to 0.01% of probability, demonstrating that the real and the estimate values don't differ statistical amongst themselves.

  19. Volume de madeira de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento. Wood volume of Pinus taeda L. at different growing spacings.

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    Rodrigo LIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus taeda L. é uma das espécies do gênero Pinus mais plantadas na região Sul do Brasil por apresentar excelente crescimento e ótima adaptação às condições climáticas e de solo. Essa espécie é utilizada em larga escala, principalmente para a produção de celulose, construção civil, laminação, produção de móveis, particulados e serraria. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção volumétrica de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento (entre 1 m2 e 16 m2 por planta propiciados por nove diferentes espaçamentos entre árvores de um ensaio em cinco blocos ao acaso. O trabalho baseou-se nas medidas de altura e DAP em 25 árvores internas da parcela, aos sete anos após plantio das mudas oriundas de pomar de sementes clonal. Valores estimados de volume por hectare foram inversamente proporcionais ao aumento do espaço vital, alcançando entre 74,2 e 274,8 m3 /ha. Os incrementos médios em volume atingiram entre 10,60 e 39,25 m3 /ha/ano. Concluiu-se que, se o objetivo é a produção volumétrica mesmo com diâmetros pequenos, deve-se optar por espaços vitais menores. Quando se deseja maiores diâmetros, a opção é por espaços maiores. No presente caso, o melhor compromisso entre produção volumétrica e diâmetros grandes pode estar nos espaços vitais intermediários, entre 5 e 8 m2 para cada árvore. Pinus taeda L. is one of the most Pinus species planted in southern Brazil, because it presents excellent growth and optimum adaptation to climatic and soil condition. The species is used in large scale, mainly for cellulose production, construction, laminating, production of furniture, particulates and sawmill. It was aimed to evaluate the Pinus taeda L. volumetric production at different growth vital spaces (ranging 1 m² and 16 m² per plant provided by nine different spacings between plants, the trial was installed in a randomized blocks with five replications. The study was based on height and DBH measurements

  20. Production of laminated veneer lumber LVL using veneer of Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of laminated veneer lumber - LVL manufactured with veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda. The LVL panels were manufactured in the laboratory conditions composed by seven veneers, 2,0 mm thickness, with different structural compositions, using phenol-formaldehyde resin. The veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum- paricá- were pre-classified by using stress wave machine. The veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda were disposed in the face layer to reinforce the structural strength of LVL panels. The LVL quality was evaluated using glue line shear strength and static bending test (MOE and MOR, edge and flat. Grading of paricá veneers based on MOEd did not affected significantly the results of the glue line shear strength and MOE and MOR edge. For the MOE and MOR flat, the use of veneers of MOEd grade 1 contributed significantly to increasing the average values of these properties. In the same way, using the Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of LVL resulted in higher average values of MOE and MOR, edge and flat.

  1. Liming and fertilisation in Pinus taeda plantations with severe nutrient deficiency in savanna soils

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    Araína Hulmann Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils with high acidity and low exchangeable bases may be responsible for low yields of Pinus taeda in a forest plantation at Jaguariaíva, Paraná State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liming and fertilisation, applied over litter, on two selected areas with Pinus taeda plantations. Soil, litter and pine needles were evaluated for K, Ca and Mg concentrations and soil acidity parameters. Seven treatments were applied: (i complete (N, P, K, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and lime; (ii without N, P, and K; (iii without Zn, Cu, B, and Mo; (iv without K; (v without Zn; (vi without lime; and (vii control (without nutrients and lime. Soil samples were collected at five soil depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm simultaneously with litter samples. Needles were also collected from the first and second pine flushes. Liming induced soil pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increases, and the opposite was observed for Al3+ and Al saturation. Fertilisation increased soil exchangeable K+ concentrations and needle and litter K concentrations. The low Ca and Mg concentrations found in the plant needles might be attributable to their low mobility.

  2. The Pinus taeda genome is characterized by diverse and highly diverged repetitive sequences

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    Yandell Mark

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In today's age of genomic discovery, no attempt has been made to comprehensively sequence a gymnosperm genome. The largest genus in the coniferous family Pinaceae is Pinus, whose 110-120 species have extremely large genomes (c. 20-40 Gb, 2N = 24. The size and complexity of these genomes have prompted much speculation as to the feasibility of completing a conifer genome sequence. Conifer genomes are reputed to be highly repetitive, but there is little information available on the nature and identity of repetitive units in gymnosperms. The pines have extensive genetic resources, with approximately 329000 ESTs from eleven species and genetic maps in eight species, including a dense genetic map of the twelve linkage groups in Pinus taeda. Results We present here the Sanger sequence and annotation of ten P. taeda BAC clones and Genome Analyzer II whole genome shotgun (WGS sequences representing 7.5% of the genome. Computational annotation of ten BACs predicts three putative protein-coding genes and at least fifteen likely pseudogenes in nearly one megabase of sequence. We found three conifer-specific LTR retroelements in the BACs, and tentatively identified at least 15 others based on evidence from the distantly related angiosperms. Alignment of WGS sequences to the BACs indicates that 80% of BAC sequences have similar copies (≥ 75% nucleotide identity elsewhere in the genome, but only 23% have identical copies (99% identity. The three most common repetitive elements in the genome were identified and, when combined, represent less than 5% of the genome. Conclusions This study indicates that the majority of repeats in the P. taeda genome are 'novel' and will therefore require additional BAC or genomic sequencing for accurate characterization. The pine genome contains a very large number of diverged and probably defunct repetitive elements. This study also provides new evidence that sequencing a pine genome using a WGS approach is

  3. Wildfire mitigation strategies affect soil enzyme activity and soil organic carbon in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests

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    R.E.J. Boerner; T.A. Waldrop; V.B. Shelburne

    2006-01-01

    We quantified the effects of three wildfire hazard reduction treatments (prescribed fire, thinning from below, and the combination of fire and thinning), and passive management (control) on mineral soil organic C, and enzyme activity in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests on the Piedmont of South Carolina. Soil organic C was reduced by thinning,...

  4. Modeling the longitudinal variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the United States

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    F. Antony; L. R. Schimleck; R. F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; D. B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is a major plantation species grown in the southern United States, producing wood having a multitude of uses including pulp and lumber production. Specific gravity (SG) is an important property used to measure the quality of wood produced, and it varies regionally and within the tree with height and radius. SG at different height levels...

  5. Orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda wood Forças de corte ortogonal na madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda

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    Raquel Gonçalves

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The distinct characteristics of juvenile and mature woods, which are observed particularly in softwoods, have an influence on processing due to their different mechanical resistance properties in relation to cutting operations. In the past, when most of the wood used industrially came from adult trees of natural forests, little importance was given to a distinction between different zones of the tree stem. At present, however, as the supply of mature trees with large diameters from native forests is constantly decreasing, the use of short-cycle trees has become a common practice, through the adoption of species that grow relatively fast, such as pines and eucalyptus. In both softwoods and hardwoods, juvenile wood cells are generally smaller and thinner than in mature wood, and this reflects on their density and mechanical resistance, which should have an effect on the cutting forces developed during processing. The main object of this research was to evaluate orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda woods. Cutting force magnitude differences were observed for those two regions of the trunk, with parallel cutting forces being 33.4% higher, on average, at the mature wood region for 90-0 cutting, and 12% higher for 90-90 cutting. This result is consistent with the distinct anatomical structures of the material, since the forces developed during machining depend directly upon its properties.As características distintas dos lenhos juvenil e adulto, existentes principalmente na formação das coníferas, influenciam na usinagem devido às diferentes propriedades de resistência mecânica ao corte. No passado, quando a maior parte da madeira utilizada industrialmente era proveniente de árvores adultas de florestas naturais, pouca importância era dada à diferenciação de zonas no tronco. Atualmente, no entanto, com o decréscimo constante do suprimento de árvores adultas de grandes diâmetros, provenientes de florestas nativas

  6. MODELLING GROWTH AND YIELD OF Pinus taeda L. USING DIFUSION PROCESS

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    Rozane de Loyola Eisfeld

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work tested a methodology for growth and yield modeling. The diffusion process is not yet widely used incommercial plantations in Brazil, but it can provide predictions comparable to others methodologies, producing satisfactory resultsto simulate growth and yield. For this purpose, 325 permanent samples established in unthinned Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine standsowned by the International Paper of Brazil Co were used. The diffusion process methodology consists in connecting growthincrement and mortality models in Kolmogorov equation . Seventy sample plots were randomly chosen in order to make thecomparison among the observed and predicted values. In general, the diffusion process provided satisfactory estimates of number oftrees, basal area per hectare and stem volume.

  7. USE OF RESIDUES OF FORESTRY EXPLORATION OF Pinus taeda FOR PARTICLEBOARD MANUFACTURE

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the quality of particleboards manufactured with forest exploitation waste from Pinus taeda. The material in the form of branches, tree tops, stumps and roots, was obtained from a forest plantation located in the Municipality of Mafra -SC. All the material was processed into wood chips for biomass and transported to the place of studies. The Pinus industrial particles were used as control and mixed with the waste in different proportions. The experimental plan consisted of the panels manufacture with 100% of each type of material and mixture of these com proportions of 75/25%, 50/50% and 25/75% with Pinus industrial particles, in addition to the mixture in equal parts, of the three types of materials. Experimental panels were manufactured with nominal density of 0.75 g/cm3, using the urea-formaldehyde resin, in the proportion of 8% of solids -dry weight basis of the particles. The panels were pressed with specific pressure of 4.0 MPa, temperature of 160ºC and pressing time of 8 minutes. The results of the internal bond tests met the requirements of the standard EN 312, is indicative that there has been a proper bonding of these particles originating forest exploitation wastes. General evaluations of the physical and mechanical properties results of the experimental panels indicate the possibility of use of particles obtained from branches, tree tops, stumps and roots, mixed com the industrial Pinus particles, in proportion of, up to, 50%, for particleboard manufacture.

  8. Avaliação e seleção precoce para crescimento de Pinus taeda Early evaluation and selection for growth in Pinus taeda

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    Estefano Paludzyszyn Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes métodos de seleção quanto aos caracteres ligados ao crescimento do fuste e o potencial da seleção precoce de genitores. Em 48 progênies de meios-irmãos de Pinus taeda L., foi medido o diâmetro do fuste a 30 cm e a 1,30 m do solo, aos 16 e 84 meses de idade, além da altura total. As progênies foram cultivadas em espaçamento tradicional e reduzido. Os componentes de variância, parâmetros e valores genéticos aditivos foram obtidos a partir de um modelo de análise individual. A seleção indireta foi de eficiência similar à direta quanto ao diâmetro (93% e menor quanto à altura (78%. A seleção seqüencial foi 16% (altura e 28% (diâmetro mais eficiente que a seleção única. A eficiência da seleção combinada foi maior em relação a direta para diâmetro. Vinte genitores selecionados por valores genéticos aditivos quanto ao diâmetro, aos 16 e 84 meses, aumentaram a média em 7,6% e 8,1%, respectivamente. A alta magnitude da correlação genética no que diz respeito ao diâmetro entre idades revelou que esse caráter, avaliado aos 16 meses de idade, prediz o crescimento aos 84 meses. Isso reduz custos de avaliação de progênies, antecipa o desbaste de genitores e a oferta de sementes melhoradas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of selection in growth traits and early selection. Individual total height and stem diameter at 30 cm above the ground in close-spaced early genetic evaluation at 16 months were assessed. In a 84 month sib cohort, as a comparison, height and diameter at breast height were evaluated. Phenotypic and genetic parameters for height and diameter were estimated for 48 open-pollinated families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. planted in Southern Brazil using an individual tree model. In this retrospective study, the indirect selection was of similar effectiveness as direct selection in stem

  9. Modelos de afilamento para o sortimento do fuste de Pinus taeda L Taper function for assortment of Pinus taeda L. stem

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    Carlos Alberto Martinelli de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes modelos de afilamento do fuste de Pinus taeda para estimar variáveis de interesse ao longo do fuste. Foram avaliadas as funções propostas por Anony, Kozak, Munro, Silva & Sterba, Prodan e o Polinômio de 5° grau. O estudo teve como base dados de cubagem rigorosa de 68 árvores, provenientes de plantios com idade de 25 anos, pertencentes à empresa Florestal Gateados Ltda, localizada no município de Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina (SC, Brasil. A partir das estatísticas coeficiente de determinação ajustado (R²aj, erro padrão das estimativas (Syx, desvio médio, média das diferenças (md e desvio padrão das diferenças (dpd foi selecionado o Polinômio do 5° grau para estimar as variáveis ao longo do fuste, como a altura comercial, o volume comercial, os diâmetros e os volumes das 1ª e 2ª toras. Em relação à altura comercial, a equação proveniente do modelo escolhido apresentou resultados sem tendências e com erros oscilando em intervalo pequeno. Em se tratando do volume comercial, pode ser observada certa tendência em subestimativas para as árvores com menores DAP e uma leve tendência para aquelas árvores com maior DAP. Em relação ao diâmetro e ao volume da 1a tora, houve superestimativa dos valores, mas com erros baixos, principalmente para o diâmetro. Para as estimativas do diâmetro e do volume da 2ª tora, os resultados foram melhores do que os encontrados na 1a tora, com leve tendência em subestimar o diâmetro e, praticamente, sem tendência para o volume.This research had as objective to evaluate different taper models for Pinus taeda and select the best one to estimate variables of interest throughout the stem. The functions proposed by Anony, Kozak, Munro, Silva & Sterba, Prodan and the 5° degree Polynomial were evaluated. With data from rigorous cubage of 68 trees, with 25 years old, coming from plantation of Florestal Gateados Ltda, located, in the

  10. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT MULCH MATERIALS AND SHELTER, IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PLANTS OF Pinus taeda L., BY DIRECT SOWING

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    Marcio Ricardo Serpa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has had as its objectives to evaluate different covering materials and physical protector's use in the forest population of Pinus taeda L. in direct sowing in the field. Three materials were used: vermiculit, dried and pricked pine needles, peel of rice and reference without covering, with and without physical protector (plastic cup of 300 ml, without botton, with five replications. The sowing was accomplished in the first half of May of 1997, being used three seeds per point. The evaluations done were: emergency at the 60 and 90 days, survival at the 120, 180 and 210 days and population density at the 210 days after sowing. The variance and averages analysis (Duncan 5%, has allowed to conclude that: the vermiculit and pine needles affected beneficially the number of plants emerged in the first 60 days, that is the most critical phase for the future of the forest population of Pinus taeda; the physical protector, provides the formation of a microenvironment, that guarantees larger percentage in the emergence, survival and initial density of plants of Pinus taeda; the direct sowing demonstrated to be a viable technique.

  11. Monoterpene synthases of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) produce pinene isomers and enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M A; Savage, T J; Croteau, R

    1999-12-01

    The turpentine fraction of conifer oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene olefins and plays important roles in defense and in the mediation of chemical communication between conifer hosts and insect predators. The stereochemistry of the turpentine monoterpenes is critical in these interactions, influencing host recognition, toxicity, and potency of derived pheromones, and the stereochemical composition of these compounds lends insight into their biogenetic origin, with implications for the numbers and types of enzymes responsible and their corresponding genes. Analysis of the oleoresin from several tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) showed the derived turpentine to consist mainly of (+)-(3R:5R)-alpha-pinene and (-)-(3S:5S)-beta-pinene. Cell-free extracts from xylem tissue yielded three monoterpene synthases which together account for the monoterpene isomer and enantiomer content of the turpentine of this tissue. The major products of these enzymes, produced from the universal precursor of monoterpenes, geranyl diphosphate, were shown to be (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, respectively. In most properties (molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa, K(m) for geranyl diphosphate of 3 microM, requirement for monovalent and divalent cations), these enzymes resemble other monoterpene synthases from conifer species.

  12. Propriedades de resistência e rigidez da madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda L.

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    Ballarin Adriano Wagner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o estudo da variabilidade das propriedades de resistência e rigidez à flexão estática e à densidade aparente (12% entre a madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda L., de 37 anos de idade, procedente do Horto Florestal de Manduri, Estado de São Paulo. Na primeira parte do trabalho foram determinadas a região de madeira juvenil, a região de transição e a região de madeira adulta, por meio de estudos anatômicos (comprimento dos traqueídes axiais, segundo as recomendações das normas ABNT e IAWA. Os resultados mostraram que a região de madeira juvenil dessa espécie ocorre aproximadamente até o 18º anel de crescimento. Na segunda parte do trabalho foram analisados a resistência (módulo de ruptura - MOR à flexão, o módulo de elasticidade (MOE nessa mesma solicitação e a densidade aparente (12% para as madeiras juvenil e adulta. Os resultados mostraram que o MOE e o MOR da madeira juvenil foram menores e mais variáveis que aqueles obtidos para madeira adulta. A densidade apresentou a mesma tendência observada nas propriedades avaliadas no ensaio de flexão estática.

  13. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) female gametophyte and embryo pH changes during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Johnson, Shannon

    2009-06-01

    Stage-specific measurements of female gametophyte (FG) and embryo pH (hydrogen ion concentration) were made through the sequence of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed development. The FG tissue from two open-pollinated trees showed similar pH profiles starting at 5.5 shortly after fertilization, increasing to about 6.1 at stage 7, levelling off at 6.3-6.5 towards the end of development and dropping to 6.0 just before cone opening. Measurements of the chalazal end were 0.05-0.2 pH units less than the micropylar end through early-to-mid-development. In contrast, embryo pH maintained a nearly constant value near 7.0 through development. Profiles of pH through seed development were similar whether portrayed by date or stage of embryo present in the seed. The pH profiles assisted in the development of improved embryogenic tissue initiation techniques. When post-autoclaving maturation medium pH was raised from about 5.3 in control medium to 5.7 or 5.5-5.7 with 2(n-morpholino)ethanesulphonic acid, cotyledonary embryo yields increased.

  14. Hygroscopicity of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda subjected to thermal treatment

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    Karina Soares Modes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the thermal treatment technique under two conditions—autoclave combined with electric oven and electric oven only—on the hygroscopic properties of wood from Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, comparing them with results obtained for untreated wood. Three trees at age 25 years were sampled, with boards being removed at DBH level in order to make specimens 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size in the radial, tangential and axial direction respectively. In the combined treatment, specimens were subjected to thermal treatment in an autoclave set at 130°C/± 3°C and kgf/cm² pressure for 3 hours, then to a conditioning period, followed by heat in an electric oven set at 160°C/±1°C for the same time. Properties being evaluated included water absorption rate, volumetric swelling, water repellency effectiveness and anti-swelling efficiency. Results revealed that the thermal treatments being adopted were effective in reducing hygroscopicity and in increasing the dimensional stability of both species, revealing also that the combined autoclave and electric oven treatment provides best results.

  15. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities

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    Joshua W. Campbell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensively-managed pine (Pinus spp. have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine (P. taeda plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3–4 year old pine plantations and 9–10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.

  16. Influences of antibiotics on plantlet regeneration via organogenesis in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei; Latoya Harris; Ronald J. Newton

    2003-01-01

    Three antibiotics ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cefotaxime were evaluated for their effects on induction, growth, and differentiation of organogenic calli, as well as rooting of regenerated shoots of three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes. Of the antibiotics administered, cefotaxime maximally increased the frequency of callus formation and growth rate of organogenic calli, carbenicillin maximally increased the frequency of shoot regeneration and the average number of adventitious shoots per piece of organogenic callus, ampicillin maximally decreased the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots and mean number of roots per regenerated shoot, in comparison with antibiotic-free media. Compared with the control, ampicillin minimally increased the frequency of callus formation, cefotaxime minimally increased the frequency of shoot regeneration, and carbenicillin minimally decreased the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots in three loblolly pine genotypes tested. All three antibiotics increased the frequencies of callus formation and shoot regeneration, and reduced the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots suggested that the establishment of an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into loblolly pine need to select a suitable antibiotic. This investigation could be useful for optimizing genetic transformation of conifers.

  17. Hydrophobicity of an Entisol under loblolly pine (Pinus taeda plantation Hidrofobicidade em Neossolo litólico sob plantação de Pinus taeda

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    Claudia Maria Branco de Freitas Maia

    2010-10-01

    estruturas  químicas de ácidos húmicos extraídos de solos  coletados a três profundidades de um Neossolo sob plantação de Pinus taeda. Os resultados das análises  espectroscópicas e químicas (ultra-violeta,  fluorescência, ressonância paramagnética eletrônica e difração de raio-X indicaram que a ocorrência de  estruturas conjugadas, grupos aromáticos e radicais orgânicos livres e, portanto, maiores índices de  humificação, aumentaram com a profundidade do  solo. Grupos alifáticos na fração húmica estavam  mais concentrados nas camadas superficiais, o que pode ser explicado pelo constante aporte de liteira na superfície. Testes da repelência à água apontaram
    maior hidrofobicidade na superfície do solo, provavelmente devido a componentes não húmicos da matéria orgânica, tais como suberina e cutina.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.62.93

  18. Soil Physical and Chemical Attributes and Their Relation to Pinus taeda Growth and Productivity. Atributos Físicos e Químicos do Solo e suas Relações com o Crescimento e a Produtividade do Pinus taeda

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    Antonio Francisco Jurado Bellote

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to evaluate the effect of soil chemical and physical attributes on the productivity of 20 year-old Pinus taeda stands planted on different soil types and with different growth rates, four sites were selected based on previous inventory, in two municipalities in the State of Paraná. Experimental plots were established on these areas where dominant trees were selected. Data on DBH and height were recorded and stem cross section disks at different heights were collected. Also, soil samples at different depths were collected. Growth variables and tree volumes were analyzed and correlations with soil chemical and physical traits were estimated. The results showed that wood production was influenced mainly by soil physical traits. Of special importance was the amount of moisture available in the soil and the resistance to root penetration. On poor sites, productivity can be
    increased by adopting some silvicultural measures such as pruning, thinning, fertilization and soil tillage.
    Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo na produtividade do Pinus taeda, plantado em diferentes tipos de solo e com ritmos de crescimento variados, foram selecionadas, através do inventário florestal, quatro plantios com 20 anos de idade, em dois municípios do Estado do Paraná. Nestes sítios foram demarcadas parcelas experimentais, selecionadas árvores representativas do extrato dominante, coletados dados dendrométricos de altura e diâmetro, discos do lenho de diferentes alturas do tronco e amostras de solo em diferentes profundidades. Os parâmetros de crescimento e volume das árvores foram analisados e correlacionados com as propriedades físicas e químicas do solo. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a produtividade de madeira é influenciada
    pelas propriedades, principalmente físicas, do solo, em especial pela quantidade de água dispon

  19. Endophytic Bacteria from Pinus taeda L. as Biocontrol Agents of Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O'Donnell Bacterias Endófitas de Pinus taeda L. como Agentes de control Biológico de Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O'Donnell

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    Silvina Soria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O'Donnell, the pitch canker fungus, has been recently reported in Uruguay affecting Pinus taeda L. seedlings. The spread of this pathogen to plantations constitute a risk to forestry production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of live bacteria and their thermostable metabolites on F. circinatum growth in vitro. Four Bacillus subtilis strains and one of Burkholderia sp. isolated as P. taeda endophytes were evaluated as biological control agents of F. circinatum. Dual cultures between live bacteria and pathogen were performed. Furthermore, bacteria metabolites obtained from liquid cultures were sterilized and added to the culture media where fungus was grown. In this study all bacteria showed an antagonist effect on the pathogen growth arresting the mycelia at one cm of the edge of the bacteria colony. Bacteria thermostable metabolites reduced over 50% fungal growth. These results demonstrates that endophytic bacteria, well adapted to live in host tissues, constitute a good alternative to control F. circinatum affecting Pinus seedlings.La presencia de Fusarium circinatum Niremberg & O'Donnell, agente causal del cancro resinoso en pino, ha sido detectada recientemente en plántulas de Pinus taeda L. en Uruguay. La propagación de este patógeno en las plantaciones constituye un riesgo para la producción forestal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la capacidad inhibitoria de bacterias vivas y de sus metabolitos termoestables sobre el crecimiento de F. circinatum in vitro. Cuatro cepas de Bacillus subtilis y una de Burkholderia sp. aisladas como endófitas de P. taeda, fueron evaluadas como potenciales agentes de control biológico sobre F. circinatum. Para ello, se realizaron enfrentamientos directos entre las bacterias vivas y el micelio del patógeno. Por otra parte, los metabolitos bacterianos obtenidos de cultivos líquidos fueron esterilizados en autoclave y se incorporaron al

  20. GENOTYPE BY ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN Pinus taeda L. IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EAST BRAZIL

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    Estefano Paludzyszyn Filho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype x environment interactions of stem volume were investigated by assessing the variation in 46 open-pollinated loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. families from first-generation cloned seed orchard in four genetic trials in the south and south-east Brazil. They were used to obtain least squares and restricted maximum likelihood (REML estimates of variance components. Familie-by- trial interaction effects were evaluated by adjusting the mixed univariate model that contained data of two and four places tested by the likelihood ratio test. Breeding values from local data (univarate procedure and predicted to the others sites (multivariate procedure were obtained from best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP. The adjusted and average (obtained from local and predicted to other sites breeding values were used to select parents and trees. The interaction effects and the adjusting of the mixed models were statistically significant, respectively, by F test and by likelihood ratio test. The loss of potential gain, sustained by not selecting the best families by site was 3.2%. For parents, the loss in mean productivity by indirect selection was respectively 2.3%. In the individual tree selection for seedling seed orchard, no loss of potential gain was observed when selection was carried by average genetic breeding values. For clonal seed orchard with the selection of ten more greater genetic breeding values trees, the interaction cause a inflation of 2% in the average productivity. In this case, the selection by average breeding values was the best procedure and may prove to be a useful tool, in selection stem volume, when genotype x environment interaction is significant.

  1. Osmotic measurements in whole megagametophytes and embryos of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Johnson, Shannon

    2009-06-01

    Water potential (Psi) and osmotic potential (Psis) were measured weekly through the sequence of seed development in megagametophytes of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). A Wescor 5500XRS vapor pressure osmometer, modified with a cycle hold switch, was used to measure Psi for whole megagametophytes containing embryos. The Psi measurements for megagametophytes with embryos removed were also attempted but readings were distorted due to cell lysates from the cut surfaces. Six seasonal sets of megagametophyte Psi profiles were generated. Megagametophytes from most of the trees examined showed a consistent Psi pattern: low measurements of -1.0 to -0.75 MPa during early embryo development in late June to early July when embryo Stages 1-2 occur; an increase for one to several weeks to levels of -0.5 to -0.75 MPa, beginning at Stages 3-5 when apical dome formation occurs; followed by a steady drop from -0.85 to -1.7 to -2.0 MPa from Stage 6 onward from late August until just before cone seed release. The Psis was measured for supernatant from centrifuged frozen-thawed megagametophyte tissue (embryos removed). Megagametophyte Psis profiles were similar for seeds analyzed from two trees and resembled Psi observations starting low, rising around Stages 4-7 and then undergoing a major reduction indicating a strong solute accumulation beginning at Stages 7-9.1. Somatic embryos stop growth prematurely in vitro at Stages 8-9.1. The major change in the accumulation of megagametophyte solutes at Stages 8-9.1 correlates with the halt in somatic embryo maturation and suggests that identifying, quantifying and using the major natural soluble compounds that accumulate during mid- to late-stage seed development may be important to improve conifer somatic embryo maturation.

  2. Expression patterns of conserved microRNAs in the male gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Christina R; Iriyama, Rie; Fernando, Danilo D

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate genes involved in various aspects of plant development, but their presence and expression patterns in the male gametophytes of gymnosperms have not yet been established. Therefore, this study identified and compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs from two stages of the male gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), which are the mature (ungerminated) and germinated pollen. Microarray was used to identify conserved miRNAs that varied in expression between these two stages of the loblolly pine male gametophyte. Forty-seven conserved miRNAs showed significantly different expression levels between mature and germinated loblolly pine pollen. In particular, miRNAs representing 14 and 8 families were up- and down-regulated in germinated loblolly pine pollen, respectively. qRT-PCR was used to validate their expression patterns using representative miRNAs. Target genes and proteins were identified using psRNATarget program. Predicted targets of the 22 miRNA families belong mostly to classes of genes involved in defense/stress response, metabolism, regulation, and signaling. qRT-PCR was also used to validate the expression patterns of representative target genes. This study shows that conserved miRNAs are expressed in mature and germinated loblolly pine pollen. Many of these miRNAs are differentially expressed, which indicates that the two stages of the male gametophyte examined are regulated at the miRNA level. This study also expands our knowledge of the male gametophytes of seed plants by providing insights on some similarities and differences in the types and expression patterns of conserved miRNAs between loblolly pine with those of rice and Arabidopsis.

  3. Back to nature: ecological genomics of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; Bower, Andrew D; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Coop, Graham; Neale, David B

    2010-09-01

    Genetic variation is often arrayed in latitudinal or altitudinal clines, reflecting either adaptation along environmental gradients, migratory routes, or both. For forest trees, climate is one of the most important drivers of adaptive phenotypic traits. Correlations of single and multilocus genotypes with environmental gradients have been identified for a variety of forest trees. These correlations are interpreted normally as evidence of natural selection. Here, we use a genome-wide dataset of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) typed from 1730 loci in 682 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees sampled from 54 local populations covering the full-range of the species to examine allelic correlations to five multivariate measures of climate. Applications of a Bayesian generalized linear mixed model, where the climate variable was a fixed effect and an estimated variance-covariance matrix controlled random effects due to shared population history, identified several well-supported SNPs associating to principal components corresponding to geography, temperature, growing degree-days, precipitation and aridity. Functional annotation of those genes with putative orthologs in Arabidopsis revealed a diverse set of abiotic stress response genes ranging from transmembrane proteins to proteins involved in sugar metabolism. Many of these SNPs also had large allele frequency differences among populations (F(ST) = 0.10-0.35). These results illustrate a first step towards a ecosystem perspective of population genomics for non-model organisms, but also highlight the need for further integration of the methodologies employed in spatial statistics, population genetics and climate modeling during scans for signatures of natural selection from genomic data.

  4. Genetic effects on total phenolics, condensed tannins and non-structural carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Michael J; King, John S; Booker, Fitzgerald L; McKeand, Steven E

    2011-08-01

    Carbon allocation to soluble phenolics (total phenolics, proanthocyanidins (PA)) and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; starch and soluble sugars) in needles of widely planted, highly productive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact stand resistance to herbivory, and biogeochemical cycling in the southeastern USA. However, genetic and growth-related effects on loblolly pine needle chemistry are not well characterized. Therefore, we investigated genetic and growth-related effects on foliar concentrations of total phenolics, PA and TNC in two different field studies. The first study contained nine different genotypes representing a range of genetic homogeneity, growing in a 2-year-old plantation on the coastal plain of North Carolina (NC), USA. The second study contained eight clones with different growth potentials planted in a 9-year-old clonal trial replicated at two sites (Georgia (GA) and South Carolina (SC), USA). In the first study (NC), we found no genetic effects on total phenolics, PA and TNC, and there was no relationship between genotype size and foliar biochemistry. In the second study, there were no differences in height growth between sites, but the SC site showed greater diameter (diameter at breast height (DBH)) and volume, most likely due to greater tree mortality (lower stocking) which reduced competition for resources and increased growth of remaining trees. We found a significant site × clone effect for total phenolics with lower productivity clones showing 27-30% higher total phenolic concentrations at the GA site where DBH and volume were lower. In contrast to the predictions of growth-defense theory, clone volume was positively associated with total phenolic concentrations at the higher volume SC site, and PA concentrations at the lower volume GA site. Overall, we found no evidence of a trade-off between genotype size and defense, and genetic potential for improved growth may include increased allocation to some

  5. Physico-Chemical Properties and Biodegradability of Genetically Modified Populus trichocarpa and Pinus taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Charles Warren

    Increasing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions and the finite supply of fossil fuels lead to the goal of utilizing lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuels, platform chemicals, and biocomposites. Lignin is responsible for the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass and is a major barrier to its deconstruction. Great progress has been made in mapping and modifying the lignin biosynthetic pathway. However, the link between the genetic modification, resulting chemical and physical properties of the wood, and how these properties influence the thermomechanical and recalcitrance to biological and chemical degradation needs further investigation. In this dissertation, the study of modified Populus trichocarpa and Pinus taeda were utilized to accomplish this goal. Thermo-mechanical properties of genetically modified P. trichocarpa with altered lignin content and/or lignin structure were measured with a series of tools including; dynamic mechanical analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, and wet chemistry techniques. Results demonstrated lignin content and lignin structure likely influence the glass transition temperature (Tg), and that decreased lignin content and the corresponding higher proportion of cell wall carbohydrates may contribute to increased molecular mobility in the wood polymer structure. The effect of lignin biosynthetic pathway modification on biological degradation of these transgenic wood specimens was of interest. However, experimental methods for fungal treatment on small young greenhouse-grown wood specimens are not well established. Therefore, a project was undertaken to develop a method for fungal inoculation and incubation for these unique specimens. Several parameters were tested, and a fungal treatment method was identified with sufficient weight loss after decay and significant reduction in variation of weight loss between replicates compared to previous experiments by direct inoculation of wood with liquid malt extract fungal culture

  6. Isolamento e seleção de rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de Pinus taeda Isolation and selection of Pinus taeda growth promoting rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Margarido Fonseca Couto Brunetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos isolar e selecionar rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de P. taeda. O isolamento foi realizado a partir de mudas com 150 dias de idade, realizando-se a seleção por meio da inoculação dos isolados (10(8 u.f.c mL-1 na proporção de 0,1 mL de inóculo.cm-3 de substrato. Aos 150 dias de semeadura, avaliaram-se as seguintes variáveis: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro do coleto e pesos de matéria seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Entre 99 isolados testados em P. taeda, apenas seis (UFV-AL9, UFV-AM5, UFV-AM2, UFV-F3, UFV-G2 e UFV-G4 destacaram-se quanto à indução de crescimento e ao melhor índice de qualidade de muda. Não se observaram diferenças significativas entre a testemunha e os demais isolados testados.The objectives of this research were to isolate and select P. taeda growth promoting rhizobacteria. The bacteria were isolated from 150 day-old pine seedlings and the selection was carried out with the strains inoculation (10(8 u.f.c/mL in the proportion of 0.1 mL/cm³. After 150 days of sowing, aerial part height, stem diameter and roots and aerial part dry matter weight were evaluated. From the 99 tested strains, six (UFV AL9, UFV-AM5, UFV-AM2, UFV-F3, UFV-G2 and UFV-G4 stood out due to their capacity of stimulating the growth and quality improvement of P. taeda seedlings. Significant differences were not observed between the control and the other tested strains.

  7. MODELOS DE AFILAMENTO PARA Pinus taeda L. BASEADOS EM PONTOS DE MUDANÇA DE FORMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martinelli de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi concebido com os objetivos de determinar matematicamente os pontos de mudança da forma do fuste ( pmf , o número de mudanças na forma geométrica, ajustar e comparar modelos matemáticos para estimar os diâmetros ao longo do fuste de Pinus taeda L . Os dados foram amostrados em árvores que cresceram em povoamento implantado em espaçamento de 2,50 x 2,50 m e manejado com dois desbastes, aos 9 e 14 anos, e corte final aos 30 anos pertencentes à Klabin S.A., em Telêmaco Borba, estado do Paraná. Quarenta árvores das classes médias e dominantes foram abatidas e cubadas pelo Método de Smalian, nas posições fixas de 0,10 m; 0,30 m; 0,80 m; 1,30 m; e após em comprimentos de 1 em 1 m, até a altura total. Na parte relativa à copa, os pontos de medição foram deslocados para os entrenós e a seguir foram retiradas fatias para análise de tronco, resultando, quando considerada a idade, em conjunto de dados relativos a 649 árvores com idades entre 8 a 30 anos, das quais foram selecionadas aleatoriamente, 50 árvores em cada classe de pmf para modelagem. As árvores foram agrupadas segundo os pmf de acordo com as quantidades de pontos definidos pela segunda derivada do polinômio do 5° ajustado para cada árvore. Com base nas estatísticas de ajuste e precisão na análise gráfica dos resíduos, nas estatísticas viés ( v , média das diferenças ( md e desvio padrão das diferenças ( dpd foi selecionado o Polinômio de quinto grau para estimar os diâmetros em alturas relativas do tronco e, alternativamente, o modelo de Garay, seguido do modelo de Max e Burkhart com dois ou modificado para um segmento conforme o número de pmf definidos na derivada.

  8. Reserva mineral de potássio em Latossolo cultivado com Pinus taeda L.

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    Michael Jonathan Fernandes Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, aproximadamente 1,87 milhões de hectares são plantados com as espécies de Pinus, normalmente em solos pobres quimicamente. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar a mineralogia das frações areia, silte e argila e estimar a reserva mineral de K por diferentes métodos de extrações químicas em solo naturalmente pobre nesse nutriente e cultivado com Pinus taeda L., no Segundo Planalto Paranaense. Foram selecionadas cinco árvores com maior diâmetro (árvores dominantes, em uma área de 500 m², para abertura de uma trincheira (1,6 m na projeção da copa de cada árvore. Todos os perfis foram classificados como Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico típico e apresentaram similaridade na morfologia e na sequência dos horizontes, cujas profundidades médias foram: O = 0,04 m, A1 = 0-0,09 m, A2 = 0,09-0,24 m, BA = 0,24-0,43 m, B1 = 0,43-0,66 m e B2 = 0,66-1,60+ m. As amostras coletadas em cada horizonte foram submetidas a análises físicas (granulometria e químicas (pH, carbono orgânico, acidez potencial, Al3+ e bases trocáveis, P disponível, K total e não trocável, e as frações areia, silte e argila foram estudadas por difratometria de raios-X (DRX. As frações areia e silte dos solos apresentaram mineralogia bastante uniforme, com predomínio absoluto de quartzo e apenas ocorrência de discretas reflexões de mica por DRX. A fração argila também apresentou limitada ocorrência de minerais micáceos. Os tratamentos sequenciais para remoção de óxidos de Fe, gibbsita e caulinita foram eficientes para concentração de mica na fração argila, o que facilitou a identificação de biotita e muscovita por DRX. Os baixos teores de K não trocável obtidos com diferentes concentrações de HNO3 fervente (máximo de 91 mg kg-1 e de K total extraído com HF concentrado (máximo de 202,7 mg kg-1 foram consistentes com a pobreza das frações do solo em minerais primários, fontes desse nutriente. As correla

  9. Short-term impacts of nutrient manipulations on leaf gas exchange and biomass partitioning in contrasting 2-year-old Pinus taeda clones during seedling establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Tyree; John R. Seiler; Chris A. Maier

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a 1-year greenhouse experiment to assess the impact of nutrient manipulations on seedling growth, biomass partitioning, and leaf gas exchange between two fast growing Pinus taeda clones that differed in growth efficiency. After 1 year we observed significant treatment and treatment by clone effects on growth, biomass partitioning, and...

  10. Short-term impacts of soil amendments on belowground C cycling and soil nutrition in two contrasting Pinus taeda L. genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C Tyree; John R Seiler; Christopher Maier

    2011-01-01

    We monitored two Pinus taeda L. genotypes, planted in 170 L lysimeters, subjected to different combinations of fertilization and logging residue (LR) incorporation for 1 year. The objectives were to elucidate how soil amendments modified soil biological properties and belowground C cycling, and secondly, to determine if planting of contrasting genotypes have a...

  11. Soil change and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seedling growth following site preparation tillage in the Upper Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad M. Lincoln; Rodney E. Will; Lawrence A. Morris; Emily A. Carter; Daniel Markewtiz; John R. Britt; Ben Cazell; Vic Ford

    2007-01-01

    To determine the relationship between changes in soil physical properties due to tillage and growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings, we measured soil moisture and penetration resistance for a range of tillage treatments on two Upper Coastal Plain sites in Georgia and correlated these measurements to the growth of individual seedlings. The...

  12. Dendronutrition as a tool to evaluate Pinus taeda wood productivity and quality Dendronutrição como ferramenta para avaliação da produtividade e da qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Francisco Jurado Bellote

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of mineral nutrients on tree growth and wood quality of Pinus taeda, on commercial plantation at 20 years after planting, on different soil types. Experimental plots were set, and from trees representing each population, stem disks were collected at different heights. Tree
    growth, wood quality and growth ring parameters – tracheids diameter and radial density by X-ray densitometry – were analyzed and related to mineral nutrient contents. Results showed negative correlation among Mn and Mg stem disk contents and Pinus taeda tree growth; negative correlation was also obtained among Ca, Mg and Mn contents and tracheids dimensions and wood density. There was no correlation among N, P, K and B contents in stem disks and tree growth or wood quality studied variables.  Dendronutrition concept – study of relationship among tree growth parameters and growth rings to mineral nutrient contents in stem – is discussed in this work.Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos nutrientes minerais na produtividade e qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda, em plantações florestais com 20 anos, em diferentes tipos de solo. Foram demarcadas parcelas experimentais e selecionadas árvores representativas da população para coleta de discos do lenho, a diferentes alturas do tronco. Parâmetros de crescimento das árvores e de qualidade da madeira e dos anéis de crescimento - dimensões dos traqueídeos e densidade radial por densitometria de raios X - foram analisados e relacionados com o teor de nutrientes minerais. Os resultados mostraram correlações negativas entre o teor de Mn e Mg no lenho com o crescimento das árvores e entre os teores de Ca, Mg e o Mn e as dimensões dos traqueídeos e densidade do lenho; não foi verificada correlação entre os teores de N, P, K e B no lenho com as variáveis analisadas. O conceito de dendronutrição - estudo da relação entre os parâmetros de crescimento

  13. RELAÇÕES ENTRE AS DIMENSÕES DA COPA E A ALTURA DAS ÁRVORES DOMINANTES EM POVOAMENTOS DE Pinus taeda L.

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    Veridiana Padoin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at describing and modeling the morphometric relationships among the crown diameter, the crown percentage, the length of the crown exposed to light and the height of the dominant trees in stand of Pinus taeda L., one hundred and eighty seven sample units were studied considering the type proposed by Prodan, modified for twelve trees, distributed on good and bad stands. In each sample unit, two dominant trees were identified and the dimensions of the diameter at breast height, the total height, the crown lengths and the length of crown exposed to light and the crown diameter under eight rays were measured. Results allowed concluding that the crown diameter and the length of the crown exposed to light grow with the increase of the dominant height, and the two relationships can be described with good statistical precision by a curvilinear mathematical model. The relationship of the crown percentage with the dominant height presented high statistical significance described by a decreasing curvilinear model, having been identified by analysis of covariance three different groups of curves according to the place of origin of the data. The crown percentage decreases with the increase of the dominant height.

  14. [Larvae culture of ovine gastrintestinal nematodes in sawdust substrates of Pinus taeda, P. elliottii and Araucaria angustifolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellato, Valdomiro; de Souza, Antonio P; Sartor, Amélia A; da Silva, Ana Valéria D B; Henschel, Gustavo Dos S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of sawdust substrates obtained from wood treated with sodium tribromophenate and not treated of Pinus elliotti, P. taeda, and Araucaria angustifolia in larval cultures of ovine gastrintestinal helminths. Feces samples were collected between 8 to 12am, from a lamb naturally infected with gastrintestinal nematodes and analysed by the modified Mc Master technique for worm egg counting (epg). Six groups of 20g of feces were prepared. Each group received 5g of one of the sawdust substrates and 5ml of distilled water. The material has been processed, identified and taken to a climatized chamber with a temperature of 27 +/- 1 degrees C, relative humidity above 70%, and in escotophase for seven days. The third stage larvae were recovered by the Baermann technique after four hours of sedimentation for the counting and identification of one hundred larvae per treatment. For each treatment were realized 10 repetitions. The average of EPG of Strongylida Order was 630. The average of the larvae number obtained in 20 grams of feces and the percentage of recovery in the different substrates based on the EPG was: P. taeda treated, 2719 (22.66%) and not treated, 2353 (20.08%); P. elliotti treated, 3069 (22.48%) and not treated, 3181 (24.54%); A. angustifolia treated, 2370 (18.73%) and not treated, 3361 (26.75%). There was no statistic difference in 5% level of significance between the averages and the number of larvae in the different substrates.

  15. Investigation on chemical composition and optimization of essential oil obtainment from waste Pinus taeda L. using hydrodistillation

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    Sirlei Dias Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The extraction of essential oils obtained by the hydrodistillation of needles/twigs waste of Pinus taeda L. was optimized by applying response surface methodology (RSM, with 24 full factorial design, in order to improve oil essential production, and aggregate value to the production chain of pine wood. Through the model it was possible to ascertain the influence of the variables in the average amount of essential oil (0.1032 mL, being the variables analyzed: biomass - Bm (x1, extraction time - ET (x2, Bm:ET (x1x2 and sample size - SS: drying times - DT (x3x4. Only linear terms (biomass and extraction time and your interaction demonstrated significant positive values (0.0344, 0.0206 and 0.0131. The major components of the essential oil identified by GC-MS were: β-phellandrene: (30.39 and 22.44%, tricyclene (26.14 and 20.46%, β-myrcene (14.32 and 11.50%, β-pinene (22.49 and 1.43% and α-pinene (0.25 and 11.26% in the years 2011 and 2012, respectively. Our results show that the essential oil obtained from P. taeda represents a way of using some of the waste generated by the timber industry. The process of obtaining doesn't require treatments such as controlled drying or size reduction of the sample, indicating that it can be used in an industrial scale.

  16. PROPRIEDADES FÍSICO-MECÂNICAS DE PAINÉIS AGLOMERADOS COM Bambusa tuldoides E Pinus taeda

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    Weslley Wilker Corrêa Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the physical and mechanical properties of particleboards formed of bamboo (Bambusa tuldoides and pine (Pinus taeda and combinations between them. To this end, panels were made, defined by the use of each type of particle (pure or mixed, being set 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of proportion to the dry weight, total of 36 panels. The physical tests performed were the moisture content, mass density observed, absorption of water and swelling in thickness and the mechanics were static bending test, screw withdrawal test and internal bond. The results tested for simple correlation and regression analysis. In general, panels pure pine showed better results than just the panels formed by bamboo. The inclusion of bamboo decreases mainly the mechanical properties of panels. All panels were below the minimum standards for the physical and mechanical tests, only internal bond in panels of pine homogeneous had higher values than commercial standards.

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and assessment of factors influencing transgene expression in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This investigation reports a protocol for transfer and expression of foreign chimeric genes in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Transformation was achieved by co-cultivation of mature zygotic embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 which harbored a binary vector (pBI121) including genes for 3-glucuronidase (GUS) and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTI1). Factors influencing transgene expression including seed sources of loblolly pine, concentration of bacteria, and the wounding procedures of target explants were investigated. The expression of foreign gene was confirmed by the ability of mature zygotic embryos to produce calli in the presence of kanamycin, by histochemical assays of GUS activity, by PCR analysis, and by Southern blot. The successful expression of the GUS gene in different families of loblolly pine suggests that this transformation system is probably useful for the production of the genetically modified conifers.

  18. Avaliação de protetores físicos em semeadura direta de Pinus taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Luciano Mattei

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O trabalho avalia a eficiência de protetores físicos de pontos, na implantação de Pinus taeda L. por semeadura direta. Como proteção foram utilizados o copo plástico, sem fundo, o  laminado de madeira e maravalha. Ambos colocados sobre pontos semeados com três  sementes cada. A análise de emergência, sobrevivência e número  de pontos com pelo menos uma planta, um ano após a semeadura,  demonstrou que a utilização de um protetor físico, é indispensável para evitar elevadas perdas de sementes, causadas por pássaros e pela movimentação do solo.

  19. EFEITO DA TERMORRETIFICAÇÃO NAS PROPRIEDADES MECÂNICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Pinus taeda E Eucalyptus grandis

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    Karina Soares Modes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of thermal treatment, employed under two treatment conditions on mechanical properties of wood of Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. From each species, three 25-year tress were sampled, and from each one, it was taken the first 2-meter long log, which was obtained from two boards of size 7,0 x 20,0 cm (thickness x width respectively diametrically opposite from where 30 specimens were saw for each treatment. At the first one, called the combined one, the woods were subjected to heat treatment by autoclaving at 130 / ± 3°C and pressure of 2 kgf / cm ² for 3 hours and, after a conditioning period, subjected to heat in an electric oven at 160 / ± 1°C for the same period. The second treatment consisted only of heat treatment in oven. It was also evaluated the pieces of wood without treatment (control. The mechanical properties were evaluated by means of tests for determining the modulus of elasticity and rupture in bending, maximum resistance to compression parallel to the grain and Janka hardness according to ASTM D 143 (1995, and the impact resistance according to ABNT NBR 7190 (1997. For Pinus taeda wood, it was observed that treatment in an oven gave the worst outcomes, both due to the reduction in the values of supported load of a greater number of mechanical properties evaluated, but also as compared to the lowest increments in resistance when it was observed an increase to the same ones with heat treatment. In Eucalyptus grandis, the combined treatment decreased the greatest number of mechanical properties of wood.

  20. 火炬松、湿地松和马尾松采穗圃营建技术%Building Techniques of Cuttings Orchard of Pinus taeda,Pinus elliottii and Pinus massoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来端

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of time and retention hei ght of topping on quantity,length and basal diameter of coppice shoot of Pinus taeda,Pinus elliottii and Pinus massonian a has been studied.The results showed that because of difference of b iological properties among three tree species, suitable time and retention heigh t of topping among three tree species are different.The suitable topping time o f Pinus taeda is August 20 to August 25,the best retention height of topping is 15 cm; The suitable topping time of Pinus masson iana is July 30, the best retention height of topping is 8 cm; The su itable topping time of Pinus elliottii is August 15 to Aug ust 20,the best retention height of topping is 15 cm.%通过不同剪顶时间和剪顶高度对火炬松、湿地松和马尾 松的萌条数量、长度和径粗的影响研究.结果表明:不同树种由于其生物学特性不同,适宜 的截顶时间、截顶高度表现不一致.火炬松适宜的截顶时间为8月20日至8月25日,截顶高度 以15 cm为最宜;马尾松适宜的截顶时间为7月30日,截顶高度为8 cm;湿地松适宜的截顶时 间为8月15日至8月20日,截顶高度为15 cm.

  1. Efeito da idade da muda e da estação do ano no enraizamento de miniestacas de Pinus taeda L. Effect of seedling age and season on rooting of Pinus taeda L. minicuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bomfim de Alcantara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinus taeda L., a principal espécie florestal plantada no Sul do Brasil, tem sua madeira usada como matéria-prima em serrarias, laminadoras e indústrias de aglomerado, MDF, celulose e papel. Devido à sua grande importância econômica, existe interesse no desenvolvimento de técnicas de propagação vegetativa que permitam a clonagem massal de mudas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da idade das mudas (60, 90, 120 e 150 dias e das quatro estações do ano no enraizamento de miniestacas de P. taeda. Miniestacas de 5 cm foram confeccionadas a partir de ramos herbáceos e tratadas com solução de Captan® 0,1%. Seu plantio foi realizado em tubetes com substrato Mecplant® na camada inferior e 2 cm de vermiculita na porção superior. As miniestacas foram mantidas em casa de vegetação durante 120 dias, com temperaturas entre 15 e 25 ºC e umidade relativa do ar em torno de 90%. Avaliaram-se as porcentagens de miniestacas enraizadas, sobreviventes e mortas, o comprimento das três maiores raízes e o número e massa seca de raízes formadas por miniestaca. A idade das mudas influenciou o enraizamento, e a maior porcentagem (85% foi obtida com mudas mais jovens (60 dias. O inverno mostrou-se o período mais favorável para a coleta das miniestacas.Pinus taeda L. is the main forest tree species planted in Southern Brazil and its wood is used for sawlogs, venner, particle board, medium density fiberboard (MDF, pulp and paper industries. Due to its high economic importance, interest exists in developing techniques for vegetative propagation aiming at mass multiplication. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the age of seedlings used as mother plants (60, 90, 120 and 150 day-old and of the four seasons of the year on rooting of P. taeda minicuttings. Minicuttings of 5 cm in length were collected from herbaceous branches and treated with Captan® solution (0.1%. Minicuttings were planted in plastic tubes

  2. Alelopatia de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de Avena strigosa Allelopathic of Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of Avena strigosa seedlings

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    Laércio Ricardo Sartor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de aveia preta comum (Avena strigosa. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Bioquímica e Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR, Campus de Pato Branco, utilizando o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com tratamento fatorial (bifatorial com parcela subdividida no tempo, com três repetições, sob condições de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade controladas. Os tratamentos foram compostos por cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de extrato bruto de acículas de pínus em estágio vegetativo (acícula verde, moderadamente decomposto (acícula seca e em decomposição avançada (acícula decomposta. As avaliações foram realizadas a cada 24 horas. Foram avaliados os parâmetros porcentagem de germinação, velocidade média de germinação e comprimento de radículas e epicótilos das plântulas de Avena strigosa. O estágio de acícula verde afetou significativamente as variáveis avaliadas e esse problema aumentou com a concentração do extrato.The purpose of this study was to verify the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract from the Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of black oat (Avena strigosa seedlings. The work was carried out at the Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory at the Federal Technological University of Paraná (UTFPR, Campus Pato Branco, using a completely randomized design with factorial distribution in three replicates, under temperature, humidity and light controlled conditions. The extract from the pine needles was composed of five percentages (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the crude extract (EB dilution, composed of distilled water + pine needles in vegetative stage (green needles, moderately decomposed (dry needles and in advanced decomposition (decomposed needles. The

  3. Pathways of stand development in ageing Pinus sylvestris forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, Vincent; Mohren, G.M.J.; Geudens, Guy; Wulf, de R.; Lust, Noel

    2004-01-01

    Question: What are the main pathways of long-term stand development in forest ecosystems on oligotrophic and acidic sandy soils? Location: Nine forest reserves at different locations in The Netherlands: all ageing Pinus sylvestris forests that are no longer managed and where massive regeneration of

  4. Sustainability of Wood Productivity of Pinus TaedaBased on Nutrient Export and Stocks in the Biomass and in the Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Michael de Melo Sixel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The impact of intensive management practices on the sustainability of forest production depends on maintenance of soil fertility. The contribution of forest residues and nutrient cycling in this process is critical. A 16-year-old stand of Pinus taeda in a Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico léptico (Humic Endo-lithic Dystrudept in the south of Brazil was studied. A total of 10 trees were sampled distributed in five diameter classes according to diameter at breast height. The biomass of the needles, twigs, bark, wood, and roots was measured for each tree. In addition to plant biomass, accumulated plant litter was sampled, and soil samples were taken at three increments based on sampling depth: 0.00-0.20, 0.20-0.40, 0.40-0.60, 0.60-1.00, 1.00-1.40, 1.40-1.80, and 1.80-1.90 m. The quantity and concentration of nutrients, as well as mineralogical characteristics, were determined for each soil sample. Three scenarios of harvesting intensities were simulated: wood removal (A, wood and bark removal (B, and wood + bark + canopy removal (C. The sum of all biomass components was 313 Mg ha-1.The stocks of nutrients in the trees decreased in the order N>Ca>K>S>Mg>P. The mineralogy of the Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico léptico showed the predominance of quartz sand and small traces of vermiculite in the silt fraction. Clay is the main fraction that contributes to soil weathering, due to the transformation of illite-vermiculite, releasing K. The depletion of nutrients from the soil biomass was in the order: P>S>N>K>Mg>Ca. Phosphorus and S were the most limiting in scenario A due to their low stock in the soil. In scenario B, the number of forest rotations was limited by N, K, and S. Scenario C showed the greatest reduction in productivity, allowing only two rotations before P limitation. It is therefore apparent that there may be a difference of up to 30 years in the capacity of the soil to support a scenario such as A, with a low nutrient removal

  5. Patterns of population structure and environmental associations to aridity across the range of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L., Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; van Heerwaarden, Joost; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Nelson, C Dana; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; González-Martínez, Santíago C; Neale, David B

    2010-07-01

    Natural populations of forest trees exhibit striking phenotypic adaptations to diverse environmental gradients, thereby making them appealing subjects for the study of genes underlying ecologically relevant phenotypes. Here, we use a genome-wide data set of single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped across 3059 functional genes to study patterns of population structure and identify loci associated with aridity across the natural range of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Overall patterns of population structure, as inferred using principal components and Bayesian cluster analyses, were consistent with three genetic clusters likely resulting from expansions out of Pleistocene refugia located in Mexico and Florida. A novel application of association analysis, which removes the confounding effects of shared ancestry on correlations between genetic and environmental variation, identified five loci correlated with aridity. These loci were primarily involved with abiotic stress response to temperature and drought. A unique set of 24 loci was identified as F(ST) outliers on the basis of the genetic clusters identified previously and after accounting for expansions out of Pleistocene refugia. These loci were involved with a diversity of physiological processes. Identification of nonoverlapping sets of loci highlights the fundamental differences implicit in the use of either method and suggests a pluralistic, yet complementary, approach to the identification of genes underlying ecologically relevant phenotypes.

  6. Identification and quantitative analysis of stage-specific carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) zygotic embryo and female gametophyte tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Buchanan, Mike

    2008-07-01

    Stage-specific analyses of starch and 18 sugars, including pentoses, hexoses, disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols, were made throughout seed development for zygotic embryo and female gametophyte (FG) tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Tissue was most often analyzed in triplicate from two open-pollinated families grown in different locations and sampled in different years. Carbohydrates were analyzed by enzymatic assay, high performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For all carbohydrates quantified, peak concentrations were higher in embryo tissue than in FG tissue. Significant changes in starch and sugar concentrations occurred over time, with both seed collections showing similar trends in temporal changes. Although concentrations were not always similar, embryo and FG tissues generally showed similar patterns of change in starch and sugar concentrations over time. Total starch concentration was highest during early seed development and decreased as development progressed. The major sugars contributing to osmotic potential during early seed development were D-pinitol, sucrose, fructose and glucose. During mid-seed development, D-pinitol, sucrose, fructose, glucose, melibiose and raffinose provided major contributions to the osmotic environment. During late seed development, sucrose, raffinose, melibiose, stachyose and fructose were the major contributors to osmotic potential. These data suggest stage-specific media composition for each step in the somatic embryogenesis protocol.

  7. PRODUÇÃO DE Pinus taeda L. NA REGIÃO DE CAMBARÁ DO SUL, RS

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    César Augusto Guimarães Finger

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo estruturar a produção de uma floresta de Pinus taeda L., localizada na região de Cambará do Sul, RS, de acordo com a idade, potencial de produção dos sítios e manejo aplicado. Para tanto foram coletados dados em parcelas temporárias, permanentes e de análise de tronco. Funções matemáticas foram ajustadas para estimar o desenvolvimento do povoamento remanescente após o desbaste e o fator K-Magin foi usado para corrigir o volume dos desbastes, e variou de 0,76 a 0,78. Os resultados, agrupados em tabelas de produção para os sítios 16 a 28, apresentaram, respectivamente, volumes de 243,7 m3/ha e 911,0 m3/ha aos 16 anos de idade. O incremento médio anual nesta idade, considerando a idade de corte na empresa, atingiu 15,23 m3/ha/ano no índice de sítio 16 e 56,94 m3/ha/ano para o 28. Os resultados demonstraram, ainda, perda de produção pela execução de desbastes precoces nos sítios menos produtivos e tardios nos sítios mais produtivos.

  8. Characterization and enzymatic hydrolysis of wood from transgenic Pinus taeda engineered with syringyl lignin or reduced lignin content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunds, Charles W.; Peralta, Perry; Kelley, Stephen S.; Chiang, Vincent L.; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R.; Davis, Mark F.; Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert W.; Gjersing, Erica; Cunningham, Michael W.; Rottmann, William; Miller, Zachary D.; Peszlen, Ilona

    2017-02-22

    Softwood is an abundant resource; however, currently its utilization for bioconversion to obtain platform sugars is limited. Pinus taeda trees which were genetically modified to either produce S lignin or to decrease lignin content were characterized with a suite of analytic techniques. Syringyl lignin was visualized in the secondary xylem of one genetic line with Maule staining. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance identified the S lignin units were coupled into the lignin through ..beta..-O-4 linkages, and thioacidolysis measured approximately 13% S lignin content in the same sample. Reductions of the lignin of as much as 33% were observed in the transgenics. To better understand how these modifications affect bioconversion, their amenability to hot water and dilute acid pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. Lignin reductions resulted in 1.9-3.2-fold increases in glucose release compared to the control. However, no apparent benefit was observed by S lignin incorporation at the concentrations reported in this study. These results highlight the potential for softwood cell wall properties to be improved for bioenergy/biochemical applications.

  9. A comparison of the community diversity of foliar fungal endophytes between seedling and adult loblolly pines (Pinus taeda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oono, Ryoko; Lefèvre, Emilie; Simha, Anita; Lutzoni, François

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endophytes represent one of the most ubiquitous plant symbionts on Earth and are phylogenetically diverse. The structure and diversity of endophyte communities have been shown to depend on host taxa and climate, but there have been relatively few studies exploring endophyte communities throughout host maturity. We compared foliar fungal endophyte communities between seedlings and adult trees of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) at the same seasons and locations by culturing and culture-independent methods. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer region and adjacent partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (ITS-LSU amplicon) to delimit operational taxonomic units and phylogenetically characterize the communities. Despite the lower infection frequency in seedlings compared to adult trees, seedling needles were receptive to a more diverse community of fungal endophytes. Culture-free method confirmed the presence of commonly cultured OTUs from adult needles but revealed several new OTUs from seedling needles that were not found with culturing methods. The two most commonly cultured OTUs in adults were rarely cultured from seedlings, suggesting that host age is correlated with a selective enrichment for specific endophytes. This shift in endophyte species dominance may be indicative of a functional change between these fungi and their loblolly pine hosts.

  10. Apparent homology of expressed genes from wood-forming tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) with Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Matias; Johnson, Arthur F; Baucom, Christie; Ulrich, Erin; Hubbard, Kristy; Staggs, Rod; Paule, Charles; Retzel, Ernest; Whetten, Ross; Sederoff, Ronald

    2003-06-10

    Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) and Arabidopsis thaliana differ greatly in form, ecological niche, evolutionary history, and genome size. Arabidopsis is a small, herbaceous, annual dicotyledon, whereas pines are large, long-lived, coniferous forest trees. Such diverse plants might be expected to differ in a large number of functional genes. We have obtained and analyzed 59,797 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from wood-forming tissues of loblolly pine and compared them to the gene sequences inferred from the complete sequence of the Arabidopsis genome. Approximately 50% of pine ESTs have no apparent homologs in Arabidopsis or any other angiosperm in public databases. When evaluated by using contigs containing long, high-quality sequences, we find a higher level of apparent homology between the inferred genes of these two species. For those contigs 1,100 bp or longer, approximately 90% have an apparent Arabidopsis homolog (E value < 10-10). Pines and Arabidopsis last shared a common ancestor approximately 300 million years ago. Few genes would be expected to retain high sequence similarity for this time if they did not have essential functions. These observations suggest substantial conservation of gene sequence in seed plants.

  11. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  12. Propiedades del suelo y productividad de Pinus taeda L. en la Mesopotamia Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Andrés Martiarena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo fue establecer la vinculación entre  algunas características edáficas y el crecimiento de P. taeda, en su zona de plantación comercial en la Mesopotamia Argentina. La hipótesis es que la causa principal de la reducción de la productividad de las plantaciones es la profundidad de suelo y el volumen efectivo aprovechable por las plantas, y no el contenido de nutrientes. El trabajo se realizó entre los 28º 30’ S, en la provincia de Corrientes, hasta los 25º 30’ S, en la provincia de Misiones. Se seleccionaron 31 sitios donde, 1- se tomaron muestras de suelo para determinar nutrientes y densidad aparente, 2- se midieron las variables dasométricas de las plantaciones y se calculó el Índice de Sitio (IS, 3- se tomaron muestras foliares y se analizaron las concentraciones de C, N y P. El análisis estadístico se realizó con INFOSTAT 2.0. Los sitios se asignaron a tres grupos edafoclimáticos: 1 sitios con suelos rojos del Norte, 2 sitios con suelos pedregosos del Norte y, 3 sitios con suelos rojos del Sur. El crecimiento de las plantaciones de P. taeda fue menor (menor IS en los suelos pedregosos, con más nutrientes, una menor profundidad efectiva y un  menor volumen ocupado por la fracción fina. En la zona norte, la mayor oferta de nutrientes en los suelos pedregosos (respecto de los rojos, no resultó en un aumento en la concentración de nutrientes foliares. La menor capacidad de retención de agua y un menor volumen a ser explorado por las raíces de las plantas, constituyeron la principal limitante al crecimiento en los suelos pedregosos. A pesar de las diferencias en precipitación, todos los sitios correspondieron a la misma Zona de Vida Bosque Subtropical húmedo. Entre los suelos rojos profundos, de similar concentración y contenido de nutrientes, la zona Sur resultó la más favorable para el crecimiento (mayor IS. Esta respuesta en el menos lluvioso sur  puede relacionarse con una mayor demanda atmosf

  13. Transcriptional control of monolignol biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: factors affecting monolignol ratios and carbon allocation in phenylpropanoid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anterola, Aldwin M.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Pinus taeda cell suspension cultures was carried out using quantitative real time PCR analyses of all known genes involved in the biosynthesis of the two monolignols, p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols (lignin/lignan precursors). When the cells were transferred to a medium containing 8% sucrose and 20 mm potassium iodide, the monolignol/phenylpropanoid pathway was induced, and transcript levels for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase were coordinately up-regulated. Provision of increasing levels of exogenously supplied Phe to saturating levels (40 mm) to the induction medium resulted in further up-regulation of their transcript levels in the P. taeda cell cultures; this in turn was accompanied by considerable increases in both p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohol formation and excretion. By contrast, transcript levels for both cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase were only slightly up-regulated. These data, when considered together with metabolic profiling results and genetic manipulation of various plant species, reveal that carbon allocation to the pathway and its differential distribution into the two monolignols is controlled by Phe supply and differential modulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase activities, respectively. The coordinated up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in the presence of increasing concentrations of Phe also indicates that these steps are not truly rate-limiting, because they are modulated according to metabolic demand. Finally, the transcript profile of a putative acid/ester O-methyltransferase, proposed as an alternative catalyst for O-methylation leading

  14. Growth of bare root Pinus taeda, L. seedlings cultivated under five densities in nursery Crescimento de mudas em raiz nua de Pinus taeda, L. produzidas em cinco densidades no viveiro

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    José Geraldo de Araújo Carneiro

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings compete for nutrients, water and light. The available area for each seedling affects their behavior related to requirements for these resources. This experiment evaluated the influence of five plant densities on the growth of bare root Pinus taeda, L. seedlings in a nursery after outplanting. The analyzed characteristics were: height (H, root collar diameter (D, H/D ratio, and dry matter weight. Higher densities stimulated H growth and the lowest densities increased D average and dry matter weight and lowered the H/D ratio. Seedlings were distributed by H, D and H/D classes. Higher densities had a larger number of seedlings in larger H classes. Larger numbers of seedlings with larger D and lower H/D ratios were found in lower densities. Ten months after outplanting the seedlings grown in lower densities had higher survival percentages and growth. Some saplings of standardized heights were uprooted with the objective of studying their root systems. The lowest densities stimulated higher numbers of first and second order roots as well as fresh and dry matter weights of thin roots with mycorrhizae presence. In both parts of the experiment, the density of 278 seedlings m-2 yielded equivalent averages as compared to the lowest densities.Mudas competem por nutrientes, água e luz. A área de cada muda afeta seu comportamento na exigência destes recursos. Este experimento avaliou a influência de cinco densidades no crescimento de mudas em raiz nua de Pinus taeda, L. no viveiro e no campo. As características analisadas foram: altura da parte aérea (H, diâmetro de colo (D, relação H/D e pesos de matéria seca. Maiores densidades estimularam o crescimento em H, no viveiro. As mais baixas aumentaram as médias de D, pesos de matéria seca e diminuíram a relação H/D. Distribuíram-se as mudas em classes de H, D e relação H/D, para quantificar seu número, em cada classe. Maiores quantidades de mudas com mais elevados valores de D e com

  15. Avaliação da reação de crescimento aos desbastes em Pinus taeda L. = Evaluation of the growth reaction to the thinning in Pinus taeda L.

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    Vitor Cezar Miessa Coelho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avalia o manejo de povoamentos de Pinus taeda L. sob quatro diferentes regimes de manejo: Tratamento 1: sem desbaste, povoamento com 32 anos; Tratamento 2: dois desbastes, povoamento com 36 anos; Tratamento 3: três desbastes, povoamento com 32 anos; Tratamento 4: quatro desbastes, povoamento com 30 anos. Foram coletados dados dessas florestas através do Trado de Presller e fatias de árvores derrubadas para Análise de Tronco Parcial. Com esses dados foram ajustadas funções de crescimento e produção de Prodan e Schumacher para o estudo do comportamento do crescimentoao longo do tempo e dentre os diferentes tratamentos. Os dados, na sua maioria, foram melhor ajustados pela função de Prodan. Foi calculada graficamente a idade de máxima produção biológica (MPB, que é indicada pelo ponto de máxima tangência da curva de crescimento e produção. Foi calculada a reação dos desbastes com base nos incrementos periódicos pós desbastes medidos considerando a última intervenção, o período entre as intervenções e o incremento posterior à intervenção, e comparados à idade de MPB. À medida em que avança a idade das árvores, os incrementos periódicos tendem a diminuir em função da entrada da árvore do período de senilidade. Os incrementos periódicos anuais tenderam a decrescer após a idade deMPB calculada. = This study evaluates the management of population of Pinus taeda under four different regimes: Treatment 1: without thinning and the population is 32 years old; Treatment 2:2 thinnings and the population is 36 years old; Treatment 3: three thinnings and 32 years old; Treatment 4:4 thinnings and 30 years old. Data were collected using the Presller’s auger and slices or discs from trees which wich were cut for Partial Log Analysis. With this data the functions for growth and production were adjusted by using Prodan and Shumacker’s function to study the behavior of the growth over time and among the

  16. Influência dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft Influence of soil attributes on quality of Pinus taeda wood for cellulose Kraft production

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    Patrícia Aparecida Rigatto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados os efeitos dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft, em áreas da Klabin, em Telêmaco Borba-PR. Foram estudados oito sítios com árvores de 12 anos de idade, selecionados pelo tipo de solo, textura e vegetação primária. Para caracterização dos sítios foram realizadas coletas de amostras em três horizontes, tendo sido coletadas amostras indeformadas e compostas, analisando-se as seguintes variáveis no solo: densidade global, porosidade total, macroporosidade, disponibilidade de água, fertilidade e granulometria. Selecionaram-se cinco árvores médias por sítio, nas quais foram medidos as alturas total e comercial e o DAP e retirados discos, sendo este material ensaiado quanto a densidade básica, composição química, características morfológicas dos traqueídeos e produção de celulose Kraft. Com relação às propriedades da madeira, os atributos físicos do solo demonstraram ter maior influência. De modo geral, as madeiras provenientes de sítios com texturas mais argilosas apresentaram menores valores de densidade básica; maiores teores de extrativos e lignina; menores teores de holocelulose e celulose; traqueídeos mais curtos, mais largos, com paredes mais finas e com diâmetros do lúmen maiores; e menor rendimento em celulose. A partir destes resultados, concluiu-se ser possível a previsão de propriedades da polpa através da análise das características da madeira associada às condições edáficas reinantes.To meet the increasing demand for forest products, much of the future timber supply will come from trees grown in managed plantations. This work was carried out to analyze the effects of soil attributes on Pinus taeda wood quality to produce Kraft cellulose at Klabin Parana Cellulose Co., in Telêmaco Borba, PR, Brazil. The study focused on the influence of soil attributes on the anatomical, physical and chemical wood

  17. The bi-directional exchange of oxygenated VOCs between a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Rasmussen, R.; Baker, B.; Jardine, K.; Nemitz, E.

    2005-11-01

    Using new in-situ field observations of the most abundant oxygenated VOCs (methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, C3/C4 carbonyls, MVK+MAC and acetic acid) we were able to constrain emission and deposition patterns above and within a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation with a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) understory. During the day canopy scale measurements showed significant emission of methanol and acetone, while methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, acetaldehyde and acetic acid were mainly deposited during the day. All oxygenated compounds exhibited strong losses during the night that could not be explained by conventional dry deposition parameterizations. Accompanying leaf level measurements indicated substantial methanol and acetone emissions from loblolly pine. The exchange of acetaldehyde was more complex. Laboratory measurements made on loblolly pine needles indicated that acetaldehyde may be either emitted or taken up depending on ambient concentrations, with the compensation point increasing exponentially with temperature, and that mature needles tended to emit more acetaldehyde than younger needles. Canopy scale measurements suggested mostly deposition. Short-term (approx. 2 h) ozone fumigation in the laboratory had no detectable impact on post-exposure emissions of methanol and acetone, but decreased the exchange rates of acetaldehyde. The emission of a variety of oxygenated compounds (e.g. carbonyls and alcohols) was triggered or significantly enhanced during laboratory ozone fumigation experiments. These results suggest that higher ambient ozone levels in the future might enhance the biogenic contribution of some oxygenated compounds. Those with sufficiently low vapor pressures may potentially influence secondary organic aerosol growth. Compounds recently hypothesized to be primarily produced in the canopy atmosphere via ozone plus terpenoid-type reactions can also originate from the oxidation reaction of ozone with leaf surfaces and inside the leaf

  18. Atmospheric carbon dioxide, irrigation, and fertilization effects on phenolic and nitrogen concentrations in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, F L; Maier, C A

    2001-06-01

    Concentrations of total soluble phenolics, catechin, proanthocyanidins (PA), lignin and nitrogen (N) were measured in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles exposed to either ambient CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]), ambient plus 175 or ambient plus 350 micromol CO(2) mol(-1) in branch chambers for 2 years. The CO(2) treatments were superimposed on a 2 x 2 factorial combination of irrigation and fertilization treatments. In addition, we compared the effects of branch chambers and open-top chambers on needle chemistry. Proanthocyanidin and N concentrations were measured in needles from branch chambers and from trees in open-top chambers exposed concurrently for two years to either ambient [CO(2)] or ambient plus 200 micromol CO(2) mol(-1) in combination with a fertilization treatment. In the branch chambers, concentrations of total soluble phenolics in needles generally increased with needle age. Concentrations of total soluble phenolics, catechin and PA in needle extracts increased about 11% in response to the elevated [CO(2)] treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on foliar lignin concentrations. Nitrogen concentrations were about 10% lower in needles from the elevated [CO(2)] treatments than in needles from the ambient [CO(2)] treatments. Soluble phenolic and PA concentrations were higher in the control and irrigated soil treatments in about half of the comparisons; otherwise, differences were not statistically significant. Needle N concentrations increased 23% in response to fertilization. Treatment effects on PA and N concentrations were similar between branch and open-top chambers, although in this part of the study N concentrations were not significantly affected by the CO(2) treatments in either the branch or open-top chambers. We conclude that elevated [CO(2)] and low N availability affected foliar chemical composition, which could in turn affect plant-pathogen interactions, decomposition rates and mineral nutrient cycling.

  19. Influência da adição de serragem nas propriedades tecnológicas de painéis de madeira aglomerada de Pinus taeda / Influence of sawdust addition in the technological properties of Pinus taeda particleboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Torrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foram analisadas as propriedades físico-mecânicas de painéis de madeira aglomerada, de três camadas, produzidos em laboratório, com a adição de dois tipos de serragem obtidas em serrarias, as quais foram classificadas como tipo “fino” e “grosso” por meio de análise granulométrica. Três proporções de serragem (10, 20 e 30% foram adicionadas às partículas de madeira de Pinus taeda para a confecção dos painéis. Foram, também, confeccionados painéis sem resíduo, constituindo um experimento fatorial com sete tratamentos e três repetições. Utilizou-se adesivo de uréia-formaldeído na proporção de 10% e parafina na proporção de 1%. Os painéis foram produzidos com densidade nominal de 0,65 g/cm³ temperatura dos pratos da prensa de 160°C, pressão de prensagem de 40 Kgf/cm², tempo de prensagem de 8 minutos e tempo de fechamento da prensa de 40 segundos. Após a confecção, os painéis foram esquadrejados ficando com dimensões de 40 x 40 x 1,5 cm. Os ensaios de densidade aparente, estabilidade dimensional, flexão estática, tração perpendicular à superfície dos painéis e arrancamento de parafusos foram realizados de acordo com a norma norte-americana ASTM D 1037 – 93. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística entre tratamentos e entre fatores. Verificou-se que os painéis produzidos com adição de até 10% de serragem apresentaram qualidade semelhante aos produzidos apenas com partículas obtidas de madeira roliça, sendo assim uma alternativa para um melhor aproveitamento da serragem como matéria prima. Para maiores proporções, foi observado que um aumento da proporção de serragem causou diminuição das propriedades mecânicas e efeito negativo na estabilidade dimensional dos painéis

  20. Fungos Presentes em Acículas de Pinus taeda em Estágios Iniciais de Decomposição no Campo Fungi Present on Pinus taeda Needles in Early Stages of Decomposition in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Michelato Ghizelini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A atividade da micobiota na decomposição e mineralização da matéria orgânica é importante na ciclagem de nutrientes em florestas, garantindo sua produtividade e sustentabilidade. Este estudo determinou a diversidade de fungos durante a decomposição de acículas de Pinus taeda, em um plantio experimental com quatro anos de idade, em Três Barras, SC, Brasil. Acículas senescentes foram coletadas em árvores em novembro de 2003 e colocadas em sacolas seletivas para  microrganismos e deixadas sobre a serapilheira da floresta. O isolamento de fungos foi feito das acículas da primeira coleta (novembro de 2003 e das mantidas em sacolas, nos meses de fevereiro, maio e agosto de 2004. Fragmentos de acículas foram submetidos a 20 lavagens sucessivas em água destilada estéril e implantados em placas de petri contendo meio extrato de malte 2 %. As colônias encontradas foram purificadas, identificadas e preservadas, perfazendo um total de 1.055, pertencentes a 13 fungos: Acremonium sp., lternaria sp., Cladosporium sp., Colletotrichum p., picoccum sp., Fusarium sp., liocladium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp., Pestalotia sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Trichoderma sp. e Verticillium sp. Os fungos Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp. e Verticillium sp. foram significativamente mais freqüentes. Considerou-se que a diversidade fúngica existente é suficiente para o início da decomposição das acículas, pela presença de fungos celulolíticos.
    Knowing of the dependence between local area productivity, nutrient cycling and litter decomposition process, the knowledge of the mycobiota responsible for decomposition is the right way to obtain answers about forest’s productivity and nutrient’s demand. This study determined the fungal diversity during litter decomposition of needle

  1. EFECTO DEL RALEO SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y LA DENSIDAD DE LA MADERA DE Pinus taeda IMPLANTADO EN MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Martiarena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El mayor incremento en crecimiento de la plantación puede causar variación en las propiedades físicas de la madera, pudiendo disminuir la calidad de la misma para la industria. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar el efecto de los tratamientos de raleo sobre el crecimiento y densidad de la madera de Pinus taeda implantado en Misiones, Argentina (25º 59’S - 54º24’O. La plantación se estableció en 1985 con densidad inicial de 1644 pl.ha -1 y se manejó con tres intensidades de raleo (0, 33 y 66 % del área basal del testigo sin ralear, bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar (3 bloques. A los 20 años se efectuó tala rasa, cuyas densidades eran 711 (0 %, 364 (33 % y 122 (66 % plantas por hectárea, momento en el cual se seleccionaron 45 árboles para determinar la densidad básica de la madera. La misma se determinó a través de la realización de 2.700 probetas. El crecimiento de la plantación fue afectado por la intensidad de raleo, registrando diámetros promedio de 28,7, 34,8 y 45,9 cm, respectivamente, en los tratamientos 0, 33 y 66 % de raleo. El volumen de la plantación, al momento del apeo, fue superior en el tratamiento sin raleo, no obstante el tratamiento 66 % de raleo generó mayor cantidad de madera de grandes dimensiones. La densidad básica como promedio simple y ponderado por volumen no presentó diferencias significativas entre tratamientos. Los valores de densidad ponderada fueron de 0,406, 0,418 y 0,420 g.cm -3 para los tratamientos 0, 33 y 66 % de raleo, respectivamente, mientras que el análisis de correlación entre diámetro y densidad no fue significativo. El estudio mostró que la intensidad de raleo puede ser manejada para maximizar la producción, manteniendo idéntica la calidad de la madera para la industria.

  2. Teores e aporte de nutrientes na serapilheira de Pinus taeda L., e sua relação com a temperatura do ar e pluviosidade Contents and input of nutrients in Pinus taeda L. Litter related to air temperature and rainfall

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    Márcio Viera

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os teores e o aporte de nutrientes ao piso florestal num povoamento de Pinus taeda L. e sua relação com a temperatura do ar e pluviosidade, implantado em área anteriormente ocupada por campo nativo, na cidade de Cambará do Sul, RS, através da queda de serapilheira, avaliado durante um período de três anos, contados a partir do quinto ao sétimo ano de idade do povoamento. A serapilheira foi coletada mensalmente através de coletores de 1,0 m² (1,0 x 1,0 m, durante o período compreendido de abril/2004 a março/2007. Após cada coleta, as amostras de serapilheira foram analisadas quimicamente, quanto aos teores de macro e micronutrientes. Os teores de K, Mg e Cu correlacionaram-se positivamente (p The objective of this study was to evaluate the contents and input of nutrients to forest floor in a Pinus taeda L. stand and the relation with rainfall and air temperature, in an area previously occupied with native grass, in Cambará do Sul, RS, through litterfall, evaluated during a three-year period, from the 5th to the 7th year of the stand. Litter was monthly collected in 1.0 m² (1.0 x 1.0 m collectors, from April/ 2004 to March/2007. After each collection, litter samples were chemically analyzed for macro and micronutrients. The contents of K, Mg and Cu showed a positive correlation (p < 0,05 with air temperature, while Fe (p< 0.01, Mn and Zn (p < 0,05 showed a negative correlation with this climatic variable. The contents of N and K showed a negative correlation (p < 0.01 e p < 0,05, respectively. The contents of K, Mg and Cu showed a positive correlation (p < 0,05 with rainfall and the contents of S showed a positive correlation (p < 0,05 with air temperature, while the contents of Fe (p < 0.01, Mn and Zn (p < 0,05 showed a negative correlation with this variable.The contents of N and K showed a negative correlation (p < 0.01 and p < 0,05, respectively with litter amount monthly deposited

  3. Avaliação da Dispersão de Sementes de Pinus taeda L. pela Análise dos Anéis de Crescimento de Árvores de Regeneração Natural

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    Mario Tomazello Filho

    Full Text Available RESUMO As árvores de Pinus taeda – introduzidas no Brasil em 1880 e em ensaios experimentais em 1936 – têm sido relacionadas na literatura especializada ao processo de invasão biológica de algumas áreas de campos gerais e de altitude dos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, de cerrado no estado de São Paulo, de restinga no estado de Santa Catarina e de pampas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os anéis de crescimento anuais formados no lenho das árvores de Pinus taeda constituem importante ferramenta na avaliação do processo de invasão biológica. Com esse objetivo, no presente trabalho avaliou-se a dispersão espacial-temporal de sementes analisando-se os anéis de crescimento do lenho de árvores de Pinus taeda de plantações e de regeneração natural na região de Faxinal do Céu, estado do Paraná. Os resultados possibilitaram determinar a idade e a taxa de crescimento do tronco das árvores de Pinus taeda de plantações, a data da germinação, a área de dispersão das sementes e a taxa de crescimento das árvores de regeneração natural. Os resultados permitem, da mesma forma, discutir o processo de invasão de árvores de Pinus taeda pela dispersão das sementes em áreas limítrofes às plantações florestais.

  4. Conformational behaviour of humic substances at different depths along a profile of a Lithosol under loblolly (Pinus taeda) plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, P.; Maia, C. M. B. F.; de Pasquale, C.; Alonzo, G.

    2009-04-01

    The conformation of natural organic matter (NOM) plays a key role in many physical and chemical processes including interactions with organic and inorganic pollutants and soil aggregates stability thus directly influencing soil quality. NOM conformation can be studied by solid state NMR spectroscopy with cross polarization and magic angle spinning (CPMAS NMR). In the present study we applied CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy on three humic acid fractions (HA) each extracted from a different horizon in a Lithosol profile under Pinus taeda. Results showed that the most superficial HA was also the most aliphatic in character. Amount of aromatic moieties and hydrophilic HA constituents increased along the profile. Cross polarization (TCH) and longitudinal relaxation protons times in the rotating frame (T1rho(H)) were measured and compared only for the NMR signals generated by carboxyls and alkyls. This because the signal intensity for the aromatic, C-O and C-N systems was very low, thereby preventing suitable evaluation of TCH and T1rho(H) values for such systems. The cross polarization times of carboxyls decreased, whereas those of the alkyl moieties increased with depth. Conversely, T1rho(H) values increased for both COOH and alkyl groups along the profile. Polarization transfer from protons to carbons is affected by the dipolar interactions among the nuclei. The stronger the H-C dipolar interaction, the faster is the rate of the energy exchange. All the factors affecting the dipolar interaction strength also influence the rate of magnetization transfer. Among the others, fast molecular tumbling and poor proton density around the carbons are responsible for long TCH values. Molecular tumbling and proton density also affect T1rho(H) values. Namely, the larger the molecular tumbling and the proton density, the faster is the proton longitudinal relaxation rate in the rotating frame (shorter T1rho(H) values). The decrease of TCH values of COOH groups along the profile was

  5. Propiedades del suelo y sus relaciones con el IS en plantaciones de Pinus taeda L. en la Mesopotamia Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolfo A. Martiarena; Jorge L. Frangi; Alejandra Von Wallis; Marcelo F. Arturi; Hugo E. Fassola; Roberto A. Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed at establishing the relations between some soil properties and the growth of P. taeda on its main area of commercial plantation in Argentine Mesopotamia. It was hypothesized that main cause of productivity reduction is soil depth and effective plant- available soil volume rather than nutrient content. The study area was located in Corrientes and...

  6. On the Complementary Relationship Between Nitrogen and Water Use Efficiencies Among Pinus taeda L. Leaves Grown Under Ambient and Enriched CO2 Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmroth, S.; Katul, G. G.; Maier, C.; Ward, E.; Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Oren, R.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding leaf water and nitrogen use strategies is important for predicting vegetation response to climate change. To address this issue from a modeling perspective, two specific hypotheses on the complementary relationship between marginal nitrogen use efficiency (η) and marginal water use efficiency (λ) are formulated based on optimality principles. When a time scale separation exists between variations in stomatal conductance (less than hourly) and in foliar nitrogen (exceeding daily), optimal resource use implies that η and λ1/2 are complementary (hypothesis 1), and that increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration increases both η and λ (hypothesis 2). These two hypotheses are explored at the leaf scale using an extensive gas exchange dataset for Pinus taeda L. collected as part of the Duke Forest Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. At Duke FACE, trees are growing under elevated atmospheric CO2, soil nitrogen fertilization, or their combination. The observed light-saturated net photosynthesis (Asat) and foliar N in P. taeda at various canopy positions span a significant proportion of the entire range of values observed globally across species and functional types. This wide spread in Asat and foliar N for an individual species allows examining linkages between η and λ. When leaf temperature effects on the physiological parameters are accounted for, the gas exchange data are consistent with the two theory-based hypotheses. Thus, the linkages quantified between η and λ can be used to constrain models of the coupled carbon-nitrogen-water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems.

  7. Discovering candidate genes that regulate resin canal number in Pinus taeda stems by integrating genetic analysis across environments, ages, and populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, JW; Walker, AR; Neves, LG; Munoz, P; Resende, MFR; Neale, DB; Wegrzyn, JL; Huber, DA; Kirst, M; Davis, JM; Peter, GF

    2014-09-30

    Genetically improving constitutive resin canal development in Pinus stems may enhance the capacity to synthesize terpenes for bark beetle resistance, chemical feedstocks, and biofuels. To discover genes that potentially regulate axial resin canal number (RCN), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4027 genes were tested for association with RCN in two growth rings and three environments in a complex pedigree of 520 Pinus taeda individuals (CCLONES). The map locations of associated genes were compared with RCN quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in a (P.taedaxPinuselliottii)xP.elliottii pseudo-backcross of 345 full-sibs (BC1). Resin canal number was heritable (h(2)0.12-0.21) and positively genetically correlated with xylem growth (r(g)0.32-0.72) and oleoresin flow (r(g)0.15-0.51). Sixteen well-supported candidate regulators of RCN were discovered in CCLONES, including genes associated across sites and ages, unidirectionally associated with oleoresin flow and xylem growth, and mapped to RCN QTLs in BC1. Breeding is predicted to increase RCN 11% in one generation and could be accelerated with genomic selection at accuracies of 0.45-0.52 across environments. There is significant genetic variation for RCN in loblolly pine, which can be exploited in breeding for elevated terpene content.

  8. Public Preferences of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Stands Generated by Different Site Preparation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianbang Gan; Stephen H. Kolison; James H. Miller

    1998-01-01

    In recent decades, the public's demand for non-timber products and services from forests has dramatically increased. To meet these diverse demands, particularly from public forests, has called for the critical evaluation of non-timber as well as timber benefits of forest resources. However, it has been a challenge to elicit and quantify public preferences for non...

  9. A Comparison of Fire Intensity levels for stand replacement of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Patrick H. Brose

    1999-01-01

    Stand-replacement prescribed fire has been recommended to regenerate stands of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains because the species has serotinous cones and is shade intolerant. A 350 ha prescribed fire in northeast Georgia provided an opportunity to observe overstory mortality and regeneration of table...

  10. Woody species richness and abundance in a reforestation of Pinus taeda L. and an Araucaria Forest in the Center - East Region of Paraná State, BrazilRiqueza e abundância de espécies lenhosas em reflorestamento de Pinus taeda L. e Floresta Ombrófila Mista no Centro - Leste do Estado do Paraná

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    Gabriela Oliveira Scolari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in two sites (secondary forest and reforestation of Pinus taeda in the Ecological Park of Klabin S. A (Telêmaco Borba, Paraná, Brazil. Six plots were distributed at each site with the aim of record species richness and abundance and search for correlations with to canopy cover, distance from the forest edge and thickness of litter layer, as well as to the dispersal syndrome and propagule size. We sampled 134 individuals belonging to 39 species. Litter did not affect richness and abundance of species at both sites, but richness was positively correlated with canopy cover and distance from the edge. The prevalent dispersion syndrome in both areas was zoochory and diaspores size did not differ between studied sites.Este estudo foi realizado em duas áreas distintas (floresta secundária e um reflorestamento de Pinus taeda no Parque Ecológico da Klabin S. A (Telêmaco Borba, PR, com seis parcelas em cada local. O objetivo foi averiguar a riqueza e abundância de espécies lenhosas, relacionando-as à cobertura do dossel, distância da borda e quantidade de serapilheira, bem como às síndromes de dispersão ocorrentes e ao tamanho dos propágulos. Foram amostrados 134 indivíduos, pertencentes a 39 espécies. A serapilheira não influenciou a riqueza e abundância das espécies em ambos locais, entretanto a riqueza se correlacionou positivamente com a cobertura do dossel e a distância da borda. A síndrome de dispersão predominante nas duas áreas foi a zoocoria, não ocorrendo diferenças no tamanho dos diásporos para os sítios estudados.

  11. Estimating long-term carbon sequestration patterns in even- and uneven-aged southern pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; James M. Guldin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration has become an increasingly important consideration for forest management in North America, and has particular potential in pine-dominated forests of the southern United States. Using existing literature on plantations and long-term studies of naturally regenerated loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine-dominated stands on...

  12. Experimental Test of Heat Treatment Effect on Physical Properties of Red Oak (Quercus falcate Michx. and Southern Pine (Pinus taeda L.

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    Derya Sevim Korkut

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment and compression on the swelling and surface roughness of Southern red oak (Quercus falcate Michx. and Southern pine (Pinus taeda L.. Specimens were exposed to temperature levels of 110 °C or 200 °C for 8 h before they were compressed using 2.5 MPa pressure for 5 min. Swelling values of the control and heat-treated samples in three grain orientations were evaluated by soaking them in water for 48 h. A stylus method was employed to determine the surface characteristics of the samples. Three main roughness parameters, namely mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra, mean peak-to-valley height (Rz, and maximum roughness (Rmax were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on surface characteristics of the samples. Oak and pine specimens had 39.8% and 28.7% lower tangential swelling values, respectively, than those of control samples as a result of exposure to a temperature of 200 °C. Heat treatment did not make any significant difference on surface quality. Micrographs taken from cross sections of the specimens revealed that there was some cell distortion and modification due to heat treatment as well as compression. Combination of heat treatment and compression can be considered an alternative method to improve certain physical properties of these two species.

  13. INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES COMBINAÇÕES DE LÂMINAS DE Eucalyptus saligna E Pinus taeda EM PAINÉIS LVL

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    Marcos Theodoro Müller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the influence of the positioning of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda wood veneers on layers of laminated veneer lumber (LVL panels. The compositions were manufactured in six different combinations of five veneers of 3.2 mm thickness, glued with phenol-formaldehyde, resulting in treatments composed of wood of the same species or with a combination of two wood types. The evaluation of the proposed arrangements was performed under the characterization of physical properties (moisture content and density and mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity – MOE and modulus of rupture – MOR verified in flatwise and edgewise static bending tests. The results obtained indicated that, in most situations, the different positions of the veneers with higher density (in the outer, intermediate and inner layers influenced the mechanical properties of the panels. The influence detected was varied for MOE and MOR, especially when comparing the flatwise and edgewise test values. In certain positions, on the layers of the LVL compositions, the presence of eucalypt veneers resulted in stiffness and strength increases. However, the treatments formed by interposed veneers of eucalypt and pine demonstrated interesting performances for structural use, in either flatwise or edgewise position, once they present values of MOE and MOR that allow to distinguish them as 1st class, according to the North American standard APA/EWS PRL–501 (2001.

  14. Understory plant biomass dynamics of prescribed burned Pinus palustris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; L.J. Samuelson; T.A. Stokes; W.P. Cropper Jr; T.A. Martin; K.H. Johnsen

    2015-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are characterized by unusually high understory plant species diversity, but models describing understory ground cover biomass, and hence fuel load dynamics, are scarce for this fire-dependent ecosystem. Only coarse scale estimates, being restricted on accuracy and geographical extrapolation,...

  15. Determinação do módulo de elasticidade da madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda por ultra-som Determination of the modulus of elasticity of juvenile and mature wood of Pinus taeda L.with ultrasonic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano W. Ballarin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A madeira de Pinus sp. tem utilização crescente na indústria madeireira brasileira. O decréscimo constante do suprimento de árvores adultas com grandes diâmetros, provenientes de florestas naturais, tornou comum a produção de madeira em ciclos curtos, com grande proporção de madeira juvenil. Resultados de diversas pesquisas têm reportado que o módulo de elasticidade e a resistência a diferentes solicitações mecânicas são seriamente afetados pela presença de madeira juvenil. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o módulo de elasticidade da madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda L. a partir da constante dinâmica C LL, obtida em ensaios não-destrutivos de ultra-som. A madeira de P. taeda era originária de plantios da Estação Experimental de Itapeva - SP, sendo amostrados seis indivíduos arbóreos com 34 anos de idade. Os corpos-de-prova (4 cm x 4 cm x 45 cm foram obtidos separadamente das regiões de madeira juvenil e adulta da prancha central, previamente submetida à secagem industrial (umidade final de 12%, para a determinação da constante dinâmica por meio de ensaios de ultra-som. Para avaliar a sensibilidade do método do ultra-som, os corpos-de-prova foram ensaiados destrutivamente à compressão paralela. Os resultados mostraram boa sensibilidade do método do ultra-som (R² » 0,90 na avaliação desse parâmetro mecânico da madeira juvenil e adulta.Pinus sp. wood has an increasing importance on supplying brazilian wood industry. The diminution of adult and large diameter trees supply deriving from natural tropical forests, became usual the production of wood on short rotation plantation, with considerable proportion of juvenil wood. Results from several researches have been demonstrated that MOE and mechanical strength are strongly affected by juvenile wood occurrence. This research was developed with the main objective of correlating dynamic modulus of elasticity (non-destructive ultrasound tests and MOE

  16. DNA sequence variation and selection of tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms at candidate genes for drought-stress response in Pinus taeda L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Santiago C; Ersoz, Elhan; Brown, Garth R; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Neale, David B

    2006-03-01

    Genetic association studies are rapidly becoming the experimental approach of choice to dissect complex traits, including tolerance to drought stress, which is the most common cause of mortality and yield losses in forest trees. Optimization of association mapping requires knowledge of the patterns of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium and the selection of suitable polymorphisms for genotyping. Moreover, standard neutrality tests applied to DNA sequence variation data can be used to select candidate genes or amino acid sites that are putatively under selection for association mapping. In this article, we study the pattern of polymorphism of 18 candidate genes for drought-stress response in Pinus taeda L., an important tree crop. Data analyses based on a set of 21 putatively neutral nuclear microsatellites did not show population genetic structure or genomewide departures from neutrality. Candidate genes had moderate average nucleotide diversity at silent sites (pi(sil) = 0.00853), varying 100-fold among single genes. The level of within-gene LD was low, with an average pairwise r2 of 0.30, decaying rapidly from approximately 0.50 to approximately 0.20 at 800 bp. No apparent LD among genes was found. A selective sweep may have occurred at the early-response-to-drought-3 (erd3) gene, although population expansion can also explain our results and evidence for selection was not conclusive. One other gene, ccoaomt-1, a methylating enzyme involved in lignification, showed dimorphism (i.e., two highly divergent haplotype lineages at equal frequency), which is commonly associated with the long-term action of balancing selection. Finally, a set of haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs) was selected. Using htSNPs, a reduction of genotyping effort of approximately 30-40%, while sampling most common allelic variants, can be gained in our ongoing association studies for drought tolerance in pine.

  17. Pinus taeda clones and soil nutrient availability: effects of soil organic matter incorporation and fertilization on biomass partitioning and leaf physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Michael C; Seiler, John R; Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt H

    2009-09-01

    The combined effects of intensive management and planting of improved seedlings have led to large increases in productivity on intensively managed pine forests in the southeastern United States. To best match clones to particular site conditions, an understanding of how specific clones respond to changes in nutrition in terms of biomass partitioning, leaf physiology and biochemistry will be necessary. This study measured the response of biomass partitioning, light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(Sat)) and photosynthetic capacity to a range in soil fertility and fertilization between two contrasting Pinus taeda L. clone ideotypes: a 'narrow crown' clone (NC) that allocates more resources to stem growth and a 'broad crown' clone (BC) that allocates more resources to leaf area (LA). Under field conditions, we found consistent clone by environment (i.e., varying nutrient regimes) interactions in biomass as well as leaf physiology. Nutrient limitations induced by logging residue incorporation resulted in a 25% loss in stem growth in BC, while NC showed no response. We postulated that the decrease in BC was due to the differences in canopy architecture leading to a reduced canopy CO(2) assimilation, as well as to increased belowground maintenance costs associated with fine-root production. In contrast, N and P additions resulted in a 21% greater increase in stem volume in NC relative to BC. Fertilization increased A(Sat) temporarily in both clones, but A(Sat) eventually decreased below control levels by the end of the study. Although we found a clone by fertilization interaction in leaf physiology, the greatest genotype by environment interaction was found in the LA that appeared to have a greater influence than A(Sat) on growth. This research demonstrates the potential importance of selecting appropriate clonal material and silvicultural prescription when implementing site-specific silviculture to maximize productivity in intensively managed southern pine forests.

  18. Identification and characterization of a matrix metalloproteinase (Pta1-MMP) expressed during Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seed development, germination completion, and early seedling establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaparkhe, Supriya M; Egertsdotter, E M Ulrika; Flinn, Barry S

    2009-07-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) modifications occur during plant growth, development, and in response to environmental stimuli. Key modulators of ECM modification in vertebrates, the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), have also been described in a few plants. Here, we report the identification of Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) Pta1-MMP and its characterization during seed development and germination. Pta1-MMP protein has the structural characteristics of other plant MMPs, the recombinant protein exhibits Zn(2+)-dependent protease activity, and is inhibited by EDTA and the active site-binding hydroxamate inhibitor GM6001. The Pta1-MMP gene is expressed in both embryo and megagametophyte, with transcript levels increasing in both during the period from proembryo to early cotyledonary stage, then declining during late embryogenesis and maturation drying. Protein extracts exhibited similar developmental-stage MMP-like activity. Seed germination was stimulated by GA(3) and inhibited by ABA, and the timing of germination completion was mirrored by the presence of MMP-like protease activity in both water- and GA(3)-imbibed embryos. Pta1-MMP gene transcript levels increased in association with radicle protrusion for both GA(3)- and water-treated embryos, in agreement with MMP-like activity. In contrast, by 11 days after imbibition, Pta1-MMP gene transcripts in ABA-treated embryos were at levels similar to the other treatments, although MMP-like activity was not observed. The application of GM6001 during Loblolly pine seed germination inhibited radicle protrusion. Our results suggest that MMP activity may be involved in ECM modification, facilitating the cell division and expansion required during seed development, germination completion, and subsequent seedling establishment.

  19. Produção de Pinus taeda L. na região de Cambará do Sul, RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Lui Mainardi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O trabalho teve como objetivo estruturar a produção de uma floresta de Pinus taeda L., localizada na região de Cambará do Sul, RS, de acordo com a idade, potencial de produção dos sítios e manejo aplicado. Para tanto foram coletados dados em parcelas temporárias, permanentes e de análise de tronco. Funções matemáticas foram ajustadas para estimar o desenvolvimento do povoamento remanescente após o desbaste e o fator K-Magin foi usado para corrigir o volume dos desbastes, e variou de 0,76 a 0,78. Os resultados, agrupados em tabelas de produção para os sítios 16 a 28, apresentaram, respectivamente, volumes de 243,7 m3/ha e 911,0 m3/ha aos 16 anos de idade. O incremento médio anual nesta idade, considerando a idade de corte na empresa, atingiu 15,23 m3/ha/ano no índice de sítio 16 e 56,94 m3/ha/ano para o 28. Os  resultados demonstraram, ainda, perda de produção pela execução de desbastes precoces nos sítios menos produtivos e tardios nos sítios mais produtivos.

  20. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd. (Scion Research.)

    2005-11-30

    divisions in the cambial meristem as expected. We isolated a promoter from a cambial specific gene and commenced development of transformation protocols for loblolly pine. Since our results show that cyclin D expression correlates with increased growth we continued with experiments to demonstrate the effect of cyclin overexpression upon tree growth. Vectors which constitutively express the cyclin D cDNA were constructed and transformed into a transgenic pine system through the collaboration with Forest Research, New Zealand. The transformation system for Pinus radiata is well established and we hoped to gain phenotypic information in a closely related pine, rather than await development of a robust loblolly pine transformation method. Transformation experiments were conducted by a biolistic method developed at Forest Research, NZ. A total of 78 transgenic embryogenic lines were generated and bulked up with a good representation of transgenic lines per construct. Transformed calli were originally identified by resistance to the antibiotic Geneticin contained in the medium. The transgenic nature of the selected lines was subsequently confirmed using histochemical GUS staining. To date, 10 out of 13 selected transgenic lines have produced embryos and we are currently harvesting the first transgenic plantlets. At present time 22 of those plantlets have been moved to GMO facilities. We will soon develop a strategy for assessing potential phenotypic differences between the transclones and non-transformed controls. Transgenic plants are being grown to a stage (approx. 1 year) when meaningful phenotypic evaluation can be conducted. The recent availability of 10,000 element loblolly pine cDNA microarray will permit the evaluation of cyclinD overexpression upon gene expression in transgenic Pinus.

  1. Comparison of biotic and abiotic parameters between a native secondary forest fragment and a Pinus taeda L. reforestation Comparação de parâmetros bióticos e abióticos entre fragmento de floresta secundária nativa e um reflorestamento de Pinus taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Parpinelli Ferracin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The substitution of natural forests for commercial forest plantations can be as damaging as farming or urban occupation. However, studies on natural regeneration in these areas show results in the development of native species in the understory, suggesting a successional process in favor of restoring biodiversity as well as an alternative forrestoration. This work aimed at comparing biotic and abiotic parameters between native secondary forest fragments and Pinus taeda reforestation. The study sites are located at Klabin Ecological Park, Monte Alegre Farm, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná. The following biotic data were evaluated: total height, diameter at breast height (DBH - 1.30 m above the ground and basal area (BA, in tree species with DBH ≥ 2.5 cm. The following abiotic data were also evaluated: pH, soil compaction, herb cover, canopy cover, litter thickness, air temperature, and relative humidity. Most parameters differed between pine reforestation and secondary forest, such as pH and soil compaction, canopy cover, herb presence and the size structure of vegetation (diameter and height. It was also observed a low regeneration in reforestation, evidenced by the difference in the basal area. However, there was regeneration in pine reforestation, suggesting that, over time, there will be an increase in the regeneration of the native vegetation, increasing the wealth of species and the structural complexity of the vegetation. A substituição das florestas naturais por plantios florestais comerciais, pode ser tão prejudicial quanto a agricultura ou a ocupação urbana. Porém, estudos sobre regeneração natural nessas áreas, apresentam resultados no desenvolvimento de espécies nativas no sub-bosque, sugerindo um processo sucessional favorável à recuperação da biodiversidade e também uma alternativa para a restauração. Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar parâmetros bióticos e abióticos entre fragmento de floresta secundária nativa

  2. Regenerating uneven-aged stands of loblolly and shortleaf pines: the current state of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Michael D. Cain

    2000-01-01

    Periodic regeneration is crucial to creating or sustaining uneven-aged (UEA) stands of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf (P. echinata Mill.) pines. Although both species are shade intolerant, they have silvical characteristics that are conducive to natural regeneration in UEA stands. Their seed production is fairly consistent...

  3. ESTABLISHMENT OF Pinus elliottii Engelm STANDS WITH DIRECT FIELD SOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Guimarães Finger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was undertaken to test the possibility of use of direct field sowing as a method of  forest formation. The soil preparation consisted of mechanic mowing followed by cleaning of small circles of 40 cm of diameter, where four seeds of Pinus elliottii Engelm were sowed, previously stratified, and protected by a bottomless plastic glass fastened to the sowing point. The treatments tested were direct sowing, sowing of seeds involved by paper envelop and seedling plantation as testify treatment. The results were not satisfactory, however, being observed at the most 38.46% of the sowing places with seedlings after 84 days of sowing. The main factor that contribuited to the failure of the method was seedling mortality caused by water deficit and high temperatures.

  4. Alterações na Nutrição e na Produtividade do Pinus taeda L. Provocadas pela Aplicação de Resíduo Celulósico Nutrition and Productivity Alterations in the Pinus taeda L. Caused by Cellulose Residue Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Milani Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O Brasil produziu, em 2004, cerca de 8 milhões de toneladas de papel e 9,4 milhões de toneladas de celulose. Com a crescente produção desses produtos, as indústrias do setor têm gerado grandes quantidades de resíduos que necessitam de alternativas de destino viáveis. Dentre elas, tem-se a proposta de aplicação do resíduo celulósico em plantios florestais. Para tanto, foi instalado em 1996, no município de Arapoti, estado do Paraná, Brasil, um experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto por cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos receberam doses crescentes de resíduo celulósico, a saber: 0 (testemunha, 20, 40, 80 e 100 t.ha-1. O solo foi classificado como Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, de textura média, e está sob o cultivo de Pinus taeda L. no espaçamento de 3 x 2 m. Efetuou-se, na área, avaliações do crescimento das árvores, estado nutricional, produção de biomassa nos diferentes compartimentos das árvores, acúmulo e exportação de nutrientes e volume de lenho produzido. Como resultado, as árvores do tratamento que recebeu 80 t.ha-1 de resíduo apresentaram, até a idade de 7 anos, maior altura total e DAP, maior concentração de K, Ca e Mg nas acículas, aumento na produção de biomassa nos diferentes compartimentos, maior acúmulo de nutrientes e ganhos de até 147% na produção de volume de lenho. A partir dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a aplicação do resíduo celulósico apresentou efeitos positivos sobre o crescimento e a nutrição do Pinus taeda L., proporcionando aumentos na produção de biomassa e volume de lenho.
    Brazil produced in 2004, around 8 million tons of paper and 9,4 million tons of cellulose. Through the increasing production of paper and cellulose, the industries of this segment have generated a great amount of residues that requires viable future alternatives of disposal. Among these

  5. The response of ecosystem carbon pools to management approaches that increase the growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J. G.; Bacon, A. R.; Bracho, R. G.; Grunwald, S.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Jokela, E. J.; Markewitz, D.; Cucinella, J.; Akers, K.; Ross, C. W.; Peter, G. F.; Fox, T. D.; Martin, T.; Kane, M.

    2015-12-01

    Extending from Virginia to east Texas in the southeastern United States, managed pine forests are an important component of the region's carbon cycle. One objective of the Pine Integrated Network: Education, Mitigation, and Adaptation project (PINEMAP) is to improve estimates of how ecosystem carbon pools respond to the management strategies used to increase the growth of loblolly pine forests. Experimental studies (108 total) that had historically been used to understand forest productivity and stand dynamics by university-forest industry cooperatives have now been measured for the carbon stored in the trees, coarse-wood, forest floor, understory and soils to 1-meter (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-50 cm, and 50-100 cm). The age of the studied forests ranged from 4-26 years at the time of sampling, with 26 years very near the period when these forests are commonly harvested. The study sites encapsulated a wide regional range in precipitation (1080 mm -1780 mm) and potential evapotranspiration (716 mm - 1200 mm). The most prevalent three soil orders measured were Ultisols (62%), Alfisols (19%), and Spodosols (10%) with Entisols, Inceptisols and 1 Histosol making up the remainder (9%). Across all study sites, 455 experimental plots were measured. The plots had as a treatment either fertilization, competition control, and stand density control (thinning), including every possible combination of treatments and also 'no treatment'. The most common treatment regime, at 36% of the total number of plots, was the combination of competition control, fertilization, and thinning. The distribution of treatments relative to soils and climate prevented a simple analysis of single treatment effects and instead necessitated an examination how the carbon accumulation rate in wood, which is commonly measured and modeled in these forests, corresponded to the response of other C pools (e.g. forest floor and soil).

  6. 1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase (IDS) is encoded by multicopy genes in gymnosperms Ginkgo biloba and Pinus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Kobayashi, Akio; Sando, Tomoki; Chang, Yung-Jin; Kim, Soo-Un

    2008-01-01

    Isoprenoids are synthesized through the condensation of five-carbon intermediates, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), derived from two distinct biosynthetic routes: cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) and plastidial 2-C-methyl-D: -erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways. 1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase (IDS; EC 1.17.1.2), which catalyzes the last step of MEP pathway, was cloned as a multicopy gene from gymnosperms Ginkgo biloba (GbIDS1, GbIDS2, and GbIDS2-1) and Pinus taeda (PtIDS1 and PtIDS2), and characterized. Phylogenetic tree constructed with other plant IDSs demonstrated gymnosperm IDSs were distinctively different from angiosperm IDSs. The gymnosperm IDS clade contained two subclades, one composed of GbIDS1 and PtIDS1, and the other composed of GbIDS2, GbIDS2-1, and PtIDS2. G. biloba IDSs, except GbIDS2-1, successfully complemented Escherichia coli DLYT1, a lytB disruptant, confirming the in vivo competency of isozymes. During the 4 weeks study period, although transcript levels of GbIDS1s were similar both in roots and leaves of cultured G. biloba embryo, the transcripts of GbIDS2 predominantly occurred in the embryo roots, where diterpene ginkgolides are biosynthesized. Levels of PtIDS2 transcripts in the diterpenoid resin-producing wood were 4-5 times higher than those in other tissues. Higher levels of GbIDS1 transcripts were induced by light, whereas those of GbIDS2 were increased by methyl jasmonate treatment. These results strongly imply GbIDS2 and PtIDS2 have high correlation with secondary metabolism. In Arabidopsis transient expression system, N-terminal 100 amino acid residues of GbIDS1 delivered fused GFP protein into chloroplast as well as cytosol and nucleus, whereas those of GbIDS2, GbIDS2-1, and two PtIDSs delivered GFP only into chloroplast.

  7. Influencias de la densidad y podas sobre la producción de Pinus taeda L. a los 7 años de edad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Costas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available En un ensayo con 3 niveles de densidad y 12 tratamientos de poda, se evaluaron los efectos de la densidad, la altura de poda, el número de levantes de poda y la interacción entre la densidad y las podas sobre la producción de la masa de Pinus taeda L. a los 7 años de edad. Las variables evaluadas fueron el diámetro a la altura de pecho medio (DAP, la altura media, el volumen individual, el volumen por unidad de superficie, el área basal, el diámetro máximo sobre muñón (DMSM, el coeficiente de forma de Girard (CFG, el diámetro de ramas (DRBC y el ángulo de inserción de las ramas (ARBC en la base de la copa. En los tratamientos con mayor densidad de plantación se observaron mayores volúmenes por unidad de superficie, área basal y CFG que en los tratamientos con menor densidad. Estos produjeron mayores DAP, volúmenes individuales, DMSM, DRBC y ARBC que los tratamientos con mayores densidades. Los tratamientos con menores alturas finales de poda produjeron mayores DAP, volúmenes individuales, área basal y volúmenes por unidad de superficie que los tratamientos con mayores alturas de poda. Los menores DMSM se obtuvieron con alturas finales de poda de 3,30 m y 4,40 m realizadas a los 4 años de edad y los mayores DMSM ocurrieron al no efectuarse podas a los 5 años hasta 5,50 m y 6,60 m. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los valores medios de DRBC, ARBC y CFG producidos por los 12 tratamientos de poda. La interacción entre densidad y los tratamientos de poda no fue significativa para ninguna de las variables respuestas.

  8. Branch growth and gas exchange in 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees in response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration and fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt H; Butnor, John; Kress, Lance W; Anderson, Peter H

    2002-11-01

    We used whole-tree, open-top chambers to expose 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees, growing in soil with high or low nutrient availability, to either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 micromol mol-1) carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) for 28 months. Branch growth and morphology, foliar chemistry and gas exchange characteristics were measured periodically in the upper, middle and lower crown during the 2 years of exposure. Fertilization and elevated [CO2] increased branch leaf area by 38 and 13%, respectively, and the combined effects were additive. Fertilization and elevated [CO2] differentially altered needle lengths, number of fascicles and flush length such that flush density (leaf area/flush length) increased with improved nutrition but decreased in response to elevated [CO2]. These results suggest that changes in nitrogen availability and atmospheric [CO2] may alter canopy structure, resulting in greater foliage retention and deeper crowns in loblolly pine forests. Fertilization increased foliar nitrogen concentration (N(M)), but had no consistent effect on foliar leaf mass (W(A)) or light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(sat)). However, the correlation between A(sat) and leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(A) = W(A)N(M)) ranged from strong to weak depending on the time of year, possibly reflecting seasonal shifts in the form and pools of leaf nitrogen. Elevated [CO2] had no effect on W(A), N(M) or N(A), but increased A(sat) on average by 82%. Elevated [CO2] also increased photosynthetic quantum efficiency and lowered the light compensation point, but had no effect on the photosynthetic response to intercellular [CO2], hence there was no acclimation to elevated [CO2]. Daily photosynthetic photon flux density at the upper, middle and lower canopy position was 60, 54 and 33%, respectively, of full sun incident to the top of the canopy. Despite the relatively high light penetration, W(A), N(A), A(sat) and R(d) decreased with crown depth. Although

  9. Forest structure and plant diversity in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in central Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, L. F.; Bravo, F.; Zaldivar, P.; Pando, V.

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between forest structure and plant diversity in Mediterranean Maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in the Iberian Range (Spain) was studied. Forty eight stands were sampled. In each, a circular plot (15 m radius) and a transect (25*1 m{sup 2}) were established to estimate stand variables and record presence and abundance of vascular species respectively. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA), simple correlations and multiple stepwise linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between plant diversity and forest structure. Correlation between diversity measurements and stand variables is very weak, but significant correlations were found when evaluating each set of variables separately. Presence and cover of some species (for instance, Veronica arvensis L. or Micropyrum tenellum (L.) Link) is correlated with stand variables; however, determination coefficients found in step-by-step regression are not significant. (Author) 34 refs.

  10. Influence of stand density on soil CO2 efflux for a Pinus densiflora forest in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Nam Jin; Son, Yowhan; Lee, Sue Kyoung; Yoon, Tae Kyung; Seo, Kyung Won; Kim, Choonsig; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Bae, Sang Won; Hwang, Jaehong

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the influence of stand density [938 tree ha(-1) for high stand density (HD), 600 tree ha(-1) for medium stand density (MD), and 375 tree ha(-1) for low stand density (LD)] on soil CO(2) efflux (R (S)) in a 70-year-old natural Pinus densiflora S. et Z. forest in central Korea. Concurrent with R (S) measurements, we measured litterfall, total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA), leaf area index (LAI), soil temperature (ST), soil water content (SWC), and soil nitrogen (N) concentration over a 2-year period. The R (S) (t C ha(-1) year(-1)) and leaf litterfall (t C ha(-1) year(-1)) values varied with stand density: 6.21 and 2.03 for HD, 7.45 and 2.37 for MD, and 6.96 and 2.23 for LD, respectively. In addition, R (S) was correlated with ST (R (2) = 0.77-0.80, P densiflora.

  11. Outcrossing rates in a natural stand and in a seed orchard of Pinus peuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zhelev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mating system parameters were studied in a natural stand and in a seed orchard of the Balkan endemic, Pinus peuce Griseb. bymeans of isozyme gene markers. The results indicate that the multilocus estimates of the outcrossing rates are low relative to otherwidespread conifers but concord to these reported for other pine species with limited area of distribution. No significant differenceswere detected between the natural stand and the seed orchard estimates. Multilocus estimates of outcrossing rate were within the range0.77-0.79, while mean single-locus estimates were lower (0.69-0.73. The results indicate that at least 20% of the progeny of Pinus peuceis due to self-fertilization. Possible reasons for the results observed and the implications for tree breeding and gene conservation are discussed.

  12. Outcrossing rates in a natural stand and in a seed orchard of Pinus peuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zhelev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mating system parameters were studied in a natural stand and in a seed orchard of the Balkan endemic, Pinus peuce Griseb. bymeans of isozyme gene markers. The results indicate that the multilocus estimates of the outcrossing rates are low relative to otherwidespread conifers but concord to these reported for other pine species with limited area of distribution. No significant differenceswere detected between the natural stand and the seed orchard estimates. Multilocus estimates of outcrossing rate were within the range0.77-0.79, while mean single-locus estimates were lower (0.69-0.73. The results indicate that at least 20% of the progeny of Pinus peuceis due to self-fertilization. Possible reasons for the results observed and the implications for tree breeding and gene conservation are discussed.

  13. Biomass production of young lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia stands in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansons A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a source of renewable energy is gaining an increasing importance in the context of emission targets set by the European Union. Large areas of abandoned agricultural land with different soils are potentially available for establishment of biomass plantations in the Baltic states. Considering soil and climatic requirements as well as traits characteristic for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm and the scarcity of published knowledge, we assessed the above-ground biomass of Pinus contorta in comparison to that of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and factors affecting biomass production. Data were collected in 3 experimental trials, located in two sites in central part of Latvia: Zvirgzde and Kuldiga (56°41’ N, 24°28’ E and 57°03’ N, 21°57’ E, respectively. Trials were established with density 5000 tree ha-1, using seed material from Canada (50°08’-60°15’ N, 116°25’-132°50’ W and two Pinus contorta stands with unknown origin growing in Latvia. Results reveal that absolute dry aboveground biomass of Pinus contorta reaches 114 ± 6.4 t ha-1 at age 16 on a fertile former arable land, 48 ± 3.6 and 94 ± 9.4 t ha-1 at age 22 and 25, respectively, on a sandy forest land (Vacciniosa forest type. The biomass is significantly (p < 0.01 and considerably (more than two-fold higher than that of the native Pinus sylvestris and the productivity is similar (in fertile soils or higher (on poor soils than reported for other species in energy-wood plantations. Provenance was a significant factor affecting the above-ground biomass, and the ranking of provenances did not change significantly between different soil conditions. It provides opportunities for further improvement of productivity using selection.

  14. Carbon stocks across a chronosequence of thinned and unmanaged red pine (Pinus resinosa) stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Matthew D; Kolka, Randall K; Bradford, John B; Palik, Brian J; Fraver, Shawn; Jurgensen, Martin F

    2012-06-01

    Forests function as a major global C sink, and forest management strategies that maximize C stocks offer one possible means of mitigating the impacts of increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We studied the effects of thinning, a common management technique in many forest types, on age-related trends in C stocks using a chronosequence of thinned and unmanaged red pine (Pinus resinosa) stands ranging from 9 to 306 years old. Live tree C stocks increased with age to a maximum near the middle of the chronosequence in unmanaged stands, and increased across the entire chronosequence in thinned stands. C in live understory vegetation and C in the mineral soil each declined rapidly with age in young stands but changed relatively little in middle-aged to older stands regardless of management. Forest floor C stocks increased with age in unmanaged stands, but forest floor C decreased with age after the onset of thinning around age 40 in thinned stands. Deadwood C was highly variable, but decreased with age in thinned stands. Total ecosystem C increased with stand age until approaching an asymptote around age 150. The increase in total ecosystem C was paralleled by an age-related increase in total aboveground C, but relatively little change in total belowground C. Thinning had surprisingly little impact on total ecosystem C stocks, but it did modestly alter age-related trends in total ecosystem C allocation between aboveground and belowground pools. In addition to characterizing the subtle differences in C dynamics between thinned and unmanaged stands, these results suggest that C accrual in red pine stands continues well beyond the 60-100 year management rotations typical for this system. Management plans that incorporate longer rotations and thinning in some stands could play an important role in maximizing C stocks in red pine forests while meeting other objectives including timber extraction, biodiversity conservation, restoration, and fuel reduction goals.

  15. Carbon stocks across a chronosequence of thinned and unmanaged red pine (Pinus resinosa) stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Matthew D.; Kolka, Randall K.; Bradford, John B.; Palik, Brian J.; Fraver, Shawn; Jurgensen, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    Forests function as a major global C sink, and forest management strategies that maximize C stocks offer one possible means of mitigating the impacts of increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We studied the effects of thinning, a common management technique in many forest types, on age-related trends in C stocks using a chronosequence of thinned and unmanaged red pine (Pinus resinosa) stands ranging from 9 to 306 years old. Live tree C stocks increased with age to a maximum near the middle of the chronosequence in unmanaged stands, and increased across the entire chronosequence in thinned stands. C in live understory vegetation and C in the mineral soil each declined rapidly with age in young stands but changed relatively little in middle-aged to older stands regardless of management. Forest floor C stocks increased with age in unmanaged stands, but forest floor C decreased with age after the onset of thinning around age 40 in thinned stands. Deadwood C was highly variable, but decreased with age in thinned stands. Total ecosystem C increased with stand age until approaching an asymptote around age 150. The increase in total ecosystem C was paralleled by an age-related increase in total aboveground C, but relatively little change in total belowground C. Thinning had surprisingly little impact on total ecosystem C stocks, but it did modestly alter age-related trends in total ecosystem C allocation between aboveground and belowground pools. In addition to characterizing the subtle differences in C dynamics between thinned and unmanaged stands, these results suggest that C accrual in red pine stands continues well beyond the 60–100 year management rotations typical for this system. Management plans that incorporate longer rotations and thinning in some stands could play an important role in maximizing C stocks in red pine forests while meeting other objectives including timber extraction, biodiversity conservation, restoration, and fuel reduction goals.

  16. High seed dispersal ability of Pinus canariensis in stands of contrasting density inferred from genotypic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai López de Heredia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Models that combine parentage analysis from molecular data with spatial information of seeds and seedlings provide a framework to describe and identify the factors involved in seed dispersal and recruitment of forest species. In the present study we used a spatially explicit method (the gene shadow model in order to assess primary and effective dispersal in Pinus canariensis. Area of study: Pinus canariensis is endemic to the Canary Islands (Spain. Sampling sites were a high density forest in southern slopes of Tenerife and a low density stand in South Gran Canaria. Materials and methods: We fitted models based on parentage analysis from seeds and seedlings collected in two sites with contrasting stand density, and then compared the resulting dispersal distributions. Main results: The results showed that: 1 P. canariensis has a remarkable dispersal ability compared to other pine species; 2 there is no discordance between primary and effective dispersals, suggesting limited secondary dispersal by animals and lack of Janzen-Connell effect; and 3 low stand densities enhance the extent of seed dispersal, which was higher in the low density stand. Research highlights: The efficient dispersal mechanism of P. canariensis by wind inferred by the gene shadow model is congruent with indirect measures of gene flow, and has utility in reconstructing past demographic events and in predicting future distribution ranges for the species.

  17. Development processes and growth pattern of Pinus densiflora stands in central eastern Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pil Sun; Kim, Kyung Yoon; Han, Ahreum; Jang, Woongsoon; Son, Yowhan; Yi, Myong Jong; Park, Byung Bae; Son, Yeongmo

    2010-07-01

    Stand growth and developmental processes were investigated in Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. stands of different ages in the central eastern region of Korea. Stands were inventoried and five trees per stand were sampled for stem analysis, age estimation, and growth analysis. More than 80% of sampled trees in a stand were established within 3-5 years, and most stands had a single cohort structure. The initial growth of pine seedlings was slow, but the height growth accelerated beyond 2-3 m height, 5-10 years after establishment. Linear growth was maintained until 10-12 m height, at which suppressed trees fell behind and might die out. The young stand was composed of pure pines, while few pine seedlings and saplings were found in the understory of older stands. The peak of diameter growth rate occurred around 5-15 years after tree establishment, implying that competition begins during that period. The pine stand development follows four stages: (1) the young stage when the growth rate increases and peaks; (2) the height competition stage when trees focus on height growth for light while maintaining a narrow DBH and height distribution; (3) the differentiation stage when suppressed trees die out, and the DBH distribution becomes wider; and (4) the mature stage when stands have a multi-canopy structure with a wide DBH and height distribution, while the understory is dominated by other tree species. The changes in growth rates and stand structure through forest development would be implemented to predict alterations of above-ground carbon sequestration rates.

  18. Efecto de la disponibilidad de recursos sobre la eficiencia de uso y conservación de los nutrientes en función de las condiciones edafoclimáticas, edad y manejo de las plantaciones de Pinus taeda L. en la Mesopotamia argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Martiarena, Rodolfo Andrés

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente Tesis fue determinar el efecto de la disponibilidad de recursos sobre la eficiencia de uso y conservación de los nutrientes en función de las condiciones edafoclimáticas, edad y manejo de las plantaciones de Pinus taeda L. en la Mesopotamia Argentina. Materiales y Métodos. El trabajo se realizó entre los 28º 30’ S, en la provincia de Corrientes, hasta los 25º 30’ S, en la provincia de Misiones. Se seleccionaron 31 sitios con plantaciones de P. taeda entre ...

  19. The effects of understory vegetation on P availability in Pinus radiata forest stands:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Arivin Rivaie

    2014-01-01

    In many second-rotation Pinus radiata forest planta-tions, there has been a steady trend towards wider tree spacing and an increased rate of application of P fertiliser. Under these regimes, the potential for understory growth is expected to in-crease through increased light and greater nutrient resources. Therefore, understory vegetation could become a more signifi-cant component of P cycling in P. radiata forests than under closely-spaced stands. Studies have shown that growth rates and survival of trees is reduced in the presence of understory vegeta-tion due to the competition of understory vegetation with trees. Other studies have suggested that understory vegetation might have beneficial effects on nutrient cycling and conservation within forest stands. This review discusses the significance of understory vegetation in radiata pine forest stands, especially their role in enhancing or reducing P availability to forest trees.

  20. Object-based semi-automatic approach for forest structure characterization using lidar data in heterogeneous Pinus sylvestris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Pascual; A. Garcia-Abril; L.G. Garcia-Montero; S. Martin-Fernandez; W.B. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage approach for characterizing the structure of Pinus sylvestris L. stands in forests of central Spain. The first stage was to delimit forest stands using eCognition and a digital canopy height model (DCHM) derived from lidar data. The polygons were then clustered into forest structure types based on the DCHM data...

  1. Carbon and nitrogen storage in an age-sequence of Pinus densiflora stands in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Nam-Jin; Son, Yowhan; Lee, Sue-Kyoung; Seo, Kyung-Won; Heo, Su-Jin; Yi, Myong-Jong; Park, Pil-Sun; Kim, Rae-Hyun; Son, Yeong-Mo; Lee, Kyeong-Hak

    2010-07-01

    The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage capabilities of Pinus densiflora in six different stand ages (10, 27, 30, 32, 44, and 71 years old) were investigated in Korea. Thirty sample trees were destructively harvested and 12 were excavated. Samples from the above and belowground tree components, coarse woody debris (CWD), forest floor, and mineral soil (0-30 cm) were collected. Tree biomass was highest in the 71-year-old stand (202.8 t ha(-1)) and lowest in the 10-year-old stand (18.4 t ha(-1)). C and N storage in the mineral soil was higher in the 71-year-old stand than in the other stands, mainly due to higher soil C and N concentrations. Consequently, the total ecosystem C and N storage (tree+forest floor+CWD+soil) was positively correlated with stand age: increasing from a minimum in the 10 year old stand (18.8 t C ha(-1) and 1.3 t N ha(-1)) to a maximum in the 71-year-old stand (201.4 t C ha(-1) and 8.5 t N ha(-1)). The total ecosystem C storage showed a similar sigmoidal pattern to that of tree C storage as a function of the age-sequence, while N storage in the CWD, forest floor and mineral soil showed no significant temporal trends. Our results provide important insights that will increase our understanding of C and N storage in P. densiflora stands and our ability to predict changes according to stand age in the region.

  2. Carbon and nitrogen storage in an age-sequence of Pinus densiflora stands in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NOH; Nam-Jin; SON; Yowhan; LEE; Sue-Kyoung; SEO; Kyung-Won; HEO; Su-Jin1,; YI; Myong-Jong; PARK; Pil-Sun; KIM; Rae-Hyun; SON; Yeong-Mo; LEE; Kyeong-Hak

    2010-01-01

    The carbon(C) and nitrogen(N) storage capabilities of Pinus densiflora in six different stand ages(10,27,30,32,44,and 71 years old) were investigated in Korea.Thirty sample trees were destructively harvested and 12 were excavated.Samples from the above and belowground tree components,coarse woody debris(CWD),forest floor,and mineral soil(0-30 cm) were collected.Tree biomass was highest in the 71-year-old stand(202.8 t ha-1) and lowest in the 10-year-old stand(18.4 t ha-1).C and N storage in the mineral soil was higher in the 71-year-old stand than in the other stands,mainly due to higher soil C and N concentrations.Consequently,the total ecosystem C and N storage(tree+forest floor+CWD+soil) was positively correlated with stand age:increasing from a minimum in the 10 year old stand(18.8 t C ha-1 and 1.3 t N ha-1) to a maximum in the 71-year-old stand(201.4 t C ha-1 and 8.5 t N ha-1).The total ecosystem C storage showed a similar sigmoidal pattern to that of tree C storage as a function of the age-sequence,while N storage in the CWD,forest floor and mineral soil showed no significant temporal trends.Our results provide important insights that will increase our understanding of C and N storage in P.densiflora stands and our ability to predict changes according to stand age in the region.

  3. Penerapan Analisis Diskriminan dalam Pembedaan Kelas Umur Tegakan Pinus (Discriminant Analysist for Stand Class Age Distinction of Pine Stand

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    Priyanto .

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This  study  describes the use of discriminant anylisis for pine (Pinus spp. stand class age distinction.    Aim of this  study were (1 to arrange stand age class based on variable of aerial photograph by non hierarchy cluster analysis,  and (2 to find out aerial  photograph variable contribute to stand age class distinction by discriminant analysis.    Data used in study was taken from  a  research  conducted by Adi (1998.   Pinus stand was located  in KPH Bandung Utara, West Java. The variable of aerial photograph that used in this analysis were tone, shape, texture, topography, pattern, crown, diameter and height. The result showed that validation analysis of discriminant function was significant.  Therefore, this function was applicable for grouping new object to stand age class based on discriminant score. Keywords: cluster analysis, discriminat analysis, stand age class, discriminant score

  4. Managing Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Stands for the Restoration of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    field hairsedge graminoid/herb Carex glaucescens southern waxy sedge graminoid/herb Cyperus grayi Gray’s flatsedge graminoid/herb Cyperus...scandens 41.7 0.0018 Bignonia capreolata 34.0 0.0198 Carex glaucescens 34.7 0.0116

  5. Effect of two successive wildfires in Pinus halepensis stands of central Greece

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    Y. Spanos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We estimated differences, five years after a wildfire, in soil and vegetation between Pinus halepensis stands that were once burnt (1998 and stands that were burnt twice in a short time interval (1995 and 1998, in the area of Penteli, central Greece. The parameters monitored were the physical and chemical attributes of upper soil layer and the vegetation composition, density and height. The results showed that five years after the wildfire, soil pH did not differ between areas burnt once and twice, while the organic matter was higher in the once-burnt areas. The vegetation composition was similar in the two areas and the dominant species were those pre-existing the fire. On the contrary, vegetation density was considerably lower in the twice-burnt areas. The height of woody species oscillated in the same levels in the two areas. The plant community was composed mainly by resprouting species, like Quercus coccifera, Pistacia lentiscus, or Phillyrea latifolia, and less individuals from seed-regenerated species, like Pinus halepensis, Cistus monspeliensis, and C. creticus. It is suggested that the recurrence of wildfire affected negatively the ecosystem attributes, and contributed to the increased risk of degradation.

  6. La préparation du terrain et le contrôle de la végétation adventice affectent la productivité à long terme de Pinus taeda dans les stations des Piémonts du sud et des plaines côtières des États-Unis d'Amérique

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Dehai; Kane, Michael; Borders, Bruce E.; Harrison, Mike; Rheney, John W.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A site preparation study was established in 1986 to evaluate the effect of different site preparation treatments on growth and yield of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations on the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain regions of the southern United States. Site preparation treatments included: (1) burn only, (2) chop-burn, (3) shear-pile-disk, (4) chop-herbicide-burn, (5) herbicide-burn, and (6) herbicide-burn-herbicide.* The data from the available 19 installations a...

  7. Assessing wildfire occurrence probability in Pinus pinaster Ait. stands in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Botequim, B.; Ricardo, A.; Borges, J. G.; Tome, M.; Oliveira, M. M.

    2012-11-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) is an important conifer from the western Mediterranean Basin extending over 22% of the forest area in Portugal. In the last three decades nearly 4% of Maritime pine area has been burned by wildfires. Yet no wildfire occurrence probability models are available and forest and fire management planning activities are thus carried out mostly independently of each other. This paper presents research to address this gap. Specifically, it presents a model to assess wildfire occurrence probability in regular and pure Maritime pine stands in Portugal. Emphasis was in developing a model based on easily available inventory data so that it might be useful to forest managers. For that purpose, data from the last two Portuguese National Forest Inventories (NFI) and data from wildfire perimeters in the years from 1998 to 2004 and from 2006 to 2007 were used. A binary logistic regression model was build using biometrics data from the NFI. Biometric data included indicators that might be changed by operations prescribed in forest planning. Results showed that the probability of wildfire occurrence in a stand increases in stand located at steeper slopes and with high shrubs load while it decreases with precipitation and with stand basal area. These results are instrumental for assessing the impact of forest management options on wildfire probability thus helping forest managers to reduce the risk of wildfires. (Author) 57 refs.

  8. Revisiting the relationship between common weather variables and loblolly-shortleaf pine seed crops in natural stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G Shelton

    2000-01-01

    Seed production was monitored during 24 years using seed-collection traps in loblolly-shortleaf pine (Pinus taeda L.-P. echinata Mill.) stands located in southeast Arkansas, north-central Louisiana, and southwest Mississippi on the southeastern Coastal Plain, USA. Sound seed production was correlated with mean monthly precipitation...

  9. Biomass and carbon stock from Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis under homogenous stands in southwest Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máida Cynthia Duca de Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: There is a large number of studies evaluating methods to quantify biomass for the genus Pinus in different regions of Brazil. However, knowledge about this subject in the Northeast region of Brazil is still incipient. The objective of the present study was to assess the biomass and carbon stocks and select mathematical models to estimate these variables in Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis , which is established in homogenous stands in the Southwest region of the state of Bahia (Brazil. The biomass was quantified using the destructive method. Samples of needles, bole, bark, and branches were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. Ten models were tested, and the best of them were chosen based on the following statistical indicators: adjusted determination coefficient, estimate standard error, maximum likelihood logarithm, and graphical analysis of waste. Values for total biomass and carbon stocks were 69 and 42Mg ha-1, respectively. Curtis and Schumacher-Hall Log models showed to be the most indicated to estimate the total dry biomass and carbon of the species under the conditions studied.

  10. Damage caused by different levels of artificial defoliation, simulating the leaf-cutting ants attack on young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis Danos causados por diferentes níveis de desfolha artificial para simulação do ataque de formigas cortadeiras em Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis

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    Wilson Reis Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The artificial defoliation allows to measure the defoliation intensity caused by insects. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the damages caused by leaf-cutting ants in young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis using different levels of artificial defoliation. A classification was established according to defoliation levels that were caused by leaf-cutting ants in P. taeda: level 1: 50%, level 2: 75%, level 3: 100% and level 4: 100%, including the cut of the apical meristem. And in E. grandis: level 1: 50% of defoliation; level 2: 75% and level 3: 100%. After one year, the P. taeda seedlings had losses in diameter and height for defoliation level above 75%. Seedlings severely defoliated (level 4, had losses of 37.0% in height and 45.4% in diameter. The E. grandis seedlings had losses since three months old and the reductions were proportional to the defoliation intensity. After one year, the losses of 13.3% in height and 20% in diameter were verified in plants with 100% of defoliation. P. taeda plants are more damaged by leaf-cutting attack.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.65.37

    A desfolha artificial permite mensurar a intensidade do dano devido à desfolha causada por insetos. No presente estudo, buscou-se avaliar os danos causados por formigas cortadeiras em plantios de Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis com 30 dias de idade. Foi estabelecida uma classificação baseada em níveis de desfolha semelhantes aos causados por formigas cortadeiras. Para P. taeda, os níveis foram: N1: 50%, N2: 75%, N3: 100% e N4: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Para E. grandis, os níveis foram N1: 50%, N2: 75% e N3: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Após um ano, as mudas de P. taeda tiveram perdas em altura e diâmetro nos níveis de N2 a N4. Mudas de P. taeda desfolhadas no nível N4 apresentaram perdas de

  11. Spatial Genetic Structure within and among Seed Stands of Pinus engelmannii Carr. and Pinus leiophylla Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham, in Durango, Mexico

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    María Elena Ortiz-Olivas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of spatial genetic structure (SGS are important because they offer detailed insights into historical demographic and evolutionary processes and provide important information regarding species conservation and management. Pinus engelmannii and P. leiophylla var. leiophylla are two important timber tree species in Mexico, covering about 2.5 and 1.9 million hectares, respectively. However, studies in relation to population genetics are unfortunately scant. The aim of this research was to use amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP analysis to identify potential differences in spatial genetic structure within and among seven Pinus engelmannii and nine P. leiophylla var. leiophylla seed stands in Durango, Mexico. Within the 16 seed stands of the two tested pine species, no significant SGS was detected, although SGS was detected among the seed stands. We concluded that the collection of seed in only some seed stands should not significantly alter the degree of genetic differentiation within the (collected seed. Distances between seed orchards and pollen propagators of more than 24 km for P. engelmannii and 7 km for P. leiophylla may be sufficient to limit contamination. Finally, local seeds should be used for (reforestation.

  12. Spore Dispersion of Tricholoma matsutake at a Pinus densiflora Stand in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun; Ka, Kang-Hyeon

    2010-09-01

    The spore of Tricholoma matsutake is considered to be the starting point of the mushroom growth cycle, but the mechanism of mycelial development from the spore stage is not yet clarified. In this study, we tried to measure how far the spores of T. matsutake disperse from a fruiting body located at a Pinus densiflora stand in Korea. We established 16 slide glasses coated with glycerin near a fruiting body in four directions separated by four different distance intervals within a mushroom productive stand after removing all other fruiting bodies from three plots. The number of dispersed spores increased with time from the first day (475 spores/cm(2)) to the fourth day (836 spores/cm(2)) after the pileus opened. The number of spores dispersed downward was about 1.5 times greater than that dispersed toward the ridge. The number of dispersed spores decreased exponentially as the distance from each fruiting body increased. More than 95% of the spores dropped within a meter from the fruiting body, with 75% dropping within 0.5 m. Even so, the number of spores dispersed over 5 m from the fruiting body was more than 50 million when considering the total number of spores produced by a fruiting body is about 5 billion.

  13. Genet Variation of Ectomycorrhizal Suillus granulatus Fruiting Bodies in Pinus strobus Stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2016-03-01

    The genets of Suillus granulatus in a Pinus strobus stand (13 m × 60 m) were identified using random amplified polymorphic DNA molecular markers and the DNA of mushrooms that fruited for two years, and variations in genet size and distribution were analyzed. From a total of 116 mushrooms, 73 genets were identified and were grouped into three locations. The genets of mushrooms in close proximity differed from each other. The genet sizes varied at any of the three locations. The lengths of the identified genets in the pine stand ranged from 0.09 to 2.90 m. The average number of mushrooms per genet was 1.2 to 2.3, and the percentage of genets that were represented by a single mushroom was 44% to 94%. This variation in the genets of mushrooms in close proximity suggests that the ectomycorrhizal mycelial bodies of S. granulatus propagated sexually by fusing haploid spores derived from the mushrooms gills with below-ground mycelia. Therefore, it is necessary further to investigate the formation of new genets through spores in ectomycorrhizal fungal colonies.

  14. Effects of Alternative Thinning Regimes and Prescribed Burning in Natural, Even-Aged Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands: 25 Year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    2003-01-01

    In southeastern Arkansas, pine growth was monitored for 19 yr after mechanically strip thinning a dense, naturally regenerated, even-aged stand of 6-yr-old loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pines (P. echinata Mill.) that averaged 16,600 stems/UC. Prescribed winter burns were conducted biennially between ages 9 and 20...

  15. Successional development from stands of Miscanthus sinensis to stands of Pinus densiflora and elements of microclimates: The seed germination and seedling establishment conditions of P. densiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Y.

    1991-09-01

    The succession mechanism from stands of Miscanthus sinensis to stands of Pinus densiflora was studied in relation to elements of microclimates within those plant communities. Laboratory experiments indicated that the seed germination of P. densiflora occurred at cumulative soil temperature between 75 °C ṡ day and 200 °C ṡ day. It is assumed from field research that establishment of P. densiflora seedlings is impossible if the effective cumulative air temperature at a height of 6 cm is less than 2,000 °C day, and the cumulative solar radiation figure totals less than 633 MJ/m2. The seedlings thrived in a M. sinensis stand growing on gently convex topography, which fulfills the requisites mentioned above. The seedlings in a M. sinensis stand growing on gently concave topography and in a P. densiflora stand died completely by October.

  16. Extraction Process and Antioxidant Activity of Pinus taeda L.Polysaccharides%火炬松松针多糖提取工艺及其抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小向; 尹小莉; 洪艳平; 邹凯; 上官新晨; 梁强

    2016-01-01

    With the polysaccharides yield as target , the polysaccharides from pine needles of Pinus taeda L.was extracted and its antioxidant activity in vitro was determined .The ultrasonic-assisted extraction technology of polysaccharides from pine needles of P.taeda was confirmed by using Box-Behnken response surface methodology .The results showed that the optimal extraction process conditions were ultrasonic time 25 min, water extraction time 1 h, liquid-material ratio of 25∶1 ( mL∶g) and extraction temperature 91 ℃.Under optimal conditions , the yield of polysaccharides was up to 1.867%.The antioxidant activity in vitro was evaluated by measuring the DPPH· , · OH and ABTS + free radical removal ability.As a result, the pine needle polysaccharides had a relatively strong capacity to scavenge DPPH ,OH and ABTS +free radical .They had a better concentration-response relationship .It showed that pine needle polysaccharides had an obvious antioxidant activity .%以多糖得率为指标,从火炬松松针中浸提多糖,并测定其体外抗氧化活性。在单因素试验基础上采用响应面法优化超声波辅助热水浸提火炬松松针多糖,最佳的工艺参数为:30 g松针粉末在超声波作用时间25 min,热水浸提1 h,液料比25∶1(mL∶g),热水浸提温度91℃。在此条件下,火炬松松针多糖得率达1.867%,提取率达91.39%。通过测定松针多糖对苯基苦基肼自由基( DPPH·)、羟基自由基(· OH)和2,2-联氮-二-(3-乙基-苯并噻唑-6-磺酸)自由基(ABTS+)的清除能力评价其体外抗氧化能力。结果显示:火炬松松针多糖对自由基DPPH·、· OH和ABTS+都有较强清除能力,且都呈较好的量效关系,火炬松松针多糖具有较强的体外抗氧化能力。

  17. Interactions Between Pinus taeda (loblolly) Fine Roots and Soil Fungi: Impacts of Elevated CO2, N Availability, and Spatial Distribution of Fungi on Fine Root Persistence and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, A.; Beidler, K.; McGlinn, D.; Pritchard, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Fine root turnover represents the most significant mode of flux from plants into soil C pools. Unfortunately fine root senescence and decomposition, processes critical in turnover, are particularly understudied. For example, little is known about either the factors that influence fine-root decomposition or the fate of compounds they contain during root death. Better understanding fine root senescence and decomposition should reduce uncertainty associated with global climate models; including re-uptake of materials in dying leaves into these models has already been shown to increase their accuracy. Over 4400 individual fine-roots and 4734 rhizomorphs were tracked from initiation until disintegration over 12 years using minirhizotrons at the Duke FACE site. Image-based approaches such as minirhizotrons cannot directly assess fine-root physiological status. To assess fine-root function directly, we are now conducting manipulative experiments in P. taeda in which fine-root senescence is induced through two treatments, steam- and direct hand-girdling. Physiological status is then assessed by examining gene-expression, root anatomy and chemical composition of manipulated roots. Changing [CO2] did not change persistence times for roots, but did impact rhizomorph persistence. Both roots and rhizomorphs showed interactions between effects of N and CO2 on persistence. Most interesting is the interaction between fine-roots and rhizomorphs: fine root persistence times are reduced in the presence of rhizomorphs, but this effect depends on the amount of N available. Finally, we found experimentally inducing senescence via steam girdling to be very effective relative to hand-girdling. These results provide evidence of the importance of priming on function of soil fungi and the role of N availability on fine-root turnover. The ability to stimulate fine-root senescence provides a powerful experimental tool to examine the fates of resources contained in fine-root pools as these

  18. Impacts of more frequent droughts on a relict low-altitude Pinus uncinata stand in the French Alps

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cold microclimatic conditions provide exceptional microhabitats to Pinus uncinata stands occurring at abnormally low altitudes in seven paleorefugia of the northern French Alps. Here, P. uncinata is located at the lower bounds of its ecological limits and therefore expected to provide a sensitive indicator of climate change processes. We used dendrochronological analysis to study the growth patterns of closely spaced chronologies across an elevational transect and compare a relict low-altitud...

  19. Dynamics of natural regeneration in Pinus laricio stands from southern Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanesi E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings establishment was studied in small (380 m2, medium (855 m2 and large (1520 m2 gaps created in calabrian pine (Pinus laricio Poiret stands (mean height 22 m in the Southern Apennine. After three growing seasons first results put in evidence: a no significant differences of water soil content were observed between gap sizes; b transmittance was higher in large and medium gaps than in small ones and in the centre and northern sides in both gap sizes; c calabrian pine seedling density was higher in large gaps than in medium and small ones and namely in the centre positions; silver fir seedlings appear after the second growing season in small and medium gaps; d seedling mortality of calabrian pine was relevant in small and medium gaps in the edge and silver fir seedling mortality in the centre of the large ones; e in these first years the ground vegetation (bramble and bracken represents a moderate detrimental effect on seedlings establishment that could be removed by partial cuttings.

  20. [Effects of stand structure regulation on soil labile organic carbon in Pinus elliottii plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gui-Xia; Liu, Yuan-Qiu; Li, Lian-Lian; Liu, Wu; Zan, Yu-Ting; Huo, Bing-Nan; He, Mu-Jiao

    2014-05-01

    Taking 21-year-old Pinus elliottii pure plantation as the control, effects of enrichment planting with broadleaf trees (Liquidambar fornosana) after thinning the conifer trees (P. elliottii) on soil labile organic carbon of different plantations, including 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old P. elliottii and 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantations, were investigated. The results showed that the contents of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) significantly increased in the 6-year-old and 9-year-old plantations compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. Soil labile organic carbon contents in the 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantation increased significantly than those in 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old stands, and the DOC, ROC and MBC contents increased by 113.1%, 53.3% and 54.6%, respectively, compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. The results suggested that replanting with broadleaf trees are an effective measure to improve the soil ecological function in pure P. elliottii plantation.

  1. Evidence for stage-specific modulation of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA processing components in zygotic embryo and female gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Thomas J; Wartell, Roger M; Cairney, John; Pullman, Gerald S

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate plant development, but have not been studied in gymnosperm seed tissues. The presence and characteristics of several miRNAs were examined in zygotic embryos (ZEs) and female gametophytes (FGs) of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Evidence for miRNAs was obtained using northern analyses and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) mediated with poly(A) polymerase. Partial sequences of two miRNAs were verified. Three regions of putative mRNA targets were analyzed by qRT-PCR to monitor the occurrence of stage-dependent miRNA-mediated cleavage. Five miRNAs were identified in ZEs and FGs along with partial sequences of Pta-miR166 and Pta-miR167. Both miRNAs showed differing degrees of tissue-specific and stage-specific modulation. Analysis of HB15L mRNA (a potential Pta-miR166 target) suggested miRNA-guided cleavage in ZEs and FGs. Analysis of ARF8L mRNA (a potential Pta-miR167 target) implied cleavage in ZEs but not in FGs. Argonaute9-like mRNA (ptAGO9L) showed stage-specific modulation of expression in ZEs that appeared to be inverted in the corresponding FGs. MicroRNAs and argonaute genes varied spatiotemporally during seed development. The peak levels of Pta-miR166 in FGs and ptAGO9L in embryos occurred at stage 9.1, a critical transition point during embryo development and a point where somatic embryo maturation often stops. MicroRNAs identified in FG tissue may play a role in embryogenesis.

  2. Relação do quociente do diâmetro pela área basal com o autodesbaste em povoamento equiâneo de Pinus taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Pigatto Schneider

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050988451Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o quociente do diâmetro pela área basal no momento da ocorrência do autodesbaste em povoamentos de Pinus taeda L., em vários espaçamentos, manejado em densidade completa. Para isso, foi utilizado o modelo Tang, relacionando o número de árvores por hectare com o diâmetro médio, a partir de dados de parcelas permanentes, medidas anualmente até os 18 anos de idade. Os resultados indicam que o modelo de autodesbaste proposto por Tang, apresentou ótima precisão e elevada eficiência, porém, com coeficiente angular preconizado por Tang de (-3/2, tendo resultado um valor de -1,6523. No momento da ocorrência do autodesbaste, as árvores atingiram diâmetros de 14 e 17 cm, nos espaçamento de 2 x 2 e 3 x 2 m, com áreas basais de 38,8 e 47,5 m² ha-1, respectivamente. Em todos os espaçamentos a área basal máxima foi de 78 m² ha-1, aos 18 anos de idade, com tendência ascendente. Nesses espaçamentos, os quocientes de diâmetro pela área basal no momento de ocorrência do autodesbaste foram de 0,36 e 0,37, respectivamente.

  3. Degree of Hybridization in Seed Stands of Pinus engelmannii Carr. In the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Jaime Ávila-Flores

    Full Text Available Hybridization is an important evolutionary force, because interspecific gene transfer can introduce more new genetic material than is directly generated by mutations. Pinus engelmannii Carr. is one of the nine most common pine species in the pine-oak forest ecoregion in the state of Durango, Mexico. This species is widely harvested for lumber and is also used in reforestation programmes. Interspecific hybrids between P.engelmannii and Pinus arizonica Engelm. have been detected by morphological analysis. The presence of hybrids in P. engelmannii seed stands may affect seed quality and reforestation success. Therefore, the goals of this research were to identify introgressive hybridization between P. engelmannii and other pine species in eight seed stands of this species in Durango, Mexico, and to examine how hybrid proportion is related to mean genetic dissimilarity between trees in these stands, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers and morphological traits. Differences in the average current annual increment of putative hybrids and pure trees were also tested for statistical significance. Morphological and genetic analyses of 280 adult trees were carried out. Putative hybrids were found in all the seed stands studied. The hybrids did not differ from the pure trees in vigour or robustness. All stands with putative P. engelmannii hybrids detected by both AFLPs and morphological traits showed the highest average values of the Tanimoto distance, which indicates: i more heterogeneous genetic material, ii higher genetic variation and therefore iii the higher evolutionary potential of these stands, and iv that the morphological differentiation (hybrid/not hybrid is strongly associated with the Tanimoto distance per stand. We conclude that natural pairwise hybrids are very common in the studied stands. Both morphological and molecular approaches are necessary to confirm the genetic identity of forest reproductive material.

  4. Disturbance, age and size structure in stands of Pinus uncinata Ram

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    Bosch, O.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The size and age structure of two subalpine conifer pure stands of Pinus uncinata were examined and interpreted using a simple classification of trees by crown exposure to direct sunlight. Both populations show irregular reverse-J shaped diameter distributions having an uncertain Interpretation. However, peaks in the age distribution of both stands and the crown exposure of the youngest ones clearly reveal that regeneration occurs in forest clearings. Tree-ring width series from each stand were used to reconstruct their recent disturbance history through the identification of growth releases. Disturbance regimes in the analyzed stands are different, but they show an analogues shaping effect on the age structure in both cases.

    [es] Las estructuras de tamaño y edad de dos bosques monoespecificos subalpinos de Pinus uncinata en el Pirineo, fueron estudiadas e interpretadas introduciendo una clasificación sencilla de los árboles según la exposición de su copa a la radiación solar directa. Ambas poblaciones muestran distribuciones de diámetro de J invertida irregulares, cuya Interpretación es incierta. Por el contrario, la estructura de edad en ambos bosques muestra picos visibles, los cuales, si se tienen en cuenta la exposición de la copa, indican que la regeneración se produce en claros del bosque. Se analizaron las series de anillos de crecimiento de los árboles de cada sitio para reconstruir su historia reciente de perturbaciones Identificando los incrementos bruscos del crecimiento. El régimen de perturbaciones en los dos bosques es diferente, y en ambos casos muestra un efecto madelador análogo sobre la estructura de edad. Se concluye que P. uncinata se comporta como una especie heliófila que puede formar bosques maduros o multicohorte bajo determinados regímenes de perturbaciones suaves, gracias a su capacidad para iniciar la regeneración en claros pequeños. Este proceso tiene lugar en un lapso

  5. Seasonal response of soil enzyme activity to thinning intensity of aerial seeded Pinus tabulaeformis stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guolei LI; Yong LIU; Jing GAN; Bei GUO; Yang XU

    2008-01-01

    Aerial seeding is one of the most important vegetation restoration patterns in remote hilly areas, and studies concerning soil quality and its management have practical value. In 2000, a study of the effect of thinning intensities at five different treatments levels, 0 (CK), 30% (slight thinning), 48.75% (medium thinning), 53.75% (intense thinning) and 65.6% (super intense thinning) on soil enzyme activity was carried out on 9-year-old aerial seeded Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) stands with an initial density of 8000 trees/hm2, in the Wang-jiapu Aerail Seeding Center, Yanqing County, Beijing. Five years later, the activities of five kinds of soil enzymes, soil urease, alkaline phosphatase, inertase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase in the first 20 cm of soil layer were compared during four seasons. Relationships among soil enzymes and soil physiochemical properties were also analyzed to examine the possibility of using soil enzymes to evaluate thinning intensities. The results showed that the maximum enzyme activities of catalase and polyphe-nol oxidase occurred in June, those of soil urease and alkaline phosphatase occurred in October, and soil inve-tase had its maximum in April. In addition, the five soil enzymes were affected differently by thinning intensities. Soil catalase, urease and invertase showed the highest res-ponse to a slight thinning, followed by medium thinning, which is the opposite experienced with polyphenol oxidase and alkaline phosphatase. There are statistically signifi cant and positive relationships between soil enzymes andorganic matter and available K. It should be noted that soil water was a limiting factor to soil enzyme activity. Compared with soil physicochemical characteristics, soil enzymes were more sensitive to levels of thinning inten-sities. Among the enzymes, soil alkaline phosphatase and catalase could be regarded as indicators to assess soil quality. It is concluded that a suitable thinning intensity benefits the

  6. Multiresource effects of a stand-replacement prescribed fire in the Pinus contorta-Abies lasiocarpa vegetation zone of central Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur R. Tiedemann; Paul M. Woodard

    2002-01-01

    A stand-replacement prescribed fire in an over-mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.)-subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) stand (snag area) and in a mature lodgepole pine thicket (thicket area) resulted in lower plant diversity within the first year after burning, and as fire energy outputs increased...

  7. EVALUACIÓN DE PROCEDIMIENTOS DE AJUSTE ÓPTIMO DE TODOS LOS PARÁMETROS DE WEIBULL 3P PARA MODELAR LA ESTRUCTURA HORIZONTAL EN PLANTACIONES DE Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vallejos-Barra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se generó un conjunto de procedimientos de cálculo que permitieran estimar los tres parámetros de la función de densidad de probabilidad Weibull 3P. Además, se estimaron y evaluaron los parámetros óptimos de esta función mediante los procedimientos de cálculo desarrollados, para modelar los diámetros a la altura del pecho de árboles de Pinus taeda. Los árboles fueron medidos durante ocho años en seis parcelas para cada una de las cinco densidades de plantación consideradas. Los parámetros de la Weibull 3P fueron estimados por cuatro métodos alternativos: máxima verosimilitud, momentos, percentiles e híbrido. Los procedimientos de optimización buscaban minimizar tanto el índice de error como los estadísticos de las pruebas de bondad de ajuste: Kolmogorov- Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, Kuiper, Cramer-Von Mises y Watson. Cuatro fueron los resultados principales de esta investigación. Primero, los métodos de estimación de parámetros y la edad de plantación afectaron el valor del parámetro de localización. Segundo, 45 % de los valores del parámetro de localización fueron negativos. En estos casos, se encontró una relación lineal altamente significativa entre los parámetros de localización, de escala y forma. Entonces, el efecto de un valor del parámetro de localización negativo fue compensado por el valor de los otros parámetros. Tercero, el método de percentiles y de máxima verosimilitud producen el menor y mayor valor del parámetro de localización, respectivamente. Cuarto, la mayor exactitud en el ajuste se logró con los métodos de estimación de parámetros de los percentiles y de los momentos. La mayor exactitud en el ajuste de la prueba Anderson-Darling se asoció al método de los momentos y el resto de las pruebas de bondad de ajuste con el método de los percentiles.

  8. 3种氨基酸对火炬松苗期生长的影响%Effects of Three Kinds of Amino Acids on the Seedling of Pinus taeda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 陈珂; 刘天颐; 黄少伟

    2016-01-01

    分析1 a 生火炬松(Pinus taeda)幼苗施复合肥前后氨基酸含量变化,筛选出含量变化较大的3种氨基酸,设置3种氨基酸不同浓度组合,采用土壤施肥和叶面喷施,通过方差分析及 Duncan 多重比较检验,筛选出合适火炬松的氨基酸浓度组合和施肥方法。结果表明:(1)施用复合肥前后氨基酸含量变化较大的有9种,其中缬氨酸、组氨酸、天冬酰胺含量较大,且均为水溶性氨基酸;(2)总整体来看,芭田复合肥对苗木的生长促进效果不如氨基酸施肥;(3)采用土壤施肥,缬氨酸0.192 g/L+组氨酸0.163 g/L+天冬酰胺0.309 g/L 对苗高和生物量的促进效果最好;采用叶面喷施,缬氨酸0.256 g/L+组氨酸0.163 g/L+天冬酰胺0.412 g/L 对苗高和生物量的促进效果最好;(4)在5项生长量指标测定中,叶面喷施的指标值大部分高于土壤施肥。综上所述,对火炬松幼苗生长促进效果最优的施肥方式为叶面喷施缬氨酸0.256 g/L+组氨酸0.163 g/L+天冬酰胺0.412 g/L。%Through the annual loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seedlings compound fertilizer applied to the analysis of amino acid content, screening of three amino acids with a large change in content. Setting different combinations of amino acid concentrations, and sprayed with two different methods of soil and foliar fertilization for processing. By ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple comparison test of different fertilization methods, differences in the concentration of amino acid composition of seedling growth, and select the best combination of amino acid concentration and fertilization. The results showed that: (1) There were nine kinds of amino acids had a great change in content, which meet the test requirements to select three amino acids including valine, histidine and asparagine; (2) Overall, amino acid fertilizer was better than compound fertilizer for seedlings; (3) In terms of soil fertilization, the

  9. Soil Microbial Community Structure and Metabolic Activity of Pinus elliottii Plantations across Different Stand Ages in a Subtropical Area.

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    Zeyan Wu

    Full Text Available Soil microbes play an essential role in the forest ecosystem as an active component. This study examined the hypothesis that soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity would vary with the increasing stand ages in long-term pure plantations of Pinus elliottii. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP method was used to assess these characteristics in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii. We found that the soil microbial communities were significantly different among different stand ages of P. elliottii plantations. The PLFA analysis indicated that the bacterial biomass was higher than the actinomycic and fungal biomass in all stand ages. However, the bacterial biomass decreased with the increasing stand ages, while the fungal biomass increased. The four maximum biomarker concentrations in rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii for all stand ages were 18:1ω9c, 16:1ω7c, 18:3ω6c (6,9,12 and cy19:0, representing measures of fungal and gram negative bacterial biomass. In addition, CLPP analysis revealed that the utilization rate of amino acids, polymers, phenolic acids, and carbohydrates of soil microbial community gradually decreased with increasing stand ages, though this pattern was not observed for carboxylic acids and amines. Microbial community diversity, as determined by the Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Richness index and McIntosh index, significantly decreased as stand age increased. Overall, both the PLFA and CLPP illustrated that the long-term pure plantation pattern exacerbated the microecological imbalance previously described in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii, and markedly decreased the soil microbial community diversity and metabolic activity. Based on the correlation analysis, we concluded that the soil nutrient and C/N ratio most significantly contributed to the variation of soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity in different stand

  10. Soil Microbial Community Structure and Metabolic Activity of Pinus elliottii Plantations across Different Stand Ages in a Subtropical Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zeyan; Haack, Stacey Elizabeth; Lin, Wenxiong; Li, Bailian; Wu, Linkun; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes play an essential role in the forest ecosystem as an active component. This study examined the hypothesis that soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity would vary with the increasing stand ages in long-term pure plantations of Pinus elliottii. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) method was used to assess these characteristics in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii. We found that the soil microbial communities were significantly different among different stand ages of P. elliottii plantations. The PLFA analysis indicated that the bacterial biomass was higher than the actinomycic and fungal biomass in all stand ages. However, the bacterial biomass decreased with the increasing stand ages, while the fungal biomass increased. The four maximum biomarker concentrations in rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii for all stand ages were 18:1ω9c, 16:1ω7c, 18:3ω6c (6,9,12) and cy19:0, representing measures of fungal and gram negative bacterial biomass. In addition, CLPP analysis revealed that the utilization rate of amino acids, polymers, phenolic acids, and carbohydrates of soil microbial community gradually decreased with increasing stand ages, though this pattern was not observed for carboxylic acids and amines. Microbial community diversity, as determined by the Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Richness index and McIntosh index, significantly decreased as stand age increased. Overall, both the PLFA and CLPP illustrated that the long-term pure plantation pattern exacerbated the microecological imbalance previously described in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii, and markedly decreased the soil microbial community diversity and metabolic activity. Based on the correlation analysis, we concluded that the soil nutrient and C/N ratio most significantly contributed to the variation of soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity in different stand ages of P

  11. Impacts of more frequent droughts on a relict low-altitude Pinus uncinata stand in the French Alps

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    Christophe eCorona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold microclimatic conditions provide exceptional microhabitats to Pinus uncinata stands occurring at abnormally low altitudes in seven paleorefugia of the northern French Alps. Here, P. uncinata is located at the lower bounds of its ecological limits and therefore expected to provide a sensitive indicator of climate change processes. We used dendrochronological analysis to study the growth patterns of closely spaced chronologies across an elevational transect and compare a relict low-altitude to a P. uncinata stand located at the alpine treeline. Two detrending procedures are used to reveal high and low-frequency wavelengths embedded in annually resolved ring-width series. Growth response of P. uncinata to instrumental temperature and precipitation data is investigated by means of moving response function analyses. Results show an increase in the sensitivity of tree-ring widths to drought during previous summer in both stands. At the treeline stand, an increasing correlation with fall temperature is observed whereby low-frequency variability of fall temperature and radial tree growth increased in two synchronous steps around ~1930 and from ~1980–present. At the low-altitude stand, P. uncinata appears more drought sensitive and exhibits a sharp growth decline since the mid-1980s, coinciding with increasing summer temperatures. Growth divergence between the two stands can be observed since the mid-1980s. We argue that the positive growth trend at the high-altitude stand is due to increasing fall temperatures which would favor the formation of metabolic reserves in conjunction with atmospheric CO2 enrichment that in turn would facilitate improved water use efficiency. At the relict low-altitude stand, in contrast, it seems that improved water use efficiency cannot compensate for the increase in summer temperatures.

  12. 松属GAs相关EST-SSR标记与火炬松×洪都拉斯加勒比松苗高相关性分析%Analysis on correlation of EST-SSR markers relating to GAs metabolism for Pinus L. with the seedling height of Pinus taeda x P. caribaea var. hondurensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾启福; 姜景民; 张守攻

    2011-01-01

    以火炬松×洪都拉斯加勒比松F1代群体为研究对象,从松树PGI(松类基因索弓1)数据中筛选出13个与赤霉素(GAs)代谢有关的序列.设计了这13条序列的EST-SSR引物对,并筛选出4对引物作为F.代检测的较好的标记.4对引物PCR分析显示在2个亲本和39个子代中共扩增出1 014个多态性位点,其中,杂种F1代扩增出的位点数中有50.19%与父本相同,52.17%与母本相同,这表明母本(火炬松)和父本(加勒比松)杂交能够得到获得双亲遗传物质的新杂种.4个引物检测的26个等位基因位点中有6个与苗龄6个月的苗高有显著或极显著的相关性,有5个位点与苗龄9个月的苗高有显著或极显著相关性.这为早期选择提供了较好的分子标记.%Thirteen EST-SSR molecular markers related to GAs metabolism for Pinus L. were developed from EST sequences in PGI( Pings gene index)database. 1 014 alleles were amplified with two parents and 39 F1 progeny of Pings taeda × P. caribaea var. hondurensis with four primer-pairs, which were selected from the thirteen EST-SSRs. 50. 19 % of the 1 014 alleles were originated from the male parent(P, taeda) and 52. 17 % were shared with the female parent (P. caribaea var. hondurensis), which showed that the progeny of this hybridization inherent genetic materials from both parents. Six locus selected from all 26 locus amplified by four primer pairs were related significantly to six-month old seedling height of the 39 F1 hybrids, and five locus related significantly to nine-month old seedling height. Therefore,this markets can serve as good molecular markers for early selection.

  13. Shift in fungal communities and associated enzyme activities along an age gradient of managed Pinus sylvestris stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaschenko, Julia; Clemmensen, Karina E; Hagenbo, Andreas; Karltun, Erik; Lindahl, Björn D

    2017-04-01

    Forestry reshapes ecosystems with respect to tree age structure, soil properties and vegetation composition. These changes are likely to be paralleled by shifts in microbial community composition with potential feedbacks on ecosystem functioning. Here, we assessed fungal communities across a chronosequence of managed Pinus sylvestris stands and investigated correlations between taxonomic composition and extracellular enzyme activities. Not surprisingly, clear-cutting had a negative effect on ectomycorrhizal fungal abundance and diversity. In contrast, clear-cutting favoured proliferation of saprotrophic fungi correlated with enzymes involved in holocellulose decomposition. During stand development, the re-establishing ectomycorrhizal fungal community shifted in composition from dominance by Atheliaceae in younger stands to Cortinarius and Russula species in older stands. Late successional ectomycorrhizal taxa correlated with enzymes involved in mobilisation of nutrients from organic matter, indicating intensified nutrient limitation. Our results suggest that maintenance of functional diversity in the ectomycorrhizal fungal community may sustain long-term forest production by retaining a capacity for symbiosis-driven recycling of organic nutrient pools.

  14. Comparison of stand structure and growth between artificial and natural forests of Pinus sylvestiris var, mongolica on sandy land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJiao-jun; FANZhi-ping; ZENGDe-hui; JIANGFeng-qi; MATSUZAKITakeshi

    2003-01-01

    Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestiris Linnaeus var. mongolica Litvinov) as a valuable conifer tree species has been broadly introduced to the sandy land areas in “Three North” regions (North, northwest and northeast of China), but many prob-lems occurred in the earliest Mongolian pine plantations in 7hanggutai, 7hangwu County, Liaoning Province (ZZL). In order to clarify the reason, comprehensive investigations were carried out on differences in structure characteristics, growth processes and ecological factors between artificial stands (the first plantation established in ZZL in 1950s) and natural stands (the origin forests of the tree species in Honghuaerji, Inner Mongolia) on sandy land. The results showed that variation of diameter-class distributions in artificial stands and natural stands could be described by Weibull and Normal distribution models, respectively.Chapman-Richards growth model was employed to reconstruct the growth process of Mongolian pine based on the data from field investigation and stem analysis. The ages of maximum of relative growth rate and average growth rate of DBH, height, and volume of planted trees were 11,22 years, 8, 15 years and 35, 59 years earlier than those of natural stand trees, respectively. In respect of the incremental acceleration of volume, the artificial and natural stands reached their maximum values at 14 years and 33 years respectively. The quantitative maturity ages of artificial stands and natural stands were 43 years and 102 years respectively. It was concluded that the life span of the Mongolian pine trees in natural stands was about 60 years longer than those in artificial stands. The differences mentioned above between artificial and natural Mongolian pine forests on sandy land were partially attributed to the drastic variations of ecological conditions such as latitude, temperature, precipitation, evaporation and height above sea level. Human beings'' disturbances and higher density in plantation forest may

  15. Start of reproduction and allozyme heterozygosity in Pinus sibirica under different techniques of artificial forest stand establishment

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    S.N. Velisevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour is one of the main forest-forming tree species in boreal forests of Eurasia. Large edibleseeds of this species have an important resource value because of their high nutritious properties. Development of approaches toestablishment of early cone producing Siberian stone pine stands including utilization of corresponding genetic background is one of the priorities of forest resource management. The goal of our study was to evaluate the effect of stand density on the differentiation of trees bythe age of first reproduction and the relationship of allozyme heterozygosity and morphological traits variability in Siberian stone pine.Morphological and allozyme variability in artificial Pinus sibirica stands with high and low density was investigated. In the high-densitystand the distance between trees was 0.7 and 3 meters (4080 trees per ha while in the lowdensity stand it was 8 and 8 meters (144 treesper ha. Age of formation of first male and female cones was evaluated by retrospective method based on analysis of tracks of cones ona shoot bark. Tree height, diameter and number of male, female and vegetative shoots in a crown of model trees were measured.Genotypes of the trees were determined by 29 isozyme loci coding for 16 enzymes (ADH, FDH, FEST, GDH, GOT, IDH, LAP, MDH, MNR, PEPCA, 6-PGD, PGI, PGM, SDH, SKDH, SOD. In the low-density stand, the portion of generative trees was higher and differentiation of trees by age of reproduction starting was lower in spite of the smaller age of trees as compared to the high-density stand. Inboth samples, the age of formation of first generative organs was related negatively with stem height, stem diameter and number offemale shoots. In the high-density stand, positive relation of age of first reproduction with total number of shoots and number ofmale shoots was found. In both samples nonreproductive trees were less heterozygous at

  16. Start of reproduction and allozyme heterozygosity in Pinus sibirica under different techniques of artificial forest stand establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Velisevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour is one of the main forest-forming tree species in boreal forests of Eurasia. Large edibleseeds of this species have an important resource value because of their high nutritious properties. Development of approaches toestablishment of early cone producing Siberian stone pine stands including utilization of corresponding genetic background is one of the priorities of forest resource management. The goal of our study was to evaluate the effect of stand density on the differentiation of trees bythe age of first reproduction and the relationship of allozyme heterozygosity and morphological traits variability in Siberian stone pine.Morphological and allozyme variability in artificial Pinus sibirica stands with high and low density was investigated. In the high-densitystand the distance between trees was 0.7 and 3 meters (4080 trees per ha while in the lowdensity stand it was 8 and 8 meters (144 treesper ha. Age of formation of first male and female cones was evaluated by retrospective method based on analysis of tracks of cones ona shoot bark. Tree height, diameter and number of male, female and vegetative shoots in a crown of model trees were measured.Genotypes of the trees were determined by 29 isozyme loci coding for 16 enzymes (ADH, FDH, FEST, GDH, GOT, IDH, LAP, MDH, MNR, PEPCA, 6-PGD, PGI, PGM, SDH, SKDH, SOD. In the low-density stand, the portion of generative trees was higher and differentiation of trees by age of reproduction starting was lower in spite of the smaller age of trees as compared to the high-density stand. Inboth samples, the age of formation of first generative organs was related negatively with stem height, stem diameter and number offemale shoots. In the high-density stand, positive relation of age of first reproduction with total number of shoots and number ofmale shoots was found. In both samples nonreproductive trees were less heterozygous at

  17. Environmental influences on post-harvest natural regeneration of Pinus pinaster Ait. in Mediterranean forest stands submitted to seed-tree selection method

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez García, Encarna; Juez, Libertad; Bravo Oviedo, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    Research on natural regeneration is crucial for the development of sustainable forestry practices, in light of the global climate changes taking place. In this study, 151 plots were sampled in six Pinus pinaster stands that were naturally regenerated by the seed-tree method in Mediterranean forests in central Spain. The objectives of the survey were to study the suitability of different forest stands designated for natural regeneration as well as to analyse seedling establishment and the rela...

  18. Are the Economically Optimal Harvesting Strategies of Uneven-Aged Pinus nigra Stands Always Sustainable and Stabilizing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fullana-Belda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional uneven-aged forest management seeks a balance between equilibrium stand structure and economic profitability, which often leads to harvesting strategies concentrated in the larger diameter classes. The sustainability (i.e., population persistence over time and influence of such economically optimal strategies on the equilibrium position of a stand (given by the stable diameter distribution have not been sufficiently investigated in prior forest literature. This article therefore proposes a discrete optimal control model to analyze the sustainability and stability of the economically optimal harvesting strategies of uneven-aged Pinus nigra stands. For this model, we rely on an objective function that integrates financial data of harvesting operations with a projection matrix model that can describe the population dynamics. The model solution reveals the optimal management schedules for a wide variety of scenarios. To measure the distance between the stable diameter distribution and the economically optimal harvesting strategy distribution, the model uses Keyfitz’s delta, which returns high values for all the scenarios and, thus, suggests that those economically optimal harvesting strategies have an unstabilizing influence on the equilibrium positions. Moreover, the economically optimal harvesting strategies were unsustainable for all the scenarios.

  19. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poyatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain. The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought episode during the summer, the oak stand (Ec was only 110 mm compared to the 239 mm transpired by the Scots pine stand, although the ratio of transpiration to reference evapotranspiration (Ec/ET0 in the oak stand compares well with the expected values predicted for low leaf area index (LAI oak forests in southern Europe. Scots pine showed a strong reduction in (Ec/ET0 as the drought developed, whereas pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits in the upper soil. As a second objective, and given the contrasting meteorological conditions between 2003 and 2004 summer periods, the interannual variability of transpiration was studied in the Scots pine plot. Rainfall during the summer months (June-September in 2003 was almost 40% less than in the same interval in 2004. Accordingly, transpiration was also reduced about 25% in 2003. Finally, Scots pine data from 2003 and 2004 was used to calibrate a simple transpiration model using ET0 and soil moisture deficit (SMD as input variables, and implicitly including stomatal responses to high vapour pressure deficits (Dd and soil water status.

  20. Using Landsat satellite imagery to detect small-size forest stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae; Uso de imagenes satelite Landsat para la deteccion de rodales de Pinus nigra Arn. y Pinus sylvestris L. afectados por escolitidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, E.; Bonet, J. A.; Eizaguirre, M.

    2009-07-01

    Medium resolution images from multispectral sensors like Landsat TM have been extensively used for decades in order to identify decline and defoliation generated by insects and other forest pests. The present work analyses the usefulness of these kinds of images to detect small-size stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae attacks. The study area was located in the Solsones region (Eastern Pyrenees), selecting 34 training zones (17 damaged small-size stands and 17 healthy small-size stands). The exploratory analysis of the images was conducted with the ERDAS IMAGINE 8.x. program.The results of the study showed significant differences between the affected and non-affected stands in 5 of the 7 spectral bands analysed. TM5 and TM7 bands were identified as those having the highest power to detect damaged stands. The digital levels obtained and the spaces of characteristics created, both showed trends to group small-size affected stands versus healthy, achieving improvements in the methodological procedure employed. (Author) 31 refs.

  1. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D. (Department of Radiology and Land Restoration, Pripyat Research and Industrial Association, Chernobyl (Ukraine)); Askbrant, S. (National Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V. (Lyes Research and Industrial Association, Kharykov (Ukraine))

    1994-10-14

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  2. Prescribed Burning and Clear-Cutting Effects on Understory Vegetation in a Pinus canariensis Stand (Gran Canaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, José Ramón; García-Domínguez, Celia; Naranjo-Cigala, Agustín; Grillo, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Prescribed fires are a powerful tool for reducing fire hazards by decreasing amounts of fuel. The main objective is to analyze the effects of prescribed burning on the understory vegetation composition as well as on the soil characteristics of a reforested stand of Pinus canariensis. The study attempts to identify the effects of the preburning treatment of cutting understory vegetation on the floristic parameters of the vegetation community. This study was carried out for two years following a prescribed fire in a Canarian pine stand. Cutting and burning treatment affected species composition and increased diversity. Burnt and cut plots were characterized by a diverse array of herbaceous species and by a lower abundance of Teline microphylla (endemic legume), although burning apparently induced its germination. Cut treatment was more consistently differentiated from the control plots than burnt treatment. Soil K decreased after both treatments, pH slightly decreased after cutting, while P and Ca increased after fire. From an ecological point of view, prescribed burning is a better management practice than cutting the woody species of the understory. However, long-term studies would be necessary to evaluate the effects of fire intensity, season and frequency in which the prescribed burning is applied. PMID:25147839

  3. Stand-alone and biorefinery pathways to produce hydrogen through gasification and dark fermentation using Pinus Patula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos A; Betancourt, Ramiro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2017-12-01

    New efforts in the search of alternative clean and renewable energy to replace the current energy precursors have been assessed in order to reduce emissions to the environment. Lignocellulosic Biomass (LB) can be used to produce bioenergy due to its high energy potential and availability. Different ways are proposed for the transformation of these residues into high added-value products. Thermochemical and biochemical technologies are the most interest concepts focusing on the use of biomass as source for energy production at positive net balances. This study presents the techno-economic, energy and environmental assessment of five scenarios for the hydrogen production through gasification and dark fermentation based on the biorefinery and stand-alone concepts. The results demonstrated that the production of hydrogen based on the concept of a biorefinery can improve the profitability, energy efficiency and reduce the emissions of the processes compared to that based on the stand-alone way. The selection of ethanol and electricity as valuable co-products of the biorefinery in the hydrogen production process confirmed that the process scale and products diversity makes possible a flexible and suitable process to produce hydrogen and other energy carriers from Pinus Patula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prescribed Burning and Clear-Cutting Effects on Understory Vegetation in a Pinus canariensis Stand (Gran Canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Arévalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed fires are a powerful tool for reducing fire hazards by decreasing amounts of fuel. The main objective is to analyze the effects of prescribed burning on the understory vegetation composition as well as on the soil characteristics of a reforested stand of Pinus canariensis. The study attempts to identify the effects of the preburning treatment of cutting understory vegetation on the floristic parameters of the vegetation community. This study was carried out for two years following a prescribed fire in a Canarian pine stand. Cutting and burning treatment affected species composition and increased diversity. Burnt and cut plots were characterized by a diverse array of herbaceous species and by a lower abundance of Teline microphylla (endemic legume, although burning apparently induced its germination. Cut treatment was more consistently differentiated from the control plots than burnt treatment. Soil K decreased after both treatments, pH slightly decreased after cutting, while P and Ca increased after fire. From an ecological point of view, prescribed burning is a better management practice than cutting the woody species of the understory. However, long-term studies would be necessary to evaluate the effects of fire intensity, season and frequency in which the prescribed burning is applied.

  5. A Multi-Attribute Assessment of Site Preparation Effects on the Socioeconomical and Ecological Attributes of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Jianbang Gan; Stephen H. Kolison; Robert S. Boyd; Kenneth L. McNabb; B. Graeme Lockaby

    1998-01-01

    The public demands both commodity and non-commodity goods and srvices from our forests. This requires management options that not only provide fiber, clean water, wildlife habitat, and mcreation, but do so in a biologically sustainable manner, resulting in healthy productive forests into perpetuity. A common forest management activity used to enhance fiber production...

  6. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener and beta (Jaccard and Magurran biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design of two treatments (continuous and rotational grazing. Biomass, and species abundances were measured - biodiversity metrics were calculated based on these results for a two years of grazing and two years of post-grazing periods. Both continuous and rotational grazing systems were useful tools for reducing biomass and, therefore, fire risk. The rotational grazing system caused damage to the U. europaeus shrub, limiting its recovery once grazing was stopped. However, the more intensive grazing of U. europaeus plants under rotational had a positive effect on both alpha and beta biodiversity indexes due to the low capacity of food selection in the whole plot rather than continuous grazing systems. Biomass was not affected by the grazing system; however the rotational grazing system is more appropriate to reduce U. europaeus biomass and therefore forest fire risk at a long term and to enhance pasture biodiversity than the continuous grazing system.

  7. Carbon content of forest floor and mineral soil in Mediterranean Pinus spp. and Oak stands in acid soils in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, C.; Turrión, M.B.; Pando, V.; Bravo, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to determine the baseline carbon stock in forest floor and mineral soils in pine and oak stands in acid soils in Northern Spain. Area of study: The study area is situated in northern Spain (42° N, 4° W) on “Paramos y Valles” region of Palencia. aterial and methods: An extensive monitoring composed of 48 plots (31 in pine and 17 in oak stands) was carried out. Litter layers and mineral soil samples, at depths of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm, were taken in each plot. An intensive monitoring was also performed by sampling 12 of these 48 plots selected taken in account species forest composition and their stand development stage. Microbial biomass C (CMB), C mineralization (CRB), and soil organic C balance at stand level were determined in surface soil samples of intensive monitoring. Main results: No differences in soil C content were detected in the two forest ecosystems up to 60 cm depth (53.0±25.8 Mg C ha-1 in Pinus spp. plantations and 60.3±43.8 Mg C ha-1 in oak stands). However, differences in total C (CT), CMB and CRB were found in the upper 10 cm of the soils depending on the stand development stage in each species forest composition (Pinus nigra, Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica). Plots with high development stage exhibited significant lower metabolic quotient (qCO2), so, meant more efficient utilization of C by the microbial community. The C content in the forest floor was higher in pine stands (13.7±0.9 Mg C ha-1) than in oak stands (5.4±0.7 Mg C ha-1). A greater turnover time was found in pine ecosystems vs. oak stands. In contrast, forest floor H layer was nonexistent in oak stands. Research highlights: Results about litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil dynamics in this paper can be used strategically to reach environmental goals in new afforestation programs and sustainable forest management approaches. (Author)

  8. STUDY ON THE STAND STRUCTURE LAW OF MULTI-STORIES MIXED UNEVENAGED PINUS MASSONIANA LAMB. PLANTATIONS%人工马尾松复层混交林林分结构规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌雄; 陈平留; 肖才生; 林元泰

    2001-01-01

    From the analysis and simulated study on the stand structures of present the multi-stories mixed uneven-agedPinus massoniana planted forests in Fujian, the correlationships between stand diameter distribution structure, stand stockdistribution structure, tree height and DBH were obtained. Several proposals for the rational management and structure ad-justment of the present forests were put forward.

  9. Response of Boreal Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. Stands to a Gradient of Commercial Thinning Intensities, with and without N Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Moulinier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines tree and stand response to a gradient of commercial thinning intensities and nitrogen fertilization (200 kg N ha−1 in nine jack pine (Pinus banksiana stands of Eastern Canada over a period of 14 years. Thinning intensity ranged from 0% basal area removal in control plots to 64% in thinned plots. Tree diameter increment, absolute and relative volume increment and mean volume increased with thinning intensity and were higher in fertilized plots. Individual tree response depended on tree diameter, with smallest trees exhibiting highest relative volume increment to thinning intensity. Stand basal area increment was positively associated to initial stand basal area and negatively to stand age. In thinned and fertilized plots, stand volume increment was higher and natural mortality lower than in fertilized only and unfertilized control plots over the 5–14 year period after thinning. However, the positive effect of fertilization on tree volume increment decreased with thinning intensity. Despite positive individual tree growth responses to thinning and fertilization, residual stand volume increment decreased with increased thinning intensity in both fertilized and unfertilized plots. While total cumulative stand volume (harvested + residual also decreased with thinning intensity in unfertilized plots, comparable total volumes were observed in fertilized + thinned and unthinned control plots. Nitrogen fertilization in the years following commercial thinning enhanced the benefit of thinning on these relatively poor sites by increasing tree diameter growth, lowering mortality, and increasing total stand merchantable volume compared to unfertilized thinned stands.

  10. Characterizing Soil Organic Carbon Recalcitrance in Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris Mill) Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnor, J. R.; Samuelson, L. J.; Anderson, P. H.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Boot, C. M.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Heckman, K. A.; Jackson, J. A.; Johnsen, K. H.; Stokes, T.; Swanston, C.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, longleaf pine (LLP) stands in the southeastern US experienced frequent fires. Today managed LLP stands are burned at 2-5 year intervals to reduce fuels and hardwood competition and manage for biodiversity. These are not stand replacing fires, though considerable amounts of biomass are burned and the conversion rate to biochemically stabilized black carbon (BC) is unknown. The primary mechanisms for long-term carbon sequestration in soil are mineral association, biochemical transformation (e.g. pyrogenesis) and physical protection. We quantified the recalcitrance of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its oxidation resistant fraction (SOCR; defined as residual SOC following H2O2 treatment and dilute HNO3 digestion) using radiocarbon dating (SOC and SOCR) and benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers for polyaromatic C associated with BC. Mineral stabilized C is largely represented by SOCR contents and BC by total BPCA contents. Soils were collected by depth (0-10, 10-20, 20-50, 50-100 cm) at 14 managed LLP stands in Louisiana (LA), Georgia (GA) and North Carolina (NC) burned every two to five years. Across all sites, SOC and SOCR contents declined with soil depth, though SOCR:SOC increased with depth (0.13, 0.15, 0.22, 0.31). SOCR was more 14C depleted than SOC and Δ14C values became more negative with soil depth (SOCR: -195, -318, -458, -553 vs. SOC 23, -39, -156, -334), indicating that SOCR had a much longer mean residence time. The Δ14C values correspond to mean ages of SOCR ranging from 1777 to 6969 years and of SOC from 84 to 3319 years. We obtained very low BPCA yield from SOCR, and it is unclear whether BC was absent or not accessible with the BPCA method. Preliminary analysis of total BPCA (bulk soil) indicates interactions between soil series and depth. Total BPCA concentration of SOC in the upper 10 cm was 136 g kg-1 C in LA and more than six times the concentration in GA and NC. On deep sands in NC, the highest BPCA concentration

  11. Classificação e caracterização de horizontes organicos sob povoamentos de Pinus taeda L. na Região de Ponta Grossa PR - 1. aproximação

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Os horizontes orgânicos sob povoamentos de Plnua taeda com 17 anos de idade, no município de Ponta Grossa - PR, localizados em sítios de baixa, média e alta produtividade foram estudados, sendo caracterizados morfológica e quimicamente e classificados com base em padrões internacionais. Segundo o grau de decomposição foram distintos com mais freqüência seis suborizontes: Lnl, material recém-caído, apresentando tamanho original e elasticidade com fragmentação pequena ou nula; Ln2, material sem...

  12. Effects of litter addition on ectomycorrhizal associates of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Kenneth W.; New, Michael H.; Makhija, Shilpa; Parker, V. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Increasing soil nutrients through litter manipulation, pollution, or fertilization can adversely affect ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities by inhibiting fungal growth. In this study, we used molecular genetic methods to determine the effects of litter addition on the EM community of a Pinus contorta stand in Yellowstone National Park that regenerated after a stand-replacing fire. Two controls were used; in unmodified control plots nothing was added to the soil, and in perlite plots perlite, a chemically neutral substance, was added to maintain soil moisture and temperature at levels similar to those under litter. We found that (i) species richness did not change significantly following perlite addition (2.6 +/- 0.3 species/core in control plots, compared with 2.3 +/- 0.3 species/core in perlite plots) but decreased significantly (P litter addition (1.8 +/- 0.3 species/core); (ii) EM infection was not affected by the addition of perlite but increased significantly (P litter addition, and the increase occurred only in the upper soil layer, directly adjacent to the added litter; and (iii) Suillus granulatus, Wilcoxina mikolae, and agaricoid DD were the dominant organisms in controls, but the levels of W. mikolae and agaricoid DD decreased significantly in response to both perlite and litter addition. The relative levels of S. granulatus and a fourth fungus, Cortinariaceae species 2, increased significantly (P litter addition. Thus, litter addition resulted in some negative effects that may be attributable to moisture-temperature relationships rather than to the increased nutrients associated with litter. Some species respond positively to litter addition, indicating that there are differences in their physiologies. Hence, changes in the EM community induced by litter accumulation also may affect ecosystem function.

  13. Early growth of Pinus nigra and Robinia pseudoacacia stands: contributions to soil genesis and landscape improvement on lignite spoils in Ptolemaida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, T.; Hatzistathis, A. [Aristotle University, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Forestry and Natural Environment

    1995-04-01

    Two forest species planted on spoil heaps in Ptolemaida, Greece, Pinus nigra and Robinia pseudoacacia, were studied. The productivity of both species was high. The majority of trees in the pine stand were vigorous and had good quality trunks, while most Robinia trees suffered from strong competition from neighbouring trees and had many forced branches. The addition of fly ash to spoil produced generally better growth. Fourteen years after their establishment, the two stands had improved soil properties significantly better than had natural revegetation. Distinct surface, A{sub 1} and C horizon had formed under both stands. The contribution to landscape aesthetic improvement by the evergreen Pinus nigra was greater than that by the deciduous Robinia, also a desirable species because of its initial fast growth, intense sprouting and rapid nitrogen-enriching properties. The study suggests that afforestation with mixed stands of evergreen pine species and nitrogen-fixing trees is probably the best solution for successful rehabilitation. 29 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Semi-automated stand delineation in Mediterranean Pinus sylvestris plantations through segmentation of LiDAR data: The influence of pulse density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varo-Martínez, Mª Ángeles; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.; Hernández-Clemente, Rocío; Duque-Lazo, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, forest-stand delineation has been assessed based on orthophotography. The application of LiDAR has improved forest management by providing high-spatial-resolution data on the vertical structure of the forest. The aim of this study was to develop and test a semi-automated algorithm for stands delineation in a plantation of Pinus sylvestris L. using LiDAR data. Three specific objectives were evaluated, i) to assess two complementary LiDAR metrics, Assmann dominant height and basal area, for the characterization of the structure of P. sylvestris Mediterranean forests based on object-oriented segmentation, ii) to evaluate the influence of the LiDAR pulse density on forest-stand delineation accuracy, and iii) to investigate the algorithmś effectiveness in the delineation of P. sylvestris stands for map prediction of Assmann dominant height and basal area. Our results show that it is possible to generate accurate P. sylvestris forest-stand segmentations using multiresolution or mean shift segmentation methods, even with low-pulse-density LiDAR - which is an important economic advantage for forest management. However, eCognition multiresolution methods provided better results than the OTB (Orfeo Tool Box) for stand delineation based on dominant height and basal area estimations. Furthermore, the influence of pulse density on the results was not statistically significant in the basal area calculations. However, there was a significant effect of pulse density on Assmann dominant height [F2,9595 = 5.69, p = 0.003].for low pulse density. We propose that the approach shown here should be considered for stand delineation in other large Pinus plantations in Mediterranean regions with similar characteristics.

  15. FlorNExT®, a cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in Northeastern Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, S.; Rua, J.; Tomé, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. To introduce and describe FlorNExT®, a free cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) even-aged stands in the Northeast of Portugal (NE Portugal). Area of study: NE Portugal. Material and methods: FlorNExT® implements a dynamic growth and yield modelling framework which integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves) and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass, and carbon content. Main results: FlorNExT® is freely available from any device with an Internet connection at: http://flornext.esa.ipb.pt/. Research highlights: This application has been designed to make it possible for any stakeholder to easily estimate standing volume, biomass, and carbon content in maritime pine stands from stand data, as well as to estimate growth and yield based on four stand variables: age, density, dominant height, and basal area. FlorNExT® allows planning thinning treatments. FlorNExT® is a fundamental tool to support forest mobilization at local and regional scales in NE Portugal. (Author)

  16. FlorNExT®, a cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. stands in Northeastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To introduce and describe FlorNExT®, a free cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. even-aged stands in the Northeast of Portugal (NE Portugal. Area of study: NE Portugal. Material and methods: FlorNExT® implements a dynamic growth and yield modelling framework which integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass, and carbon content. Main results: FlorNExT® is freely available from any device with an Internet connection at: http://flornext.esa.ipb.pt/. Research highlights: This application has been designed to make it possible for any stakeholder to easily estimate standing volume, biomass, and carbon content in maritime pine stands from stand data, as well as to estimate growth and yield based on four stand variables: age, density, dominant height, and basal area. FlorNExT® allows planning thinning treatments. FlorNExT® is a fundamental tool to support forest mobilization at local and regional scales in NE Portugal. Keywords: forest management; maritime pine; forest modelling; knowledge transfer tool.

  17. Use of multi-temporal UAV-derived imagery for estimating individual tree growth in Pinus pinea stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Guerra-Hernández; Eduardo González-Ferreiro; Vicente Monleon; Sonia Faias; Margarida Tomé; Ramón Díaz-Varela

    2017-01-01

    High spatial resolution imagery provided by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can yield accurate and efficient estimation of tree dimensions and canopy structural variables at the local scale. We flew a low-cost, lightweight UAV over an experimental Pinus pinea L. plantation (290 trees distributed over 16 ha with different fertirrigation treatments)...

  18. Transfer characteristics of nutrient elements through hydrological process of a Pinus tabulaeformis stand in the West Mountain of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Lishui; WANG Dengzhi; LI Jiyue

    2007-01-01

    Forest precipitation chemistry is a major issue in forest hydrology and forest ecology.Chemical contents in precipitation change significantly when different kinds of external chemical materials are added,removed,translocated and transformed to or in the forest ecosystem along with precipitation.The chemistry of precipitation was monitored and analyzed in a 31-year-old Pinus tabulaeformis forest in the West Mountain of Beijing.Movement patterns of nutrient elements in hydrological processes can be discovered by studying this monitored data.Also,the information is useful for diagnosing the function of ecosystems and evaluating the impact of the environment on the ecosystem.Samples of rainfall,throughfall and stemflow were collected on the site.In the lab,Ca2+ and Mg2+ were analyzed by flame atomic absorption and K+ and Na+ by flame emission.NH4+-N was analyzed by indophenol blue colorimetry and NO3--N was analyzed by phenoldisulfonic acid colorimetry.The results showed that:1) The concentration gradient of nutrient elements clearly changed except for Na+.The nutrients in stemflow were significantly higher than those of throughfall and rainfall as the precipitation passed through the P.tabulaeformis forest.The monthly patterns showed distinct differentiation.There are indications that a large amount of nutrients was leached from the canopy,which is a critical function of intra-ecosystem nutrient cycling to improve the efficiency of nutrient use.2) The concentrations of NO3--N and K+ changed more than those of the other nutrient elements.The concentration of NO3--N in throughfall and stemflow was 4.4 times and 9.9 times higher than those in rainfall,respectively.The concentration of K+ in throughfall and stemflow was 4.1 times and 8.1 times higher than those in rainfall,respectively.3) The leaching of nutrient elements from the stand was an important aspect of nutrient return to the P.tabulaeformis forest,which returned a total amount of nutrient of 54.1 kg/hm2,with

  19. Estimation of Heritability and Combining Ability for Growth, Stem-Straightness and Wood Density of the F1 Generation of Pinus taeda × P.caribaea%火炬松×加勒比松F1代生长、树干通直度和基本密度遗传和配合力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾启福; 姜景民; 张建忠; 张守攻

    2011-01-01

    @@ 松类杂种直到20世纪中期才开始被培育利用,如窄果松X辐射松(Pinus attenuata X P.radiata)、欧洲落叶松X日本落叶松(Larix decidua×L.kaempferi)等(Dungey,2001).%The genetic characteristics and combining ability for growth, stem-straightness and wood density were estimated on 16 seven-year-old F1 families derived from crossing with 4 female and 4 male parents of Pinus taeda × P.caribaea with the NC Ⅱ mating design.Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences( P < 0.01 ) in growth and wood basic density among 16 crosses, and ( P < 0.05 ) in stem-straightness.The heritability ( h2 ) analysis showed that family mean heritability of growth, stem-straightness and wood density for female parents was higher than that for male parents, while the mean h2 for the full-sib families was in the middle of the parents' heritability.The h2 of growth was 0.292 3 -0.469 9 for female parents, and 0.191 9 -0.403 3 for male parents.The family mean and single tree h2 of wood basic density for female parents was 0.176 4 and 0.034 6, respectively, and the single tree h2 of stem-straightness for male and female parents was 0.162 7 and 0.098 3, respectively.The heritability of DBH and volume was increasing in the last 6 years while the heritability of tree height was decreasing.The analysis of genetic correlation showed that growth traits had positive correlation ( |rG| = 0.467 2 -0.351 6) with stem-form, and had a negative one( |rG| = 0.220 30.679 8 ) with wood basic density.The general combining ability (GCA) effect of male or female parents for growth traits and stem-straightness was significantly different, and their special combining ability (SCA) effect for wood basic density was significant.The effective value of combining ability for GCA and SCA was estimated and the better parents and hybrids were evaluated.The correlation between genetic background of the parents and genetic differences of the progenies was discussed.

  20. Humus characteristics and seasonal changes of soil arthropod communities in a natural sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Meric; Makineci, Ender

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the effects of conversion of natural stands into plantations, soil invertebrate micro- and macroarthropod communities were evaluated for their abundance and richness in a sessile oak (SO; Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (AP; Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation. Sites were sampled four times a year in 3-month intervals from May 2009 to February 2010. Humus characteristics such as total mass; carbon, lignin, and cellulose contents; and C/N ratio were significantly different between SO and AP. Statistically significant differences were detected on soil pH, carbon and nitrogen contents, and electrical conductivity between the two sites. The number of microarthropods was higher in AP than in the SO site. The annual mean abundance values of microarthropods in a square meter were 67,763 in AP and 50,542 in SO, and the annual mean abundance values of macroarthropods were 921 m(-2) in AP and 427 m(-2) in SO. Among the soil microarthropods, Acari and Collembola were the dominant groups. Shannon's diversity index was more affected by evenness than species number despite the species diversity (H') of soil arthropods being generally higher in the SO stand. The abundance of microarthropods showed clear seasonal trends depending upon the humidity of the soil.

  1. Soil Respiration at Different Stand Ages (5, 10, and 20/30 Years) in Coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) and Deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode) Plantations in a Sandstorm Source Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Fadong; Zhang, Wanjun

    2016-01-01

    respiration and its temperature sensitivity at three stand ages (5, 10, and 20 or 30 years) in two plantations of coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) and deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode) species using an automated chamber system in 2013 in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source area. Results showed...

  2. Brazilian savanna re-establishment in a monoculture forest:diversity and environmental relations of native regenerating understory in Pinus caribaea Morelet. stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gastao Viegas de Pinho Ju nior; Andre R Terra Nascimento; Barbara Tahara Valverde; Lucas H Clemente

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze and compare natural regeneration in shrub-tree community in three areas below Pinus caribaea stands and a natural area (cerrado sensu stricto). We also analyze the influence of biophysical and environmental variables on the distribution of regenerating shrub-tree species. The areas were analyzed and compared in relation to dispersal syndromes as well, being zoochory and anemochory the prevailing syndroms in the four areas. The sites below P. caribaea show a heterogeneous regen-eration with the number of species ranging from 18 to 42. We analyzed the influence of the biophysical and envi-ronmental variables performing a canonical correspon-dence analyses, being found significant values for variables distance from remnant and basal area. The species Si-paruna guianensis, Miconia albicans, Xylopia aromatica, Sclerolobium paniculatum, Casearia sylvestris and P. caribaea were the most importante ones in the four areas.

  3. Growth Model of Pine (Pinus merkusii Jungh. Et de Vriese Stand on Community Forest in Tana Toraja Regency

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    Melewanto Patabang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth modeling and yield simulation of forest is a very important aspect in forest management including community forests. Stand growth model is an abstraction of the dynamic nature of a forest stand, including growth, ingrowths, mortality, and other changes in the structure and composition of the stand. In forest management, growth estimation plays an important role in supporting the sustainability of the benefits value of the community forests. The objectives of the research were to find out the stand growth model and the potential of community's pine forest. The study was conducted at the location of the community pine forests in District Mengkendek Tana Toraja Regency. Sample location, as representative of stand age classes that distribute on some villages in Mengkendek District, were selected by purposive sampling.The study results indicate that the most suitable model for upper trees mean height (H is Weibull Model, for growth diameter and growth volume is Logistic Model  . The stand mean height (h can be presented as a function of H and Relative Spacing Ratio (Sr on the basis of function log Sr = 0,197 – 0,653 log H, then the tree volume, can be estimated on the basis of function log V = -1,70 + 0,94logD + 1,50logh, and then the growth function of volume on the basis of function V = 1.008 / 1 + 251.322 exp(-0.373t. Further, the maximum value of stand Annual Increment was 18 m3ha-1year-1, attained at the age of 20 years.Keywords: community's pine forest, stand growth, tree volume, annual increment

  4. 林分密度对马尾松飞播林生物产量及生产力的影响%Effects of Stand Density on the Biomass and Productivity of Pinus masso niana Air-sowing Stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兆先; 何友军; 柏方敏; 张际红; 李志辉

    2001-01-01

    对湘东丘陵地区16年生密度为2 250、2 860和3 225株*hm-2的马尾松Pinus massoniana飞播林分生物量及生产力进行了测定分 析.结果表明:单株生物量随密度的增加而明显减小, 密度为2 250株*hm-2的林分的单株生物量是密度为3 225株*hm-2的林分的单 株生物量的2.15倍;林分生物量同样随密度 的增加而减小,密度为2 250株*hm-2的林分的林分生物量比密度为3 225 株*hm -2的林分高出26.57 t*h m-2;林分各组分的生物量随密度的增大而减小,并出现W干>W根>W 枝>W皮>W叶的规律; 密度为2 250株*hm-2的林分的年均净生长量是密度为3 225株*hm-2林分的1. 50倍;林分结构以密度为3 225株*hm-2的林分合理.%The biomass and productivity of 16-year Pinus massoniana air-sowing s tands with the densities of 2250, 2860, and 3225 trees·hm-2 were investig ated in the hilly country of East Hunan. The results show that the biomass of single tre e decreases distinctly with the increase of the density,and the single tree bio mass of the stand of 2250 trees·hm-2 is 2.15 times as that of the stand of 3225 trees*hm-2. Likewise, the biomass of the stand decreases with the i ncrease of the density and the biomass of the stands with low densities is 26.57 t·hm-2 higher than that wi th high densities. The biomass of eath component of stand decreases with the in crease of the stand density, and a pattern appears which can be exhibited as W stem> W root > W branch> W bark > W leaf. The annual net biomass of the stand of 2250 trees·hm-2 is 1.50 times as that of the stand of 3225 trees*hm-2. A reasonable stan d struc ture was observed in the stand of 2250 trees·hm-2.

  5. Growth Model of Pine (Pinus merkusii Jungh. Et de Vriese Stand on Community Forest in Tana Toraja Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melewanto Patabang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth modeling and yield simulation of forest is a very important aspect in forest management including community forests. Stand growth model is an abstraction of the dynamic nature of a forest stand, including growth, ingrowths, mortality, and other changes in the structure and composition of the stand. In forest management, growth estimation plays an important role in supporting the sustainability of the benefits value of the community forests. The objectives of the research were to find out the stand growth model and the potential of community's pine forest. The study was conducted at the location of the community pine forests in District Mengkendek Tana Toraja Regency. Sample location, as representative of stand age classes that distribute on some villages in Mengkendek District, were selected by purposive sampling.The study results indicate that the most suitable model for upper trees mean height (H is Weibull Model, for growth diameter and growth volume is Logistic Model . The stand mean height (h can be presented as a function of H and Relative Spacing Ratio (Sr on the basis of function log Sr = 0,197 – 0,653 log H, then the tree volume, can be estimated on the basis of function log V = -1,70 + 0,94logD + 1,50logh, and then the growth function of volume on the basis of function V = 1.008 / 1 + 251.322 exp(-0.373t. Further, the maximum value of stand Annual Increment was 18 m3ha-1year-1, attained at the age of 20 years.

  6. Assessing a Template Matching Approach for Tree Height and Position Extraction from Lidar-Derived Canopy Height Models of Pinus Pinaster Stands

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    Francesco Pirotti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an assessment of a method using a correlation filter over a lidar-derived digital canopy height model (CHM is presented. The objective of the procedure is to obtain stem density, position, and height values, on a stand with the following characteristics: ellipsoidal canopy shape (Pinus pinaster, even-aged and single-layer structure. The process consists of three steps: extracting a correlation map from CHM by applying a template whose size and shape resembles the canopy to be detected, applying a threshold mask to the correlation map to keep a subset of candidate-pixels, and then applying a local maximum filter to the remaining pixel groups. The method performs satisfactorily considering the experimental conditions. The mean tree extraction percentage is 65% with a coefficient of agreement of 0.4. The mean absolute error of height is ~0.5 m for all plots except one. It can be considered a valid approach for extracting tree density and height in regularly spaced stands (i.e., poplar plantations which are fundamental for extracting related forest parameters such as volume and biomass.

  7. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés-Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

    2015-02-01

    Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonise soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments 5 years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand, unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation recovery normalises post-fire soil microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors affecting soil properties after 17 years.

  8. Modelling merchantable volumes for uneven aged maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton stands established by natural regeneration in the central Portugal

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    Cristina Alegria

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Uneven aged maritime pine stands established by natural regeneration have a great expression in Portugal. These stands being overstocked, as opposed to those established from plantations, provide straight and cylindrical tree boles and logs with less knots that makes them very suitable for certain industrial purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to fit a set of equations to predict total volume and merchantable volumes to any merchantable limit for uneven aged maritime pine stands established by natural regeneration in the central inland region of Portugal. Data were collected in 30 circular sampling plots of 500 m2 of area, on 1426 trees and 314 sample trees for volume assessment, corresponding to 2353 diameter/height mea-surements. A total height equation, a total volume equation, a volume ratio equation to any top height limit and a taper equation, over bark, were fitted. To select among the best models, several statistics were computed during model fitting and the independent validation procedure to evaluate model fitting, collinearity and prediction performances. A ranking index was used to support the final decision. The models selected were then fitted again using robust regression and weighted regression techniques, because studentized residuals distribution normality and homogeneity assumptions were not observed. This research showed that the models selected for these stands were not the same as those selected in previous studies for the species in this region, suggesting that these results may be due to the influence of stand density conditions on diameter and total height growth, and consequently, on stem form and volume. This set of equations will also be included as components in a single tree growth and yield model developed for these stands.

  9. EstimatingPinus palustris tree diameter and stem volume from tree height, crown area and stand-level parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Lisa J. Samuelson; Wendell P. Cropper Jr.; Daniel J. Leduc; Timothy A. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and efficient estimation of forest growth and live biomass is a critical element in assessing potential responses to forest management and environmental change. The objective of this study was to develop models to predict longleaf pine tree diameter at breast height (dbh) and merchantable stem volume (V) using data obtained from field measurements. We used longleaf pine tree data from 3,376 planted trees on 127 permanent plots located in the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain region to fit equations to predict dbh and V as functions of tree height (H) and crown area (CA). Prediction of dbh as a function of H improved when CA was added as an additional independent variable. Similarly, predic-tions of V based on H improved when CA was included. Incorporation of additional stand variables such as age, site index, dominant height, and stand density were also evaluated but resulted in only small improve-ments in model performance. For model testing we used data from planted and naturally-regenerated trees located inside and outside the geographic area used for model fitting. Our results suggest that the models are a robust alternative for dbh and V estimations when H and CA are known on planted stands with potential for naturally-regenerated stands, across a wide range of ages. We discuss the importance of these models for use with metrics derived from remote sensing data.

  10. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  11. Trace gas emissions from a chronosequence of bark beetle-infested lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, U.; Pendall, E.; Ewers, B. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2011-12-01

    Severe outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) and associated blue stain fungi have killed millions of hectares of coniferous forests in Western North America. This unprecedented disturbance has critically impacted ecosystem biogeochemistry and net carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes. However, the effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and drivers of biogeochemical processes that trigger GHG emissions following MPB infestations are not well understood. Such information can help assess regional-level changes in ecosystem C and N budgets and large-scale disturbance impacts on gas exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem. The overall objective of this research was to assess the immediate responses of GHG fluxes and soil C and N mineralization rates along a chronosequence of recently infested (1-yr, 3-yr and 4-yr ago) and uninfested (150-yr, 20-yr and 15-yr old) lodgepole pine stands in Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming. We hypothesize that MPB-induced tree mortality significantly changes stand-level hydrology, soil organic matter quality and chemistry of aboveground and belowground plant inputs. Consequently, these modifications influence nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and methane (CH4) assimilation. Biweekly GHG measurements using static chambers were carried out during three consecutive snow-free growing seasons. Our results suggest that a stand infested within a year already shows a 20% increase in spring N2O production and a small decline in summer CH4 assimilation when compared to uninfested stands. Stands infested three and four years prior to our measurements produce over three times more N2O and assimilate three to five times less CH4 when compared to uninfested stands. In addition, a notable increase in soil moisture content and soil mineral N concentrations following early onset of the MPB infestation was also observed. An overall increase in N2O production and decline in CH4 assimilation following MPB infestation may

  12. Adaptation of fine roots to annual fertilization and irrigation in a 13-year-old Pinus pinaster stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, M R; Jolicoeur, E; Trichet, P; Augusto, L; Plassard, C; Guinberteau, J; Loustau, D

    2009-02-01

    Effects of fertilization and irrigation on fine roots and fungal hyphae were studied in 13-year-old maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aït. in Soland), 7 years after the initiation of the treatments. The fertilization trials consisted of a phosphorus treatment, a complete fertilizer treatment (N, P, K, Ca and Mg), and an unfertilized treatment (control). Fertilizers were applied annually and were adjusted according to foliar target values. Two irrigation regimes (no irrigation and irrigation of a set amount each day) were applied from May to October. Root samples to depths of 120 cm were collected in summer of 2005, and the biomass of small roots (diameter 2-20 mm) and fine roots (diameter fertilizer treatments reduced the size of the fine root system, especially in the top soil layers, but did not affect small roots. Compared with control treatments, fine root morphology was affected by both fertilizer treatments with the fine roots having increased specific root length/area, and irrigation tended to reinforce this finer morphology. The amount of hyphae in the mesh ingrowth bags was higher in the fertilization and irrigation treatments than in the controls, suggesting further extension of the root system (ectomycorrhizal infection) and thus of the uptake system. Irrigation had no significant effect on the size of the fine root system, but resulted in a shallower rooting system. Total root to shoot ratios were unaffected by the treatments, but fine root mass:needle mass and fine root area index:leaf area index ratios decreased with increasing nutrient supply. Overall, compared with the control fine roots, increased nutrient supply resulted in a lower fine root biomass but the dynamic fraction of the finest roots was greater. Irrigation had only limited effects on fine root size, distribution and morphology.

  13. Linking individual-tree and whole-stand models for forest growth and yield prediction

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    Quang V Cao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Different types of growth and yield models provide essential information for making informed decisions on how to manage forests. Whole-stand models often provide well-behaved outputs at the stand level, but lack information on stand structures. Detailed information from individual-tree models and size-class models typically suffers from accumulation of errors. The disaggregation method, in assuming that predictions from a whole-stand model are reliable, partitions these outputs to individual trees. On the other hand, the combination method seeks to improve stand-level predictions from both whole-stand and individual-tree models by combining them. Methods Data from 100 plots randomly selected from the Southwide Seed Source Study of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. were used to evaluate the unadjusted individual-tree model against the disaggregation and combination methods. Results Compared to the whole-stand model, the combination method did not show improvements in predicting stand attributes in this study. The combination method also did not perform as well as the disaggregation method in tree-level predictions. The disaggregation method provided the best predictions of tree- and stand-level survival and growth. Conclusions The disaggregation approach provides a link between individual-tree models and whole-stand models, and should be considered as a better alternative to the unadjusted tree model.

  14. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in Pinus mugo needles growing at elevated stands in the mountains, and their photochemical efficiency of PSII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszalski, Zbigniew; Libik, Marta; Surówka, Ewa; Niewiadomska, Ewa

    2005-08-01

    Pinus mugo needles were sampled at different altitudes (1420, 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l.) to analyse levels of oxidative stress and changes in maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that almost all superoxide dismutase activity represented Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and only 4-6% represents Mn superoxide dismutase. In extracts from plants sampled at 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l., lower activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase was found. Comparing these data with immunoblots, it can be concluded that the differences in superoxide dismutase activity was related to protein amount. In needles from higher altitudes, a decrease in catalase activity was detected, as opposed to the protein amount, which was higher in needles from the higher stands. Considering the decrease in catalase and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activities in needles collected at 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l., we suggest that higher levels of oxidative stress may induce changes in photochemical efficiency of PSII.

  15. Estimation of carbon storage based on individual tree detection in Pinus densiflora stands using a fusion of aerial photography and LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Ra; Kwak, Doo-Ahn; Lee, Woo-Kyun; oLee, Woo-Kyun; Son, Yowhan; Bae, Sang-Won; Kim, Choonsig; Yoo, Seongjin

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the carbon storage capacity of Pinus densiflora stands using remotely sensed data by combining digital aerial photography with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. A digital canopy model (DCM), generated from the LiDAR data, was combined with aerial photography for segmenting crowns of individual trees. To eliminate errors in over and under-segmentation, the combined image was smoothed using a Gaussian filtering method. The processed image was then segmented into individual trees using a marker-controlled watershed segmentation method. After measuring the crown area from the segmented individual trees, the individual tree diameter at breast height (DBH) was estimated using a regression function developed from the relationship observed between the field-measured DBH and crown area. The above ground biomass of individual trees could be calculated by an image-derived DBH using a regression function developed by the Korea Forest Research Institute. The carbon storage, based on individual trees, was estimated by simple multiplication using the carbon conversion index (0.5), as suggested in guidelines from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The mean carbon storage per individual tree was estimated and then compared with the field-measured value. This study suggested that the biomass and carbon storage in a large forest area can be effectively estimated using aerial photographs and LiDAR data.

  16. Estimation of carbon storage based on individual tree detection in Pinus densiflora stands using a fusion of aerial photography and LiDAR data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM; So-Ra; KWAK; Doo-Ahn; LEE; Woo-Kyun; SON; Yowhan; BAE; Sang-Won; KIM; Choonsig; YOO; Seongjin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the carbon storage capacity of Pinus densiflora stands using remotely sensed data by combining digital aerial photography with light detection and ranging(LiDAR) data.A digital canopy model(DCM),generated from the LiDAR data,was combined with aerial photography for segmenting crowns of individual trees.To eliminate errors in over and under-segmentation,the combined image was smoothed using a Gaussian filtering method.The processed image was then segmented into individual trees using a marker-controlled watershed segmentation method.After measuring the crown area from the segmented individual trees,the individual tree diameter at breast height(DBH) was estimated using a regression function developed from the relationship observed between the field-measured DBH and crown area.The above ground biomass of individual trees could be calculated by an image-derived DBH using a regression function developed by the Korea Forest Research Institute.The carbon storage,based on individual trees,was estimated by simple multiplication using the carbon conversion index(0.5),as suggested in guidelines from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.The mean carbon storage per individual tree was estimated and then compared with the field-measured value.This study suggested that the biomass and carbon storage in a large forest area can be effectively estimated using aerial photographs and LiDAR data.

  17. Phosphate status and acid phosphatase activity in soil and ectomycorrhizas in two mature stands of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. exposed to different levels of anthropogenic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kieliszewska-Rokicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relations between anthropogenic environmental pollution and the level of inorganic phosphorus in soil, enzyme activities of extracellular soil acid phosphatase and the surface acid phosphatase of excised ectomycorrhizas of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. were studied. Soil and root samples were taken from two Scots pine stands in central Poland: a polluted site exposed to long-term pollution from a steelworks and the city of Warsaw and a reference plot (control free from direct impact of pollution. The polluted site was characterised by high concentration of trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr and low level of inorganic phosphate in soil. This site had significantly lower enzyme activities of soil acid phosphatase (0.54 µmoles p-nitrophenol released g-1 dry weight h-1 and surface acid phosphatase of pine ectomycorrhizas (3.37 µmoles p-nitrophenol released g-1 fresh weight h-1 than the control site (1.36 µmoles p-nitrophenol released g-1 dry weight h-1 and 12.46 µmoles p-nitrophenol released g-1 fresh weight h-1, respectively. The levels of phosphate, carbon and nitrogen in pine fine roots were also analysed. Low concentrations of P04-P and high N: P ratio in pine fine roots from polluted site were found. The results suggest that soil pollutants may have a negative effect on the extracellular acid phosphatase of soil and Scots pine ectomycorrhizas and on the phosphorus status in fine roots of the plant.

  18. Longitudinal analysis of annual height increment differentiation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stands of different age classes

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    Zawieja Bogna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study, the measurements of Scots pine height increments were used to compare the increments of pine trees of different age classes. All of the analyzed trees were growing in stands located on fresh mixed coniferous forest sites. The study concerned a 10-year period of growth of 8 tree age classes. Due to variation in climate conditions, all trees were studied over the same calendar period. Longitudinal analysis was used to compare different age classes of trees with reference to the increments in height. This procedure had not been previously used for such purpose. The results obtained did not confirm the hypothesis of parallel profiles implying that there existed differences in the growth of trees in various age groups.

  19. Atividade microbiana de solo e serapilheira em áreas povoadas com Pinus elliottii e Terminalia ivorensis Microbial activity of soil and litter in areas with forest stands of Pinus elliottii e Terminalia ivorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mundstock Xavier de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as espécies Pinus elliottii e Terminalia ivorensis vêm sendo indicadas para reflorestamento. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre as características ecológicas destas florestas, o ciclo de nutrientes e suas conseqüências sobre a produtividade e sustentabilidade sob condições tropicais. Visando melhor compreender a dinâmica do C nestes ecossistemas, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a atividade microbiana do solo, serapilheira e da mistura solo + serapilheira em povoamentos florestais de P. elliottii e T. ivorensis. Amostras de solos e serapilheira foram incubadas e a atividade microbiana avaliada por meio da evolução de CO2. Ao final da incubação, a respiração acumulada foi superior para a serapilheira de T. ivorensis. Os demais substratos com serapilheira não diferiram entre si, mas diferiram do solo sob T. ivorensis, que, por sua vez, diferiu do solo sob P. elliottii. Nas condições testadas, a incorporação de solo à serapilheira, bem como a incorporação alternada de solo de um povoamento à serapilheira de outro, não promoveu aumentos significativos na respiração da serapilheira, mostrando que as características químicas da própria serapilheira alteram mais fortemente sua velocidade de degradação que as características químicas e microbianas do solo onde é incorporada.In Brazil, the species Pinus elliottii and Terminalia ivorensis are being recommended for reforestation. However, little is known about the ecological characteristics of such forests, the nutrient cycle and possible consequences on yields and sustainability under tropical conditions. For a better understanding of the C dynamic in these ecosystems, this study aimed to evaluate the microbial activity of soil, litter, and the mixture of soil + litter in forest stands of P. elliottii and T. ivorensis. Samples of soil, litter and mixture were incubated and the microbial activity was evaluated on the basis of CO2 released. At the end of

  20. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration Affected by Compound Fertilizer Types in Red Pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z. Stands of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyeob Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on heterotrophic soil respiration (Rh in soil respiration (Rs components in red pine stands. Two types of fertilizer (N3P4K1 = 113:150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1; P4K1 = 150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1 were applied manually on the forest floor for two years. Rs and Rh rates were monitored from April 2011 to March 2013. Mean Rs and Rh rates were not significantly affected by fertilizer applications. However, Rh in the second year following fertilizer application fell to 27% for N3P4K1 and 17% in P4K1 treatments, while there was an increase of 5% in the control treatments compared with the first fertilization year. The exponential relationships between Rs or Rh rates and the corresponding soil temperature were significant (Rh: R2 = 0.86–0.90; p < 0.05; Rs: R2 = 0.86–0.91; p < 0.05 in the fertilizer and control treatments. Q10 values (Rs increase per 10 °C increase in temperature in Rs rates were lowest for the N3P4K1 treatment (3.47, followed by 3.62 for the P4K1 treatment and 3.60 in the control treatments, while Rh rates were similar among the treatments (3.59–3.64. The results demonstrate the importance of separating Rh rates from Rs rates following a compound fertilizer application.

  1. Volumetric models for tropical pine in pure stand in Rondônia State, Brazil Modelos volumétricos para Pinus tropicais, em povoamento homogêneo, no Estado de Rondônia

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    Allan Libanio Pelissari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study aimed to adjust volumetric models to tropical pines, in pure stand, in the municipality of Vilhena, Rondonia State.  The data came from 20 felled trees of Pinus caribaea var.  hondurensis and 10 Pinus tecunumanii trees with discs collected at fixed positions of 0.20 m, 0.70 m, 1.30 m and in distances of one meter along the stem, for later counting and measurement of the growth rings at ages from 4 to 12 years. Eight volumetric models were adjusted. The selection criteria used were: standard error of estimate, adjusted coefficient of  determination, F test, significance of regression coefficients,  mean deviation, standard deviation of the differences, sum of square of the relative residual, percentage of the residuals and graphic analysis of residuals. The models from Näslund  modified and from Spurr presented, respectively, best fit to estimate the volume for Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis submitted to the first thinning and for Pinus tecunumanii, with  ages between 4 and 12 years, in Vilhena, Rondonia State, Brazil.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.173

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo ajustar modelos volumétricos para Pinus tropicais, em povoamento homogêneo, no Município  de Vilhena, RO. Para a coleta de dados, foram derrubadas 20  árvores de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis e 10 de Pinus  tecunumanii, sendo coletados discos em posições fixas de 0,20  m; 0,70 m; 1,30 m e em distâncias de um metro ao longo do  fuste, para a posterior contagem e mensuração dos anéis de crescimento nas idades de 4 a 12 anos. Foram ajustados oito modelos volumétricos e o critério de seleção considerou os  resultados do erro padrão da estimativa, coeficiente de determinação ajustado, teste F, significância dos coeficientes de regressão, desvio médio, desvio-padrão das diferenças, soma de quadrados do resíduo relativo, resíduo percentual

  2. The evaluation of different forest structural indices to predict the stand aboveground biomass of even-aged Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Kunduz, Northern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercanli, İlker; Kahriman, Aydın

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effect of stand structural diversity, including the Shannon, improved Shannon, Simpson, McIntosh, Margelef, and Berger-Parker indices, on stand aboveground biomass (AGB) and developed statistical prediction models for the stand AGB values, including stand structural diversity indices and some stand attributes. The AGB prediction model, including only stand attributes, accounted for 85 % of the total variance in AGB (R (2)) with an Akaike's information criterion (AIC) of 807.2407, Bayesian information criterion (BIC) of 809.5397, Schwarz Bayesian criterion (SBC) of 818.0426, and root mean square error (RMSE) of 38.529 Mg. After inclusion of the stand structural diversity into the model structure, considerable improvement was observed in statistical accuracy, including 97.5 % of the total variance in AGB, with an AIC of 614.1819, BIC of 617.1242, SBC of 633.0853, and RMSE of 15.8153 Mg. The predictive fitting results indicate that some indices describing the stand structural diversity can be employed as significant independent variables to predict the AGB production of the Scotch pine stand. Further, including the stand diversity indices in the AGB prediction model with the stand attributes provided important predictive contributions in estimating the total variance in AGB.

  3. Zoneamento climático de Pinus tecunumanii para fins de plantio experimental no estado de São Paulo Climatic zoning of Pinus tecunumanii for experimental stands establishment in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Luiz Eduardo Mantovani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O Pinus tecunumanii apresenta boa adaptação edafoclimática no Brasil e vem sendo plantado experimentalmente nos biomas mata atlântica e cerrado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as estações experimentais climaticamente homogêneas do estado de São Paulo para nortear a implantação de plantios experimentais de Pinus tecunumanii e, futuramente, os plantios comerciais. Foram selecionadas 30 áreas experimentais, em diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo, sendo que os dados climáticos referentes a cada estação foram organizados em planilhas e submetidos à análise multivariada, cujos resultados foram avaliados a partir de dendrogramas. As exigências climáticas da espécie foram verificadas em literatura científica e nos resultados obtidos de plantios experimentais. Toda a área do Estado de São Paulo se mostrou apta para plantios experimentais com as espécies de baixa altitude, exceto a área correspondente à estação de Campos do Jordão, devido à frequente ocorrência de geadas. A espécie também pode ser plantada nas estações de Angatuba, Buri, Pirajú, Itapeva, Avaré, Itapetininga e Itararé , exceto em áreas de baixada, onde existe o acúmulo de ar frio. Nas áreas mais quentes, tais como o norte / noroeste do estado, poderão ser efetuados testes para florescimento precoce, o que pode ser bastante útil para otimizar o tempo necessário para o melhoramento da espécie.Pinus tecunumanii has good adaptation to edafoclimatic regions of Brazil and these pinus have been cultivated on Savanna and Atlantic Forest biomes. The objective of this study was to identify climate homogeneous experimental stations of the Forest Institute of São Paulo and indicate places where it is possible to establish progeny and clone tests for breeding and further commercial plantation of this specie. It was selected 30 experimental areas at São Paulo state and climatic data for each meteorological station nearest of these areas

  4. Soil Respiration at Different Stand Ages (5, 10, and 20/30 Years in Coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière and Deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode Plantations in a Sandstorm Source Area

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    Xin Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of stand age and forest type on soil respiration is crucial for predicting the potential of soil carbon sequestration. Thus far, however, there is no consensus regarding the variations in soil respiration caused by stand age and forest type. This study investigated soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity at three stand ages (5, 10, and 20 or 30 years in two plantations of coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière and deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode species using an automated chamber system in 2013 in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source area. Results showed that mean soil respiration in the 5-, 10-, and 20/30-year-old plantations was 3.37, 3.17, and 2.99 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. tabulaeformis and 2.92, 2.85, and 2.57 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. davidiana, respectively. Soil respiration decreased with stand age for both species. There was no significant difference in soil respiration between the two plantation species at ages 5 and 10 years (p > 0.05. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, which ranged from 1.85–1.99 in P. tabulaeformis and 2.20–2.46 in P. davidiana plantations, was found to increase with stand age. Temperature sensitivity was also significantly higher in P. davidiana plantations and when the soil water content was below 12.8%. Temperature sensitivity incorporated a combined response of soil respiration to soil temperature, soil water content, soil organic carbon, and fine root biomass and, thus, provided an ecological metric for comparing forest carbon dynamics of these species.

  5. Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of Pityophthorus pubescens (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) to (E,E)-α-farnesene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (S)-(-)-verbenone in Pinus radiata (Pinaceae) stands in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sergio; Quero, Carmen; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Angel; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Some twig beetles in the genus Pityophthorus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) may vector pitch canker disease Fusarium circinatum (Niremberg & O'Donnell) of Pinus spp. (Pinaceae). Because Pityophthorus pubescens (Marsh.) has been found to be associated with F. circinatum in the Basque Country (northern Spain), various experiments were conducted to assess the beetle's behavioural responses to (E, E)-α-farnesene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (S)-(-)-verbenone to develop a potential inhibitor to host attraction. These experiments comprise electroantennographic and double-choice olfactometer tests, as well as field assays in Pinus radiata D. Don stands. Both sexes of P. pubescens showed similar electroantennographic responses to different doses (from 1 ng to 1 µg in decadic steps) of each individual compound, with depolarisations to (S)-(-)-verbenone (100 ng) being similar to those of the aggregation pheromone (+)-trans-pityol. In olfactometer assays, both sexes were significantly attracted to (+)-trans-pityol, but the attraction was reduced when increasing amounts of the chemicals were added to the pheromone. Particularly relevant was the repellent effect induced by (S)-(-)-verbenone at 1 ng dose and higher. In the field, (E, E)-α-farnesene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (S)-(-)-verbenone reduced significantly the number of beetles attracted to (+)-trans-pityol and racemic trans-pityol, with (S)-(-)-verbenone being the most effective. (S)-(-)-Verbenone showed an interesting potential for use in the protection of P. radiata stands. A potentially effective strategy, which could be implemented in further, more in-depth studies, could involve the use of this semiochemical as repellent and (+)-trans-pityol-baited traps as attractant in a 'push-pull' strategy. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Ectomycorrhizal Community Structure and Soil Characteristics of Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta) and Adjacent Stands of Old Growth Mixed Conifer in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Robert B.; Parker, V. Thomas; Cullings, Kenneth W.; Sun, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Forest development patterns following disturbance are known to influence the physical and chemical attributes of soils at different points in time. Changes in soil resources are thought to have a corresponding effect on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community structure. We used molecular methods to compare below-ground ECM species richness, composition, and abundance between adjacent stands of homogenous lodgepole pine and old growth mixed conifer in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). In each stand-type we collected soil cores to both identify mycorrhizae and assess soil chemistry. Although no statistical difference was observed in the mean number of ECM root tips per core between stand types, the total number of species identified (85 versus 35) and the mean number of species per core (8.8 +/- 0.6 versus 2.5 +/- 0.3) were significantly higher in lodgepole pine. Differences between the actual and estimated species richness levels indicated that these forest types support a high number of ECM species and that undersampling was severe. Species compositions were widely disparate between stands where only four species were shared out of a total of 116. Soil analysis also revealed that mixed conifer was significantly lower in pH, but higher in organic matter, potassium, phosphorus, and ammonium when compared to lodgepole pine stands. Species richness per core was correlated with these chemical data, however, analysis of covariance indicated that stand type was the only statistically significant factor in the observed difference in species richness. Our data suggest that ECM fungal richness increases as homogenous lodgepole pine stands grow and mature, but declines after Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir colonize. Despite difficulties linking species composition with soil chemistry, there are a variety of physical and chemical factors that could be influencing ECM community structure. Future field experiments are necessary to test some of the mechanisms potentially operating

  7. Modelling merchantable volumes for uneven aged maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton stands establi-shed by natural regeneration in the central Portugal

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    Cristina Alegria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uneven aged maritime pine stands established by natural regeneration have a great expression in Portugal. These stands being overstocked, as opposed to those established from plantations, provide straight and cylindrical tree boles and logs with less knots that makes them very suitable for certain industrial purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to fit a set of equations to predict total volume and merchantable volumes to any merchantable limit for uneven aged maritime pine stands established by natural regeneration in the central inland region of Portugal. Data were collected in 30 circular sampling plots of 500 m2 of area, on 1426 trees and 314 sample trees for volume assessment, corresponding to 2353 diameter/height mea-surements. A total height equation, a total volume equation, a volume ratio equation to any top height limit and a taper equation, over bark, were fitted. To select among the best models, several statistics were computed during model fitting and the independent validation procedure to evaluate model fitting, collinearity and prediction performances. A ranking index was used to support the final decision. The models selected were then fitted again using robust regression and weighted regression techniques, because studentized residuals distribution normality and homogeneity assumptions were not observed. This research showed that the models selected for these stands were not the same as those selected in previous studies for the species in this region, suggesting that these results may be due to the influence of stand density conditions on diameter and total height growth, and consequently, on stem form and volume. This set of equations will also be included as components in a single tree growth and yield model developed for these stands

  8. Biomass allocation in relation to stand density in Pinus tabuliformis plantation%不同林分密度油松人工林生物量分配模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾全全; 罗春旺; 刘琪璟; 刘丽婷; 李俊清

    2015-01-01

    The biomass allocation pattern is critical for understanding individual growth processes and modeling terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycles in the context of global climate change. Our objective was to determine the effects of stand density on biomass allocation pattern in a Pinus tabuliformis plantation in Beijing, China. Eighteen sample trees for aboveground components and eleven sample trees for belowground components were used for developing DBH-biomass models by the nested regression method. Thirty⁃three temporary plots (20 m×30 m) with different stand densities (267-3 367 trees/hm2 ) were investigated by recording DBH of all trees over 5 cm DBH in July—August 2012. All components exhibited significant variations across the surveyed plots with different stand densities. Above and below ground biomass ranged from 20.74 to 141.25 t/hm2 and 5.36 to 36.92 t/hm2 , respectively. The average biomass ratio of root to shoot was 0.276, and increased from 0.223 to 0.313 as stands becoming denser. In addition, with increasing stand density, the proportion of stem and branch to total forest biomass decreased, while foliage, fine root and coarse root bio⁃mass increased. The functional balance theory is tested in part by our results, which were also improtant for accurate es⁃timation of ecosystem biomass and carbon accounting.%为了解不同林分密度下各组分生物量分配模式的变化特征,以20年生油松( Pinus tabuliformis)人工林为研究对象,采用嵌套式回归法建立了油松各器官生物量与胸径、树高的回归方程,并分析了林分地上和地下各器官生物量比例随林分密度的变化趋势。结果表明:油松林生物量分配格局因林分密度(267~3367株/hm2)的不同存在较大的差异。地上、地下生物量范围分别介于20.74~141.25 t/hm2和5.36~36.92 t/hm2之间。生物量根冠比随林分密度的增加而增加(0.223~0.313,平均0�276),其中

  9. Spatial variability of throughfall in a stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with deciduous admixture as influenced by canopy cover and stem distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Anna; Boczoń, Andrzej; Hildebrand, Robert; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation cover affects the amount of precipitation, its chemical composition and its spatial distribution, and this may have implications for the distribution of water, nutrients and contaminants in the subsurface soil layer. The aim of this study was a detailed diagnosis of the spatio-temporal variability in the amount of throughfall (TF) and its chemical components in a 72-year-old pine stand with an admixture of oak and birch. The spatio-temporal variability in the amount of TF water and the concentrations and deposition of the TF components were studied. The components that are exchanged in canopy (H+, K, Mg, Mn, DOC, NH4+) were more variable than the components whose TF deposition is the sum of wet and dry (including gas) deposition and which undergo little exchange in the canopy (Na, Cl, NO3-, SO42-). The spatial distribution was temporally stable, especially during the leafed period. This study also investigated the effect of the selected pine stand characteristics on the spatial distribution of throughfall and its chemical components; the characteristics included leaf area index (LAI), the proportion of the canopy covered by deciduous species and pine crowns, and the distance from the nearest tree trunk. The LAI measured during the leafed and leafless periods had the greatest effect on the spatial distribution of TF deposition. No relationship was found between the spatial distribution of the amount of TF water and (i) the LAI; (ii) the canopy cover of broadleaf species or pines; or (iii) the distance from the trunks.

  10. Post-Fire Seedling Recruitment and Morpho-Ecophysiological Responses to Induced Drought and Salvage Logging in Pinus halepensis Mill. Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Moya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvage logging is the commonest post-fire emergency action, but has unclear ecological effects. In the Mediterranean Basin, drought periods and fire regimes are changing and forest management should be adapted. In summer 2009, a mid-high severity fire burned 968 ha of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill. forest in southeast Spain, which was submitted to salvage logging six months later. In spring 2010, plots were set in untreated and logged areas to monitor the recruitment and survival of the main tree species and three companion species: Stipa tenacissima L. (resprouter, Cistus clusii Dunal and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (obligate seeders. We evaluated responses to different scenarios in relation to intensification of summer droughts and forest management to obtain differences in water stress, growth, and gas exchange to cope with summer drought. Drought was induced by using rain-exclusion shelters and recorded ecophysiological characteristics were obtained with a portable gas exchange system. The main tree species recruitment was poor, but companion species showed a high survival ratio. Lower water stress was found for obligate seeder seedlings, which was higher in logged areas with induced drought. The initial post-fire stage was similar for the studied areas. However, after two drought periods (2010 and 2011, significant differences were found in the morphological and ecophysiological responses. In the unmanaged area, the biggest size of individuals due to the most marked increases in height and coverage were observed mainly in resprouter S. tenacissima. In the area submitted to salvage logging, the growth ratios in plots with induced drought were lower, mainly for seeders. Greater productivity was related to higher transpiration, stomatal conductance, and net photosynthetic ratio, but lower water use efficiency was found in obligate seeders with no drought induction, and S. tenacissima obtained higher values in untreated areas. Our results

  11. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran

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    RAZIYEH RAFEIE JAHED

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rafeie Jahed R, Hosseini SM, Kooch Y. 2014. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 206-214. In the present work, we studied the effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region of northern Iran. Natural forest stands (including Acer velutinum Bioss., Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall, Parrotia persica (DC. C.A.Mey, Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey., Carpinus betulus L, Mixed planted stand (including Acer velutinum, Ulmus carpinifolia G. Suckow Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey, Carpinus betulus L., Tilia begonifolia Scop. Subsp. caucasia (Rupr. Loria; maple (Acer velutinum Bioss plantation, pine (Pinus taeda L. plantation and also clear-cut region (control were considered in this research. Soil samples were collected at two different depths, i.e., 0-15 and 15-30 cm, and characterized with respect to organic carbon (C, total nitrogen (N, available nutrient elements (P, K, Ca and Mg; pH and soil texture. The results showed that the highest amount of total N was found in mixed plantation. The highest amount of available P was detected in maple plantation and pine plantation had the highest available K and organic C than other treatments. The highest and the lowest available Ca and Mg were found in natural forest and control area, respectively. In addition, it was observed that nutrients accumulate in upper layers of the soil. Hardwood stands have been more successful than the conifers stands, so this should be considered in the sustainable management of forests.

  12. Functional groups show distinct differences in nitrogen cycling during early stand development: implications for forest management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrey, Doug, P.; Coyle, David, R. Coleman, Mark, D.

    2011-08-26

    Nutrient acquisition of forest stands is controlled by soil resource availability and belowground production, but tree species are rarely compared in this regard. Here, we examine ecological and management implications of nitrogen (N) dynamics during early forest stand development in productive commercial tree species with narrow (Populus deltoides Bartr. and Platanus occidentalis L.) and broad (Liquidambar styraciflua L. and Pinus taeda L.) site requirements while grown with a range of nutrient and water resources. We constructed N budgets by measuring N concentration ([N]) and N content (N{sub C}) of above- and belowground perennial and ephemeral tissues, determined N uptake (N{sub UP}), and calculated N use efficiency (NUE). Forest stands regulated [N] within species-specific operating ranges without clear temporal or treatment patterns, thus demonstrating equilibrium between tissue [N] and biomass accumulation. Forest stand N{sub C} and N{sub UP} increased with stand development and paralleled treatment patterns of biomass accumulation, suggesting productivity is tightly linked to N{sub UP}. Inclusion of above- and belowground ephemeral tissue turnover in N{sub UP} calculations demonstrated that maximum N demand for narrow-sites adapted species exceeded 200 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} while demand for broad-site adapted species was below this level. NUE was species dependent but not consistently influenced by N availability, suggesting relationships between NUE and resource availability were species dependent. Based on early stand development, species with broad site adaptability are favored for woody cropping systems because they maintain high above- and belowground productivity with minimal fertilization requirements due to higher NUE than narrow site adapted species.

  13. Effect of raw humus under two adult Scots pine stands on ectomycorrhization, nutritional status, nitrogen uptake, phosphorus uptake and growth of Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Horst; Schäfer, Tina; Storbeck, Veronika; Härtling, Sigrid; Rudloff, Renate; Köck, Margret; Buscot, François

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (EM) formation improves tree growth and nutrient acquisition, particularly that of nitrogen (N). Few studies have coupled the effects of naturally occurring EM morphotypes to the nutrition of host trees. To investigate this, pine seedlings were grown on raw humus substrates collected at two forest sites, R2 and R3. Ectomycorrhiza morphotypes were identified, and their respective N uptake rates from organic (2-(13)C, (15)N-glycine) and inorganic ((15)NH(4)Cl, Na(15)NO(3), (15)NH(4)NO(3), NH(4)(15)NO(3)) sources as well as their phosphate uptake rates were determined. Subsequently, the growth and nutritional status of the seedlings were analyzed. Two dominant EM morphotypes displayed significantly different mycorrhization rates in the two substrates. Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. (RL) was dominant in R2 and Suillus bovinus (Pers.) Kuntze (SB) was dominant in R3. (15)N uptake of RL EM was at all times higher than that of SB EM. Phosphate uptake rates by the EM morphotypes did not differ significantly. The number of RL EM correlated negatively and the number of SB EM correlated positively with pine growth rate. Increased arginine concentrations and critical P/N ratios in needles indicated nutrient imbalances of pine seedlings from humus R2, predominantly mycorrhizal with RL. We conclude that different N supply in raw humus under Scots pine stands can induce shifts in the EM frequency of pine seedlings, and this may lead to EM formation by fungal strains with different ability to support tree growth.

  14. Primary insect pest occurrence and tree diversity in stands of Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis%思茅松林的树木多样性与主要害虫发生的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫争亮; 刘云彩; 胡光辉; 刘永刚; 孟梦

    2012-01-01

    对思茅松Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis人工林的不同混交配置模式的树木多样性及其与思茅松主要害虫的发生程度之间的关系进行了连续2 a的研究(2009年和2010年).思茅松与红木荷Schima wallichii,西南桦Betula alnoides或高阿丁枫Altingia chinensis的混交林以及栽松留阔思茅松人工林的多样性指数(Shannon指数)显著高于思茅松纯林,但林地的均匀度指数(Pielou指数)并不和多样性指数的变化一致.思茅松主要害虫思茅松毛虫Dendrolimus kikuchii,微红梢斑螟Dioryctria rubella,松实小卷蛾Retinia crstata的危害情况随林地树木多样性指数的增加而降低.在思茅区清水河乔林层中,思茅松毛虫[y=-29.929x+ 70.61,R2=0.9667(2010年);y=-14.578x+ 34.213,R2=0.9749(2009年)],微红梢斑螟[y=-8.873x+ 20.627,R2=0.9946 (2009年);y=-8.653x+ 20.215,R2=0.9351(2010年)]的受害率与乔木层的Shannon指数呈现更好的线性关系,而松实小卷蛾的受害率则与灌木层的Shannon指数呈较好线性关系[y=-5.6727x+ 14.964,R2=0.8358(2009年);y=-4.476x+ 12.27,R2=0.8381 (2010年).在景谷文朗,思茅松毛虫[y=-55.454x+ 135.16,R2=0.9541(2009年)和微红梢斑螟[y=-23.895x+ 57.907,R2=0.9831(2009年)]的受害率与乔木层的Shannon指数同样呈现较好的线性关系.图5表3参8%In order to understand the impact of increasing woodland plant diversity on degrees of insect pest occurrence, plant diversities of different deposition models for Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations and the occurrence degrees of the three primary pests: Dendtolimus kikuchii, Retinia cristata and Dioryctria rubella were investigated from 2009 to 2010 in Simao County and Jinggu County, Yunnan Province. Plant diversities in different plantations were denoted by Shannon index, and the species evenness were denoted by Pielou index. Insect occurrence degree were denoted by percentage of insect-infesting trees. Results showed that the Shannon index for

  15. Breeding bird community response to establishing intercropped switchgrass in intensively-managed pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Zachary G.; Riffell, Samuel K.; Wheat, Bradley R.; Miller, Darrin A.; Martin, James A.; Vilella, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) between tree rows within young pine (Pinus spp.) plantations is a potential method to generate lignocellulosic biofuel feedstocks within intensively managed forests. Intensively managed pine supports a diverse avian assemblage potentially affected by establishment and maintenance of an annual biomass feedstock via changes in plant communities, dead wood resources, and habitat structure. We sought to understand how establishing switchgrass on an operational scale affects bird communities within intercropped plantations as compared to typical intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest. We conducted breeding bird point counts using distance sampling for three years (2011–2013) following establishment of intercropped switchgrass stands (6 replicates), traditionally-managed pine plantations, and switchgrass-only plots (0.1 km2 minimum) in Kemper Co., MS. We detected 59 breeding bird species from 11,195 detections. Neotropical migrants and forest-edge associated species were less abundant in intercropped plots than controls the first two years after establishment and more abundant in year three. Short distance migrants and residents were scarce in intercropped and control plots initially, and did not differ between these two treatments in any year. Species associated with pine-grass habitat structure were less abundant initially in intercropped plots, but converged with pine controls in subsequent years. Switchgrass monocultures provided minimal resources for birds. If songbird conservation is a management priority, managers should consider potential reductions of some breeding birds for one to two years following intercropping. It is unclear how these relationships may change outside the breeding season and as stands age.

  16. Building mixed effect models of stand biomass for Simao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis) natural forest%思茅松天然林林分生物量混合效应模型构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧光龙; 胥辉; 王俊峰; 肖义发; 陈科屹; 郑海妹

    2015-01-01

    本研究以云南省普洱市的思茅松天然林为对象,调查了3个位点45块样地的林分地上、根系和总生物量。以幂函数模型为基础构建林分生物量的基本模型;采用混合效应模型技术,考虑区域效应随机效应,选择基本混合效应模型,并分析模型的方差和协方差结构,分别构建3个维量的区域效应随机效应的混合效应模型;考虑林分因子、地形因子和气象因子固定效应,构建含环境因子固定效应和区域效应随机效应的林分生物量混合效应模型。所有模型均采用拟合指标和独立检验指标进行评价。结果表明:1)从模型拟合情况看,考虑区域效应的随机效应模型均能显著提高一般回归模型的精度;在3类含环境因子固定效应模型中,含地形因子固定效应的区域混合效应模型均具有最低的AIC和BIC值,表现最好;2)就模型独立性检验看,除地形因子固定效应的林分根系混合效应模型外,其余模型均优于一般回归模型;考虑环境因子固定效应的混合效应模型与普通区域效应混合模型相比,各个维量模型的独立性检验指标表现不一,但总体上差异不大;3)综合考虑模型拟合和独立性检验结果,除林分根系生物量选择普通区域效应混合模型外,另2个维量均选择含地形因子固定效应和区域效应随机效应的混合效应模型。%In this paper we took natural Simao pine ( Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis) forest as the research object, and investigated the aboveground, root and total biomass of 45 plots of at three typical sites ( Tongguan town of Mojiang County, Yunxian town of Simao District, and Nuofu town of Lancang County) in Pu'er City, Yunnan Province. Firstly, we chose the best power function to the basic model. Secondly, considering random effect of the regional effect we constructed the mixed effects models of the biomass components of stand

  17. Application of point-process statistical tools to stable isotopes in xylem water for the study of inter- and intra-specific interactions in water uptake patterns in a mixed stand of Pinus halepensis Mill. and Quercus ilex L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Carles; del Castillo, Jorge; Voltas, Jordi; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    The stable isotope composition of xylem water reflects has been used to assess inter-specific differences in uptake patterns, revealing synergistic and competition processes in the use of water resources (see e.g. Dawson et al. 1993). However, there is a lack of detailed studies on spatial and temporal variability of inter- and intra-specific competition within forest stands. In this context, the aim of this work was to compare the isotope composition of xylem water (δ18O , δ2H) in two common Mediterranean tree species, Quercus ilex L. and Pinus halepensis Mill, in order to understand their water uptake patterns throughout the growing season. In addition, we analyze the spatial variability of xylem water, to get insight into inter-specific strategies employed to cope with drought and the interaction between the individuals. Our first hypothesis was that both species used different strategies to cope with drought by uptaking water at different depths; and our second hypothesis was that individual trees would behave in different manner according to the distance to their neighbours as well as to whether the neighbour is from one species or the other. The study was performed in a mixed stand where both species are nearly co-dominant, adding up to a total of 33 oaks and 77 pines (plot area= 893 m2). We sampled sun-exposed branches of each tree six times over the growing season, and extracted the xylem water with a cryogenic trap. The isotopic composition of the water was determined using a Picarro Water Analizer L2130-i. Tree mapping for spatial analysis was done using a high resolution GPS technology (Trimble GeoExplorer 6000). For the spatial analysis, we used the pair-correlation function to study intra-specific tree configuration and the bivariate pair correlation function to analyse the inter-specific spatial configurations (Stoyan et al 1995). Moreover, the isotopic composition of xylem water was assumed to be a mark associated to each tree and analysed as a

  18. Alternative Parameterization of the 3-PG Model for Loblolly Pine: A Regional Validation and Climate Change Assessment on Stand Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Teskey, R. O.; Martin, T.; Jokela, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is one of the fastest growing pine species. It has been planted on more than 10 million ha in the southeastern U.S., and also been introduced into many countries. Using data from the literature and long-term productivity studies, we re-parameterized the 3-PG model for loblolly pine stands. We developed new functions for estimating NPP allocation dynamics, canopy cover and needlefall dynamics, effects of frost on production, density-independent and density-dependent tree mortality, biomass pools at variable starting ages, and the fertility rating. New functions to estimate merchantable volume partitioning were also included, allowing for economic analyses. The fertility rating was determined as a function of site index (mean height of dominant trees at age=25 years). We used the largest and most geographically extensive validation dataset for this species ever used (91 pots in 12 states in U.S. and 10 plots in Uruguay). Comparison of modeled to measured data showed robust agreement across the natural range in the U.S., as well as in Uruguay, where the species is grown as an exotic. Using the new set of functions and parameters with downscaled projections from twenty different climate models, the model was applied to assess the impact of future climate change scenarios on stand productivity in the southeastern U.S.

  19. New phenolic esters from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faini, Francesca; Labbé, Cecilia; Torres, René; Rodilla, Jesús M; Silva, Lucía; Delle Monache, Franco

    2007-12-01

    Two new phenolic esters 9-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-alpha-terpineol (1) and 7-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-taedol (2), both endowed with free radical scavenger activity and cleroda-3,13 (E)-dien-15,18-diol (3) for which a cis stereochemistry at the decalin junction was found, were isolated from the resinous exudate from Haplopappus taeda upper parts.

  20. Foliage and Litter Chemistry, Decomposition, and Nutrient Release in Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen A. Carlson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following fertilization of forest plantations, high accumulations of nutrients in the forest floor creates the need to assess rates of forest floor decomposition and nutrient release. The study site was a 25-year old experimental loblolly pine plantation in the North Carolina Sandhills Region. Soluble and insoluble N, P, carbohydrate and phenol-tannin fractions were determined in foliage and litter by extraction with trichloroacetic acid. The long-term forest floor decomposition rate and decomposition and nutrient release in an experiment simulating removal of the overstory canopy were also determined. In litter, insoluble protein-N comprised 80%–90% of total-N concentration while soluble inorganic- and organic-P comprised 50%–75% of total-P concentration explaining forest floor N accumulations. Fertilization did not increase soluble carbohydrates in litter and forest floor decomposition rates. Loblolly pine forest floor decomposing in environmental conditions simulating removal of the overstory canopy was greatly accelerated and indicated 75% mass loss and release of 80% of the N pool within one year. This could result in a loss of substantial quantities of N at harvest due to low N uptake by seedlings in the newly planted next rotation suggesting management of the forest floor at harvest is essential to conserve site N capital in these N limited systems.

  1. From lifting to planting: Root dip treatments affect survival of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom E. Starkey; David B. South

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogels and clay slurries are the materials most commonly applied to roots of pines in the southern United States. Most nursery managers believe such applications offer a form of "insurance" against excessive exposure during planting. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of root dip treatments to: (1) support fungal growth; and (2) protect...

  2. QTL and Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Pinus Taeda L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claire G. Williams

    2002-10-01

    The reason for the project is to find the genetic factors which control growth at ages closer to commercial harvest (also known as QTL detection). To date, efforts to find genetic factors which control growth have been limited to seedlings. Because tree breeders want to find molecular markers which are linked to traits of direct economic value, finding linkage to factors controlling older-tree growth is more critical than seedling growth. Our current research interest includes both absolute height at ages 10-13 years but also growth trajectory or the rate of growth from seedling to half-rotation.

  3. Polyphenols in ceratocystis minor infected Pinus Taeda: fungal metabolites, phloem, and xylem phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Hemingway; G.W. McGraw; S.J. Barras

    1977-01-01

    Since Ceratocystis minor is central to the death of pines infested by southern pine beetles, changes in polyphenols of infected loblolly pine were examined with regard to accumulation of fungal metabolites and changes in concentrations of fungitoxic and fungistatic phloem and xylem constitutents. C. minor grown in liquid culture...

  4. The Stand Features of Pinus massoniana Plantation with Different Regulation Density in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area of Hubei Province%丹江口湖北库区不同调控密度马尾松人工林林分特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓荣; 刘学全; 唐万鹏; 庞宏东; 郑京津

    2014-01-01

    以丹江口湖北库区马尾松人工林为研究对象,从林分结构、天然更新演替和生物多样性等方面探讨不同调控密度的林分特征。结果表明,林分密度的降低有利于乔木层平均树高、平均胸径、优势高、枝下高的明显增加,不同调控密度林分高度分布整体均呈现正态分布曲线,但不同密度林分其峰值波动范围的宽窄程度各不相同,低密度林分高度结构更趋于完整;高密度林分立木胸径以小径阶为主,低中密度林分大径阶立木数量则明显增加。高中低密度马尾松林下更新树种种类分别为5种、7种和8种,均以栓皮栎和盐肤木构成其优势更新树种;随着林分密度的增加,更新幼苗数量以及更新层优势种幼树幼苗与乔木树种数量之比均表现为逐渐降低趋势,且更新幼苗多集中在高度≥50 cm范围。马尾松林分密度的降低均在一定程度上促进林下生物多样性的增加,但不同层次生物多样性变化趋势存在差异。%A Pinus massoniana plantation of Danjiangkou reservoir of Hubei Province was selected as object to analyze the stand features under different regulation density from three respects of the stand structure,natural re-generation status and biodiversity.The results showed that average tree height,average DBH,dominant height,and under branch height were significantly increased with the stand density decreased.At the same time,the height dis-tribution in three densities of Pinus massoniana plantation all showed a normal distribution curve,but the stand height structure at low density tended to be more complete.In high density stand,small diameter class trees were main components,but in low-medium density stand,the number of larger diameter tree was increased significantly. The number of regeneration species under forest of high density,medium density and low density P.massoniana were 5,7 and 8,respectively,and the dominant

  5. Influence of seedbed, light environment, and elevated night temperature on growth and carbon allocation in pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Day; Jessica L. Schedlbauer; William H. Livingston; Michael S. Greenwood; Alan S. White; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) are two autecologically similar species that occupy generally disjunct ranges in eastern North America. Jack pine is boreal in distribution, while pitch pine occurs at temperate latitudes. The two species co-occur in a small number of stands along a 'tension...

  6. Hydraulic redistribution of soil water by roots affects whole-stand evapotranspiration and net ecosystem carbon exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; King, John S; Noormets, Asko; Treasure, Emrys; Gavazzi, Michael J; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steven G

    2010-07-01

    *Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of water via roots from moist to drier portions of the soil occurs in many ecosystems, potentially influencing both water use and carbon assimilation. *By measuring soil water content, sap flow and eddy covariance, we investigated the temporal variability of HR in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation during months of normal and below-normal precipitation, and examined its effects on tree transpiration, ecosystem water use and carbon exchange. *The occurrence of HR was explained by courses of reverse flow through roots. As the drought progressed, HR maintained soil moisture above 0.15 cm(3) cm(-3) and increased transpiration by 30-50%. HR accounted for 15-25% of measured total site water depletion seasonally, peaking at 1.05 mm d(-1). The understory species depended on water redistributed by the deep-rooted overstory pine trees for their early summer water supply. Modeling carbon flux showed that in the absence of HR, gross ecosystem productivity and net ecosystem exchange could be reduced by 750 and 400 g C m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. *Hydraulic redistribution mitigated the effects of soil drying on understory and stand evapotranspiration and had important implications for net primary productivity by maintaining this whole ecosystem as a carbon sink.

  7. 松材线虫危害后马尾松林土壤氮素的矿化特性%Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in Pinus massoniana Stands After Disturbance by Pine Wilt Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾蕾; 尹维彬; 岳妍; 徐小牛

    2012-01-01

    选择合肥大蜀山森林公园受松材线虫危害程度不同的马尾松林为研究对象,采用室内模拟试验对林地土壤氮素矿化特征进行了研究.结果表明:不同林分土壤氮素转化速率差异显著(P<0.05),受损严重的林分氮素矿化速率显著高于轻度受损林分,特别是硝化速率更为显著(P<0.01).松材线虫病危害改变了马尾松林土壤氮素的转化性质,增加了土壤氮素淋失的危险性.%Masson pine stands after different degrees of damage by pine wilt disease in Shushan Forest Park were selected to investigate the changes in soil nitrogen mineralization using the laboratory incubation method. Result showed that a significant change in nitrogen mineralization occurred in the pine stands after disturbance by pine wilt disease (at the 0.05 level). The stands seriously damaged exhibited a significantly higher rate of nitrogen mineralization, especially nitrification, compared with the stands slightly damaged. The disturbance by pine wilt disease resulted in a significant change in soil nitrogen mineralization, with an obvious increase in nitrification rate (at the 0.01 level), which suggests a high potential for nitrogen leaching in the damaged stands.

  8. Unravelling the importance of forest age stand and forest structure driving microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and soil nutrients content in Mediterranean Spanish black pine(Pinus nigra Ar. ssp. salzmannii) Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Borja, M E; Hedo, J; Cerdá, A; Candel-Pérez, D; Viñegla, B

    2016-08-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure have on microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and nutrient content. Thirty forest compartments were randomly selected at the Palancares y Agregados managed forest area (Spain), supporting forest stands of five ages; from 100 to 80years old to compartments with trees that were 19-1years old. Forest area ranging from 80 to 120years old and without forest intervention was selected as the control. We measured different soil enzymatic activities, soil respiration and nutrient content (P, K, Na, Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ca) in the top cm of 10 mineral soils in each compartment. Results showed that the lowest forest stand age and the forest structure created by management presented lower values of organic matter, soil moisture, water holding capacity and litterfall and higher values of C/N ratio in comparison with the highest forest stand age and the related forest structure, which generated differences in soil respiration and soil enzyme activities. The forest structure created by no forest management (control plot) presented the highest enzymatic activities, soil respiration, NH4(+) and NO3(-). Results did not show a clear trend in nutrient content comparing all the experimental areas. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differentiated groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40years old and from 39 to 1year old. Our results suggest that the control plot has better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil parameters but not in soil nutrient content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on the Introducing Growth-Adaptability of the Individual and Stands of 12-year-old Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea in North-West of Fujian%闽西北引种湿加松12年生个体与林分生长适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴奇智

    2016-01-01

    The growth distribution of height and breast-diameter of 12-year stands of Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea were studied with statistics analysis in the northwest of Fujian. The results indicated that the growth distribution of height and breast-diameter showed the normal-distribution and the distribution of height and breast-diameter were respectively from 3 m to 14 m and from 2 cm to 22 cm. The early-height-growth and of P. elliottii × P. caribaea was better than that of P. massoniana, but the diameter breast height growth of P. massoniana was better after 6 years, until growing 12 years the breast-diameter growth of P. massoniana and P. elliottii × P. caribaea were approximate. The volume-growth of average individual of P. massoniana comparing with P. elliottii × P. caribaea were better in 12 years stands, but the volume-growth of average individual of P. massoniana became lower from 11 years and the volume-growth of average individual of P. elliottii × P. caribaea kept strong growth. The volume-growth of the different individual was in the fast growth period and the volume-growth of P. elliottii × P. caribaea was strong growth.%对福建西北地区栽培的湿加松 Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea 12年生林分树高与胸径生长分布进行统计分析。结果表明,林分树高分布在3~14 m 范围内,胸径生长分布于2~22 cm,林分的经济生长性状呈正态分布。在同等立地条件下,湿加松早期树高生长优于乡土树种马尾松,但马尾松胸径生长6年后有更好的生长量,12年生后胸径生长相接近,马尾松12年生林分中平均木单株材积优于湿加松林分,不过11年生后开始减缓,而湿加松保持持续生长势头。由材积生长来看,各树种个体材积生长正处于快速生长期,湿加松材积生长表现出较强的生长趋势。

  10. 不同林分密度人工林赤松物理力学性质的比较%Physico-mechanical Properties of Pinus densiflora Plantations of Different Stand Densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔京日; 金春德

    2009-01-01

    对延吉市帽儿山不同林分密度的人工林赤松(Pinus densiflora)的物理力学性质差异进行研究.结果表明:2个不同林分密度材绝干密度平均值相同;弦向、径向和纵向干缩率,林分密度相对低的林分人工林赤松大于林分密度相对高的林分人工林赤松;抗弯强度、抗弯弹性模量、顺纹抗拉和抗压强度、横纹弦向和径向抗压强度,林分密度相对低的林分人工林赤松要高于林分密度相对高的林分人工林赤松;弦面和径面抗剪强度,林分密度相对低的林分人工林赤松低于林分密度相对高的林分人工林赤松;2个不同林分密度人工林赤松的径向干缩率、抗弯弹性模量、顺纹抗压强度、横纹弦向和径向抗压强度差异达0.01显著水平,抗弯强度差异达0.05显著水平,绝干密度、弦向干缩率、纵向干缩率、顺纹抗拉强度无显著差异.

  11. Concentrations of foliar and surface soil in nutrients Pinus spp.plantations in relation to species and stand age in Zhanggutai sandy land,northeast China%章古台沙地不同树种年龄和树种的生态系统叶片和土壤养分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广生; 曾德慧; 陈伏生

    2004-01-01

    对辽宁省章古台地区的几种主要针叶树种的针叶养分及其林分表层(0-15cm)土壤养分进行研究.结果表明,不同年龄樟子松(45、29和20年) (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica)林地表层土壤养分并无显著差别,而29年樟子松林分表层土壤全N、全P和N: P比显著高于相近年龄的赤松(P. densiflora) (29年)和油松林(P. tabulaeformis)(31年).随着樟子松年龄的增加,叶片P含量逐渐减少,而叶片N和K含量则未表现出随年龄而变化的趋势;对于年龄相近的三个树种,叶片N和P含量表现为:樟子松>赤松>油松,而叶片K含量在三个树种中并无显著差别.表层土壤的全N和全P,有机质和全P以及叶片N和P含量之间表现出了显著的相关性,但是,林分表层土壤养分和树木针叶养分之间并无显著相关关系,这可能与当地对凋落物的过度收集,过度放牧以及土壤水分含量低有关.最后,根据国外研究结果引入N: P比阈值来分析研究区域的N, P养分状况,基于章古台地区这几种针叶树种针叶N: P比,我们认为研究区域的樟子松随着年龄的增加受N限制的可能性降低,29年的赤松林整体表现出不受N和P养分限制,而31年的油松林则表现为系统N和P都供应不足.图3表3参45.%The concentrations of the foliar and surface soil nutrients and the variation with species and stand age were studied in Pinus spp. plantations in Zhanggutai area, northeast China. The results showed that the total N, total P and C: N ratio of the soil in P. sylvestris var. mongolica stands were significantly higher in comparison with those in P. tabulaeformis and P. densiflora stands. For P. sylvestris var. mongolica, the foliar P concentration appeared to decrease with age, and the foliar N and K concentrations did not show a consistent change with age. As for the different tree species of the similar age, the foliar N and P concentrations were significantly different (p P. densiflora > P

  12. Changes of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen and other nutrients in soil of Pinus massoniana stands disturbed by pine wilt disease on Shushan Forest Park in Hefei%合肥蜀山森林公园马尾松林松材线虫病危害后土壤溶解性有机碳氮与养分的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛萍; 尹维彬; 王雷; 徐小牛

    2011-01-01

    以合肥蜀山森林公园松材线虫病危害后的马尾松林为研究对象,对不同受损程度(轻度和重度)的马尾松林土壤溶解性有机碳(DOC)和氮(DON)及土壤养分的动态变化进行了研究.结果表明,不同受损的马尾松林土壤N、P、NO3_3~-N和AP含量均随土层深度的增加而减少,而K、Ca、Mg含量则相反.经方差分析,重度受损林分土壤的NH_4~+-N和NO_3~-N含量显著高于轻度受损林分,而土壤的K、Ca、Mg含量表现为轻度受损林分显著高于重度受损林分.不同受损的马尾松林土壤DOC和DON含量均随土层深度的增加而逐渐下降,且在同一土层内重度受损林分均略高于轻度受损林分.相关性分析显示,重度受损林分土壤DOC和DON含量分别与土壤N、P存在极显著的正相关,与AP存在显著的正相关,同时分别与Ca、Mg含量存在着不同程度的负相关性.轻度受损林分土壤DOC含量分别与N、P、NO_3~-N之间存在极显著的正相关,与Mg存在极显著的负相关;DON含量仅与Ca、NO_3~-N存在不同程度的显著相关.%This study was conducted on a suburban forest park in Hefei. The changes of DOC, DON and other soil nutrients were studied in a Pinus massuniana forest disturbed by pine wilt disease. The results showed:with the increase of soil depth in the differently damaged stands, the total N, P, NO3"-N and available P contents declined, while the contents of K, Ca and Mg increased. NH/-N and NO3--N contents in soil were significantly higher in Ihe seriously damaged stand than that in the slightly damaged one. However, the K, Ca and Mg contents were significantly higher in the slightly damaged stand than that in the seriously damaged stand. DOC and DON contents declined with the increase of soil depth in the differently damaged stands, and the seriously damaged stand showed a little higher contents than that in the slightly damaged one. The contents of DOC and DON in the seriously damaged stand were

  13. Comparison of Trap-catch Amount of Dioryctria rubella and Retinia cristata Mothes in Mixed and Pure Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis Stands%思茅松纯林及针阔混交林中松实小卷蛾和微红梢斑螟诱捕量比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志伟; 闫争亮; 刘云彩; 胡光辉; 李思广

    2012-01-01

    Lure catch teat of Retinia cristata and Dioryctria rubella was conducted in pure and mixed plots of Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis with other broad-leavedtree species. Catch amounts of Retinia cristata by (E, E) -2, 4 -Decadienal in mixed plot and pure pine plot were respectively 6. 30 and 3. 10, and catch amounts of Dioryctria rubella by (Z) -11 - hexadecenylacetate in mixed stand and pure pine stand were respectively 3. 60 and 2. 40. Catch a-mounts of Retinia cristata and Dioryctria rubella in mixed plot were significently less than those in pure pine plot.%在思茅松纯林和针阔混交林中,以(E,E) -2,4-癸二烯醛、(Z)-11-十六碳烯乙酸酯为引诱剂,对松实小卷蛾和微红梢斑螟进行了诱捕试验.结果表明,以(E,E) -2,4-癸二烯醛为引诱剂,在思茅松纯林和混交林内平均每个诱捕器分别诱捕到松实小卷蛾6.30头和3.10头;以(Z)-11-十六碳烯乙酸酯为引诱剂,在思茅松纯林和混交林内平均每个诱捕器分别诱捕到微红梢斑螟3.60头和2.40头;混交林内的松实小卷蛾和微红梢斑螟的诱捕量显著少于纯林.

  14. [Individual biomass of natural Pinus densiflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Jin, Y; Jin, C; Liu, J; Jin, Y

    2000-02-01

    The aboveground biomass of individuals with different growth potentials in natural Pinus densiflora forest with different stand densities was measured in Yanbian, Jilin Province. The variation of individual biomass affected by densities was in order of dominant tree branch > needle > bark. The biomass components of P. densifliora with different growth potentials varied markedly with the approaching of density class III, and the change of intermediate trees was similar to the whole stand. The vertical distributions of biomass of different trees were different from each other, but all showed that the biomass of trunks and barks was mainly distributed below 6 m high from ground, that of branches was within 6-10 m high, that of needles was uniform in the upper, middle and lower layers, and that of branches and needles in upper layer was least affected by density.

  15. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  16. Effects of a Control Release Nitrogen Fertilizer and Thinning on the Nitrogen Dynamics of a Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine Stand in the Piedmont of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot, James Robertson

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen deficiency is characteristic of many mid-rotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the Piedmont region of the southeastern USA. Fertilization with urea is the most common method used to correct this deficiency. Previous studies show that urea fertilization produces a rapid pulse of available nitrogen (N) with only a portion being utilized by plantation trees. Controlled release fertilizers release available N more slowly over a longer period of time and therefore may ...

  17. Effects of a Control Release Nitrogen Fertilizer and Thinning on the Nitrogen Dynamics of a Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine Stand in the Piedmont of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot, James Robertson

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen deficiency is characteristic of many mid-rotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the Piedmont region of the southeastern USA. Fertilization with urea is the most common method used to correct this deficiency. Previous studies show that urea fertilization produces a rapid pulse of available nitrogen (N) with only a portion being utilized by plantation trees. Controlled release fertilizers release available N more slowly over a longer period of time and therefore may ...

  18. Bio-engineering traits of Pinus radiata D.Don

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Marden, Michael; Marrosu, Roberto; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Phillips, Chris John; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Pinus radiata is widely cultivated in New Zealand. Due to steep slopes and intense rainfall, the silviculture of Pinus radiata forests is important to control erosion and slope stability. Bio-engineering traits such as root distribution and root tensile strength are fundamental to understand the effectiveness of Pinus radiata. This information is needed to use the state of the art root reinforcement model (the Root Bundle Model) and the physically-based slope stability model SOSlope. Yet, little is known about root distribution and tensile strength for this specie. We measured soil moisture and carried out 30 field tensile tests on roots of Pinus radiata. We also measured root distribution data from 5 plants, digging arc of circles 0.6 radian around the trees in four opposite directions. We fully excavated the root system of two trees. Using the Root Bundle Model, results of our measurements allow estimation of root reinforcement. With the slope stability model SOSlope, information on the intensity and frequency of harvesting and on the development of weak zones that can be supported by a stand of Pinus radiata in relation to slope stability can be calculated. An added value is that the collected data allow us to make inferences between number and sizes of roots, and growth direction.

  19. Soil and Stocking Effects on Caliciopsis Canker of Pinus strobus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel A. Munck; Thomas Luther; Stephen Wyka; Donald Keirstead; Kimberly McCracken; William Ostrofsky; Wayne Searles; Kyle Lombard; Jennifer Weimer; Bruce Allen

    2016-01-01

    Soil and stand density were found to be promising predictive variables associated with damage by the emerging disease of eastern white pine, Caliciopsis canker, in a 2014 survey with randomly selected eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) stands. The objective of this study was to further investigate the relationship between soil and stocking in eastern white pine forests of New England by stratifying sampling across soils and measuring stand density more systematically. A total of 62 eastern...

  20. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  1. Modelling silviculture alternatives for managing Pinus pinea L. forest in North-East Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqu-Nicalau, M.; Rio, M. del; Calama, R.; Montero, G.

    2011-07-01

    A yield model was developed to simulate silviculture alternatives for Pinus pinea L. in north-east Spain (Catalonia). The model uses several functions to estimate the main silvicultural parameters at stand level and a disaggregation system to predict diameter distributions. From a network of 75 temporary plots a system of equations to predict stand variables was simultaneously fitted for two stand density types, namely low and high density stands, using the three stage least-squares method (3SLS). The diameter distributions were estimated by the Weibull distribution function using the parameter recovery method (PRM) and the method of moments. Based on this yield model, two silviculture alternatives were simulated for each stand density type and site class, resulting in 16 silviculture scenarios. The yield model and silviculture alternatives offer a management tool and a guide for the sustainable forest management of even aged Pinus pinea forests in this region. (Author) 56 refs.

  2. Identification of nine pathotype-specific genes conferring resistance to fusiform rust in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Amerson; C. Dana Nelson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; E.George Kuhlman; Saul Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Nearly two decades of research on the host-pathogen interaction in fusiform rust of loblolly pine is detailed. Results clearly indicate that pathotype-specific genes in the host interacting with pathogen avirulence cause resistance as defined by the non-gall phenotype under favorable environmental conditions for disease development. In particular, nine fusiform rust...

  3. Variabilidade da massa específica de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes classes de sítio

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira, Karinne Pereira de

    2013-01-01

    Fatores ambientais e tratos silviculturais podem influenciar na qualidade final da madeira, por meio de sua interferência no crescimento de sítios florestais. Entre as diversas propriedades da madeira, a que melhor permite tirar conclusões sobre a adaptabilidade da madeira para diversos fins é a massa específica. Por isso existe a necessidade de se procurar técnicas mais ágeis e precisas para determinação dessa propriedade. Entre as tecnologias existentes, a densitometria de raios-X vêm sendo...

  4. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  5. Increased Activity of Rhizosphere and Hyphosphere Enzymes under Elevated CO2 in a Loblolly Pine Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, I.; Phillips, R.

    2012-12-01

    The stimulatory effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 under global climate change on forest productivity has been predicted to decrease over time as pools of available N in soil become depleted, but empirical support for such progressive N limitation has been lacking. Increased N acquisition from soil depleted in inorganic nitrogen requires stimulation of the microbial processing of organic N, possibly through increasing C supply to soil by plant roots or mycorrhizal hyphae. Increases in (mycorr)rhizosphere C fluxes could stimulate microbes to produce extra-cellular enzymes that release N from SOM, feeding back from soil microsites to ecosystem-scale processes. We investigated the influence of elevated CO2 on root exudation and soil enzyme activity at the Duke Forest FACE site, USA, where loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands have been exposed to elevated CO2 for 14 years and N fertilization for five years. In each plot, root boxes containing acetate windows were installed in 2008. Two years after installation, we collected soils adjacent to root tips (the rhizosphere), hyphal tips (the hyphosphere) and bulk soil. We measured in situ root exudation rates from intact pine roots. Study objectives were to analyze (i) the influence of atmospheric CO2 on root exudation and extra-cellular enzyme activities, (ii) the influence of soil N availability in regulating these activities, and (iii) the relationship between the activities of enzymes involved in N cycling in soils and gross N transformations at soil microsites. Elevated atmospheric CO2 significantly increased the activity of β-1-4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) in the rhizosphere by almost 2.5 times (39 to 95 nmol h-1 g-1), and 1.6fold in the hyphosphere relative to ambient plots. NAG is an enzyme involved in the degradation of chitin from the cell walls of soil organisms, releasing absorbable forms of nitrogen. The activity of peroxidase, which degrades aromatic C compounds of SOM, increased significantly in the

  6. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher R. Keyes; Rubén Manso González

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  7. Soil enzyme activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriere) plantations in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn)...

  8. Regeneration Methods Affect Genetic Variation and Structure in Shortleaf Pine (Pinus Echinata Mill.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiv G. Raja; Charles G. Tauer; Robert F. Wittwer; Yinghua Huang

    1998-01-01

    The effects of regene ration methods on genetic diversity and structure in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) were examined by quantifying the changes in genetic composition of shortleaf pine stands following harvest by monitoring changes in allele number and frequency at heterozygous loci over time. The results were also compared to the genetic...

  9. Indications of vigor loss after fire in Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) from electrical resistance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.E. Paysen; A.L. Koonce; E. Taylor; M.O. Rodriquez

    2006-01-01

    In May 1993, electrical resistance measurements were performed on trees in burned and unburned stands of Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea Mor.) in north-eastern Nicaragua to determine whether tree vigor was affected by fire. An Osmose model OZ-67 Shigometer with digital readout was used to collect the sample electrical resistance data. Computer-...

  10. Stand Straight and Stand Tall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝亚娟

    2007-01-01

    <正>My grandfather grew up in war-torn Europe.When German soldiers occupied his hometown,the thriving (繁荣的) city of Tarow,Poland,he refused to obey them and eventually joined the Soviet army to fight for his country’s freedom."Stand straight,stand tall,"he told himself.

  11. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: loblolly pine [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nus_taeda_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=NS ...

  13. Response of ground-dwelling spider assemblages to prescribed fire following stand structure manipulation in the southern Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; Richard S. Vetter; Sylvia R. Mori; Carline R. Rudolph; Dessa R. Welty

    2008-01-01

    We assessed spider (Arachnida: Araneae) responses to prescribed fire following stand s tructure treatments in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws.) stands in the Cascade Range of California. Stands were logged or left untreated to create three levels of structural diversity. We logged one treatment to minimize old-growth...

  14. Do pine trees in aspen stands increase bird diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake; Todd R. Mills; Brian L. Dykstra

    2001-01-01

    In the Black Hills of South Dakota, quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is being replaced by conifers through fire suppression and successional processes. Although the Black Hills National forest is removing conifers (primarily ponderosa pine [Pinus ponderosa]) to increase the aspen communities in some mixed stands, Forest Plan guidelines allow four conifers per...

  15. Penafsiran Volume Pohon Pinus merkusii melalui Foto Udara (Studi Kasus BKPH Majenang, KPH Banyumas Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahid -

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of  Stock Volume of Pinus merkusii  using Aerial Photographs (Case Study in BKPH Majenang, West Banyumas FMU The study aims to compile and analyse the growing stock volume of Pinus merkusii by using stand parameter measured through aerial photographs. The study was conducted by using black-white panchromatic aerial photographs produced in 2005 and the scale was 1 : 20,000. The study was conducted in Pinus merkusii taping plots in the Majenang BKPH, under the forest districts of west Banyumas, Perum Perhutani using tree height, crown diameter and number of trees per hectare as parameters. Data analysis was done to define the relationship among these parameters in regression equation. The steps of the study were defining measurement plots in aerial photographs, measurement of stand parameters in the aerial photographs and field observation. Data analysis was performed using micro computer. As a result, the regression equation for each location as follows: V = 72,415 – 0,231 N + 35,242 H – 24,454D – 0,923 (N x D, with the determination coefficient was 0,789 and the significance of 95%. Where: V = growing stock volume (m3, N = the number of trees per hectare, H = tree height (m and D = crown diameter (m. It was concluded that number of tree per hectare, tree height and crown diameter were good predictors for standing stock volume of Pinus merkusii.

  16. Pinus afforestation in South Brazilian highlands: soil chemical attributes and organic matter composition Florestamento com Pinus em solos de altitude do Sul do Brasil: atributos químicos e matéria orgânica do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Pinheiro Dick

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades, exotic tree species are being introduced in the natural pastures of the highlands located at the northeastern part of Rio Grande do Sul State (RS, Brazil. This alteration of land use may impart drastic changes in the soil attributes. In this context, this work aimed to evaluate the impact of Pinus taeda afforestation on soil chemical attributes and organic matter (SOM composition in Leptosols from Campos de Cima da Serra, RS. Soil samples under eight year old (Pi8 and 30 year old (Pi30 Pinus plantations and under native pasture (NP were studied. Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses and FTIR spectroscopy. The soil under pasture had a higher content of nutrients and of SOM in comparison to Pinus soils, reflecting the higher input and decomposition rate of the below ground added residue in the grassland environment. The SOM in pasture soils showed a higher content of carbohydrate and of structures derived from microbial metabolism. Besides the depletion of nutrients and of SOM, Pinus afforestation affected the SOM quality: following afforestation, the proportion of chemically recalcitrant structures and of carboxylic groups increased, whereas N-containing groups decreased.Nas três últimas décadas, o cultivo de espécies exóticas vem sendo introduzido nas áreas de pastagem de solos de altitude localizados na região nordeste do Estado do rio Grande do Sul. Essa alteração de uso do solo pode causar mudanças drásticas nos atributos do solo. Avaliou-se o impacto do florestamento com Pinus Taeda nos atributos químicos e na composição da matéria orgânica (MOS de Neossolos Litólicos dos Campos de Cima da Serra, RS. Foram estudadas amostras de solo sob plantação de Pinus há oito (Pi8 e há 30 anos (Pi30 e sob pastagem natural (NP, sendo determinados os teores de cátions trocáveis e de

  17. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki; Ewa Bajus; Halina Ratyńska

    2014-01-01

    Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the result...

  18. Mineralización del nitrógeno, carbono y actividad enzimática del suelo en un bosque de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst y una plantación de Pinus radiata D. Don. del centro-sur de Chile Nitrogen and carbon mineralization and enzyme activity in soils of Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst stands and Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in south-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YESSICA RIVAS

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el establecimiento de plantaciones comerciales de rápido crecimiento ha sido sostenido en las últimas décadas mediante la sustitución de bosques nativos y conversión de suelos agrícolas. Pinus radiata D. Don es la principal especie productiva, debido a su crecimiento acelerado y adaptabilidad al clima y los suelos. En el presente estudio se plantea que la actividad biológica del suelo es variable a través del año, en respuesta a variaciones de precipitación, temperatura y contenido de humedad de suelo y que el cambio de uso de suelo desde un bosque templado de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst a una plantación con coniferas exóticas, modifica la química del suelo y consecuentemente los procesos de N-min, C-min y la actividad biológica del suelo. Esta hipótesis fue examinada en un bosque de N. obliqua y una plantación de P. radiata del centro-sur de Chile (40°07' S, 72° O. Se evaluó mensualmente la tasa mineralización de nitrógeno (N-min, cabono (C-min y la actividad enzimática potencial del suelo (ureasa, proteasa e hidrólisis de la fluoresceína diacetato entre septiembre 2003 y mayo 2005. Los resultados demuestran que los niveles de las variables de actividad biológica del suelo fueron significativamente diferentes entre las parcelas de bosque y plantación (Lambda de Wilk = 0,022; F 5,80 = 733; P In Chile, commercial forests plantations have increased during the last decades due in part to replacement of native forests and conversion of agricultural soils. Pinus radiata D. Don has been the main tree planted, due to its rapid growth and adaptability. In the present study we proposed that biological activity varies along the year due to changes of precipitation, temperature and soil water content and mainly because the conversion of native forest to exotic P. radiata plantations alters the soil chemistry, N and C mineralization and the potential enzymatic activity in these soils. This hypothesis was examined in a

  19. Retención de carbono en rodales para la producción de madera en Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea B. & G., en la región de Tope de Collantes, Guamuhaya, Provincia Sancti Spiritus. Carbon retention in forest stands in Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea B. & G. for wood production in the region of Tope de Collantes, Guamuhaya, Sancti Spiritus Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia MERCADET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba no existen antecedentes sobre cómo abordar de forma integrada la producción de madera para aserrío y la retención de carbono. Se establecieron 30 parcelas temporales de 500 m 2 en plantaciones de Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea Barret y Golfari en la región de Tope de Collantes, ubicada en el macizo montañoso de Guamuhaya, provincia Sancti Spiritus, Cuba; en ellas se midieron el diámetro normal (d 1,30 , la altura total y el grosor de corteza por árbol (GCa, calculando el volumen total con corteza por árbol (VTcca, el rendimiento por hectárea (R y la retención de carbono (C. Se analizaron las tendencias de variación de estas variables con el espaciamiento manteniendo fijos los efectos sitio y edad primero y confundiendo el efecto sitio dentro del efecto espaciamiento después. En todos los casos el d 1,30 y el VTcca presentaron tendencias ascendentes con el aumento del espaciamiento, en tanto que el GCa, el R y el C presentaron tendencias descendentes, sugiriendo que para combinar la producción de madera para aserrío con la retención de carbono, resulta conveniente identificar un espaciamiento de compromiso entre ambas variables, que para esta especie y en estas condiciones resultó ser de 990 árboles*ha -1 , equivalente a 3,2 m x 3,2 m. In Cuba there are no precedents about how to manage wood plantations for sawmill, together with carbon retention. There were used 30 temporal plots (500 m 2 each in plantations of Pinus caribaea M. var. caribaea B. & G. in Tope de Collantes, region of Cuban south-centre mountains in Sancti Spiritus province. In each plot were measured normal diameter (d 1,30 , total height and bark thickness by tree, and then it was calculated total volume with bark per tree, yield per hectare and carbon retention in order to analyse variation tendencies of those variables with spacing, using first as fixed effects site and age and then, confounding site effect within spacing. In all cases normal

  20. Investigation on Effect of Forestation by Mixing Pinus massoniana with Schima superba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGWenchao; HUANGLili

    2004-01-01

    Since forestation of pure forest of Pinus massoniana is liable to suffer from pest calamity, soil erosion, decrease of soil fertility, and difficulty in wood production in the hilly areas of southern China, we conducted an investigation on the three types of forests in Gao'an County of Jiangxi Province, namely, the pure forest of Pinus massoniana, the pure forest of Schima superba, and the mixed forest consisting of the two species, setting up standard stand, measuring and studying the growing stock, biomass, leaf area, roots,soil, vegetation, pests, litters, soil erosion, microclimate, etc., with the following results. ① The average height, diameter at chest height, and volume of the mixed forest are higher than those of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana by 30.9%, 31.7% and 10.6%, respectively. ② The biomass of the mixed forest is 2.24 times as much as that of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana. ③ The litters of the mixed forest is 3.37 times and 1.96 times as much as the litters of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana and the pure forest of Schima superba respectively. ③ The occurrence of pest calamity per tree is lower and the conditions of soil erosion and microclimate are better than those of the pure forest ofPinus massoniana. ④ The mixed forest of the two species is an excellent mixed type of needle-leaf and deciduous forest worth being popularized in China's subtropical areas, especially in the low hilly areas. It is recommended in plantation that the mixed patterns be between trees, lines, small blocks, or scattered-dots, the ratio of mixture of Pinus massoniana and Schima superba be 5 to 1, or 3 to 1, and the initial space between trees be 1.2, 1.5, or 2.0 m while the initial density be 6 944 to 4 440 trees per square hectare.

  1. Biomass and nutrient cycle in fertilized and unfertilized pine, mixed birch and pine and spruce stands on a drained mire.

    OpenAIRE

    Finér, Leena

    1989-01-01

    Biomass, biomass increment and nutrient cycling were studied in (1) a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, (2) a Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand and (3) a mixed birch (Betula pubescens)/pine stand on a drained mire at Ilomantsi, eastern Finland in 1979-85. In addition, the effect of NPK and micronutrient fertilizer treatment was studied. Above-ground and root measurements were taken. These data formed the basis of stand biomass and nutrient cycle simulations of fertilized and unfertilized s...

  2. Influence of hardwood midstory and pine species on pine bole arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2002-01-01

    Arthropod density on the boles of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) was compared between a stand with and stand without hardwood midstory and between a stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines (P. echinata) in the Stephen E Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches Co., Texas, USA from September 1993 through July 1994. Arthropod density was...

  3. Small mammal distributions relative to corridor edges within intensively managed southern pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole L. Constantine; Tyler A. Campbell; William M. Baughman; Timothy B. Harrington; Brian R. Chapman; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    We characterized small mammal communities in three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina during June 1998-Aug. 2000 to investigate influence of corridor edges on small mammal distribution. We live-trapped small mammals in three regenerating stands following clearcutting. Harvested stands were bisected by...

  4. Soil and Stocking Effects on Caliciopsis Canker of Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel A Munck

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil and stand density were found to be promising predictive variables associated with damage by the emerging disease of eastern white pine, Caliciopsis canker, in a 2014 survey with randomly selected eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. stands. The objective of this study was to further investigate the relationship between soil and stocking in eastern white pine forests of New England by stratifying sampling across soils and measuring stand density more systematically. A total of 62 eastern white pine stands were sampled during 2015–2016. Stands were stratified across soil groups and several prism plots were established at each site to measure stand density and determine stocking. Caliciopsis canker incidence in mature trees was greater in sites with drier or shallow soils compared to sites with loamy soils and in adequately stocked stands compared to understocked stands (p < 0.0001. Caliciopsis canker signs and symptoms were observed in all size classes. Live crown ratio, a measure of forest health, decreased with increasing Caliciopsis canker symptom severity. The fungal pathogen, Caliciopsis pinea Peck, was successfully isolated from cankers on trees growing in each soil group. Forest managers will need to consider damage caused by Caliciopsis canker related to stand factors such as soil and stocking when regenerating white pine stands.

  5. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  6. Alteration Of Nutrient Status By Manipulation Of Composition And Density In A Shortleaf Pine-Hardwood Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal O. Liechty; Valerie L. Sawyer; Michael G. Shelton

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - Uneven-aged management is used to promote adequate pine reproduction and control species composition of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.)-hardwood stands in the Interior Highlands of the southern United States. The modification of pine-hardwood composition in these stands has the potential to alter nutrient pools and availability since...

  7. Multiple diseases impact survival of pine species planted in red spine stands harvested in spatially variable retention patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Ostry; M.J. Moore; C.C. Kern; R.C. Venette; B.J. Palik

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the diversity of species and structure of red pine (Pinus resinosa) is often a management goal in stands simplified by practices such as fire suppression and plantation management in many areas of the Great Lakes Region. One approach to diversification is to convert predominantly even-aged, pure red pine stands to multi-cohort, mixed-...

  8. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact.

  9. Efeito do monocultivo de Pinus e da queima do campo nativo em atributos biológicos do solo no Planalto Sul Catarinense Effects of native pasture burning and Pinus monoculture on changes in soil biological attributes on the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o impacto da queima tradicional de campo nativo e do monocultivo de Pinus sp. em Lages (SC, no CO total do solo (COT, carbono da biomassa microbiana (CBM, respiração basal (C-CO2, quociente metabólico microbiano (qCO2 e relação CBM:COT. Foram selecionadas quatro áreas representativas da região, de 0,5 ha cada, sendo: (a Campo nativo, sem queima nos últimos 50 anos (CN; (b Campo nativo submetido à queima tradicional (CNQ, ambas, pastagens naturais; (c Mata natural com predominância de Araucaria angustifolia (MATA; e (d Reflorestamento de Pinus taeda com oito anos (PINUS. Para tanto, coletaram-se seis amostras, compostas de nove subamostras de solo em cada área, na profundidade de 0-5 cm, em dezembro de 2002. Para avaliar o CBM, foi utilizado o método da fumigação-extração. O C-CO2 foi determinado em laboratório. Os maiores valores de liberação de C-CO2 foram encontrados na MATA e no PINUS, seguidos de CNQ e CN, respectivamente. Os maiores valores de CBM, COT e relação CBM:COT foram encontrados na MATA, não tendo as demais áreas estudadas apresentado diferenças entre si. O qCO2 foi maior no PINUS, seguido de CNQ, em comparação com MATA e CN. A análise multivariada mostrou ser uma ferramenta auxiliar importante ao discriminar o CBM como sendo o atributo que mais contribuiu na separação entre as áreas estudadas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of burning native pastures and of cultivating Pinus sp in monoculture in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, microbial basal respiration (C-CO2, the microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2, and the ratio MBC/TOC were analyzed. Four representative areas of the region with 0.5 ha each were selected: (a native pasture without burning for at least 50 years (NP; (b native pasture burnt off every year (NPF; (c natural forest (NF with predominance of Araucaria angustifolia

  10. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  11. Aboveground Tree Biomass for Pinus ponderosa in Northeastern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for spatial or temporal variability. Individual-tree aboveground biomass allometric equations are presented from an analysis of 79 felled trees from four separate management units at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: one unthinned and three separate thinned units. A simultaneous set of allometric equations for foliage, branch and bole biomass were developed as well as branch-level equations for wood and foliage. Foliage biomass relationships varied substantially between units while branch and bole biomass estimates were more stable across a range of stand conditions. Trees of a given breast height diameter and crown ratio in thinned stands had more foliage biomass, but slightly less branch biomass than those in an unthinned stand. The observed variability in biomass relationships within Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest suggests that users should consider how well the data used to develop a selected model relate to the conditions in any given application.

  12. Wind pollination in Pinus roxburghii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod Prasad KHANDURI; Chandra Mohan SHARMA

    2007-01-01

    Stigmatic pollen load and pollen concentration in the air were studied in the natural population of Pinus roxburghii at Ashtavakra (900 m asl), in the Pauri forest division of Garhwal Himalaya, India. The results reflect diurnal pollen occurrence in P. roxburghii, with the strong significant correlations between pollen concentrations in the air and wind speed, air temperature and relative air humidity. A significant correlation was also observed between microsporangium dehiscence and pollen occurrence in the air. The maximum concentration of pollen grains in the air and higher rates of pollen deposition onto the megasporophylls were between 12 pm and 16 pm of the day, which conforms the best time for pollination in a day in P. roxburghii. The receptivity of Ovulate strobili varied from 3 to 5days, however, the bagged strobili remained receptive up to 6 days.

  13. Fossil records of subsection Pinus (genus Pinus, Pinaceae) from the Cenozoic in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2014-03-01

    Extant pines of subsection Pinus (section Pinus, genus Pinus, Pinaceae) are predominantly distributed in Eastern Asia. However, the extent of diversification in the section has yet to be fully clarified. We reviewed fossil records of subsection Pinus from Japan and collected permineralized materials, in which anatomical details are preserved for better understanding of the diversification. Our results suggest that this subsection appeared in Japan no earlier than the Middle Eocene, with extant species (i.e., Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii) appearing around the beginning of the Pleistocene. Pinus fujiii (Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene) is inferred to have a close affinity to P. thunbergii based on the medial arrangement of its leaf resin canals. Additionally, P. fujiii has a similar cone morphology to those of extant species living in China, bridging the morphological gap between P. thunbergii and Chinese relatives of P. thunbergii as inferred by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Our results also suggest that taxonomic revisions of Pinus miocenica and Pinus oligolepis are required among the Japanese fossil species reported to date.

  14. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the results the supposition that Pinus uliginosa from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog is a marginal population of P. uncinata can be excluded, because of their significant difference in genetic structure. The presumable reasons of specificity of P. uliginosa population are disscused.

  15. Structural analysis of mixed stands coming from natural regeneration and plantations after fire

    OpenAIRE

    T. Tsitsoni; Tsakaldimi, M.; Simeliadou, E.; Fouska, M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the structure and growth of naturally regenerated stands of Pinus brutia that mixed with planted broad-leaved and conifer species, 12 years after wildfire and examined the degree of species mix. Field data on stand structure of P. brutia forest were taken in spring 2009 on northern and southern aspects differing in regeneration conditions. Sixteen sample plots were selected and all individuals and their attributes measured. The results showed ...

  16. Specific gravity responses of slash and loblolly pine following mid-rotation fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly R. Love-Myers; Alexander Clark III; Laurence R. Schimleck; Eric J. Jokela; Richard F. Daniels

    2009-01-01

    Wood quality attributes were examined in six stands of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) in the lower Coastal Plain of Georgia and Florida. Several plots comprised each stand, and each plot was divided so that it received three fertilizer treatments: a control treatment with herbaceous weed control at planting...

  17. Effects of the silvicultural intensity on the 4-years growth and leaf-level physiology of loblolly pine varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Yanez; John Seiler; Thomas Fox

    2015-01-01

    The role that genetic improvement plays in the increase of productivity in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the South has been recognized (McKeand and others 2003). Varietal forestry has the potential to improve the productivity and quality of loblolly pine stands, and higher genetic gains can be achieved in volume and stand uniformity (Zobel and Talbert 1984).

  18. Site classification of ponderosa pine stands under stocking control in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers; William W. Oliver

    1978-01-01

    Existing systems for estimating site index of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) do not apply well to California stands where stocking is controlled. A more suitable system has been developed using trends in natural height growth, derived from stem analysis of dominant trees in California. This site index system produces polymorphic patterns of...

  19. Sex Pheromone of Conophthorus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in a Coastal Stand of Western White Pine (Pinaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Harold D. Pierce; Peter de Groot; Nicole Jeans-Williams; Robb Bennett; John H. Borden

    2000-01-01

    An isolated stand of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don, on Texada Island (49°40'N, 124°10'W), British Columbia, is extremely valuable as a seed-production area for progeny resistant to white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch. (Cronartiaceae). During the past 5 years, cone beetles, ...

  20. Biometrical study of some individuals chosen from Pinus mugo turra populations in the peat bog "Bór na Czerwonem"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bączkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen individuals were sampled for study of variation in 17 anatomical and morphological characters. Only individuals of low polycormic growth (trait typical for Pinus mugo Turra connected with incurved one-year-cone stipes (a similar situation exists in Pinus sylvestris L. were chosen, thus the sample studied cannot be treated as a random one. It has been shown by multivariate statistical analysis that these 16 individuals are quite different from each other, Mahalanobis'generalized distances between them being nearly 50% significantly different from 0. The sample studied in this respect is distinctly different from pure stands of both putative parental species (i.e. Pinus mugo and P. sylvestris. Every plant studied shows a different combination of traits typical (or nearly typical for both the above-mentioned species and traits that are truly intermediate between them. The results support the frequently expressed opinion that the mountain pine population from the peat bog "Bór na Czerwonem" is, in fact, a hybrid swarm formed by hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris.

  1. 四种松属植物叶的抗寒抗旱特点研究%Study on Dry Resistance and Cold Resistance of Leaf of Pinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪福太; 李长有; 王占武; 刘强

    2012-01-01

    为了研究松属植物叶片与植物抗寒抗旱特点的关系,以松属(Pinus)两种植物樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litvin.)和油松(Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.)为主要实验材料,同时,观察黑松(Pinus thunbergii Parl.)和马尾松(Pinus massoniana Lamb.),研究针叶的表皮特征及叶片不同部位的解剖结构.结果表明,松属植物叶表皮外具有发达的角质层,气孔下陷,具有大的孔下室,树脂道发达.这说明松属植物叶具有旱生和寒性植物的形态结构特征.%In order to study the relationship between leaf of Pinus and drought resistance and cold resistance,epidermis characteristic and anatomy construction of needle leaf of two specices plants(Pinus sylvestrisa var.mongolica Litvin.and Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) in Pinus are observed.The results indicated that the leaf of Pinus plants have some construction of drought resistance and cold resistance.For example:the outside on the surface of leaf is covered with a cuticle and epicuticular waxes,its stomata are stand out of the epidermis with big bore bottom room and so on.

  2. Radial variation of wood physical properties in Pinus patula growing in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gumane Francisco Juizo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  This study aimed to evaluate wood physical properties of Pinus patula, aged 38, from a forest stand located in Machipanda, central region of Mozambique. Determination of physical properties, such as basic specific gravity, shrinkage, and moisture content of wood in the pith-bark followed the recommendations of the Panamerican Standard - COPANT. Results showed statistically significant differences at significance level of 5%, in the radial direction for the shrinkage coefficient in the pith-bark. Radial and tangential shrinkage values were 6.06 and 8.80% in juvenile wood and 6.18 and 8.65% in adult wood, respectively, with anisotropy coefficient of 1.43 for juvenile wood and 2.44 for adult wood. Pinus patula growing in Inhamacari forest shows stable wood at age 38. It can be used for structural purposes and for manufacture of joinery and furniture.

  3. Unthinned slow-growing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees contain muted isotopic signals in tree rings as compared to thinned trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analysed the oxygen isotopic values of wood (δ18Ow) of 12 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees from control, moderately, and heavily thinned stands and compared them with existing wood-based estimates of carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C), basal area increment (BAI), and g...

  4. Contrasting genotypes, soil amendments, and their interactive effects on short-term total soil CO2 efflux in a 3-year-old Pinus taeda L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Tyree; John R. Seiler; Chris A. Maier

    2014-01-01

    Intensively managed pine forests in the southeastern United States are considered an important C sink and may play a critical role in offsetting increased global CO2 emissions. The combination of improved silvicultural methods and the use of superior genotypes are estimated to result in future volume gains of up to 60 percent. However to date, no work has looked at...

  5. Seasonal response of photosynthetic electron transport and energy dissipation in the eighth year of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 (FACE) in Pinus taeda (loblolly pine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Barry A; Combs, Andrew; Myers, Kalisa; Kent, Rose; Stanley, Lela; Tissue, David T

    2009-06-01

    To determine the effect of growth under elevated CO(2) partial pressures (pCO(2)) on photosynthetic electron transport and photoprotective energy dissipation, we examined light-saturated net photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation (A(sat)), the capacity for photosynthetic O(2) evolution, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and the pigment composition of upper-canopy loblolly pine needles in the eighth year of exposure to elevated pCO(2) (20 Pa above ambient) at the free-air CO(2) enrichment facility in the Duke Forest. During the summer growing season, A(sat) was 50% higher in current-year needles and 24% higher in year-old needles in elevated pCO(2) in comparison with needles of the same age cohort in ambient pCO(2). Thus, photosynthetic down-regulation at elevated pCO(2) was observed in the summer in year-old needles. In the winter, A(sat) was not significantly affected by growth pCO(2). Reductions in A(sat), the capacity for photosynthetic O(2) evolution and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency in the light-acclimated and fully-oxidized states were observed in the winter when compared to summer. Growth at elevated pCO(2) had no significant effect on the capacity for photosynthetic O(2) evolution, PSII efficiencies in the light-acclimated and fully-oxidized states, chlorophyll content or the size and conversion state of the xanthophyll cycle, regardless of season or needle age cohort. Therefore, we observed no evidence that photosynthetic electron transport or photoprotective energy dissipation responded to compensate for the effects of elevated pCO(2) on Calvin cycle activity.

  6. Effect of Removal of Woody Biomass after Clearcutting and Intercropping Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum with Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda on Rodent Diversity and Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based feedstocks have long been considered viable, potential sources for biofuels. However, concerns regarding production effects may outweigh gains like carbon savings. Additional information is needed to understand environmental effects of growing feedstocks, including effects on wildlife communities and populations. We used a randomized and replicated experimental design to examine initial effects of biofuel feedstock treatment options, including removal of woody biomass after clearcutting and intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, on rodents to 2 years post-treatment in regenerating pine plantations in North Carolina, USA. Rodent community composition did not change with switchgrass production or residual biomass removal treatments. Further, residual biomass removal had no influence on rodent population abundances. However, Peromyscus leucopus was found in the greatest abundance and had the greatest survival in treatments without switchgrass. In contrast, abundance of invasive Mus musculus was greatest in switchgrass treatments. Other native species, such as Sigmodon hispidus, were not influenced by the presence of switchgrass. Our results suggest that planting of switchgrass, but not biomass removal, had species-specific effects on rodents at least 2 years post-planting in an intensively managed southern pine system. Determining ecological mechanisms underlying our observed species associations with switchgrass will be integral for understanding long-term sustainability of biofuels production in southern pine forest.

  7. Differential gene expression in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) challenged with the fusiform rust fungus, Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrietta Myburg; Alison M. Morse; Henry V. Amerson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; Dudley Huber; Jason A. Osborne; Saul A. Garcia; C. Dana Nelson; John M. Davis; Sarah F. Covert; Leonel M. van Zyle

    2006-01-01

    Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme is the pathogen that incites fusiform rust disease of southern pine species. To date, a number of host resistance genes have been mapped. Although genomic mapping studies have provided valuable information on the genetic basis of disease interactions in this pine-rust pathosystem, the interaction...

  8. Interactive effects of carbon dioxide and nitrogen supply on above-and belowground chemical composition of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, R.L.E.; Reynolds, J.F.; Strain, B.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Changes in the whole plant carbon/nitrogen balance of loblolly pine grown at ambient and elevated CO{sub 2}-levels (35 and 70 Pa) and four N levels (0.5, 1.5, 3.5 and 6.5 mM NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) were determined by measuring concentrations of total proteins, free amino acids, carbohydrates, and phenolic compounds. Free amino acids and protein concentrations increased with N availability in needles and lateral roots, but were unchanged in stems and tap roots. Under elevated CO{sub 2} starch content was increased in needles but not in roots or stems. Changes in phenolic content in response to elevated CO{sub 2} or N availability generally followed the pattern of soluble sugar concentrations. Phenolic content was in primary needles>lateral roots>tap roots>fascicular needles>stems and decreased with increasing N availability (at>1.5 mM NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}). Phenolic content was significantly increased at 70 Pa CO{sub 2} only in needles and stems, but not in roots.

  9. Leveraging 35 years of Pinus taeda research in the southeastern US to constrain forest carbon cycle predictions: regional data assimilation using ecosystem experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Q. Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting how forest carbon cycling will change in response to climate change and management depends on the collective knowledge from measurements across environmental gradients, ecosystem manipulations of global change factors, and mathematical models. Formally integrating these sources of knowledge through data assimilation, or model–data fusion, allows the use of past observations to constrain model parameters and estimate prediction uncertainty. Data assimilation (DA focused on the regional scale has the opportunity to integrate data from both environmental gradients and experimental studies to constrain model parameters. Here, we introduce a hierarchical Bayesian DA approach (Data Assimilation to Predict Productivity for Ecosystems and Regions, DAPPER that uses observations of carbon stocks, carbon fluxes, water fluxes, and vegetation dynamics from loblolly pine plantation ecosystems across the southeastern US to constrain parameters in a modified version of the Physiological Principles Predicting Growth (3-PG forest growth model. The observations included major experiments that manipulated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration, water, and nutrients, along with nonexperimental surveys that spanned environmental gradients across an 8.6  ×  105 km2 region. We optimized regionally representative posterior distributions for model parameters, which dependably predicted data from plots withheld from the data assimilation. While the mean bias in predictions of nutrient fertilization experiments, irrigation experiments, and CO2 enrichment experiments was low, future work needs to focus modifications to model structures that decrease the bias in predictions of drought experiments. Predictions of how growth responded to elevated CO2 strongly depended on whether ecosystem experiments were assimilated and whether the assimilated field plots in the CO2 study were allowed to have different mortality parameters than the other field plots in the region. We present predictions of stem biomass productivity under elevated CO2, decreased precipitation, and increased nutrient availability that include estimates of uncertainty for the southeastern US. Overall, we (1 demonstrated how three decades of research in southeastern US planted pine forests can be used to develop DA techniques that use multiple locations, multiple data streams, and multiple ecosystem experiment types to optimize parameters and (2 developed a tool for the development of future predictions of forest productivity for natural resource managers that leverage a rich dataset of integrated ecosystem observations across a region.

  10. Seasonal response of photosynthetic electron transport and energy dissipation in the eighth year of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} (FACE) in Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B.A.; Combs, A.; Kent, R.; Stanley, L. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Biology; Myers, K. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tissue, D.T. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Western Sydney Univ., Richmond, NSW (Australia). Centre for Plant and Food Science

    2009-06-15

    This study investigated the biological adaptation of loblolly pine following long-term seasonal exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) partial pressures (pCO{sub 2}). Exposure to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) usually results in significant stimulation in light-saturated rates of photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation. Plants are protected against photoinhibition by biochemical processes known as photoprotection, including energy dissipation, which converts excess absorbed light energy into heat. This study was conducted in the eighth year of exposure to elevated pCO{sub 2} at the Duke FACE site. The effect of elevated pCO{sub 2} on electron transport and energy dissipation in the pine trees was examined by coupling the analyses of the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen (O{sub 2}) evolution, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and photosynthetic pigment composition with measurements of net photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation (Asat). During the summer growing season, Asat was 50 per cent higher in current-year needles and 24 per cent higher in year-old needles in elevated pCO{sub 2} in comparison with needles of the same age cohort in ambient pCO{sub 2}. Thus, older needles exhibited greater photosynthetic down-regulation than younger needles in elevated pCO{sub 2}. In the winter, Asat was not significantly affected by growth pCO{sub 2}. Asat was lower in winter than in summer. Growth at elevated pCO{sub 2} had no significant effect on the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photosystem 2 efficiencies, chlorophyll content or the size and conversion state of the xanthophyll cycle, regardless of season or needle age. There was no evidence that photosynthetic electron transport or photoprotective energy dissipation responded to compensate for the effects of elevated pCO{sub 2} on Calvin cycle activity. 73 refs., 4 figs.

  11. 火炬松光合生理生态特性研究%Research on Photosynthetic Eco-Physiology of Pinus Taeda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞沐奎; 姜志林; 谢会成; 胡一民; 吴福金

    2004-01-01

    采用Licor-6400便携式光合作用测定系统,对11年生不同间伐处理火炬松光合生理生态因子进行了离体测定,并应用DPS系统对主要生理生态指标的特点及其与环境因子的关系进行了逐步回归分析和通径分析. 结果表明,影响蒸腾速率的主导环境因子是湿度和温度因子,蒸腾速率与环境因子建立的回归方程达到极显著水平.

  12. Avaliação do impacto no ambiente de compostos hidrossolúveis de Pinus taeda e Araucaria angustifolia (Coniferae) utilizando indicadores biológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, Bibiana Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    O impacto mais importante das coníferas no ambiente é atribuído à liberação de fitotoxinas/aleloquímicos (predominantemente compostos fenólicos) da biomassa no solo (Singh et al. , 1999). Os polifenóis são considerados um dos grupos mais amplamente distribuídos entre as substâncias químicas produzidas pelas plantas e têm potencial aleloquímico devido à sua alta solubilidade em água e sua propriedade de inibir o crescimento de outras espécies de plantas (Inderjit 1996;. Graça et al 2002 ). A p...

  13. Leveraging 35 years of Pinus taeda research in the southeastern US to constrain forest carbon cycle predictions: regional data assimilation using ecosystem experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn Thomas, R.; Brooks, Evan B.; Jersild, Annika L.; Ward, Eric J.; Wynne, Randolph H.; Albaugh, Timothy J.; Dinon-Aldridge, Heather; Burkhart, Harold E.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Fox, Thomas R.; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A.; Martin, Timothy A.; Noormets, Asko; Sampson, David A.; Teskey, Robert O.

    2017-07-01

    Predicting how forest carbon cycling will change in response to climate change and management depends on the collective knowledge from measurements across environmental gradients, ecosystem manipulations of global change factors, and mathematical models. Formally integrating these sources of knowledge through data assimilation, or model-data fusion, allows the use of past observations to constrain model parameters and estimate prediction uncertainty. Data assimilation (DA) focused on the regional scale has the opportunity to integrate data from both environmental gradients and experimental studies to constrain model parameters. Here, we introduce a hierarchical Bayesian DA approach (Data Assimilation to Predict Productivity for Ecosystems and Regions, DAPPER) that uses observations of carbon stocks, carbon fluxes, water fluxes, and vegetation dynamics from loblolly pine plantation ecosystems across the southeastern US to constrain parameters in a modified version of the Physiological Principles Predicting Growth (3-PG) forest growth model. The observations included major experiments that manipulated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, water, and nutrients, along with nonexperimental surveys that spanned environmental gradients across an 8.6 × 105 km2 region. We optimized regionally representative posterior distributions for model parameters, which dependably predicted data from plots withheld from the data assimilation. While the mean bias in predictions of nutrient fertilization experiments, irrigation experiments, and CO2 enrichment experiments was low, future work needs to focus modifications to model structures that decrease the bias in predictions of drought experiments. Predictions of how growth responded to elevated CO2 strongly depended on whether ecosystem experiments were assimilated and whether the assimilated field plots in the CO2 study were allowed to have different mortality parameters than the other field plots in the region. We present predictions of stem biomass productivity under elevated CO2, decreased precipitation, and increased nutrient availability that include estimates of uncertainty for the southeastern US. Overall, we (1) demonstrated how three decades of research in southeastern US planted pine forests can be used to develop DA techniques that use multiple locations, multiple data streams, and multiple ecosystem experiment types to optimize parameters and (2) developed a tool for the development of future predictions of forest productivity for natural resource managers that leverage a rich dataset of integrated ecosystem observations across a region.

  14. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Zhang, Shijie; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-12-04

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98%) unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%), Amborella trichopoda (9.83%), and Pinus taeda (4.15%). A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite) software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18%) and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats) primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s) mapping for pine for P. densiflora.

  15. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98% unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%, Amborella trichopoda (9.83%, and Pinus taeda (4.15%. A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18% and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s mapping for pine for P. densiflora.

  16. Plant communities with Pinus mugo (alliance Pinion mugo) in the subalpine belt of the Western Carpathians - a numerical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jozef Šibík; Milan Valachovič; Ján Kliment

    2011-01-01

    A syntaxonomical revision of plant communities with dominant Pinus mugo in the Western Carpathians is presented. The data set of 341 relevés was examined and analysed using the detrended correspondence analysis and the cluster analysis. Major gradients and clusters were interpreted using Ellenberg’s indicator values. The major gradient in species composition was associated with available nutrients and moisture. The authors suggest distinguishing the dwarf pine stands of the supramontanous and...

  17. Soil Nutrient, Woody Understory and Shoot and Root Growth Responses of Pinus brutia Ten. Saplings to Fire

    OpenAIRE

    Petros GANATSAS; Spanos, Ioannis; Marianthi TSAKALDIMI; Gerasimos GOUDELIS

    2012-01-01

    Nine years after a wildfire, above- and below-ground morphology of Pinus brutia Ten. saplings and the microsite factors prevailing in understorey (unburned area) and postfire conditions (burned area) of the Forest Park of Thessaloniki were studied. Major stand characteristics (density, tree canopy cover, tree height, crown height, and diameter) were measured in the unburned area. Light and soil conditions as well as plant cover of woody species were recorded in both areas (burned and unburned...

  18. Regeneration of a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl. forest 11 years after thinning, Niigata, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojun Zhu

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of thinning intensity on wind vulnerability and regeneration in a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii forest, thinning with intensities of 20%, 30% and 50% was conducted in December 1997; there was an unthinned treatment as the control (total 8 stands. We re-measured the permanent sites to assess the regeneration characteristics 11 years after thinning. In the 50% thinned stand, seedlings aged from 2 to 10 years exhibited the highest pine seedling density and growth. The age composition ranged from 1-3 years with densities of 9.9 and 5.1 seedlings m(-2 in 30% and 20% thinned stands; only 1-year-old seedlings with a density of 6.1 seedlings m(-2 in the unthinned stand. Similar trends were found for the regeneration of broadleaved species such as Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus serrulata. We speculate that the canopy openness and moss coverage contributed to the regeneration success in the 50% thinned stand, while the higher litter depth and lack of soil moisture induced the regeneration failure in the unthinned stand. The stands thinned at 20% or 30% were less favourable for pine regeneration than the stands thinned at 50%. Therefore, thinning with less than 30% canopy openness (20% and 30% thinned stands should be avoided, and thinning at higher than 30% canopy openness (50% thinned stand, approximately 1500 stems ha(-1 at ages 40-50 years is suggested for increasing regeneration in the coastal pine forest. The implications of thinning-based silviculture in the coastal pine forest management are also discussed. The ongoing development of the broadleaved seedlings calls for further observations.

  19. Standing Tall: The Benefits of Standing Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    In the author's opinion as a pediatric physical therapist, with the exception of a wheelchair, there is no other piece of assistive technology that is more beneficial to children and adults with special needs than a standing device. Postural symmetry during standing and walking activities is extremely important for everyone. Very few children…

  20. [Effects of litterfall and root input on soil physical and chemical properties in Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-Gai; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Cheng, Rui-Mei; Zeng, Li-Xiong; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Tan, Ben-Wang

    2012-12-01

    An investigation was made on the soil physical and chemical properties in different-aged Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area under effects of litterfall and roots. The annual litter production in mature stand was 19.4% and 65.7% higher than that in nearly mature and middle-aged stands, respectively. The litter standing amount was in the sequence of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, while the litter turnover coefficient was in the order of nearly mature stand (0.51) > mature stand (0.40) > middle-aged stand (0.36). The total root biomass, live root biomass, and dead root biomass were the highest in middle-aged stand, and the lowest in nearly mature stand. In middle-aged stand, soil total porosity was the highest, and soil bulk density was the lowest. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents were in the order of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, soil nitrate nitrogen occupied a larger proportion of soil mineral N in nearly mature stand, while ammonium nitrogen accounted more in middle-aged and mature stands. In nearly mature stand, litter production was moderate but turnover coefficient was the highest, and soil nutrient contents were the lowest. In middle-aged stand, root biomass and soil total porosity were the highest, and soil bulk density were the lowest. In mature stand, root biomass was lower while soil nutrient contents were the highest. The increase of root biomass could improve soil physical properties.

  1. Soil Enzyme Activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) Plantations in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn) following harvesting at two depths in the mineral soil (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm). Invertase and urease increased significantly with time sin...

  2. Out-standing!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2013-01-01

    Out-standing concerns the Danish tennisplayer Leif Rovsing and his outstanding piece of architecture Danish Tennis Club in Hellerup.......Out-standing concerns the Danish tennisplayer Leif Rovsing and his outstanding piece of architecture Danish Tennis Club in Hellerup....

  3. Identification of seeds of Pinus species by Microsatellite Markers%利用微卫星标记(SSR)鉴定松属近缘种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洑香香; 施季森

    2005-01-01

    用从松科7个树种中开发出来的276对SSR引物,利用分群法(bulked segregate analysis, BSA)对引物在黑松组的10个近缘种进行了筛选和鉴定.结果表明:276对引物中有23对在10个松树种中获得了扩增产物,其中有5对引物在种间具有多态性,而在种内具有保守性;用单个引物、2个或多个引物组合可以把10个松树种的8个完全区分开来,但目前还没有有效的SSR引物把高山松和思茅松区分开来. 图2表1参21.%The 276 pair-primers (nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite) developed from seven species of Pinaceae were selected and identified for cross-species transferability to ten Pinus species (P. Massoniana, P. Kesiya, P. Tabulaeformis, P. Densiflora, P. Thunbergii, P. Caribaea, P. Taeda, P. Yunnanensis, P. Densata, P. Sylvestris) belonging to Sect. Pinus by BSA (bulked segregate analysis) method. The results showed that 23 of 276 (8.0%) markers were successful to have amplification product in ten species, and 5 of 23 (21.7%) were polymorphic cross species and lack of polymorphic within species. Eight of 10 Pinus species were identified by using single primer, two and more combination of primers, but there were still no effective SSR primers for identifying other 2 species (P. Kesiya and P. Densata).

  4. CCD CBERS and ASTER data in dasometric characterization of Pinus radiata D. Don (north-western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sevillano-Marco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Chinese-Brazilian Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER scenes coupled with ancillary georeferenced data and field survey were employed to examine the potential of the remote sensing data in stand basal area, volume and aboveground biomass assessment over large areas of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in Northwestern Spain. Statistical analysis proved that the near infrared band and the shade fraction image showed significant correlation coefficients with all stand variables considered. Predictive models were accordingly selected and utilized to undertake the spatial distribution of stand variables in radiata stands delimited by the National Forestry Map. The study reinforces the potentiality of remote sensing techniques in a cost-effective assessment of forest systems.

  5. Comparison of throughfall and soil solution chemistry between a high-density Corsican pine stand and a naturally regenerated silver birch stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schrijver, A; Nachtergale, L; Staelens, J; Luyssaert, S; De Keersmaeker, L

    2004-09-01

    In Flanders, critical loads for acidification and eutrophication are exceeded in the majority of the forest stands, and many previously nitrogen limited forest ecosystems have become nitrogen saturated. The present study investigates whether a naturally regenerated stand of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) contributes less to the acidification and eutrophication of the forest soil than a high-density plantation of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio Maire). Throughfall deposition of inorganic nitrogen was about 3.5 times higher in the Corsican pine stand than in the birch stand. Potassium throughfall deposition was significantly higher under birch due to higher canopy leaching. Magnesium throughfall deposition was significantly higher under the pine canopy due to higher dry deposition. The lower nitrogen throughfall deposition in the birch stand was reflected in a 60% lower nitrate percolation at 1m depth compared with pine. Nitrate soil percolation is linked to losses of aluminium and base cations.

  6. Different patterns of genetic structure of relict and isolated populations of endangered peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak, W; Prus-Glowacki, W

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in environmental conditions in populations of peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann) caused rapid decline or even extinction of the species in several stands in Central Europe. Conservation strategies for P. uliginosa require information about the evolutionary history and genetic structure of its populations. Using isozymes we assessed the genetic structure of P. uliginosa from four isolated stands in Poland and compared the results to genetic structures of other closely related pine species including eight populations of Pinus mugo, ten of Pinus sylvestris and one of Pinus uncinata. The level of genetic variability of P. uliginosa measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and average heterozygosity was similar to others related to P. uliginosa taxa from the reference group but it differs among populations. High genetic similarity was found between two populations of P. uliginosa from Low Silesian Pinewood. The populations were genetically distinct as compared to other populations including locus classicus of the species from the peat bog at Batorów Reserve. Very low genetic distance (DN = 0.002) and small genetic differentiation (GST = 0.003) were found between P. uliginosa and P. mugo in the sympatric populations of the species from Zieleniec peat bog suggesting the ongoing natural hybridisation and genetic contamination of peat-bog pine from this area. Some evidence for skew in allele frequency distribution potentially due to recent bottleneck was found in population from Low Silesian Pinewood. The analysed open pollinated progeny derived from two P. uliginosa stands from Low Silesian Pinewood showed the excess of homozygotes as compared to the maternal trees indicating high level of inbreeding (F = 0.105, F = 0.081). The results are discussed in the context of evolution of P. uliginosa populations, taxonomic relationships between the analysed species and conservation strategies for active protection of peat-bog pine.

  7. SOIL SEEDBANK FROM THE UNDERSTOREY OF Pinus AND Eucalyptus IN THE FLONA DE BRASÍLIA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusta Rosa Gonçalves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the soil seedbank from the understory of Pinus and Eucalyptus in the Floresta Nacional de Brasília wasperformed, these plantations were established in the 1980s, and since 1987 have not had adequate management. Two stands of each genuswere chosen, with and without gaps. In each one of these stands 15 plots of 2 x 2 m were implanted, where a sample of 0,30 m x 0,30 mof soil and two sub-sample of 0,125 x 0,15 m of litter were collected for a quantative and qualitative analyzis of the seedbank. The mediumdensity of seedlings emergence in the Pinus stand was 3.098,19 seeds.m-2 while for the Eucalyptus it was of 2.077,19 seeds.m-2, whichmeans that the seedbank from the Pinus understory area has a higher regeneration potential than the Eucalyptus plantations. The Pinusplantations contained in the understorey: 12 families, 25 genus and 39 species, while in the Eucalyptus: 14 families, 31 genus and 48species, proving more richness in the Eucalyptus seedbank. In both genuses the most important families were Poaceae and Asteraceae.Both Pinus and Eucalyptus seedbanks populations, with or without openings, proved that the more interference in its population higheris the number of seeds from herbaceous species in comparison to tree species. The Sørensen similarity índex applied to analyze theseedbanks in the four areas, both for soil fractions and litter, was low, 0,5 and 0, 486, respectively.

  8. Desenvolvimento de PVC reforçado com resíduos de Pinus para substituir madeira convencional em diversas aplicações Development of PVC/wood composites for the replacement of conventional wood products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodolfo Jr.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a viabilidade técnica da obtenção de compósitos lignocelulósicos de PVC, utilizando-se resíduo de Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda como carga reforçativa. Foi desenvolvido um processo simples e economicamente viável de tratamento de resíduos industriais desta madeira, processo este baseado na secagem e revestimento das partículas com lubrificantes funcionais e agentes de acoplamento utilizados como aditivos na indústria do PVC, bem como no uso de equipamentos tradicionais da indústria de processamento deste termoplástico. Foram avaliados os efeitos da incorporação da farinha de madeira em concentrações variáveis e do tipo de agente de tratamento superficial utilizado na processabilidade do composto de PVC, bem como em propriedades finais do compósito. Os resultados mostram que o desenvolvimento deste tipo de material compósito é uma alternativa viável para a substituição da madeira convencional em diversas aplicações.This work evaluates the technical viability of lignocellulosic vinyl composites, using residues of Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda as the reinforcement fiber. A simple and economically viable process for the treatment of these industrial residues was developed. The process includes sieving, drying and treating the wood particles. Treatment is made with functional lubricants and coupling agents used as additives in the PVC industry. Extrusion was performed using traditional equipment available in the Brazilian PVC processing industry. The effect on the processability of the variable concentrations of the residues incorporated and the type of agent used for the treatment had been evaluated, as well as in the final properties of the composite. The results show that the development of this kind of composite material is a viable alternative for the substitution of conventional wood in diverse applications.

  9. Biomass of Scots pine-silver birch tree stand 25 years after afforestation of former agricultural land

    OpenAIRE

    Deptuła, Miłosz; Nienartowicz, Andrzej; Iwicka, Marta; Filbrandt-Czaja, Anna

    2017-01-01

    : In 2O15, the structure of a forest stand growing on former agricultural land in subunit 277n of the Przymuszewo Forest Division (Regional Directorate of State Forests RDSF in Toruń) was described. The study area was afforested in 199O - mostly with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and several seedlings of the European beech – after many years of agricultural cultivation of grain and potato crops. Characteristics of the forest stand comprised the following...

  10. Yellow pine regeneration as a function of fire severity and post-burn stand structure in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Jenkins; Robert N. Klein; Virginia L. McDaniel

    2011-01-01

    We used pre- and post-burn fire effects data from six prescribed burns to examine post-burn threshold effects of stand structure (understory density, overstory density, shrub cover, duff depth, and total fuel load) on the regeneration of yellow pine (Pinus subgenus Diploxylon) seedlings and cover of herbaceous vegetation in six prescribed-fire management units located...

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03294-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH251-549D21 from chrom... 44 4.8 1 ( FJ052986 ) Pinus taeda isolate 5005 anonymous... locus 0_13684_... 44 4.8 1 ( FJ052985 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4998 anonymous locus 0_13684_... 44 4.8 1 ( ...FJ052984 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4989 anonymous locus 0_13684_... 44 4.8 1 ( FJ052983 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4991 anonymous... locus 0_13684_... 44 4.8 1 ( FJ052982 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4999 anonymous locus 0_13684_... 44... 4.8 1 ( FJ052981 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4988 anonymous locus 0_13684_... 44 4.8 1

  12. Fire Occurrence Environments in Pinus pumila Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many serious forest fires occurred in precious Pinus pumila forests in Daxing'anling Mountains of Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia. But up to now, there is still a lack of proper understanding of fire occurrence environments in P. pumila forests. In present paper, we investigated and studied the fire occurrence environments. The results showed that fires in P. pumila forests had their own special fire environments. Abundant fuel, drought weather, dry thunder and high altitude terrai...

  13. Two new antitumor diterpenes from Pinus sylvestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wang; Zhang Rong; Jie Teng; Yoshihisa Takaishi; Hong Quan Duan

    2008-01-01

    Two new diterpenes,15-ethyl- 18-methyl pinifolate (1)and 18-hydroxy-labda-8(17),13E-dien-15-acetate (2),were isolated fromthe needles of Pinus sylvestris.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods,including 2D-NMR spectra.Compound1 exhibited the significant eytotoxic activity against the human carcinoma cell lines Hela,SK-N-SH and BEL-7402 in vitro.

  14. Ecophysiological responses of Pinus leucodermis at high elevation in the Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri MR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pinus leucodermis Antoine (= Pinus heldreichii var. leucodermis is a species of the Balkan flora which in Italy grows in a small area between the Regions of Basilicata and Calabria, in the Pollino National Park. A relict of the oro-Mediterranean Tertiary forests, it is found from the lower vegetation belt, where it is mixed with evergreen sclerophyllous vegetation, up to the alpine vegetation belt beyond the closed formations of Fagus sylvatica, where it makes up stands with very old, isolated and big trees growing in open spaces between rocks. The ecophysiological and dendrochronolgy features of the P. leucodermis stands growing on the west slope of Serra di Crispo (Monte Pollino, between 1800 and 2000 m a.s.l., have been studied during recent years and some of the results are presented in this work. Ecophysiological measurements in situ show that reduced atmospheric vapour pressure deficit conditions, due to humid currents from the western Tyrrhenian Sea, allow the trees to escape from summer drought. When day summer weather conditions are optimal P. leucodermis exhibits a remarkable photosynthetic activity and adaptation to high irradiance. The tree ring width chronology documents a marked reduction of radial growth from 1950 to 1985, followed by a strong recovery, still continuing. In the same period differences between the annual minimum and maximum temperatures tend to increase. Anthropic and grazing pressure is reduced markedly after the institution of the National Park of Pollino.

  15. 油松-辽东栎混交林地表凋落物与氮添加对土壤微生物生物量碳、氮及其活性的影响%Effects of forest floor litter and nitrogen addition on soil microbial biomass C and N and microbial activity in a mixed Pinus tabulaeformis and Quercus liaotungensis forest stand in Shanxi Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂玉; 尤业明; 孙建新

    2012-01-01

    From September 2010 to October 2011, a field experiment with randomized block design was conducted in a mixed Pinus tabulaeformis and Quercus liaotungensis forest stand in Lingkong Mountain of Shanxi Province to study the effects of forest floor litter and nitrogen addition on the soil microbial carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) and microbial activity (MR). The litter treatments included complete litter removal, doubling of leaf litter (L) , doubling of woody litter (B) , and doubling of mixed leaf and woody litter (LB ) , and the nitrogen addition rates were 0 (N0), 5 g·m-2·yr-1 ( N1 ) , and 10 g· m-2 · yr-1 ( N2 ). Except that the treatment of complete litter removal without nitrogen addition decreased the soil organic carbon content significantly, all the other treatments had no significant differences in the effects on soil organic carbon. The soil MBC, MBN, and MR varied in the ranges of 262.42-873. 16 mg · kg-1, 73.55-173.85 mg· kg-1, and 2. 38-3. 68 mg · kg-1· d-1, respectively, and the MBC and MBN had significant positive correlations with the MR. Nitrogen addition did not show any effect on the MBC, MBN, and MR, whereas litter treatments affected the MR significantly, with the highest MR in treatment LB, followed by treatments L and B, and the lowest in treatment of complete litter removal. There were no interactive effects between litter and nitrogen addition treatments on any of the variables studied. It was suggested that short-term nitrogen addition and forest floor litter change could have limited effects on soil microbial processes.%2010年9月-2011年10月,在山西省灵空山油松和辽东栎混交林样地采取随机区组设计,研究了地表凋落物和氮添加处理对土壤微生物生物量碳、氮和微生物活性的影响.凋落物处理包括:剔除凋落物(N)、叶凋落物加倍(L)、枝果凋落物加倍(B)和混合凋落物加倍(LB);氮添加量分别为0(N0)、5 g· m-2·a-1(N1)和10 g·m-2·a-1(N2).结果表明:剔

  16. Homogeneity of delta{sup 15}N in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) was altered by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang Yuanwen, E-mail: kuangyw@scbg.ac.c [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Pearl River Delta Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Control, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Wen Dazhi; Li Jiong [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Pearl River Delta Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Control, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Sun Fangfang; Hou Enqing [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Guoyi; Zhang Deqiang [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Huang Longbin [Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Sustainable Minerals Institute, the University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    The present study investigated the changes of delta{sup 15}N values in the tip, middle and base section (divided by the proportion to needle length) of current- and previous-year needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) from two declining forest stands suffering from air pollution, in comparison with one healthy stand. At the healthy stand, delta{sup 15}N in the three sections of both current- and previous-year needles were found evenly distributed, while at the polluted stands, delta{sup 15}N values in the needles were revealed significantly different from the tip to the base sections. The results implied that the distribution of delta{sup 15}N among different parts or sections in foliages was not always homogeneous and could be affected by air pollution. We suggested that the difference of delta{sup 15}N values among pine needle sections should be reconsidered and should not be primarily ignored when the needle delta{sup 15}N values were used to assess plant responses to air pollution. - Values of delta{sup 15}N in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) were uneven and affected by air pollution.

  17. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, R.M.; Beira, J.; Suarez, J.; Xenakis, G.; Sánchez-Salguero, R.; Hernández-Clemente, R.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería). Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm), basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1) and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2) in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1), age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB) included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99) between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68). Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. (Author)

  18. Response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lesch, W

    1997-12-15

    Full Text Available ELSEVIER Forest Ecology and Management 99 (1997) 295-307 The response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations W. Lesch, David F. Scott * Jonkershoek Forestry Research Centre....304 1.052(p,) 0.96 2nd ?/-= eP?CbE - 3.456 7.134( /3>) 0.95 Cathedral Total streamflow 1 st T= e6c1Clil - 0.727 1.114(/3,) 0.95 Peak Dry season streamflow 1 St Tz e6?C?? -0.871 I .207( p, ) 0.88 W. Lesch, D.F. Scott...

  19. Neural network modelling of rainfall interception in four different forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yurtseven

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to reveal whether it is possible to predict rainfall, throughfall and stemflow in forest ecosystems with less effort, using several measurements of rainfall interception (hereafter ‘interception’ and an artificial neural network based linear regression model (ANN model. To this end, the Kerpe Research Forest in the province of Kocaeli, which houses stands of mixed deciduous-broadleaf forest (Castanea sativa Mill., Fagus orientalis Lipsky, Quercus spp., black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton and Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don, was selected study site. Four different forest stands were observed for a period of two years, during which rainfall, throughfall and stemflow measurements were conducted. These measurements were separately calculated for each individual stand, based on interception values and the use of stemflow data in strict accordance with the rainfall data, and the measured throughfall interception values were compared with values estimated by the ANN model. In this comparison, 70% of the total data was used for testing, and 30% was used for estimation and performance evaluation. No significant differences were found between values predicted with the help of the model and the measured values. In other words, interception values predicted by the ANN models were parallel with the measured values. In this study, the most success was achieved with the models of the Monterey pine stand (r2 = 0.9968; Mean Squared Error MSE = 0.16 and the mixed deciduous forest stand (r2 = 0.9964; MSE = 0.08, followed by models of the maritime pine stand (r2 = 0.9405; MSE = 1.27 and the black pine stand (r2 = 0.843, MSE = 17.36.

  20. Neural network modelling of rainfall interception in four different forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Yurtseven

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to reveal whether it is possible to predict rainfall, through fall and stem flow in forest ecosystems with less effort, using several measurements of rainfall interception (hereafter ‘interception’ and an artificial neural network based linear regression model (ANN model. To this end, the Kerpe Research Forest in the province of Kocaeli, which houses stands of mixed deciduous-broadleaf forest (Castanea sativa Mill., Fagusorientalis Lipsky, Quercus spp., black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton and Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don, was selected study site. Four different forest stands were observed for a period of two years, during which rainfall, throughfall and stemflow measurements were conducted. These measurements were separately calculated for each individual stand, based on interception values and the use of stemflow data in strict accordance with the rainfall data, and the measured throughfall interceptionvalues were compared with values estimated by the ANN model.In this comparison, 70% of the total data was used for testing, and 30% was used for estimation and performance evaluation. No significant differences were found between values predicted with the help of the model and the measured values. In other words, interception values predicted by the ANN models were parallel with the measured values. In this study, the most success was achieved with the models of the Monterey pine stand (r2 = 0.9968; Mean Squared Error MSE = 0.16 and the mixed deciduous forest stand (r2 = 0.9964; MSE = 0.08, followed by models of the maritime pine stand (r2 = 0.9405; MSE = 1.27 and the black pine stand (r2 = 0.843, MSE = 17.36.

  1. Hardwood vigor and survival following applications of imazapyr in mid-rotation pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabudhda Dahal Dahal; Hal O. Liechty; Bryan Rupar; Conner Fristoe; Eric Heitzman

    2006-01-01

    Tree vigor, live crown ratios, dieback, and survival of hardwood competition were monitored for 2 years following a fall application (16 ounces per acre) of imazapyr on 4 stands of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Louisiana and Arkansas. Assessments during the first growing season following application indicated that 87 to...

  2. Impacts of multiple applications of fertilizer on stream chemistry in the Ouachita Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal O. Liechty; Jami Nettles; Stacy Wilson

    2006-01-01

    We have previously reported changes in stream chemistry following a late winter application of urea and diammonium phosphate to a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation located in a 176-ha subwatershed in the Ouachita Mountains. This stand was again fertilized with 437 kg/ha of urea in March of 2001. Water chemistry prior to, during, and after...

  3. Weighted linear regression using D2H and D2 as the independent variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans T. Schreuder; Michael S. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Several error structures for weighted regression equations used for predicting volume were examined for 2 large data sets of felled and standing loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.). The generally accepted model with variance of error proportional to the value of the covariate squared ( D2H = diameter squared times height or D...

  4. Modelling the limits on the response of net carbon exchange to fertilization in a south-eastern pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Tai. Lai; G. Katul; J. Butnor; M. Siqueira; D. Ellsworth; C. Maier; Kurt Johnsen; S. Mickeand; R. Oren

    2002-01-01

    Using a combination of model simulations and detailed measurements at a hierarchy of scales conducted at a sandhills forest site, the effect of fertilization on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and its components in 6-year-old Pinus taeda stands was quantified. The detailed measurements, collected over a 20-d period in September and October, included gas...

  5. Dispersal and viability of seeds from cones in tops of harvested loblolly pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Michael D. Cain

    2001-01-01

    Seed supply is one of the most important determinants of successful natural regeneration. We conducted a study to determine the potential contribution of cones in the tops of harvested loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) to the stand's seed supply if trees were felled after seed maturation but before dispersal. Closed cones, collected in...

  6. Maximum growth potential in loblolly pine: results from a 47-year-old spacing study in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas L. Eberhardt; John R. Butnor; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2010-01-01

    Growth, allocation to woody root biomass, wood properties, leaf physiology, and shoot morphology were examined in a 47-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) density trial located in Maui, Hawaii, to determine if stands continued to carry the high density, basal area, and volume reported at younger ages and to identify potential factors controlling...

  7. Woodland: dynamics of average diameters of coniferous tree stands of the principal forest types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ziganshin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of deciduous tree stands of different forest types at Highland Khamar-Daban (natural woodland in South-East Baikal Lake region has been done. The aggregate data of average tree, the analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of a deciduous tree stands of stand diameters by age classes, as well as tree stand current periodic and overall average increment are presented and discussed in the paper. Forest management appraisal is done. The most representative forest types have been selected to be analyzed. There were nine of them including three Siberian stone pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour stands, three Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. stands, one Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb. stand, and two dwarf Siberian pine Pinus pumila (Pallas Regel stands. The whole high-altitude range of mountain taiga has been evaluated. Mathematical and statistic indicators have been calculated for every forest type. Stone pine stands are the largest. Dynamics of mean diameters of forest stands have been examined by dominant species for every forest type. Quite a number of interesting facts have been elicited. Generally, all species have maximal values of periodic annual increment that is typical for young stands, but further decrease of increment is going on differently and connects to the different lifetime of wood species. It is curious that annual increment of the dwarf Siberian pine stands almost does not decrease with aging. As for mean annual increment, it is more stable than periodic annual increment. From the fifth age class (age of stand approaching maturity mean annual increment of cedar stands varies from 0.20 to 0.24 cm per year; from 0.12–0.15 to 0.18–0.21 cm per year – in fir stands; from 0.18 to 0.24 cm per year – in spruce stands; and from 0.02–0.03 to 0.05–0.06 cm per year – in draft pine stands. Mean annual increment of dwarf Siberian pine increases with aging and increment of other

  8. Effects of SO/sub 2/ on the germination of conifer pollen. [Pinus mugo; Pinus nigra; Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T.; Beda, H.

    1984-01-01

    Collections on agar of fresh and stored pollen grains of Pinus mugo, P. nigra and P. sylvestris were fumigated with SO/sub 2/ for 16 or 24 h. The ability of pollen of P. mugo and P. sylvestris to germinate was decreased by storage but sensitivities to SO/sub 2/ were not greatly altered. Germination was inhibited consistently by atmospheres with 0.225 ppm SO/sub 2/. At 0.075 ppm - a typical ambient concentration during temperature inversions - P. nigra and P. sylvestris were more sensitive than P. mugo which responded in the same way as pollen of Abies alba.

  9. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danusevicius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas;

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the i...

  10. Effects of ozone and climate on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growth in the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.L. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)); Arbaugh, M.J.; Robinson, L.J. (United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Riverside, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Long-term radial growth trends of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum) were studied in second-growth stands in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains to determine if there has been any impact from oxidant air pollution. Although ozone concentrations are relatively high at some locations, visible pollutant injury was not found in any trees. Time series of basal area increments are generally homogeneous within stands. Concurrent periods of increasing and decreasing growth can be found in stands throughout the Front Range, which indicates that there are temporal growth trends at the regional level. Most of these trends appear to be related to the effects of stand dynamics and climate. Correlation analysis with climatic variables indicates that soil moisture supply is the dominant factor controlling interannual variation of basal area growth. Palmer hydrological drought index is highly correlated (positively) with growth during the summer months; total precipitation in spring is positively correlated with growth, and mean temperature in spring is negatively correlated with growth. There are no recent changes in growth trends that might be associated with elevated levels of ambient ozone in the Front Range. 66 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Outcrossing and paternity analysis of Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine) by microsatellite polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, C; Miwa, M; Hogetsu, T

    2001-07-01

    This study employed microsatellite loci to analyse outcrossing rate and pollen dispersal in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) in an isolated stand. The average offspring outcrossing rate for 29 cones was 0.955. Significant differences in outcrossing rates between offspring groups on individual branches that extended in different directions at different heights were not detected. Male parents of 874 offspring collected from the maternal tree were assessed by exclusion using polymorphisms at three microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis indicated that at least 31% of the offspring were fertilized by pollen from trees outside the stand. The average distance of pollen migration within the study stand was 68 m, with a maximum value of 325 m. There was excess mating with nearby P. densiflora trees, of which only a few were predominant pollen donors. In addition, a weakly directional bias in P. densiflora pollination was also detected in the study stand, suggesting that female strobili on a branch of the maternal tree were more easily fertilized by pollen from trees in that direction.

  12. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Full-Length cDNA of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase of Pinus Massoniana%马尾松苯丙氨酸解氨酶基因cDNA全长克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹福祥; 王猛; 龙绛雪

    2010-01-01

    苯丙氨酸解氨酶(Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase,PAL)是连接植物初级代谢和次级代谢途径关键酶、限速酶,催化苯丙氨酸转化为肉桂酸,促进黄酮、木质素等次生代谢产物的合成,在植物抗病过程中有重要意义.采用RT-PCR和RACE技术,从马尾松中克隆到PAL基因的cDNA全长.此cDNA全长2 700 bp,包括2 154 bp的完整ORF,编码717个氨基酸的蛋白,相对分子质量与等电点分别为78 200和5.81.其推导的蛋白序列与火炬松(Pinus taeda)、欧洲赤松(Pinus sylvestris)和海岸松(Pinus pinaster)的苯丙氨酸解氨酶同源性分别为98.2%、99.4%和97.8%.

  13. Patterns of biomass and carbon distribution across a chronosequence of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Zhao

    Full Text Available Patterns of biomass and carbon (C storage distribution across Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis natural secondary forests are poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine the biomass and C pools of the major ecosystem components in a replicated age sequence of P. tabulaeformis secondary forest stands in Northern China. Within each stand, biomass of above- and belowground tree, understory (shrub and herb, and forest floor were determined from plot-level investigation and destructive sampling. Allometric equations using the diameter at breast height (DBH were developed to quantify plant biomass. C stocks in the tree and understory biomass, forest floor, and mineral soil (0-100 cm were estimated by analyzing the C concentration of each component. The results showed that the tree biomass of P. tabulaeformis stands was ranged from 123.8 Mg·ha-1 for the young stand to 344.8 Mg·ha-1 for the mature stand. The understory biomass ranged from 1.8 Mg·ha-1 in the middle-aged stand to 3.5 Mg·ha-1 in the young stand. Forest floor biomass increased steady with stand age, ranging from 14.9 to 23.0 Mg·ha-1. The highest mean C concentration across the chronosequence was found in tree branch while the lowest mean C concentration was found in forest floor. The observed C stock of the aboveground tree, shrub, forest floor, and mineral soil increased with increasing stand age, whereas the herb C stock showed a decreasing trend with a sigmoid pattern. The C stock of forest ecosystem in young, middle-aged, immature, and mature stands were 178.1, 236.3, 297.7, and 359.8 Mg C ha-1, respectively, greater than those under similar aged P. tabulaeformis forests in China. These results are likely to be integrated into further forest management plans and generalized in other contexts to evaluate C stocks at the regional scale.

  14. Comparison of tree growth and undergrowth development in aerially seeded and planted Pinus tabulaeformis forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guolei LI; Yong LIU; Lvyi MA; Ruiheng LV; Haiqun YU; Shulan Bai; Yaoyao KANG

    2009-01-01

    Direct seeding is a less expensive practice than planting and has the potential to become a viable alternative to transplanting for afforestation and regeneration purposes. As an effective and a less costly regeneration method, aerial seeding has been applied with several tree species. As early as 1956, Chinese people engaged in aerial seeding and stands with a total of 2.97×107hm2 have been developed up to 2004. Our study tested whether the growth of planted Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) seedlings and its undergrowth development in northwest aspects differ from that of aerially sown seedlings on the northern and northwestern aspects of slopes. In 2007, we collected data such as height, diameter at breast height (DBH), clear bole height and canopy widths of trees, abundance, coverage, and frequency of shrubs and herbs from 21-year-old planted Chinese pine stands on a northwestern aspect (PNW), aerially sown stands in a northwest aspect (ANW) and aerially sown stands in a northern aspect (AN). Results showed that the relation of crown area and mean DBH was best fitted by a double inverse model for the ANW and AN forests and by a quadratic model for the PNW forest. There was no difference in the growth between ANW and AN forests, while growth was significantly higher in the PNW forest than in the ANW and AN forests. That was consistent with the Sorenson diversity indices in the shrub and herb layers, indicating that there was a large number of the same species in both aerially seeded stands, although their locations were different. Both the number of species in the undergrowth and the Shannon-Wiener index in the shrub layer were higher in the PNW stands than in the ANW and AN stands. Dominant families for all three stands were Rosaceae and Compositae in the shrub and herb layer, respectively. The dominant species for all three stands was Spiraea pubescens in the shrub layer, while the dominant species was different from each other in the three stands. The

  15. Patterns of Biomass and Carbon Distribution across a Chronosequence of Chinese Pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luoxin; Yu, Xiaowen; Zhao, Weihong; Song, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Yanlei; Chen, Feng; Sun, Yu; He, Tengfei; Han, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of biomass and carbon (C) storage distribution across Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) natural secondary forests are poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine the biomass and C pools of the major ecosystem components in a replicated age sequence of P. tabulaeformis secondary forest stands in Northern China. Within each stand, biomass of above- and belowground tree, understory (shrub and herb), and forest floor were determined from plot-level investigation and destructive sampling. Allometric equations using the diameter at breast height (DBH) were developed to quantify plant biomass. C stocks in the tree and understory biomass, forest floor, and mineral soil (0–100 cm) were estimated by analyzing the C concentration of each component. The results showed that the tree biomass of P. tabulaeformis stands was ranged from 123.8 Mg·ha–1 for the young stand to 344.8 Mg·ha–1 for the mature stand. The understory biomass ranged from 1.8 Mg·ha–1 in the middle-aged stand to 3.5 Mg·ha–1 in the young stand. Forest floor biomass increased steady with stand age, ranging from 14.9 to 23.0 Mg·ha–1. The highest mean C concentration across the chronosequence was found in tree branch while the lowest mean C concentration was found in forest floor. The observed C stock of the aboveground tree, shrub, forest floor, and mineral soil increased with increasing stand age, whereas the herb C stock showed a decreasing trend with a sigmoid pattern. The C stock of forest ecosystem in young, middle-aged, immature, and mature stands were 178.1, 236.3, 297.7, and 359.8 Mg C ha–1, respectively, greater than those under similar aged P. tabulaeformis forests in China. These results are likely to be integrated into further forest management plans and generalized in other contexts to evaluate C stocks at the regional scale. PMID:24736660

  16. Forest Stand Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for forest stand age were obtained from the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) DataMart and were projected for future scenarios based on selected...

  17. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  18. NEO Test Stand Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Cody J.

    2015-01-01

    A project within SwampWorks is building a test stand to hold regolith to study how dust is ejected when exposed to the hot exhaust plume of a rocket engine. The test stand needs to be analyzed, finalized, and fabrication drawings generated to move forward. Modifications of the test stand assembly were made with Creo 2 modeling software. Structural analysis calculations were developed by hand to confirm if the structure will hold the expected loads while optimizing support positions. These calculations when iterated through MatLab demonstrated the optimized position of the vertical support to be 98'' from the far end of the stand. All remaining deflections were shown to be under the 0.6'' requirement and internal stresses to meet NASA Ground Support Equipment (GSE) Safety Standards. Though at the time of writing, fabrication drawings have yet to be generated, but are expected shortly after.

  19. 乔松Pinus wallichiana与不丹松Pinus bhutanica之初步辨析%A preliminary analysis of the difference between Pinus wallichiana and Pinus bhutanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑维列; 徐阿生

    2003-01-01

    根据最新的文献资料,初步分析了乔松Pinus wallichiana与不丹松Pinus bhutanica在一年生小枝、针叶(主要是树脂道)、球果、种鳞、鳞脐和种子等六个方面的性状区别特征,结合以前对藏东南和藏南地区单维管束松树的调查所掌握的材料,认为不丹松是从乔松中分出来的;它们的分布区存在重叠,但各自构成的群落具有较大的生态学差异;通过性状差异性质的辨析,讨论了不丹松种级地位成立所需的关键特征,初步得出不丹松种级地位难以成立的结论.

  20. Change of the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation by a tree cover of Pinus pinaser; Modificacion de la distribucion temporal y espacial de la precipitacion por una cubierta arborea de Pinus pinaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Suarez, J. A.; Diaz-Fierros, F.; Soto, B.

    2009-07-01

    Throughfall and stem flow volume generation was measured over 1 year period in a Pinus pinaster stand 9 years old. Throughfall was measured using 8 collectors in a fixed position connected to a tipping bucket rainfall gauge in a representative 10 x 10 m plot of the forest and stem flow was measured in three trees using a rubber ring around the trunk connected to a tipping bucket rainfall gauge. The two tipping bucket rainfall gauges was connected to a data logger programmed to record data every 5 minutes. (Author) 4 refs.

  1. Relationship among soil parameters, tree nutrition and site index of Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias, NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afif-Khouri, E.; Camara Obregon, M. A.; Oliveira-Prendes, J. A.; Gorgoso-Varela, J. J.; Canga-Libano, E.

    2010-07-01

    The relationships among soil parameters, tree nutrition and site index were examined in Pinus radiata D. Don stands in a climatically homogeneous area of NW Spain. Thirty-eight even-aged stands, ranging from 10 to 54 years, were sampled. In each stand, a representative plot of 0.1 ha was selected and different stand variables and parent material were considered. The soils in the study area are strongly acidic, with high proportions of organic matter, high C/N ratios, and low exchangeable base cation and available P concentration extracted by Mehlich 3 method (PM3). Although foliar N was sufficient in every stand studied, widespread deficiencies of K, P and, to a lesser extent, Mg and Ca were diagnosed. The foliar concentrations of P were positively correlated with PM3 and effective cation exchange capacity. The SI values ranged between 9.5 and 28.8 m and were positively correlated with foliar P and extractable K in soil. In the stands developed on quartzite and sandstone lithologies, the SI was negatively correlated with slope and foliar N respectively. The results suggest the importance of site selection and fertilizer treatment in reforestation programmes. (Author) 63 refs.

  2. Throughfall in different forest stands of Iperó, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esthevan Augusto Goes Gasparoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In forestry, throughfall (Pi is that fraction of rainfall that runs directly through the tree canopy and reaches the ground. It is characterized as the main source of water supply in a watershed. This study aimed to analyze the dynamics of throughfall in three types of forest stands, namely Eucalyptus cloeziana, Pinus sp. and seasonal semideciduous forest (FES, all located in Ipanema National Forest, in the municipality of Iperó-SP. In each stand, a 300 m² plot was established in which ten rain gauges were installed for monitoring throughfall, and three rain gauges were installed in an open area adjacent to the stand for measuring gross precipitation (P. At the end of 25 observations, it was observed that, relative to P values, Pi values were 76.2% in semideciduous forest (FES, 85.1% in E.cloeziana forest and 84.0% in Pinus sp forest. In addition, comparing these stands, a larger leaf canopy coverage and consequently greater capability for water retention was noted in the semideciduous forest. However, no statistical differences were observed (P<0.05 between the stands of interest regarding throughfall.

  3. Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko & Sutton - agents of pinus species decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage is caused on the introduced Pinus species and on those cultivated in artificial plantations, shelterbelts and in urban environments. In Yugoslavia S. sapinea is widely distributed both in the continental and in the Mediterranean parts. It was identified from ten pine species and six hosts from other coniferous genera. By the study in our country, the new hosts of this fungus were detected - Pinus jeffrey, P. peuce and P. heldreichii. The most endangered species in our country is Austrian pine, both in urban environments, and in plantations The symptoms of the disease are bud wilt, curling, stunting and necrosis of current year shoots and needles, dieback of top shoots, parts of crown or tree tops, branch and stem bark canker, root collar rot on the young plants in nurseries and their dying. This fungus also prevents seed germination of Pinus species and causes blue sap stain of the freshly cut wood, although sap stain was also observed on standing trees. More rarely it causes root rot and crown wilt of Pinus species. The main symptoms of infection, both of young plants and older trees, are the dieback of current year shoots S. sapinea can penetrate through buds, bark of young shoots and needles. The critical time of infection is the period from mid April to mid May. Then infection mainly penetrates through the bark of young shoots, which results in their dying. Infection through the needles occurs mainly at the time of their sudden growth or during summer

  4. An integrated assessment approach to optimal forest bioenergy production for young Scots pine stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjian Cao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Bioenergy is re-shaping opportunities and imperatives of forest management. This study demonstrates, through a case study in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., how forest bioenergy policies affect stand management strategies. Methods Optimization studies were examined for 15 Scots pine stands of different initial stand densities, site types, and temperature sum regions in Finland. Stand development was modelled using the PipeQual stand simulator coupled with the simulation-optimization tool OptiFor Bioenergy to assess three forest bioenergy policies on energy wood harvest from early thinnings. Results The optimal solutions maximizing bare land value indicate that conventional forest management regimes remain optimal for sparse stands. Energy harvests occurred only when profitable, led to lower financial returns. A forest bioenergy policy which included compulsory energy wood harvesting was optimal for denser stands. At a higher interest rate (4 %, increasing energy wood price postponed energy wood harvesting. In addition, our results show that early thinning somewhat reduced wood quality for stands in fertile sites. For less fertile sites, the changes were insignificant. Conclusions A constraint of profitable energy wood harvest is not rational. It is optimal to carry out the first thinning with a flexible forest bioenergy policy depending on stand density.

  5. An integrated assessment approach to optimal forest bioenergy production for young Scots pine stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianjian; Cao; Kari; Hyyti?inen; Henna; Hurttala; Lauri; Valsta; Jerome; K.Vanclay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bioenergy is re-shaping opportunities and imperatives of forest management. This study demonstrates,through a case study in Scots pine(Pinus sylvestris L.), how forest bioenergy policies affect stand management strategies.Methods: Optimization studies were examined for 15 Scots pine stands of different initial stand densities, site types, and temperature sum regions in Finland. Stand development was model ed using the Pipe Qual stand simulator coupled with the simulation-optimization tool Opti For Bioenergy to assess three forest bioenergy policies on energy wood harvest from early thinnings.Results: The optimal solutions maximizing bare land value indicate that conventional forest management regimes remain optimal for sparse stands. Energy harvests occurred only when profitable, led to lower financial returns. A forest bioenergy policy which included compulsory energy wood harvesting was optimal for denser stands. At a higher interest rate(4 %), increasing energy wood price postponed energy wood harvesting. In addition, our results show that early thinning somewhat reduced wood quality for stands in fertile sites. For less fertile sites, the changes were insignificant.Conclusions: A constraint of profitable energy wood harvest is not rational. It is optimal to carry out the first thinning with a flexible forest bioenergy policy depending on stand density.

  6. Making a stand: five centuries of population growth in colonizing populations of Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Mark R; Jackson, Stephen T

    2012-05-01

    The processes underlying the development of new populations are important for understanding how species colonize new territory and form viable long-term populations. Life-history-mediated processes such as Allee effects and dispersal capability may interact with climate variability and site-specific factors to govern population success and failure over extended time frames. We studied four disjunct populations of ponderosa pine in the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming to examine population growth spanning more than five centuries. The study populations are separated from continuous ponderosa pine forest by distances ranging from 15 to >100 km. Strong evidence indicates that the initial colonizing individuals are still present, yielding a nearly complete record of population history. All trees in each population were aged using dendroecological techniques. The populations were all founded between 1530 and 1655 cal yr CE. All show logistic growth patterns, with initial exponential growth followed by a slowing during the mid to late 20th century. Initial population growth was slower than expectations from a logistic regression model at all four populations, but increased during the mid-18th century. Initial lags in population growth may have been due to strong Allee effects. A combination of overcoming Allee effects and a transition to favorable climate conditions may have facilitated a mid-18th century pulse in population growth rate.

  7. [Pollen quality of Pinus pithyusa Stev. in natural stands of the South Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba, V P

    2005-01-01

    Results of long-term research of germination rate, vitality and dynamics of in vitro growth of P. pithyusa pollen are shown. Dynamics of pollen quality under the action of external factors has been defined.

  8. Estimating Wood Volume for Pinus Brutia Trees in Forest Stands from QUICKBIRD-2 Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patias, Petros; Stournara, Panagiota

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of forest parameters, such as wood volume, is required for a sustainable forest management. Collecting such information in the field is laborious and even not feasible in inaccessible areas. In this study, tree wood volume is estimated utilizing remote sensing techniques, which can facilitate the extraction of relevant information. The study area is the University Forest of Taxiarchis, which is located in central Chalkidiki, Northern Greece and covers an area of 58km2. The tree species under study is the conifer evergreen species P. brutia (Calabrian pine). Three plot surfaces of 10m radius were used. VHR Quickbird-2 images are used in combination with an allometric relationship connecting the Tree Crown with the Diameter at breast height (Dbh), and a volume table developed for Greece. The overall methodology is based on individual tree crown delineation, based on (a) the marker-controlled watershed segmentation approach and (b) the GEographic Object-Based Image Analysis approach. The aim of the first approach is to extract separate segments each of them including a single tree and eventual lower vegetation, shadows, etc. The aim of the second approach is to detect and remove the "noisy" background. In the application of the first approach, the Blue, Green, Red, Infrared and PCA-1 bands are tested separately. In the application of the second approach, NDVI and image brightness thresholds are utilized. The achieved results are evaluated against field plot data. Their observed difference are between -5% to +10%.

  9. A Pine Is a Pine and a Spruce Is a Spruce--The Effect of Tree Species and Stand Age on Epiphytic Lichen Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bäcklund

    Full Text Available With an increasing demand for forest-based products, there is a growing interest in introducing fast-growing non-native tree species in forest management. Such introductions often have unknown consequences for native forest biodiversity. In this study, we examine epiphytic lichen species richness and species composition on the trunks of non-native Pinus contorta and compare these to the native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in managed boreal forests in northern Sweden across a chronosequence of age classes. Overall, we recorded a total of 66,209 lichen occurrences belonging to 57 species in the 96 studied forest stands. We found no difference in species richness of lichens between stands of P. contorta and P. sylvestris, but stands of P. abies had higher total species richness. However, species richness of lichens in stands of P. abies decreased with increasing stand age, while no such age effect was detected for P. contorta and P. sylvestris. Lichen species composition progressively diverged with increasing stand age, and in 30-year-old stands all three tree species showed species-specific assemblages. Epiphytic lichen assemblages in stands of 30-year-old P. contorta were influenced by greater basal area, canopy closure, and average diameter at breast height, P. abies stands by higher branch density and canopy closure, and stands of P. sylvestris by greater bark crevice depth. Differences in lichen species richness and composition were mainly explained by canopy closure and habitat availability, and the greater canopy closure in mature P. abies stands promoted the colonization and growth of calicioid lichen species. Our results indicate that the non-native P. contorta have similar species richness as the native P. sylvestris. The main difference in lichen species richness and composition is between P. abies and Pinus spp. in managed forests of boreal Sweden.

  10. A Pine Is a Pine and a Spruce Is a Spruce--The Effect of Tree Species and Stand Age on Epiphytic Lichen Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäcklund, Sofia; Jönsson, Mari; Strengbom, Joachim; Frisch, Andreas; Thor, Göran

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing demand for forest-based products, there is a growing interest in introducing fast-growing non-native tree species in forest management. Such introductions often have unknown consequences for native forest biodiversity. In this study, we examine epiphytic lichen species richness and species composition on the trunks of non-native Pinus contorta and compare these to the native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in managed boreal forests in northern Sweden across a chronosequence of age classes. Overall, we recorded a total of 66,209 lichen occurrences belonging to 57 species in the 96 studied forest stands. We found no difference in species richness of lichens between stands of P. contorta and P. sylvestris, but stands of P. abies had higher total species richness. However, species richness of lichens in stands of P. abies decreased with increasing stand age, while no such age effect was detected for P. contorta and P. sylvestris. Lichen species composition progressively diverged with increasing stand age, and in 30-year-old stands all three tree species showed species-specific assemblages. Epiphytic lichen assemblages in stands of 30-year-old P. contorta were influenced by greater basal area, canopy closure, and average diameter at breast height, P. abies stands by higher branch density and canopy closure, and stands of P. sylvestris by greater bark crevice depth. Differences in lichen species richness and composition were mainly explained by canopy closure and habitat availability, and the greater canopy closure in mature P. abies stands promoted the colonization and growth of calicioid lichen species. Our results indicate that the non-native P. contorta have similar species richness as the native P. sylvestris. The main difference in lichen species richness and composition is between P. abies and Pinus spp. in managed forests of boreal Sweden.

  11. Amounts and spatial distribution of downed woody debris, snags, windthrow, and forest floor mass within streamside management zones occurring in shortleaf pine stands five years after harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal Liechty

    2007-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is a dominant tree species in pine and pine-hardwood forest communities located on ridges and upper- to mid-slope positions in the Ouachita Mountains. The stream reaches located in these stands flow infrequently and are classified as ephemeral or intermittent, have low stream orders, and have relatively narrow...

  12. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Danusevičius; Vitas Marozas; Gediminas Brazaitis; Raimundas Petrokas; Knud Ib Christensen

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylv...

  13. Development and Characterisation of Irap Markers From Expressed Retrotransposon-like sequences in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronova Angelika

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conifer genomes are large and stably diploid, in contrast to angiosperms, which are more variable both in genome size and ploidy. Conifer genomes are characterised by multiple gene families and pseudogenes, contain large inter-gene regions and a considerable proportion of repetitive sequences. All members of plant retrotransposon orders have been identified in gymnosperm genomes, however active elements have not been described. Investigation of transposable elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. could offer insights into transposon-mediated reorganisation under stress conditions in complex and ancient plant genomes. Nine Pinus sylvestris specific markers were developed to hypothetical long terminal repeats (LTRs from differentially expressed retrotransposon-like fragments after heat stress and insect damage. Genetic diversity of 150 trees from a naturally regenerated pine stand was investigated using the IRAP method. The developed markers revealed high levels of genetic diversity and were able to distinguish subpopulations growing in long-term differential environmental conditions. Somaclonal variation was also investigated using these markers and polymorphic fragments were identified between ramets of Scots pine clones growing in two different plantations, possibly indicating evidence of recent transposition events. Sequencing of the polymorphic fragments identified two groups of sequences containing LTR sequences of an unknown retrotransposon with homology to the LTRs of the Copia-17-PAb-I element.

  14. Abundance, diversity, and vitality of mycorrhizae of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in lignite recultivation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzenberger, B; Golldack, J; Ullrich, A; Schmincke, B; Hüttl, R F

    2004-07-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands cover large areas in the Lusatian and the Middle German lignite mining districts. Due to adverse chemical substrate conditions, the root systems of the trees are restricted to the ameliorated top-spoil and the organic forest floor layers. To investigate functioning of fine root systems under the prevailing site factors, we studied mycorrhizal colonization rate and frequency as well as mycorrhizal diversity, vitality and growth phases in Scots pine ecosystems along a chronosequence in both mining districts. Mycorrhizal rate was close to 100% in both districts. Mycorrhizal abundance was higher in the organic forest floor layer than the mineral soil layer. In total, 25 morphotypes were recorded. Diversity differed between the districts. The mycorrhizae of Amphinema byssoides, Tuber puberulum, Pinirhiza discolor, Pinirhiza cf. bicolorata and E-type were present in both mining areas. These morphotypes are typical of nutrient-rich soils with high pH values. Compared with the undisturbed sites, vitality of mycorrhizae was very high at the test sites on spoil substrate, correlating with the high growth dynamics of mycorrhizae at recultivation sites. A relatively high carbon flow to the mycorrhizal root systems at these sites seems likely. Thus, mycorrhizal root systems are able to cope with the ameliorated top-spoil and the organic layer. The main reason for the adaptation is the large number of ectomycorrhizal fungal species available in this area where Pinus sylvestris is indigenous.

  15. PPT Thrust Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    A torsional-type thrust stand has been designed and built to test Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT's) in both single shot and repetitive operating modes. Using this stand, momentum per pulse was determined strictly as a function of thrust stand deflection, spring constant, and natural frequency. No empirical corrections were required. The accuracy of the method was verified using a swinging impact pendulum. Momentum transfer data between the thrust stand and the pendulum were consistent to within 1%. Following initial calibrations, the stand was used to test a Lincoln Experimental Satellite (LES-8/9) thruster. The LES-8/9 system had a mass of approximately 7.5 kg, with a nominal thrust to weight ratio of 1.3 x 10(exp -5). A total of 34 single shot thruster pulses were individually measured. The average impulse bit per pulse was 266 microN-s, which was slightly less than the value of 300 microN-s published in previous reports on this device. Repetitive pulse measurements were performed similar to ordinary steady-state thrust measurements. The thruster was operated for 30 minutes at a repetition rate of 132 pulses per minute and yielded an average thrust of 573 microN. Using average thrust, the average impulse bit per pulse was estimated to be 260 microN-s, which was in agreement with the single shot data. Zero drift during the repetitive pulse test was found to be approximately 1% of the measured thrust.

  16. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

  17. Evidence for potential impacts of ozone on Pinus cembra L. at mountain sites in Europe: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, G. [Division Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Bundesamt und Forschungszentrum fuer Wald, Rennweg 1, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]. E-mail: gerhard.wieser@uibk.ac.at; Manning, W.J. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amsherst, MA 01003 (United States); Tausz, M. [Institute of Plant Sciences, Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, 8010 Graz (Austria); School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, University of Melbourne, Water Street, Creswick Victoria 3363 (Australia); Bytnerowicz, A. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside (United States)

    2006-01-15

    We summarize what is known about the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on Pinus cembra in the timberline ecotone of the central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains. In the central European Alps exposure to ambient and two-fold ambient O{sub 3} throughout one growing season did neither cause any visible injury nor affect the photosynthetic machinery and biochemical parameters in current to 1-year-old needles. By contrast, in the southern French Alps and in the Carpathians 1-year-old needles of Pinus cembra trees showed visual symptoms similar to those observed in O{sub 3} stressed pine stands in southern California. For the southern French Alps the observed symptoms could clearly be attributed O{sub 3} and differences in O{sub 3} uptake seems to be the likely key factor for explaining the observed decline. For the Carpathians however, other reasons such as drought may not be excluded in eliciting the observed symptoms. Thus, the action of O{sub 3} has always to be evaluated in concert with other environmental impacts, determining the tree's sensitivity to stress. - An overview of ozone effects on Pinus cembra an important European coniferous tree species in the timberline ecotone.

  18. Efeitos econômicos de diferentes programas de desbaste em povoamentos de pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Spathelf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different thinning programs (light thinning, medium and heavy thinning on the internal rate of return was studied in stands of Pinus elliottii. The sampled stands were planted in 1976 with an inicial spacing of 2 x 2 m. Thinning intensity was expressed by the stand density index of Reinecke (SDI. Thinned volume was determined using the assortment tables of SCHNEIDER & OESTEN (1991 and costs/prices of the year 1998 of the Association of Forest Enterprises of Rio Grande do Sul (AGEFLOR. The highest internal rate of return was obtained with a light thinning with a rotation length of 15 years and an initial density of 2500 trees. The lowest internal rate of return resulted from a light thinning, but in 45 years and with an initial density of 1500 trees. In general, the internal rate of return diminished with increasing rotation length. A sensitivity analysis showed that timber price was the most sensitive variable to influence profitability.

  19. Soil Enzyme Activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére Plantations in Northern China

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    Weiwei Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn following harvesting at two depths in the mineral soil (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm. Invertase and urease increased significantly with time since thinning. Catalase activity was highest in the 24-year-old stand and there were no statistically significant differences between the 32- and 40-year-old stands. In addition, maximum invertase, urease, catalase, and phenol oxidase activities occurred during the summer; minimum activities occurred in autumn. Invertase and urease were positively correlated with each other, as were catalase and phenol oxidase. Most soil enzyme activity was higher in the 0–10 cm layer than at the 10–20 cm depth. As time from thinning increased, differences among soil depth became less significant. These results suggest that seasonal changes of these enzymes have different roles, as the time since thinning and thinning treatments may have both short- and long-term impacts on soil microbial activity.

  20. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal

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    Prabodh Satyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. Objective: To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Results: GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5% and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3% as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1% and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%. The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL. The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL. Conclusion: The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  1. RHIZOGENIC RESPONSE OF PINUS MAXIMARTINEZII RZEDOWSKI

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    M. C. Ojeda-Zacaría

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El piñón azul o maxi piñónPinus maximartineziiRzedowski es una especie endémica en peligro de extinción debido a la alteración de sus poblaciones en su hábitat natural y que ha sobrevivido a una restricción genética extrema, además es considerado el más raro de los pinos piñoneros. En este trabajo se evaluó la respuesta rizogénica de brotes dePinus maximartinezii, obtenidos a partir de embriones cigóticos regenerado vía organogénesis, los cuales se sometieron a tratamientos de enraizamientoin vitro. La mayor respuesta de enraizamiento se presentó con pulso de 24 h en presencia de 2.0 mg L-1 de IBA en los medios de cultivo DCR, GD y MS, al 100 y 50% de su concentración original más 0.5% de carbón activado por L-1. Después de ocho semanas se evaluó la variable conforme al número de brotes con raíces, la prueba de X2 mostró que el enraizamiento es independiente de los medios de cultivo así como la concentración de los mismos y dependiente al tiempos de pulso. La formación de raíces obtenidas en los brotes permite proponer esta especie con capacidad para ser propagadain vitro.

  2. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%).

  3. Standing equine sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakzai, Safia Z; Dixon, Padraic M

    2014-04-01

    Trephination of the equine sinuses is a common surgical procedure in sedated standing horses. Standing sinus flap surgery has become increasingly popular in equine referral hospitals and offers several advantages over sinusotomy performed under general anesthesia, including reduced patient-associated risks and costs; less intraoperative hemorrhage, allowing better visualization of the operative site; and allows surgeons to take their time. Other minimally invasive surgical procedures include sinoscopic surgery, balloon sinuplasty, and transnasal laser sinonasal fenestration. Despite the procedure used, appropriate indications for surgery, good patient selection, and familiarity with regional anatomy and surgical techniques are imperative for good results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15762-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9 Root cold Pinus taeda cDNA c... 46 6.7 1 ( CO166910 ) FLD1_65_A02.g1_A029 Root flood...ed Pinus taeda cDNA... 46 6.7 1 ( CO161061 ) FLD1_26_H12.b1_A029 Root flooded Pinus taeda cDNA... 46 6.

  5. Post-effects of long-term water drougth in Mediterranean pine stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghetti M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were carried out on the effects of imposed water shortage in two Mediterranean pine stands growing in Southern Italy. The impact of a severe reduction in water availability on the growth of 50-year old Pinus halepensis trees (growing along the Ionian coast of Puglia, experiment 1 and 35-year-old Pinus laricio trees growing in Sila (Calabria Region, experiment 2 were studied. The experimental effects were followed for 12 months in experiment 1 and for 36 months in experiment 2, comparing covered plots and uncovered control plots. The experiment was carried out on plants of the same plots, to check if long-term water shortage caused post-effects on their growth. This research aimed to investigate what pines suffer during last years, considering the beginning of possible long-term effect on these pine forests. The results were different for the species. After treatment, the reduction of radial growth Pinus halepensis covered plants was observed, while a positive trend of growth of control trees was observed. A recovering of both covered and control Pinus laricio trees growth was observed.

  6. Establishing Pine Monocultures and Mixed Pine-Hardwood Stands on Reclaimed Surface Mined Land in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for Forest Resilience in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Bell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface mining and mine reclamation practices have caused significant forest loss and forest fragmentation in Appalachia. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata is threatened by a variety of stresses, including diseases, pests, poor management, altered fire regimes, and climate change, and the species is the subject of a widescale restoration effort. Surface mines may present opportunity for shortleaf pine restoration; however, the survival and growth of shortleaf pine on these harsh sites has not been critically evaluated. This paper presents first-year survival and growth of native shortleaf pine planted on a reclaimed surface mine, compared to non-native loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, which has been highly successful in previous mined land reclamation plantings. Pine monoculture plots are also compared to pine-hardwood polyculture plots to evaluate effects of planting mix on tree growth and survival, as well as soil health. Initial survival of shortleaf pine is low (42%, but height growth is similar to that of loblolly pine. No differences in survival or growth were observed between monoculture and polyculture treatments. Additional surveys in coming years will address longer-term growth and survival patterns of these species, as well as changes to relevant soil health endpoints, such as soil carbon.

  7. Blower test stand; Luftleistungspruefstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-04-01

    Blowers move air, but how much air? Extensive measurements are required for assessing blower performance in terms of the actual air flow volume. The most precise results are obtained in a test stand. [German] Luefter bewegen Luft. Aber wie viel wird tatsaechlich bewegt? Fuer die Bestimmung der tatsaechlichen Luftfoerderleistung ist ein grosser Messaufwand notwendig, die praezisesten Ergebnisse bringt ein Luftleistungsmessstand. (orig.)

  8. Principles of managing stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Marquis; Rodney Jacobs

    1989-01-01

    Forest stands are managed to achieve some combination of desired products or values. These products or values may include income and tangible benefits from timber production or fees for hunting rights and other recreational activities. The values may be intangible, such as the enjoyment of seeing wildlife or flowering plants, or the simple satisfaction of knowing that...

  9. Ecological effects of lawn greens with pure and mixed stands in an urban setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaomei LIU; Shuhua LI; Zhiguo ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    We studied the ecological benefits of four types of urban green spaces (lawn, a Robinia pseudoacacia stand, a Pinus tabulaeformis stand and a mixed stand of both species) in Yuan Dynasty Wall Relics Park, Beijing. Each of the eight sampling sites was about 0.1 hm2. The experiment was carried out in June, 2006 over a period of eight consecutive days, during which we continuously measured air temperature, relative humidity (RH) and wind speed at the four green spaces in both horizontal and vertical directions. The results were as follows: in the horizontal direction, the all-day average temperature at the pine stand was the lowest and its RH was the highest under three different climate conditions. During the day-time high temperature period, the temperature of the lawn was the highest and its RH the lowest. The temperature was lowest for the mixed stand, and the RH was highest for the pine stand. The highest average daily temperature occurred in the locust stand. The temperature and RH of the four green spaces were statistically different at the 0.05 level of significance. In the vertical direction, the average daily temperature of the four green spaces increased with height. The average daily RH of the four-green spaces decreased slightly with increased height. During the high temperature period of the day, the average temperature of the lawn and the P. tabulaeformis stand declined with the increased height, but the temperature at the R. pseudoa-caeia stand and the mixed P. tabulaeformis-R, pseudoaca-cia stand fluctuated greatly. With regard to the effect of lowering the wind speed, the mixed stand was better than the other green spaces. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the mixed Chinese pine and locust stand was the best choice for the establishment of urban green spaces.

  10. Appropriate density of water and soil conservation of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia forests in loess area, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun ZHANG; Chengliang ZHANG; Wei HE; Lei NA

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on a long-term monitor-ing of water cycle in the water and soil conservation forest stands of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseu-doacacia, the soil moisture deficit is calculated. Following the principles of runoff-collecting forestry and applying the forest structure investigation results, the authors developed a formula to calculate appropriate density for forests on the basis of different diameters at breast height (DBH). Using this method to manage forests, the natural water requirement of forests can be met and soil drought can be avoided. In addition, with long-term monitoring of soil moisture in stands, the authors also give an appropriate managing density specifically for the water and soil conservation forests of P.tabulaeformis and R.pseudoacacia in the loess area which is according to soil moisture content,or with the lowest soil moisture content and invalid moisture frequency as the indexes.

  11. Phytosociology, structure and dynamics of Pinus roxburghii associations from Northern Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasrullah Khan; Kishwar Ali; Shahid Shaukat

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the phytosociology, structure and dynamics of Pinus roxburghii in 40 stands in northern areas of Pakistan by using cluster analysis (Ward’s agglomerative clustering) and ordination (Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling). Cluster analysis revealed three major groups associated with specific environmental characteristics: (1) P. roxburghii (2) Pinus-Quercus baloot and (3) Pinus-Olea ferruginea community types. NMS-ordination showed the major gradient as an amalgam of elevation (r2=0.441, p<0.01) and slope (r2=0.391, p<0.05) as the two topographic factors correlated with species distribution. The first ordination axis also showed positive correlation with soil variables like pH and electrical conductivity, suggesting that soil chemistry was related to topographic characteristics and probably acted as a secondary gradient. We also examined size class distributions, age structures and growth rates of the three communities in order to describe community development and dynamics. Total tree density was 14700 plants/ha, with P. roxburghii having a relative density of 82%to 100%. Density of juve-nile and total density and basal area of the subordinate tree species were low. The low density of trees in the smallest diameter size-class sug-gested that the recruitment of small P. roxburghii plants into the adult population may be lower than the required replacement rate for the stands. Pooled size-class distributions for the species showed a multimo-dal pattern with some regeneration gaps. Browsing, heavy logging and other anthropogenic activities were the overriding factors responsible for the poor recruitment of P. roxburghii. We concluded from the age struc-ture that the forests were characterized by the dominance of young trees. Growth rate analysis revealed that P. roxburghii was the fastest growing species among the conifers species in Pakistan. In view of its relatively fast growth and longevity, P. roxburghii seems to be a suitable choice for short

  12. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

    OpenAIRE

    Nacide Kizildag; Husniye Aka Sagliker; Ahu Kutlay; Sahin Cenkseven; Cengiz Darici

    2012-01-01

    Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the...

  13. Pinus monophylla establishment in an expanding Pinus-Juniperus woodland: Environmental conditions, facilitation and interacting factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Jeanne C. [USDA Forest Service, Reno, NV (United States). Rocky Mountain Research Station

    2001-02-01

    The tree species comprising Pinus-Juniperus woodlands are rapidly expanding into shrub-grasslands throughout their range. Observational studies indicate that establishment is facilitated by nurse plants, but little information exists on the mechanisms involved. I examined both abiotic and biotic factors influencing Pinus monophylla establishment in Artemisia tridentata steppe with expanding populations of P. monophylla and Juniperus osteosperma. I also examined the effects of seed burial and predation on seedling establishment. Microhabitats under trees and shrubs had higher extractable P and K, higher organic matter, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity than interspace microhabitats. Soil water contents (0-15 cm) were lower in interspaces than under shrubs or trees due to dry surface (0-5 cm) soils. Soil temperatures (at 1 and 15 cm) were lowest under trees, intermediate under shrubs, and highest in interspaces. Timing and rate of seedling emergence were temperature dependent with the order of emergence paralleling mean growing season temperatures: tree interspace = shrub interspace > under shrub > under Juniperus {>=} under Pinus. Seed burial was required for rooting and the highest emergence occurred from depths of 1 and 3 cm indicating that caching by birds and rodents is essential and that animals bury seeds at adequate if not optimal depths for emergence. Seedlings required micro-environmental modification for survival; all seedlings, including those that emerged from seeds and transplants, died within the first year in interspace microhabitats. Survival in under-tree or under-shrub microhabitats depended on soil water availability and corresponded closely to soil water contents over the 3-yr study. Under-shrub microhabitats had more favourable soil and micro-environmental characteristics than under-tree microhabitats and had the highest seedling life spans for the first-year seedling cohort. Predation of Pinus seedlings by rodents was a significant

  14. Micro-environmental changes induced by shape and size of forest openings: effects on Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi seedlings performance in a Pinus contorta plantation of Patagonia, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafundi, L.; Urretavizcaya, M.F.; Defosse, G.E.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: to analyze, within a Pinus contorta plantation, the effects of artificially created small rectangular and small medium circular canopy gaps on: i) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and soil temperature and moisture, and ii) survival and growth of planted Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi seedlings, species which formerly composed the natural forest of the area. Study area: A 2 ha stand of a Pinus contorta stand in Los Alerces National Park, Argentina (42°43’S, 71°43’W, 490 m.a.s.l.). Material and methods: The Pinus contorta stand was 25 yr old, 22 m height and 26 cm DBH, presenting 1000 trees ha-1 of density and 53 m2 ha-1 of basal area. In 2009, rectangular and circular gaps were created within the stand and then seedlings were planted. During two growing seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012), PAR, soil temperature and moisture were measured in gaps and understory (control), and seedling survival and growth in gaps. Main results: During both seasons, soil temperature did not differ among gaps and control, whereas PAR and soil moisture were lower in control than in gaps. Seedling survival was high in all gaps regardless of species and season. Seedlings showed higher diameter growth in rectangular than in circular gaps. Research highlights: Austrocedrus chilensis and N. dombeyi seedlings survival is high and their growth slightly affected, when planted in differently-sized canopy gaps within a Pinus contorta plantation in Patagonia. However, other gap sizes and stand densities should be tested before recommending which one shows better results for reconverting monocultures into former native forests. Abbreviations used: PAR (Photosynthetic Active Radiation); DBH (Diameter at Breast Height); INTA (Argentinean Institute of Agricultural Technology); IFONA (Argentinean Forest Institute). (Author)

  15. Get up, Stand up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Ignorance about dyslexia meant a miserable school experience for Barrie Hughes. He was in his 50s when he found the courage to stand up in front of a classroom of learners and admit he couldn't read. Barrie, who is now 59 and works for the parks department of Brighton and Hove Council, only began to learn how to read words in the last three years…

  16. Stand der Informationswissenschaft 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Kaden

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wandelnde Rahmenbedingungen stellen die Informationswissenschaft vor vielfältige Herausforderungen. So scheinen zwar digitale Technologien jedoch nicht deren Folgewirkungen auf die Disziplin und ihre Methoden in der Wechselbeziehung zur Gesellschaft umfassend berücksichtigt. Der Artikel dokumentiert die zähe Diskussion um den Stand und die Zukunft der Informationswissenschaft in Deutschland und formuliert Thesen zur Weiterentwicklung des Faches. Weiterhin werden Reaktionen auf diese Thesen in Clustern zusammengefasst und ein sich an diesen ausgerichteter Workshop dokumentiert.

  17. Energy and water balance of two contrasting loblolly pine plantations on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sun; A. Noormets; M.J. Gavazzi; S.G. McNulty; J. Chen; J.-C. King Domec; D.M. Amatya; R.W. Skaggs

    2010-01-01

    During 2005–2007, we used the eddy covariance and associated hydrometric methods to construct energy and water budgets along a chronosequence of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations that included a mid-rotation stand (LP) (i.e., 13–15 years old) and a recently established stand on a clearcut site (CC) (i.e., 4–6 years old) in Eastern...

  18. Point processes statistics of stable isotopes: analysing water uptake patterns in a mixed stand of Aleppo pine and Holm oak

    OpenAIRE

    Carles Comas; Jorge del Castillo,; Jordi Voltas; Juan Pedro Ferrio

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: Understanding inter- and intra-specific competition for water is crucial in drought-prone environments. However, little is known about the spatial interdependencies for water uptake among individuals in mixed stands. The aim of this work was to compare water uptake patterns during a drought episode in two common Mediterranean tree species, Quercus ilex L. and Pinus halepensis Mill., using the isotope composition of xylem water (δ18O, δ2 H) as hydrological marker. ...

  19. Multi-Purpose Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Multi-Purpose Test Stand is used for a wide variety of tests. The Stand is designed to be rotated through a range of fixed yaw positions to allow engines to be...

  20. Multi-Purpose Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Multi-Purpose Test Stand is used for a wide variety of tests. The Stand is designed to be rotated through a range of fixed yaw positions to allow engines to be...

  1. Seed source variation and conservation of Pinus wallichiana in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thapliyal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks is an important component of the middleand high altitude Himalayan forests having large natural distribution ranging between 260 to 360 N latitude and 690 to 750 E longitudes. It is commonly known as Himalayan blue pine or blue pine, being indigenous to Himalayan Mountain regions and because of its bluish or grayish-green leaves. It is a five needle pine which gained world-wide attention for its resistance to blister rust among white pines. This species has been crossed successfully with other white pines and vigorous hybrids have been obtained. Considerable variation in morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles, cones and seeds in natural stands exists across the natural distribution of the species, especially in mesic and xeric habitats. These variationssuggested the differentiation of this species in ecotypes or varieties as reported by various authors. However, the level of genetic diversity was found to be relatively high and the degree of genetic differentiation was low compared to other pines. Thewide range of climatic conditions in the natural distribution of this pine is expected to result in high genetic variation within different populations of the species. The study aims to determine the nature and extent of variation present in the populations of the species in respect to cone and seed characteristics across its natural distribution. Seed of 17 seed sources from the states of Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh was collected and analyzed for cone characters (fresh weight of cones, cone length, cone width, specific gravity and seed characters (seed weight, moisture content, germination percent, cotyledon number. Significant variations have beenobserved in these traits among different seed sources of the species. The cone weight varied from 44.4 to114g and the higher cone weight was recorded at higher altitudes.The germination percent varied from 40 to 85 whereas cotyledon number varied from 7

  2. Seed source variation and conservation of Pinus wallichiana in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Thapliyal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks is an important component of the middle and high altitude Himalayan forests having large natural distribution ranging between 260 to 360 N latitude and 690 to 750 E longitudes. It is commonly known as Himalayan blue pine or blue pine, being indigenous to Himalayan Mountain regions and because of its bluish or grayish-green leaves. It is a five needle pine which gained world-wide attention for its resistance to blister rust among white pines. This species has been crossed successfully with other white pines and vigorous hybrids have been obtained. Considerable variation in morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles, cones and seeds in natural stands exists across the natural distribution of the species, especially in mesic and xeric habitats. These variations suggested the differentiation of this species in ecotypes or varieties as reported by various authors. However, the level of genetic diversity was found to be relatively high and the degree of genetic differentiation was low compared to other pines. The wide range of climatic conditions in the natural distribution of this pine is expected to result in high genetic variation within different populations of the species. The study aims to determine the nature and extent of variation present in the populations of the species in respect to cone and seed characteristics across its natural distribution. Seed of 17 seed sources from the states of Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh was collected and analyzed for cone characters (fresh weight of cones, cone length, cone width, specific gravity and seed characters (seed weight, moisture content, germination percent, cotyledon number. Significant variations have been observed in these traits among different seed sources of the species. The cone weight varied from 44.4 to114g and the higher cone weight was recorded at higher altitudes. The germination percent varied from 40 to 85 whereas cotyledon number varied

  3. by Pinus virginiana in Mine Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenise M. Bauman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of planting sites on the establishment and ectomycorrhizal (ECM colonization of American chestnut (Castanea denetata (Marsh. Borkh. on an abandoned coal mine in an Appalachian region of the United States. Root morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region were used to identify the ECM species associated with the chestnut seedlings. Germination, survival, ECM root colonization, and growth were assessed in three habitats: forest edge, center (plots without vegetation, and pine plots (a 10-year-old planting of Pinus virginiana. Seedlings in pine plots had higher survival (38% than the other plot types (center 9% and forest edge 5%; P=0.007. Chestnuts found colonized by ECM within the pine plots were larger (P=0.02, contributed by a larger root system (P=0.03. Forest edge and pine plots had more ECM roots than seedlings in center plots (P=0.04. ITS fungal sequences and morphotypes found among chestnut and pine matched Scleroderma, Thelephora, and Pisolithus suggesting these two plant species shared ECM symbionts. Results indicated that the presence of P. virginiana had a greater facilitative effect on growth and survival of chestnut seedlings.

  4. Short Communication. Restoring monoculture plantation using stand spatial structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. To improve the quality of monoculture plantations in China.Area of study. structure-based forest management was conducted in Rocky Mountain Area of Northern China.Material and Methods. Stand spatial structure indicators of mingling degree, uniform angle index, neighborhood comparison and opening degree were comparably investigated to understand the changes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantations.Main results. The results indicated that structure-based forest management accounted for 0.403 and 0.448 of the significant variations in mingling degree and opening degree increments, and had no essential changes in uniform angle index and neighborhood comparison. Structure-based forest management is greatly beneficial to plantation quality, and it can be a source of improvement on stand structure.Research highlights. This improved information is essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on how best to restore degraded forests in China as well as the rest of the world.Key words: monoculture plantation; structure-based forest management; stand spatial structure; forest restoration

  5. [Litterfalls of major forest stands at Baiyunshan scenic spot of Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shucai; Su, Zhiyao; Gu, Yankun; Xie, Zhengsheng; Liu, Yuexiu

    2003-01-01

    The productions, seasonal dynamics, macronutrient contents and decomposition rates of the litterfalls of four typical stands, e.g., Pinus massoniana plantation, secondary evergreen broadleaved forest, Acacia mangium plantation and Schima superba-Acacia mangium plantation at the scenic Baiyunshan of Guangzhou were studied. The litterfall productions of four stands in 1998 were 8.34, 6.77, 6.31 and 11.54 t.hm-2, respectively. The seasonal dynamics of litterfall amounts demonstrated the single-peak model with the peak period in June and July. The total amounts of macronutrients returned to the forest land by means of litters in the four stands in 1998 were 26.30, 69.81, 54.9 and 152.24 kg.hm-2, respectively. The annual decomposition rates of the litterfalls were 24.4%, 53.4%, 52.4% and 57.4%.

  6. Observation and modeling of NPP for Pinus elliottii plantation in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ZeQing; LIU QiJing; WANG HuiMin; LI XuanRan; ZENG HuiQing; XU WenJia

    2008-01-01

    Based on the stem analysis of 59 individuals of Pinus elliottii in combination with tree biomass models,we calculated annual biomass increment of forest plots at Qianyanzhou Ecological Station,Chinese Academy of Sciences in subtropical China. In addition,canopy layer and community NPP were calculated based on 12 years' litter fall data. NPP of the 21-year-old forest was estimated by using the BIOME BGC model; and both measured NPP and estimated NPP were compared with flux data. Community lation between annual litter fall and annual biomass increment; and the litter fall was 1.19 times the biomass increment of living trees. From 1985 to 2005,average NPP and GPP values based on BGC simulated tree layer NPP values. NPP accounted for 30.2% (25.6%-32.9%) of GPP,while NEP accounted for 57.5% (48.1%-66.5%) of tree-layer NPP and 41.74% (37%-52%) of stand NPP. Soil respiration accounted for 77.0% of measured tree NPP and 55.9% of the measured stand NPP. NEE based on eddy covariance method was 12.97% higher than the observed NEP.

  7. [Relationships between understory vegetation coverage and environmental factors in Pinus massoniana plantations from aerial seeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ouyang, Xun-zhi

    2015-04-01

    The relationships between understory vegetation coverage and environmental factors in Pinus massoniana plantations from aerial seeding were studied by using principal component analysis, redundancy analysis and variation partitioning. The selected environmental factors in total explained 74.2% variation of the understory vegetation coverage. At low altitude, stand characteristics were the key factor to influence the understory vegetation coverage. Stand characteristics, soil property and topographic factor were respectively explained 55.0% (including 29.1% for separateness and 25.9% for interaction with other factors), 38. 9% (including 12.1% for separateness and 26.8% for interaction with other factors) and 9.0% (including 5.6% for separateness and 3.4% for interaction with other factors) of the total variation. Average diameter at breast height and canopy density affected mostly and positively correlated with the coverage of bryophyta, graminoid and shurb groups at significant level. Noncapillary porosity and soil water content showed a highly significant positive correlation to dicranopteris coverage, whereas average diameter at breast height, canopy density, soil nutrients and enzyme activity significantly negatively correlated with it. The coverage of graminoid, bryophyta and shurb groups showed the positive correlations, which indicated the three groups could promote each other, while the dicranopteris coverage had significant negative correlation with the three groups mentioned above.

  8. Relationship between environmental parameters and Pinus sylvestris L. site index in forest plantations in northern Spain acidic plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueis T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of forest productivity at early stages of stand development may help to define the most appropriate silviculture treatment to be applied for each stand. Site index (dominant height at a reference age is a useful tool for forest productivity estimation. The aim of this study was to develop a model to predict site index for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in northern Spain acidic plateau by using soil (physical, chemical and biochemical, climatic and physiographic parameters. To meet this objective, data from 35 stands classified into three different site quality classes and 63 soil, climatic and physiographic parameters were examined in order to develop a discriminant model. After selecting 12 discriminant models which were biologically consistent and presented the higher cross-validated rate of correct classification, a model including four parameters (latitude, inorganic Al, porosity and microbial biomass carbon as predictors was chosen. The discriminant model classified 71% of cases correctly and no inferior-quality stands were misassigned to the highest quality class. Soil and physiographic parameters included in the above model are easily obtainable in the field or by simple laboratory analysis, thus our results can be easily integrated in operational forestry to determine site quality.

  9. Viewing forests from below: fine root mass declines relative to leaf area in aging lodgepole pine stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonmaker, A S; Lieffers, V J; Landhäusser, S M

    2016-07-01

    In the continued quest to explain the decline in productivity and vigor with aging forest stands, the most poorly studied area relates to root system change in time. This paper measures the wood production, root and leaf area (and mass) in a chronosequence of fire-origin lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Loudon) stands consisting of four age classes (12, 21, 53, and ≥100 years), each replicated ~ five times. Wood productivity was greatest in the 53-year-old stands and then declined in the ≥100-year-old stands. Growth efficiency, the quantity of wood produced per unit leaf mass, steadily declined with age. Leaf mass and fine root mass plateaued between the 53- and ≥100-year-old stands, but leaf area index actually increased in the older stands. An increase in the leaf area index:fine root area ratio supports the idea that older stand are potentially limited by soil resources. Other factors contributing to slower growth in older stands might be lower soil temperatures and increased self-shading due to the clumped nature of crowns. Collectively, the proportionally greater reduction in fine roots in older stands might be the variable that predisposes these forests to be at a potentially greater risk of stress-induced mortality.

  10. Multiple View Zenith Angle Observations of Reflectance From Ponderosa Pine Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Reflectance factors (RF(lambda)) from dense and sparse ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands, derived from radiance data collected in the solar principal plane by the Advanced Solid-State Array Spectro-radiometer (ASAS), were examined as a function of view zenith angle (theta(sub v)). RF(lambda) was maximized with theta(sub v) nearest the solar retrodirection, and minimized near the specular direction throughout the ASAS spectral region. The dense stand had much higher RF anisotropy (ma)dmurn RF is minimum RF) in the red region than did the sparse stand (relative differences of 5.3 vs. 2.75, respectively), as a function of theta(sub v), due to the shadow component in the canopy. Anisotropy in the near-infrared (NIR) was more similar between the two stands (2.5 in the dense stand and 2.25 in the sparse stand); the dense stand exhibited a greater hotspot effect than 20 the sparse stand in this spectral region. Two common vegetation transforms, the NIR/red ratio and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), both showed a theta(sub v) dependence for the dense stand. Minimum values occurred near the retrodirection and maximum values occurred near the specular direction. Greater relative differences were noted for the NIR/red ratio (2.1) than for the NDVI (1.3). The sparse stand showed no obvious dependence on theta(sub v) for either transform, except for slightly elevated values toward the specular direction.

  11. [Storage proteins from seeds of Pinus pinea L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Nizar; Triki, Saïda

    2007-05-01

    The Mediterranean stone pine Pinus pinea L. (gymnosperm, Pinaceae) is much appreciated for its seed production, widely used in food preparation in the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds contain 25% proteins on a dry-weight basis. Pinus pinea accumulate globulins as major storage proteins in seeds (75% of total storage proteins), composed of several subunits of 10 to 150 kDa, revealed by SDS-PAGE. The albumin fraction (15%) represents three subunits of 14, 24 and 46 kDa. Glutelins, the least soluble fraction, represents a small proportion (10%). Their constitutive units have frequent PM of 43 kDa. Prolamins also represent a very small percentage (1 to 2%).

  12. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri V. Politov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical,characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine(Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in theEast Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation ofoutcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation orreforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations showed no heterozygote deficiency at these allozyme loci, and instead showed increased proportions of heterozygotes (inbreeding coefficient FIS = -0.200 in 'Gorgany' and -0.142 in 'Yayko'. Balancing selection may explain heterozygosity levels up to and above equilibrium proportions.

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15834-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -128A24, m... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096093 ) Pinus taeda isolate 6064 anonymous locus 2_4412_0... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096092... ) Pinus taeda isolate 6060 anonymous locus 2_4412_0... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096091 ) Pinus taeda isolate 6066 anonymous... locus 2_4412_0... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096090 ) Pinus taeda isolate 6058 anonymous l...ocus 2_4412_0... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096089 ) Pinus taeda isolate 6053 anonymous locus 2_4412_0... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096...088 ) Pinus taeda isolate 6051 anonymous locus 2_4412_0... 48 1.9 1 ( FJ096087 ) Pinus taeda isolate 6067 anonymous

  14. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Danusevičius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  15. Spontaneous hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian seaside: a morphological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Petrokas, Raimundas; Christensen, Knud Ib

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  16. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  17. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Ordinary Meeting on 11 May 2009 The meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee held on 11 May 2009 was entirely dedicated to the preparation of the TREF meeting on 19 & 20 May 2009. The Committee took note, discussed and agreed on some clarifications on a number of documents and presentations that the Management planned to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: • Personnel statistics 2008: J. Purvis presented the Personnel Statistics for 2008 prepared by HR Department. In line with the previous year, key messages were firstly, a general reduction in staff (2544 to 2400, - 6%), secondly, a reduction in administrative services personnel (from 422 to 387, - 8%) and thirdly, a marked increase in the number of Users and Unpaid Associates (from 8369 to 9140, + 9%) • Five-Yearly Review 2010: A series of draft documents were submitted for discussion, comprising an introductory document explaining the statutory basis for the following four document...

  18. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Main issues examined at the meeting of 2 October 2009 The October 2009 meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee was entirely devoted to preparation of TREF’s meeting on 21-22 October. The Committee took note of, discussed and agreed on clarifications needed to some of the documents and presentations that the Management intended to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: Equal opportunities The Committee took note of a preliminary report on equal opportunities at CERN drawn up by D. Chromek-Burckhart, the Equal Opportunities Officer, and T. Smith, Chairman of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel, containing in particular a proposal for a new process for resolving harassment conflicts. Technical analysis of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme - Actuary’s Report The Committee took note of a presentation by P. Charpentier, Chairman of the CERN Health Insurance Supervisory Board (CHIS Board), on the 2009 actuarial report on the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Th...

  19. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 2 november 2007 Extraordinary meeting on 12 November 2007 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 November 2007 and 12 November included: Restaurants Supervisory Committee Report The committee took note of the report by the chairman of the Restaurants Supervisory Committee (RSC), T. Lagrange. In particular, it was recorded that, in Restaurant No. 1, the new kitchen and free flow arrangements had been inaugurated and all works had been commissioned on schedule in October 2007.The contractor, Novae, had taken over maintenance of the new kitchen. Some price increases were to be expected in the coming months due mainly to strong increases in the cost of basic ingredients. A problem with bad smells in the area of Restaurant No. 1 was being taken care of by tuning the ventilation system. The RSC wished to thank the management and staff of Restaurant No. 2 for their cooperation while Restaurant No 1 was ...

  20. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee in the first quarter of 2009 included: Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS) 2009 exercise The committee took note of 2009 MARS ceiling guidelines giving the advancement budget by career path and amounting to approx 1.80% of the basic salary bill. To this will be added 250 steps CERN-wide, financed by savings from implementation of the international indemnity for 2007, 2008 and the first half of 2009. The specific Senior Staff Guidelines, including the proposed number of promotions from Career Path E to F, were also noted. The guidelines with respect to step distribution were also noted: the minima and maxima remain the same as in previous years. Compliance with the guidelines will continue to be monitored closely (more details, including a frequently asked questions section). It was also noted that Financial Awards (awards for extraordinary service and responsibility allowances) may b...

  1. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had subscribed to the short-term saved leave scheme: approx 58% had subscribed 1 slice, 14% two slices, 5% three slices and 23% four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme to the Director-General for approval. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract to the Director-General for approval. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) was extended for a further year to 3...

  2. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had subscribed to the short-term saved leave scheme: approx 58% had subscribed 1 slice, 14% two slices, 5% three slices and 23% four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme to the Director-General for approval. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract to the Director-General for approval. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) was extended for a further year to 3...

  3. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The Committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had enrolled in the short-term saved leave scheme: approx. 58% had signed up for 1 slice, 14% for two slices, 5% for three slices and 23% for four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PR...

  4. Climate-induced mortality of spruce stands in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  5. Climate-Induced Mortality of Spruce Stands in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  6. Estudio de potenciales alelopáticos originados por Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D.

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester, A.; Arias, A. M.; Cobián, B.; López Calvo, E.; Vieitez, E.

    2011-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el potencial alelopático de Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D. sobre el crecimiento y la germinación de diferentes especies herbáceas. Extractos acuosos de hojas y acículas recogidas en los meses de enero y abril inhiben fundamentalmente la germinación de las semillas de festuca, siendo la acción más importante en el mes de abril que en el de enero. El contacto directo entre hojas y acículas y las semillas a ensayar produce una inhibición muy f...

  7. Parâmetros morfométricos e biológicos de populações monoclonais e multiclonais do pulgão-gigante-do-pinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susete do Rocio Chiarello Penteado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O pulgão-gigante-do-pinus, Cinara atlantica, originário da América do Norte, foi introduzido no Brasil na década de 1990 e encontra-se amplamente distribuído nos plantios comerciais de pínus. Este estudo teve como objetivo correlacionar os parâmetros morfométricos de insetos oriundos de colônias mono e multiclonais de C. atlantica com seu desempenho reprodutivo em mudas de viveiros comerciais e em progênies de Pinus taeda. Foi registrado o número de ninfas produzidas fêmea dia-1. Após a morte destas fêmeas, foram realizadas medições dos caracteres morfológicos, utilizando o programa, Axion Vision 4,5. O comprimento da tíbia, fêmur posterior e antena foram os parâmetros morfométricos que apresentaram maior correlação com o comprimento do corpo dos insetos, representando 98% da variação total. Com os valores destas variáveis foi criada uma nova variável, denominada “tamanho do inseto”, que foi utilizada para comparação dos tratamentos. Os insetos de colônias multiclonais apresentaram os maiores valores para a maioria dos parâmetros morfométricos e maior produção de descendentes. Insetos maiores e maior produção de ninfas foram observados em mudas originárias dos viveiros comerciais, sugerindo que as progênies estudadas podem apresentar algum fator de resistência que as torna candidatas para uso em programas de manejo integrado desta praga.

  8. Seasonal changes in needle water content and needle ABA concentration of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, in declining forests on Mt. Gokurakuji, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Atsushi; Hanba, Yuko T; Nakane, Kaneyuki; Sakurai, Naoki; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of air pollution on the decline of Pinus densiflora forests, various research has been conducted around Mt. Gokurakuji (34 degrees 23'N, 132 degrees 19'E, 693 m a.s.l.) north of the Seto Inland Sea, west Japan. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for decreases in photosynthesis (Pn) and stomatal conductance (gl), delta13C of needles and seasonal changes in the water content (WC) and abscisic acid concentration (ABA) of needles were measured in various stands. The delta13C values were less negative in declining stands and younger needles. ABA and WC were not correlated with each other. WC decreased consistently with needle age while the ABA showed a minimum in August and a smaller content in older needles. Monthly precipitation and the daily maximum vapor pressure were not correlated with ABA and WC. In declining stands, WC and ABA tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than in nondeclining stands. These results suggest that the trees in declining stands received less water stress than those in nondeclining stands and the differences in gl and delta13C are not caused by the difference in water stress. The possibilities of the effects of air pollution and the infection of pine-wood nematode on the physiological decline on the pine needles are discussed.

  9. [Variability of the cytological parameters of Pinus sylvestris L. seeds from the unique Hrenovskoy pine forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, A K; Cherkashina, O N; Chernodubov, A I; Avdeeva, I A

    2005-06-01

    Hrenovskoy pine forest is a unique island stand at the boundary of the species range of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. This object is of exceptional economic value, because it serves as a forest-seed base for the Voronezh oblast and some other regions of Russia; therefore, the stand and seed qualities have to be monitored constantly. The results of the first cytogenetic study of the seed progeny of P. sylvestris from the Morozov Grove, a high-quality stand in a reserved site within the Hrenovskoy pine forest, are reported. The studies have been performed in order to obtain a more correct assessment of seed quality based not only on their germination and energy of germination (traditionally used by forest breeders), but also on their genomic stability. The latter may be estimated by the stability of chromosome number in the somatic cells of seedlings and the regularity of mitotic divisions, because they also characterize the state of the generative system of parental forms and may serve as an integrated estimate of the stand development homeostasis. Therefore, the chromosome number, mitotic and nucleolar activities, and the number and spectrum of pathological mitoses (PMs) have been determined. Seedlings have been obtained from 240 seeds (collected from 12 trees) that resulted from free pollination. The cytological analysis of the rootlets of these seedlings has not detected any deviations from the chromosome number typical of the species P. sylvestris L. (2n = 24). However, considerable variation has been found in each family with respect to the mitotic index (MI) (from 4.2 +/- 0.36 to 8.1 +/- 0.39%) and the number of PMs (from 0.5 to 2.1%); micronuclei have also been found in each family (from 0.01 to 0.05%). In general, the phenotypic characteristics and the variation pattern of cytological parameters of the progeny of the trees studied in the Hrenovskoy pine forest, together with the high germination rate of seeds (90-98%), indicate that the current state of

  10. A new C-methylated flavonoid glycoside from Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M J; Choi, J H; Chung, H Y; Jung, J H; Choi, J S

    2001-12-01

    A new C-methyl flavonol glycoside, 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from the needles of Pinus densiflora, together with kaempferol 3-O-beta-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside.

  11. Evolution of genome size and complexity in Pinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Morse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome evolution in the gymnosperm lineage of seed plants has given rise to many of the most complex and largest plant genomes, however the elements involved are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gymny is a previously undescribed retrotransposon family in Pinus that is related to Athila elements in Arabidopsis. Gymny elements are dispersed throughout the modern Pinus genome and occupy a physical space at least the size of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In contrast to previously described retroelements in Pinus, the Gymny family was amplified or introduced after the divergence of pine and spruce (Picea. If retrotransposon expansions are responsible for genome size differences within the Pinaceae, as they are in angiosperms, then they have yet to be identified. In contrast, molecular divergence of Gymny retrotransposons together with other families of retrotransposons can account for the large genome complexity of pines along with protein-coding genic DNA, as revealed by massively parallel DNA sequence analysis of Cot fractionated genomic DNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the enormous genome complexity of pines can be explained by divergence of retrotransposons, however the elements responsible for genome size variation are yet to be identified. Genomic resources for Pinus including those reported here should assist in further defining whether and how the roles of retrotransposons differ in the evolution of angiosperm and gymnosperm genomes.

  12. Rainfall interception and partitioning by pinus monophylla and juniperus osteosperma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated canopy interception of simulated rainfall by singleleaf piñon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) in central Nevada. Research has shown that although piñon and juniper occurred historically throughout the western United States, the infilling of woodlan...

  13. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  14. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  15. Structure and development of old-growth, unmanaged second-growth, and extended rotation Pinus resinosa forests in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Emily J.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Fraver, Shawn; Palik, Brian J.; Bradford, John B.

    2013-01-01

    The structure and developmental dynamics of old-growth forests often serve as important baselines for restoration prescriptions aimed at promoting more complex structural conditions in managed forest landscapes. Nonetheless, long-term information on natural patterns of development is rare for many commercially important and ecologically widespread forest types. Moreover, the effectiveness of approaches recommended for restoring old-growth structural conditions to managed forests, such as the application of extended rotation forestry, has been little studied. This study uses several long-term datasets from old growth, extended rotation, and unmanaged second growth Pinus resinosa (red pine) forests in northern Minnesota, USA, to quantify the range of variation in structural conditions for this forest type and to evaluate the effectiveness of extended rotation forestry at promoting the development of late-successional structural conditions. Long-term tree population data from permanent plots for one of the old-growth stands and the extended rotation stands (87 and 61 years, respectively) also allowed for an examination of the long-term structural dynamics of these systems. Old-growth forests were more structurally complex than unmanaged second-growth and extended rotation red pine stands, due in large part to the significantly higher volumes of coarse woody debris (70.7 vs. 11.5 and 4.7 m3/ha, respectively) and higher snag basal area (6.9 vs. 2.9 and 0.5 m2/ha, respectively). In addition, old-growth forests, although red pine-dominated, contained a greater abundance of other species, including Pinus strobus, Abies balsamea, and Picea glauca relative to the other stand types examined. These differences between stand types largely reflect historic gap-scale disturbances within the old-growth systems and their corresponding structural and compositional legacies. Nonetheless, extended rotation thinning treatments, by accelerating advancement to larger tree diameter

  16. Suitable level of suppression in Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1999-10-01

    It is `well known` among Swedish foresters that pine trees need light and cannot grow suppressed. It is also `well known` that old trees that have grown slowly are unable to react with good growth. However, these facts can be questioned in the light of new research as it has been found that thinning reaction is not correlated with age. It is also well known that the commercial value of a pine is closely related to the growth at young age. If the first 20 annual rings close to pith are wide (>3 mm) the log cannot be accepted as first class. This is related to number and size of branches on the young tree and to the features of the juvenile wood. This is to say that a pine must not grow fast when it is small and if this has happened it cannot be cured by artificial debranching or by growing the tree slowly at higher age. Accordingly, young pines should be grown under bigger trees that in their young age were grown under big trees, and so on. Today, when clear cutting is the dominating forest management system, the only way to obtain high quality pine trees is to start the rotation age with stands of very high density. This is of course a very expensive way as dense planting, followed by intensive thinning requires a lot of input. However, if pine is a pioneer species and cannot be grown in multistoried stands, then the economic solution is not present. This was the reason why the annual increment of three pines was measured. They were selected because their different growth pattern showed that old `well known facts` should be revised Working papers 139. 3 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  17. Silviculture characterization of single-species stands of black pine in Catalonia (Spain); Caracterizacion selvicola de las masas monoespecificas de pino laricio en Cataluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunos, A.; Riba, A.; Blanco, R.

    2009-07-01

    This study presents a silvogenetic typology of single-species stands of Pinus nigra in Catalonia (NE of Spain) based on the information supplied by the Second National Forest Inventory. Results of factor analysis applied to dendrometric variables show nine different stand types, identified mainly from variables related to diameter distribution and stand stocking. The character of uneven-aged stands, present in five of the groups though with different features, was analyzed using a truncated Weibull distribution. The typology, which is managed by computing regeneration levels and diametric classes, encompasses different developmental stages and allows the diagnosis of compromised situations in terms of stand persistence caused by low or high stocking. (Author) 24 refs.

  18. A Novel Semiochemical Tool for Protecting Pinus contorta From Mortality Attributed to Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Christopher J; Munson, A Steven; Reinke, Michael; Mafra-Neto, Agenor

    2015-02-01

    Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregant of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a notable forest insect capable of causing extensive levels of tree mortality in western North America. Several formulations of verbenone are registered for tree protection, but failures in efficacy are not uncommon, particularly when applied during large infestations. A formulation of (-)-verbenone was developed (Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology [SPLAT] Verb, ISCA Technologies Inc., Riverside, CA) and evaluated for protecting individual lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon, and small stands of P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae. SPLAT Verb applied to individual P. contorta resulted in complete tree protection, while 93.3% mortality occurred in the untreated controls. Significantly fewer P. contorta were killed by D. ponderosae within 0.041-ha circular plots surrounding P. contorta treated with SPLAT Verb compared with the untreated control. In a second study, a smaller percentage of P. contorta were colonized and killed on 0.4-ha square plots treated with SPLAT Verb compared with the untreated control. No significant differences in levels of tree mortality were observed between the untreated control and another formulation of verbenone (7-g pouch) or between the 7-g pouch and SPLAT Verb. In a trapping bioassay, no significant differences were observed among captures in multiple-funnel traps at 1, 2, or 4 m from the point of release of SPLAT Verb. Significantly fewer D. ponderosae were collected at 1 and 2 m compared with 8 m. Significantly more D. ponderosae were captured at the farthest distance evaluated (16 m) than at any other distance. Our data indicate that SPLAT Verb is effective for protecting individual P. contorta and small stands of P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae at moderate doses. The high levels of tree

  19. ANÁLISE ECONÔMICA DA PRODUÇÃO DE Pinus elliottii NA SERRA DO SUDESTE, RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pagel Floriano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for Pinus elliottii Engelm. at Serra do Sudeste, Rio Grande do Sul, with the following objectives: to check production costs and possible revenues; to perform the economic and financial analysis of Pinus elliottii's wood production under regional conditions; and to determine the rotation of maximum Net Present Value (NPV. The costs for planting the stands were estimated at $2,292.09/ha and the annual maintenance ranged from R$ 134.84 to R$ 363.98 per hectare. Departing from the Site Index 28, with NPV of R$ 1,147.17/ha, Pinus' wood production becomes interesting. At the IS 26, with 6.86% Internal Rate of Return (IRR, it would be possible to pay the 6.75% Propflora's interest. Analysis of different rotations for IS 28 showed maximum VPL with rotation of 26 years, thinning in cycle of 4 years, starting up the cuts to 10 years. The economic analysis was performed with considerable caution, using productivity moderated levels, costs within patterns that can be considered between middle and high and moderated prices for today's wood market. Even with the restrictions imposed on the analysis, results are promising; especially in view of the regional market prices' increase tendency and the probability of wood veneer industries comes to absorb the larger log's size production in a closed future.

  20. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 30 JANUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The Committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement mea...

  1. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 30 January 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement measure...

  2. Standing concertation commmittee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    MEETINGS ON 2 AND 9 DECEMBER 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 and 9 December 2008 included: Medical Service Report 2007 The Committee took note of the report by Dr. E. Reymond (see http://sc-me.web.cern.ch/sc-me/fr/indexFR.htm) and of a number of points raised during the discussion. It was noted that the number of professional accidents declined in 2007 (361 accidents) in comparison with 2006 (483), as well as their gravity and frequency. The CERN Medical Service carried out a study on cancer prevalence (number of cases) and incidence (new cases per year per 100000 people), between 1993 and 2007, which identified some prostate, breast and colorectal cancers, though less than in the two Host States. Specific preventive actions will be promoted by the CERN CHISboard and the Medical Service in this context as well as in other areas. The committee expressed its thanks to all members of the Medical Service for their work i...

  3. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 27 February 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members: M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines : in the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff Associatio...

  4. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members : M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines: In the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff ...

  5. [Chile: Standing up again].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2010-03-01

    One of the biggest earthquakes recorded in human history has recently devastated a large part of the Chilean territory and, followed by a Tsunami, destroyed cities, seaports, fishermen's coves, bridges, and countryside houses. This cataclysm affected a large proportion of our population, leaving homeless families, no working tools for work places, hospitals, schools, public buildings, museums. However, the loss of human Uves was small compared to similar disasters. It destroyed part of the national heritage as well as damaged people's living conditions. A national movement started immediately to help and recover, and international resources, both human and technological were also set in motion. As after previous earthquakes in Chile, young M.D.'s and medical students were organized in voluntary groups backed by institutions or by their own organizations and went from large cities as Santiago and others to provide medical and psychological care to those in most need. Young members and students of other health professions (nurses, physical therapists, etc.) were included in these groups or worked in their own ones. National and international experience indicates that the forthcoming months require special care of psychological reactions and sequel (posttraumatic stress symptoms) and health consequences after water pollution, restrictions in housing and deteriorated sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, our country will stand up once more.

  6. OH Module Assembly Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolan, P.J.; /Fermilab

    1990-10-16

    There is an OR module assembly stand in use at IB4. This design has been approved by safety, as presented by Mike Foley, and has been successfully used. Another one is needed at the D-zero assembly building, but some modifications need to be made. This report will show that the new modified design is at least as strong, if not stronger, than the older IB4 design in every aspect. Since the weight distribution of the OR modules on the sling is indeterminate, this report compares three cases of support for the entire assembly: the lowest two beams only, the lowest four beams only, and all six beams. In each of these cases, the new design is stronger than the old design in maximum allowable weight. The ability of the the cradle to support the weight is also shown. For all of the failure conditions except for two, the cradle is stronger than the beams that it supports. In the two excepted situations, the calculated limit of the cradle is less than the beams it supports. This is because no credit is taken for the sling and strongback, which in reality will relieve much of the horizontal load.

  7. EUV Engineering Test Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichenor, D.A.; Kubiak, G.D.; Replogle, W.C.; Klebanoff, L.E.; Wronosky, J.B.; Hale, L.C.; Chapman, H.N.; Taylor, J.S.; Folta, J.A.; Montcalm, C.; Hudyma, R.M.

    2000-02-14

    The Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is an EUV laboratory lithography tool. The purpose of the ETS is to demonstrate EUV full-field imaging and provide data required to support production-tool development. The ETS is configured to separate the imaging system and stages from the illumination system. Environmental conditions can be controlled independently in the two modules to maximize EUV throughput and environmental control. A source of 13.4 nm radiation is provided by a laser plasma source in which a YAG laser beam is focused onto a xenon-cluster target. A condenser system, comprised of multilayer-coated mirrors and grazing-incidence mirrors, collects the EUV radiation and directs it onto a-reflecting reticle. A four-mirror, ring-field optical system, having a numerical aperture of 0.1, projects a 4x-reduction image onto the wafer plane. This design corresponds to a resolution of 70nm at a k{sub 1} of 0.52. The ETS is designed to produce full-field images in step: and-scan mode using vacuum-compatible, one-dimension-long-travel magnetically levitated stages for both reticle and wafer. Reticle protection is incorporated into the ETS design. This paper provides a system overview of the ETS design and specifications.

  8. Stand-up physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A CMS physicist and amateur stand up comic was named the winner of NESTA FameLab 2009. Tom Whyntie battled it out with nine others young scientists from across the UK to win the contest to find the country’s next top science communicator. Tom Whyntie with his prize money after the NESTA Famelab final.Tom Whyntie, who is currently doing his PhD on the CMS experiment, managed to persuade his supervisor to give him a few days off on 5 June so he could fly back to the UK for the final of NESTA FameLab 2009. In the competition, which has been dubbed ‘the X Factor for scientists’, he had just three minutes to explain a complex scientific idea to a panel of judges made up of high-profile science professionals. During the final, he captivated the audience with his talk about how finding nothing at the LHC, far from being a waste of £5 billion, would actually catalyse the next scientific revolution. It Whyntie’s own words: "If the L...

  9. Variations in electrical impedance and phase angle among seedlings of Pinus densata and parental species in Pinus tabuliformis habitat environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyu Chen; Huwei Yuan; Xiange Hu; Jingxiang Meng; Xianqing Zhou; Xiao-Ru Wang; Yue Li

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance (EI) and phase angle (PHI) parameters in AC impedance spectroscopy are important electrical parameters in the study of medical pathology. However, little is known about their application in variation and genetic relationship studies of forest trees. In order to test whether impedance parameters could be used in genetic relationship analysis among conifer species, EI and PHI were measured in a seedling experiment test composed of Pinus tabuliformis, Pinus yunnanensis, and Pinus densata in a habitat of Pinus tabuliformis. The results showed that variations in both EI and PHI among species were sig-nificant in different electric frequencies, and the EI and PHI values measured in the two populations of P. densata were between the two parental species, P. yunnanensis and P. tabuliformis. These results show that these two impedance parameters could reflect the genetic relationship among pine species. This was the first time using the two AC impedance spectroscopy parameters to test the genetic relationship analysis between tree species, and would be a hopeful novel reference methodology for future studies in evolution and genetic variation of tree species.

  10. Comparative Drought Responses of Quercus ilex L. and Pinus sylvestris L. in a Montane Forest Undergoing a Vegetation Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aguadé

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Different functional and structural strategies to cope with water shortage exist both within and across plant communities. The current trend towards increasing drought in many regions could drive some species to their physiological limits of drought tolerance, potentially leading to mortality episodes and vegetation shifts. In this paper, we study the drought responses of Quercus ilex and Pinus sylvestris in a montane Mediterranean forest where the former species is replacing the latter in association with recent episodes of drought-induced mortality. Our aim was to compare the physiological responses to variations in soil water content (SWC and vapor pressure deficit (VPD of the two species when living together in a mixed stand or separately in pure stands, where the canopies of both species are completely exposed to high radiation and VPD. P. sylvestris showed typical isohydric behavior, with greater losses of stomatal conductance with declining SWC and greater reductions of stored non-structural carbohydrates during drought, consistent with carbon starvation being an important factor in the mortality of this species. On the other hand, Q. ilex trees showed a more anisohydric behavior, experiencing more negative water potentials and higher levels of xylem embolism under extreme drought, presumably putting them at higher risk of hydraulic failure. In addition, our results show relatively small changes in the physiological responses of Q. ilex in mixed vs. pure stands, suggesting that the current replacement of P. sylvestris by Q. ilex will continue.

  11. Changes in the Essential Oil Composition in the Needles of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Under Anthropogenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Judzentiene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF, a cement factory (CF, and an oil refinery (OR. Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005. Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles.

  12. Dispersal ecology of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in its native environment as related to Swedish forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despain, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) covers extensive areas of the mountains of western North America. It has evolved into four subspecies, each adapted to slightly different environmental conditions. All are adapted to reproduce following fire. Subspecies latifolia is the most extensive and economically important in North America. Serotiny is common in this subspecies, but trees bearing nonserotinous cones can be found in most stands, sometimes constituting more that 70% of the trees. Cone crops are produced yearly and seed loss to seed predators, insects and diseases are minimal. Germination and establishment occurs across a broad range of conditions allowing lodgepole pine to grow on poor sites as well as highly productive sites. These characteristics give lodgepole pine the ability to be highly invasive in new areas of suitable habitat.

  13. Protetores físicos para semeadura direta de Pinus elliottii Engelm Shelters for direct seeding of Pinus elliottii Engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Luciano Matteiq

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de protetores físicos tem se revelado uma eficiente técnica para o sucesso da semeadura direta de pinus. O presente trabalho avaliou diferentes tipos e tamanhos de protetores físicos de pontos de semeadura para a implantação de povoamentos de Pinus elliottii por semeadura direta. Como protetores, foram utilizados copos plástico, copos de papel e laminado de madeira. Esses protetores foram colocados sobre os pontos semeados com três sementes cada. Foi avaliada a emergência, sobrevivência, perdas por pássaros, perdas por tombamento e número de pontos com, pelo menos, uma planta viva, seis meses após a semeadura. Os protetores utilizados influenciaram positivamente, nos resultados, para todas as variáveis analisadas, por evitar perdas de sementes causadas por arraste ou soterramento e, principalmente por diminuíram os danos causados por pássaros que juntamente com as formigas, foram os principais problemas encontrados na implantação do povoamento de pinus por semeadura direta.The use of individual shelters has become an efficient method for direct seeding of pine. This work investigated the use of different kinds and sizes of shelters placed at sowing sites to establish new populations of directly seeded Pinus elliottii. Plastic and paper cups with open bottoms, or wood slats were used as protective shields. These were placed at sowing sites, each one containing 3 seeds. Emergencies, survival, losses due to birds or lodging, and number of sites with at least one live plant were analyzed six months after sowing. Shelters had positive effects on all variables analyzed both for avoiding losses resulted from dragging or burying of seeds, and for diminidhing the harm caused by birds which along with ants were the main problems found during the establishment of directly seeded pinus population.

  14. Does animal-mediated seed dispersal facilitate the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    Full Text Available The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests.

  15. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Stands under the Grain for Green Program in Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangang Chen

    Full Text Available The Grain for Green Program (GGP is the largest afforestation and reforestation project in China in the early part of this century. To assess carbon sequestration in stands under the GGP in Southwest China, the carbon stocks and their annual changes in the GGP stands in the region were estimated based on the following information: (1 collected data on the annually planted area of each tree species under the GGP in Southwest China from 1999 to 2010; (2 development of empirical growth curves and corresponding carbon estimation models for each species growing in the GPP stands; and (3 parameters associated with the stands such as wood density, biomass expansion factor, carbon fraction and the change rate of soil organic carbon content. Two forest management scenarios were examined: scenario A, with no harvesting, and scenario B, with logging at the customary rotation followed by replanting. The results showed that by the years 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050 and 2060, the expected carbon storage of the GGP stands in Southwest China is 139.58 TgC, 177.50-207.55 TgC, 196.86-259.65 TgC, 240.45-290.62 TgC and 203.22-310.03 TgC (T = 1012, respectively. For the same years, the expected annual change in carbon stocks is 7.96 TgCyr-1, -7.95-5.95 TgCyr-1, -0.10-4.67 TgCyr-1, 4.31-2.24 TgCyr-1 and -0.02-1.75 TgCyr-1, respectively. This indicates that the stands significantly contribute to forest carbon sinks in this region. In 2060, the estimated carbon stocks in the seven major species of GGP stands in Southwest China are 4.16-13.01 TgC for Pinus armandii, 6.30-15.01 TgC for Pinus massoniana, 11.51-13.44 TgC for Cryptomeria fortunei, 15.94-24.13 TgC for Cunninghamia lanceolata, 28.05 TgC for Cupressus spp., 5.32-15.63 TgC for Populus deltoides and 5.87-14.09 TgC for Eucalyptus spp. The carbon stocks in these seven species account for 36.8%-41.4% of the total carbon stocks in all GGP stands over the next 50 years.

  16. Exploring genetic diversity, physiologic expression and carbon dynamics in longleaf pine: a new study installation at the Harrison Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    In 1960, an experiment was established on the Harrison Experimental Forest in southeast Mississippi to compare productivity and wood properties of planted longleaf (Pinus palustris), loblolly (Pinus taeda), and slash (Pinus elliotii) pines under different management intensities: cultivation, cultivation plus...

  17. Examining pine spectral separability using hyperspectral data from an airborne sensor : an extension of field-based results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aardt, JAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Three southern USA forestry species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), were previously shown to be spectrally separable (83% accuracy) using data from a full-range spectro...

  18. Short-term dynamics of Quercus ilex advance regeneration in a Pinus nigra plantation after the creation of small canopy gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Garcia-Barreda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of the research is to analyse the role of Quercus ilex advance regeneration in the stand regeneration of pine plantations after small-sized canopy openings, and to assess the influence of the forest stand and the canopy opening. The performance of the advance regeneration under the pine plantation is also examined.Area of study: A Pinus nigra plantation in dry Continental Mediterranean climate in eastern Spain.Materials and Methods: The tree regeneration of ten canopy openings of 0.17-0.43 ha was monitored during five years after treatment. It was also sampled in 0.12 ha-plots in the non-treated pine plantation surrounding the openings.Main results: An important increase in the height of Q. ilex regeneration was observed in the openings, unlike what was found in the intact pine plantation. In the pine plantation, stand density showed a moderate positive influence on the density of Q. ilex regeneration, whereas in the canopy gaps Q. ilex height was negatively influenced by stand density before the opening.Research highlights: The canopy opening triggered a response in Q. ilex advance regeneration, although height growth rates seemed to reduce over time. The results support the view that promoting Q. ilex in pine plantations may require different management strategies depending on the characteristics of the pine overstorey and on the density and size of the advance regeneration.Key words: Mediterranean forest; stand initiation; seedling resprout; group selection cutting; truffle

  19. [Allozyme variation of seed embryos and mating system in relict populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A; Lisnichuk, A N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Mudrik, E A

    2011-07-01

    Allozyme variation at ten polymorphic loci and mating system was studied in three small isolated relict populations (4.4 to 22 ha) and in three artificial stands of Pinus sylvestris from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e. It was established that the mean heterozygosity of 130 to 140 year-old trees from natural populations (H(O) = 0.288; H(E) = 0.277) was substantially lower, compared to 30 to 40 year-old trees from artificial stands (H(O) = 0.358; H(E) = 0.330). The observed heterozygosity of seed embryos (H(O) = 0.169 and 0.180) was substantially lower than of the mature trees from populations and artificial stands, respectively. In the embryo samples, irrespectively of the forest stand origin, substantial hetedrozygote deficiency was observed (at six to eight loci), compared to the Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The proportion of cross pollination in the populations and artificial stands was low, t(m) = 0.588 to 0.721; and t(m) = 0.455 to 0.837, respectively.

  20. Estimating exotic gene flow into native pine stands: zygotic vs. gametic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, G M; Vendramin, G G; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring contemporary gene flow from widespread exotic plantations is becoming an important problem in forest conservation genetics. In plants, where both seed and pollen disperse, three components of exotic gene flow with potentially unequal consequences should be, but have not been, explicitly distinguished: zygotic, male gametic and female gametic. Building on a previous model for estimating contemporary rates of zygotic and male gametic gene flow among plant populations, we present here an approach that additionally estimates the third (female gametic) gene flow component, based on a combination of uni- and biparentally inherited markers. Using this method and a combined set of chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites, we estimate gene flow rates from exotic plantations into two Iberian relict stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Results show neither zygotic nor female gametic gene flow but moderate (6-8%) male gametic introgression for both species, implying significant dispersal of pollen, but not of seeds, from exotic plantations into native stands shortly after introduced trees reached reproductive maturity. Numerical simulation results suggest that the model yields reasonably accurate estimates for our empirical data sets, especially for larger samples. We discuss conservation management implications of observed levels of exposure to nonlocal genes and identify research needs to determine potentially associated hazards. Our approach should be useful for plant ecologists and ecosystem managers interested in the vectors of contemporary genetic connectivity among discrete plant populations.

  1. Nutrient cycle of planted forest of Pinus tabulaeformis in the Miyun Reservoir Watershed, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihai LIU; Xinxiao YU

    2009-01-01

    We studied the nutrient cycle of a planted for-est ofPinus tabulaeformis in the Miyun Reservoir Water-shed, Beijing. Results show that the total biomass of P.tabulaeformis stands at age 29 in the experimental area is 92627 kg/hm2, and the total nutrient store is 695.17 kg/hm2 including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), kalium (K), calium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). The sequence of their contents in different organs was given as follows: needle > branch >trunk > root. The annual amount of 85.37 kg/hm2 of five nutrient elements were assimilated by P. tabulaeformis,about 0.34% of the total store in soil, and 3.30% of available nutrient store in soil depth from 0 to 30 cm. The nutrient annual retention is 35.92 kg/hm2, annual returning 49.46kg/hm2, the rain input 26.04kg/hm2 to the five nutrient elements. The parameter absorption coefficient,utilization coefficient, cycle coefficient and turnover period were cited to describe the nutrient elements cycle characteristic of the planted forest ecosystem of P.tabulaeformis. The absorption coefficient is the ratio of plant nutrient element content to soil nutrient element content, and its sequence of five nutrient elements was given as follows: N > P > K > Ca > Mg. Utilization coef-ficient is the ratio of the nutrient element annual uptake amount to the nutrient element storage in standing crops,and its sequence of five nutrient elements was: Mg > K >P > N > Ca. The big utilization coefficient means more nutrients stored in the plant. The cycle coefficient is the ratio of the nutrient element annual return amount to the nutrient element annual uptake amount, its sequence:Ca > N > P > K > Mg. Turnover period is the ratio of the nutrient storage in the crops to the annual returning, its sequence: Mg > K > P > N > Ca.

  2. Morphological variation of Pinus flexilis (Pinaceae), a bird-dispersed pine, across a range of elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A W; Rochelle, S G

    2000-12-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) grows across a wider range of elevations than any other tree species in the central Rockies, from ∼1600 m at Pawnee Buttes to >3300 m at Rollins Pass. In this study we investigated two possible explanations for limber pine's success across a broad range of elevations: (1) the sites on which it is found, although separated by >1000 m elevation, may not be very different with respect to environmental factors that affect tree growth, and (2) limber pine growth is insensitive to environmental factors that change with elevation. We compared site characteristics of 12 limber pine stands at elevations ranging from 1630 to 3328 m as well as the growth and morphology of trees in each of these stands. Mean daily air temperature in July decreased linearly with the elevation of the site from 22.8° to 12.6°C. The growth and morphology of limber pine leaves, shoots, and trees were, in general, not related to the elevation or July mean air temperature of the sites. There was, however, a significant decrease in stomatal density with increasing elevation, which may be an acclimational response to restrict water loss at high elevations. Our data suggest that the fundamental and realized niche of limber pine is broad with respect to air temperature. In light of the high gene flow and only slight genetic differentiation among populations of species with bird-dispersed seeds, such as limber pine, it is especially unusual to see similar growth throughout an environmental gradient. Physiological and anatomical plasticity or wide physiological tolerance ranges may enable limber pine to uncouple its growth from its environment.

  3. Effects of Initial Stand Density and Climate on Red Pine Productivity within Huron National Forest, Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O'Brien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in climate are predicted to significantly affect the productivity of trees in the Great Lakes region over the next century. Forest management decisions, such as initial stand density, can promote climatic resiliency and moderate decreased productivity through the reduction of tree competition. The influences of climate (temperature and precipitation and forest management (initial stand density on the productivity of red pine (Pinus resinosa across multiple sites within Huron National Forest, Michigan, were examined using dendrochronological methods. Two common planting regimes were compared in this analysis; low initial density (1977 trees per hectare. Low initial density stands were found to have a higher climatic resilience by combining equal or greater measures of productivity, while having a reduced sensitivity to monthly and seasonal climate, particularly to summer drought.

  4. Foliage Chemistry of Pinus baksiana in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette C. Proemse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial emissions in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Alberta, Canada, have caused concerns about the effect of oil sands operations on the surrounding terrestrial environments, including jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. stands. We collected jack pine needles from 19 sites in the AOSR (13–128 km from main operations for foliar chemical analyses to investigate the environmental impact on jack pine. Pine needles from three age classes, the current annual growth (CAG, 2011, one year and two year old pine needles, were collected. Samples were analyzed for total carbon (TC, nitrogen (TN, and sulfur (TS, inorganic S (SO4-S, base cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and other elements (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, P, Zn; CAG needles were also analyzed for their nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions. Only TN, TS, Ca, B, Zn, and Fe contents showed weak but significant increases with proximity to the major oil sands operations. C and N isotopic compositions showed no trend with distance or TC and TN contents. Total S contents in CAG of pine foliage increased significantly with proximity to the main industrial operation while foliar inorganic S to organic S ratios (SO4-S/Sorg ranged consistently between 0.13 and 0.32, indicating low to moderately high S loading. Hence, this study suggests some evidence of uptake of S emissions in close proximity to anthropogenic sources, although the reported values have not reached a level of environmental concern.

  5. Needle morphological evidence of the homoploid hybrid origin of Pinus densata based on analysis of artificial hybrids and the putative parents, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangqian; Mao, Jian-Feng; Meng, Jingxiang; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Hao; Xing, Zhen; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Yue

    2014-05-01

    Genetic analyses indicate that Pinus densata is a natural homoploid hybrid originating from Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Needle morphological and anatomical features show relative species stability and can be used to identify coniferous species. Comparative analyses of these needle characteristics and phenotypic differences between the artificial hybrids, P. densata, and parental species can be used to determine the genetic and phenotypic evolutionary consequences of natural hybridization. Twelve artificial hybrid families, the two parental species, and P. densata were seeded in a high-altitude habitat in Linzhi, Tibet. The needles of artificial hybrids and the three pine species were collected, and 24 needle morphological and anatomical traits were analyzed. Based on these results, variations in 10 needle traits among artificial hybrid families and 22 traits among species and artificial hybrids were predicted and found to be under moderate genetic control. Nineteen needle traits in artificial hybrids were similar to those in P. densata and between the two parental species, P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. The ratio of plants with three needle clusters in artificial hybrids was 22.92%, which was very similar to P. densata. The eight needle traits (needle length, the mean number of stomata in sections 2 mm in length of the convex and flat sides of the needle, mean stomatal density, mesophyll/vascular bundle area ratio, mesophyll/resin canal area ratio, mesophyll/(resin canals and vascular bundles) area ratio, vascular bundle/resin canal area ratio) relative to physiological adaptability were similar to the artificial hybrids and P. densata. The similar needle features between the artificial hybrids and P. densata could be used to verify the homoploid hybrid origin of P. densata and helps to better understand of the hybridization roles in adaptation and speciation in plants.

  6. Vermicompost enhances germination of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lazcano, Cristina; Sampedro, Luis; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Domínguez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of vermicompost on the germination and early development of six different progenies of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). We compared the effects of incorporating solid vermicompost into the potting media to those of vermicompost water extract to asses the extent of not physically-mediated positive effects. The incorporation of vermicompost in the growing media of maritime pine increased germination by 16%, and particularly, addition of vermicom...

  7. Cutin fluorescence in early embryos of Pinus and Tsuga

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Szczuka; Irena Gielwanowska

    2014-01-01

    Embryos of Pinus nigra Arnold and Tsuga canadensis Carr. (Pinaceae) at different stages of development were dissected from fresh, unfixed seeds and examined in a fluorescence microscope with 400 nm excitation light. The embryos of the investigated species showed cutin fluorescence after auramine 0 staining. At first the fluorescing cutin layer was formed on the apical part of the embryo with a well developed secondary suspensor, then it extended over the lateral surface of the embryo; the sus...

  8. Two new triterpenoids from the roots of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaka, Junnosuke; Komatsu, Masabumi; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Futamura, Yushi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Chemical investigation of the roots of Pinus densiflora led to the isolation of two new triterpenoids, (24S)-3β-methoxy-24,25-epoxy-lanost-9(11)-ene (1) and 29-acetoxy-3α-methoxyserrat-14-en-21α-ol (2), together with three known serratene-type triterpenoids (3-5) and four known diterpenoids (6-9). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses.

  9. TRYPANOCIDAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM SCOTTISH ABIES NOBILIS AND PINUS SYLVESTRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Seidel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three active compounds obtained from the aerial parts of Abies nobilis and Pinus sylvestris isolated by different chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified by NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HMBC spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data and established as catechin, dehydroabietic acid and Dihydroconiferyl alcohol. The isolated compounds were exhibited activity against blood stream form of parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei (S 427.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. MALE GAMETOPHYTE IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    L.P. Khlebova; O. V. Bychkova

    2016-01-01

    The peculiarities of the development of the male gametophyte of Pinus silvestris L. in the urban environment were studied. Quality of pollen was evaluated by laboratory experiments through germination at the nutrient medium and by histochemical staining to determine the presence of redox enzymes. It was shown that pollen viability is closely linked to climatic and weather conditions during the period of microsporogenesis and mass pollination. Atmospheric pollution affected the pollen signific...

  11. Uptake of trifluoroacetate by Pinus ponderosa via atmospheric pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesch, J. A.; Gustin, M. S.

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA, CF 3COO -), a break down product of hydro(chloro)-fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs), has been suggested to contribute to forest decline syndrome. To investigate the possible effects, Pinus ponderosa was exposed to TFA applied as mist (150 and 10,000 ng l -1) to foliar surfaces. Needles accumulated TFA as a function of concentration and time. However, no adverse physiological responses, as plant morphology, photosynthetic and conductance rates, were observed at the TFA concentrations used in this study.

  12. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  13. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  14. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  15. Fumonisin production by Gibberella fujikuroi strains from Pinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirete, S; Patiño, B; Vázquez, C; Jiménez, M; Hinojo, M J; Soldevilla, C; González-Jaén, M T

    2003-12-31

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins basically produced by strains from the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (with anamorphs in Fusarium genus) which contaminate food and feed products representing a risk to human and animal health. In this work, we report for the first time the fumonisin production of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon strains associated to edible pine nuts of Pinus pinea. P. pinea is an important and widely distributed Pinus species in the Mediterranean area where their pine nuts are consumed raw or slightly processed in diverse food products. In this work, characterization and further identification of those strains were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS) with the aid of the eight mating populations (A-H) described for G. fujikuroi species complex. The method was powerful to detect polymorphism, allowing discrimination between individuals and could be used to study the genetic relationships among them and within the G. fujikuroi species complex. Fusarium strains associated to Pinus radiata were also included in the present study. These strains did not produce fumonisins and showed no close relation with the strains isolated from P. pinea. The approach used in this work was rapid and proved to be efficient to assist identification and to characterize and analyse relatedness of new isolates within the G. fujikuroi species complex.

  16. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Michelle C; Shaw, David C; Woolley, Travis J; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  17. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Agne

    Full Text Available Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its

  18. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  19. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp. Grown in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo P. Vanhanen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine (Pinus armandii Franch, Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L., Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little, Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri D. Don, Johann’s pine (Pinus johannis M.F. Robert, Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L. and Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière, was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day while they supplied between 39%–89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF A OIL RESIDUE FROM PETROLEUM ON DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF Pinus sp. (Pinus AND Mimosa scabrella Bentham (Bracatinga WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Florian da Costa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In search for alternative uses of a petroliferous oily residue known as “LCO” (Liquid Cycle Oil, its capacity to improve the dimensional stability of the wood was evaluated using Pinus sp. (pinus and Mimosa scabrella Bentham (bracatinga. The LCO was tested in its original composition and also diluted in different proportions into a commercial kerosene. The dimensional stability in the three anatomic axis, volumetric changes, shrinkage and anisotropy coefficients, basic density and 12% relative humidity density changes were evaluated, in different stages during the investigation process. The results show no significant differences in maximum swelling and shrinkage between treated and untreated wood blocks at 5% probability level for both species. However, a reduction in the shrinkage coefficient was observed with the increase of LCO concentration, for both species. In general, pinus showed lowest values in all parameter evaluated. The shrinkage and anisotropy coefficient were higher for bracatinga than pinus, nevertheless, no significant differences were observed between treated and untreated wood blocks. These results indicated that changes between tangential and radial faces were minimal, possible due to a poor penetration of LCO into the cell walls. This result, as a consequence, could be associated with a weak performance of the tested chemical, which could not improve the dimensional stability of wood for both species. The increasing LCO concentrations increased the density of both species at 12% relative humidity. This result could be associated to the presence of part of the chemical remaining in the walls of the cellular lumen and the resiniferous channels. Besides, the external aspect of the treated wood was also other restrictive factor to the use of LCO.

  1. Changes in the essential oil composition in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under anthropogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzentiene, Asta; Stikliene, Aida; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija

    2007-03-21

    Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005). Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles. Along the CF transect for current-year needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the pine bark (r = -0.582; p us to distinguish the most contrasting stands according to the concentration of air pollutants. Current-year needles were more effective as indicators of the effects of pollution than 1-year-old needles in the case of the NFF and the OR transects, and both-aged needles were equally valuable in the case of the CF transect. The changes detected in the proportions of components of the essential oils in the needles of the trees affected by the industrial emissions may play a significant role in modifying the susceptibility of the pine stands to the biotic factors, and also may alter emissions of terpenes from the stands to the atmosphere.

  2. Climatic sensitivity, water-use efficiency, and growth decline in boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forests in Northern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Rachel; Bell, F. Wayne; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Cecile, Alice; Horwath, William R.; Anand, Madhur

    2016-10-01

    Rises in atmospheric carbon dioxide (atmCO2) levels are known to stimulate photosynthesis and increase intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) in trees. Stand-level increases in iWUE depend on the physiological response of dominant species to increases in atmCO2, while tree-level response to increasing atmCO2 depends on the balance between the direct effects of atmCO2 on photosynthetic rate and the indirect effects of atmCO2 on drought conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) stands in Northern Ontario to changes in atmCO2 and associated climatic change over the past 100 years. The impact of changes in growing season length, temperature, and precipitation, as well as atmCO2 on tree growth, was determined using stable carbon isotopes and dendrochronological analysis. Jack pine stands in this study were shown to be in progressive decline. As expected, iWUE was found to increase in association with rising atmCO2. However, increases in iWUE were not directly coupled with atmCO2, suggesting that the degree of iWUE improvement is limited by alternative factors. Water-use efficiency was negatively associated with tree growth, suggesting that warming- and drought-induced stomatal closure has likely led to deviations from expected atmCO2-enhanced growth. This finding corroborates that boreal forest stands are likely to face continued stress under future climatic warming.

  3. Increased fire frequency promotes stronger spatial genetic structure and natural selection at regional and local scales in Pinus halepensis Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Katharina B; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Navascués, Miguel; Burgarella, Concetta; Mosca, Elena; Lorenzo, Zaida; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Verdú, Miguel; Pausas, Juli G; Heuertz, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    The recurrence of wildfires is predicted to increase due to global climate change, resulting in severe impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Recurrent fires can drive plant adaptation and reduce genetic diversity; however, the underlying population genetic processes have not been studied in detail. In this study, the neutral and adaptive evolutionary effects of contrasting fire regimes were examined in the keystone tree species Pinus halepensis Mill. (Aleppo pine), a fire-adapted conifer. The genetic diversity, demographic history and spatial genetic structure were assessed at local (within-population) and regional scales for populations exposed to different crown fire frequencies. Eight natural P. halepensis stands were sampled in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, five of them in a region exposed to frequent crown fires (HiFi) and three of them in an adjacent region with a low frequency of crown fires (LoFi). Samples were genotyped at nine neutral simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and at 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from coding regions, some of them potentially important for fire adaptation. Fire regime had no effects on genetic diversity or demographic history. Three high-differentiation outlier SNPs were identified between HiFi and LoFi stands, suggesting fire-related selection at the regional scale. At the local scale, fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was overall weak as expected for a wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed tree species. HiFi stands displayed a stronger SGS than LoFi stands at SNPs, which probably reflected the simultaneous post-fire recruitment of co-dispersed related seeds. SNPs with exceptionally strong SGS, a proxy for microenvironmental selection, were only reliably identified under the HiFi regime. An increasing fire frequency as predicted due to global change can promote increased SGS with stronger family structures and alter natural selection in P. halepensis and in plants with similar life history traits.

  4. Suficiência amostral para coletas de serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo em Pinus elliottii Engelm, Eucalyptus sp. E floresta estacional decidual Adequate sampling for collection of litter accumulated on the soil in Pinus elliottii engelm, Eucalyptus sp. And seasonal deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Sandra Kleinpaul

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou determinar a suficiência amostral para coletas de serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo em povoamentos de Pinus elliottii, Eucalyptus sp., ambos plantados no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e em uma área de Floresta Estacional Decidual (FED localizada no Morro do Elefante, Santa Maria, RS. Para a realização do estudo, foram coletadas 100 amostras de serapilheira por floresta, com o auxílio de uma moldura quadrada de 25 cm de lado, totalizando 300 amostras, as quais foram separadas nas seguintes frações: acículas ou folhas, galhos, estruturas reprodutivas, cascas e resíduos. Com base nos pesos de matéria seca de cada fração, realizou-se a análise estatística dos dados, visando à estabilização dos valores do coeficiente de variação (CV%. Para Pinus elliottii, a maior contribuição na formação da serapilheira foi dada pelas acículas, com 57,2%; em Eucalyptus sp., isso ocorreu com os galhos (38,8% e na FED, novamente com as folhas, que representaram 49,6% da serapilheira. No Pinus elliottii, o maior CV% se deu nos resíduos, seguido de estruturas reprodutivas. Em Eucalyptus sp., o maior CV% foi encontrado em cascas, seguido de galhos. Na FED, as cascas tiveram o maior CV%. A suficiência amostral necessária para Pinus elliottii foi de 40, sendo esse o povoamento que necessitou de menos amostras para estabilizar o CV%. Em Eucalyptus sp., a suficiência amostral foi de 70, enquanto na FED foram necessárias 80 amostras.This study determined the sample sufficiency for the collection of litter accumulated on the soil, in Pinus elliottii and Eucalyptus sp. stands, planted in the Campus of the Federal University of Santa Maria and a Seasonal Deciduous Forest, located at the "Morro do Elefante", Santa Maria - RS. To carry out this study, 100 samples were collected per site, using a square frame (25 cm², totaling 300 samples. The samples were separated in the following fractions: needles or

  5. Free-standing chiral plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Eunice Sok Ping; Deng, Jie; Wu, Siji; Khoo, Eng Huat; Liu, Yan Jun

    2014-11-01

    Chiral plasmonic nanostructures offer the ability to achieve strong optical circular dichroism (CD) activity over a broad spectral range, which has been challenging for chiral molecules. Chiral plasmonic nanostructures have been extensively studied based on top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques. Particularly, in the top-down electron-beam lithography, 3D plasmonic nanostructure fabrication involves layer-by-layer patterning and complex alignment, which is time-consuming and causes many defects in the structures. Here, we present a free-standing 3D chiral plamonic nanostructures using the electron-beam lithography technique with much simplified fabrication processes. The 3D chiral plasmonic nanostructures consist of a free-standing ultrathin silicon nitride membrane with well-aligned L-shape metal nanostructures on one side and disk-shape ones on the other side. The free-standing membrane provides an ultra-smooth metal/dielectric interface and uniformly defines the gap between the upper and lower layers in an array of chiral nanostructures. Such free-standing chiral plasmonic nanostructures exhibit strong CD at optical frequencies, which can be engineered by simply changing the disk size on one side of the membrane. Experimental results are in good agreement with the finite-difference time-domain simulations. Such free-standing chiral plasmonics holds great potential for chirality analysis of biomolecules, drugs, and chemicals.

  6. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Ivanov, V. A.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Soja, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  7. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, G A; Kukavskaya, E A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, V N Sukachev Institute of Forest, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V A [Siberian State Technological University, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 (Russian Federation); Soja, A J, E-mail: GAIvanova@ksc.krasn.r [National Institute of Aerospace, Resident at NASA Langley Research Center, MS 420, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  8. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...... wave height. Recommendations are made as to how to assess liquefaction potential in standing waves. Copyright © 2012 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)....

  9. FREE STANDING FILM OF POLYANILINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Meixiang; CAO Yong; LI Junchao; ZHOU Weixia; LI Suzhen

    1991-01-01

    A free standing film of polyaniline as large as 18cm×18cm×0.002cm can be obtained by evaporation of a solution of the chemically synthesized base in NMP. Its structure was examined by the elemental analysis, IR, U.V.-visible spectra, XPS, DSC, SEM and X-ray scattering and its conducting behavior as well as electrochemical properties were studied. Results show that the composition, structure of main chain, physical properties of the free standing tilm of polyaniline is similar to that of the powder. However, some differences in its electronic structure, conductivity at room temperature and potential of redox couple between the free standing film and powder are observed,which may be due to cross-linking of the film of polyaniline.

  10. 21 CFR 880.6990 - Infusion stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion stand. 880.6990 Section 880.6990 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6990 Infusion stand. (a) Identification. The infusion stand is a stationary or movable stand...

  11. Plant communities with Pinus mugo (alliance Pinion mugo in the subalpine belt of the Western Carpathians - a numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Šibík

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of plant communities with dominant Pinus mugo in the Western Carpathians is presented. The data set of 341 relevés was examined and analysed using the detrended correspondence analysis and the cluster analysis. Major gradients and clusters were interpreted using Ellenberg’s indicator values. The major gradient in species composition was associated with available nutrients and moisture. The authors suggest distinguishing the dwarf pine stands of the supramontanous and subalpine belts of the Western Carpathians referred to the alliance Pinion mugo Pawłowski in Pawłowski et al. 1928 of the order Junipero-Pinetalia mugo Boşcaiu 1971 and the class Roso pendulinae-Pinetea mugo Theurillat in Theurillat et al. 1995, into three separate associations: the Cetrario-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, the Homogyno alpinae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 nom. nov., and the Adenostylo alliariae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 Šoltésová 1974. The authors also elucidated the unauthorized name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, which is a younger homonym of the valid name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum montanae Morton 1927 that characterises the acidophilous dwarf pine stands on calcareous bedrocks in the Alps.

  12. [Carbon storage of Pinus thunbergii and Robinia pseudoacacia plantations on Nanchangshan Island, Changdao County of Shandong Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Wang, Ai; Shi, Hong-Hua; Peng, Shi-Tao; Gong, Li-Peng; Qin, Xue-Bo

    2013-05-01

    Using indigenous tree species to transform large area pure plantations has been an effective close-to-nature forest management mode in China islands. By using the biomass allometric equation and combined with the investigation data from sampling plots, the carbon storage of the dominant species Pinus thunbergii and Robinia pseudoacacia in the plantations on the Nanchangshan Island of Miaodao Archipelago in Changdao County of Shandong Province was estimated. The average carbon storage in the arbor layer of P. thunbergii and R. pseudoacacia plantations was 56.81 and 37.26 t x hm(-2), respectively, being higher than the average carbon stock (27.62 t x hm(-2)) of tree plantations in Shandong Province. Slope aspect and stand density were the important environmental and biological factors affecting the tree's carbon stock in the Island, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the average cumulative rate of biomass in the arbor layer of P. thunbergi plantation and the stand age. The P. thunbergii with good carbon sequestration function could be an ideal tree species on Nanchangshan Island.

  13. The essential oil qualitative and quantitative composition in the needles of Pinus sylvestris L. growing along industrial transects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija [Department of Biology, Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos 8, LT-44404 Kaunas (Lithuania)], E-mail: e.kupcinskiene@gmail.com; Stikliene, Aida [Department of Ecology, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11, LT-53361 Kaunas, Akademija (Lithuania); Judzentiene, Asta [Institute of Chemistry, A. Gostauto 9, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the areas affected by a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Volatile components of the needles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The most heavily polluted CF stand had significantly higher concentration of {gamma}-Terpinene, Caryophyllene oxide in the current-year needles, while higher concentration of {delta}-3-Carene, {alpha}-Terpinene, {gamma}-Terpinene and Terpinolene was documented for 1-year-old needles. The most heavily polluted OR stand had a significantly higher concentration of Sabinene + {beta}-Pinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the current-year needles and a significantly higher concentration of Camphene, Sabinene + {beta}-Pinene, Myrcene, {alpha}-Cadinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the 1-year-old needles than the least polluted site. Along transects an increase in the amount of some diterpenes and a decrease in the components of the shorter chain essential oils was observed. These effects could be at least partially attributed to SO{sub 2}. - Quantities of components of essential oil in the needles of Scots pine growing around two factories are described in relation to pollution.

  14. Post-fire regeneration dynamics in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in Wind River and Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer G Klutsch; Betsy A Goodrich; William R Jacobi

    2015-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) populations are in decline across the species’ range due to historic wildfire exclusion, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) outbreaks, and an invasive fungal pathogen causing the disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, WPBR). Despite reliance on stand-replacing fires, information on whitebark pine regeneration occurrence is limited and the trajectory of future forests is largely unknown in some areas of the range. Regeneration densities were assessed in burned and adjacent non-burned areas at six high elevation locations in northwest Wyoming where stand-replacing fires occurred 8–32 years before the surveys. In these locations at the eastern extent of the species range, we assessed what site factors were associ-ated with regeneration success. Whitebark pine regen-eration density was greater and seedlings were older in non-burned compared to burned areas. Within burns, north aspects had more regeneration than south aspects. Potential seed source densities and other species’ regeneration were positively related to whitebark pine regeneration densities in burned areas. South facing slopes or grass covered areas may have either delayed or no regeneration of whitebark pine without the help of artificial planting.

  15. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  16. A national scale estimation of soil carbon stocks of Pinus densiflora forests in Korea: a modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K.; Park, C.; Ryu, S.; Lee, K.; Yi, M.; Kim, C.; Park, G.; Kim, R.; Son, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) stocks of Pinus densiflora forests in Korea were estimated using a generic forest soil C dynamics model based on the process of dead organic matter input and decomposition. Annual input of dead organic matter to the soil was determined by stand biomass and turnover rates of tree components (stem, branch, twig, foliage, coarse root, and fine root). The model was designed to have a simplified structure consisting of three dead organic matter C (DOC) pools (aboveground woody debris (AWD), belowground woody debris (BWD), and litter (LTR) pool) and one soil organic C (SOC) pool. C flows in the model were regulated by six turnover rates of stem, branch, twig, foliage, coarse root, and fine root, and four decay rates of AWD, BWD, LTR, and SOC. To simulate the soil C stocks of P. densiflora forests, statistical data of forest land area (1,339,791 ha) and growing stock (191,896,089 m3) sorted by region (nine provinces and seven metropolitan cities) and stand age class (11 to 20- (II), 21 to 30- (III), 31 to 40- (IV), 41 to 50- (V), and 51 to 60-year-old (VI)) were used. The growing stock of each stand age class was calculated for every region and representable site index was also determined by consulting the yield table. Other model parameters related to the stand biomass, annual input of dead organic matter and decomposition were estimated from previous studies conducted on P. densiflora forests in Korea, which were also applied for model validation. As a result of simulation, total soil C stock of P. densiflora forests were estimated as 53.9 MtC and soil C stocks per unit area ranged from 28.71 to 47.81 tC ha-1 within the soil depth of 30 cm. Also, soil C stocks in the P. densiflora forests of age class II, III, IV, V, and VI were 16,780,818, 21,450,812, 12,677,872, 2,366,939, and 578,623 tC, respectively, and highly related to the distribution of age classes. Soil C stocks per unit area initially decreased with stand age class and started to increase

  17. Evaluación de tres métodos para el arrastre de madera en rodales naturales de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea Evaluation of three methods of the log Pinus caribaea skidding in natural set of wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Cándano Acosta

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó en rodales naturales de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, ubicados en la unidad silvícola San Andrés, La Palma, provincia Pinar del Río. El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar la eficiencia y los daños causados a la cubierta vegetal del suelo durante la operación de arrastre de madera. Se evaluaron tres métodos: 1 - el arrastre de fustes enteros con yuntas de bueyes hasta los patios de carga; 2 - el arrastre de fustes enteros con tractor hasta los patios de carga; 3 - el arrastre de fustes enteros con yuntas de bueyes hasta las pistas de arrastre y con tractor hasta los patios de carga. El método de arrastre de madera que consistió en la combinación del empleo de animales y de tractor resultó más eficiente y provocó menos alteraciones a la cubierta vegetal del suelo.The work was carried out in natural stand of Pinus caribaea var. caribaea located in San Andrés, Forestry enterprise of La Palma in the Pinar del Río province. The objective was determine which method of wood extraction results more efficient and reduce damages to the soil vegetable. Three method were evaluated: 1- the extraction of tree length with oxen to landing; 2 - the extraction of tree length with tractor to landing; 3 - the extraction of tree length with oxen to short distance and using tractor up to landing places. The method the extraction of tree length with oxen to short distance and using tractor up to landing places, resulted the most efficient and the one which fewer damages on the vegetable cover of the soil.

  18. Trace elements in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi growing in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudawska, Maria [Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Parkowa Str., 62-035 Kornik (Poland)]. E-mail: mariarud@man.poznan.pl; Leski, Tomasz [Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Parkowa Str., 62-035 Kornik (Poland)

    2005-03-01

    The trace metal contents in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, symbiotic partners of Scots pine, were studied on three sites situated in west-central Poland. Elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in 123 samples of 16 species. The study explored the differences in metal accumulation in relation to site, fungal species, age and part of the fruiting body and results were related to metal content in soil and plant material (roots and needles). Soil analysis revealed that results were obtained under environmental conditions not subject to strong anthropogenic pressure. Median metal concentrations did not differ disparately between sites, although the concentrations of each of the tested metals in the individual species varied to a large extent. Extremely high levels of Al with a large bioconcentration factor (BCF) were found in sporocarps of Thelephora terrestris. The spread between the highest and the lowest concentration (max/min) was very wide in Al, Cd and Pb and these elements may be considered to be absorbed preferentially by fruiting bodies of some species whereas Fe, Mn and Zn, with relatively low values of max/min, are normally absorbed by the majority of fungi. There was no clear relationship between caps and stipes in metal content. However, a tendency to higher metal concentration in the caps was observed. The metal content in young and older fruiting bodies of five different fungi was species dependent. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by plant and mushrooms, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In plant material (roots and needles), highest values of BCFs were noted for essential metals, like Zn and Mn. Lead showed a definite exclusion pattern (BCF below 1). In fruiting bodies of tested fungi, especially in Amanita muscaria, cadmium was the most intensively accumulated metal. Lead was excluded by plants but was accumulated or excluded by fungi depending on the species. The significance of mycological observation and quantification of the metal content in monitoring of the forest ecosystem is discussed.

  19. Response of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand to application of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and lime: 1. Soil data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, G.; Diest, van A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1985-1988, a 25-yr-old Scots pine forest in Netherlands was limed and fertilized with P, K and Mg in a 24 factorial design and in an experiment with 5 liming levels, in order to alleviate potential nutrient deficiencies as a result of high N depositions (ca. 40 kg ha-1 yr-1). In this paper, effec

  20. Variabilidad ambiental y productividad en Pinus halepensis Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    El pino carrasco (Pinus halepensis Mill.) es una especie de gran importancia en restauraciones y repoblaciones en la península Ibérica, capaz de subsistir en zonas secas y ambientes desfavorables, y crucial en el estudio del cambio climático al situarse en un enclave tan representativo como la cuenca mediterránea. A pesar de ello, es muy poca la información que se tiene sobre el comportamiento de esta especie. Por este motivo en el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la productividad del pino...

  1. Pinus pinaster Knot: A Source of Polyphenols against Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaston, Julien; Richard, Tristan; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Palos Pinto, Antonio; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-09-29

    Pine knot extract from Pinus pinaster byproducts was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Fourteen polyphenols divided into four classes were identified as follows: lignans (nortrachelogenin, pinoresinol, matairesinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol), flavonoids (pinocembrin, pinobanksin, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin), stilbenes (pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, pterostilbene), and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid). The antifungal potential of pine knot extract, as well as the main compounds, was tested in vitro against Plasmopara viticola. The ethanolic extract showed a strong antimildew activity. In addition, pinosylvins and pinocembrin demonstrated significant inhibition of zoospore mobility and mildew development. These findings strongly suggest that pine knot is a potential biomass that could be used as a natural antifungal product.

  2. Students dance longitudinal standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    A demonstration is presented that involves students dancing longitudinal standing waves. The resulting kinaesthetic experience and visualization both contribute towards an understanding of the natural modes of vibrations in open and closed pipes. A video of this fun classroom activity is provided (http://mjtruiz.com/ped/dance/).

  3. Burnout : de stand van zaken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Schaufeli, W.

    2013-01-01

    Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de stand van zaken in het onderzoek naar burnout. Burnout is een syndroom van extreme vermoeidheid (uitputting), afstand nemen van het werk (distantie) en weinig vertrouwen in het eigen kunnen (verminderde competentie), waarbij de oorzaken voor deze aspecten geleg

  4. A3 TEST STAND CONSTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    THIS IMAGE SHOWS THE DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE A3 TEST STAND IN SUPPORT OF THE ARES/CLV UPPER STAGE ENGINE AT STENNIS SPACE CENTER, MISSISSIPPI. THIS IMAGE IS EXTRACTED FROM A HIGH DEFINITION VIDEO FILE AND IS THE HIGHEST RESOLUTION AVAILABLE.

  5. A3 TEST STAND CONSTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    THIS IMAGE SHOWS THE DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE A3 TEST STAND IN SUPPORT OF THE ARES/CLV UPPER STAGE ENGINE AT STENNIS SPACE CENTER, MISSISSIPPI. THIS IMAGE IS EXTRACTED FROM A HIGH DEFINITION VIDEO FILE AND IS THE HIGHEST RESOLUTION AVAILABLE.

  6. Burnout : de stand van zaken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Schaufeli, W.

    2013-01-01

    Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de stand van zaken in het onderzoek naar burnout. Burnout is een syndroom van extreme vermoeidheid (uitputting), afstand nemen van het werk (distantie) en weinig vertrouwen in het eigen kunnen (verminderde competentie), waarbij de oorzaken voor deze aspecten

  7. Antalya Ovacık Dağı Yöresi'nde Kızılçam (Pinus brutia Ten.)'ın Gelişimi İle Yetişme Ortamı Özellikleri Arasındaki İlişkiler

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELİK, Halil; Kürşad ÖZKAN

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the relationships between Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.)'s height growth and site environment features in the Antalya Ovacık Mountain district. For this purpose, seventy sample plots were taken from pure Brutian pine stands in Antalya Ovacık Mountain district. Edaphic and physiographic factors in each sample plots were determined. Additionally, site index of each plots were determined using average height of dominant trees at reference age at ...

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16363-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P6223RC11.T0 Acorn worm blastula/gastrula pCM... 42 0.005 2 ( FJ057941 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4929 anonymous ...locus 0_15651_... 46 0.006 2 ( FJ057939 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4919 anonymous locu...s 0_15651_... 46 0.006 2 ( FJ057932 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4932 anonymous locus 0_15651_... 46 0.006 2 ( FJ05...7925 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4935 anonymous locus 0_15651_... 46 0.006 2 ( FJ057924 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4922 anonymous...nus pinaster root EST, clone RS38F03. 38 1.1 2 ( FJ057934 ) Pinus taeda isolate 4923 anonymous locus 0_15651

  9. Classification and ordination of understory vegetation using multivariate techniques in the Pinus wallichiana forests of Swat Valley, northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Inayat Ur; Khan, Nasrullah; Ali, Kishwar

    2017-04-01

    An understory vegetation survey of the Pinus wallichiana-dominated temperate forests of Swat District was carried out to inspect the structure, composition and ecological associations of the forest vegetation. A quadrat method of sampling was u