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Sample records for pinus pinea pinus

  1. [Storage proteins from seeds of Pinus pinea L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Nizar; Triki, Saïda

    2007-05-01

    The Mediterranean stone pine Pinus pinea L. (gymnosperm, Pinaceae) is much appreciated for its seed production, widely used in food preparation in the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds contain 25% proteins on a dry-weight basis. Pinus pinea accumulate globulins as major storage proteins in seeds (75% of total storage proteins), composed of several subunits of 10 to 150 kDa, revealed by SDS-PAGE. The albumin fraction (15%) represents three subunits of 14, 24 and 46 kDa. Glutelins, the least soluble fraction, represents a small proportion (10%). Their constitutive units have frequent PM of 43 kDa. Prolamins also represent a very small percentage (1 to 2%).

  2. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  3. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

    OpenAIRE

    Nacide Kizildag; Husniye Aka Sagliker; Ahu Kutlay; Sahin Cenkseven; Cengiz Darici

    2012-01-01

    Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the...

  4. Modelling silviculture alternatives for managing Pinus pinea L. forest in North-East Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqu-Nicalau, M.; Rio, M. del; Calama, R.; Montero, G.

    2011-07-01

    A yield model was developed to simulate silviculture alternatives for Pinus pinea L. in north-east Spain (Catalonia). The model uses several functions to estimate the main silvicultural parameters at stand level and a disaggregation system to predict diameter distributions. From a network of 75 temporary plots a system of equations to predict stand variables was simultaneously fitted for two stand density types, namely low and high density stands, using the three stage least-squares method (3SLS). The diameter distributions were estimated by the Weibull distribution function using the parameter recovery method (PRM) and the method of moments. Based on this yield model, two silviculture alternatives were simulated for each stand density type and site class, resulting in 16 silviculture scenarios. The yield model and silviculture alternatives offer a management tool and a guide for the sustainable forest management of even aged Pinus pinea forests in this region. (Author) 56 refs.

  5. The gymnosperm Pinus pinea contains both AOX gene subfamilies, AOX1 and AOX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, António Miguel; Zavattieri, Maria Amely; Campos, Maria Doroteia; Cardoso, Hélia Guerra; McDonald, Allison E; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2009-12-01

    The gymnosperm Pinus pinea L. (stone pine) is a typical Mediterranean pine used for nuts and timber production, and as an ornamental around the world. Pine genomes are large in comparison to other species. The hypothesis that retrotransposons, such as gymny, made a large contribution to this alteration in genome size was recently confirmed. However, P. pinea is unique in other various aspects. P. pinea demonstrates a different pattern of gymny organization than other Pinus subgenera. Additionally, P. pinea has a highly recalcitrant behaviour in relation to standard conifer protocols for the induction of somatic embryogenesis or rooting. Because such types of cell reprogramming can be explained as a reaction of plant cells to external stress, it is of special interest to study sequence peculiarities in stress-inducible genes, such as the alternative oxidase (AOX). This is the first report containing molecular evidence for the existence of AOX in gymnosperms at the genetic level. P. pinea AOXs were isolated by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach and three genes were identified. Two of the genes belong to the AOX1 subfamily and one belongs to the AOX2 subfamily. The existence of both AOX subfamilies in gymnosperms is reported here for the first time. This discovery supports the hypothesis that AOX1 and AOX2 subfamilies arose prior to the separation of gymnosperms and angiosperms, and indicates that the AOX2 is absent in monocots because of subsequent gene loss events. Polymorphic P. pinea AOX1 sequences from a selected genetic clone are presented indicating non-allelic, non-synonymous and synonymous translation products.

  6. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

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    Nacide Kizildag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the soils sampled from the Tarsus-Karabucak Forest of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Turkey. Method: Carbon mineralization of all samples was measured by the CO2 respiration method over 30 d at 28�C and constant moisture. Results: There were no significant differences in the carbon mineralization among the soils. The average fungi count in 1 g of air dried soils of E. camaldulensis, P. pinea, and P. maritima were found to be a 72000 colony forming unit (cfu/g, 25300 cfu/g, and 28500 cfu/g, respectively. The total bacterial counts were 4x103 cfu/g, 10x103 cfu/g, and 7x103 cfu/g and the counts of anaerobic bacteria were 17800 cfu/g, 42900 cfu/g, and 27300 cfu/g, respectively. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that salt, as an ecological factor, had no effect on microbial activity. This may be as a result of heavy rains which decreased the salt concentrations of the soil in the sampling region.

  7. Effect of benfluralin on Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhized with Pisolithus tinctorius and Suillus bellinii – Study of plant antioxidant response

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, A. R.; Pereira, Sofia I. A.; Castro, Pauia M. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhized with selected ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF), Pisolithus tinctorius and Suillus bellinii, were exposed to the herbicide benfluralin. Non-mycorrhized P. pinea seedlings and seedlings mycorrhized with ECMF were transferred to benfluralin-spiked soils at levels of 0.165, 1.65 and 16.5 mg kg 1. Plant growth and the fungal role on plant antioxidant response were assessed. In the presence of benfluralin, higher plant growth was observed in ...

  8. Use of multi-temporal UAV-derived imagery for estimating individual tree growth in Pinus pinea stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Guerra-Hernández; Eduardo González-Ferreiro; Vicente Monleon; Sonia Faias; Margarida Tomé; Ramón Díaz-Varela

    2017-01-01

    High spatial resolution imagery provided by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can yield accurate and efficient estimation of tree dimensions and canopy structural variables at the local scale. We flew a low-cost, lightweight UAV over an experimental Pinus pinea L. plantation (290 trees distributed over 16 ha with different fertirrigation treatments)...

  9. Epigenetic variability in the genetically uniform forest tree species Pinus pinea L.

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    Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Guevara, María-Ángeles; Díaz, Luis-Manuel; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Collada, Carmen; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of epigenetic variability in forest species and how it may contribute to their rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this study we have conducted a genome-wide analysis of cytosine methylation pattern in Pinus pinea, a species characterized by very low levels of genetic variation and a remarkable degree of phenotypic plasticity. DNA methylation profiles of different vegetatively propagated trees from representative natural Spanish populations of P. pinea were analyzed with the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) technique. A high degree of cytosine methylation was detected (64.36% of all scored DNA fragments). Furthermore, high levels of epigenetic variation were observed among the studied individuals. This high epigenetic variation found in P. pinea contrasted with the lack of genetic variation based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data. In this manner, variable epigenetic markers clearly discriminate individuals and differentiates two well represented populations while the lack of genetic variation revealed with the AFLP markers fail to differentiate at both, individual or population levels. In addition, the use of different replicated trees allowed identifying common polymorphic methylation sensitive MSAP markers among replicates of a given propagated tree. This set of MSAPs allowed discrimination of the 70% of the analyzed trees.

  10. Effects of prescribed burning on ecophysiological, anatomical and stem hydraulic properties in Pinus pinea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; Savi, Tadeja; Ascoli, Davide; Castagneri, Daniele; Esposito, Assunta; Mayr, Stefan; Nardini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Prescribed burning (PB) is a widespread management technique for wildfire hazard abatement. Understanding PB effects on tree ecophysiology is key to defining burn prescriptions aimed at reducing fire hazard in Mediterranean pine plantations, such as Pinus pinea L. stands. We assessed physiological responses of adult P. pinea trees to PB using a combination of dendroecological, anatomical, hydraulic and isotopic analyses. Tree-ring widths, xylem cell wall thickness, lumen area, hydraulic diameter and tree-ring δ(13)C and δ(18)O were measured in trees on burned and control sites. Vulnerability curves were elaborated to assess tree hydraulic efficiency or safety. Despite the relatively intense thermal treatment (the residence time of temperatures above 50 °C at the stem surface ranged between 242 and 2239 s), burned trees did not suffer mechanical damage to stems, nor significant reduction in radial growth. Moreover, the PB did not affect xylem structure and tree hydraulics. No variations in (13)C-derived water use efficiency were recorded. This confirmed the high resistance of P. pinea to surface fire at the stem base. However, burned trees showed consistently lower δ(18)O values in the PB year, as a likely consequence of reduced competition for water and nutrients due to the understory burning, which increased both photosynthetic activity and stomatal conductance. Our multi-approach analysis offers new perspectives on post-fire survival strategies of P. pinea in an environment where fires are predicted to increase in frequency and severity during the 21st century.

  11. Comparison of rainfall interception models in isolated individuals of Pinus pinea and Cistus ladanifer

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    R. Pérez-Arellano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of several simulation models of interception process commonly used in numerous studies, such as the classic versions of Rutter and Gash, also the version of Valente adapted by sparse forests. The aim is to analyze the applicability of different models in isolated especimens of two species of Mediterranean climate, Pinus pinea and Cistus ladanifer. The data collection was carried out in the watershed of “El Cabril” (Córdoba, from October 2010 to June 2015. The differences obtained between measurements and the results of the different models are less than 6%. Original version of Rutter model and original version of Gash model present a greater adjustment for pine and for cistus respectively.

  12. Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Ramos, L; Martinez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L

    2012-05-16

    Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L. (n = 7) have been studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as their trimethylsilyl oximes. Besides previously reported components, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose, several soluble carbohydrates have been identified for the first time in this product, including saccharides (galactose, maltose, and planteose) and cyclitols (pinitol, galactinol, galactopinitol A1, fagopyritol B1, and other glycosyl-inositols). Most abundant cyclitols were chiro-inositol, fagopyritol B1, and pinitol, with concentrations ranging from 126.7 to 222.1 mg (100 g)(-1), 94.2 to 177.1 mg (100 g)(-1), and 51.2 to 282.8 mg (100 g)(-1), respectively.

  13. Bases fisiológicas y moleculares en la micropropagación de familias de Pinus Pinea L.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La micropropagación de familias de Pinus pinea L. mediante organogénesis adventicia es una herramienta biotecnológica que permite la obtención de individuos clonales así como establecer un sistema experimental adecuado para el estudio de las bases fisiológicas del proceso caulogénico. El objetivo de la Tesis Doctoral ha sido la optimización del protocolo de micropropagación de 6 familias seleccionadas, evaluando su respuesta organogénica y certificando la estabilidad genética de los individuo...

  14. Addressing post-transplant summer water stress in Pinus pinea and Quercus ilex seedlings

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    Pardos M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In central Spain, post-transplant water stress produces high seedling mortality after the first summer following outplanting. Our study was designed to determine whether survival and performance of outplanted stone pine (Pinus pinea and holm oak (Quercus ilex seedlings in a burned area could be improved by summer irrigation and mulching and to identify whether there is a species-specific adaptive capacity to respond to treatment and environment. Seedlings were outplanted in March 2011 in 200 planting holes in an area of 1.1 ha. Mulch was added in June; irrigation started in July and was repeated every week until mid-September. The severity of the 2011 summer drought constrained growth rates and photosynthetic characteristics, mainly in the non-irrigated seedlings, whose survival at the end of the year after planting was approximately 2.5%. Stone pine and holm oak seedlings responded more to irrigation than to mulching in terms of shoot growth, biomass and survival. Furthermore, stone pine seedlings were found to be more responsive to the partial alleviation of summer drought than holm oak seedlings. Irrigation alone produced similar results to those obtained when both irrigation and mulching were employed. In conclusion, first year summer irrigation should be considered as a planned adaptation measure in the management of outplanted Mediterranean ecosystems, because once a gravimetrically measured soil moisture level as low as 2% is achieved seedling survival and physiological performance can be guaranteed. However, the repercussions for the potential persistence of both species in the area will not only be related to the recurrence and intensity of summer droughts but also to drought duration.

  15. Short communication. Tomography as a method to study umbrella pine (Pinus pinea) cones and nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, A.; Pereira, H.; Tomé, M.; Silva, J.; Fontes, L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Umbrella or stone pine (Pinus pinea) nuts are one of the most valuable and expensive non-wood forest products in Portugal. The increasing market and landowner's interest resulted on a high expansion of plantation areas. This study tests the feasibility of using tomography to characterize pine cones and nuts. Area of study: The research was carried out in pine stand, with nine years, grafted in 2011, on Herdade of Machoqueira do Grou, near Coruche, in Portugal’s central area. Material and Methods: Starting in June 2015, ten pine cones in their final stage of development, were randomly monthly collected, and evaluated with tomography equipment commonly used in clinical medicine, according to Protocol Abdomen Mean. A sequence of images corresponding to 1mm-spaced cross-sections were obtained and reconstructed to produce a 3D model. The segmented images were worked using free image processing software, like RadiAnt Dicom Viewer, Data Viewer and Ctvox. Main results: The cone’s structures were clearly visible on the images, and it was possible to easily identify empty pine nuts. Although expensive, tomography is an easy and quick application technique that allows to assess the internal structures, through the contrast of materials densities, allowing to estimate pine nut’s size and empty nut’s proportion. By analysis of ninety images, it was obtained, an estimated mean value of 25.5 % empty nuts. Research highlights: Results showed the potential of tomography as a screening tool to be used in industry and research areas, for analysis and diagnostic of stone pine cone’s structures. (Author)

  16. Effect of benfluralin on Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhized with Pisolithus tinctorius and Suillus bellinii--study of plant antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Albina R; Pereira, Sofia I A; Castro, Paula M L

    2015-02-01

    In this study, Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhized with selected ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF), Pisolithus tinctorius and Suillus bellinii, were exposed to the herbicide benfluralin. Non-mycorrhized P. pinea seedlings and seedlings mycorrhized with ECMF were transferred to benfluralin-spiked soils at levels of 0.165, 1.65 and 16.5 mg kg(-1). Plant growth and the fungal role on plant antioxidant response were assessed. In the presence of benfluralin, higher plant growth was observed in mycorrhized plants compared to non-mycorrhized plants, but ECMF colonisation and nutrient uptake were affected by the herbicide. Benfluralin showed no effect on lipid peroxidation in P. pinea seedlings. However, seedlings mycorrhized with S. bellinii showed higher levels of lipid peroxidation when compared to non-mycorrhized ones, both in the presence and absence of benfluralin. The increase of lipid peroxidation could be related to seedling growth induced by the fungus and not to benfluralin toxicity. A similar trend was observed in seedlings mycorrhized with P. tinctorius when exposed to higher benfluralin concentrations, suggesting that the antioxidant response to benfluralin is related not only to fungus species, but also to the level of stress applied in the soil. The higher amount of superoxide dismutase activity in P. pinea seedlings tissues exposed to benfluralin could indicate a plant adaptative response to benfluralin toxicity. Catalase activity showed no increase with benfluralin exposure. Pre-established P. tinctorius mycorrhization conferred root protection and enhanced plant growth in benfluralin spiked soil, inferring that P. tinctorius - P. pinea association could advantageous for plant growth in soils contaminated with pesticides.

  17. Scientific Opinion on comments provided by Portugal on the phytosanitary risk associated with Pinus pinea for the spread of pine wood nematode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from European Commission, the PLH Panel examined the comments of the Portuguese plant health authorities on a previous EFSA opinion with regard to pine wood nematode (PWN and Pinus pinea and a report on PWN surveys in Portugal. Regarding the comment, based on behavioural responses of PWN to CO2 and to ß-myrcene, that Monochamus galloprovincialis can feed on P. pinea without implying PWN infestation, the Panel noted the uncertainties on how chemical attraction influences the exit of PWN from the vector. The Panel agreed that P. pinea is not a preferred breeding host of M. galloprovincialis, but it noted the evidence from Italy of breeding of M. galloprovincialis in fallen woods of P. pinea, suggesting P. pinea to be an occasional host. The Panel agreed that, although pathogenicity of PWN has been recorded on P. pinea in inoculation experiments on small plants, this does not necessarily relate to pathogenicity on larger trees in the field. The additional information on Portuguese PWN surveys is not sufficient to conclude that P. pinea is resistant to PWN. The Panel also noted that asymptomatic infestations by PWN are well known in other areas, and pine species considered tolerant to PWN could still maintain it at low levels in restricted parts of a tree. The Panel concluded that there is high uncertainty concerning the classification of the risk of spread of PWN with plants and wood of P. pinea, owing to the scarcity of information on the interaction of M. galloprovincialis, PWN and P. pinea, as well as on the field resistance of P. pinea to PWN. Owing to high uncertainty related to the host potential of P. pinea, more studies on the transmission of PWN at feeding wounds and on its survival in trees and wood of P. pinea are needed.

  18. Biochemical changes in Pinus pinea seeds. III. The effect of growth substances and steroidal hormones on nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Honduvilla, C J; Giménez-Solves, A; Santos-Ruiz, A

    1976-09-01

    The effects of exogenous growth factors (indolacetic acid, gibberellic acid and kinetin and steroidal hormones (estrone, estradiol and testosterone on the germination pattern of Pinus pinea seeds were studied. Nucleic acids metabolism during the stages before germination, has also been investigated. Seeds sown in the presence of all these substances, showed a higher growth rate and a higher germination degree than their respective controls; kinetin and estradiol were the most active factors. The level of total nucleic acids was studied in seeds after one day soaking and on the 1rst, 3rd, 5th, and 7th day after sowing. Megagametophytes contained a higher amount of acids when growth factors and steroidal hormones were present, specially after one day soaking. In embryos; after the 3rd day, a similar result was obtained. The RNA fraction increased the most.

  19. Short Communication. Using high resolution UAV imagery to estimate tree variables in Pinus pinea plantation in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Hernandez, J.; Gonzalez-Ferreiro, E.; Sarmento, A.; Silva, J.; Nunes, A.; Correia, A.C.; Fontes, L.; Tomé, M.; Diaz-Varela, D.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The study aims to analyse the potential use of low‑cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery for the estimation of Pinus pinea L. variables at the individual tree level (position, tree height and crown diameter). Area of study: This study was conducted under the PINEA project focused on 16 ha of umbrella pine afforestation (Portugal) subjected to different treatments. Material and methods: The workflow involved: a) image acquisition with consumer‑grade cameras on board an UAV; b) orthomosaic and digital surface model (DSM) generation using structure-from-motion (SfM) image reconstruction; and c) automatic individual tree segmentation by using a mixed pixel‑ and region‑based based algorithm. Main results: The results of individual tree segmentation (position, height and crown diameter) were validated using field measurements from 3 inventory plots in the study area. All the trees of the plots were correctly detected. The RMSE values for the predicted heights and crown widths were 0.45 m and 0.63 m, respectively. Research highlights: The results demonstrate that tree variables can be automatically extracted from high resolution imagery. We highlight the use of UAV systems as a fast, reliable and cost‑effective technique for small scale applications. (Author)

  20. Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles and bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. by GC-MS.

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    Ratola, Nuno; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià; Alves, Arminda

    2009-01-15

    Two different extraction strategies (microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic extraction (USE)) were tested in the extraction of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from pine trees. Extraction of needles and bark from two pine species common in the Iberian Peninsula (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) was optimized using two amounts of sample (1g and 5 g) and two PAHs spiking levels (20 ng/g and 100 ng/g). In all cases, the clean-up procedure following extraction consisted in solid-phase extraction (SPE) with alumina cartridges. Quantification was done by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS), using five deuterated PAH surrogate standards as internal standards. Limits of detection were globally below 0.2 ng/g. The method was robust for the matrices studied regardless of the extraction procedures. Recovery values between 70 and 130% were reached in most cases, except for high molecular weight PAHs (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene). A field study with naturally contaminated samples from eight sites (four in Portugal and four in Catalonia, Spain) showed that needles are more suitable biomonitors for PAHs, yielding concentrations from 2 to 17 times higher than those found in bark. The levels varied according to the sampling site, with the sum of the individual PAH concentrations between 213 and 1773 ng/g (dry weight). Phenanthrene was the most abundant PAH, followed by fluoranthene, naphthalene and pyrene.

  1. Seasonal and annualvariability of interception for Pinus pinea and Cistus ladanifer in a watershed with Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Arellano, Rafael; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2015-04-01

    Interception in forests depends on the characteristics of the rains, the weather, vegetation type and interactions between these factors. Its study is very important, especially in Mediterranean region where rainfall has a high variability and water balance is negative for much in the year. The aim of this work is to study the seasonal and annual variability of the interception of the predominant vegetation in the watershed of "The Cabril" (Córdoba, Southern Spain). To obtain data of the interception process two experimental setups were installed. These setups are in Pinus pinea plot and in Cistus ladanifer plot, where canopy interception is measured in a traditional way by subtracting throughfall and stemflow from the incident precipitation. Data was collected during the years of 2010/11; 2011/12; 2012/13 and 2013/14, two of which were rainy (rainfall of about 750 mm) and two quite dry (rainfall of about 400 mm) obtaining an average interception losses of 29.6% for P. pinea and of 17.1% for C. ladanifer. However, a large variability between dry and wet years is shown. The values of interception for P. pinea vary between 23% in wet years to 40% in dry years. A similar behavior occurs in C. ladanifer where interception has a value of 12% in wet years and 21% in dry years. This is because the canopy storage capacity is exceeded more easily in rainy years. Furthermore, the results are analyzed at different time scales, comparing different hydrological years to study behaviour interception losses in the basin. Results show that the canopy interception not only differs with vegetation type and annual precipitation, but also within seasons. During the fall, interception losses are lower than in other stations, which can be explained not only because the vegetation has lost its leaves, but this season has concentrated most of the volume of precipitation (almost 50%). In winter interception losses are higher than autumn because decreasing precipitation and rainfall

  2. Nitrogen nutrition and drought hardening exert opposite effects on the stress tolerance of Pinus pinea L. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Peñuelas, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2013-02-01

    Functional attributes determine the survival and growth of planted seedlings in reforestation projects. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources in the cultivation of forest species, which have a strong effect on plant functional traits. We analyzed the influence of N nutrition on drought acclimation of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Specifically, we addressed if high N fertilization reduces drought and frost tolerance of seedlings and whether drought hardening reverses the effect of high N fertilization on stress tolerance. Seedlings were grown under two N fertilization regimes (6 and 100 mg N per plant) and subjected to three drought-hardening levels (well-watered, moderate and strong hardening). Water relations, gas exchange, frost damage, N concentration and growth at the end of the drought-hardening period, and survival and growth of seedlings under controlled xeric and mesic outplanting conditions were measured. Relative to low-N plants, high-N plants were larger, had higher stomatal conductance (27%), residual transpiration (11%) and new root growth capacity and closed stomata at higher water potential. However, high N fertilization also increased frost damage (24%) and decreased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (9%). Drought hardening reversed to a great extent the reduction in stress tolerance caused by high N fertilization as it decreased frost damage, stomatal conductance and residual transpiration by 21, 31 and 24%, respectively, and increased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (8%). Drought hardening increased tissue non-structural carbohydrates and N concentration, especially in high-fertilized plants. Frost damage was positively related to the stability of plasmalemma to dehydration (r = 0.92) and both traits were negatively related to the concentration of reducing soluble sugars. No differences existed between moderate and strong drought-hardening treatments. Neither N nutrition nor drought hardening had any clear effect on seedling

  3. INFLUENCIA DEL USO DE REGULADORES DE CRECIMIENTO SOBRE BROTES VEGETATIVOS Y NÚMERO DE ESTRÓBILOS MASCULINOS EN Pinus pinea L. EN CHILE

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    Alejandro Venegas-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de reguladores de crecimiento o fitorreguladores, es una alternativa para aumentar la floración en la familia Pinaceae. En este estudio se analizaron los efectos de la aplicación de reguladores de crecimiento (fitorreguladores sobre brotes vegetativos y estróbilos masculinos de Pinus pinea L. Los productos seleccionados fueron: giberelina cuatro más siete (GA 4+7 , ácido naftalenacético (NAA y bencilaminopurina (BAP, distribuidos en siete tratamientos, incluido el control. Estos fitorreguladores se emplearon en una plantación de Pinus pinea de 16 años de edad ubicada en Toconey, comuna de Pencahue, región del Maule-Chile. Los tratamientos se aplicaron en cinco fechas, cada dos semanas (fin de agosto a inicio de noviembre. Al final de las aplicaciones se evaluaron las variables: estróbilos masculinos, número de brotes vegetativos y de nuevas brotes, y longitud de brotes apicales . Los principales resultados indicaron que la aplicación de 1.000 mg L -1 de GA 4+7 , fue el tratamiento que indujo la mayor floración masculina, presentando un 99,6 % más de estróbilos con respecto a las ramas testigo y también tuvo un efecto significativo en la longitud de los brotes apicales, aumentando más del doble la longitud respecto al testigo. En el número de brotes vegetativos, la aplicación de 500 mg L -1 BAP mostró diferencias significativas, obteniendo un incremento de 414,3 % con respecto al tratamiento control.

  4. Early physiological responses of Pinus pinea L. seedlings infected by Heterobasidion sp.pl. in an ozone-enriched atmospheric environment.

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    Pollastrini, Martina; Luchi, Nicola; Michelozzi, Marco; Gerosa, Giacomo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Bussotti, Filippo; Capretti, Paolo

    2015-03-01

    The presence of the American root-rot disease fungus Heterobasidion irregulare Garbel. & Otrosina was detected in Italian coastal pine forests (Pinus pinea L.) in addition to the common native species Heterobasidion annosum (Fries) Brefeld. High levels of tropospheric ozone (O3) as an atmospheric pollutant are usually experienced in Mediterranean pine forests. To explore the effect of interaction between the two Heterobasidion species and ozone pollution on P. pinea, an open-top chamber (OTC) experiment was carried out. Five-year-old P. pinea seedlings were inoculated with the fungal species considered (H. irregulare, H. annosum and mock-inoculation as control), and then exposed in charcoal-filtered open-top chambers (CF-OTC) and non-filtered ozone-enriched chambers (NF+) from July to the first week of August 2010 at the experimental facilities of Curno (North Italy). Fungal inoculation effects in an ozone-enriched environment were assessed as: (i) the length of the inoculation lesion; (ii) chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) responses; and (iii) analysis of resin terpenes. Results showed no differences on lesion length between fungal and ozone treatments, whereas the short-term effects of the two stress factors on ChlF indicate an increased photosynthetic efficiency, thus suggesting the triggering of compensation/repair processes. The total amount of resin terpenes is enhanced by fungal infection of both species, but depressed by ozone to the levels observed in mock-inoculated plants. Variations in terpene profiles were also induced by stem base inoculations and ozone treatment. Ozone might negatively affect terpene defences making plants more susceptible to pathogens and insects.

  5. Diurnal and seasonal variation of monoterpene emission rates for two typical Mediterranean species (Pinus pinea and Quercus ilex) from field measurements - relationship with temperature and PAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabillon, D.; Cremades, L.V. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Projectes d' Enginyeria

    2001-07-01

    Two of the most typical Mediterranean tree species (Pinus pinea [Pp] and Quercus ilex [Qi]) were screened for emissions of monoterpenes during the period of June 1997-July 1998 in the field at a semi-rural location near Terrassa (Barcelona, Spain) using a bag-enclosure sampling method followed by gas chromatography analysis with mass selective detection (GC/MSD). A mean of about eight samples per day were measured. A periodical sampling throughout 1 yr allowed to examine data for long-term influences. The main compounds emitted from Pp were linalool, limonene, trans-ocimene and 1,8-cineole (80% on average). Eighty percent of total emissions in Qi were {beta}-pinene, {alpha}-pinene, myrcene and sabinene, followed by limonene, {beta}-phellandrene, {delta}-terpinene and trans-ocimene (20%). On average, the standard monoterpene emission rate from Qi was approximately three times higher than from Pp. Diurnal and seasonal emission variations were characterized with regard to temperature and PAR. For both species a statistically significant variation in monoterpene emissions was observed between seasons for 1 yr period. For Pp, the seasonal variability not accounted for by PAR and temperature is also estimated and compared with existing models in the literature. (author)

  6. Diplodia pinea (Desm.) Kickx y Fusarium circinatum Niremberg & O'Donell, principales hongos de chancro de las masas forestales de Pinus radiata D. Don del País Vasco

    OpenAIRE

    García Serna, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    228 p. Los hongos patógenos Diplodia pinea y Fusarium circinatum son agentes causantes de enfermedades de chancro en pinos y en diversas ocasiones presentan una sintomatología y colonización de hospedadores con varios aspectos en común. Los daños causados por estas especies suelen ser más agresivos cuando las especies hospedadoras se exponen a condiciones de estrés hídrico, nutricional y fenómenos meteorológicos frecuentes en el País Vasco como granizadas y vendavales. Pinus radiata es ...

  7. Multielemental fractionation in pine nuts (Pinus pinea) from different geographic origins by size-exclusion chromatography with UV and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ariza, J L; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, T

    2006-07-21

    Pine nuts (Pinus pinea) from different geographical origin in Spain and Portugal have been investigated concerning total element content and metal-biomolecules size distribution patterns Mn, Zn, Ni and Cu. All the studied metals were at the highest concentration in pine nuts from Faro and at the lowest from Cataluña. The most abundant element in samples was Mn at concentrations in the range of 26 microg g(-1) (Cataluña) to 559 microg g(-1) (Faro). Zn was also present at high concentration in samples, from 25 microg g(-1) (Cataluña) to 113 microg g(-1) (Faro). To a deeper insight to obtain classification rules for samples, pine nuts were analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with UV detection and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two columns were used covering the molecular weigh range from pine nuts from Huelva. This column allows good discrimination in the range of 2126-1352 Da in which a lot of peaks can be used to differentiate samples. The UV profiles obtained with the high molecular weight (HMW) column allows a poorer differentiation of samples, but pine nuts from Huelva, Castilla and Madrid are clearly distinguished to the others. In relation to fractionation patterns of metals, Mn allows a good discrimination between samples (LMW column), Cu was the only one associated to fractions at MW > 70 kDa in sample from Cádiz, and profiles of Ni and Zn are clearly different in terms of abundance of peaks. All these chromatographic profiles for elements give valuable information about the geographical origin of the studied samples and the differences found are discussed in this work.

  8. Fumonisin production by Gibberella fujikuroi strains from Pinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirete, S; Patiño, B; Vázquez, C; Jiménez, M; Hinojo, M J; Soldevilla, C; González-Jaén, M T

    2003-12-31

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins basically produced by strains from the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (with anamorphs in Fusarium genus) which contaminate food and feed products representing a risk to human and animal health. In this work, we report for the first time the fumonisin production of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon strains associated to edible pine nuts of Pinus pinea. P. pinea is an important and widely distributed Pinus species in the Mediterranean area where their pine nuts are consumed raw or slightly processed in diverse food products. In this work, characterization and further identification of those strains were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS) with the aid of the eight mating populations (A-H) described for G. fujikuroi species complex. The method was powerful to detect polymorphism, allowing discrimination between individuals and could be used to study the genetic relationships among them and within the G. fujikuroi species complex. Fusarium strains associated to Pinus radiata were also included in the present study. These strains did not produce fumonisins and showed no close relation with the strains isolated from P. pinea. The approach used in this work was rapid and proved to be efficient to assist identification and to characterize and analyse relatedness of new isolates within the G. fujikuroi species complex.

  9. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp. Grown in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo P. Vanhanen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine (Pinus armandii Franch, Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L., Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little, Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri D. Don, Johann’s pine (Pinus johannis M.F. Robert, Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L. and Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière, was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day while they supplied between 39%–89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  10. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki; Ewa Bajus; Halina Ratyńska

    2014-01-01

    Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the result...

  11. Wind pollination in Pinus roxburghii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod Prasad KHANDURI; Chandra Mohan SHARMA

    2007-01-01

    Stigmatic pollen load and pollen concentration in the air were studied in the natural population of Pinus roxburghii at Ashtavakra (900 m asl), in the Pauri forest division of Garhwal Himalaya, India. The results reflect diurnal pollen occurrence in P. roxburghii, with the strong significant correlations between pollen concentrations in the air and wind speed, air temperature and relative air humidity. A significant correlation was also observed between microsporangium dehiscence and pollen occurrence in the air. The maximum concentration of pollen grains in the air and higher rates of pollen deposition onto the megasporophylls were between 12 pm and 16 pm of the day, which conforms the best time for pollination in a day in P. roxburghii. The receptivity of Ovulate strobili varied from 3 to 5days, however, the bagged strobili remained receptive up to 6 days.

  12. Fossil records of subsection Pinus (genus Pinus, Pinaceae) from the Cenozoic in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2014-03-01

    Extant pines of subsection Pinus (section Pinus, genus Pinus, Pinaceae) are predominantly distributed in Eastern Asia. However, the extent of diversification in the section has yet to be fully clarified. We reviewed fossil records of subsection Pinus from Japan and collected permineralized materials, in which anatomical details are preserved for better understanding of the diversification. Our results suggest that this subsection appeared in Japan no earlier than the Middle Eocene, with extant species (i.e., Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii) appearing around the beginning of the Pleistocene. Pinus fujiii (Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene) is inferred to have a close affinity to P. thunbergii based on the medial arrangement of its leaf resin canals. Additionally, P. fujiii has a similar cone morphology to those of extant species living in China, bridging the morphological gap between P. thunbergii and Chinese relatives of P. thunbergii as inferred by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Our results also suggest that taxonomic revisions of Pinus miocenica and Pinus oligolepis are required among the Japanese fossil species reported to date.

  13. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the results the supposition that Pinus uliginosa from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog is a marginal population of P. uncinata can be excluded, because of their significant difference in genetic structure. The presumable reasons of specificity of P. uliginosa population are disscused.

  14. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  15. Pinus taeda AND Pinus oocarpa PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING WITH FENOL-FORMALDHEYDE RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the plywood, manufactured from Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa, with 20 and 24 years old respectively, using three differentformulations of the fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of the glue line shearing tests not showed statistical differences between the species and three resin formulations. In the hot water test, all of the boards were classified as “BR” and, the boards of the Pinus oocarpa produced with formulations (1and (3, were classified as “WBP”. The different resin formulations not influenced on the modulus ofelasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR The boards of Pinus taeda with formulations (1 and(2 showed higher values of MOE in comparison of the Pinus oocarpa. The MOR of the Pinus oocarpa withformulation (2 was higher than Pinus taeda. The mechanical properties of the plywood wereprobably influenced by wood variability related to sapwood and hartwood, thickness of growth ringsand, springwood and summerwood.

  16. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  17. Fire Occurrence Environments in Pinus pumila Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many serious forest fires occurred in precious Pinus pumila forests in Daxing'anling Mountains of Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia. But up to now, there is still a lack of proper understanding of fire occurrence environments in P. pumila forests. In present paper, we investigated and studied the fire occurrence environments. The results showed that fires in P. pumila forests had their own special fire environments. Abundant fuel, drought weather, dry thunder and high altitude terrai...

  18. Two new antitumor diterpenes from Pinus sylvestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wang; Zhang Rong; Jie Teng; Yoshihisa Takaishi; Hong Quan Duan

    2008-01-01

    Two new diterpenes,15-ethyl- 18-methyl pinifolate (1)and 18-hydroxy-labda-8(17),13E-dien-15-acetate (2),were isolated fromthe needles of Pinus sylvestris.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods,including 2D-NMR spectra.Compound1 exhibited the significant eytotoxic activity against the human carcinoma cell lines Hela,SK-N-SH and BEL-7402 in vitro.

  19. Characterising the Land Surface Phenology of Mediterranean Pinus species using the MODIS NDVI time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Aragones, David; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.; Caparros-Santiago, Jose A.

    2017-04-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) can improve the monitoring of forest areas and their change processes. The aim of this work is to characterize the temporal dynamics in Mediterranean Pinus forests. The different experiments were based on 679 mono-specific plots for the 5 native species in the Iberian Peninsula: P. sylvestris, P. pinea, P. halepensis, P. nigra and P. pinaster, which were obtained from the Third National Forest Inventory of Spain. The whole MODIS NDVI time series (2000-2016) were used to characterize the seasonal behavior of the pine forest. The following phenological parameters were extracted for each cycle from the smoothed time series: the day of beginning, end, middle and the length in days of season also base value, maximum value, amplitude and integrated value. Multi-temporal metrics were calculated to synthesize the inter-annual variability of the phenological parameters. An atypical behavior was detected for the years 2004 and 2011 and 2000, 2009 and 2015 for all Pinus species, matching wet and dry cycles, respectively. The inter and intra-species analysis of NDVI and LSP showed two different patterns: an important decreasing during the summer for those species such as P. halepensis, P. pinea y P. pinaster; and a lower NDVI variation among the year for P. sylvestris and P. nigra in certain areas. P. sylvestris had a phenological behavior different to P. pinea, P. halepensis and P. pinaster. P. nigra showed and heterogeneous intra-specific behaviour that might be associated to the existence of subspecies with different phenology.

  20. Response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lesch, W

    1997-12-15

    Full Text Available ELSEVIER Forest Ecology and Management 99 (1997) 295-307 The response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations W. Lesch, David F. Scott * Jonkershoek Forestry Research Centre....304 1.052(p,) 0.96 2nd ?/-= eP?CbE - 3.456 7.134( /3>) 0.95 Cathedral Total streamflow 1 st T= e6c1Clil - 0.727 1.114(/3,) 0.95 Peak Dry season streamflow 1 St Tz e6?C?? -0.871 I .207( p, ) 0.88 W. Lesch, D.F. Scott...

  1. Effects of SO/sub 2/ on the germination of conifer pollen. [Pinus mugo; Pinus nigra; Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T.; Beda, H.

    1984-01-01

    Collections on agar of fresh and stored pollen grains of Pinus mugo, P. nigra and P. sylvestris were fumigated with SO/sub 2/ for 16 or 24 h. The ability of pollen of P. mugo and P. sylvestris to germinate was decreased by storage but sensitivities to SO/sub 2/ were not greatly altered. Germination was inhibited consistently by atmospheres with 0.225 ppm SO/sub 2/. At 0.075 ppm - a typical ambient concentration during temperature inversions - P. nigra and P. sylvestris were more sensitive than P. mugo which responded in the same way as pollen of Abies alba.

  2. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danusevicius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas;

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the i...

  3. 乔松Pinus wallichiana与不丹松Pinus bhutanica之初步辨析%A preliminary analysis of the difference between Pinus wallichiana and Pinus bhutanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑维列; 徐阿生

    2003-01-01

    根据最新的文献资料,初步分析了乔松Pinus wallichiana与不丹松Pinus bhutanica在一年生小枝、针叶(主要是树脂道)、球果、种鳞、鳞脐和种子等六个方面的性状区别特征,结合以前对藏东南和藏南地区单维管束松树的调查所掌握的材料,认为不丹松是从乔松中分出来的;它们的分布区存在重叠,但各自构成的群落具有较大的生态学差异;通过性状差异性质的辨析,讨论了不丹松种级地位成立所需的关键特征,初步得出不丹松种级地位难以成立的结论.

  4. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Danusevičius; Vitas Marozas; Gediminas Brazaitis; Raimundas Petrokas; Knud Ib Christensen

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylv...

  5. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

  6. [Individual biomass of natural Pinus densiflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Jin, Y; Jin, C; Liu, J; Jin, Y

    2000-02-01

    The aboveground biomass of individuals with different growth potentials in natural Pinus densiflora forest with different stand densities was measured in Yanbian, Jilin Province. The variation of individual biomass affected by densities was in order of dominant tree branch > needle > bark. The biomass components of P. densifliora with different growth potentials varied markedly with the approaching of density class III, and the change of intermediate trees was similar to the whole stand. The vertical distributions of biomass of different trees were different from each other, but all showed that the biomass of trunks and barks was mainly distributed below 6 m high from ground, that of branches was within 6-10 m high, that of needles was uniform in the upper, middle and lower layers, and that of branches and needles in upper layer was least affected by density.

  7. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. Objective: To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Results: GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5% and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3% as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1% and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%. The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL. The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL. Conclusion: The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  8. RHIZOGENIC RESPONSE OF PINUS MAXIMARTINEZII RZEDOWSKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ojeda-Zacaría

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El piñón azul o maxi piñónPinus maximartineziiRzedowski es una especie endémica en peligro de extinción debido a la alteración de sus poblaciones en su hábitat natural y que ha sobrevivido a una restricción genética extrema, además es considerado el más raro de los pinos piñoneros. En este trabajo se evaluó la respuesta rizogénica de brotes dePinus maximartinezii, obtenidos a partir de embriones cigóticos regenerado vía organogénesis, los cuales se sometieron a tratamientos de enraizamientoin vitro. La mayor respuesta de enraizamiento se presentó con pulso de 24 h en presencia de 2.0 mg L-1 de IBA en los medios de cultivo DCR, GD y MS, al 100 y 50% de su concentración original más 0.5% de carbón activado por L-1. Después de ocho semanas se evaluó la variable conforme al número de brotes con raíces, la prueba de X2 mostró que el enraizamiento es independiente de los medios de cultivo así como la concentración de los mismos y dependiente al tiempos de pulso. La formación de raíces obtenidas en los brotes permite proponer esta especie con capacidad para ser propagadain vitro.

  9. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%).

  10. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

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    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  11. Bio-ecological Peculiarities of Genus Pinus L. Species Under Conditions of Eastern Georgia

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    Tamar Nadiradze

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses bio-ecological peculiarities of the following species of genus Pinus L. spread in eastern Georgia: Pinus eldarica Medw., P. griffithii McCleland., P. cembra L., P. pallasiana Lamb., P. pinea L., P. sabiniana Dougl., P. sylvestris L., P. sosnowskyi Nakai, P. strobus L., the perspectives of their usage in Green Building and contemporary problems. We have studied the periods of bud opening, vegetation ending, starting and finishing of cambium action, sprout woodening process, time and rate of growing in height, and regularities of accumulation-transformation of storage carbohydrates. The studies revealed that the annual development cycle of all these species includes all morphological -physiological periods: sprout growth, latent growth, organic and forced rest. They are characterized by the good growth-development; almost all of them are perspective for eastern Georgia, particularly, for all regions of inner Kakheti. However, in recent years, massive drying up of pine forests groves takes place in eastern Georgia. That is why it is necessary to conduct the fitopatologic research, identify the pest causing the damage and plan the measures against it.

  12. Pinus monophylla establishment in an expanding Pinus-Juniperus woodland: Environmental conditions, facilitation and interacting factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Jeanne C. [USDA Forest Service, Reno, NV (United States). Rocky Mountain Research Station

    2001-02-01

    The tree species comprising Pinus-Juniperus woodlands are rapidly expanding into shrub-grasslands throughout their range. Observational studies indicate that establishment is facilitated by nurse plants, but little information exists on the mechanisms involved. I examined both abiotic and biotic factors influencing Pinus monophylla establishment in Artemisia tridentata steppe with expanding populations of P. monophylla and Juniperus osteosperma. I also examined the effects of seed burial and predation on seedling establishment. Microhabitats under trees and shrubs had higher extractable P and K, higher organic matter, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity than interspace microhabitats. Soil water contents (0-15 cm) were lower in interspaces than under shrubs or trees due to dry surface (0-5 cm) soils. Soil temperatures (at 1 and 15 cm) were lowest under trees, intermediate under shrubs, and highest in interspaces. Timing and rate of seedling emergence were temperature dependent with the order of emergence paralleling mean growing season temperatures: tree interspace = shrub interspace > under shrub > under Juniperus {>=} under Pinus. Seed burial was required for rooting and the highest emergence occurred from depths of 1 and 3 cm indicating that caching by birds and rodents is essential and that animals bury seeds at adequate if not optimal depths for emergence. Seedlings required micro-environmental modification for survival; all seedlings, including those that emerged from seeds and transplants, died within the first year in interspace microhabitats. Survival in under-tree or under-shrub microhabitats depended on soil water availability and corresponded closely to soil water contents over the 3-yr study. Under-shrub microhabitats had more favourable soil and micro-environmental characteristics than under-tree microhabitats and had the highest seedling life spans for the first-year seedling cohort. Predation of Pinus seedlings by rodents was a significant

  13. by Pinus virginiana in Mine Restoration

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    Jenise M. Bauman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of planting sites on the establishment and ectomycorrhizal (ECM colonization of American chestnut (Castanea denetata (Marsh. Borkh. on an abandoned coal mine in an Appalachian region of the United States. Root morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region were used to identify the ECM species associated with the chestnut seedlings. Germination, survival, ECM root colonization, and growth were assessed in three habitats: forest edge, center (plots without vegetation, and pine plots (a 10-year-old planting of Pinus virginiana. Seedlings in pine plots had higher survival (38% than the other plot types (center 9% and forest edge 5%; P=0.007. Chestnuts found colonized by ECM within the pine plots were larger (P=0.02, contributed by a larger root system (P=0.03. Forest edge and pine plots had more ECM roots than seedlings in center plots (P=0.04. ITS fungal sequences and morphotypes found among chestnut and pine matched Scleroderma, Thelephora, and Pisolithus suggesting these two plant species shared ECM symbionts. Results indicated that the presence of P. virginiana had a greater facilitative effect on growth and survival of chestnut seedlings.

  14. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

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    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  15. Bio-engineering traits of Pinus radiata D.Don

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Marden, Michael; Marrosu, Roberto; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Phillips, Chris John; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Pinus radiata is widely cultivated in New Zealand. Due to steep slopes and intense rainfall, the silviculture of Pinus radiata forests is important to control erosion and slope stability. Bio-engineering traits such as root distribution and root tensile strength are fundamental to understand the effectiveness of Pinus radiata. This information is needed to use the state of the art root reinforcement model (the Root Bundle Model) and the physically-based slope stability model SOSlope. Yet, little is known about root distribution and tensile strength for this specie. We measured soil moisture and carried out 30 field tensile tests on roots of Pinus radiata. We also measured root distribution data from 5 plants, digging arc of circles 0.6 radian around the trees in four opposite directions. We fully excavated the root system of two trees. Using the Root Bundle Model, results of our measurements allow estimation of root reinforcement. With the slope stability model SOSlope, information on the intensity and frequency of harvesting and on the development of weak zones that can be supported by a stand of Pinus radiata in relation to slope stability can be calculated. An added value is that the collected data allow us to make inferences between number and sizes of roots, and growth direction.

  16. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  17. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Danusevičius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  18. Spontaneous hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian seaside: a morphological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Petrokas, Raimundas; Christensen, Knud Ib

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  19. Estudio de potenciales alelopáticos originados por Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D.

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester, A.; Arias, A. M.; Cobián, B.; López Calvo, E.; Vieitez, E.

    2011-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el potencial alelopático de Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D. sobre el crecimiento y la germinación de diferentes especies herbáceas. Extractos acuosos de hojas y acículas recogidas en los meses de enero y abril inhiben fundamentalmente la germinación de las semillas de festuca, siendo la acción más importante en el mes de abril que en el de enero. El contacto directo entre hojas y acículas y las semillas a ensayar produce una inhibición muy f...

  20. A new C-methylated flavonoid glycoside from Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M J; Choi, J H; Chung, H Y; Jung, J H; Choi, J S

    2001-12-01

    A new C-methyl flavonol glycoside, 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from the needles of Pinus densiflora, together with kaempferol 3-O-beta-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside.

  1. Evolution of genome size and complexity in Pinus.

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    Alison M Morse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome evolution in the gymnosperm lineage of seed plants has given rise to many of the most complex and largest plant genomes, however the elements involved are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gymny is a previously undescribed retrotransposon family in Pinus that is related to Athila elements in Arabidopsis. Gymny elements are dispersed throughout the modern Pinus genome and occupy a physical space at least the size of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In contrast to previously described retroelements in Pinus, the Gymny family was amplified or introduced after the divergence of pine and spruce (Picea. If retrotransposon expansions are responsible for genome size differences within the Pinaceae, as they are in angiosperms, then they have yet to be identified. In contrast, molecular divergence of Gymny retrotransposons together with other families of retrotransposons can account for the large genome complexity of pines along with protein-coding genic DNA, as revealed by massively parallel DNA sequence analysis of Cot fractionated genomic DNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the enormous genome complexity of pines can be explained by divergence of retrotransposons, however the elements responsible for genome size variation are yet to be identified. Genomic resources for Pinus including those reported here should assist in further defining whether and how the roles of retrotransposons differ in the evolution of angiosperm and gymnosperm genomes.

  2. Pathways of stand development in ageing Pinus sylvestris forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, Vincent; Mohren, G.M.J.; Geudens, Guy; Wulf, de R.; Lust, Noel

    2004-01-01

    Question: What are the main pathways of long-term stand development in forest ecosystems on oligotrophic and acidic sandy soils? Location: Nine forest reserves at different locations in The Netherlands: all ageing Pinus sylvestris forests that are no longer managed and where massive regeneration of

  3. Rainfall interception and partitioning by pinus monophylla and juniperus osteosperma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated canopy interception of simulated rainfall by singleleaf piñon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) in central Nevada. Research has shown that although piñon and juniper occurred historically throughout the western United States, the infilling of woodlan...

  4. Understory plant biomass dynamics of prescribed burned Pinus palustris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; L.J. Samuelson; T.A. Stokes; W.P. Cropper Jr; T.A. Martin; K.H. Johnsen

    2015-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are characterized by unusually high understory plant species diversity, but models describing understory ground cover biomass, and hence fuel load dynamics, are scarce for this fire-dependent ecosystem. Only coarse scale estimates, being restricted on accuracy and geographical extrapolation,...

  5. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  6. Variations in electrical impedance and phase angle among seedlings of Pinus densata and parental species in Pinus tabuliformis habitat environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyu Chen; Huwei Yuan; Xiange Hu; Jingxiang Meng; Xianqing Zhou; Xiao-Ru Wang; Yue Li

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance (EI) and phase angle (PHI) parameters in AC impedance spectroscopy are important electrical parameters in the study of medical pathology. However, little is known about their application in variation and genetic relationship studies of forest trees. In order to test whether impedance parameters could be used in genetic relationship analysis among conifer species, EI and PHI were measured in a seedling experiment test composed of Pinus tabuliformis, Pinus yunnanensis, and Pinus densata in a habitat of Pinus tabuliformis. The results showed that variations in both EI and PHI among species were sig-nificant in different electric frequencies, and the EI and PHI values measured in the two populations of P. densata were between the two parental species, P. yunnanensis and P. tabuliformis. These results show that these two impedance parameters could reflect the genetic relationship among pine species. This was the first time using the two AC impedance spectroscopy parameters to test the genetic relationship analysis between tree species, and would be a hopeful novel reference methodology for future studies in evolution and genetic variation of tree species.

  7. Protetores físicos para semeadura direta de Pinus elliottii Engelm Shelters for direct seeding of Pinus elliottii Engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Luciano Matteiq

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de protetores físicos tem se revelado uma eficiente técnica para o sucesso da semeadura direta de pinus. O presente trabalho avaliou diferentes tipos e tamanhos de protetores físicos de pontos de semeadura para a implantação de povoamentos de Pinus elliottii por semeadura direta. Como protetores, foram utilizados copos plástico, copos de papel e laminado de madeira. Esses protetores foram colocados sobre os pontos semeados com três sementes cada. Foi avaliada a emergência, sobrevivência, perdas por pássaros, perdas por tombamento e número de pontos com, pelo menos, uma planta viva, seis meses após a semeadura. Os protetores utilizados influenciaram positivamente, nos resultados, para todas as variáveis analisadas, por evitar perdas de sementes causadas por arraste ou soterramento e, principalmente por diminuíram os danos causados por pássaros que juntamente com as formigas, foram os principais problemas encontrados na implantação do povoamento de pinus por semeadura direta.The use of individual shelters has become an efficient method for direct seeding of pine. This work investigated the use of different kinds and sizes of shelters placed at sowing sites to establish new populations of directly seeded Pinus elliottii. Plastic and paper cups with open bottoms, or wood slats were used as protective shields. These were placed at sowing sites, each one containing 3 seeds. Emergencies, survival, losses due to birds or lodging, and number of sites with at least one live plant were analyzed six months after sowing. Shelters had positive effects on all variables analyzed both for avoiding losses resulted from dragging or burying of seeds, and for diminidhing the harm caused by birds which along with ants were the main problems found during the establishment of directly seeded pinus population.

  8. Influence of seedbed, light environment, and elevated night temperature on growth and carbon allocation in pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Day; Jessica L. Schedlbauer; William H. Livingston; Michael S. Greenwood; Alan S. White; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) are two autecologically similar species that occupy generally disjunct ranges in eastern North America. Jack pine is boreal in distribution, while pitch pine occurs at temperate latitudes. The two species co-occur in a small number of stands along a 'tension...

  9. Soil and Stocking Effects on Caliciopsis Canker of Pinus strobus L.

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    Isabel A Munck

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil and stand density were found to be promising predictive variables associated with damage by the emerging disease of eastern white pine, Caliciopsis canker, in a 2014 survey with randomly selected eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. stands. The objective of this study was to further investigate the relationship between soil and stocking in eastern white pine forests of New England by stratifying sampling across soils and measuring stand density more systematically. A total of 62 eastern white pine stands were sampled during 2015–2016. Stands were stratified across soil groups and several prism plots were established at each site to measure stand density and determine stocking. Caliciopsis canker incidence in mature trees was greater in sites with drier or shallow soils compared to sites with loamy soils and in adequately stocked stands compared to understocked stands (p < 0.0001. Caliciopsis canker signs and symptoms were observed in all size classes. Live crown ratio, a measure of forest health, decreased with increasing Caliciopsis canker symptom severity. The fungal pathogen, Caliciopsis pinea Peck, was successfully isolated from cankers on trees growing in each soil group. Forest managers will need to consider damage caused by Caliciopsis canker related to stand factors such as soil and stocking when regenerating white pine stands.

  10. Needle morphological evidence of the homoploid hybrid origin of Pinus densata based on analysis of artificial hybrids and the putative parents, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangqian; Mao, Jian-Feng; Meng, Jingxiang; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Hao; Xing, Zhen; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Yue

    2014-05-01

    Genetic analyses indicate that Pinus densata is a natural homoploid hybrid originating from Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Needle morphological and anatomical features show relative species stability and can be used to identify coniferous species. Comparative analyses of these needle characteristics and phenotypic differences between the artificial hybrids, P. densata, and parental species can be used to determine the genetic and phenotypic evolutionary consequences of natural hybridization. Twelve artificial hybrid families, the two parental species, and P. densata were seeded in a high-altitude habitat in Linzhi, Tibet. The needles of artificial hybrids and the three pine species were collected, and 24 needle morphological and anatomical traits were analyzed. Based on these results, variations in 10 needle traits among artificial hybrid families and 22 traits among species and artificial hybrids were predicted and found to be under moderate genetic control. Nineteen needle traits in artificial hybrids were similar to those in P. densata and between the two parental species, P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. The ratio of plants with three needle clusters in artificial hybrids was 22.92%, which was very similar to P. densata. The eight needle traits (needle length, the mean number of stomata in sections 2 mm in length of the convex and flat sides of the needle, mean stomatal density, mesophyll/vascular bundle area ratio, mesophyll/resin canal area ratio, mesophyll/(resin canals and vascular bundles) area ratio, vascular bundle/resin canal area ratio) relative to physiological adaptability were similar to the artificial hybrids and P. densata. The similar needle features between the artificial hybrids and P. densata could be used to verify the homoploid hybrid origin of P. densata and helps to better understand of the hybridization roles in adaptation and speciation in plants.

  11. Vermicompost enhances germination of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lazcano, Cristina; Sampedro, Luis; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Domínguez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of vermicompost on the germination and early development of six different progenies of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). We compared the effects of incorporating solid vermicompost into the potting media to those of vermicompost water extract to asses the extent of not physically-mediated positive effects. The incorporation of vermicompost in the growing media of maritime pine increased germination by 16%, and particularly, addition of vermicom...

  12. Cutin fluorescence in early embryos of Pinus and Tsuga

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Szczuka; Irena Gielwanowska

    2014-01-01

    Embryos of Pinus nigra Arnold and Tsuga canadensis Carr. (Pinaceae) at different stages of development were dissected from fresh, unfixed seeds and examined in a fluorescence microscope with 400 nm excitation light. The embryos of the investigated species showed cutin fluorescence after auramine 0 staining. At first the fluorescing cutin layer was formed on the apical part of the embryo with a well developed secondary suspensor, then it extended over the lateral surface of the embryo; the sus...

  13. Two new triterpenoids from the roots of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaka, Junnosuke; Komatsu, Masabumi; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Futamura, Yushi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Chemical investigation of the roots of Pinus densiflora led to the isolation of two new triterpenoids, (24S)-3β-methoxy-24,25-epoxy-lanost-9(11)-ene (1) and 29-acetoxy-3α-methoxyserrat-14-en-21α-ol (2), together with three known serratene-type triterpenoids (3-5) and four known diterpenoids (6-9). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses.

  14. TRYPANOCIDAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM SCOTTISH ABIES NOBILIS AND PINUS SYLVESTRIS

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    Veronique Seidel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three active compounds obtained from the aerial parts of Abies nobilis and Pinus sylvestris isolated by different chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified by NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HMBC spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data and established as catechin, dehydroabietic acid and Dihydroconiferyl alcohol. The isolated compounds were exhibited activity against blood stream form of parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei (S 427.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. MALE GAMETOPHYTE IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    L.P. Khlebova; O. V. Bychkova

    2016-01-01

    The peculiarities of the development of the male gametophyte of Pinus silvestris L. in the urban environment were studied. Quality of pollen was evaluated by laboratory experiments through germination at the nutrient medium and by histochemical staining to determine the presence of redox enzymes. It was shown that pollen viability is closely linked to climatic and weather conditions during the period of microsporogenesis and mass pollination. Atmospheric pollution affected the pollen signific...

  16. Uptake of trifluoroacetate by Pinus ponderosa via atmospheric pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesch, J. A.; Gustin, M. S.

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA, CF 3COO -), a break down product of hydro(chloro)-fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs), has been suggested to contribute to forest decline syndrome. To investigate the possible effects, Pinus ponderosa was exposed to TFA applied as mist (150 and 10,000 ng l -1) to foliar surfaces. Needles accumulated TFA as a function of concentration and time. However, no adverse physiological responses, as plant morphology, photosynthetic and conductance rates, were observed at the TFA concentrations used in this study.

  17. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  18. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  19. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  20. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF A OIL RESIDUE FROM PETROLEUM ON DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF Pinus sp. (Pinus AND Mimosa scabrella Bentham (Bracatinga WOOD

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    Alexandre Florian da Costa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In search for alternative uses of a petroliferous oily residue known as “LCO” (Liquid Cycle Oil, its capacity to improve the dimensional stability of the wood was evaluated using Pinus sp. (pinus and Mimosa scabrella Bentham (bracatinga. The LCO was tested in its original composition and also diluted in different proportions into a commercial kerosene. The dimensional stability in the three anatomic axis, volumetric changes, shrinkage and anisotropy coefficients, basic density and 12% relative humidity density changes were evaluated, in different stages during the investigation process. The results show no significant differences in maximum swelling and shrinkage between treated and untreated wood blocks at 5% probability level for both species. However, a reduction in the shrinkage coefficient was observed with the increase of LCO concentration, for both species. In general, pinus showed lowest values in all parameter evaluated. The shrinkage and anisotropy coefficient were higher for bracatinga than pinus, nevertheless, no significant differences were observed between treated and untreated wood blocks. These results indicated that changes between tangential and radial faces were minimal, possible due to a poor penetration of LCO into the cell walls. This result, as a consequence, could be associated with a weak performance of the tested chemical, which could not improve the dimensional stability of wood for both species. The increasing LCO concentrations increased the density of both species at 12% relative humidity. This result could be associated to the presence of part of the chemical remaining in the walls of the cellular lumen and the resiniferous channels. Besides, the external aspect of the treated wood was also other restrictive factor to the use of LCO.

  2. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  3. Variabilidad ambiental y productividad en Pinus halepensis Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    El pino carrasco (Pinus halepensis Mill.) es una especie de gran importancia en restauraciones y repoblaciones en la península Ibérica, capaz de subsistir en zonas secas y ambientes desfavorables, y crucial en el estudio del cambio climático al situarse en un enclave tan representativo como la cuenca mediterránea. A pesar de ello, es muy poca la información que se tiene sobre el comportamiento de esta especie. Por este motivo en el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la productividad del pino...

  4. Pinus pinaster Knot: A Source of Polyphenols against Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaston, Julien; Richard, Tristan; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Palos Pinto, Antonio; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-09-29

    Pine knot extract from Pinus pinaster byproducts was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Fourteen polyphenols divided into four classes were identified as follows: lignans (nortrachelogenin, pinoresinol, matairesinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol), flavonoids (pinocembrin, pinobanksin, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin), stilbenes (pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, pterostilbene), and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid). The antifungal potential of pine knot extract, as well as the main compounds, was tested in vitro against Plasmopara viticola. The ethanolic extract showed a strong antimildew activity. In addition, pinosylvins and pinocembrin demonstrated significant inhibition of zoospore mobility and mildew development. These findings strongly suggest that pine knot is a potential biomass that could be used as a natural antifungal product.

  5. Annual shoot growth components related to growth of Pinus brutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Fikret; Isik, Kani; Yildirim, Tolga; Li, Bailian

    2002-01-01

    Shoot elongation patterns of Pinus brutia Ten. were studied in six natural populations and 10 open-pollinated families within each population. The data were collected from a provenance-progeny trial that was thinned at Ages 13 and 17 years. Annual height increment was partitioned into first flush (spring shoot) and subsequent flushes (summer shoots) and the contribution of each to annual height increment was measured from Ages 7 to 17. Spring shoot elongation patterns were similar in all populations and families for 9 out of 10 years. In contrast, at all ages, populations differed significantly in total summer shoot growth and number of summer flushes. Families within populations differed in number of summer flushes in 7 out of 10 years. Summer shoot growth was the major cause of the differences in annual height growth among the six populations. Significant and high correlations were observed between summer shoot growth at Ages 7 to 12 and height at Age 13. A population from near the middle of the species' altitudinal range had more summer flushes than populations from higher or lower elevations, indicating an opportunistic growth pattern. Compared with mid-elevation populations, low- and high-elevation populations had more conservative growth patterns that depended mainly on growth of spring shoots. We conclude that summer shoot growth can serve as an explanatory variable to predict height growth of populations. Differences in shoot elongation patterns among Pinus brutia populations may be useful for selecting seed sources and for gene conservation programs.

  6. Emerging Needle Blight Diseases in Atlantic Pinus Ecosystems of Spain

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    Esther Ortíz de Urbina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Red band needle blight caused by Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini, and brown spot needle blight caused by Lecanosticta acicola provoke severe and premature defoliation in Pinus, and subsequent reduction of photosynthetic surfaces, vitality, and growth in young and adult trees. The recurrent damage results in branch and tree death. Until recently, pine needle blight diseases have had only minor impacts on native and exotic forest trees in the North of Spain, but in the past five years, these pathogen species have spread widely and caused severe defoliation and mortality in exotic and native plantations of Pinus in locations where they were not detected before. In an attempt to understand the main causes of this outbreak and to define the effectiveness of owners’ management strategies, four research actions were implemented: a survey of the management activities implemented by the owners to reduce disease impact, the evaluation of specific symptoms and damage associated with infection, and the identification of the causative pathogenic species and their reproductive capacity. Morphological characteristics of the fungus and molecular identification were consistent with those of Lecanosticta acicola and Dothistroma spp., D. septosporum, D. Pini, and both mating types were present for the three identified pathogens. The local silvicultural management performed, mainly pruning and thinning, was not resulting in the expected improvement. The results of this study can be applied to establish guidelines for monitoring and controlling the spread of needle blight pathogens.

  7. Modelagem do crescimento e de biomassa individual de Pinus

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    Ana Beatriz Schikowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo testar modelos matemáticos para estimativas de biomassa de diferentes compartimentos de Pinus spp., a partir de variáveis de fácil mensuração. Os dados utilizados são provenientes de plantios localizados no centro sul do estado do Paraná. Foram utilizados dados de peso seco total e parcial de 35 árvores de Pinus spp., obtidos por meio do método destrutivo direto. De cada árvore amostrada foram medidos também o CAP (circunferência à altura do peito e a altura total. Os modelos para estimativa de biomassa de folhagem não apresentaram bom desempenho, verificado pelos indicadores de ajuste. Entretanto, para os compartimentos: galhos, raízes, casca, fuste e para biomassa total, os ajustes apresentaram elevados valores de R² e baixos valores de Syx%. O modelo de crescimento de Richards obteve melhor desempenho que os demais testados para a estimativa da biomassa total.

  8. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  9. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant.

  10. Individual Growth Environment Suitable for Naturally Regenerated Young Pinus koraiensis under Secondary Natural Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANShaohui; ZHANGQun; SHENHailong

    2004-01-01

    Impacts on growth of young trees of Pinus Koraiensis of 6 environmental factors of intensity of sunlight, direct sunlight, thickness of soil humus, neighboring trees, upper canopy species, herbs and shrubs were investigated on young tree of Pinus Koraiensis and 4 neighboring trees which are considered the structural unit of the microenvironment. Results indicated that the 6 environmental factors under investigation had effects, to various extents, on growth of the young trees. Based on the findings, suitable growing conditions for regenerated young tree of Pinus Koraiensis under forest were identified and corresponding silvicultural measures were proposed for operational practice.

  11. 火炬松、湿地松和马尾松采穗圃营建技术%Building Techniques of Cuttings Orchard of Pinus taeda,Pinus elliottii and Pinus massoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来端

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of time and retention hei ght of topping on quantity,length and basal diameter of coppice shoot of Pinus taeda,Pinus elliottii and Pinus massonian a has been studied.The results showed that because of difference of b iological properties among three tree species, suitable time and retention heigh t of topping among three tree species are different.The suitable topping time o f Pinus taeda is August 20 to August 25,the best retention height of topping is 15 cm; The suitable topping time of Pinus masson iana is July 30, the best retention height of topping is 8 cm; The su itable topping time of Pinus elliottii is August 15 to Aug ust 20,the best retention height of topping is 15 cm.%通过不同剪顶时间和剪顶高度对火炬松、湿地松和马尾 松的萌条数量、长度和径粗的影响研究.结果表明:不同树种由于其生物学特性不同,适宜 的截顶时间、截顶高度表现不一致.火炬松适宜的截顶时间为8月20日至8月25日,截顶高度 以15 cm为最宜;马尾松适宜的截顶时间为7月30日,截顶高度为8 cm;湿地松适宜的截顶时 间为8月15日至8月20日,截顶高度为15 cm.

  12. Cutin fluorescence in early embryos of Pinus and Tsuga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryos of Pinus nigra Arnold and Tsuga canadensis Carr. (Pinaceae at different stages of development were dissected from fresh, unfixed seeds and examined in a fluorescence microscope with 400 nm excitation light. The embryos of the investigated species showed cutin fluorescence after auramine 0 staining. At first the fluorescing cutin layer was formed on the apical part of the embryo with a well developed secondary suspensor, then it extended over the lateral surface of the embryo; the suspensor remained nonfluorescent. The fluorescing cutin layer occurred on the apical and side surface of the embryo, undergoing differentiation into the shoot axis and root initials. It is assumed that polarization and nutrition of the embryo may be influenced by presence of the cuticle.

  13. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Galès

    Full Text Available We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  14. Microwave vacuum drying characteristics of Pinus massoniana wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xian-jun; Li Wen-jun; Zhang Bi-guang

    2007-01-01

    Microwave-vacuum (MV) drying characteristics of plantation Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) were studied experimentally for various levels of microwave radiation time, initial moisture content (MC), vacuum level and wood thickness. The results show that the process of MV drying for wood can be significantly divided into a short accelerating rate drying period, a long constant rate drying period and falling rate drying period, and the second drying period can extend to levels of mean MC below the fiber saturation point. With the increase of initial MC and microwave radiation time, the drying rate of wood increases significantly. The vacuum level affects the drying rate in a slightly positive way. Within the range of 2 to 6 cm, the effects of sample thickness on the drying rate can be negligible.

  15. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) convicilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Albillos, Silvia M; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Tankersley, Boyce; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-07-01

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that Korean pine convicilin was post-translationally processed. The N-terminal peptide sequences of its components were determined. These peptides could be mapped to a protein translated from an embryo abundant transcript isolated in this study. Similar to vicilin, native convicilin appeared to be homotrimeric. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that this protein is less resistant to thermal treatment than Korean pine vicilin. Its transition temperature was 75.57 °C compared with 84.13 °C for vicilin. The urea induced folding-unfolding equilibrium of pine convicilin monitored by intrinsic fluorescence could be interpreted in terms of a two-state model, with a Cm of 4.41 ± 0.15 M.

  16. Quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber from tapped forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber extracted from tapped forests and processed in a sawmill in São José do Norte (RS. Four butt logs and four upper logs for each of the three existing diameter grades were selected and sawed. The wood pieces were analyzed after sawing and after kiln drying. The presence of knots, which occurred due to the absence of forest management and influenced the qualitative classification of the wood pieces, was observed mainly in the samples from upper logs. The process of resin tapping contributed to a higher incidence of resin pockets in the samples from butt logs, also influencing the qualitative classification of the samples. The appearance of drying defects did not modify the classification of the wood samples from butt and upper logs.

  17. Germinación in vitro de Pinus cubensis Griseb

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    Raima Cantillo Ardebol

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace alusión a la micropropagación de Pinus cubensis, Griseb, como aspecto que satisface la demanda de semillas para la reforestación en áreas de Pinares de Mayarí, hábitat de esta endémica región, amenazada por minería y explotación maderera. Se utilizaron semillas, determinando el mejor método de desinfección, evaluando su germinación en medio con diferentes composiciones de reguladores del crecimiento, y la influencia de la presencia o ausencia de la cubierta seminal. El mejor resultado se obtuvo con Cloralex al 20% durante 15 minutos e implantando semillas sin testa en medio MS libre de reguladores del crecimiento.

  18. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND RETRANSLOCATION IN THE Pinus taeda L. NEEDLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating nutrients concentration and retranslocation in the Pinus taeda L. needles, this study was developed in two stands, in native grass area and in second rotation area, with same species and same age (7.5 years old in Cambará do Sul, RS. The needles were collected in plants in four orthogonal points (South, North, East and West, sampled new needles, mature needles and old needles. The material was dried in a stove, milled and chemically analyzed (macro and micronutrients. The concentrations of N, P, K, B, Cu and Zn had decreased, of Ca, Fe and Mn increased, and the Mg and S have remained constant with the age of the needles. The retranslocation rate (old-new needles was more than 50% for most nutrients, except for Mn and Fe, showed that cumulative effect and the Ca reference element.

  19. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galès, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  20. Variation among matsutake ectomycorrhizae in four clones of Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaario, Lu-Min; Lu, Jinrong; Koistinen, Arto; Tervahauta, Arja; Aronen, Tuija

    2015-04-01

    Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms commercially important mushrooms in coniferous forests. In this study, we explored the ability of T. matsutake to form mycorrhizae with Pinus sylvestris by inoculating emblings produced through somatic embryogenesis (SE) in an aseptic culture system. Two months after inoculation, clones with less phenolic compounds in the tissue culture phase formed mycorrhizae with T. matsutake, while clones containing more phenols did not. Effects of inoculation on embling growth varied among clones; two of the four tested showed a significant increase in biomass and two had a significant increase in root density. In addition, results suggest that clones forming well-developed mycorrhizae absorbed more Al, Fe, Na, P, and Zn after 8 weeks of inoculation. This study illustrates the value of SE materials in experimental work concerning T. matsutake as well as the role played by phenolic compounds in host plant response to infection by mycorrhizal fungi.

  1. ESTABLISHMENT OF Pinus elliottii Engelm STANDS WITH DIRECT FIELD SOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Guimarães Finger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was undertaken to test the possibility of use of direct field sowing as a method of  forest formation. The soil preparation consisted of mechanic mowing followed by cleaning of small circles of 40 cm of diameter, where four seeds of Pinus elliottii Engelm were sowed, previously stratified, and protected by a bottomless plastic glass fastened to the sowing point. The treatments tested were direct sowing, sowing of seeds involved by paper envelop and seedling plantation as testify treatment. The results were not satisfactory, however, being observed at the most 38.46% of the sowing places with seedlings after 84 days of sowing. The main factor that contribuited to the failure of the method was seedling mortality caused by water deficit and high temperatures.

  2. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia

    2003-01-01

    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  3. Cone and seed pests of Pinus pinea: assessment and characterization of damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracalini, Matteo; Benedettelli, Stefano; Croci, Francesco; Terreni, Perla; Tiberi, Riziero; Panzavolta, Tiziana

    2013-02-01

    Cone and seed insects have played a key role in the decline of stone pine nut production in Italy. To evaluate the impact caused by native Palearctic and exotic insects, a greater knowledge of pest symptoms is required. During 2008-2009, first and second-year stone pine cones, as well as the seeds produced, were examined in Tuscany (Italy) to assess viability. Insect damage was characterized based on external signs on the cones and seed endosperms, and the impact of recorded insect species on nut production was evaluated. In the current study, cones attacked by anobiid beetles and Dioryctria spp. were observed, as well as asymptomatic dead cones and cones with resin drops and patches, that could not easily be related to a damaging agent. As regards the anobiid beetles, adults of Ernobius parens (Mulsant and Rey) and E. impressithorax Pic emerged from cones in laboratory rearing. A low number of cones damaged by Dioryctria spp. was recorded whereas high percentages of cones showed resin exudates. The presence of resin cannot be definitely related to a damaging agent, although the feeding activity of Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann could be one of the reasons. Damage by L. occidentalis was assessed by seed observation. Most of the seeds displayed tissues that had been damaged by this pest.

  4. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction of inositols from pine nuts (Pinus pinea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Rodríguez-Sánchez, S; Sanz, J; Sanz, M L; Ramos, L

    2014-06-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been used for the first time to extract bioactive inositols from pine nuts. The influence of extraction time, temperature and cycles of extraction in the yield and composition of the extract was studied. A quadratic lineal model using multiple linear regression in the stepwise mode was used to evaluate possible trends in the process. Under optimised PLE conditions (50°C, 18 min, 3 cycles of 1.5 mL water each one) at 10 MPa, a noticeable reduction in extraction time and solvent volume, compared with solid-liquid extraction (SLE; room temperature, 2h, 2 cycles of 5 mL water each one) was achieved; 5.7 mg/g inositols were extracted by PLE, whereas yields of only 3.7 mg/g were obtained by SLE. Subsequent incubation of PLE extracts with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (37°C, 5h) allowed the removal of other co-extracted low molecular weight carbohydrates which may interfere in the bioactivity of inositols.

  5. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  6. Genetic relationships among some Pinus, Picea and Abies species revealed by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were undertaken to identify genetic relationships among ten different species of the family Pinaceae through randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Eighteen arbitrary RAPD primers produced 123 fragments of which 107 were polymorphic (87%. The similarity coefficient values varied from 0.34 to 0.67. The highest similarity coefficient was detected between Pinus wallichiana and P. strobus as well as between Picea abies and P. orientalis, and the lowest was detected between threePinus species (P. heldreichii, P. peuce and P. wallichiana and Picea omorika. The analysis of RAPD markers confirmed the genetic relationships among species. GenusPicea is clearly separated from genus Pinus and is closer to genus Abies (A. concolor than to genus Pinus, what confirms up-to-date numerous comparative-morphological, anatomical, chemotaxonomic and molecular results of these closely related genera. Furthermore, on the basis of our results, pine species from different subgenera -Pinus and Strobus are clearly separated. This statement is in agreement with contemporary intrageneric classification of the genus Pinus. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br.173029

  7. A laboratorial study on influence of alkaline and oxidative environment on preservation of Pinus tabulaeformis pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang TIAN; Xianyong CAO; Qinghai XU; Yuecong LI

    2009-01-01

    Different sedimentary settings can influence preservation of pollens, which would lead to mis-interpretation of fossil pollen spectrum. This study investigates the influence on the preservation of Pinus tabulaeformis pollen by simulating alkaline and oxidative environment in the laboratory. There was no obvious change in the content ofPinus tabulaeformis pollen while comparing the original with the ones that were immersed with 10% NaOH liquor for ten days, or boiled for five hours, and or boiled with 20%-30% NaOH for one hour,respectively. However, the pollen fossils were obviously corroded and eroded after being boiled with 40% NaOH for one hour and were seriously corroded after five hours. The result indicates that Pinus tabulaeformis pollen is quite durable in alkaline environment and heating condition within a shorter period of time, although alkaline environment has a disadvantage for its preservation. We also tested the influence of oxidation on Pinus tabulae-formis pollen preservation with KMnO4 as oxidant. The result presents that the number of remaining Pinus tabulaeformis pollen grains decreased quickly after being dipped in KMnO4 along with extending the reaction time and reinforcing oxidant. The rate of remnant pollen grains was less than 1% after being dipped with 2% KMnO4 for one hour. It is suggested that oxidative environment has stronger influence on Pinus tabulaeformis pollen preserva tion than alkaline environment.

  8. Studies on phenolic acids variation in Central European Pinus species 1. Five Polish populations of Pinus mugo Turra and some related forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids were investigated in the needles of eight different pine populations, five of which were Pinus mugo, two -- P. silvestris and one a critical form described by Neumann as P. uliginosa. Twenty different phenolic acids were detected. Six were discovered in pine needles for the first time (salicylic acid, gentisic acid, γ-resorcylic acid, o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, β-resorcylic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. Each of the investigated taxons was shown to exhibit a characteristic spectrum of phenolic acids. The critical form from the locus classicus of Pinus uliginosa is of intermediate character.

  9. Isoenzymatic variability in progeny of Pinus mugo Turra x Pinus sylvestris L. hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem, in experimental culture

    OpenAIRE

    Maria A. Bobowicz; Władysław Danielewicz

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the genetic structure of 12-year old seedlings. They were grown in an experimental culture representing the progeny of natural hybrids of Pinus mugo Turra and Pinus sylvestris L. from the peatbog Bór na Czerwonem. The studies were carried out on seedlings, employing electrophoresis of enzymatic proteins from winter buds. Parallel isoenzymatic analyses were also conducted for trees of P. mugo Turra from Tatra Mountains and for P. sylvestris L. trees from Białowieża in ord...

  10. Investigation on Effect of Forestation by Mixing Pinus massoniana with Schima superba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGWenchao; HUANGLili

    2004-01-01

    Since forestation of pure forest of Pinus massoniana is liable to suffer from pest calamity, soil erosion, decrease of soil fertility, and difficulty in wood production in the hilly areas of southern China, we conducted an investigation on the three types of forests in Gao'an County of Jiangxi Province, namely, the pure forest of Pinus massoniana, the pure forest of Schima superba, and the mixed forest consisting of the two species, setting up standard stand, measuring and studying the growing stock, biomass, leaf area, roots,soil, vegetation, pests, litters, soil erosion, microclimate, etc., with the following results. ① The average height, diameter at chest height, and volume of the mixed forest are higher than those of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana by 30.9%, 31.7% and 10.6%, respectively. ② The biomass of the mixed forest is 2.24 times as much as that of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana. ③ The litters of the mixed forest is 3.37 times and 1.96 times as much as the litters of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana and the pure forest of Schima superba respectively. ③ The occurrence of pest calamity per tree is lower and the conditions of soil erosion and microclimate are better than those of the pure forest ofPinus massoniana. ④ The mixed forest of the two species is an excellent mixed type of needle-leaf and deciduous forest worth being popularized in China's subtropical areas, especially in the low hilly areas. It is recommended in plantation that the mixed patterns be between trees, lines, small blocks, or scattered-dots, the ratio of mixture of Pinus massoniana and Schima superba be 5 to 1, or 3 to 1, and the initial space between trees be 1.2, 1.5, or 2.0 m while the initial density be 6 944 to 4 440 trees per square hectare.

  11. Antioxidative properties of the essential oil from Pinus mugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Johanna; Hippeli, Susanne; Vollmann, Renate; Elstner, Erich F

    2003-12-17

    The essential oil from Pinus mugo (PMEO) was tested on its antioxidative capacity. For this purpose, several biochemical test systems were chosen (e.g., the Fenton System, the xanthine oxidase assay, or the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)). The results show that there is moderate or weak antioxidative activity when tested in aqueous environments, like in the Fenton system, xanthine oxidase induced superoxide radical formation, or in the HOCl driven fragmentation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In contrast, when tested in more lipophilic environments (e.g., the ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood) the PMEO exhibits good antioxidative activity. PMEO does also show good antioxidative capacity in another lipophilic test system (i.e., the copper induced oxidation of LDL). Some components of PMEO (i.e., Delta(3)-carene, camphene, alpha-pinene, (+)-limonene and terpinolene) were also tested. As the PMEO, they showed weak or no antioxidant activity in aqueous environments, but some of them were effective antioxidants regarding ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood or copper-induced LDL-oxidation. Terpinolene, a minor component of PMEO, exhibited remarkable protection against LDL-oxidation.

  12. MICROBIOTA OF PINUS POLLEN AS ADJUVANT FACTOR OF ALLERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shevtsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria, their endotoxin and mold found on pollen can be a reason of respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. This question concerns an anemophilous pollen more acute. In this work quantitative by dilution plating method and qualitative microbial analysis by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper of pollen and other plants organs of Pinus sylvestris L., P. nigra Arnold, P. mugo Turra, P. armandii Franch., P. wallichiana A.B. Jacks from Nitra, Slovakia are performed which shows quantitative and species differences in mesophilic aerobic (0.00-6.27 log cfu/g and anaerobic bacteria (0.00-3.70 log cfu/g, enterococci (0.00 log cfu/g, coliform bacteria (0.00-5.29 log cfu/g, lactobacilli (0.00-4.20 log cfu/g, microscopic fungi and yeasts (2.60-5.29 log cfu/g content. Representatives of Pseudomonas (14, Bacillus (2, Acinetobacter (1, Arthrobacter (1, Pantoea (1, Klebsiella (1, Penicillium (6, Aspergillus (4, Cladosporium (1, Debaryomyces (1 genera were revealed on pine trees. The allergenic potential of the identified association of microorganisms on pollen has been evaluated based on published data. The results may be useful for aerobiologists, allergists and microbiologists, at least at the local level.

  13. Aboveground Tree Biomass for Pinus ponderosa in Northeastern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for spatial or temporal variability. Individual-tree aboveground biomass allometric equations are presented from an analysis of 79 felled trees from four separate management units at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: one unthinned and three separate thinned units. A simultaneous set of allometric equations for foliage, branch and bole biomass were developed as well as branch-level equations for wood and foliage. Foliage biomass relationships varied substantially between units while branch and bole biomass estimates were more stable across a range of stand conditions. Trees of a given breast height diameter and crown ratio in thinned stands had more foliage biomass, but slightly less branch biomass than those in an unthinned stand. The observed variability in biomass relationships within Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest suggests that users should consider how well the data used to develop a selected model relate to the conditions in any given application.

  14. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  15. Effects of "short" photoperiods on seedling growth of Pinus brutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovoglou, V; Radoglou, K; Kostopoulou, P; Dini-Papanastasi, O

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated how nurseries could benefit by inducing "short" photoperiods as low as 4 hr to produce "better" seedlings characterized by more vigorous roots; a substantial feature to overcome transplanting stress. The carryover effect of the photoperiod was also investigated on seedlings that grew for 30 days more underthe consistent 14 hr photoperiod. Seedlings of Pinus brutia were subjected to 4, 6, 8 and 14 hr photoperiod for 3 week. Fifteen seedlings were used to evaluate the leaf area, the root and shoot dry weight and their ratio. Six and sixteen seedlings were used to evaluate the shoot electrolyte leakage and the root growth potential, respectively. Based on the results, the 6 and 8 hr photoperiod indicated greater root allocation (4.8 and 4.9 mg, respectively) and chlorophyll content (3.7 and 4.4, respectively). They also indicated greater leaf area values (3.3 and 3.5 cm2, respectively) along with the 14 hr (3.4 cm2). The photoperiod effect continued even after seedlings were subjected at consistent photoperiod. Overall, "short" photoperiods could provide "better" P. brutia seedlings to accommodate immediate massive reforestation and afforestation needs.

  16. Asexual propagation of Pinus leiophylla Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Cuevas-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El efecto del sustrato, tipo de estaca y concentración de ácido indolbutírico (AIB se evaluó en el enraizado de estacas de Pinus leiophylla con el propósito de multiplicar progenies de familias de medios hermanos con crecimiento sobresaliente. Para ello se utilizaron dos tipos de sustratos (agrolita y una mezcla de turba-agrolita-vermiculita 1:1:1, dos tipos de estacas (apicales y basales y dos concentraciones de AIB (0 y 10,000 ppm. La probabilidad y porcentaje de enraizado, crecimiento de la estaca y características de las raíces formadas de P. leiophylla se evaluaron. Los resultados indican que usando estacas basales es 3.5 veces más probable que el enraizamiento de P. leiophylla sea exitoso que utilizando estacas apicales. El tratamiento formado por la mezcla de turba-agrolita-vermiculita, estaca basal y 10,000 ppm de AIB produjo 45.3 % de enraizamiento (mayor porcentaje, mientras que con el testigo solo se obtuvo 8.6 % de enraizamiento (agrolita, estaca basal y sin AIB. Las interacciones que incluyeron el tipo de sustrato mostraron diferencias significativas (P ≤ 0.05 en el crecimiento de la estaca. El uso de agrolita y la aplicación de AIB favorecieron un mayor número de raíces, particularmente en las estacas tipo basal de P. leiophylla.

  17. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.

  18. Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of pine (Pinus densiflora) pollen extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Mi

    2007-05-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity of pine (Pinus densiflora) pollen in mice. The antinociceptive activity was determined using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-induced licking, and the hot plate test. Antiinflammatory effects were evaluated using carrageenan- and formalin-induced paw edema, and arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice. The ethanol extract of pine pollen (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin pain test in mice, a reduction in mouse writhing induced by acetic acid and an elevation of the pain threshold in the hot plate test in mice. The pine pollen extract also produced a significant inhibition of carrageenan- and formalin-induced paw edema as well as arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice. The inhibitions were similar to those produced by aminopyrine and indomethacin, p.o. The different polyphenols found in pine pollen could account for the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory actions. The results obtained indicate that the extract possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory effects.

  19. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine.

  20. Biocontrol of Fusarium circinatum Infection of Young Pinus radiata Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iturritxa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitch canker, caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum, is a major disease of Pinus radiata currently controlled to some extent in nurseries by good hygiene and application of synthetic fungicides. The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative strategies to control fungal infections in nurseries and young pine plantations. The antagonistic effects of biocontrol bacteria and essential oils against F. circinatum in vitro and in young P. radiata trees were assessed. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia billingiae, and Bacillus simplex reduced the growth of the fungus in vitro by 17%–29%, and decreased the density of the mycelial mat. In young P. radiata trees, the length of F. circinatum lesions was reduced by 22%–25% by the same bacterial strains. Direct application of cinnamon and/or clove essential oils to wounds in stems of two-year-old P. radiata trees also limited the damage caused by F. circinatum. Lesion length was reduced by 51% following treatment with cinnamon oil (10% v/v, and by 45% following treatment with clove oil (15% v/v or a combination of both oils. However, the oils were toxic to younger trees. The biocontrol bacteria and essential oils show promise as prophylactic treatments to reduce the devastating effects of F. circinatum on P. radiata.

  1. Molecular Characterization of a Dehydroascorbate Reductase from Pinus bungeana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ling Yang; Ying-Ru Zhao; Cai-Ling Wang; Zhi-Ling Yang; Qing-Yin Zeng; Hai Lu

    2009-01-01

    Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) plays a critical role in the ascorbate-glutathione recycling reaction for most higher plants. To date, studies on DHAR in higher plants have focused largely on Arabidopsis and agricultural plants, and there is virtually no information on the molecular characteristics of DHAR in gymnosperms. The present study reports the cloning and characteristics of a DHAR (PbDHAR) from a pine, Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. The PbDHAR gene encodes a protein of 215 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 24.26 kDa. The predicted 3-D structure of PbDHAR showed a typical glutathione S-transferase fold. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the PbDHAR was a constitutive expression gene in P. bungeana. The expression level of PbDHAR mRNA in P. bungeana seedlings did not show significant change under high temperature stress. The recombinant PbDHAR was overexpressed in Escherichia coll following purification with affinity chromatography. The recombinant PbDHAR exhibited enzymatic activity (19.84μmol/min per mg) and high affinity (a K_m of 0.08 mM) towards the substrates dehydroascorbate (DHA). Moreover, the recombinant PbDHAR was a thermostable enzyme, and retained 77% of its initial activity at 55 ℃. The present study is the first to provide a detailed molecular characterization of the DHAR in P. bungeana.

  2. Bending of Pinus jeffreyi in response to wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Bullock

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To evaluate the degree of trunk sway in relation to wind velocity, with varying temporal integration and to compare this relation among seasons.Area of study: Sierra de Juárez, Baja California, MéxicoMaterials and Methods: Displacements of a 19 m tall Jeffrey pine tree were recorded at 6 m from a three dimensional digital compass during one year, at c. 4 Hz. Adjacent wind speed at 6 m was recorded at 1 Hz.Main results: Sway was essentially unaffected by wind in the same second  but increasing dependence of cumulative displacement on average sustained wind speed was found for intervals of 1 to 60 minutes (r2 up to 0.89.  The relation is generally log-linear but apparently differs in parameters between seasons.Research highlights: Wind-sway relations are clear from integration of several-to-many minutes. However, to estimate cumulative stress, sub-second data on sway are essential.  Sub-second, precision measurements of sway can be registered from small, inexpensive sensors.Keywords: biomechanics; Pinus jeffreyi; seasonality; stress accumulation; time series; tree bending.

  3. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity.

  4. Nitrogen metabolism in Lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, P. S.; Towers, G. H.; Lewis, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The primary metabolic fate of phyenylalanine, following its deamination in plants, is conscription of its carbon skeleton for lignin, suberin, flavonoid, and related metabolite formation. Since this accounts for approximately 30-40% of all organic carbon, an effective means of recycling the liberated ammonium ion must be operative. In order to establish how this occurs, the uptake and metabolism of various 15N-labeled precursors (15N-Phe, 15NH4Cl, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Glu) in lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures was investigated, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography, 15N NMR, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analyses. It was found that the ammonium ion released during active phenylpropanoid metabolism was not made available for general amino acid/protein synthesis. Rather it was rapidly recycled back to regenerate phenylalanine, thereby providing an effective means of maintaining active phenylpropanoid metabolism with no additional nitrogen requirement. These results strongly suggest that, in lignifying cells, ammonium ion reassimilation is tightly compartmentalized.

  5. Genetic transformation of Pinus taeda by particle bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A protocol is presented for genetically engineering loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using particle bombardment. This protocol enabled the routine transformation of loblolly pine plants that were previously difficult to transform. Mature zygotic embryos were used to be bombarded and to generate organogenic callus and transgenic regenerated plants. Plasmid pB48.215 DNA contained a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) cryIAc coding sequence flanked by the double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (Nos) terminator sequences, and the selectable marker gene, neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) controlled by the promoter of the nopaline synthase gene was introduced into loblolly pine tissues by particle bombardment. The transformed tissues were proliferated and selected by kanamycin resistance conferred by the introduced NPTII gene. Shoot regeneration was induced from the kanamycin-resistant callus, and transgenic plantlets were then produced. The presence of the introduced genes in the transgenic loblolly pine plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) analysis, by Southern blot analysis, and insect feeding assays. The recovered transgenic plants were acclimatized and then established in soil.

  6. Dynamics of monoterpene emissions in Pinus sylvestris during early spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeck, J.; Hari, P.; Juurola, E. [Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hakola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Research and Development, Helsinki (Finland); Kulmala, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The seasonal dynamics of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, which can be related to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols, represent an important but at the present poorly understood linkage between vegetation activity and climate. Although a close relationship between photosynthesis and terpenoid emissions has been proposed, high monoterpene emission rates for Scots pine shoots (Pinus sylvestris) are frequently recorded during spring, in times when photosynthetic activity is strongly inhibited due to inherent seasonal restrictions. We suggest that terpenoid emissions are related to either photosynthesis or photorespiration for precursors for terpenoid biosynthesis. We developed two dynamic models describing temporal fluctuations in Scots pine monoterpene emissions, calculating the emissions by using CO{sub 2} exchange and ambient climate data. The models accurately predicted the measured monoterpene flux, and especially in March-April, during the time when photosynthesis was negligible and ambient temperatures were between -5 and +15 C, a good agreement was found with measured emissions and the model involving photorespiration. (orig.)

  7. Effect of trace elements on growth of Pinus tabulaeformis seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The stimulative effect of trace elements on seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus tabulaeformis was tested. The experiments were carried out on seed soak and topdressing with different trace elements and varied concentrat ions at the nursery of Gardens Research Institute, Harbin, in 2000-2001. The experimental results showed that soaking seed with 1% and 0.2% concentrations of Mn element produced best result for seed germination, and the germination rate was increased by 9%~19% for the seeds treated with 1% concentration and 12%~14% for the seeds treated with 0.2% concentration compared with the control group. The seeds treated with boron element had lowest germination rate. For trace element topdressing, Mn and Mo elements presented good result for seedling growth and th e treatment with low concentration was even better. The height or chlorophyll co ntent of the seedlings with spray of low-concentration Mn and Mo element was muc h higher than that of untreated ones. In the contrast to the treating method of seed soak, topdressing (application of spraying on foliage) had evident effect o n seedling growth.

  8. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  9. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia M.; Lozhkin, Anatoly V.; Solomatkina, Tatiana B.; Brown, Thomas A.

    2010-03-01

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least ˜ 19,000 14C yr BP in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after ˜ 19,000 14C yr BP. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until ˜ 8100 14C yr BP, despite the local presence ˜ 9800 14C yr BP of Larixdahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia ˜ 11,000-9000 14C yr BP) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last ˜ 21,000 14C yr BP.

  10. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  11. Paternity and gene dispersal in limber pine (Pinus flexilis James).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, W S; Mitton, J B

    2000-03-01

    This study provides empirical information on intrapopulation gene dispersal via pollen, the size of genetic 'neighbourhoods', and interpopulation gene flow in a long-lived conifer, limber pine (Pinus flexilis). We used allozyme loci for a paternity analysis of 518 seeds produced in an isolated population of limber pine located in north-eastern Colorado, U.S.A., separated by 2 km from the nearest conspecific trees and nearly 100 km from populations in the Rocky Mountains. We also used indirect techniques (FST analyses) to estimate gene flow rates among subdivisions of the study population and among five widely separated populations. Within the main study population limber pine exhibited a polymorphism level of 50%, observed heterozygosity of 0.159, and 2.36 alleles per polymorphic locus. Mountain populations were slightly more variable. The main study population showed significant differentiation in allozymes among neighbouring subpopulations. The mean FST was 0.031 and the gene flow rate among subpopulations was estimated as 7.8 migrants per generation. Among widely separated populations the mean FST was 0.035 and the gene flow rate was estimated as 6.9 migrants per generation. The paternity analysis indicated a best estimate of 6.5% pollen immigration (minimum 1.1%) from populations 2 km to 100+ km away. For 4% of the seeds examined, paternity could be ascribed to a single tree in the study population. Fractional paternity and likelihood methods were used to estimate pollen dispersal distances for the remainder of the seeds. Mean pollen dispersal distance was estimated at 140 m using the fractional method, similar to results from the other techniques. This compares with a mean distance of 172 m between potential mates. These results suggest near-panmictic pollen dispersal over this population, which covers about 15 ha. The observed allozyme differences and surprisingly low estimates of among-subpopulation gene flow are ascribed to a probable restriction of gene

  12. DENSITY MANAGEMENT DIAGRAM OF Pinus taeda L. UNTHINNED STAND

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    Paulo Sérgio Pigatto Schneider

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed with the purpose of studying the efficiency of the models which express the density-diameter relationship in stands of Pinus taeda L., implanted in several spacing and handled in unthinning density, and were measured every year until the of 18 age. Results indicated that all of the size-density relationship of Tang model presented good statistical precision, was more efficient than the others, presenting excellent coefficient of determination (0.99, low standard error of estimate (0.0948, low coefficient of variation (1.17%, low bias (0.0086 and high efficiency (0.8976. The slope of the size-density didn’t allow proving the universality of the self-tinning law, with value of this slope is equal -3/2. With help of the size-density model, 6 Indexes of Density of the Stands (IDPs were generated, with variation from the maximum 1400 to the minimum 600, with interval of class of IDP equal to 200, having as reference the standard diameter of 25 cm. The population’s Density Management Diagram (DMD, elaborated for the dendrometric variables – average diameter, basal area and volume for hectare (by IDP – presented good efficiency with low mistake in the estimate of the values of these variables. Real volume and estimate volume per hectare in DMD presented an absolute difference of just -7.39 m3ha-1 and a relative difference of -1.79 %, showing a great precision of the DMD model. The estimates volume of DMD per hectare, in relation to the real values, presented a value of efficiency equal to 0.99, what indicates a high precision, and an  value equal to 0.00034, not significant to 0.01% of probability, demonstrating that the real and the estimate values don't differ statistical amongst themselves. 

  13. Modeling seed dispersal distances: implications for transgenic Pinus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Claire G; LaDeau, Shannon L; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel G

    2006-02-01

    Predicting forest-tree seed dispersal across a landscape is useful for estimating gene flow from genetically engineered (GE) or transgenic trees. The question of biocontainment has yet to be resolved, although field-trial permits for transgenic forest trees are on the rise. Most current field trials in the United States occur in the Southeast where Pinus taeda L., an indigenous species, is the major timber commodity. Seed dispersal distances were simulated using a model where the major determinants were: (1) forest canopy height at seed release, (2) terminal velocity of the seeds, (3) absolute seed release, and (4) turbulent-flow statistics, all of which were measured or determined within a P. taeda plantation established from seeds collected from wild forest-tree stands at the Duke Forest near Durham, North Carolina, USA. In plantations aged 16 and 25 years our model results showed that most of the seeds fell within local-neighborhood dispersal distances, with estimates ranging from 0.05 to 0.14 km from the source. A fraction of seeds was uplifted above the forest canopy and moved via the long-distance dispersal (LDD) process as far as 11.9-33.7 km. Out of 10(5) seeds produced per hectare per year, roughly 440 seeds were predicted to be uplifted by vertical eddies above the forest canopy and transported via LDD. Of these, 70 seeds/ha traveled distances in excess of 1 km from the source, a distance too great to serve as a biocontainment zone. The probability of LDD occurrence of transgenic conifer seeds at distances exceeding 1 km approached 100%.

  14. Rapid changes of induced volatile organic compounds in Pinus massoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Qin; JIN Youju; HU Yongiian; CHEN Huajun; LI Zhenyu

    2007-01-01

    Using the thermal-desorption cold trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometer(TCT-GC-MS)technique,the composition and relative contents of volatile compounds were analyzed in undamaged(control),insect-damaged(ID)and artificially-damaged(AD)leaves ofPinus massoniana in field at different times and levels of damage.Results showed that although volatile substances were highly released earlier in AD leaves plants,they were significantly less abundant in AD than in ID leaves treatments.Also,the damage level considerably influenced the changes of induced volatile products from leaves.Compared with the control,the emission rate of camphene,β-pinene,phellandrene,caryophyllene and(E)farnesene was high after 1 h in 25%-40% ID-affected leaves,whereas that of tricyclene,myrcene,camphene,β-Pinene,phellandrene and caryophyllene reached its maximum after 24 h in 60%-75% D-affected leaves.In the same manner,some volatile compounds in the AD leaves treatment displayed their peaks just after 1 h,but others after 24 h.The AD and ID leaves at the damage level of 25%-40% did not exhibit an obvious regularity with time;however,in 60%- 75% AD leaves,peaks of volatile substances were attained after 1 or 2 h.Our results also showed that the relative content ofβ-pinene increased and was higher in damaged than control plants,β-pinene plays an important role in inducing the insect resistance of P.massoniana trees.

  15. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute {gamma}-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on

  16. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  17. Chemical properties of tannic extracts from bark of Pinus oocarpa and their use as adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cardoso Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the properties of aqueous extracts obtained from the bark of Pinus oocarpa under addition of sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite and the possibility of employment of tannins from the bark as an adhesive for bonding wood. After evaluation of the chemical properties of tannic extracts it was decided to employ the extraction with distilled water under addition of / 5% sodium sulfite to prepare for the tannin-formaldehyde adhesive. Adhesive phenol formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde were modified with 10% tannin Pinus oocarpa and the effect of this addition on the quality of the adhesive was evaluated. The addition from the bark of Pinus oocarpa showed that it is possible to use pure tannin as an adhesive because of its good gluing characteristics. The addition of tannic extract to synthetic adhesives contributed to increase viscosity values. Thus the substitution of synthetic adhesives by tannins is possible only up to 10%.

  18. Microsporogenesis and meiotic behavior in nine species of the genus Pinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Sheng DENG; Da-Ming ZHANG; De-Yuan HONG; Cheng-Xin FU

    2009-01-01

    The meiotic behavior of 10 taxa (nine species and one variety) of the genus Pinus was investigated using pollen mother cells (PMCs) to reveal the differentiation among karyotypes. Chromosome spreads were prepared by conventional squashing. The meiotic index and the average configuration were higher, whereas the frequency of aberrance (chromosomal bridges, fragments, or micronuclei) was lower, in all l0 taxa compared with other gymnosperms. The meiotic index, average configuration, and frequency of irregularity were found to be uniform among the species. It was shown that the genomes of the Pinus species investigated were highly stable, confirming results of previous mitotic analyses in this genus. However, slight differentiation of homologous chromosomes among genomes was revealed by analysis of meiotic configurations in Pinus nigra var. poiretiana. Quadrivalents were observed in 9.31% of PMCs in this species. This is the first time that quadrivalents have been observed in gynmosperms.

  19. The characteristics of soil and water loss in Pinus Massoniana forest in Quaternary red soil area of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuejun; Huang, Yanhe; Jie, Yang

    2017-08-01

    The soil and water loss in Pinus massoniana forests is an urgent environmental problem in the red soil region of southern China.Using the method of field monitoring, by analogy and statistical analysis, The characteristics of soil and water loss of Pinus massoniana forests in Quaternary red soil region under 30 rainfall were analyzed,the results show that the relationship models of rainfall,runoff and sediment of pure Pinus massoniana plot were slightly different from the naked control plot,were all the univariate quadratic linear regression models.the contribution of runoff and sediment in different rain types were different, and the water and soil loss in Pinus massoniana forest was most prominent under moderate rain.The merging effect of sparse Pinus massoniana forest on raindrop, aggravated the degree of soil and water loss to some extent.

  20. Biomass production of young lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia stands in Latvia

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    Jansons A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a source of renewable energy is gaining an increasing importance in the context of emission targets set by the European Union. Large areas of abandoned agricultural land with different soils are potentially available for establishment of biomass plantations in the Baltic states. Considering soil and climatic requirements as well as traits characteristic for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm and the scarcity of published knowledge, we assessed the above-ground biomass of Pinus contorta in comparison to that of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and factors affecting biomass production. Data were collected in 3 experimental trials, located in two sites in central part of Latvia: Zvirgzde and Kuldiga (56°41’ N, 24°28’ E and 57°03’ N, 21°57’ E, respectively. Trials were established with density 5000 tree ha-1, using seed material from Canada (50°08’-60°15’ N, 116°25’-132°50’ W and two Pinus contorta stands with unknown origin growing in Latvia. Results reveal that absolute dry aboveground biomass of Pinus contorta reaches 114 ± 6.4 t ha-1 at age 16 on a fertile former arable land, 48 ± 3.6 and 94 ± 9.4 t ha-1 at age 22 and 25, respectively, on a sandy forest land (Vacciniosa forest type. The biomass is significantly (p < 0.01 and considerably (more than two-fold higher than that of the native Pinus sylvestris and the productivity is similar (in fertile soils or higher (on poor soils than reported for other species in energy-wood plantations. Provenance was a significant factor affecting the above-ground biomass, and the ranking of provenances did not change significantly between different soil conditions. It provides opportunities for further improvement of productivity using selection.

  1. Dendroclimatic analysis of Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana in the municipalities of Áporo and Zitácuaro (Michoacán, Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Marlès Magre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first study on dendroclimatology of Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana in the state of Michoacán (Mexico, specifically in the municipalities of Áporo and Zitácuaro, both municipalities within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR. The sampling in Áporo, northwest of the MBBR, was held in Los Ejidos del Rincón del Soto and Arroyo Seco, in Sierra Chincúa (May 2011. In Zitácuaro, southwest of the reserve, a sampling was performed in the Ejido de San Juan de Zitácuaro, in the area of Ocotal and Palma, and Meso Sedano (June 2011. There were a total of 38 Pinus pseudostrobus and 12 Pinus devoniana sampled in both areas of the study and distributed in 28 trees in the municipality of Áporo and 22 in Zitácuaro. Two samples per tree were taken at 1.3 m height, resulting in a total of 100 tree cores. The dendrochronological series in Áporo for the species Pinus pseudostrobus were extended to 62 years (1949-2010 and for Pinus devoniana 86 years (1925-2010; and the series in Zitácuaro for Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana were extended to 47 years (1964-2010 and 44 years (1967-2010, respectively. The ring chronologies were validated using the program COFECHA, which calculates the cross correlations between individual series of the tree-growth, five series were eliminated due to very low or negative correlations. The climate data from Zitácuaro were obtained from two weather stations located in the same municipality. And, in the case of Áporo, the data was obtained from stations located in Senguio. The growth rates related to the climate were obtained by removing the growth trend of each tree due to the age, size and other factors such as the competition, using the program ARSTAN. The following statistics were used to evaluate the quality of the residual chronologies and to determine the potential dendrochronology of species for the different populations: the average correlation between series (Rbar

  2. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, R.M.; Beira, J.; Suarez, J.; Xenakis, G.; Sánchez-Salguero, R.; Hernández-Clemente, R.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería). Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm), basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1) and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2) in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1), age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB) included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99) between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68). Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. (Author)

  3. Seed source variation and conservation of Pinus wallichiana in India

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    M. Thapliyal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks is an important component of the middleand high altitude Himalayan forests having large natural distribution ranging between 260 to 360 N latitude and 690 to 750 E longitudes. It is commonly known as Himalayan blue pine or blue pine, being indigenous to Himalayan Mountain regions and because of its bluish or grayish-green leaves. It is a five needle pine which gained world-wide attention for its resistance to blister rust among white pines. This species has been crossed successfully with other white pines and vigorous hybrids have been obtained. Considerable variation in morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles, cones and seeds in natural stands exists across the natural distribution of the species, especially in mesic and xeric habitats. These variationssuggested the differentiation of this species in ecotypes or varieties as reported by various authors. However, the level of genetic diversity was found to be relatively high and the degree of genetic differentiation was low compared to other pines. Thewide range of climatic conditions in the natural distribution of this pine is expected to result in high genetic variation within different populations of the species. The study aims to determine the nature and extent of variation present in the populations of the species in respect to cone and seed characteristics across its natural distribution. Seed of 17 seed sources from the states of Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh was collected and analyzed for cone characters (fresh weight of cones, cone length, cone width, specific gravity and seed characters (seed weight, moisture content, germination percent, cotyledon number. Significant variations have beenobserved in these traits among different seed sources of the species. The cone weight varied from 44.4 to114g and the higher cone weight was recorded at higher altitudes.The germination percent varied from 40 to 85 whereas cotyledon number varied from 7

  4. Seed source variation and conservation of Pinus wallichiana in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Thapliyal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks is an important component of the middle and high altitude Himalayan forests having large natural distribution ranging between 260 to 360 N latitude and 690 to 750 E longitudes. It is commonly known as Himalayan blue pine or blue pine, being indigenous to Himalayan Mountain regions and because of its bluish or grayish-green leaves. It is a five needle pine which gained world-wide attention for its resistance to blister rust among white pines. This species has been crossed successfully with other white pines and vigorous hybrids have been obtained. Considerable variation in morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles, cones and seeds in natural stands exists across the natural distribution of the species, especially in mesic and xeric habitats. These variations suggested the differentiation of this species in ecotypes or varieties as reported by various authors. However, the level of genetic diversity was found to be relatively high and the degree of genetic differentiation was low compared to other pines. The wide range of climatic conditions in the natural distribution of this pine is expected to result in high genetic variation within different populations of the species. The study aims to determine the nature and extent of variation present in the populations of the species in respect to cone and seed characteristics across its natural distribution. Seed of 17 seed sources from the states of Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh was collected and analyzed for cone characters (fresh weight of cones, cone length, cone width, specific gravity and seed characters (seed weight, moisture content, germination percent, cotyledon number. Significant variations have been observed in these traits among different seed sources of the species. The cone weight varied from 44.4 to114g and the higher cone weight was recorded at higher altitudes. The germination percent varied from 40 to 85 whereas cotyledon number varied

  5. Micropropagation of an endangered species Pinus armandii var. Amamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Ishii

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For micropropagation via organ culture, mature embryos were excised from the seeds of Pinus armandii. Franch. var. amamiana (Koidz. Hatusima, an endangered species only inhabiting the south west islands of Japan. Adventitious buds were induced on the surface of the embryo on 1/2 DCR medium containing BAP, and they grew shoots after subculturing to medium containing activated charcoal or a low concentration of thidiazuron. From the elongated shoots, root primordia and roots were induced in medium containing IBA as an auxine. We found that a low concentration of zeatin or BAP added to the medium was beneficial for plant regeneration of mature embryos of this species. For micropropagation via somatic embryogenesis, embryogenic cell suspensions were induced from a mature and immature seed of P. armandii var. amamiana on MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 ľM 2, 4-D and 3 ľM BAP. The suspensions were incubated in the dark at 250. Induced suspension cells were transferred to ammonium free MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 ľM 2, 4-D, 3 ľM BAP and 30m M L-glutamine and subcultured every 2 weeks. In the other set of the experiment, the induction rate of somatic embryogenesis was high with ammonium free half strength MS medium. In order to develop somatic embryos, the suspension cells were transferred to ammonium free MS medium supplemented with 10 ľM ABA, 0.2% activated charcoal, 10% PEG (MW6000, 30m M L-glutamine and 6% maltose. The cultures were incubated under a 16h light/8h dark photoperiod. After 1-2 months of culture, differentiation of embryos progressed and cotyledonary embryos were obtained. These embryos were transferred on ammonium free MS solid medium under 16 h photoperiod. After 2-3 weeks plantlets with roots and green cotyledons were obtained. Plantlets were transplanted to vermiculite containing modified MS liquid medium in 200 ml culture flasks, then out planted after habituation procedure.

  6. Organization of the endoplasmic reticulum in dividing cells of the gymnosperms Pinus brutia and Pinus nigra, and of the pterophyte Asplenium nidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariadis, M; Quader, H; Galatis, B; Apostolakos, P

    2003-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) organization in the dividing cells of the pterophyte Asplenium nidus and of the gymnosperms Pinus brutia and Pinus nigra has been studied by immunolocalization techniques using the monoclonal antibody 2E7, which recognizes luminar ER resident proteins containing C-terminal HDEL sequences. In the pterophyte, the ER reorganization during cell cycle is similar to that in angiosperms. Among others, prominent ER gatherings were found at the mitotic spindle poles and in the phragmoplast during cytokinesis. However, in the gymnosperms examined, the ER displays a unique pattern of reorganization not described so far. In both the Pinus species, well-defined ER patterns are successively formed during cell cycle. They are the preprophase ER-band, the prophase- metaphase- and anaphase ER-spindle, the interzonal ER-system, the ER-phragmoplast and an ER-system lining the daughter cell wall. The ER patterns are closely similar to that of the correspondent microtubule (MT) arrangements with which they are co-organized. Observations made on P. nigra root-cells affected by oryzalin, colchicine and cytochalasin D favour the conclusion that the pattern of ER organization is controlled during mitosis and cytokinesis by the MT cytoskeleton.

  7. Growth and physiological responses to varied environments among populations of Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Bert M. Cregg

    2005-01-01

    We investigated population responses in physiology, morphology, and growth of mature Pinus ponderosa trees to an environmental gradient across Nebraska, USA. Ten populations from western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming were grown in three 26-year-old provenance tests from the warmest and wettest site in the east (Plattsmouth) to the intermediate site in...

  8. Modeling contemporary climate profiles of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and predicting responses to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2006-01-01

    The Random Forests multiple regression tree was used to develop an empirically-based bioclimate model for the distribution of Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) in western North America, latitudes 31° to 51° N and longitudes 102° to 125° W. Independent variables included 35 simple expressions of temperature and precipitation and their interactions....

  9. Soil enzyme activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriere) plantations in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn)...

  10. EFFECT OF ATMOSPHERIC AMMONIA ON THE NITROGEN-METABOLISM OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS-SYLVESTRIS) NEEDLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PEREZSOBA, M; STULEN, [No Value; VANDEREERDEN, LJM

    1994-01-01

    Four-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were exposed to filtered air (FA), and to FA supplemented with NH3 (60 and 240 mu g m(-3)) in controlled-environment chambers for 14 weeks. Exposure to the higher NH, concentration resulted in an increased activity of glutamine synthetase (

  11. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  12. Two new sesquiterpene glycosides isolated from the fresh needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yun-Chuan; Ye, Liang; Zhao, Man-Xi; Yan, Cui-Qi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Quan-Shu; Liang, Kai; Meng, Bao-Hua; Ke, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Two new sesquiterpene glycosides, namely massonside A (1) and massonside B (2), were isolated from the n-Bu extract of the fresh needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb. Their structures were established by 1D, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Their biological activities were profiled by the anti-HBV and anti-HCV assays.

  13. Grafting Techniques of Pinus densiflora var. Zhangwuensis%彰武松嫁接技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晓梅

    2012-01-01

    通过对樟子松实生苗及其与彰武松的嫁接苗生长对照,研究了樟子松嫁接彰武松的可行性,表明樟子松嫁接彰武松成活率平均为77.3%,嫁接苗在嫁接后1a、2a高度生长分别高于樟子松实生苗36.0%和44.0%,在嫁接后9a,高度和地径生长分别高于樟子松82.0%和47.0%,以樟子松为砧木嫁接彰武松可以在北方推广。%Seeded plant of Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica Litv. were compared with the grafted seed- ling with Pinus densiflora var. Zhangwuensis in terms of their growth. The result showed that the grafted seedlings would reach 77.3%, the height growth at 1 a and 2 a is 36.0% and 44.0% over the seedlings of Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica Litv. After 9 years, the height growth and stem growth were 82.0% and 47.0% over, indicating the seedlings with Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica Litv. as the stock is suitable for north China,

  14. Restoration planting options for limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. M. A. Casper; W. R. Jacobi; Anna Schoettle; K. S. Burns

    2016-01-01

    Limber pine Pinus flexilis James populations in the southern Rocky Mountains are threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. To develop restoration planting methods, six P. flexilis seedling planting trial sites were installed along a geographic gradient from southern Wyoming to southern Colorado. Experimental...

  15. Biomass and nutrients of Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China: simulations for different management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huixia Yang; Silong Wang; Jianwei Zhang; Bing Fan; Weidong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We measured the dynamics of both biomass and nutrient pools on 7-, 17-, 31- and 51-year-old Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China. Using a chronosequence approach, we found that biomass of each component increased with aging while its proportion decreased except stem-wood. Nutrient pools varied with biomass pools except for foliage. For all harvest intensities...

  16. A Comparison of Fire Intensity levels for stand replacement of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Patrick H. Brose

    1999-01-01

    Stand-replacement prescribed fire has been recommended to regenerate stands of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains because the species has serotinous cones and is shade intolerant. A 350 ha prescribed fire in northeast Georgia provided an opportunity to observe overstory mortality and regeneration of table...

  17. Strength reduction in slash pine (Pinus elliotii) wood caused by decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong Yang; Zhehui Jiang; Chung Y. Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Small wood specimens selected from slash pine (Pinus elliotii )trees at three growth rates (fast, medium, and slow) were inoculated with brown-rot and white-rot fungi and then evaluated for work to maximum load (WML), modulus of rupture (MOR), and modulus of elasticity (MOE). The experimental variables studied included a brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum...

  18. Fertility variation and status number in clonal seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Nebi; Temiraga, Halime

    2012-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate fertility variation, status number and gene diversity based on strobili productions in two clonal seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). There were large differences among clones for the female and male strobili productions in the orchards. Positive and significant (pseed equally from clones or genetinc thinning.

  19. Reproduction ecology of Pinus halepensis : a monoecious, wind-pollinated and partially serotinous Mediterranean pine tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goubitz, Shirrinka

    2002-01-01

    Fire is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of Mediterranean plant species. The fire frequency has increased in the 20st century. Pines are the most important tree species in the area. Pinus halepensis is the only natural pine in parts of the east Mediterranean basin, such as Israel and

  20. A range-wide restoration strategy for whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; D. F. Tomback; C. A. Aubry; A. D. Bower; E. M. Campbell; C. L. Cripps; M. B. Jenkins; M. F. Mahalovich; M. Manning; S. T. McKinney; M. P. Murray; D. L. Perkins; D. P. Reinhart; C. Ryan; A. W. Schoettle; C. M. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), an important component of western high-elevation forests, has been declining in both the United States and Canada since the early Twentieth Century from the combined effects of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, fire exclusion policies, and the spread of the exotic disease white pine blister rust (caused by the...

  1. Penafsiran Volume Pohon Pinus merkusii melalui Foto Udara (Studi Kasus BKPH Majenang, KPH Banyumas Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahid -

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of  Stock Volume of Pinus merkusii  using Aerial Photographs (Case Study in BKPH Majenang, West Banyumas FMU The study aims to compile and analyse the growing stock volume of Pinus merkusii by using stand parameter measured through aerial photographs. The study was conducted by using black-white panchromatic aerial photographs produced in 2005 and the scale was 1 : 20,000. The study was conducted in Pinus merkusii taping plots in the Majenang BKPH, under the forest districts of west Banyumas, Perum Perhutani using tree height, crown diameter and number of trees per hectare as parameters. Data analysis was done to define the relationship among these parameters in regression equation. The steps of the study were defining measurement plots in aerial photographs, measurement of stand parameters in the aerial photographs and field observation. Data analysis was performed using micro computer. As a result, the regression equation for each location as follows: V = 72,415 – 0,231 N + 35,242 H – 24,454D – 0,923 (N x D, with the determination coefficient was 0,789 and the significance of 95%. Where: V = growing stock volume (m3, N = the number of trees per hectare, H = tree height (m and D = crown diameter (m. It was concluded that number of tree per hectare, tree height and crown diameter were good predictors for standing stock volume of Pinus merkusii.

  2. [Genetic control of the isoenzymes in Cembra pine (Pinus cembra L.) in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirko, Ia V; Korshikov, I I

    2001-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, and LAP enzymes was studied in the seed megagametophytes of cembra pine (Pinus cembra L.) from the natural population of the Ukrainian Carpa-thian mountains. Efficient electrophoretic separation was obtained for 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  3. Multi-Season Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Analysis of Pinus taeda Needle Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) is one of the worlds most important timber crop and accounts for a significant portion of the southeastern U.S. landcover. Biogenic voltile organic compound (BVOC) content was extracted from the tissue material of P. taeda needles and analyzed over a m...

  4. Regeneration Methods Affect Genetic Variation and Structure in Shortleaf Pine (Pinus Echinata Mill.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiv G. Raja; Charles G. Tauer; Robert F. Wittwer; Yinghua Huang

    1998-01-01

    The effects of regene ration methods on genetic diversity and structure in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) were examined by quantifying the changes in genetic composition of shortleaf pine stands following harvest by monitoring changes in allele number and frequency at heterozygous loci over time. The results were also compared to the genetic...

  5. Viability of litter-stored Pinus taeda L. seeds after simulated prescribed winter burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    1998-01-01

    Stratified loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seeds were placed at three depths in a reconstructed forest floor and subjected to simulated prescribed winter burns. Within the forest floor, pine seeds were placed at the L/upper-F interface, upper-F/lower-F interface, and lower-F/mineral-soil interface. Wind was generated by electric box-fans. Seeds that...

  6. Fungal species-specific responses of ectomycorrhizal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris to elevated (CO2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, A.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) inoculated with the nitrotolerant Laccaria bicolor and the nitrophobic Suillus bovinus were exposed to ambient (350 l l1) and elevated (700 l l1) [CO2]. After 79 d the seedlings were labelled for 28 d with 14CO2, after which they were harves

  7. Indications of vigor loss after fire in Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) from electrical resistance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.E. Paysen; A.L. Koonce; E. Taylor; M.O. Rodriquez

    2006-01-01

    In May 1993, electrical resistance measurements were performed on trees in burned and unburned stands of Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea Mor.) in north-eastern Nicaragua to determine whether tree vigor was affected by fire. An Osmose model OZ-67 Shigometer with digital readout was used to collect the sample electrical resistance data. Computer-...

  8. Studies on Ectomycorrhizae—XV. Mycorrhizae formed by Rhizopogon luteolus on Pinus silvestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhl, M.

    1988-01-01

    The mycorrhizae of Rhizopogon luteolus on Pinus silvestris are comprehensively described. They are characterized by a coralloid habit, ochre to yellow colour, highly differentiated rhizomorphs, a two-layered mantle and a differentiated autofluorescence in mantle, Hartig net and rhizomorphs. The lite

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium fujikuroi CF-295141, Isolated from Pinus sylvestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni-Mann, Michele; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; González-Menéndez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a new strain of Fusarium fujikuroi, isolated from Pinus sylvestris, which was also found to produce the mycotoxin beauvericin. The Illumina-based sequence analysis revealed an approximate genome size of 44.2 Mbp, containing 164 secondary metabolite biosynthetic clusters. PMID:27795279

  10. Reproduction ecology of Pinus halepensis : a monoecious, wind-pollinated and partially serotinous Mediterranean pine tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goubitz, Shirrinka

    2001-01-01

    Fire is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of Mediterranean plant species. The fire frequency has increased in the 20st century. Pines are the most important tree species in the area. Pinus halepensis is the only natural pine in parts of the east Mediterranean basin, such as Israel and

  11. WATER-USE ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA: A TALE OF TWO PINUS SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although central Florida is relatively flat, the distribution of species on the landscape is controlled by subtle changes in elevation. Along a four-meter elevation gradient, xeric sandhill vegetation dominated by Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) gives way to mesic pine flatwoods...

  12. Fossils matter: improved estimates of divergence times in Pinus reveal older diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Bianca; Leslie, Andrew B; Wüest, Rafael O; Litsios, Glenn; Conti, Elena; Salamin, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E

    2017-04-04

    The taxonomy of pines (genus Pinus) is widely accepted and a robust gene tree based on entire plastome sequences exists. However, there is a large discrepancy in estimated divergence times of major pine clades among existing studies, mainly due to differences in fossil placement and dating methods used. We currently lack a dated molecular phylogeny that makes use of the rich pine fossil record, and this study is the first to estimate the divergence dates of pines based on a large number of fossils (21) evenly distributed across all major clades, in combination with applying both node and tip dating methods. We present a range of molecular phylogenetic trees of Pinus generated within a Bayesian framework. We find the origin of crown Pinus is likely up to 30 Myr older (Early Cretaceous) than inferred in most previous studies (Late Cretaceous) and propose generally older divergence times for major clades within Pinus than previously thought. Our age estimates vary significantly between the different dating approaches, but the results generally agree on older divergence times. We present a revised list of 21 fossils that are suitable to use in dating or comparative analyses of pines. Reliable estimates of divergence times in pines are essential if we are to link diversification processes and functional adaptation of this genus to geological events or to changing climates. In addition to older divergence times in Pinus, our results also indicate that node age estimates in pines depend on dating approaches and the specific fossil sets used, reflecting inherent differences in various dating approaches. The sets of dated phylogenetic trees of pines presented here provide a way to account for uncertainties in age estimations when applying comparative phylogenetic methods.

  13. BIODIVERSIDAD VEGETAL ASOCIADA A PLANTACIONES FORESTALES DE Pinus caribaea MORELET Y Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL ESTABLECIDAS EN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA PLANT BIODIVERSITY ASSOCIATED TO FOREST PLANTATIONS WITH Pinus caribaea MORELET AND Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL. ESTABLISHED IN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernando Fernández Méndez; Yeimy Katherine Camargo Martínez; Mónica Bibiana Sarmiento

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. Se analizó en una plantación ubicada en el bosque húmedo tropical la posibilidad que tienen las especies nativas de formar un sotobosque bajo plantaciones de Pinus caribaea y Eucalyptus pellita...

  14. 75 FR 42033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Pinus albicaulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... beetle (Logan and Powell 2001, pp. 165-170; Williams and Liebhold 2002, p. 95 ) and white pine blister... 100 percent, with the highest Pinus albicaulis mortality from white pine blister rust occurring in Mt...

  15. Tree species versus regional controls on ecosystem properties and processes: an example using introduced pinus contorta in Swedish boreal forests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McIntosh, Anne C.S; Macdonald, Ellen S; Gundale, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    .... Dans cette etude, nous examinons si l'introduction de Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon en Suede a modifie les processus et les proprietes de la couverture morte, ou si ces proprietes sont plus...

  16. Cytoprotective effects of essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouaziz, Mouhamed; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène

    2017-07-18

    Essential oils from Pinus species have been reported to have various therapeutic properties. This study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition and cytoprotective effects of the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced damage in cells in vitro. The cytoprotection of the oil against toxicity of aspirin on the small intestine epithelial cells IEC-6 was tested. The obtained results have shown that 35 different compounds were identified. Aspirin induced a decrease in cell viability, and exhibited significant damage to their morphology and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. However, the co-treatment of aspirin with the essential oil of Pinus induced a significant increase in cell viability and a decrease in SOD and CAT activities. Overall, these finding suggest that the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. has potent cytoprotective effect against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

  17. Volume de madeira de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento. Wood volume of Pinus taeda L. at different growing spacings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo LIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus taeda L. é uma das espécies do gênero Pinus mais plantadas na região Sul do Brasil por apresentar excelente crescimento e ótima adaptação às condições climáticas e de solo. Essa espécie é utilizada em larga escala, principalmente para a produção de celulose, construção civil, laminação, produção de móveis, particulados e serraria. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção volumétrica de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento (entre 1 m2 e 16 m2 por planta propiciados por nove diferentes espaçamentos entre árvores de um ensaio em cinco blocos ao acaso. O trabalho baseou-se nas medidas de altura e DAP em 25 árvores internas da parcela, aos sete anos após plantio das mudas oriundas de pomar de sementes clonal. Valores estimados de volume por hectare foram inversamente proporcionais ao aumento do espaço vital, alcançando entre 74,2 e 274,8 m3 /ha. Os incrementos médios em volume atingiram entre 10,60 e 39,25 m3 /ha/ano. Concluiu-se que, se o objetivo é a produção volumétrica mesmo com diâmetros pequenos, deve-se optar por espaços vitais menores. Quando se deseja maiores diâmetros, a opção é por espaços maiores. No presente caso, o melhor compromisso entre produção volumétrica e diâmetros grandes pode estar nos espaços vitais intermediários, entre 5 e 8 m2 para cada árvore. Pinus taeda L. is one of the most Pinus species planted in southern Brazil, because it presents excellent growth and optimum adaptation to climatic and soil condition. The species is used in large scale, mainly for cellulose production, construction, laminating, production of furniture, particulates and sawmill. It was aimed to evaluate the Pinus taeda L. volumetric production at different growth vital spaces (ranging 1 m² and 16 m² per plant provided by nine different spacings between plants, the trial was installed in a randomized blocks with five replications. The study was based on height and DBH measurements

  18. 568 Prevalence of Sensitization to Parietaria, Pinus, Cupressus and Morus Pollens in Patients from Craic

    OpenAIRE

    Leal-Garcia, Liborio Rafael; González-Díaz, Sandra; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; del Carmen Zarate, Maria; Garcia-Calderin, Diego; Gallego, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Background The pollens of Cupressus, Parietaria, Pinus and Morus are important causes of allergic respiratory diseases. In a study of pollen concentration in Monterrey in 2004, these pollens occupied the first places in frequency. The objective was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to Parietaria, Pinus, Cupressus and Morus in patients from CRAIC (Regional Center of allergy and clinical immunology, Monterrey, México) Methods Is an observational, cross-comparative, double-blind study...

  19. Characterization of the volatile fraction emitted by phloems of four pinus species by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A M; Vasconcelos, T; Mateus, E; Farrall, M H; Gomes da Silva, M D R; Paiva, M R; Branco, M

    2006-02-10

    Pine forests constitute some of the most important renewable resources supplying timber, paper and chemical industries, among other functions. Characterization of the volatiles emitted by different Pinus species has proven to be an important tool to decode the process of host tree selection by herbivore insects, some of which cause serious economic damage to pines. Variations in the relative composition of the bouquet of semiochemicals are responsible for the outcome of different biological processes, such as mate finding, egg-laying site recognition and host selection. The volatiles present in phloem samples of four pine species, P. halepensis, P. sylvestris, P. pinaster and P. pinea, were identified and characterized with the aim of finding possible host-plant attractants for native pests, such as the bark beetle Tomicus piniperda. The volatile compounds emitted by phloem samples of pines were extracted by headspace solid-phase micro extraction, using a 2cm 50/30mm divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane table flex solid-phase microextraction fiber and its contents analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography, using flame ionization and a non polar and chiral column phases. The components of the volatile fraction emitted by the phloem samples were identified by mass spectrometry using time-of-flight and quadrupole mass analyzers. The estimated relative composition was used to perform a discriminant analysis among pine species, by means of cluster and principal component analysis. It can be concluded that it is possible to discriminate pine species based on the monoterpenes emissions of phloem samples.

  20. Evaluación de Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. y Pinus greggii Engelm. con dos densidades de plantación en Michoacán, México

    OpenAIRE

    H. Jesús Muñoz Flores; Gabriela Orozco Gutierrez; Víctor M. Coria Avalos; J. Jesús García Sánchez; Yadira Yolanda Muñoz Vega; Gabriel Salvador Cruz

    2011-01-01

    En la región Purhépecha, del estado de Michoacán, los problemas ambientales son la deforestación, disminución de la biodiversidad, erosión de suelos, agotamiento de manantiales, contaminación por agroquímicos, cambio de uso de suelo y fragmentación de bosques; y para contrarrestar estos efectos se han establecido plantaciones desde 1960 a la fecha. El objetivo fue evaluar el desarrollo en altura, diámetro, supervivencia y el estado fitosanitario de la plantación de Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl.,...

  1. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp.

  2. Outcrossing rates in a natural stand and in a seed orchard of Pinus peuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zhelev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mating system parameters were studied in a natural stand and in a seed orchard of the Balkan endemic, Pinus peuce Griseb. bymeans of isozyme gene markers. The results indicate that the multilocus estimates of the outcrossing rates are low relative to otherwidespread conifers but concord to these reported for other pine species with limited area of distribution. No significant differenceswere detected between the natural stand and the seed orchard estimates. Multilocus estimates of outcrossing rate were within the range0.77-0.79, while mean single-locus estimates were lower (0.69-0.73. The results indicate that at least 20% of the progeny of Pinus peuceis due to self-fertilization. Possible reasons for the results observed and the implications for tree breeding and gene conservation are discussed.

  3. Variability of Pinus mugo Turra clones from Ostry Wierch peat bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bączkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed at determining genetic structure of the Pinus mugo Turra population, growing at a peat bog, on Ostry Wierch slopes in the High Tatra mountains, in respect to the number of genotypes present in the population, and at defining variabilities of morphological and anatomical traits. In the examined plants, isoenzymatic analysis demonstrated existence of only two genotypes (A and B, which formed relatively vast clones. Mathematical-statistical analysis of 13 anatomical - morphological traits of the needles proved that the examined clump consisted of two clearly distinguishable groups, corresponding to the two earlier electrophoretically identified clones A and B. The obtained data allowed to conclude that the method based on anatomical-morphological measurements may, at least in some cases, permit identification of Pinus mugo clones

  4. Reconstructing the plant mitochondrial genome for marker discovery: a case study using Pinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Kevin; Cottrell, Joan; Ennos, Richard A; Vendramin, Giovanni Guiseppe; A'Hara, Stuart; King, Sarah; Perry, Annika; Wachowiak, Witold; Cavers, Stephen

    2016-12-20

    Whole-genome-shotgun (WGS) sequencing of total genomic DNA was used to recover ~1 Mbp of novel mitochondrial (mtDNA) sequence from Pinus sylvestris (L.) and three members of the closely-related Pinus mugo species complex. DNA was extracted from megagametophyte tissue from six mother trees from locations across Europe and 100 bp paired-end sequencing was performed on the Illumina HiSeq platform. Candidate mtDNA sequences were identified by their size and coverage characteristics, and by comparison with published plant mitochondrial genomes. Novel variants were identified, and primers targeting these loci were trialled on a set of 28 individuals from across Europe. In total, 31 SNP loci were successfully resequenced, characterising 15 unique haplotypes. This approach offers a cost effective means of developing marker resources for mitochondrial genomes in other plant species where reference sequences are unavailable. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Volatiles as Chemosystematic Markers for Distinguishing Closely Related Species within the Pinus mugo Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiński, Konrad; Bonikowski, Radosław; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Chudzińska, Ewa; Maliński, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS analysis was used to identify the constituents of pine-needle volatiles differentiating three closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex, i.e., P. uncinata Ramond ex DC., P. uliginosa G.E.Neumann ex Wimm., and P. mugo Turra. Moreover, chemosystematic markers were proposed for the three analyzed pine species. The major constituents of the pine-needle volatiles were α-pinene (28.4%) and bornyl acetate (10.8%) for P. uncinata, δ-car-3-ene (21.5%) and α-pinene (16.1%) for P. uliginosa, and α-pinene (20%) and δ-car-3-ene (18.1%) for P. mugo. This study is the first report on the application of the composition of pine-needle volatiles for the reliable identification of closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex.

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nouara Ait Mimoune; Djouher Ait Mimoune; Aziza Yataghene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils ofPinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay.Results:Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9%) and β-selinene (13.45%) were predominant compounds. The essential oil exhibited a moderate activity againstStaphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, but did not affect the growth of Erwinia amylovora. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were not inhibited by maritime pine essential oils.Conclusions:The essential oils from Pinus pinaster can be used as an antibacterial agent.

  7. Photosynthetic acclimation to enriched CO{sub 2} concentrations in Pinus Ponderosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, M.P. [California State Univ., Humbolt, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    By the middle of the 21st century earth`s ambient CO{sub 2} level is expected to increase two-fold ({approximately}350 umol/L). Higher levels of CO{sub 2} are expected to cause major changes in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits of the world`s vegetation. Therefore, we constructed an experiment designed to measure the long-term acclimation processes of Pinus Ponderosa. As a prominent forest conifer, Pinus Ponderosa is useful when assessing a large scale global carbon budget. Eighteen genetically variable families were exposed to 3 different levels of CO{sub 2} (350 umol/L, 525 umol/L, 700 umol/L), for three years. Acclimation responses were quantified by assays of photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll pigment concentrations.

  8. Radial variation of wood physical properties in Pinus patula growing in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gumane Francisco Juizo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  This study aimed to evaluate wood physical properties of Pinus patula, aged 38, from a forest stand located in Machipanda, central region of Mozambique. Determination of physical properties, such as basic specific gravity, shrinkage, and moisture content of wood in the pith-bark followed the recommendations of the Panamerican Standard - COPANT. Results showed statistically significant differences at significance level of 5%, in the radial direction for the shrinkage coefficient in the pith-bark. Radial and tangential shrinkage values were 6.06 and 8.80% in juvenile wood and 6.18 and 8.65% in adult wood, respectively, with anisotropy coefficient of 1.43 for juvenile wood and 2.44 for adult wood. Pinus patula growing in Inhamacari forest shows stable wood at age 38. It can be used for structural purposes and for manufacture of joinery and furniture.

  9. Outcrossing rates in a natural stand and in a seed orchard of Pinus peuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zhelev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mating system parameters were studied in a natural stand and in a seed orchard of the Balkan endemic, Pinus peuce Griseb. bymeans of isozyme gene markers. The results indicate that the multilocus estimates of the outcrossing rates are low relative to otherwidespread conifers but concord to these reported for other pine species with limited area of distribution. No significant differenceswere detected between the natural stand and the seed orchard estimates. Multilocus estimates of outcrossing rate were within the range0.77-0.79, while mean single-locus estimates were lower (0.69-0.73. The results indicate that at least 20% of the progeny of Pinus peuceis due to self-fertilization. Possible reasons for the results observed and the implications for tree breeding and gene conservation are discussed.

  10. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Pinus armandii (Pinaceae), an endemic conifer species to China1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wan-Lin; Wang, Ruo-Nan; Yan, Xiao-Hao; Niu, Chuan; Gong, Lin-Lin; Li, Zhong-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Pinus armandii (Pinaceae) is an important conifer tree species in central and southwestern China, and it plays a key role in the local forest ecosystems. To investigate its population genetics and design effective conservation strategies, we characterized 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for this species. Methods and Results: Eighteen novel polymorphic and 16 monomorphic microsatellite loci of P. armandii were isolated using Illumina MiSeq technology. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to five. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.061 to 0.609 with an average of 0.384, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.063 to 0.947 with an average of 0.436. Seventeen loci could be successfully transferred to five related Pinus species (P. koraiensis, P. griffithii, P. sibirica, P. pumila, and P. bungeana). Conclusions: These novel microsatellites could potentially be used to investigate the population genetics of P. armandii and related species.

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouara Ait Mimoune

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay. Results: Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9% and β-selinene (13.45% were predominant compounds. The essential oil exhibited a moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, but did not affect the growth of Erwinia amylovora. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were not inhibited by maritime pine essential oils. Conclusions: The essential oils from Pinus pinaster can be used as an antibacterial agent.

  12. Niche of insect borers within Pinus massoniana infected by pine wood nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jiying; LUO Youqing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiaosu; CHEN Weiping; JIANG Ping

    2006-01-01

    In November 2003 and June 2004,the insect borers and their spatial distribution within Pinus massoniana were investigated in Zhoushan City,in East China's Zhejiang Province,where pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are typically found.The niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying trees were computed.Results show that five insect species infect and damage Pinus massoniana,which had been infected by pine wood nematodes,among which four are wood boring beetles and one termite.Species within host trees vary from winter to summer and all the species have their own niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap.They can achieve competitive equilibrium and coexistence according to their biological characteristics and life habits.

  13. Discussion on Pipe Model through Hydraulic Architecture of Pinus tabulaeformis Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAIHongbo; LIJiyue; NIELishui

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, the hydraulic architecture parameters of Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings (4 years old) were measured by improved flushing method under normal water condition in the green house and the basic theory of hydraulic architecture is used to discuss the rationality of the pipe model. The results of the experiment and simulation show that the differences of hydraulic conductivity, specific conductivity and leaf specific conductivity is great in different stems and branches of Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings. The hydraulic conductivity of non-constriction area is higher than that of constriction area. The devotion of functional xylem of stem to unit leaf growth is not a constant, namely, the Huber value is diverse. Even though the pipe model has been accepted in some areas, its precondition is not perfect, and it is helpless in correctly understanding the essence of water transport in seedlings from the prospective of water physiology.

  14. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher R. Keyes; Rubén Manso González

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  15. Site index models for calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in Thasos Island, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriaki Kitikidou; Diamantis Bountis; Elias Milios

    2011-01-01

    A site index model for Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in Thasos island (North Aegean sea, Greece) is presented. The model was fitted and validated from 150 stem analyses, obtained from 75 fixed-area plots from five experimental sites. Four height growth equations of difference form were tested and the BAILEY and CLUTTER (1974) function was considered appropriate due to its good performance with both fitting and validation data. The results show errors lower than 5% and little bias.

  16. Site index models for calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Kitikidou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A site index model for Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos island (North Aegean sea, Greece is presented. The model was fitted and validated from 150 stem analyses, obtained from 75 fixed-area plots from five experimental sites. Four height growth equations of difference form were tested and the BAILEY and CLUTTER (1974 function was considered appropriate due to its good performance with both fitting and validation data. The results show errors lower than 5% and little bias.

  17. Effect of tube shelters on the growth of young Turkish pines (Pinus brutia Ten., Pinaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Céline; Caraglio, Yves

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Young Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) individuals were planting, in the Montpellier region, with or without tube shelter alternating. The effect of these tubes was determinate thanks to the growth study of the main polycyclic stem (several elongation phases separated by rest periods). The analysis was done by a quantitative comparison of successive annual shoots and growth units on individuals of the same age, some with tube shelters and some without. The trees grown ...

  18. USE OF RESIDUES OF FORESTRY EXPLORATION OF Pinus taeda FOR PARTICLEBOARD MANUFACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the quality of particleboards manufactured with forest exploitation waste from Pinus taeda. The material in the form of branches, tree tops, stumps and roots, was obtained from a forest plantation located in the Municipality of Mafra -SC. All the material was processed into wood chips for biomass and transported to the place of studies. The Pinus industrial particles were used as control and mixed with the waste in different proportions. The experimental plan consisted of the panels manufacture with 100% of each type of material and mixture of these com proportions of 75/25%, 50/50% and 25/75% with Pinus industrial particles, in addition to the mixture in equal parts, of the three types of materials. Experimental panels were manufactured with nominal density of 0.75 g/cm3, using the urea-formaldehyde resin, in the proportion of 8% of solids -dry weight basis of the particles. The panels were pressed with specific pressure of 4.0 MPa, temperature of 160ºC and pressing time of 8 minutes. The results of the internal bond tests met the requirements of the standard EN 312, is indicative that there has been a proper bonding of these particles originating forest exploitation wastes. General evaluations of the physical and mechanical properties results of the experimental panels indicate the possibility of use of particles obtained from branches, tree tops, stumps and roots, mixed com the industrial Pinus particles, in proportion of, up to, 50%, for particleboard manufacture.

  19. Antifungal metabolites from fungal endophytes of Pinus strobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumarah, Mark W; Kesting, Julie R; Sørensen, Dan;

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of five foliar fungal endophytes isolated from Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) that showed antifungal activity in disc diffusion assays were selected for further study. From these strains, the aliphatic polyketide compound 1 and three related sesquiterpenes 2-4 were isolated and c...... by spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR, HRMS and by comparison to literature data where available. The isolated compounds 1, 2, and 5 were antifungal against both the rust Microbotryum violaceum and Saccharomyces cerevisae....

  20. Ophiostoma ips asociado al insecto descortezador (Dendroctonus adjunctus ) del pino de las alturas (Pinus hartwegii )

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In the pino de las alturas (Pinus hartwegii Lindl) it has been reported the presence of the bark beetle Dendroctonus adjunctus associated with the genus Ophiostoma spp., which causes the blue-stain of the wood. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the Ophiostoma species associated with the bark beetle D. adjunctus in P. hartwegii. Galleries and insects were collected in the Zoquiapan Experimental Forest Station (ZEFS), of the Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, in Zoquiap...

  1. Growth response of Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in combination

    OpenAIRE

    Dalong,M; Luhe,W; Guoting,Y; M Liqiang; Chun,L

    2011-01-01

    Pinus densiflora seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon roseolus and Russula densifolia) in single-, two-, and three-species treatments. After 8 months, the colonization rates of each ectomycorrhizal species, seedling growth and the nutrition were assessed in each treatment. P. densiflora seedlings inoculated with different ECM species composition showed an increase in height and basal diameter and improved seedling root and sho...

  2. Labdane-type diterpenes active against acne from pine cones (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Md Zakir; Jeon, Young-Min; Moon, Surk-Sik

    2008-03-01

    Bioassay-guided extraction and fractionation of the aqueous methanolic extract of the cones of Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae) afforded one new labdane-type diterpene aldehyde, 15-nor-14-oxolabda-8(17),12 E-diene-18-oic acid, along with eight known diterpenes. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods as well as by comparison with previously reported data. The isolates showed antibacterial (Propionibacterium acnes) and antifungal activities.

  3. Factors affecting the emission of monoterpenes from red pine (Pinus densiflora)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokouchi, Y.; Ambe, Y.

    1984-08-01

    The mechanism of monoterpene emission from Pinus densiflora was studied using an environmentally controlled gas cabinet. It was found that monoterpene emission rate increases exponentially with temperature and is also influenced by light. These observations were explained reasonably by a mechanism whereby monoterpene emission rate depends on the monoterpene amount in the leaf oil and its saturated vapor pressure. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  4. A Study on the Impacts of Climate Change on the Distribution of Pinus tabulaeformis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A special interpolation program GREEN has been developed to determine the climatic parameters for the distribution region of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) based on the researches on the distribution of the tree species. The central region, which is the most suitable distribution region, and potential distribution region of the species under current climatic conditions were mapped using a Geographic Information System IDRISI. According to the averaged predictions by 5 GCMs for 2030, a projecti...

  5. Climatic signal from Pinus leucodermis axial resin ducts: a tree-ring time series approach

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Saracino; Angelo Rita; Sergio Rossi; Laia Andreu-Hayles; G. Helle; Luigi Todaro

    2016-01-01

    Developing long-term chronologies of tree-ring anatomical features to evaluate climatic relationships within species might serve as an annual proxy to explore and elucidate the climatic drivers affecting xylem differentiation. Pinus leucodermis response to climate was examined by analyzing vertical xylem resin ducts in wood growing at high elevation in the Apennines of peninsular Southern Italy. Early- and latewood tree-ring resin duct chronologies, spanning the 1804–2010 time period, were co...

  6. Family Outcrossing Rates of Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea in Seed Orchard and Natural Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Family outcrossing rates of Pinus caribaea var. caribaea populations that differed in origin and management were estimated by using isozyme markers. The family outcrossing rates were estimated by (1)fixing the probability of pollen gene frequency (p); (2) allowing pollen gene frequency to vary among families. The estimates of family outcrossing rates for all the populations varied widely among families (clones of the seed orchard), ranging from 0.39 to 2.0. The average family outcrossing rates of both m...

  7. APPLICATION OF NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY TO INVESTIGATE CHANGES IN PERMEABILITY IN BACTERIA TREATED PINUS RADIATA TIMBER

    OpenAIRE

    Nijdam,J. J.; Lehmann, E.; Keey,R B

    2004-01-01

    The permeability of softwoods can be enhanced by selective bacterial attack of the pit membranes. In this paper, green flat-sawn Pinus radiata sapwood boards were sprinkled for various exposure times with a nutrient solution containing a mixed bacterial population. The timber samples were subsequently dried and the tangential absorption of water was measured using neutron radiography to track the movement of moisture within the wood. There was a significant increase in water absorption after ...

  8. Late Holocene expansion of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jodi R; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    "Aim: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) experienced one of the most extensive and rapid post-glacial plant migrations in western North America. We used plant macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens to reconstruct its spread in the Central Rocky Mountains, identify other vegetation changes coinciding with P. ponderosa expansion at the same sites, and relate P. ponderosa migrational history to both its modern phylogeography and to a parallel expansion by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).

  9. Higher-than-present Medieval pine (Pinus sylvestris) treeline along the Swedish Scandes

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The upper treeline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is renowned as a sensitive indicator of climate change and variability. By use of megafossil tree remains, preserved exposed on the ground surface, treeline shift over the past millennium was investigated at multiple sites along the Scandes in northern Sweden. Difference in thermal level between the present and the Medieval period, about AD 1000-1200, is a central, although controversial, aspect concerning the detection and attribution of...

  10. Soil and Stocking Effects on Caliciopsis Canker of Pinus strobus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel A. Munck; Thomas Luther; Stephen Wyka; Donald Keirstead; Kimberly McCracken; William Ostrofsky; Wayne Searles; Kyle Lombard; Jennifer Weimer; Bruce Allen

    2016-01-01

    Soil and stand density were found to be promising predictive variables associated with damage by the emerging disease of eastern white pine, Caliciopsis canker, in a 2014 survey with randomly selected eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) stands. The objective of this study was to further investigate the relationship between soil and stocking in eastern white pine forests of New England by stratifying sampling across soils and measuring stand density more systematically. A total of 62 eastern...

  11. 樟子松育苗技术%Nursery Technology of Pinus sylvestnis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓青; 李冬梅

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced Pinus sylvestris breeding techniques, including seed preparation, soil preparation, fertilizing, planting and cultivation and management, etc. , so as to provide technical reference in reproduction seedlings.%介绍了樟子松育苗技术,包括种子准备、整地施肥、播种以及抚育管理等内容,从而为樟子松的苗木繁殖提供技术参考。

  12. Genome size and base composition of five Pinus species from the Balkan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunic, F; Muratovic, E; Brown, S C; Siljak-Yakovlev, S

    2003-08-01

    The 2C DNA content and base composition of five Pinus (2 n=24) species and two Pinus subspecies from the Balkan region have been estimated by flow cytometry. P. heldreichii (five populations) and P. peuce (one population) were assessed for the first time, as also were subspecies of P. nigra (three populations-two of subspecies nigra and one of subspecies dalmatica) along with P. sylvestris, and P. mugo from the same region. The 2C DNA values of these Pinus ranged from 42.5 pg to 54.9 pg (41.7-53.8 x 10(9)bp), and the base composition was quite stable (about 39.5% GC). Significant differences were observed between two subspecies of P. nigra and even between two populations of subsp. nigra. The two other species (P. sylvestris and P. mugo) had 2C values of 42.5 pg and 42.8 pg, respectively, while that of P. peuce was 54.9 pg. These genome sizes are in accordance with published values except for P. sylvestris, which was 20% below estimates made by other authors.

  13. Effects Of Drought Stress on Germination in Fourteen Provenances of Pinus Brutia Ten. Seeds in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Şevik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pinus brutia Ten., Red pine, known to be tough drought resistant pine specie, could effectively be used for afforestation of disturbed areas. It is of great interest for the afforestation in arid zones. Appropriate seed sources for the specific areas guarantees reforestation success. Away from its native areas Pinus brutia Ten. is planted for its ornamental value and timber production purposes. Selection of drought resistant provenances can very well increase the survival success. In this study, the effects of water potential on germination were studied in fourteen provenances of Pinus brutia Ten. from Turkey. Water potentials between 0 and -8 bars were obtained using polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000 solutions. Seeds were kept for 35 day at 20 ± 0.5°C. A decrease in water potential produced a marked reduction in germination percentage and germination value. As a result, significant variations between the provenances were found. It was determined that, under a -8 bar water stress, Isparta-Bucak and Mersin-Silifke, respectively corresponding to 58% and 57% of the control group, were the least water stress affected provenances.

  14. PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Pinus elliottii Engelm. MICORRIZADAS EM SOLO ARENOSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Andreazza

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência de diferentes isolados de fungos ectomicorrízicos foi avaliada para produção de mudas de pinus em solo arenoso. Os tratamentos foram: testemunha; fungo Rh 117; fungo Pt Siv.1; fungo FSE – RS (nativo e fungo F1 – RS (nativo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação cujas mudas foram produzidas em solo sob processo de “arenização”, coletado no município de São Francisco de Assis, RS. Determinoaram-se a massa verde da parte aérea e radicular, massa seca da parte aérea, altura de planta, comprimento e área superficial específica radicular, colonização micorrízica e teores de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. Os fungos F1 – RS e Pt Silv.1 beneficiaram as mudas de pinus nos parâmetros radiculares como massa verde radicular, comprimento e área superficial específica da raiz. A associação micorrízica não favoreceu a absorção de nutrientes (N, P e K e no desenvolvimento da parte área da muda de pinus.

  15. Produção de mudas de Pinus elliottii Engelm. micorrizadas em solo arenoso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência de diferentes isolados de fungos ectomicorrízicos foi avaliada para produção de mudas de pinus em solo arenoso. Os tratamentos foram: testemunha; fungo Rh 117; fungo Pt Siv.1; fungo FSE - RS (nativo e fungo F1 - RS (nativo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação cujas mudas foram produzidas em solo sob processo de "arenização", coletado no município de São Francisco de Assis, RS. Determinoaram-se a massa verde da parte aérea e radicular, massa seca da parte aérea, altura de planta, comprimento e área superficial específica radicular, colonização micorrízica e teores de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. Os fungos F1 - RS e Pt Silv.1 beneficiaram as mudas de pinus nos parâmetros radiculares como massa verde radicular, comprimento e área superficial específica da raiz. A associação micorrízica não favoreceu a absorção de nutrientes (N, P e K e no desenvolvimento da parte área da muda de pinus.

  16. Dissipation of excess excitation energy of the needle leaves in Pinus trees during cold winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, AO; Cui, Zhen-Hai; Yu, Jia-Lin; Hu, Zi-Ling; Ding, Rui; Ren, Da-Ming; Zhang, Li-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Photooxidative damage to the needle leaves of evergreen trees results from the absorption of excess excitation energy. Efficient dissipation of this energy is essential to prevent photodamage. In this study, we determined the fluorescence transients, absorption spectra, chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll a/ b ratios, and relative membrane permeabilities of needle leaves of Pinus koraiensis, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Pinus armandi in both cold winter and summer. We observed a dramatic decrease in the maximum fluorescence ( F m) and substantial absorption of light energy in winter leaves of all three species. The F m decline was not correlated with a decrease in light absorption or with changes in chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/ b ratio. The results suggested that the winter leaves dissipated a large amount of excess energy as heat. Because the cold winter leaves had lost normal physiological function, the heat dissipation depended solely on changes in the photosystem II supercomplex rather than the xanthophyll cycle. These findings imply that more attention should be paid to heat dissipation via changes in the photosystem complex structure during the growing season.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of the Anti-stain Efficacy of Crude Wood Vinegar for Pinus densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Salim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, Pinus densiflora is one of the most important indigenous tree species in terms of making high-value wood products. Therefore, Korean sawmills exercise extreme caution to prevent fungal discoloration such as that caused by sapstains and molds on the timber. In this study, the effectiveness of using natural crude wood vinegar to inhibit sapstains and molds, especially on Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine was examined. Pinus densiflora wood samples were dipped in absolute and diluted wood vinegar at different concentrations (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1; deionized water to wood vinegar dilution ratio for 3 minutes and immediately air-dried. In addition, volatile wood vinegar was also used in this study to imitate the condition of wood vinegar when exposed to open air. The degree of discoloration was examined and evaluated every 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks according to the ASTM D4445-91 Standard Method for laboratory test. Crude wood vinegar inhibited sapstains more efficiently than it inhibited molds. Wood vinegar at a 1:1 concentration was found to be the most optimum treatment for inhibiting sapstains for at least 8 weeks.

  18. Experimental study of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini on Hyperlipidemia and lipid in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of Pinus densiflora on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, we divided the rats into groups(Normal group, Control group and Sample group and perfomed the experimental research. Hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats were induced by high fat diets for 8weeks. The sample group was administerd the extract of Pinus densiflora for 14 days and control group was administerd equal dose of oral. And then we measured the amount of serum triglyceride, Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Free Fatty Acid, phospholipid, Insuline, Laptin, Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell, Cardiac Risk Factor(CRF. The results were as followers : 1. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Total cholesterol, Trigylceride, LDL-cholesterol, and Phospholipid levels in serum and CRF significantly. 2. Sample Group showed increasing effects on HDL-cholesterol level in serum significantly. 3. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Insuline in serum significantly. 4. Sample Group showed increasing effects on Laptin in serum significantly. 5. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell significantly. According to the above results, Pinus densiflora showed significant decreasing effects on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, it is considered that it is appropriate to apply for hyperlipidemia, obesity.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of needle essential oil of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae from Macedonian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karapandzova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of needle essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation from wild Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae, growing on three different locations in R. Macedonia were investigated in period 2008/2009. Carried out GC/FID/MS analysis, one hundred and three constituents were identified belonging to the six different classes of components: monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and other non-terpene components, representing 88.61/94.04% of the entire oil. The most abundant constituents were α-pinene (12.89/27.34%, β-pinene (6.16/13.13%, limonene + β-phellandrene (2.09/6.64% and bornyl acetate (2.92/11.67% as well as trans-(E-caryophyllene (4.63/7.13% and germacrene D (8.75/20.14%. Antimicrobial screening of Pinus peuce needle essential oil was made by hole-plate diffusion and broth dilution method against 13 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The most sensitive bacteria against tested Pinus peuce essential oils were Streptococcus pneumonia encompassing Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter spp. and Streptococcus pyogenes. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the oils ranged from 7.5- 62.5 µl/ml.

  20. Chemical composition changes in eucalyptus and pinus woods submitted to heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, J O; Silva, F G; Leão, M M; Almeida, G

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of heat treatment on the chemical composition of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis woods to understand its role in wood processing. E. saligna and P. caribaea var. hondurensis woods were treated in a laboratorial electric furnace at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C to induce their heat treatment. The chemical composition of the resulting products and those from original wood were determined by gas chromatography. Eucalyptus and Pinus showed a significant reduction in arabinose, manose, galactose and xylose contents when submitted to increasing temperatures. No significant alteration in glucose content was observed. Lignin content, however, increased during the heat process. There was a significant reduction in extractive content for Eucalyptus. On the other hand, a slight increase in extractive content has been determined for the Pinus wood, and that only for the highest temperature. These different behaviors can be explained by differences in chemical constituents between softwoods and hardwoods. The results obtained in this study provide important information for future research and utilization of thermally modified wood.

  1. Post-fire ecological restoration of a mixed Pinus-Quercus forest in northeastern Mexico

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    Eduardo Alanís-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se desarrolló en un bosque de Pinus-Quercus en el Parque Ecológico Chipinque (noreste de México, el cual fue afectado por un incendio forestal y sometido a tratamiento de restauración ecológica. Los objetivos fueron evaluar el establecimiento artificial de Pinus pseudostrobus (Lindl. y analizar el efecto de las barreras de retención de suelo después de 10 años de su instalación. Para ello se estableció un área de estudio con tratamiento de restauración ecológica y otra área sin tratamiento en las que se muestreó la comunidad vegetal y la profundidad del suelo. De acuerdo con los resultados, se registró 35 % de supervivencia de la plantación, la cual se considera como no aceptable. Las barreras de retención de suelo tuvieron efecto positivo, pues incrementaron la profundidad del suelo hasta 25 %. Con la investigación se concluye que las técnicas de restauración post-incendio aplicadas han sido eficaces, ya que incorporan una especie clave de ecosistemas maduros y evitan la pérdida de suelo por arrastre, por lo que se recomienda su uso en rodales de Pinus-Quercus afectados por incendios en la Sierra Madre Oriental.

  2. Composition and Bioactivity of Lipophilic Metabolites from Needles and Twigs of Korean and Siberian Pines (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. and Pinus sibirica Du Tour).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpatov, Alexander V; Popov, Sergey A; Salnikova, Olga I; Kukina, Tatyana P; Shmidt, Emma N; Um, Byung Hun

    2017-02-01

    Lipophilic extractive metabolites in different parts of the shoot system (needles and defoliated twigs) of Korean pine, Pinus koraiensis, and Siberian pine, Pinus sibirica, were studied by GC/MS. Korean pine needles comprised mainly bornyl p-coumarate, heterocyclic 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids (lambertianic acid), 10-nonacosanol, sterols and their esters. While Siberian pine needles contained less bornyl p-coumarate, lambertianic acid, sterols and their esters, but were richer in other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids. The major components of the twig extract of P. koraiensis were lambertianic acid, abietane and isopimarane type acids, cembrane type alcohols, 8-O-functionalized labdanoids, sterols, sterol esters, and acylglycerols. The same extract of P. sibirica differed in larger amounts of other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids and pinolenic acid glycerides, but in less quantities of cembranoids and 8-O-functionalized labdanoids. The labdane type pinusolic acid was detected for the first time in Korean pine. P. koraiensis was found to be unique in the genus for an ability to synthesize phyllocladane diterpenoids. The content of bound Δ(5) -unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids in the twig extracts of the both pines was similar or superior to that in their seed oil. Among the pines' metabolites tested isocembrol was strongest in inhibition of both α-glucosidase (IC50 2.9 μg/ml) and NO production in activated macrophages (IC50 3.6 μg/ml).

  3. Spatial Genetic Structure within and among Seed Stands of Pinus engelmannii Carr. and Pinus leiophylla Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham, in Durango, Mexico

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    María Elena Ortiz-Olivas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of spatial genetic structure (SGS are important because they offer detailed insights into historical demographic and evolutionary processes and provide important information regarding species conservation and management. Pinus engelmannii and P. leiophylla var. leiophylla are two important timber tree species in Mexico, covering about 2.5 and 1.9 million hectares, respectively. However, studies in relation to population genetics are unfortunately scant. The aim of this research was to use amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP analysis to identify potential differences in spatial genetic structure within and among seven Pinus engelmannii and nine P. leiophylla var. leiophylla seed stands in Durango, Mexico. Within the 16 seed stands of the two tested pine species, no significant SGS was detected, although SGS was detected among the seed stands. We concluded that the collection of seed in only some seed stands should not significantly alter the degree of genetic differentiation within the (collected seed. Distances between seed orchards and pollen propagators of more than 24 km for P. engelmannii and 7 km for P. leiophylla may be sufficient to limit contamination. Finally, local seeds should be used for (reforestation.

  4. Adaptation of stone pines Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc. to various environmental factors in the testing sites

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    G. V. Kuznetsova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Provenance trials of Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc. (here after «studied species» were studied. In our study we assessed the growth parameters as well as anatomical and morphological parameters of the studied species corresponding to different provenances of their testing in the south of the Krasnoyarsk and Khabarovsk territories.We determined that the growth rate of trees corresponding to different provenances is determined not only by the inherited characteristics, but also by adaptation. At both experimental regions the offspring of trees corresponding to local provenance are clearly better adapted. Nevertheless, at Krasnoyarsk Krai provenance trials, we found that the phenotypic indicators and degree of preservation of the offspring of two Korean pine corresponding to Obluchensky and Chuguevsky provenances are at the same level as for the local Siberian pine. Tree rings widths have been measured for the Siberian pine corresponding to different provenances at both plantations. We conclude that at the Ermakovskoe plantation there is a positive impact of the environmental conditions on tree-ring width for Korean pine corresponding to different provenances, and in Khabarovsk Krai there is a negative impact of the environmental conditions on tree-ring width for the Siberian pine corresponding to different provenances.

  5. Distribution of chemical compartments of soil organic matter and c stocks of a cambisol from south Brazil as affected by Pinus afforestation

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    Henrique Cesar Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and stocks of soil organic matter (SOM compartments after Pinus monoculture introduction in a native pasture area of a Cambisol, Santa Catarina, Brazil, were investigated. Pinus introduction increased soil acidity, content of exchangeable Al+3 and diminished soil nutrients. Nevertheless, soil C stock increased in all humic fractions of the 0-5 cm layer after Pinus afforestation. In the subsurface, the vegetation change only promoted SOM redistribution from the NaOH-extractable humic substances to a less hydrophobic humin fraction. Under Pinus, soil organo-mineral interactions were relevant up to a 15 cm depth, while in pasture environment, this mechanism occurred mainly in the surface layer.

  6. Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko & Sutton - agents of pinus species decline

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    Milijašević Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage is caused on the introduced Pinus species and on those cultivated in artificial plantations, shelterbelts and in urban environments. In Yugoslavia S. sapinea is widely distributed both in the continental and in the Mediterranean parts. It was identified from ten pine species and six hosts from other coniferous genera. By the study in our country, the new hosts of this fungus were detected - Pinus jeffrey, P. peuce and P. heldreichii. The most endangered species in our country is Austrian pine, both in urban environments, and in plantations The symptoms of the disease are bud wilt, curling, stunting and necrosis of current year shoots and needles, dieback of top shoots, parts of crown or tree tops, branch and stem bark canker, root collar rot on the young plants in nurseries and their dying. This fungus also prevents seed germination of Pinus species and causes blue sap stain of the freshly cut wood, although sap stain was also observed on standing trees. More rarely it causes root rot and crown wilt of Pinus species. The main symptoms of infection, both of young plants and older trees, are the dieback of current year shoots S. sapinea can penetrate through buds, bark of young shoots and needles. The critical time of infection is the period from mid April to mid May. Then infection mainly penetrates through the bark of young shoots, which results in their dying. Infection through the needles occurs mainly at the time of their sudden growth or during summer

  7. Larvicidal effect of dried leaf extracts from Pinus caribaea against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Efeito larvicida dos extratos de folhas secas de Pinus caribaea contra Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Luiz Alberto Kanis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the larvicidal activity of dried leaf extracts from Pinus caribaea Morelet against Aedes aegypti was evaluated for the first time. Pinus caribaea extracts were obtained by macerating dried leaves in alkaline hydroethanol, ethanol and acetone solutions followed by evaporation under reduced pressure. The lignin content was quantified using the thioglycolic acid complexation method. Lethality bioassays (LC50 and LC90 were carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results showed that the acetone extract from Pinus caribaea was more active, and that larvicidal activity was associated with lignin concentration.Neste trabalho foi avaliada pela primeira vez a atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti de extratos obtido a partir de folhas secas de Pinus caribae. Os extratos de Pinus caribaea foram obtidos a partir da maceração de folhas secas em solução hidroetanólica alcalina, etanol e acetona, seguido de evaporação sob pressão reduzida. O teor de lignina foi quantificado usando o método de complexação com ácido tioglicóliclo. Os ensaios de letalidade foram conduzidos de acordo com a recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato obtido com acetona foi mais ativo, e a atividade larvicida esta associada com a concentração de ligninas.

  8. Biometrical study of some individuals chosen from Pinus mugo turra populations in the peat bog "Bór na Czerwonem"

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    Alina Bączkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen individuals were sampled for study of variation in 17 anatomical and morphological characters. Only individuals of low polycormic growth (trait typical for Pinus mugo Turra connected with incurved one-year-cone stipes (a similar situation exists in Pinus sylvestris L. were chosen, thus the sample studied cannot be treated as a random one. It has been shown by multivariate statistical analysis that these 16 individuals are quite different from each other, Mahalanobis'generalized distances between them being nearly 50% significantly different from 0. The sample studied in this respect is distinctly different from pure stands of both putative parental species (i.e. Pinus mugo and P. sylvestris. Every plant studied shows a different combination of traits typical (or nearly typical for both the above-mentioned species and traits that are truly intermediate between them. The results support the frequently expressed opinion that the mountain pine population from the peat bog "Bór na Czerwonem" is, in fact, a hybrid swarm formed by hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris.

  9. Eficiência dos herbicidas oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen e Imazapyr sobre a cultura de pinus Efficiency of the oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen and imazapyr herbicides on Pinus cropping

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    Wilson da Silva

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade de alguns herbicidas para mudas de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis e suas eficiências no controle de plantas daninhas. As mudas com 20 cm de altura, produzidas em tubetes, foram transplantadas num espaçamento de 2,0 m x 2,0 m, em parcelas de quatro fileiras com 10,0 m de comprimento. Os tratamentos utilizados foram oxadiazil (600; 800 e 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 e 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazapyr (250 g ha-1 e testemunhas (capinada e sem capina, dispostos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os herbicidas foram aplicados sete dias após o transplante, usando-se pulverizador costal, pressurizado com CO2, calibrado para 200 L ha- 1 de calda. As principais plantas daninhas com maior infestação foram: Brachiaria plantaginea e Ipomoea grandifolia e com menor infestação: Galinsoga parviflora e Bidens pilosa. O oxadiazil apresentou excelente controle de B. plantaginea, I. grandifolia e G. parviflora, não sendo eficiente para controle de B. pilosa, embora proporcionasse controle superior ao observado pelo oxadiazon. O oxadiazon foi eficiente até 45 dias após o tratamento para B. plantaginea, G. parviflora e até 90 dias para I. grandifolia. Tanto o oxyfluorfen quanto o imazapyr apresentaram excelente controle das plantas daninhas. De todos os herbicidas avaliados, apenas o imazapyr não deve ser recomendado para aplicação sobre o dossel de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis, em face da toxicidade provocada.The selectivity of some herbicides were evaluated on Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis seedlings as well as these herbicide efficiencies in the weed control. When the tubule-produced seedlings were 20 cm height they were transplanted at 2,0 m x 2,0 m spacings in fourrows plots with 10,0 m length. The treatments with oxadiazil (600; 800 and 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 and 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazpyr (250 g ha-1 and controls (weeded and without weeding were disposed

  10. Desarrollo de un Adsorbente Basado en Taninos de Corteza de Pinus pinaster Development of an Adsorbent Based on Tannins from Pinus pinaster Bark

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    G. Vázquez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se han preparado partículas de gel de taninos de corteza de Pinus pinaster empleando un proceso en dos etapas. En la primera etapa (de pre unión cruzada, los taninos reaccionan con formaldehído. En la segunda (de granulación, la disolución taninos-formaldehído parcialmente gelificada se dispersa sobre una mezcla de decalina y un agente tensoactivo no iónico. Se ha analizado la influencia de las condiciones de operación de ambas etapas sobre el rendimiento y características de las partículas obtenidas. Las partículas, ligeramente porosas y prácticamente esféricas, se han empleado para la adsorción de cadmio de disoluciones acuosas. Los espectros de dispersión de rayos X obtenidos tras la adsorción han confirmado la presencia de cadmio sobre la superficie de las partículas y, por tanto, su capacidad para la adsorción de cationes metálicos.Tannin-gel particles, based on tannins extracted from Pinus pinaster bark, have been prepared in a two-stage process. In the first stage (pre-crosslinking, tannins react with formaldehyde. In the second stage (granulation, the partially gelled tannin-formaldehyde solution is dispersed into a mixture of decalin and a non-ionic surfactant. The influence of operation conditions of both stages on the yield and characteristics of the particles has been analysed. The particles, slightly porous and nearly spherical, have been used to adsorb cadmium from aqueous solutions. X-ray energy dispersion spectra obtained after adsorption have confirmed the presence of cadmium on particle surface and, therefore, their capacity for metal cation adsorption.

  11. Response of needle dark respiration of Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations for four growing seasons' exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU YuMei; HAN ShiJie; ZHANG HaiSen; XIN LiHua; ZHENG JunQiang

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on needle dark respiration of two coniferous species-Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis on the Changbai Mountain was investigated using open-top chambers. P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis were exposed to 700,500μmol·mol-1 CO2 and ambient CO2(approx.350 μmol·mol-1)for four growing seasons. Needle dark respiration was measurd during the second, third and fourth growing seasons' exposure to elevated CO2.The results showed that needle dark respiration rate increased for P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis grown at elevated CO2 concentrations during the second growing season, could be attributed to the change of carbohydrate and/or nitrogen content of needles. Needle dark respiration of P. Koraiensis was stimulated and that of P. Sylvestriformis was inhibited by elevated CO2 concentrations during the third growing season. Different response of the two tree species to elevated CO2 mainly resulted from the difference in the growth rate. Elevated CO2 concentrations inhibited needle dark respiration of both P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis during the fourth growing season. There was consistent trend between the short-term effect and the long-term effect of elevated CO2 on needle dark respiration in P. Sylvestriformis during the third growing season by changing measurement CO2 concentrations. However, the short-term effect was different from the long-term effect for P. Koraiensis. Response of dark respiration of P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations was related to the treatment time of CO2 and the stage of growth and development of plant. The change of dark respiration for the two tree species was determined by the direct effect of CO2 and long-term acclimation. The prediction of the long-term response of needle dark respiration to elevated CO2 concentration based on the short-term response is in dispute.

  12. Chemotaxonomic implications of the n-alkane composition and the nonacosan-10-ol content in Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Tešević, Vele; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2013-04-01

    The n-alkane composition and the nonacosan-10-ol content in the needle cuticular waxes of Serbian spruce (Picea omorika), Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii), and Macedonian pine (Pinus peuce) were compared. The amount of nonacosan-10-ol in the needle waxes of P. omorika was higher than those in P. heldreichii and P. peuce. The range of n-alkanes was also wider in P. omorika (C18 -C35 ) than in P. heldreichii and P. peuce (C18 -C33 ). The dominant n-alkanes were C29 in the needle waxes of P. omorika, C23 , C27 , and C25 in those of P. heldreichii, and C29 , C25 , C27 , and C23 in those of P. peuce. The waxes of P. omorika contained higher amounts of n-alkanes C29 , C31 , and C33 , while those of P. heldreichii and P. peuce had higher contents of n-alkanes C21 , C22 , C23 , C24 , and C26 . The principal component analysis of the contents of nine n-alkanes showed a clear separation of the Serbian spruce populations from those of the two investigated pine species, which partially overlapped. The separation of the species was due to high contents of the n-alkanes C29 and C31 (P. omorika), C19 , C20 , C21 , C22 , C23 , and C24 (P. heldreichii), and C28 (P. peuce). Cluster analysis also showed a clear separation between the P. omorika populations on one side and the P. heldreichii and P. peuce populations on the other side. The n-alkane and terpene compositions are discussed in the light of their usefulness in chemotaxonomy as well as with regard to the biogeography and phylogeny of these rare and endemic conifers.

  13. Cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra and Pinus sylvestris at their climatic limits in the Eastern Alps in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Oberhuber, Walter

    2011-12-20

    It has been frequently stressed that at distributional boundaries, like at the Alpine timberline and within dry inner Alpine environments, tree growth will be affected first by changing climate conditions. Climate in 2007 was characterized by the occurrence of exceptionally mild temperatures in spring (3.4 and 2.7 °C above long-term mean (LTM) at timberline and the valley sites, respectively) with an almost continuous drought period recorded in April and slightly warmer than average temperatures throughout summer (1.3 °C above LTM at both sites). We compared temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra at the Alpine timberline (1950 m a.s.l.) and Pinus sylvestris at a xeric inner Alpine site (750 m a.s.l.) by repeated cellular analyses of micro-cores (n = 5 trees/site). While onset of wood formation in P. sylvestris and P. cembra differed by about two weeks (12 and 27 April, respectively), maximum daily growth rates peaked on 6 May at the valley site and on 23 June at timberline. At both sites maximum tracheid production was reached prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions during summer, i.e. an increase in precipitation and temperature. Xylem formation ended on 31 August and 28 October at the xeric site and at timberline, respectively. This study demonstrates the plasticity of tree-ring formation along an altitudinal transect in response to water availability and temperature. Whether early achievement of maximum growth rates is an adaptation to cope with extreme environmental conditions prevailing at limits of tree growth needs to be analysed more closely by taking belowground carbon allocation into account.

  14. Isoenzymatic variability in progeny of Pinus mugo Turra x Pinus sylvestris L. hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem, in experimental culture

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    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the genetic structure of 12-year old seedlings. They were grown in an experimental culture representing the progeny of natural hybrids of Pinus mugo Turra and Pinus sylvestris L. from the peatbog Bór na Czerwonem. The studies were carried out on seedlings, employing electrophoresis of enzymatic proteins from winter buds. Parallel isoenzymatic analyses were also conducted for trees of P. mugo Turra from Tatra Mountains and for P. sylvestris L. trees from Białowieża in order to determine similarities of the hybrids to the 'pure' species, thought to represent parental forms, and for natural hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem. The obtained electrophoretic patterns made the determination of genetic structure of the population possible, namely of the observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, Wright's fixation index and coefficients of similarity according to Nei and Hedrick. Genetic distances between the populations were also estimated. The variability of 11 enzymatic loci demonstrated the highest level of variability in the population of hybrids. Coefficients of genetic differentiation (GST and of gene flow, (Nm suggested a close relationship of the hybrids to P. mugo which may indicate an introgressive type of the hybrid swarm, from which the studied trees originated. The analysis of genetic similarity coefficients, according to Nei and Hedrick, demonstrated also an extensive similarity of the two hybrid groups to P. mugo. However, upon analysis of individual enzymatic loci, some of them highly resembled P. mugo while others were similar to P. sylvestris. The closest genetic similarity was demonstrated for the group of hybrids from the peatbog and the respective of hybrides group from culture. The variable gene expression as well as asymmetric inheritance of isoenzymes provided additional evidence of the introgressive character of the studied trees from the hybrid population.

  15. Short Communication. Using high resolution UAV imagery to estimate tree variables in Pinus pinea plantation in Portugal

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    Juan Guerra Hernandez

    2016-07-01

    Research highlights: The results demonstrate that tree variables can be automatically extracted from high resolution imagery. We highlight the use of UAV systems as a fast, reliable and cost‑effective technique for small scale applications. Keywords: Unmanned aerial systems (UAS; forest inventory; tree crown variables; 3D image modelling; canopy height model (CHM; object‑based image analysis (OBIA, structure‑from‑motion (SfM.

  16. The Influence of Pinus brutia on the Water Balance of Fractured Mediterranean Mountain Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lubczynski, Maciek; Christou, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In dry Mediterranean environments, both rainfall and temperature vary throughout the year and frequent droughts occur. The mountainous topography is characterized by steep slopes, often leading to shallow soil layers with limited water storage capacity. While for most of the tree species, these conditions can be characterized as unfavourable, Pinus brutia trees manage to survive and thrive. The main objective of this study is to define and quantify the water balance components of a Pinus brutia forest at tree level. Our study was conducted from 30/12/2014 until 31/09/2015 in an 8966-m2 fenced area of Pinus brutia forest. The site is located on the northern foothills of Troodos mountain at 620 m elevation, in Cyprus. The slope of the site ranged between 0 and 82%. The average daily minimum temperature is 5 0C in January and the average daily maximum temperature is 35 oC in August. The mean annual rainfall is 425 mm. We measured the diameter at breast height (DBH) from a total of 122 trees. Based on the average DBH, four trees were selected for monitoring (two were above the average DBH and two were below). We measured soil depth in a 1-m grid around each of the four selected trees. We processed soil depths in ArcGIS software (ESRI) to create a soil depth map. We used a Total Station and a differential GPS for the creation of a high resolution DEM of the area covering the four selected trees. We installed soil moisture sensors at 15-cm depth at distances of 1 and 2 m from the selected trees and a second sensor at 30-cm depth when the soil was deeper than 20 cm.. We randomly installed four metric manual rain gauges under each trees' canopy to measure throughfall and for stemflow we installed a plastic tube around each tree trunk and connected it to a manual rain gauge. We used six sap flow heat ratio method instruments to determine sap flow rates of the Pinus brutia trees. Two trees had one sensor installed at 1.3 m height facing north. The remaining trees had two sap

  17. Chemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Investigations of Pinus cembra L. Bark and Needles

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    Anca Miron

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical constituents and biological activity of Pinus cembra L. (Pinaceae, native to the Central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are not well known. The aim of the present work was to examine the phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of hydromethanolic extracts of Pinus cembra L. bark and needles. Bark extract had higher concentrations of total phenolics (299.3 vs. 78.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract, flavonoids (125.3 vs. 19.84 mg catechin equivalents/g extract and proanthocyanidins (74.3 vs. 12.7 mg cyanidin equivalents/g extract than needle extract and was more active as a free radical scavenger, reducing agent and antimicrobial agent. The EC50 values in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS and reducing power assays were 71.1, 6.3 and 26 mg/mL for bark extract and 186.1, 24 and 104 mg/mL for needle extract, respectively. In addition, needle extract showed ferrous ions chelating effects (EC50 = 1,755 μg/mL. The antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were assessed by the agar diffusion method. Both extracts (4 mg/well were active against all the microorganisms tested; bark extract showed higher inhibition on all strains. These results indicate that Pinus cembra L. bark and needles are good sources of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  18. Chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations of Pinus cembra L. bark and needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Cristina Lungu; Tuchilus, Cristina; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Oprea, Adrian; Malterud, Karl Egil; Miron, Anca

    2011-09-13

    The chemical constituents and biological activity of Pinus cembra L. (Pinaceae), native to the Central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are not well known. The aim of the present work was to examine the phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of hydromethanolic extracts of Pinus cembra L. bark and needles. Bark extract had higher concentrations of total phenolics (299.3 vs. 78.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract), flavonoids (125.3 vs. 19.84 mg catechin equivalents/g extract) and proanthocyanidins (74.3 vs. 12.7 mg cyanidin equivalents/g extract) than needle extract and was more active as a free radical scavenger, reducing agent and antimicrobial agent. The EC₅₀ values in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and reducing power assays were 71.1, 6.3 and 26 mg/mL for bark extract and 186.1, 24 and 104 mg/mL for needle extract, respectively. In addition, needle extract showed ferrous ions chelating effects (EC₅₀ = 1,755 μg/mL). The antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were assessed by the agar diffusion method. Both extracts (4 mg/well) were active against all the microorganisms tested; bark extract showed higher inhibition on all strains. These results indicate that Pinus cembra L. bark and needles are good sources of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  19. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel; Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ(13)C and δ(18)O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain.

  20. Inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds from needles of Pinus densiflora on nitric oxide and PGE2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joo Hee; Kim, Jee Hun; Choi, Sun Eun; Park, Kwan Hee; Lee, Min Won

    2010-12-01

    The needles of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini, a representative Pinus species that grows in Korea, have been used in oriental traditional medicine as remedies for rheumatitis, hemorrhage, cancer, etc. Phytochemical examination of the needles of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini led to the isolation of four lignans, one flavan-3-ol, two flavonols and one organic acid. They were identified as icariside E(4) (1), cupressoside A (2), schizandriside (3), (+)-isolariciresinol (4), (+)-catechin (5), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7) and (-)-shikimic acid (8). In order to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds, their inhibitory activities against nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) production in IFN-γ- and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were examined.

  1. Reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazilian sandy coastal plain vegetation: implications for biological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campanhã Bechara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinus is the most invasive woody taxon, exceeded only by herbaceous plants. This study reports the reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, describing its invasive properties in a protected natural area of the Brazilian coastal sandy plains. We evaluated the seed germination and rain, longevity of seed viability and the initial dynamics of the seedlings of Pinus elliottii var elliottii through field and laboratory experiments. We recorded a continuous seed rain of about 204.0 viable seeds m- 2 per year, with a 90 % germination rate. The seeds exhibited a low longevity of viability in the soil and a dense, permanent seedling bank that may explain the high levels of pine invasion. The environmental impact caused by the pine's biological invasion suggests the recommendation for its immediate eradication, together with a restoration plan to restitute the native biodiversity gradually.

  2. On the specific pattern of long chain polyprenols in green needles of Pinus mugo Turra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, B; Hertel, J; Swiezewska, E; Chojnacki, T; Marczewski, A

    1997-01-01

    In green needles of Pinus mugo the most abundant polyprenols occur as a mixture of prenologues in which the dominant alcohol is built of 16 isoprene units. The characteristic spectrum of polyprenols (prenol-15, -16 and -17) was the same irrespective of the location of plant and of distinct morphological differences observed in the various selected forms of this species. The constant pattern of the polyprenols spectrum was preserved throughout the 2-year life span of needles, although the level of polyprenols was increased 2-3-fold. The polyprenol pattern in Pinaceae family differs from species to species, thus it may serve as chemotaxonomic criterion within this systematic group.

  3. Essential oils composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae growing on Pelister Mtn., Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karapandzova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from needles, from branches without needles and from branches with needles of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae from Pelister Mtn. (R. Macedonia was analyzed by GC/FID/MS. One hundred and seven components (40 monoterpenes, 37 sesquiterpenes, 9 diterpenes and 21 other components - aliphatic and cyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, and acids; phenols and other oxygenated benzene derivates were identified. The most abundant constituents were terpene hydrocarbons, encompassing the monoterpenes: α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene + β-phellandrene and bornyl acetate and the sesquiterpenes: trans (E-caryophyllene and germacrene D.

  4. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of sterols from Pinus elliotti tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.; Evans, R.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    A comparative study of the sterol components of slash pine (Pinus elliotti) callus tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings was carried out using GC-MS techniques. Cholesterol, desmosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and cycloeucalenol were identified in all tissues while lophenol and 24-methylenelophenol were identified in only the seed and seedlings. 24-Ethylidenelophenol was detected in trace concentrations in only the seedlings. Sitosterol was the predominant sterol component, i.e., 80.8, 38.1 and 47.8% of the tissue culture, seed and seedling sterols, respectively.

  5. RESISTENCIA A BAJAS TEMPERATURAS EN Pinus hartwegii SOMETIDO A DIFERENTES TRATAMIENTOS CON POTASIO

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Con el fin de mejorar la resistencia a bajas temperaturas, se probó la aplicación de diferentes concentraciones de Nitrato de Potasio a plantas en vivero de 13 meses de edad de Pinus hartwegii Lindl. Se estableció un diseño experimental en bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron cinco aplicaciones complementarias de 180, 150 y 114 ppm K, este último es la fertilización regular en el vivero forestal, durante la fase de endurecimiento. Dieciséis brinzales de ...

  6. Ascensão capilar de água em substratos de coco e de pinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vinicius Garcia Barreto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso da irrigação por capilaridade na produção de mudas em viveiros pode trazer vantagens ao uso de água e sua utilização adequada requer o conhecimento da capacidade de ascensão de água no meio de crescimento das raízes, atributo pouco estudado. Para avaliar esta condição fundamental, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a ascensão de água em substratos comerciais de coco e pinus, em dois padrões de tamanho de partículas e em duas condições de umidade, para indicar aquele que possua as melhores características físicas para aplicação na irrigação por capilaridade. Utilizou-se o método de ascensão capilar, com colunas desmontáveis de anéis preenchidas com substratos, avaliando-se os seguintes tempos de contato do fundo da coluna com a lâmina de água: 0,25, 0,5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 e 24 horas, com 10 repetições por tempo testado. Pelos resultados, observou-se que a maior ascensão capilar acumulada em 24 horas de ensaio foi obtida para os substratos de textura fina de coco e de pinus. Além disso, a hidrofobia do substrato de coco seco recomenda que as irrigações nesse material devem ter frequências maiores que substratos de pinus, evitando seu secamento. O substrato de pinus, por não apresentar esse comportamento, deve ter turnos de rega mais espaçados, principalmente sob textura fina. Devido à sua maior retenção de água e capacidade de elevação de água quando umedecido, o substrato fino de coco é mais adequado à irrigação por capilaridade em recipientes como tubetes.

  7. Soil Enzyme Activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) Plantations in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn) following harvesting at two depths in the mineral soil (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm). Invertase and urease increased significantly with time sin...

  8. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora seedlings that resembles naturally occurring 'shiro'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maeda, Ken; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Murata, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    We established an in vitro ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora. Mycorrhiza formed in a substrate of Modified Norkrans' C medium and granite-based soil had features similar to those observed previously only in naturally occurring mycorrhizal system called 'shiro,' and promoted the growth of plants with smaller root/shoot ratios. The in vitro formation of 'shiro' is essential for the development of T. matsutake system to produce mushrooms and is useful for the propagation and plantation of the mycorrhizal seedlings.

  9. Fungal communities and fire associated to pinus pinaster in a mediterránean region

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez Gassibe, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar cómo las comunidades de hongos de bosques mediterráneos dominados por Pinus pinaster Ait. están influenciados por el fuego y las diferentes condiciones edafoclimáticas que caracterizan específicamente estas zonas. Para evaluar el efecto del fuego se analizó la sucesión de las comunidades de hongos después de un incendio en un ecosistema mediterráneo en el noroeste de España y se desarrollaron los primeros modelos simples de clasificación para ...

  10. DETERMINING THE TRANSITION AGE FROM JUVENILE TO MATURE WOOD IN Pinus patula SCHL. et CHAM.

    OpenAIRE

    David Josué Meza Juárez; J. Jesús Vargas Hernández; Javier López Upton; Humberto Vaquera Huerta; Amparo Borja de la Rosa

    2005-01-01

    In order to compare several criteria to estimate the transition age from juvenile to mature wood formation in a 16-year-old Pinus patula plantation, radial trends of latewood proportion, wood density and tracheid length were identified in a sample of 100 trees. A wood sample from each tree was taken with an increment borer at 50 cm stem height. Latewood proportion increased gradually from pith to bark, but after 14 years old showed a higher rate of increase; wood density decreased initially a...

  11. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  12. Response of seedlings growth of Pinus sylvestriformis to atmospheric CO2 enrichment in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han S hijie; Wang Chen rui; Zhang Junhui; Zou Chunjing; Zhou Yumei; Wang Xiaochun

    1999-01-01

    The biomass and ratio of root-shoot of Pinus sylvestriformis seedlings at CO2 concentration of 700 μL· L-1 and 500 μL· L-1 were measured using open-top chambers (OTCs) in Changbai Mountain during Jun.to Oct. in 1999. The results showed that doubling CO2 concentration was benefit to seedling growth of the species (500 μL· L-1 was better than 700 μL-L-1 ) and the biomass production was increased in both aboveground and underground parts of seedlings. Carbon transformation to roots was evident as rising of CO2 concentration.

  13. Pinus chiapensis: un enfoque ecológico de su anatomía foliar

    OpenAIRE

    E. Vilela; Salvador Acosta Castellanos

    2000-01-01

    Se registraron datos ecológicos y caracteres anatómicos de acículas de Pinus chiapensis, una especie amenazada, en el estado de Oaxaca, México. Evidencias fitogeográficas sugieren que la distribución actual de esta especie es relictual. Aunque habita áreas de alta humedad y precipitación, las hojas aciculares son xeromórficas (presencia de estomas hundidos, cutícula gruesa y esclerénquima subepidérmico). Estos resultados apoyan la hipótesis de una adaptación paleoclimática de la especie....

  14. Effect of elevated ambient CO2 concentration on water use efficiency of Pinus sylvestriformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Shijie; Zhang Junhui; Wang Chenrui; Zou Chunjing; Zhou Yumei; Wang Xiaochun

    1999-01-01

    Pinus sylvestriformis is an important species as an indicator of global climate changes in Changbai Mountain, China. The water use efficiency (WUE) of this species ( 11-year old ) was studied on response to elevated CO2 concentration at 500± 100 μL· L-1 by directly injecting CO2 into the canopy under natural condition in 1998-1999. The results showed that the elevated CO2 concentration reduced averagely stomatal opening, stomatal conductance and stomatal density to 78%, 80% and 87% respectively, as compared to normal ambient. The elevated CO2 reduced the transpiration and enhances the water use efficiency (WUE) of plant.

  15. Storage products and tissue interaction in the ovule of Pinus silvestris (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Engels

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organel-sequence in ovular cells of Pinus silvestris was investigated by light- and electronmicroscopy during the post-pollination and pre-fertilization period. Changes in starch and lipid storage suppose starch to be a pool for lipid synthesis and a reserve for ovule development. The base nucellus plays an important role in the distribution of metabolites all over the ovular tissues. Lipid, starch and callose are of interest for the cells to protect them against low temperatures by means of isolation, antifreeze and plug formation respectively.

  16. Fire Burning Characteristics, Attacking Techniques and Safety Precautions in Pinus pumila Scrubs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In China, Pinus pumila is mainly distributed in Daxing’anling, while those growing in the eastern Daxing’anling are primarily covered under the jurisdiction of Huzhong Forest Bureau. P. pumila is an evergreen shrub, 3-6 m high, and always grows vigorously. Its trunks creep along the ground, usually 10 m long or more. It is easily flammable because of the large amounts of resins and volatile oils in its body. Attacking forest fires is a dangerous work, especially in P. pumila scrubs. The fires in P. pumila s...

  17. A Comparative Study on Turpentine Oils of Oleoresins of Pinus sylvestris L. from Three Districts of Denizli

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    İbrahim Tümen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oleoresin samples collected from Pinus sylvestris L. trees from Acıpayam, Çal and Çamlıbel, three different locations in Denizli-Turkey. The constituents of the turpentine oil, obtained by hydrodistillation of oleoresin of Pinus sylvestris L., were identified by GC-MS. Fifty four constituents were detected from the turpentine oil, which constituted about between 96.2% and 98.2% of the total amount. Major constituents of the oil were a-pinene, b-pinene, camphene, longifolene, D3-carene, limonene and b-caryophyllene

  18. Effects of light radiation intensity on photosynthetic characteristics and water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weiqiang; HE Kangning; WANG Yunqi; WANG Baitian; DENG Juntao; ZHOU Yi; ZHONG Xijun; LI Zhaoqing

    2007-01-01

    In order to offer a scientific basis for cultivation and management of forests,effects of light radiation intensity on photosynthetic characteristics and water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were studied under different soil moisture contents.By adopting artificial control methods to soil moisture,and under simulated photosynthetic radiation (SPR),the net photosynthetic rate (PN),transpiration rate (Tr),water use efficiency (WUE) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci,) of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis in the semi-arid region of the Loess Plateau,were studied.Results are as follows:within the photon range of 0-2,200 μmol/(m2·s),PN,Tr and WUE were enhanced with an increase in SPR in both species.PN and WUE of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis,however,declined with continued increase in SPR.PN,Tr,WUE and light saturation point (LSP) of Platycladus orientalis were higher than those of Pinus tabulaeformis,while light compensation point (LCP) of Platycladus orientalis was lower than that of Pinus tabulaeformis at the same soil moisture content.The efficiency of light energy utilization of Platycladus orientalis was higher than that of Pinus tabulaeformis;PN,Tr and Ci of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were enhanced by increasing soil moisture content,whereas WUE declined.At soil moistures of 7.90%,13.00% and 19.99%,LSP of Platycladus orientalis LCP was 42,25 and 13 μmol/(m2·s) respectively,with corresponding maximal net CO2 photosynthetic rates (Pmax)of 3.04,4.06 and 5.53 μmol(m2·s).At soil moistures of 7.83%,13.04% and 20.15%, the LSP of Pinus tabulaeformis was 1,100, 1,325 and 1,500 μmol/(m2·s) respectively and LCP was 60,30 and 23μmol/(m2·s), with Pmas of 1.08, 3.35 and 4.36 μmol/(m2·s)respectively.

  19. Using Landsat satellite imagery to detect small-size forest stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae; Uso de imagenes satelite Landsat para la deteccion de rodales de Pinus nigra Arn. y Pinus sylvestris L. afectados por escolitidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, E.; Bonet, J. A.; Eizaguirre, M.

    2009-07-01

    Medium resolution images from multispectral sensors like Landsat TM have been extensively used for decades in order to identify decline and defoliation generated by insects and other forest pests. The present work analyses the usefulness of these kinds of images to detect small-size stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae attacks. The study area was located in the Solsones region (Eastern Pyrenees), selecting 34 training zones (17 damaged small-size stands and 17 healthy small-size stands). The exploratory analysis of the images was conducted with the ERDAS IMAGINE 8.x. program.The results of the study showed significant differences between the affected and non-affected stands in 5 of the 7 spectral bands analysed. TM5 and TM7 bands were identified as those having the highest power to detect damaged stands. The digital levels obtained and the spaces of characteristics created, both showed trends to group small-size affected stands versus healthy, achieving improvements in the methodological procedure employed. (Author) 31 refs.

  20. ORIGEM DOS COMPOSTOS HIDROFÓBICOS E SEUS EFEITOS EM FLORESTAS DE Pinus E Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Saldanha Vogelmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobicity can be understood as the soil water repellency or difficulty to soil wetting. This is associated with the coating of soil particles by hydrophobic organic substances and currently there are numerous reports of water repellency in forest areas of Eucalyptus and Pinus. Thus, this study aims at reviewing and listing the aspects related to the origin of hydrophobic compounds and the effects of the water dynamics in the forest environment, as well as implications in growth and development of trees in Eucalyptus and Pinus forests. It is recognized that the local vegetation and some bacteria and fungi, depending on their chemical composition, may release hydrophobic organic substances. Another risk factor is the occurrence of burnings which induce changes in organic compounds and promote soil drying. Furthermore, the particle size distribution and the soil pH may be indirectly associated with the occurrence of soil water repellency The occurrence of hydrophobicity requires special attention regarding the soil use and management, because this repellency affects the water movement on the surface and inside the soil profile. Changes in sorptivity, reduction in water infiltration, increase in runoff and occurrence of preferential flow are the main hydrological effects of this phenomenon. Due to their lower infiltration rates there is increased the surface flow and reducing the amount of water available, increasing the erosion and, consequently affecting the growth and development of plants.

  1. Establishment of Pinus halepensis Mill. saplings following fire: effects of competition with shrub species

    Science.gov (United States)

    De las Heras, J.; Martínez-Sánchez, J. J.; González-Ochoa, A. I.; Ferrandis, P.; Herranz, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    An early study analysing the effects of competition from Cistus monspeliensis-dominated shrub canopy on Pinus halepensis saplings, both colonising a recently burnt area, has been extended in order to test initial predictions. Inter-specific competition effects on P. halepensis were experimentally analysed by a shrub thinning-out treatment carried out 1 year after fire. The extension of the recorded period confirmed (i) a significant increase in height, and (ii) the lack of variation in density of P. halepensis saplings when the shrub layer was removed. In contrast, the increase in relative growth rate in height (RGRh) and the decrease in mortality recorded during early post-fire stages for treated units did not persist in subsequent years. These two treatment-induced effects disappeared 1 year after the shrub clearing (29 months after fire). It is hypothesised that this time should represent a culminating point in the inter-specific competition established between Cistus and Pinus saplings simultaneously colonising recently disturbed areas and be a critical period for pine sapling survival. After this time, a reduction in relatively short-lived Cistus populations and an increase in P. halepensis abundance should be expected in the community. It is concluded that a shrub-clearing treatment could be recommendable if the initial post-fire pine sapling density is not high enough to successfully face the early critical competitive period. Consequences of early shrub competition on forest productivity during mature phases are also discussed.

  2. HISTOPATOLOGÍA DEL PINO DE LAS ALTURAS (Pinus hartwegii Lindl. INOCULADO CON TRES HONGOS OPHIOSTOMATOIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alejandro Pérez-Vera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las alteraciones histológicas en el pino de las alturas (Pinus hartwegii causadas por tres especies de hongos ophiostomatoides, por medio de microscopia de luz. En Pinus hartwegii hubo acumulación de resina en la zona de inoculación a los diez días, y el follaje se tornó de amarillo a café rojizo a los 60 días. En las inoculaciones con Leptographium guttulatum y Ophiostoma olivaceapinii se observó que inducen la metabolización de polifenoles, depositándose en las paredes de las células de la corteza, el floema, cambium vascular y en la médula se necrosaron. O. ips causó necrosis más severa en corteza, floema, cambium vascular y médula. En xilema, las hifas de los tres hongos penetran en las traqueidas y avanzan longitudinalmente por las puntuaciones aeroladas y se distribuyen radialmente por células parenquimatosas y radios.

  3. Ecophysiological responses of Pinus leucodermis at high elevation in the Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri MR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pinus leucodermis Antoine (= Pinus heldreichii var. leucodermis is a species of the Balkan flora which in Italy grows in a small area between the Regions of Basilicata and Calabria, in the Pollino National Park. A relict of the oro-Mediterranean Tertiary forests, it is found from the lower vegetation belt, where it is mixed with evergreen sclerophyllous vegetation, up to the alpine vegetation belt beyond the closed formations of Fagus sylvatica, where it makes up stands with very old, isolated and big trees growing in open spaces between rocks. The ecophysiological and dendrochronolgy features of the P. leucodermis stands growing on the west slope of Serra di Crispo (Monte Pollino, between 1800 and 2000 m a.s.l., have been studied during recent years and some of the results are presented in this work. Ecophysiological measurements in situ show that reduced atmospheric vapour pressure deficit conditions, due to humid currents from the western Tyrrhenian Sea, allow the trees to escape from summer drought. When day summer weather conditions are optimal P. leucodermis exhibits a remarkable photosynthetic activity and adaptation to high irradiance. The tree ring width chronology documents a marked reduction of radial growth from 1950 to 1985, followed by a strong recovery, still continuing. In the same period differences between the annual minimum and maximum temperatures tend to increase. Anthropic and grazing pressure is reduced markedly after the institution of the National Park of Pollino.

  4. Development and Characterisation of Irap Markers From Expressed Retrotransposon-like sequences in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronova Angelika

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conifer genomes are large and stably diploid, in contrast to angiosperms, which are more variable both in genome size and ploidy. Conifer genomes are characterised by multiple gene families and pseudogenes, contain large inter-gene regions and a considerable proportion of repetitive sequences. All members of plant retrotransposon orders have been identified in gymnosperm genomes, however active elements have not been described. Investigation of transposable elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. could offer insights into transposon-mediated reorganisation under stress conditions in complex and ancient plant genomes. Nine Pinus sylvestris specific markers were developed to hypothetical long terminal repeats (LTRs from differentially expressed retrotransposon-like fragments after heat stress and insect damage. Genetic diversity of 150 trees from a naturally regenerated pine stand was investigated using the IRAP method. The developed markers revealed high levels of genetic diversity and were able to distinguish subpopulations growing in long-term differential environmental conditions. Somaclonal variation was also investigated using these markers and polymorphic fragments were identified between ramets of Scots pine clones growing in two different plantations, possibly indicating evidence of recent transposition events. Sequencing of the polymorphic fragments identified two groups of sequences containing LTR sequences of an unknown retrotransposon with homology to the LTRs of the Copia-17-PAb-I element.

  5. Catalytic Conversion of Pinus densiflora Over Mesoporous Catalysts Using Pyrolysis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sung Kyun; Lee, In-Gu; Lee, Hyung Won; Chea, Kwang-Seok; Jo, Tae Su; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Ko, Chang Hyun; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of obtaining valuable chemicals from Pinus densiflora, a native Korean tree species occupying 21.4% of the total area under forests in South Korea. Two representative mesoporous catalysts, Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F, as well as hierarchical mesoporous MFI (Meso-MFI) that has both mesopores and micropores, were used as catalysts. Compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis was shown to reduce the fractions of levoglucosan, phenolics, and acids in bio-oil, while increasing the fractions of aromatics, PAHs, and furans. Meso-MFI with strong acid sites showed a high selectivity toward aromatics and PAHs, whereas Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F with weak acid sites exhibited a high selectivity toward furanic compounds. The results of this study indicate that choosing a catalyst with an adequate quantity of acidic sites with the required strength is critical for enhancing the production of desired chemicals from Pinus densiflora.

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Protection from DNA Damage by Water Extract from Pine (Pinus densiflora) Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunyao; Han, Woong; Shen, Ting; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2012-06-01

    Water extract from Pinus densiflora (WPD) was investigated for its antioxidant activity and its ability to provide protection from DNA damage. A series of antioxidant assays, including a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay, a reducing power assay, a metal-chelating assay, a superoxide radical scavenging assay, and a nitrite scavenging ability, as well as a DNA damage protection assay were performed. Total phenolic content was found to be 211.32 mg Tan/g WPD. The extract scavenged 50% DPPH free radical at a concentration of 21.35 μg/mL. At that same concentration, the reducing power ability of WPD was higher than that of α-tocopherol. The extract chelated 68.9% ferrous ion at the concentration of 4 mg/mL. WPD showed better nitrite scavenging effect at the lower pH. Meanwhile, WPD exhibited a strong capability for DNA damage protection at 1 mg/mL concentration. Taken together, these data suggest water extract from Pinus densiflora could be used as a suitable natural antioxidant.

  7. Photosynthesis, chloroplast pigments, and antioxidants in Pinus canariensis under free-air ozone fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Then, Ch. [Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Unit of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Herbinger, K. [Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Graz, Schubertstr. 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Luis, V.C. [Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo (CEAM) Dpto, Restauracion Forestal, University of Alicante, Department of Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, Ap 99, Ctra. San Vicente del Raspeig s/n, San Vicente del Raspeig 03690, Alicante (Spain); Heerdt, C. [Ecoclimatology, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, R. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wieser, G. [Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Unit of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: gerhard.wieser@uibk.ac.at

    2009-02-15

    High O{sub 3} levels, driving uptake and challenging defense, prevail on the Canary Islands, being associated with the hot and dry summers of the Mediterranean-type climate. Pinus canariensis is an endemic conifer species that forms forests across these islands. We investigated the effects of ozone on photosynthesis and biochemical parameters of P. canariensis seedlings exposed to free-air O{sub 3} fumigation at Kranzberg Forest, Germany, where ambient O{sub 3} levels were similar to those at forest sites in the Canary Islands. The twice-ambient O{sub 3} regime (2xO{sub 3}) neither caused visible injury-like chlorotic or necrotic spots in the needles nor significantly affected violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin levels and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle. In parallel, stomatal conductance for water vapour, net photosynthesis, intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, as well as antioxidant levels were hardly affected. It is concluded that presently prevailing O{sub 3} levels do not impose severe stress on P. canariensis seedlings. - Twice-ambient ozone does not significantly affect the physiological behavior of Pinus canariensis seedlings.

  8. Molecular characterization of zeta class glutathione S-transferases from Pinus brutia Ten.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E. Oztetik; F. Kockar; M. Alper; M. Iscan

    2015-09-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) play important roles in stress tolerance and metabolic detoxification in plants. In higher plants, studies on GSTs have focussed largely on agricultural plants. There is restricted information about molecular characterization of GSTs in gymnosperms. To date, only tau class GST enzymes have been characterized from some pinus species. For the first time, the present study reports cloning and molecular characterization of two zeta class GST genes, namely PbGSTZ1 and PbGSTZ2 from Pinus brutia Ten., which is an economically important pine native to the eastern Mediterranean region and have to cope with several environmental stress conditions. The PbGSTZ1 gene was isolated from cDNA, whereas PbGSTZ2 was isolated from genomic DNA. Sequence analysis of PbGSTZ1 and PbGSTZ2 revealed the presence of an open reading frame of 226 amino acids with typical consensus sequences of the zeta class plant GSTs. Protein and secondary structure prediction analysis of two zeta class PbGSTZs have shared common features of other plant zeta class GSTs. Genomic clone, PbGSTZ2 gene, is unexpectedly intronless. Extensive sequence analysis of PbGSTZ2, with cDNA clone, PbGSTZ1, revealed 87% identity at nucleotide and 81% identity at amino acid levels with 41 amino acids differences suggesting that genomic PbGSTZ2 gene might be an allelic or a paralogue version of PbGSTZ1.

  9. Production of laminated veneer lumber LVL using veneer of Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of laminated veneer lumber - LVL manufactured with veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda. The LVL panels were manufactured in the laboratory conditions composed by seven veneers, 2,0 mm thickness, with different structural compositions, using phenol-formaldehyde resin. The veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum- paricá- were pre-classified by using stress wave machine. The veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda were disposed in the face layer to reinforce the structural strength of LVL panels. The LVL quality was evaluated using glue line shear strength and static bending test (MOE and MOR, edge and flat. Grading of paricá veneers based on MOEd did not affected significantly the results of the glue line shear strength and MOE and MOR edge. For the MOE and MOR flat, the use of veneers of MOEd grade 1 contributed significantly to increasing the average values of these properties. In the same way, using the Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of LVL resulted in higher average values of MOE and MOR, edge and flat.

  10. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcü, Süleyman; Bilir, Nebi

    2017-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p > 0.05) for the characters, while there were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA). Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  11. Interpopulation genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia was studied in the populations at five localities in western and south-western Serbia. Three groups of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. populations were differentiated based on genetic research (seed protein analysis and plant community research. The first group consists of Scots pine populations on Šargan (FMU “Šargan“ and on Tara (FMU “Kaluderske Bare”, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and Austrian pine (Pinetum sylvestris-nigrae Pavlovic 1951. The second group covers the localities Stolovi (FMU “Radocelo-Crepuljnik“ and Zlatar (FMU “Zlatar I“, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and spruce (Piceo abietis-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1960. The third group comprises the Scots pine population on Pešter (FMU “Dubocica-Bare“ which belongs to the community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of seed protein data and showed that there are three groups of Scots pine populations. The three populations coincide with plant communities. The community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963 recorded on Pešter at the locality “Dubocica- Bare“ in the area of FE “Golija“ Ivanjica, is a special Scots pine population displayed at the greatest distance from all other populations in the cluster analysis dendrogram.

  12. High seed dispersal ability of Pinus canariensis in stands of contrasting density inferred from genotypic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai López de Heredia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Models that combine parentage analysis from molecular data with spatial information of seeds and seedlings provide a framework to describe and identify the factors involved in seed dispersal and recruitment of forest species. In the present study we used a spatially explicit method (the gene shadow model in order to assess primary and effective dispersal in Pinus canariensis. Area of study: Pinus canariensis is endemic to the Canary Islands (Spain. Sampling sites were a high density forest in southern slopes of Tenerife and a low density stand in South Gran Canaria. Materials and methods: We fitted models based on parentage analysis from seeds and seedlings collected in two sites with contrasting stand density, and then compared the resulting dispersal distributions. Main results: The results showed that: 1 P. canariensis has a remarkable dispersal ability compared to other pine species; 2 there is no discordance between primary and effective dispersals, suggesting limited secondary dispersal by animals and lack of Janzen-Connell effect; and 3 low stand densities enhance the extent of seed dispersal, which was higher in the low density stand. Research highlights: The efficient dispersal mechanism of P. canariensis by wind inferred by the gene shadow model is congruent with indirect measures of gene flow, and has utility in reconstructing past demographic events and in predicting future distribution ranges for the species.

  13. Liming and fertilisation in Pinus taeda plantations with severe nutrient deficiency in savanna soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils with high acidity and low exchangeable bases may be responsible for low yields of Pinus taeda in a forest plantation at Jaguariaíva, Paraná State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liming and fertilisation, applied over litter, on two selected areas with Pinus taeda plantations. Soil, litter and pine needles were evaluated for K, Ca and Mg concentrations and soil acidity parameters. Seven treatments were applied: (i complete (N, P, K, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and lime; (ii without N, P, and K; (iii without Zn, Cu, B, and Mo; (iv without K; (v without Zn; (vi without lime; and (vii control (without nutrients and lime. Soil samples were collected at five soil depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm simultaneously with litter samples. Needles were also collected from the first and second pine flushes. Liming induced soil pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increases, and the opposite was observed for Al3+ and Al saturation. Fertilisation increased soil exchangeable K+ concentrations and needle and litter K concentrations. The low Ca and Mg concentrations found in the plant needles might be attributable to their low mobility.

  14. Short Communication. Physiological effects of Rhizopogon Roseolus on Pinus halepensis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Alfonso Domínguez Núñez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The inoculation of forest seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi can improve the morphological and physiological qualities of plants, especially those used for regeneration of arid areas. Rhizopogon roseolus is an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM commonly used for reforestation. In this study, the specific objectives were to know some morphophysiological effects of Rhizopogon Roseolus on Pinus halepensis seedlings under standard nursery conditionsArea of study: ETSI Montes and EUIT Forestal, Madrid.Material and Methods: In nursery, under well watered conditions and peat growing substrates, Aleppo pine seedlings were inoculated with R. roseolus. Five months after the inoculations, we examined the growth, water parameters (osmotic potential at full turgor [Ψπfull], osmotic potential at zero turgor [Ψπ0], and the tissue modulus of elasticity near full turgor [Emax], mycorrhizal colonization, and concentration and content of macronutrients in the seedlings. Subsequently, a trial was conducted to assess the root growth potential.Main results: The mycorrhization decreased the height and diameter of mycorrhizal seedlings but increased the root weight and root branching. R. roseolus did not cause any significant effect on the regeneration of new roots or on any of the tested hydric parameters, but it did improve N uptake of the seedlings.Research highlights: The mycorrhizal inoculation increased the N uptake. The mycorrhizal inoculation caused opposite effects on some growth parametersKeywords: Osmotic adjustment; elastic adjustment; mineral nutrition; root growth potential; nursery; Rhizopogon roseolus;  Pinus halepensis. 

  15. Photosynthetic response of Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated carbon dioxide and its influential factor analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The photosynthetic response of 12-year old Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 and its influential factors were tested and analyzed in the forest region of Changbai Mountain in 1999. Trees grown at the natural condition were controlled at three levels of CO2 concentration (350 μL.L-1·, 500 μL.L -1 and 700 μL.L-1) by CO2 rich settlement designed by us. Net photosynthetic rates (NPR), temperature, relative humidity, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) were measured at 6:00, 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, 16:00 and 18:00 hours a day. Experimental results showed that the NPR of Pinus sylvestriformis increased by 32.6% and 123.0% at 500 μL.L-1 and 700 μL.L-1 CO2 concentration respectively, compared to ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (350 μL.L-1). The relations between NPR and influential factors, including temperature, relative humidity, intercellular CO2 concentration and photosynthetic active radiation, were analyzed respectively by regression analysis at different CO2 concentrations.

  16. Biogeochemical assessment of environmental risk by the example of Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Dmitry Sergeevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using annual rings of Pinus sylvestris L. to assess chemical pollution in the Republic of Karelia is discussed. With the help of principal component factor analysis the relationship between the contents of chemical elements and dendrological parameters – the width of annual rings and wood density - was revealed. The main factors contributing to the pollution of the northern part of the Republic of Karelia by the emission from iron-ore enterprise JSC «Karelsky Okatysh» are frequent ecologically significant wind directions, the distance from the source and the total mass of the emission. The value of radial growth (the average width of annual rings for five-years of Pinus sylvestris L. is connected negatively with the content of Cu, Cd, Ni and Fe. As an element of nutrition, Mn is positively correlated with the density of wood wherein it is an antagonist of Fe and partially of Cr in northern areas . Several peaks of Pb content coincide with the most intense tests of atomic weapons. Sharp maximums of Pb can also be due to a cross-border pollution and emission from regional sources.

  17. Energy characterization of fresh and torrified pellets produced from Pinus waste wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available he objective of this research was to evaluate torrified and fresh pellets produced from Pinus waste wood, used for direct generation of thermal energy. The compaction of Pinus sp. waste wood from lumbermill was performed in a pelletizer with a planar array of 8 mm. Roastings were performed in an electric furnace, type muffle, stabilized at final temperatures of 220 °C and 250 °C for 30 min. The following pellets properties were determined: apparent and unit energy density, bulk density, energy bulk density, immediate chemical composition (volatile materials, ash and fixed carbon, high heating value and moisture. It was observed an increase in high heating value and reduction of moisture content of torrified pellets. However, the gain in calorific value was less than the mass loss of the pellets after roasting, reducing the energy densities of the pellets. The pellets raw have marketing potential in European countries such as Germany, Austria and Sweden. The methodology used for roasting is not suitable for pellets heat treatment. However, further research on pellet roasting in a wider temperature and residence time range is recommended, in order to define parameters that optimize their energetic properties.

  18. Modeling and mapping basal area of Pinus taeda L. plantation using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos A; Klauberg, Carine; Hudak, Andrew T; Vierling, Lee A; Fennema, Scott J; Corte, Ana Paula D

    2017-08-14

    Basal area (BA) is a good predictor of timber stand volume and forest growth. This study developed predictive models using field and airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data for estimation of basal area in Pinus taeda plantation in south Brazil. In the field, BA was collected from conventional forest inventory plots. Multiple linear regression models for predicting BA from LiDAR-derived metrics were developed and evaluated for predictive power and parsimony. The best model to predict BA from a family of six models was selected based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) and assessed by the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R²) and root mean square error (RMSE). The best model revealed an adj. R²=0.93 and RMSE=7.74%. Leave one out cross-validation of the best regression model was also computed, and revealed an adj. R² and RMSE of 0.92 and 8.31%, respectively. This study showed that LiDAR-derived metrics can be used to predict BA in Pinus taeda plantations in south Brazil with high precision. We conclude that there is good potential to monitor growth in this type of plantations using airborne LiDAR. We hope that the promising results for BA modeling presented herein will stimulate to operate this technology in Brazil.

  19. [Spectral features analysis of Pinus massoniana with pest of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and levels detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang-Hua; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-Yong; Gong, Cong-Hong; Xie, Wan-Jun; Tang, Meng-Ya; Lai, Ri-Wen; Li, Zeng-Lu

    2013-02-01

    Taking 51 field measured hyperspectral data with different pest levels in Yanping, Fujian Province as objects, the spectral reflectance and first derivative features of 4 levels of healthy, mild, moderate and severe insect pest were analyzed. On the basis of 7 detecting parameters construction, the pest level detecting models were built. The results showed that (1) the spectral reflectance of Pinus massoniana with pests were significantly lower than that of healthy state, and the higher the pest level, the lower the reflectance; (2) with the increase in pest level, the spectral reflectance curves' "green peak" and "red valley" of Pinus massoniana gradually disappeared, and the red edge was leveleds (3) the pest led to spectral "green peak" red shift, red edge position blue shift, but the changes in "red valley" and near-infrared position were complicated; (4) CARI, RES, REA and REDVI were highly relevant to pest levels, and the correlations between REP, RERVI, RENDVI and pest level were weak; (5) the multiple linear regression model with the variables of the 7 detection parameters could effectively detect the pest levels of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker, with both the estimation rate and accuracy above 0.85.

  20. Seasonal fluctuations of bacterial population and microbial activity in soils cultivated with eucalyptus and pinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigobelo Everlon Cid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation and decomposition of litter in soils under forests depend on climatic and biotic conditions. This work evaluated the effect of monthly rainfall and temperature on total bacteria, and on the dehydrogenase and respiration microbial activities. The effects of organic matter, total organic C and soil moisture were also evaluated. Performed from April, 1999 to March, 2000 in an Eucalyptus-cultivated and Pinus-cultivated Oxisol (Typic Haplustox, the study showed that climate and the soil variables affect the total number of bacteria and the microbial activities. The highest air temperatures and rainfall intensities were found during the Summer and, consequently, all the studied variables were maximal during this period. Minimal values varied from Autumn to Winter or, for some parameters, up to Spring. A positive correlation proved the influence of the organic matter, organic C and soil moisture on the total bacteria and on the respiratory and dehydrogenase activities. Litter content was also higher in the Summer as compared to the Winter, but it correlated only with the total bacteria (r = 0.52***. However, the correlation between the litter content and organic matter (r = 0.64*** and soil moisture (r = 0.49** suggest that the soil organic matter may have influenced microbial activity. All variables found in the Eucalyptus soil were higher than that of Pinus soil, probably favored by the best soil fertility and higher pH value.

  1. Rapid changes in induced non-volatile secondary metabolites in damaged Pinus massoniana Lamb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin REN; Yongjian HU; Youju JIN; Wenhong DENG; Zhenyu LI; Li YANG; Mwange Kalima NKOMA

    2008-01-01

    Plants initiate the development of defense mechanisms as soon as pests start to cause damage to them. In order to have a thorough understanding of the physiological mechanisms of the Pinus massoniana self-defense mechanism, and to provide a theoretical founda-tion for an effective ecological management of this plant, levels of tannin, polyamine and phenolic acids were ana-lyzed in undamaged (UDL), insect-damaged (IDL) and artificially-damaged (ADL) leaves at different times. Results show that, although the content of tannin signifi-cantly increased in IDL and ADL compared to UDL, its peaks appeared earlier in ADL than in IDL treatment. Tannin concentration substantially increased again 48 h after IDL treatment. On the other hand, the damage mode considerably affected putrescine and spermidine levels in leaves. Their concentrations in IDL plants remained higher than in UDL after a relatively long time (72 h), but spermine was barely detected in any of the samples. In general, total content of phenol acids significantly increased in damaged leaf treatments (ADL and IDL), with a higher level in IDL for most of the investigated phenolic acids, except for ferulic acid. Our study showed that, when damaged by insects, Pinus massoniana rapidly produces substances required in resistance induction to insects in order to insure its self-protection.

  2. Abundance, diversity, and vitality of mycorrhizae of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in lignite recultivation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzenberger, B; Golldack, J; Ullrich, A; Schmincke, B; Hüttl, R F

    2004-07-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands cover large areas in the Lusatian and the Middle German lignite mining districts. Due to adverse chemical substrate conditions, the root systems of the trees are restricted to the ameliorated top-spoil and the organic forest floor layers. To investigate functioning of fine root systems under the prevailing site factors, we studied mycorrhizal colonization rate and frequency as well as mycorrhizal diversity, vitality and growth phases in Scots pine ecosystems along a chronosequence in both mining districts. Mycorrhizal rate was close to 100% in both districts. Mycorrhizal abundance was higher in the organic forest floor layer than the mineral soil layer. In total, 25 morphotypes were recorded. Diversity differed between the districts. The mycorrhizae of Amphinema byssoides, Tuber puberulum, Pinirhiza discolor, Pinirhiza cf. bicolorata and E-type were present in both mining areas. These morphotypes are typical of nutrient-rich soils with high pH values. Compared with the undisturbed sites, vitality of mycorrhizae was very high at the test sites on spoil substrate, correlating with the high growth dynamics of mycorrhizae at recultivation sites. A relatively high carbon flow to the mycorrhizal root systems at these sites seems likely. Thus, mycorrhizal root systems are able to cope with the ameliorated top-spoil and the organic layer. The main reason for the adaptation is the large number of ectomycorrhizal fungal species available in this area where Pinus sylvestris is indigenous.

  3. Primer registro de Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea asociado con Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae en Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A. GOMEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes es un gorgojo de rostro corto, distribuido en la Argentina y Chile, que habita en ambientes áridos asociado con vegetación xerofítica y alcanza el rango más austral entre los miembros de la tribu Naupactini. Un relevamiento de insectos y de patógenos como plagas potenciales, realizado durante el 2005 en plantaciones de Pinus spp. en la Patagonia andina argentina, resultó en el hallazgo de adultos de N. ruizi que se alimentaban de acículas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. Este hallazgo es sorprendente dado que las especies de Naupactini, consumen casi exclusivamente angiospermas. Interpretamos que el cambio de huésped, habría ocurrido como consecuencia de una colonización reciente favorecida por la amplia distribución geográfica del gorgojo y su capacidad para sobrevivir en hábitats marginales, donde probablemente las plantas nativas son escasas y el nuevo huésped presenta una gran abundancia local.

  4. Biomass and carbon stock from Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis under homogenous stands in southwest Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máida Cynthia Duca de Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: There is a large number of studies evaluating methods to quantify biomass for the genus Pinus in different regions of Brazil. However, knowledge about this subject in the Northeast region of Brazil is still incipient. The objective of the present study was to assess the biomass and carbon stocks and select mathematical models to estimate these variables in Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis , which is established in homogenous stands in the Southwest region of the state of Bahia (Brazil. The biomass was quantified using the destructive method. Samples of needles, bole, bark, and branches were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. Ten models were tested, and the best of them were chosen based on the following statistical indicators: adjusted determination coefficient, estimate standard error, maximum likelihood logarithm, and graphical analysis of waste. Values for total biomass and carbon stocks were 69 and 42Mg ha-1, respectively. Curtis and Schumacher-Hall Log models showed to be the most indicated to estimate the total dry biomass and carbon of the species under the conditions studied.

  5. Effect of two successive wildfires in Pinus halepensis stands of central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Spanos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We estimated differences, five years after a wildfire, in soil and vegetation between Pinus halepensis stands that were once burnt (1998 and stands that were burnt twice in a short time interval (1995 and 1998, in the area of Penteli, central Greece. The parameters monitored were the physical and chemical attributes of upper soil layer and the vegetation composition, density and height. The results showed that five years after the wildfire, soil pH did not differ between areas burnt once and twice, while the organic matter was higher in the once-burnt areas. The vegetation composition was similar in the two areas and the dominant species were those pre-existing the fire. On the contrary, vegetation density was considerably lower in the twice-burnt areas. The height of woody species oscillated in the same levels in the two areas. The plant community was composed mainly by resprouting species, like Quercus coccifera, Pistacia lentiscus, or Phillyrea latifolia, and less individuals from seed-regenerated species, like Pinus halepensis, Cistus monspeliensis, and C. creticus. It is suggested that the recurrence of wildfire affected negatively the ecosystem attributes, and contributed to the increased risk of degradation.

  6. Orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda wood Forças de corte ortogonal na madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gonçalves

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The distinct characteristics of juvenile and mature woods, which are observed particularly in softwoods, have an influence on processing due to their different mechanical resistance properties in relation to cutting operations. In the past, when most of the wood used industrially came from adult trees of natural forests, little importance was given to a distinction between different zones of the tree stem. At present, however, as the supply of mature trees with large diameters from native forests is constantly decreasing, the use of short-cycle trees has become a common practice, through the adoption of species that grow relatively fast, such as pines and eucalyptus. In both softwoods and hardwoods, juvenile wood cells are generally smaller and thinner than in mature wood, and this reflects on their density and mechanical resistance, which should have an effect on the cutting forces developed during processing. The main object of this research was to evaluate orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda woods. Cutting force magnitude differences were observed for those two regions of the trunk, with parallel cutting forces being 33.4% higher, on average, at the mature wood region for 90-0 cutting, and 12% higher for 90-90 cutting. This result is consistent with the distinct anatomical structures of the material, since the forces developed during machining depend directly upon its properties.As características distintas dos lenhos juvenil e adulto, existentes principalmente na formação das coníferas, influenciam na usinagem devido às diferentes propriedades de resistência mecânica ao corte. No passado, quando a maior parte da madeira utilizada industrialmente era proveniente de árvores adultas de florestas naturais, pouca importância era dada à diferenciação de zonas no tronco. Atualmente, no entanto, com o decréscimo constante do suprimento de árvores adultas de grandes diâmetros, provenientes de florestas nativas

  7. Response of needle dark respiration of Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentra-tions for four growing seasons’ exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on needle dark respiration of two coniferous spe- cies—Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis on the Changbai Mountain was investigated using open-top chambers. P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis were exposed to 700, 500 μmol·mol-1 CO2 and ambient CO2 (approx. 350 μmol·mol-1) for four growing seasons. Needle dark respiration was meas- ured during the second, third and fourth growing seasons’ exposure to elevated CO2. The results showed that needle dark respiration rate increased for P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis grown at elevated CO2 concentrations during the second growing season, could be attributed to the change of carbohydrate and/or nitrogen content of needles. Needle dark respiration of P. koraiensis was stimu- lated and that of P. sylvestriformis was inhibited by elevated CO2 concentrations during the third growing season. Different response of the two tree species to elevated CO2 mainly resulted from the difference in the growth rate. Elevated CO2 concentrations inhibited needle dark respiration of both P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis during the fourth growing season. There was consistent trend be- tween the short-term effect and the long-term effect of elevated CO2 on needle dark respiration in P. sylvestriformis during the third growing season by changing measurement CO2 concentrations. How- ever, the short-term effect was different from the long-term effect for P. koraiensis. Response of dark respiration of P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations was related to the treatment time of CO2 and the stage of growth and development of plant. The change of dark respiration for the two tree species was determined by the direct effect of CO2 and long-term acclimation. The prediction of the long-term response of needle dark respiration to elevated CO2 concentration based on the short-term response is in dispute.

  8. Altitudinal genetic variation among Pinus oocarpa populations in Michoacan, Mexico: implications for seed zoning, conservation, tree breeding and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; R. Ricardo Guzman-Reyna; Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    2006-01-01

    Pinus oocarpa has a large natural distribution in the sub-tropical forests of Mexico. Populations, however, are rapidly disappearing particularly in the Michoacan State as native forests are converted to avocado (Persea sp.) orchards.We investigated the patterning of genetic variation among P. oocarpa populations...

  9. [Genetic diversity of isoenzymes in mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) in natural populations in the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirko, Ia V

    2000-01-01

    Electrophoretic spectra of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, IDH enzymes in the megagametophytes of seeds of 69 mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) trees from natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains have been described. 19 loci products had efficient electrophoretic separation. The analysis of alleles segregation of the heterozygous trees on the whole confirms monogenic inheritance of the discovered variants.

  10. Internal and external control of net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of mature eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; R.O. Teskey

    1992-01-01

    Leaf gas exchange and water relations were monitored in the upper canopy of two 25 m tall eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) trees over two consecutive growing seasons (1986 and 1987). Examination of the seasonal and diurnal patterns of net photosynthesis and leaf conductance showed that both internal and external (environmental) factors were...

  11. Wildfire mitigation strategies affect soil enzyme activity and soil organic carbon in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.E.J. Boerner; T.A. Waldrop; V.B. Shelburne

    2006-01-01

    We quantified the effects of three wildfire hazard reduction treatments (prescribed fire, thinning from below, and the combination of fire and thinning), and passive management (control) on mineral soil organic C, and enzyme activity in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests on the Piedmont of South Carolina. Soil organic C was reduced by thinning,...

  12. Can we expect to protect threatened species in protected areas? A case study of the genus Pinus in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre Gutiérrez, J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of 56 Pinus species in Mexico was modelled with MAXENT. The pine species were classified as threatened according to IUCN criteria. Our aim was to ascertain whether or not threatened pine species were adequately represented in protected areas. Almost 70% of the species had less than

  13. Improved recruitment and early growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings after fire and soil scarification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2004-01-01

    The success of seedling recruitment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is strongly dependent on soil surface properties, such as humus depth and moisture content. In an undisturbed forest floor, seedlings are seldom able to become established due to the high incidence of desiccation in the organic

  14. Enhanced drought-tolerance in the homoploid hybrid species Pinus densata: implication for its habitat divergence from two progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Zhao, Changming; Milne, Richard; Ji, Mingfei; Chen, Litong; Liu, Jianquan

    2010-01-01

    The homoploid hybrid species Pinus densata is restricted to alpine habitats that exceed the altitude range of its two parental species, Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Alpine habitats usually generate cold-induced water stress in plants. To understand the ecological differentiation between these three species, we examined their physiological responses to drought stress. Potted seedlings of three species were subjected to low, mild, moderate and severe water stress in an automatic-controlled glasshouse. Fifteen indicators of fitness were measured for each species in each treatment, and most of these decreased as drought increased. Pinus densata exhibited higher fitness than both parental species in terms of total dry mass production (TDM) and long-term water use efficiency (WUE(L)) across all treatments; several other ecophysiological traits were also extreme but not across every treatment, and not always in the highest stress treatment. These results indicate that extreme characters that have become well fixed in P. densata, confer a faster seedling growth rate and more efficient water use, which in turn should confer increased drought tolerance. These traits of P. densata likely promoted its ecological separation from its parental species and facilitated its successful colonization and establishment in high-altitude habitats.

  15. Can we expect to protect threatened species in protected areas? A case study of the genus Pinus in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre Gutiérrez, J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of 56 Pinus species in Mexico was modelled with MAXENT. The pine species were classified as threatened according to IUCN criteria. Our aim was to ascertain whether or not threatened pine species were adequately represented in protected areas. Almost 70% of the species had less than

  16. In vitro zygotic embryo culture of Pinus peuce Gris.: Optimization of culture conditions affecting germination and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a protocol for the germination and early seedling growth of Pinus peuce Gris. using zygotic embryo culture. In order to overcome seed dormancy and optimize organogenesis, the effect of nutritional, plant growth regulatory and physical factors on in vitro germination and growth of isolated mature zygotic embryos of P. peuce were investigated.

  17. Impact of Experimentally Elevated Ozone on Seed Germination and Growth of Russian Pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Spruce (Picea spp.) Provenances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-01-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies X P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finla

  18. Modeling the longitudinal variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Antony; L. R. Schimleck; R. F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; D. B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is a major plantation species grown in the southern United States, producing wood having a multitude of uses including pulp and lumber production. Specific gravity (SG) is an important property used to measure the quality of wood produced, and it varies regionally and within the tree with height and radius. SG at different height levels...

  19. Object-based semi-automatic approach for forest structure characterization using lidar data in heterogeneous Pinus sylvestris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Pascual; A. Garcia-Abril; L.G. Garcia-Montero; S. Martin-Fernandez; W.B. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage approach for characterizing the structure of Pinus sylvestris L. stands in forests of central Spain. The first stage was to delimit forest stands using eCognition and a digital canopy height model (DCHM) derived from lidar data. The polygons were then clustered into forest structure types based on the DCHM data...

  20. Partnerships in the Pacific Northwest help save an endangered species, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis): an example of dynamic genetic conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Michael P. Murray; Charlie V. Cartwright; Jenifer Beck; Dan Omdal; Amy Ramsey; Zolton Bair; George McFadden; Doug Manion; Katherine Fitch; Philip Wapato; Jennifer A. Gruhn; Michael Crawford; Regina M. Rochefort; John Syring; Jun-Jun Liu; Heather E. Lintz; Lorinda Bullington; Brianna A. McTeague; Angelia. Kegley

    2017-01-01

    Whitebark pine (WBP, Pinus albicaulis) is a keystone species distributed widely at high elevations across western North America. It is in decline due to a combination of threats including infection from white pine blister rust (WPBR, caused by the non-native fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (...

  1. First discovery of fossil winged seeds of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae) from the Indian Cenozoic and its palaeobiogeographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahasin Ali; Bera, Subir

    2017-07-01

    The occurrences of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae) megafossils (cones and leaf remains) have been abundantly documented from the Cenozoic sediments of eastern Asia (Japan and China), but none has been confirmed from the Indian Cenozoic till date. Here, we describe Pinus arunachalensis Khan and Bera, sp. nov. on the basis of seed remains from the middle to late Miocene Siwalik sediments of the Dafla Formation exposed around West Kameng district in Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya. Seeds are winged, broadly oblong to oval in outline, 1.3-1.5 cm long and 0.4-0.6 cm broad (in the middle part), located basipetally and symmetrically to wing, cellular pattern of wing is seemingly undulatory and parallel with the long axis of the wing. So far, this report provides the first ever fossil record of Pinus winged seeds from India. This record suggests that Pinus was an important component of tropical-subtropical evergreen forest in the area during the Miocene and this group subsequently declined from the local vegetation probably because of the gradual intensification of MSI (monsoon index) from the Miocene to the present. We also review the historical phytogeography and highlight the phytogeographic implication of this genus.

  2. Gene conservation of Pinus aristata: a collection with ecological context for management today and resources for tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.W. Schoettle

    2017-01-01

    Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow geographic and elevational distribution and is threatened by rapid climate change, the introduced pathogen Cronartium ribicola that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), and bark beetles. The core distribution of P. aristata is near and at treeline in central and southern Colorado and...

  3. Mitochondrial DNA haplotype distribution patterns in Pinus ponderosa (pinaceae): range-wide evolutionary history and implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Mary F. Mahalovich; Robert E. Means

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation across its range in western North America. This study aims to clarify P. ponderosa evolutionary history and phylogeography using a highly polymorphic...

  4. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  5. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Bruder, Edson Marcelo; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from {sup 241}Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m{sup 3}. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m{sup 3}. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in

  6. 四种松属植物叶的抗寒抗旱特点研究%Study on Dry Resistance and Cold Resistance of Leaf of Pinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪福太; 李长有; 王占武; 刘强

    2012-01-01

    为了研究松属植物叶片与植物抗寒抗旱特点的关系,以松属(Pinus)两种植物樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litvin.)和油松(Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.)为主要实验材料,同时,观察黑松(Pinus thunbergii Parl.)和马尾松(Pinus massoniana Lamb.),研究针叶的表皮特征及叶片不同部位的解剖结构.结果表明,松属植物叶表皮外具有发达的角质层,气孔下陷,具有大的孔下室,树脂道发达.这说明松属植物叶具有旱生和寒性植物的形态结构特征.%In order to study the relationship between leaf of Pinus and drought resistance and cold resistance,epidermis characteristic and anatomy construction of needle leaf of two specices plants(Pinus sylvestrisa var.mongolica Litvin.and Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) in Pinus are observed.The results indicated that the leaf of Pinus plants have some construction of drought resistance and cold resistance.For example:the outside on the surface of leaf is covered with a cuticle and epicuticular waxes,its stomata are stand out of the epidermis with big bore bottom room and so on.

  7. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  8. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Resins and Essential Oil From Pine (Pinus merkusii, Pinuso ocarpa, Pinus insularis and Agathis (Agathis loranthifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardho Tillah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The most common human pathogen that colonizes in a third of healthy people around the world are Staphylococcus aureus, and one of the materials allegedly able to overcome the pathogen is resin. Resin has been used in folk medicine for thousands of years to treat diseases. The antimicrobial activity of natural resins can be associated with a variety of organic compounds contained in them such as diterpenoids and triterpenoids. This research aimed to explore the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Pinus merkusii, P. oocarpa, P. insularis, Agathis loranthifolia resins and essential oil. Resin was separated by distillation process to get essential oil and the residue was extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and methanol (MeOH. Antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH (1,1diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging method. The antibacterial activity of resins and essential oil of the samples determined using the disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results showed that the yield of resin extract was ranging from 8.44 % to 95.56%. All extracts and essential oil could not inhibit E coli growth but inhibit the S. aureus growth. This experiment concluded that resin n-hexane extract from P.oocarpa was the most potent as antibacterial activity against S. aureus. All of the samples used had less potential antioxidant activity compared to positive control ascorbic acid. Result of this study show that pine resin from Indonesia has potential as an antibacterial agent. 

  9. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.parraga@upct.es [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología Agraria Paseo Alfonso XIII, Cartagena 48. 30203 (Spain); Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio [Water and Soil Conservation Department, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura CEBAS-CSIC Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, Espinardo-Murcia ES-30100 (Spain); González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M. [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología Agraria Paseo Alfonso XIII, Cartagena 48. 30203 (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 18}O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain

  10. Phytosociology, structure and dynamics of Pinus roxburghii associations from Northern Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasrullah Khan; Kishwar Ali; Shahid Shaukat

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the phytosociology, structure and dynamics of Pinus roxburghii in 40 stands in northern areas of Pakistan by using cluster analysis (Ward’s agglomerative clustering) and ordination (Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling). Cluster analysis revealed three major groups associated with specific environmental characteristics: (1) P. roxburghii (2) Pinus-Quercus baloot and (3) Pinus-Olea ferruginea community types. NMS-ordination showed the major gradient as an amalgam of elevation (r2=0.441, p<0.01) and slope (r2=0.391, p<0.05) as the two topographic factors correlated with species distribution. The first ordination axis also showed positive correlation with soil variables like pH and electrical conductivity, suggesting that soil chemistry was related to topographic characteristics and probably acted as a secondary gradient. We also examined size class distributions, age structures and growth rates of the three communities in order to describe community development and dynamics. Total tree density was 14700 plants/ha, with P. roxburghii having a relative density of 82%to 100%. Density of juve-nile and total density and basal area of the subordinate tree species were low. The low density of trees in the smallest diameter size-class sug-gested that the recruitment of small P. roxburghii plants into the adult population may be lower than the required replacement rate for the stands. Pooled size-class distributions for the species showed a multimo-dal pattern with some regeneration gaps. Browsing, heavy logging and other anthropogenic activities were the overriding factors responsible for the poor recruitment of P. roxburghii. We concluded from the age struc-ture that the forests were characterized by the dominance of young trees. Growth rate analysis revealed that P. roxburghii was the fastest growing species among the conifers species in Pakistan. In view of its relatively fast growth and longevity, P. roxburghii seems to be a suitable choice for short

  11. [Effects of elevated ozone on Pinus armandii growth: a simulation study with open-top chamber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Chen; He, Xing-Yuan; Ruan, Ya-Nan; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Peng, Jun-Jie; Li, Teng

    2013-10-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC) and the techniques of dendrochronology, this paper studied the growth of Pinus armandii under elevated ozone, and explored the evolution dynamics and adaptation mechanisms of typical forest ecosystems to ozone enrichment. Elevated ozone inhibited the stem growth of P. armandii significantly, with the annual growth of the stem length and diameter reduced by 35.0% and 12.9%, respectively. The annual growth of tree-ring width and the annual ring cells number decreased by 11.5% and 54.1%, respectively, but no significant change was observed in the diameter of tracheid. At regional scale, the fluctuation of ozone concentration showed significant correlation with the variation of local vegetation growth (NDVI).

  12. Chemical modification of coating of Pinus halepensis pollen by ozone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naas, Oumsaad; Mendez, Maxence; Quijada, Melesio; Gosselin, Sylvie; Farah, Jinane; Choukri, Ali; Visez, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Pollen coating, located on the exine, includes an extractible lipid fraction. The modification of the pollen coating by air pollutants may have implications on the interactions of pollen with plant stigmas and human cells. Pinus halepensis pollen was exposed to ozone in vitro and the pollen coating was extracted with organic solvent and analyzed by GC-MS. Ozone has induced chemical changes in the coating as observed with an increase in dicarboxylic acids, short-chain fatty acids and aldehydes. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was identified as the main reaction product and its formation was shown to occur both on native pollen and on defatted pollen. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde is very likely formed via the ozonolysis of acid coumaric-like monomers constitutive of the sporopollenin. Modification of pollen coating by air pollutants should be accounted for in further studies on effect of pollution on germination and on allergenicity.

  13. Rooting of Mugo pine (Pinus mugo cuttings as affected by IBA, NAA and planting substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Sedaghathoor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The effect of planting substrate and concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA hormones was studied on the rooting of mugo pine cuttings. Area of study: The research was carried out in Rasht city, Guilan province, Iran. Material and Methods: Both hormones (IBA and NAA were applied at four concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/l. Planting substrates included sand, perlite, cocopeat, sand + perlite, and sand + cocopeat (1:1. Main results: The highest rooting percentage (55% was obtained under the trilateral treatment a2b4c1 (sand × 4000 mg/l NAA × 1000 mg/l IBA. Sand + cocopeat was found to be the best rooting substrate. Research highlights: It is recommended to apply sand with 4000 mg/l and 1000mg/l concentration of experimental hormones (NAA and IBA, respectively. Keywords: auxin; rooting; Pinus mugo; vegetative propagation.

  14. Inheritance and subcellular localization of triose-phosphate isomerase in dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odrzykoski, I J

    2001-01-01

    Several trees with expected heterozygous phenotype for triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI) were discovered in a population of dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) from southern Poland. As the inheritance of this enzyme in pines has not been reported, segregation of allelic variants was tested in eight trees with putative heterozygous phenotypes for two loci, TpiA and TPIB: Linkage between these and some other isozyme loci were studied and evidence for linkage has been found between TpiA and PgdA (r = 0.10) and between TpiB and DiaD (r = 0.36), but in single trees only. The subcellular localization of TPI isozymes was determined by comparing isoenzymes from the total extract with those found in fraction enriched in plastids, prepared by differential gradient centrifugation of cellular organelles. The more slowly migrating TPI-B isozyme is located in plastids.

  15. Morphological differences between Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. revealed by cone traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-year-old cones were collected from 388 dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra plants of ten populations of this species from the Tatra Mts. - five of them from calcareous and five from calcium-free undersoil. Their 14 morphological traits are described. The data served for performing multivariate analysis of variance and testing of statistical hypotheses, for discriminate analysis. for calculating Mahalanobis distances between populations and plotting a dendrite based on the shortest Mahalanobis distances and for agglomerative clustering by the method of nearest neighbourhood. Wide differences in the populations were found as regards all the studied traits and the existence of two groups in the population, which, do not, however, correlate with the substrate type. The "calcareous and calcium-free" populations show statistically significant differences in six of the 14 studied traits.

  16. Development and Characterization of 25 EST-SSR markers in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A set of novel expressed sequence tag (EST microsatellite markers was developed in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica to promote further genetic studies in this species. Methods and Results: One hundred seventy-five EST–simple sequence repeat (SSR primers were designed and synthesized for 31,653 isotigs based on P. tabuliformis EST sequences. The primer pairs were used to identify 25 polymorphic loci in 48 individuals. The number of alleles ranged from two to eight with observed and expected heterozygosity values of 0.0435 to 0.8125 and 0.0430 to 0.7820, respectively. Conclusions: These new polymorphic EST-SSR markers will be useful for assessing genetic diversity, molecular breeding and genetic improvement, and conservation of P. sylvestris var. mongolica.

  17. Adsorption of phenol on formaldehyde-pretreated Pinus pinaster bark: equilibrium and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, G; González-Alvarez, J; García, A I; Freire, M S; Antorrena, G

    2007-05-01

    This work studies phenol adsorption on Pinus pinaster bark that has been previously treated with formaldehyde in acid medium. The influence of several variables such as solid/liquid ratio, pH and initial concentration of phenol in the solution on the adsorption capacity of the bark has been analysed. A kinetic model based on phenol diffusion within the pores of the adsorbent was in agreement with the results obtained for high initial concentrations of phenol, allowing the determination of diffusion coefficients. Adsorption equilibrium data were fitted by the Freundlich and BET isotherms. From their parameters phenol adsorption capacity and intensity, as well as the specific surface (BET) of the adsorbent, were determined.

  18. Factors influencing germination and growth of isolated embryos of Pinus heldreichii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nutritional, hormonal, and physical factors on the germination and growth of isolated mature zygotic embryos of Pinus heldreichii were studied under in vitro conditions. The optimum medium for embryo germination and adequate conversion into seedlings was basal Gresshoff and Doy (1GD medium. All tested carbohydrates at the applied concentrations stimulated embryo growth, but only 3% sucrose increased embryo germination compared to the control, while maltose had an inhibitory effect. Among the applied plant growth regulators, only gibberelic acid (GA3 had a few benefits on the development of isolated embryos into plantlets, while the others had a negative effect. Embryos cultured on an agar-solidified medium grew better and the germination percentage was higher than in a liquid medium. Light treatment did not affect embryo germination, but generally stimulated seedling growth.

  19. Quantification and characterization of Si in Pinus Insignis Dougl by TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Henry; Bennun, Leonardo [Universidad de Concepcion, Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Marco, Lue M. [Universidad Centro Lisandro Alvarado, Decanato de Agronomia, Depto. de Quimica, Barquisimeto (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-12-09

    A simple quantification of silicon is described, in woods such as Pinus Insigne Dougl obtained from the 8th region of Bio-Bio, 37 15'' South-73 19'' West, Chile. The samples were prepared through fractional calcination, and the ashes were directly analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique. The analysis of 16 samples that were calcined is presented. The samples were weighed on plastic reflectors in a microbalance with sensitivity of 0.1 μg. Later, the samples were irradiated in a TXRF PICOFOX spectrometer, for 350 and 700 s. To each sample, cobalt was added as an internal standard. Concentrations of silicon over the 1 % in each sample and the self-absorption effect on the quantification were observed, in masses higher than 100 μg. (orig.)

  20. Identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nian-Hui; Xu, Yu-Lan; Wang, Da-Wei; Chen, Shi; Li, Gen-Qian

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae), a species native to southwestern China, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure in order to provide information for the conservation and management of this species. Methods and Results: Using next-generation sequencing, a total of 2349 putative simple sequence repeat primer pairs were designed. Eighteen polymorphic markers in 60 individuals belonging to four populations of P. kesiya var. langbianensis were identified and characterized with two to 11 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.800 and 0.000 to 0.840, respectively. Each of these loci cross-amplified in the closely related species P. massoniana, P. densata, P. tabuliformis, and P. yunnanensis, with one to seven alleles per locus. Conclusions: The new markers are promising tools to study the population genetics of P. kesiya var. langbianensis and related species. PMID:28224057

  1. [Genetic diversity and mating system Pinus brutia var. Stankewiczii sukacz. in small localities of Sudak (Crimea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A; Milchevskaya, Ya G

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of genetic variation at 12 polymorphic isozyme loci, and the mating system has been carried out in mature trees and their seed progeny in three small localities of Pinus brutia var. stankewiczii Sukacz. near the town of Sudak--settlement of Novyi Svet in the Crimea. We found that embryos maintain the same allelic diversity as mother plants but their observed heterozygosity is lower on the average by 37.4%. The significant deviation of genotype distribution from the theoretically expected ratios caused by the deficiency of heterozygotes was observed at 8 out of 12 loci. Multilocus estimate of outcrossing rate (t(m)) in populations varied from 68.9 to 94.9% making on the average 80.7%.

  2. [Age dynamics of population gene pool of the Crimean pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Mudrik, E A; Krasnoshtan, O V; Velikorid'ko, T I; Kalafat, L A; Podgornyĭ, D Iu

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphism of young (14-16 years), middle-aged (70-80 years) and old (120-150 years) plants and their seed embryos has been studied using 20 and 10 allozyme loci correspondingly in the population of Pinus pallasiana D. Don from Mountain Crimea. It was revealed that the old-aged trees had significantly lower level of expected heterozygosity than the young plants. The level of observed heterozygosity of embryos of the uneven-aged plants was slightly different among the embryo samples and significantly lower than in the samples of maternal trees. Supernumerary homozygotation of the embryos is caused by low level of cross-pollination in three studied samples of plants (t(m) = 0,537-0,637).

  3. [Genetic structure, subdivision, and population differentiation in Stankewiczii pine Pinus stankewiczii (Sukacz.) Fomin from Mountain Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Gorlova, E M

    2006-06-01

    In order to analyze the genetic structure, subdivision and differentiation within and between two small isolated populations of the Crimea relict endemic, Pinus stankewiczii (Sukacz.) Fomin, electrophoretic analysis of the isozyme variation at nine enzymatic systems was carried out using 183 oldest trees. It was demonstrated that in populations of P. stankewiczii, 80% of the genes were in polymorphic state. Each tree was heterozygous at 19.1% loci, and at 21.6% loci in artificial 50-year-old plantation. The genetic structure of two populations was less differentiated (DN = 0.006), compared to their individual localities (DN = 0.008-0.009). Within-population subdivision of the diffusely dispersed populations was higher (FST-GST = 1.8-2.0%) than that of the populations themselves (0.8%).

  4. Forest structure and plant diversity in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in central Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, L. F.; Bravo, F.; Zaldivar, P.; Pando, V.

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between forest structure and plant diversity in Mediterranean Maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in the Iberian Range (Spain) was studied. Forty eight stands were sampled. In each, a circular plot (15 m radius) and a transect (25*1 m{sup 2}) were established to estimate stand variables and record presence and abundance of vascular species respectively. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA), simple correlations and multiple stepwise linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between plant diversity and forest structure. Correlation between diversity measurements and stand variables is very weak, but significant correlations were found when evaluating each set of variables separately. Presence and cover of some species (for instance, Veronica arvensis L. or Micropyrum tenellum (L.) Link) is correlated with stand variables; however, determination coefficients found in step-by-step regression are not significant. (Author) 34 refs.

  5. Distribution of elements in needles of Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) was uneven and affected by needle age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang Yuanwen [South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: kuangyw@scbg.ac.cn; Wen Dazhi [South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: dzwen@scbg.ac.cn; Zhou Guoyi [South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: gyzhou@scbg.ac.cn; Liu Shizhong [South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: lsz@scbg.ac.cn

    2007-02-15

    Macronutrients (P, S, K, Na, Mg, Ca), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd,) and Al concentrations as well as values of Ca/Al in the tip, middle and base sections, and sheaths of current year and previous year needles of Pinus massoniana from Xiqiao Mountain were analyzed and the distribution patterns of those elements were compared. The results indicated that many elements were unevenly distributed among the different components of needles. Possible deficiency of P, K, Ca, Mn and Al toxicity occurred in needles under air pollution. Heavy metals may threaten the health of Masson pine. Needle sheaths were good places to look for particulate pollutants, in this case including Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Al. - Pine needle sections as bioindicator for heavy metals and nutrient deficiency particularly needle sheath for particle pollutants.

  6. Distribution of elements in needles of Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) was uneven and affected by needle age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang Yuanwen [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: kuangyw@scbg.ac.cn; Wen Dazhi [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: dzwen@scbg.ac.cn; Zhou Guoyi [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: gyzhou@scbg.ac.cn; Liu Shizhong [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: lsz@scbg.ac.cn

    2007-01-15

    Macronutrients (P, S, K, Na, Mg, Ca), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd) and Al concentrations as well as values of Ca/Al in the tip, middle, base sections and sheaths of current year and previous year needles of Pinus massoniana from Xiqiao Mountain were analyzed and the distribution patterns of those elements were compared. The results indicated that many elements were unevenly distributed among the different components of needles. Possible deficiency of P, K, Ca, Mn and Al toxicity occurred in needles under air pollution. Heavy metals may threaten the health of Masson pine. Needle sheaths were good places to look for particulate pollutants, in this case including Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Al. - Pine needle sections as bioindicator for heavy metals and nutrient deficiency particularly needle sheath for particle pollutants.

  7. Effects of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Growth of Seedlings of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Mi-Yeong; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the different effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal (ECMF) species on the growth of seedlings of Pinus densiflora, and the effects of ECMF diversity on plant productivity. A total of five species of ECMF were isolated from root tips of pine seedlings collected from Mt. Songni and used as inocula. Pots containing pine seedlings were inoculated with either a single ECMF species or a mixture of five ECMF species. All of the seedlings formed ECM on their roots except for the control plants. The pine seedlings' growth responses varied by the different ECMF species. Also, pine seedlings inoculated with a mixture of five ECMF species showed the highest growth response. The results of the study suggest that the colonization of diverse species of ECMF will increase plant productivity, and the selection of suitable ECMF species could be an important factor for plant growth.

  8. A new abietic acid-type diterpene glucoside from the needles of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mee Jung; Jung, Hyun Ah; Kang, Sam Sik; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Choi, Jae Sue

    2009-12-01

    From the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of the needles of Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae), a new diterpenoid glucoside [9alpha,13alpha-epoxy-8beta,14beta-dihydroxy-abietic acid-18-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside] (1), two flavonoid glucosides [kaempferol 3-O-beta-D: -glucoside (2) and 6-C-methyl kaempferol 3-O-beta-D: -glucoside (3)], and two monoterpenoid glucosides [bornyl 6-O-alpha-Larabinofuranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (4) and bornyl 6-O-beta-D: -apiofuranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (5)] were isolated and characterized on the basis of spectral analysis. Of all the compounds, 2 and 3 showed peroxynitrite scavenging activity.

  9. Growth response of Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dalong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinus densiflora seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon roseolus and Russula densifolia in single-, two-, and three-species treatments. After 8 months, the colonization rates of each ectomycorrhizal species, seedling growth and the nutrition were assessed in each treatment. P. densiflora seedlings inoculated with different ECM species composition showed an increase in height and basal diameter and improved seedling root and shoot nutrition concentrations compared to control treatment. Generally, combined inoculation had a more positive influence on the seedlings than the single inoculation. The three-species inoculation presented the highest growth and basal diameter and concentration of most nutrients except potassium. In conclusion, the results provided strong evidence for benefits of combined inoculation with the indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi on P. densiflora seedlings under controlled conditions.

  10. Antioxidant principles from the needles of red pine, Pinus densi fl ora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mee Jung; Chung, Hae Young; Choi, Jin Ho; Choi, Jae Sue

    2003-11-01

    Antioxidant activity of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (Pinaceae) was evaluated for potential to inhibit hydroxyl radicals, inhibit total reactive oxygen species generation in kidney homogenates using 2',7'-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate (DCHF-DA) and scavenge authentic peroxynitrites. The methanolic extract of P. densiflora showed strong antioxidant activity in the tested model systems and thus fractionated with several solvents. The antioxidant activity potential of the individual fraction was in the order of ethyl acetate > n-butanol > water > dichloromethane fraction. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibiting strong antioxidant activity was further puri fi ed by repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. An active lignan (+)-isolarisiresinol xylopyranoside, as well as two active flavonoids [kaempferol 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside and its 6"-acetyl derivative], were isolated.

  11. The mycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma matsutake stimulates Pinus densiflora seedling growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Shindo, Katsumi; Matsushita, Norihisa; Suzuki, Kazuo; Lapeyrie, Frédéric

    2004-12-01

    While it has been suggested that Matsutake mycorrhizae might not be functional and that Matsutake may behave as a saprobic fungus in soil or even have some pathogenic activity on seedlings, we investigated the consequences of Matsutake inoculation on Pinus densiflora growth. Seventy-five days after inoculation, hyphae were anchored on short roots and well-developed Hartig net palmettis were observed. Compared to both control treatments--seedlings treated with distilled water and seedlings treated with autoclaved mycelium--inoculation significantly stimulated seedling total dry weight by 70.9% and 98.0%, respectively. These findings attest that some type of symbiotic relationship must be functional and favour host growth, ruling out claims of pathogenicity under the sterile conditions used here.

  12. Seasonal variations of monoterpene emissions from Pinus densiflora in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, Ki-Joon; Son, Youn-Suk; Sunwoo, Young; Han, Jin-Seok

    2008-09-01

    The emission rates and compositions of monoterpene from Pinus densiflora were investigated in the Gumsung (GM) and Worak (WM) mountains. The standard emission rates (ERs: ERs is the monoterpene emission rate at standard temperature, 30 degrees C) from P. densiflora ranged from 0.817 to 1.704 (microgC/gdw-h). The ERs and beta-values of total monoterpene were measured at the two study sites (GM and WM). In the spring and summer, the ERs were the highest, while relatively low values (densiflora were alpha-pinene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, d-limonene and alpha-terpinene. The fractional compositions of individual monoterpene compounds were significantly different between the two test sites in the summer and winter. The ERs of the older group (31-40 years) were higher than those in the younger group (21-30 years). However, the monoterpene compositions were similar between the two age groups.

  13. Growth response of Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalong, M; Luhe, W; Guoting, Y; Liqiang, M; Chun, L

    2011-07-01

    Pinus densiflora seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon roseolus and Russula densifolia) in single-, two-, and three-species treatments. After 8 months, the colonization rates of each ectomycorrhizal species, seedling growth and the nutrition were assessed in each treatment. P. densiflora seedlings inoculated with different ECM species composition showed an increase in height and basal diameter and improved seedling root and shoot nutrition concentrations compared to control treatment. Generally, combined inoculation had a more positive influence on the seedlings than the single inoculation. The three-species inoculation presented the highest growth and basal diameter and concentration of most nutrients except potassium. In conclusion, the results provided strong evidence for benefits of combined inoculation with the indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi on P. densiflora seedlings under controlled conditions.

  14. Influence of stand density on soil CO2 efflux for a Pinus densiflora forest in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Nam Jin; Son, Yowhan; Lee, Sue Kyoung; Yoon, Tae Kyung; Seo, Kyung Won; Kim, Choonsig; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Bae, Sang Won; Hwang, Jaehong

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the influence of stand density [938 tree ha(-1) for high stand density (HD), 600 tree ha(-1) for medium stand density (MD), and 375 tree ha(-1) for low stand density (LD)] on soil CO(2) efflux (R (S)) in a 70-year-old natural Pinus densiflora S. et Z. forest in central Korea. Concurrent with R (S) measurements, we measured litterfall, total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA), leaf area index (LAI), soil temperature (ST), soil water content (SWC), and soil nitrogen (N) concentration over a 2-year period. The R (S) (t C ha(-1) year(-1)) and leaf litterfall (t C ha(-1) year(-1)) values varied with stand density: 6.21 and 2.03 for HD, 7.45 and 2.37 for MD, and 6.96 and 2.23 for LD, respectively. In addition, R (S) was correlated with ST (R (2) = 0.77-0.80, P densiflora.

  15. Above-ground biomass equations for Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Canga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to develop a model for above-ground biomass estimation for Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias.Area of study: Asturias (NE of Spain.Material and methods: Different models were fitted for the different above-ground components and weighted regression was used to correct heteroscedasticity. Finally, all the models were refitted simultaneously by use of Nonlinear Seemingly Unrelated Regressions (NSUR to ensure the additivity of biomass equations.Research highlights: A system of four biomass equations (wood, bark, crown and total biomass was develop, such that the sum of the estimations of the three biomass components is equal to the estimate of total biomass. Total and stem biomass equations explained more than 92% of observed variability, while crown and bark biomass equations explained 77% and 89% respectively.Keywords: radiata pine; plantations; biomass.

  16. [Genetic structure of the populations of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) reforested in extreme conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Krasnoshtan, O V

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on an intensive reforestation of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in post-fire sites in the native Mountainous Crimean populations and around the previously planted seed-producing trees in ore-mining dumps of the Krivoy Rog region. Self-sown progeny growing in the dump is characterized by a better growth and comes to the reproductive development phase earlier compared to that one growing in post-fire forest. Allele variability at 20 allozyme loci is less in self-sown progeny than in the native populations whereas its heterozygosity level is similar. Genetic distance (D(N)) among self-sown progenies in post-fire sites and ore-mining dump is comparable to that of the natural populations.

  17. Pinus strobus: past and future in Europe. A page of silvicultural history and international scientific cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Radu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a short overview concerning eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. introduction in different European countries, including the period of early extension in forest culture until the first blister rust crisis occurred. The species rehabilitation at the European level and the new extension between 1927 and 1972 years period in different countries, particularly in Romania, was presented. Most of the data incorporated here were taken over from the monograph of the senior author's of this paper. However, parts of the newly acquired results in our country were taken in to account, as well. Finally, the fruitful international scientific cooperation, in favor of P. strobus, including that with I.U.F.R.O was highlighted

  18. Pinus strobus: past and future in Europe. A page of silvicultural history and international scientific cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Radu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a short overview concerning eastern white pine(Pinus strobus L. introduction in different European countries, including the period of early extension in forest culture until the first blister rust crisis occurred. The species rehabilitation at the European level and the new extension between 1927 and 1972 years period in different countries, particularly in Romania, was presented.Most of the data incorporated here were taken over from the monograph of the senior author's of this paper. However, parts of the newly acquired results in our country were taken in to account, as well. Finally, the fruitful international scientific cooperation, in favor of P. strobus, including that with I.U.F.R.O was highlighted.

  19. Crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of a vicilin-type seed storage protein from Pinus koraiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Fu, Tong Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu Zhu

    2007-12-01

    The cupin superfamily of proteins includes the 7S and 11S seed storage proteins. Many members of this family of proteins are known allergens. In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method in hanging drops. The crystals belong to the primitive cubic space group P2(1)3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 148.174 A. Two vicilin molecules were present in the asymmetric unit and the Matthews coefficient was determined to be 2.90 A(3) Da(-1), with a corresponding solvent content of approximately 58%. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained using the program Phaser. Refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  20. Analysis of inter - population variability Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. using morphometric markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is analysis of inter-population variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. using morphometric parameters of cones and seedlings originating from seven populations in Serbia.The analysis of 1960 cones and their seeds was performed as well as the analysis of morphometric parameters of seedlings (height and root neck diameter that were produced from this seed. Based on the obtained results the significant differences were noticed in the values of analyzed characters for each population separately. The biological similarity or distance regarding the analyzed characters showed a significant population differentiation. By presenting the preliminary knowledge on the genetic variability of the study populations, the reported results will contribute to better understanding of the significance of the analyzed characters in the population differentiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 43007

  1. [Effects of Pinus armandii seed size on rodents caching behavior and it's spatio-temporal variations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Chen, Jin

    2011-08-01

    Pinus armandii, a native pine species, has large (about 300 mg), wingless seeds, and distributes from central to western China at an altitude of 1000-3300 m. To determine how the seed size affects rodents caching behavior, tagged seed releasing and tracking experiments were conducted at 3 sites in Northwest Yunnan province in 2006 and 2007. Our data indicated that for all sites and both years, compared with the smaller seeds, the proportions of cached large seeds were significantly higher, whereas the consumed ones were significantly lower. Meanwhile, the mean and maximum values of caching distances were also significantly increased in large seeds. Seed fate was different between the two years and within the three sites as there have different rodent community compositions.

  2. Distribution of elements in needles of Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) was uneven and affected by needle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yuan Wen; Wen, Da Zhi; Zhou, Guoyi; Liu, Shi Zhong

    2007-02-01

    Macronutrients (P, S, K, Na, Mg, Ca), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd,) and Al concentrations as well as values of Ca/Al in the tip, middle and base sections, and sheaths of current year and previous year needles of Pinus massoniana from Xiqiao Mountain were analyzed and the distribution patterns of those elements were compared. The results indicated that many elements were unevenly distributed among the different components of needles. Possible deficiency of P, K, Ca, Mn and Al toxicity occurred in needles under air pollution. Heavy metals may threaten the health of Masson pine. Needle sheaths were good places to look for particulate pollutants, in this case including Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Al.

  3. The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Süleyman; Akgül, Mehmet; Dündar, Turker

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to wood species to improve their dimensional stability. This study examined the effect of heat treatment on certain mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens obtained from Bolu, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at varying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 degrees C) for varying durations (2, 6 and 10h). The test results of heat-treated Scots pine and control samples showed that technological properties including compression strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength and tension strength perpendicular to grain suffered with heat treatment, and increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens.

  4. Effect of the heat treatment on physical and chemical properties of Pinus caribaea wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallyene da Silva Poubel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the heat treatment on physical properties (density, equilibrium moisture content, mass loss, volumetric and linear swelling and shrinkage and chemical composition of normal (opposite side and compression wood of Pinus caribaea Morelet. Samples of 25 x 25 x 50 mm were heat-treated under two different temperatures: 200 and 220 ºC. The results indicated a reduction in equilibrium moisture content and swelling and shrinkage following heat treatment, independent of wood type. The compression wood showed higher longitudinal swelling than normal one, however, after heat treatment, the improvements were similar between both wood types. Samples heat-treated at 200 and 220 ºC had mass losses of 9.94 and 21.03 %, respectively. The heat treatment promoted a relative increase in lignin content and a decrease in holocellulose and α-cellulose contents, indicating the occurrence of thermal degradation of these components.

  5. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones.

  6. Wood properties of Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus caribaea estimated by colorimetry

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    Patrícia Gomes Ribeiro Amorim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-destructive technologies has been very effective in characterization and evaluation of wood quality. This study aimed to characterize the technologically wood of Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus grandis by Colorimetry. The study was conducted at the University of Brasilia (UNB in Physics and Engineering Laboratory the Laboratory of Forest Products/LPF - Brazilian Forest Service (SFB. Species were subjected to standard tests of basic density, shrinkage and bending. For the colorimetric determination of the parameters it was used a spectrophotometer according to the methodology adopted by Camargos (1999. The radial surface of the wood is most suitable for the collecting of the colorimetric parameters and prediction of properties. Property best estimated by this technique was the density, followed by modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR.

  7. MODELLING GROWTH AND YIELD OF Pinus taeda L. USING DIFUSION PROCESS

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    Rozane de Loyola Eisfeld

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work tested a methodology for growth and yield modeling. The diffusion process is not yet widely used incommercial plantations in Brazil, but it can provide predictions comparable to others methodologies, producing satisfactory resultsto simulate growth and yield. For this purpose, 325 permanent samples established in unthinned Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine standsowned by the International Paper of Brazil Co were used. The diffusion process methodology consists in connecting growthincrement and mortality models in Kolmogorov equation . Seventy sample plots were randomly chosen in order to make thecomparison among the observed and predicted values. In general, the diffusion process provided satisfactory estimates of number oftrees, basal area per hectare and stem volume.

  8. Soil Type Affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae Seedling Growth in Simulated Drought Experiments

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    Alexander J. Lindsey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite, a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies.

  9. Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine tree Pinus ponderosa: A defense mechanism against microbial invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himejima, Masaki; Hobson, K.R.; Otsuka, Toshikazu; Wood, D.L.; Kubo, Isao (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1992-10-01

    The oleoresin of the ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) exhibited broad antimicrobial activity. In order to identify the active compounds, the oleoresin was steam distilled to give a distillate and residue. The distillate contained mainly monoterpenes and some sesquiterpenes, while the residue consisted chiefly of four structurally related diterpene acids. An antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds indicated that the monoterpenes were active primarily against fungi, but there was also some activity against gram-positive bacteria. The diterpene acids, in contrast, only exhibited activity against gram-positive bacteria. Although not all of the identified sesquiterpenes could be tested, longifolene showed activity only against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it appears that the oleoresin of P. ponderosa functions as a biochemical defense against microbial invasion.

  10. Genetic Differentiation of Pinus koraiensis under Different Altitude Conditions in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGFujuan

    2004-01-01

    The genetic differentiation of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) in different altitudes in Changbai Mountain was analyzed by ISSR technique, and it was found that the level of genetic diversity of Korean pine reduces along with altitude increasing in Changbai Mountain. The variation of Korean pine is mainly from intra-population and there is a positive relativity between genetic distance and vertical geographic distance of Korean pine in different altitudes. The genetic coherence shows that altitude has less insulation to Korean pine. Therefore, it is deduced that the terrain formation of vertical distribution of Korean pine is a result of diffusion from lower altitude to higher altitude in the course of enlarging its adaptability.

  11. Ectomycorrhizae of Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum with Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shan-Ping; Yu, Fu-Qiang; Tang, Li; Wang, Ran; Wang, Yun; Liu, Pei-Gui; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zheng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum are common commercial white truffles in China that belong to the Rufum and Puberulum groups of the genus Tuber, respectively. Their mycorrhizae were successfully synthesized with two native trees--Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii--under greenhouse conditions. The identities of the mycorrhizae were confirmed through internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses, and their morphological characteristics were described. All of the obtained mycorrhizae have an interlocking pseudoparenchymatous mantle, which is a typical feature of truffle mycorrhizae. The mycorrhizae of T. huidongense on the two trees have hyaline branched emanating hyphae, similar to the documented mycorrhizae of the Rufum group. The unramified, spiky, and hyaline cystidia on the mycorrhizae of T. liyuanum with both C. mollissima and P. armandii further confirmed that this characteristic is constant for the mycorrhizae of the Puberulum group. The successful mycorrhizal syntheses on the two nut-producing trees will be of economic importance in the cultivation of the two truffles.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery of Pinus radiata with chromosome walking PCR method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei LI; Hui LI; Xiaoyang CHEN; Harry WU

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the basic principle of chromosome walking is presented and we used an actin gene of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) as an example to conduct upstream and downstream chromosome walking for EST sequences. The full genomic sequence (2154 bp) of the actin gene, including promoters 5' UTR, CDS and 3' UTR, was identified by chromosome walking. PCR amplification and DNA band sequencing from 200 unrelated radiata pine trees revealed a total of 21 SNPs for the actin gene, three in the promoter region, 15 in CDS and 4 in 3' UTR. The results of this experiment provide a technical framework for SNPs dis-covery in none coding regions of candidate genes.

  13. The effects of understory vegetation on P availability in Pinus radiata forest stands:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Arivin Rivaie

    2014-01-01

    In many second-rotation Pinus radiata forest planta-tions, there has been a steady trend towards wider tree spacing and an increased rate of application of P fertiliser. Under these regimes, the potential for understory growth is expected to in-crease through increased light and greater nutrient resources. Therefore, understory vegetation could become a more signifi-cant component of P cycling in P. radiata forests than under closely-spaced stands. Studies have shown that growth rates and survival of trees is reduced in the presence of understory vegeta-tion due to the competition of understory vegetation with trees. Other studies have suggested that understory vegetation might have beneficial effects on nutrient cycling and conservation within forest stands. This review discusses the significance of understory vegetation in radiata pine forest stands, especially their role in enhancing or reducing P availability to forest trees.

  14. Environmental pollution changes in membrane lipids, antioxidants and vitality of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł M. Pukacki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on pollen grains of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. collected from trees at 1.5, 3, 4 km and control, 20 km from the Luboń factory producing mineral fertilisers. The percentage of germination of pollen formed close to the pollution source was ca 20% lower compared to the control pollen. Lowered vitality of the pollen was effected in changes of the structure of cytoplasmic membranes. Pollen from the polluted area contained ca 15% less total phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine and phosphatytidylinositol and had a lower content of soluble proteins and less of low molecular antioxidants, such as thiols and ascorbic acid. Composition of total fatty acid in phospholipids fractions showed a significant reduction in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Pollen originating from the polluted area and stored at -30°C showed considerably stronger degradation of cytoplasmic membranes than control.

  15. Relationships between foliar phosphorus fractions of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and soil available phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong ZHAO; Xingyu LIU; Dehui ZENG; Jinhuan LIU; Yalin HU

    2009-01-01

    In order to find out the best foliar diagnostic index of phosphorus (P) nutrition in Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) in the southeastern Keerqin Sandy Lands, the concentrations of total nitrogen (N), inorganic P, organic P and total P in needles of different ages and soil available P were examined. The results show that in the study area, soil available P was rather low (0.12-0.63mg/kg) and was significantly correlated with inorganic P (cPi) and total P (cPt) concentrations in current year needles of Mongolian pine. The significant correlation between soil available P and needle cPt derived from the significant correlation between cPi and cPt. Compared with cPt, cPi did reflect the level of soil P supply more accurately and more directly.

  16. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

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    Dmitri V. Politov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical,characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine(Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in theEast Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation ofoutcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation orreforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations showed no heterozygote deficiency at these allozyme loci, and instead showed increased proportions of heterozygotes (inbreeding coefficient FIS = -0.200 in 'Gorgany' and -0.142 in 'Yayko'. Balancing selection may explain heterozygosity levels up to and above equilibrium proportions.

  17. The effects of fire severity on ectomycorrhizal colonization and morphometric features in Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings

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    Pablo Vásquez-Gassibe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Mycorrhizal fungi in Mediterranean forests play a key role in the complex process of recovery after wildfires. A broader understanding of an important pyrophytic species as Pinus pinaster and its fungal symbionts is thus necessary for forest restoration purposes. This study aims to assess the effects of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on maritime pine seedlings and how fire severity affects fungal colonization ability.Area of study: Central Spain, in a Mediterranean region typically affected by wildfires dominated by Pinus pinaster, a species adapted to fire disturbance.Material and Methods: We studied P. pinaster root apexes from seedlings grown in soils collected one year after fire in undisturbed sites, sites moderately affected by fire and sites highly affected by fire. Natural ectomycorrhization was observed at the whole root system level as well as at two root vertical sections (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. We also measured several morphometric traits (tap root length, shoot length, dry biomass of shoots and root/shoot ratio, which were used to test the influence of fire severity and soil chemistry upon them.Main results: Ectomycorrhizal colonization in undisturbed soils for total and separated root vertical sections was higher than in soils that had been affected by fire to some degree. Inversely, seedling vegetative size increased according to fire severity.Research highlights: Fire severity affected soil properties and mycorrhizal colonization one year after occurrence, thus affecting plant development. These findings can contribute to a better knowledge of the factors mediating successful establishment of P. pinaster in Mediterranean forests after wildfires. 

  18. The effects of fire severity on ectomycorrhizal colonization and morphometric features in Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vásquez-Gassibe, P.; Oria-de-Rueda, J.A.; Santos-del-Blanco, L.; Martín-Pinto, P.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Mycorrhizal fungi in Mediterranean forests play a key role in the complex process of recovery after wildfires. A broader understanding of an important pyrophytic species as Pinus pinaster and its fungal symbionts is thus necessary for forest restoration purposes. This study aims to assess the effects of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on maritime pine seedlings and how fire severity affects fungal colonization ability. Area of study: Central Spain, in a Mediterranean region typically affected by wildfires dominated by Pinus pinaster, a species adapted to fire disturbance. Material and Methods: We studied P. pinaster root apexes from seedlings grown in soils collected one year after fire in undisturbed sites, sites moderately affected by fire and sites highly affected by fire. Natural ectomycorrhization was observed at the whole root system level as well as at two root vertical sections (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). We also measured several morphometric traits (tap root length, shoot length, dry biomass of shoots and root/shoot ratio), which were used to test the influence of fire severity and soil chemistry upon them. Main results: Ectomycorrhizal colonization in undisturbed soils for total and separated root vertical sections was higher than in soils that had been affected by fire to some degree. Inversely, seedling vegetative size increased according to fire severity. Research highlights: Fire severity affected soil properties and mycorrhizal colonization one year after occurrence, thus affecting plant development. These findings can contribute to a better knowledge of the factors mediating successful establishment of P. pinaster in Mediterranean forests after wildfires. (Author)

  19. Perbandingan Nilai Intersepsi Pohon Mahoni (Swietania mahagoni dan Pohon Pinus (Casuarina cunninghamia

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    Siti Mechram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparation of Interception Loss on Mahoni (Swietania mahagoni and Pinus (Casuarina cunninghamia ABSTRACT. Interception of rain is the retention of rainwater on surface vegetation before it evaporates back into the atmosphere. Research relating to the interception is still lacking, so it is necessary to study the interception on some types of plants. Although the interception had a little value, and sometimes overlooked, but in some plants have a considerable effect. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of interception in Mahogany and Pine trees, as well as to determine the relationship between rainfall and interception. In this study, samples taken at the Mahogany and Pine trees by the number of 3 samples of each tree. There were two approaches to measure the amount of interception, the first approach was the Volume Balance Approach and the second approach was the Energy Balance Approach. In this study, the volume balance approach, with measurements of rainfall, throughfall, stemflow and interception for ten days of rainfall. The average amount of interception Mahogany obtained 15.5 mm (7.31% of the total amount of rainfall and the correlation coefficient (r was at 0.554. While the average number of interception Pinus acquired 87.23 mm (41.15% of the total amount of rainfall and the correlation coefficient (r was at 0.505. The size of the interception was influenced by wind speed, density and canopy shape. The research obtained that the interception for pine trees was higher than Mahogany trees. The results also showed that the higher percentage of rainfall, the smaller interception. This was due to the canopy conditions and climatic factors.

  20. The Pinus taeda genome is characterized by diverse and highly diverged repetitive sequences

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    Yandell Mark

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In today's age of genomic discovery, no attempt has been made to comprehensively sequence a gymnosperm genome. The largest genus in the coniferous family Pinaceae is Pinus, whose 110-120 species have extremely large genomes (c. 20-40 Gb, 2N = 24. The size and complexity of these genomes have prompted much speculation as to the feasibility of completing a conifer genome sequence. Conifer genomes are reputed to be highly repetitive, but there is little information available on the nature and identity of repetitive units in gymnosperms. The pines have extensive genetic resources, with approximately 329000 ESTs from eleven species and genetic maps in eight species, including a dense genetic map of the twelve linkage groups in Pinus taeda. Results We present here the Sanger sequence and annotation of ten P. taeda BAC clones and Genome Analyzer II whole genome shotgun (WGS sequences representing 7.5% of the genome. Computational annotation of ten BACs predicts three putative protein-coding genes and at least fifteen likely pseudogenes in nearly one megabase of sequence. We found three conifer-specific LTR retroelements in the BACs, and tentatively identified at least 15 others based on evidence from the distantly related angiosperms. Alignment of WGS sequences to the BACs indicates that 80% of BAC sequences have similar copies (≥ 75% nucleotide identity elsewhere in the genome, but only 23% have identical copies (99% identity. The three most common repetitive elements in the genome were identified and, when combined, represent less than 5% of the genome. Conclusions This study indicates that the majority of repeats in the P. taeda genome are 'novel' and will therefore require additional BAC or genomic sequencing for accurate characterization. The pine genome contains a very large number of diverged and probably defunct repetitive elements. This study also provides new evidence that sequencing a pine genome using a WGS approach is

  1. Regeneration complexities of Pinus gerardiana in dry temperate forests of Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Shamet, G S; Mehta, Harsh; Alam, N M; Kaushal, Rajesh; Chaturvedi, O P; Sharma, Navneet; Khaki, B A; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Pinus gerardiana is considered an important species in dry temperate forests of North-Western Indian Himalaya because of its influence on ecological processes and economic dependence of local people in the region. But, large numbers of biotic and abiotic factors have affected P. gerardiana in these forests; hence, there is a crucial need to understand the regeneration dynamics of this tree species. The present investigation was conducted in P. gerardiana forests to understand vegetation pattern and regeneration processes on different sites in the region. Statistical analysis was performed to know variability in growing stock and regeneration on sample plots, while correlation coefficients and regression models were developed to find the relationship between regeneration and site factors. The vegetation study showed dominance of P. gerardiana, which is followed by Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana and Quercus ilex in the region. The growing stock of P. gerardiana showed steep increasing and then steadily declining trend from lower to higher diameter class. The distribution of seedling, sapling, pole and trees was not uniform at different sites and less number of plots in each site were observed to have effective conditions for continuous regeneration, but mostly showed extremely limited regeneration. Regeneration success ranging from 8.44 to 15.93 % was recorded in different sites of the region, which suggests that in different sites regeneration success is influenced by collection of cone for extracting seed, grazing/browsing and physico-chemical properties of soil. Regeneration success showed significant correlation and relationship with most of abiotic and biotic factors. The regeneration success is lower than the requirement of sustainable forest, but varies widely among sites in dry temperate forests of Himalaya. More forest surveys are required to understand the conditions necessary for greater success of P. gerardiana in the region.

  2. Antagonismo de Trichoderma SPP. E Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 a Fusarium sambucinum em Pinus elliottii engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinus elliottii é uma espécie de importância no setor florestal e apresenta vulnerabilidade na qualidade sanitária de suas sementes, especialmente pela associação de Fusarium spp., responsável por perdas de plântulas no viveiro. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antagonista in vitro e in vivo dos agentes Trichoderma spp. e Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 no controle de Fusarium sambucinum, responsável por danos em plântulas de Pinus elliottii. O controle in vitro foi avaliado através da inibição do crescimento micelial (confronto pareado de culturas, após a incubação a 25±2 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 h. Para os testes in vivo (desenvolvidos em condições de viveiro, as sementes inicialmente foram inoculadas com o patógeno e, na sequência, microbiolizadas com os agentes antagônicos, para posterior semeadura. Utilizaram-se as técnicas de contato com o biocontrolador em meio BDA por 48 h e peliculização, como formas de microbiolização. Tanto Trichoderma spp. quanto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 foram eficientes no controle in vitro de F. sambucinum, e no teste de biocontrole in vivo o produto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 destacou-se, reduzindo as perdas de plântulas causadas pelo patógeno, assim como potencializando as variáveis de comprimento de plântula, massa verde e massa seca.

  3. [Photosynthetic functions and chlorophyll fast fluorescence characteristics of five Pinus species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Nian-Wei; Zhou, Feng; Gu, Zhu-Jun; Jia, Shu-Qin; Wang, Xing-An

    2012-05-01

    A comparative study was made on the needle morphological characteristics, photosynthetic rate, and chlorophyll fast fluorescence induction curves of five representative Pinus species P. parvifiora, P. armandii, P. bungeana, P. tabuliformis, and P. densiflora. Significant differences were observed in the needle morphological characteristics among the five species. P. tabuliformis had the longest needle length and highest needle density, whereas P. bungeana had the highest chlorophyll content. P. densiflora and P. parvifiora had the maximum and minimum photosynthetic rate, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance across the five species. The differences in the chlorophyll fast fluorescence induction curves of the five species were mainly manifested in J-step and I-step. Although the five species had similar values of Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo and Tfm, P. parviflora had significantly higher values of dV/dt(o), dVG/d(o), V and Vi, but lower energy flux ratio psi(o), phiEo and phiRo, compared with the other four species. The low PSII activity and efficiency of P. parviflora might relate to its smallest Sm, Sm/Tfm and N. P. densiflora and P. parvifiora had the maximum and minimum vitality indices PI(ABS/CSo/CSm) and DF, respectively, and there existed significant positive correlations between the PI(CSo) and PI(CSm) and the net photosynthetic rate of the five species, suggesting that PI(CSo) and PI(CSm) could be used to estimate the photosynthetic activity of Pinus trees.

  4. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact.

  5. Phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oils from three Pinus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basholli-Salihu, Mimoza; Schuster, Roswitha; Hajdari, Avni; Mulla, Dafina; Viernstein, Helmut; Mustafa, Behxhet; Mueller, Monika

    2017-12-01

    Inflammation and cell differentiation lead to a number of severe diseases. In the recent years, various studies focused on the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity of essential oils (EOs) of numerous plants, including different Pinus species. The phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of EOs from needles and twigs of Pinus heldreichii Christ (Pinaceae) and P. peuce Griseb., and from needles, twigs and cones of P. mugo Turra were determined. For separation and identification of the EOs, gas chromatography/flame ion detector (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry were performed. The amount of secreted IL-6 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage model was quantified (concentration of oils: 0.0001-0.2%, 3 h incubation). Cytotoxicity on the cancer cell lines HeLa, CaCo-2 and MCF-7 were determined using a MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) assay (concentration of oils: 0.001-0.1%, 24 h incubation). The most prominent members in the oils include: δ-3-carene, α-pinene and linalool-acetate (P. mugo); α-pinene, β-phellandrene and β-pinene (P. peuce); limonene, α-pinene and (E)-caryophyllene (P. heldreichii). EOs showed significant cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines (IC50 0.007 to >0.1%), with a reduction in cell viability with up to 90% at a concentration of 0.1%, and anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 0.0008-0.02%) with a reduction of IL-6 secretion with up to 60% at a concentration of 0.01%. The EOs of needles and twigs from P. peuce and P. heldreichii as well as of needles, twigs and cones of P. mugo can be considered as promising agents for anticancer and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  6. FAUNA DO SOLO EM ÁREAS COM Eucalyptus spp. E Pinus elliottii, SANTA MARIA, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Jacques Soares

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, com início na primavera de 1996 e término no inverno de 1997, teve como objetivo realizar o levantamento populacional da fauna do solo em áreas com Eucalyptus spp. e Pinus elliottii, situadas no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Para a coleta do solo, utilizou-se um extrator, formando-se amostras em dez pontos, nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 e de 15-20 cm, em cada estação do ano. Por meio deste estudo, pôde-se identificar alguns representantes dos Phylum Annelida e Arthropoda que participam do contexto fauna-solo-vegetação. O total de indivíduos, seu respectivo percentual e número de indivíduos por metro quadrado foram obtidos. Observou-se o predomínio do Phylum Arthropoda e, mais especificamente, da classe Insecta na área com Eucalyptus spp. e do Phylum Annelida na área com Pinus elliottii. A variável profundidade originou modelos matemáticos que explicam a distribuição populacional dentre as áreas estudadas. A variável estação do ano não apresentou uma diferença significativa. Não foi possível, portanto, estabelecer um modelo de distribuição populacional.

  7. Avaliação e seleção precoce para crescimento de Pinus taeda Early evaluation and selection for growth in Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefano Paludzyszyn Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes métodos de seleção quanto aos caracteres ligados ao crescimento do fuste e o potencial da seleção precoce de genitores. Em 48 progênies de meios-irmãos de Pinus taeda L., foi medido o diâmetro do fuste a 30 cm e a 1,30 m do solo, aos 16 e 84 meses de idade, além da altura total. As progênies foram cultivadas em espaçamento tradicional e reduzido. Os componentes de variância, parâmetros e valores genéticos aditivos foram obtidos a partir de um modelo de análise individual. A seleção indireta foi de eficiência similar à direta quanto ao diâmetro (93% e menor quanto à altura (78%. A seleção seqüencial foi 16% (altura e 28% (diâmetro mais eficiente que a seleção única. A eficiência da seleção combinada foi maior em relação a direta para diâmetro. Vinte genitores selecionados por valores genéticos aditivos quanto ao diâmetro, aos 16 e 84 meses, aumentaram a média em 7,6% e 8,1%, respectivamente. A alta magnitude da correlação genética no que diz respeito ao diâmetro entre idades revelou que esse caráter, avaliado aos 16 meses de idade, prediz o crescimento aos 84 meses. Isso reduz custos de avaliação de progênies, antecipa o desbaste de genitores e a oferta de sementes melhoradas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of selection in growth traits and early selection. Individual total height and stem diameter at 30 cm above the ground in close-spaced early genetic evaluation at 16 months were assessed. In a 84 month sib cohort, as a comparison, height and diameter at breast height were evaluated. Phenotypic and genetic parameters for height and diameter were estimated for 48 open-pollinated families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. planted in Southern Brazil using an individual tree model. In this retrospective study, the indirect selection was of similar effectiveness as direct selection in stem

  8. Modelos de afilamento para o sortimento do fuste de Pinus taeda L Taper function for assortment of Pinus taeda L. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martinelli de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes modelos de afilamento do fuste de Pinus taeda para estimar variáveis de interesse ao longo do fuste. Foram avaliadas as funções propostas por Anony, Kozak, Munro, Silva & Sterba, Prodan e o Polinômio de 5° grau. O estudo teve como base dados de cubagem rigorosa de 68 árvores, provenientes de plantios com idade de 25 anos, pertencentes à empresa Florestal Gateados Ltda, localizada no município de Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina (SC, Brasil. A partir das estatísticas coeficiente de determinação ajustado (R²aj, erro padrão das estimativas (Syx, desvio médio, média das diferenças (md e desvio padrão das diferenças (dpd foi selecionado o Polinômio do 5° grau para estimar as variáveis ao longo do fuste, como a altura comercial, o volume comercial, os diâmetros e os volumes das 1ª e 2ª toras. Em relação à altura comercial, a equação proveniente do modelo escolhido apresentou resultados sem tendências e com erros oscilando em intervalo pequeno. Em se tratando do volume comercial, pode ser observada certa tendência em subestimativas para as árvores com menores DAP e uma leve tendência para aquelas árvores com maior DAP. Em relação ao diâmetro e ao volume da 1a tora, houve superestimativa dos valores, mas com erros baixos, principalmente para o diâmetro. Para as estimativas do diâmetro e do volume da 2ª tora, os resultados foram melhores do que os encontrados na 1a tora, com leve tendência em subestimar o diâmetro e, praticamente, sem tendência para o volume.This research had as objective to evaluate different taper models for Pinus taeda and select the best one to estimate variables of interest throughout the stem. The functions proposed by Anony, Kozak, Munro, Silva & Sterba, Prodan and the 5° degree Polynomial were evaluated. With data from rigorous cubage of 68 trees, with 25 years old, coming from plantation of Florestal Gateados Ltda, located, in the

  9. Delimitação entre os lenhos juvenil e adulto de Pinus elliottii engelm Delimitation the juvenile and mature wood of Pinus elliottii engelm

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    Gilmara Pires de Moura Palermo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante o crescimento, as árvores produzem diferentes tipos de tecido lenhoso. O xilema produzido nos primeiros anos até certa idade cambial é denominado lenho juvenil e apresenta propriedades físicas, mecânicas, químicas e anatômicas diferentes do xilema produzido após certa idade cambial, isto é, quando as células do câmbio já amadureceram. Dessa forma, um prévio conhecimento sobre a qualidade da matéria-prima produzida é de fundamental importância para melhor aplicabilidade do material. Com base nesse contexto, este trabalho objetivou, a partir de dados de comprimento de traqueídeos e densidade da madeira, delimitar a idade de transição entre os lenhos juvenil e adulto. Para isso, coletaram-se três árvores de Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm., com 35 anos de idade, provenientes da Estação Experimental de Itapetininga, localizada em São Paulo, Brasil. De cada árvore, retiraram-se discos de aproximadamente 5 cm de espessura, extraídos a 0,05 m do solo, que foram utilizados para determinação radial da densidade pelo método de atenuação da radiação gama e comprimento dos traqueídeos. Os resultados da análise de regressão linear indicaram que o lenho juvenil está limitado aos sete primeiros anos de crescimento da árvore e o lenho adulto é formado após os 20 anos de idade. No lenho adulto há diferenças significativas entre as idades médias obtidas através do comprimento dos traqueídeos e da densidade da madeira.Trees produce different types of woody tissue during growth. The xylem produced in the first years until a certain cambial age is called juvenile wood and has different physical, mechanical, chemical and anatomical characteristics from that produced later, when the cambial cells have matured. Thus, prior knowledge of the quality of the wood is of fundamental importance for choosing the best use of the material. This work aimed at using data from length of the tracheid and wood density to

  10. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Bílá, Karolína; Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butt...

  11. Pinus afforestation in South Brazilian highlands: soil chemical attributes and organic matter composition Florestamento com Pinus em solos de altitude do Sul do Brasil: atributos químicos e matéria orgânica do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Pinheiro Dick

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades, exotic tree species are being introduced in the natural pastures of the highlands located at the northeastern part of Rio Grande do Sul State (RS, Brazil. This alteration of land use may impart drastic changes in the soil attributes. In this context, this work aimed to evaluate the impact of Pinus taeda afforestation on soil chemical attributes and organic matter (SOM composition in Leptosols from Campos de Cima da Serra, RS. Soil samples under eight year old (Pi8 and 30 year old (Pi30 Pinus plantations and under native pasture (NP were studied. Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses and FTIR spectroscopy. The soil under pasture had a higher content of nutrients and of SOM in comparison to Pinus soils, reflecting the higher input and decomposition rate of the below ground added residue in the grassland environment. The SOM in pasture soils showed a higher content of carbohydrate and of structures derived from microbial metabolism. Besides the depletion of nutrients and of SOM, Pinus afforestation affected the SOM quality: following afforestation, the proportion of chemically recalcitrant structures and of carboxylic groups increased, whereas N-containing groups decreased.Nas três últimas décadas, o cultivo de espécies exóticas vem sendo introduzido nas áreas de pastagem de solos de altitude localizados na região nordeste do Estado do rio Grande do Sul. Essa alteração de uso do solo pode causar mudanças drásticas nos atributos do solo. Avaliou-se o impacto do florestamento com Pinus Taeda nos atributos químicos e na composição da matéria orgânica (MOS de Neossolos Litólicos dos Campos de Cima da Serra, RS. Foram estudadas amostras de solo sob plantação de Pinus há oito (Pi8 e há 30 anos (Pi30 e sob pastagem natural (NP, sendo determinados os teores de cátions trocáveis e de

  12. 毛乌素沙地樟子松和油松人工林光合生理特性%The Photosynthetic Characteristics of Pinus Sylvestris var, Mongolica and Pinus Tabulae formis in Mu Us Sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓纲; 何茜; 李吉跃; 张方秋; 刘育贤

    2011-01-01

    In the growing season, the daily gas exchange, water use efficiency of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Pinus tabulae formis in Mu Us sandland were measured with a portable Li-6400 gas analysis system under natural conditions. The results showed that the diurnal courses of net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate display a singal-peak pattern. Water use efficiency culminates in the early morning. The maximum and the average value of the net photosynthesis of the Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica is larger than that of the Pinus tabulaeformis. The average value of the water use efficiency of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica is 3. 63 tμmolCO2/mmolH2O, which was higher than that of Pinus tabulaeformis (3. 22 μmol CO2/mmolH2O). Regression analysis showed that the net photosynthetic rate of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was controlled by PAR, Gs and Ci, while for Pinus tabulaeformis was PAR and Gs.%利用Li-6400便携式气体分析系统,在自然条件下对毛乌素沙地腹地樟子松和油松人工林生长季叶片气体交换、水分利用效率及相关环境因子进行测定,同时探讨了影响樟子松、油松光合速率的内外因素.结果表明:生长季内毛乌素地区油松和樟子松的光合速率、蒸腾速率都表现出一定的日变化规律,都呈单峰型变化曲线;6月、7月、8月针叶树水分利用效率曲线呈下降趋势,上午时段的水分利用效率明显高于下午时段的水分利用效率.5月和9月针叶树水分利用效率日变化呈"W"型曲线,樟子松水分利用效率生长季均值为3.6μcmo1O0 /mmo1HO0,油松水分利用效率生长季均值为3.22μmmolCO2/mmolH2O,樟子松的水分利用效率始终高于油松.樟子松的净光合速率主要受光合有效辐射、气孔导度和胞间CO2浓度的影响,限制油松净光合速率的主要因子是光合有效辐射PAR和气孔导度.

  13. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílá, Karolína; Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts.) were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation) accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities.

  14. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolína Bílá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo, which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts. were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities.

  15. Primer registro de Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea asociado con Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae en Patagonia First record of Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea associated to Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae in Patagonia

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    Cecilia A. Gómez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes es un gorgojo de rostro corto, distribuido en la Argentina y Chile, que habita en ambientes áridos asociado con vegetación xerofítica y alcanza el rango más austral entre los miembros de la tribu Naupactini. Un relevamiento de insectos y de patógenos como plagas potenciales, realizado durante el 2005 en plantaciones de Pinus spp. en la Patagonia andina argentina, resultó en el hallazgo de adultos de N. ruizi que se alimentaban de acículas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. Este hallazgo es sorprendente dado que las especies de Naupactini, consumen casi exclusivamente angiospermas. Interpretamos que el cambio de huésped, habría ocurrido como consecuencia de una colonización reciente favorecida por la amplia distribución geográfica del gorgojo y su capacidad para sobrevivir en hábitats marginales, donde probablemente las plantas nativas son escasas y el nuevo huésped presenta una gran abundancia local.Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes is a broad-nosed weevil recorded from Argentina and Chile , that inhabits arid environments with xerophitic vegetation and reaches the southern most distribution of the tribe Naupactini. A survey of potential insect pests and pathogens of plantations of Pinus spp. and other forest species, conducted during 2005 in Argentinean Patagonian Andean forestations, allowed to find N. ruizi feeding on pine needles of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. This finding was unexpected, since species of Naupactini consume almost exclusively angiosperms. We interpret that the new host association may represent a recent host shift, probably facilitated by the broad range of the weevil, its capacity to survive in marginal habitats where natural hosts are scarce, and the local abundance of the new host.

  16. Análise da madeira do Pinus oocarpa parte II: caracterização estrutural da lignina de madeira moída Chemical analysis of the Pinus oocarpa wood. Part II: characterization of the milled wood lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caracterizou a Lignina de Madeira Moída (LMM proveniente de Pinus oocarpa cultivado na região do Cerrado brasileiro. A LMM foi isolada e analisada por meio das espectrometrias no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (IVTF, de ressonância magnética nuclear do próton e carbono-13 e por intermédio de métodos químicos de análise por via úmida. A LMM apresentou uma fórmula mínima igual a C9H9,2O2,6(OCH 30,8 e massas molares médias em massa (Mw e numérica (Mn de 3.969 e 1.133 Da, respectivamente. A LMM dessa madeira se enquadra dentro das ligninas típicas de coníferas.This work presents the characterization of the milled wood lignin (MWL of the Pinus oocarpa cultivated in the Brazilian cerrado. FTIR, carbon-13 and proton NMR spectroscopies as well as wet chemical methods were used. The established C9 unit formula for MWL was C9H9,2O2,6(OCH 30,8 and its relative molecular weights (Mw and (Mn were 3969 and 1133 Da, respectively. Pinus oocarpa MWL was typical of softwood lignins.

  17. Effects of heavy metal pollution on genetic variation and cytological disturbances in the Pinus sylvestris L. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Chudzińska, Ewa; Wojnicka-Połtorak, Aleksandra; Kozacki, Leon; Fagiewicz, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    This isoenzymatic and cytogenetic study has shown significant differences in genetic composition between two groups of Pinus sylvestris trees: tolerant and sensitive to heavy metal pollution. Total and mean numbers of alleles and genotypes per locus were higher in the pollution-sensitive group of trees, but heterozygosity (Ho) was lower in this group. Fixation index (F) indicates that trees tolerant for pollution were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while the sensitive group had a significant excess of homozygosity. Cytological analyses demonstrated numerous aberrations of chromosomes in meristematic root tissue of seedlings developed from seeds collected from trees in the polluted area. The aberrations included chromosome bridges and stickiness, laggards, retarded and forward chromosomes, and their fragments. The mitotic index was markedly lower in this group of seedlings, as compared to the control. Both isoenzymatic and cytological analyses showed a significant influence of heavy metal ions on the genetic structure of the Pinus sylvestris population.

  18. Susceptibility of three clinical isolates of Actinomodura madurae to α-pinene, the bioactive agent of Pinus pinaster turpentine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro susceptibility of the turpentine oil obtained from Pinus pinaster oleoresin was evaluated against three Sudanese clinical isolates of Actinomadura madurae, which is the main causative agent of actinomycetoma. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the oil ranged from 100.3 to 124.8 μL/mL, and the minimum microbicidal concentrations (MMCs were between 100.3 and 150.0 μL/mL. α-Pinene exhibited prominent bioactivity with MICs ranging between 3.3 and 5.0 μL/mL, while its MMC was 10.0 μL/mL against the same clinical isolates. Pinus pinaster turpentine oil and α-pinene might be useful agents in the treatment of mycetoma caused by A. madurae.

  19. FINE ROOT QUANTIFICATION IN A Pinus taeda L. STAND AND IN GRASSLAND AREA IN CAMBARÁ DO SUL (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Guilherme Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to comparatively quantify length and biomass of fine roots (≤ 2.0 mm in the soil profile (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 cm  and in the litter of a 15-year-old Pinus taeda L. stand, as well as in an adjacent Grassland area. The samples were obtained through monolith excavation. Roots were separated through washing and collecting and were then distributed over a white sheet of paper, where images were obtained with a digital camera. Using the software Image Tool for Windows version 3.00© the images were processed to quantify root length. Subsequently, roots were dried in a stove and, weighed to determine the biomass. The vegetation in the Grassland area showed 234.28% greater density of fine roots than the adjacent area where the Pinus taeda L.stand is located.

  20. Control technique of sphaeropsis shoot blight in Pinus teada%火炬松枯梢病防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈友爱

    2001-01-01

    Sphaeropsis shoot blight in Pinus teada is a serious disease in south of China.The control experiments of cutting blight shoots,applying fertilizer and spraying fungicide were made ,The result shows that the above measures combined with spraying 50% Carbendazim wp could reach an efficacy of 88.6%.%火炬松枯梢病Sphaeropsis sapinea是为害火炬松Pinus taeda的毁灭性病害。该文通过剪枯梢、施肥和喷药相结合进行防治试验,结果表明:以剪枯梢为主,结合施肥或喷50%多菌灵的防治措施效果较好,防治率88.6%。

  1. Sensitive and specific detection of pine nut (Pinus spp.) by real-time PCR in complex food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Pine nuts are a known source of food allergens and several cases of adverse immunological reaction after ingestion have been reported. To protect allergic consumers, methods to unequivocally detect the presence of pine nuts in complex matrices must be developed. A Taqman-based real time PCR method for the detection of Pinus spp. was set up. A homemade pesto spiked at known concentration of pine nut powder was used as model food. Moreover, DNA was purified from commercial foods declaring or not the presence of pine nuts. The method displayed a very high efficiency and specificity for the genus Pinus. The intrinsic LOD was 1pg of DNA, while the practical LOD evaluated on model foods was 0.1ppm of pine nuts powder, the lowest ever registered for the detection of food allergens via real-time PCR. Finally, the declared presence/absence of pine nut in commercial foods was confirmed.

  2. Investigation of Pinus mugo essential oil oxygenated fraction by combined use of gas chromatography and dry column chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, M B; Coran, S A; Giannellini, V; Vincieri, F F; Moneti, G

    1981-09-01

    The oxygenated compounds of Pinus mugo Turra essential oil were investigated by a combination of GC and dry column chromatography (DCC) coordinated by GC data processing. The collected data resulted in a bar graph ("normalized" gas chromatogram) giving the RRT's and relative amounts of 68 components; 38 of them were identified by MS and IR. The described procedure may be used for essential oil analysis in general.

  3. Different patterns of genetic structure of relict and isolated populations of endangered peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak, W; Prus-Glowacki, W

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in environmental conditions in populations of peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann) caused rapid decline or even extinction of the species in several stands in Central Europe. Conservation strategies for P. uliginosa require information about the evolutionary history and genetic structure of its populations. Using isozymes we assessed the genetic structure of P. uliginosa from four isolated stands in Poland and compared the results to genetic structures of other closely related pine species including eight populations of Pinus mugo, ten of Pinus sylvestris and one of Pinus uncinata. The level of genetic variability of P. uliginosa measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and average heterozygosity was similar to others related to P. uliginosa taxa from the reference group but it differs among populations. High genetic similarity was found between two populations of P. uliginosa from Low Silesian Pinewood. The populations were genetically distinct as compared to other populations including locus classicus of the species from the peat bog at Batorów Reserve. Very low genetic distance (DN = 0.002) and small genetic differentiation (GST = 0.003) were found between P. uliginosa and P. mugo in the sympatric populations of the species from Zieleniec peat bog suggesting the ongoing natural hybridisation and genetic contamination of peat-bog pine from this area. Some evidence for skew in allele frequency distribution potentially due to recent bottleneck was found in population from Low Silesian Pinewood. The analysed open pollinated progeny derived from two P. uliginosa stands from Low Silesian Pinewood showed the excess of homozygotes as compared to the maternal trees indicating high level of inbreeding (F = 0.105, F = 0.081). The results are discussed in the context of evolution of P. uliginosa populations, taxonomic relationships between the analysed species and conservation strategies for active protection of peat-bog pine.

  4. Plant communities with Pinus mugo (alliance Pinion mugo) in the subalpine belt of the Western Carpathians - a numerical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jozef Šibík; Milan Valachovič; Ján Kliment

    2011-01-01

    A syntaxonomical revision of plant communities with dominant Pinus mugo in the Western Carpathians is presented. The data set of 341 relevés was examined and analysed using the detrended correspondence analysis and the cluster analysis. Major gradients and clusters were interpreted using Ellenberg’s indicator values. The major gradient in species composition was associated with available nutrients and moisture. The authors suggest distinguishing the dwarf pine stands of the supramontanous and...

  5. Inferring Multiple Refugia and Phylogeographical Patterns in Pinus massoniana Based on Nucleotide Sequence Variation and DNA Fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-Jun Ge; Tsai-Wen Hsu; Kuo-Hsiang Hung; Chung-Jian Lin; Chi-Chung Huang; Chao-Ching Huang; Yu-Chung Chiang; Tzen-Yuh Chiang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pinus massoniana, an ecologically and economically important conifer, is widespread across central and southern mainland China and Taiwan. In this study, we tested the central-marginal paradigm that predicts that the marginal populations tend to be less polymorphic than the central ones in their genetic composition, and examined a founders' effect in the island population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the phylogeography and population structuring of the P. massonian...

  6. Soil Nutrient, Woody Understory and Shoot and Root Growth Responses of Pinus brutia Ten. Saplings to Fire

    OpenAIRE

    Petros GANATSAS; Spanos, Ioannis; Marianthi TSAKALDIMI; Gerasimos GOUDELIS

    2012-01-01

    Nine years after a wildfire, above- and below-ground morphology of Pinus brutia Ten. saplings and the microsite factors prevailing in understorey (unburned area) and postfire conditions (burned area) of the Forest Park of Thessaloniki were studied. Major stand characteristics (density, tree canopy cover, tree height, crown height, and diameter) were measured in the unburned area. Light and soil conditions as well as plant cover of woody species were recorded in both areas (burned and unburned...

  7. SOIL SEEDBANK FROM THE UNDERSTOREY OF Pinus AND Eucalyptus IN THE FLONA DE BRASÍLIA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusta Rosa Gonçalves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the soil seedbank from the understory of Pinus and Eucalyptus in the Floresta Nacional de Brasília wasperformed, these plantations were established in the 1980s, and since 1987 have not had adequate management. Two stands of each genuswere chosen, with and without gaps. In each one of these stands 15 plots of 2 x 2 m were implanted, where a sample of 0,30 m x 0,30 mof soil and two sub-sample of 0,125 x 0,15 m of litter were collected for a quantative and qualitative analyzis of the seedbank. The mediumdensity of seedlings emergence in the Pinus stand was 3.098,19 seeds.m-2 while for the Eucalyptus it was of 2.077,19 seeds.m-2, whichmeans that the seedbank from the Pinus understory area has a higher regeneration potential than the Eucalyptus plantations. The Pinusplantations contained in the understorey: 12 families, 25 genus and 39 species, while in the Eucalyptus: 14 families, 31 genus and 48species, proving more richness in the Eucalyptus seedbank. In both genuses the most important families were Poaceae and Asteraceae.Both Pinus and Eucalyptus seedbanks populations, with or without openings, proved that the more interference in its population higheris the number of seeds from herbaceous species in comparison to tree species. The Sørensen similarity índex applied to analyze theseedbanks in the four areas, both for soil fractions and litter, was low, 0,5 and 0, 486, respectively.

  8. Phosphorus acquisition from phytate depends on efficient bacterial grazing, irrespective of the mycorrhizal status of Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims : Phosphorus from phytate, although constituting the main proportion of organic soil P, is unavailable to plants. Despite the well-known effects of rhizosphere trophic relationships on N mineralization, no work has been done yet on P mineralization. We hypothesized that the interactions between phytate-mineralizing bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial grazer nematodes are able to improve plant P use from phytate. Methods : We tested this hypothesis by growing Pinus pi...

  9. Effects of Restoration Techniques on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Florida Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Sandhill Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Lavoie; Mack, Michelle C; John K. Hiers; Scott Pokswinski; Analie Barnett; Louis Provencher

    2014-01-01

    Historic fire suppression and intensive forest management in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) sandhill forests has resulted in hardwood encroachment and degradation of this fire-dependent ecosystem. Active management is now required to restore native community structure and composition, but little is known about the long-term impacts of typical restoration techniques on ecosystem properties. In 1994, the Longleaf Pine Restoration Project (LPRP) was established in fire-excluded longleaf pine sa...

  10. Changes in Germination and Physiological Characteristics of Seeds of Robinia pesudoacacia and Pinus tabulaeformis during Artificial Ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to study seed quality changes of main afforestation species under high temperature and high relative humidity, the deterioration mechanism of seeds of Robinia pesudoacacia and Pinus tabulaeformis from arid and semiarid areas of Northern China was elucidated in this study. The seeds were artificially aged for 2 and 6 d at the temperature of 45 oC and the relative humidity (RH) of 50%, 75% and 100% , respectively. The results showed that the germinability decreased and the cell membrane deteriorated ...

  11. Impacts of more frequent droughts on a relict low-altitude Pinus uncinata stand in the French Alps

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cold microclimatic conditions provide exceptional microhabitats to Pinus uncinata stands occurring at abnormally low altitudes in seven paleorefugia of the northern French Alps. Here, P. uncinata is located at the lower bounds of its ecological limits and therefore expected to provide a sensitive indicator of climate change processes. We used dendrochronological analysis to study the growth patterns of closely spaced chronologies across an elevational transect and compare a relict low-altitud...

  12. Effects of climate variables on intra-annual stem radial increment in Pinus cembra (L.) along the alpine treeline ecotone

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Andreas; Zimmermann, Jolanda; Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Within the alpine treeline ecotone tree growth is increasingly restricted by extreme climate conditions. Although intra-annual stem growth recorded by dendrometers can be linked to climate, stem diameter increments in slow-growing subalpine trees are masked by changes in tree water status.We tested the hypothesis that intra-annual radial stem growth in Pinus cembra is influenced by different climate variables along the treeline ecotone in the Austrian Alps. Dendrometer traces were compared wi...

  13. 樟子松温棚容器育苗技术%Container Seedling Technique on Pinus sylvestris in Greenhouses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李得俊

    2012-01-01

    Container seedlings in greenhouses of Pinus sylvestris,improve the environment for the growth and shorten the breeding time,the seedlings of good quality,high survival rate.%温棚樟子松容器育苗,改善了生长环境,缩短了育苗时间,苗木质量好,造林成活率高。

  14. Exploration on Propagation Technology of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica%樟子松繁殖技术探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳一江

    2015-01-01

    This paper research the biological characteristics and breeding technology of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (seedbed preparation, seed treatment, sowing, seedling management).%文章对樟子松的生物学特性和樟子松的繁殖技术(播种苗床准备、种子处理、播种操作、苗期管理)进行应用研究。

  15. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TORREFIED WOOD SAMPLES OF PINUS CARREBEA AND LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA GROWN IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Adeola FUWAPE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction of selected wood samples of Pinus Carrebea and Leucaena Leucocephala were carried out at temperatures ranging from 200 to 300°C to improve the energy parameters of biomass and to determine the effect of torrefication temperature on the physical and combustion properties of wood selected from Pinus carrebea and Leuceanea leucocephala grown in Nigeria. In this process the biomass hemicellulose is degraded, maintaining its cellulose and lignin content. The samples were dried and heated to 225, 250, 275, and 300°C. Then the torrefied mass was subjected to basic property testing on proximate analysis and heating value was calculated in order to understand the differences between raw material and its torrefied products. Specifically, the wood blocks changed from light brown to black, stemming from the partial carbonization at the wood surface. When the temperature is 225°C, the color of the wood is between dark brown and once the torrefaction temperatures are 250 and 275°C, the colors of the wood become dark and darker respectively. The results of the proximate analysis also showed that increasing of torrefied temperature; volatile fraction was reduced while fixed carbon was increased with increase in temperature from 21.34 to 52.74 and 18.58 to 56.83 for Leucaena leucocephala and Pinus carreabeanus respectively at 225 to 300°C. The volatile content is decreased from 78.58% to 62.76% with increase in temperature. Ash content of were within 1.57-3.41% of torrefied wood. It could be observed that the High calorific value (HCV for pine ranged between 19.80 and 28.06MJ/Kg for the top, 19.93and 24.96MJ/kg for middle with 19.72and 25.96MJ/Kg for base. The values recorded for raw sample and at 275°C been the lowest and highest respectively. The High calorific value (HCV were found to be on the increase and nose dive at 300°C for the tree parts used in this research. The result revealed that for Leuceana the value increased from raw up to

  16. Soil moisture and its role in growth-climate relationships across an aridity gradient in semiarid Pinus halepensis forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Alba, Àngela; Ruiz-Yanetti, Samantha; Moutahir, Hassane; Novak, Klemen; De Luis, Martin; Bellot, Juan

    2017-01-01

    In Mediterranean areas with limited availability of water, an accurate knowledge of growth response to hydrological variables could contribute to improving management and stability of forest resources. The main goal of this study is to assess the temporal dynamic of soil moisture to better understand the water-growth relationship of Pinus halepensis forests in semiarid areas. The estimates of modelled soil moisture and measured tree growth were used at four sites dominated by afforested Pinus halepensis Mill. in south-eastern Spain with 300 to 609mm mean annual precipitation. Firstly, dendrochronological samples were extracted and the widths of annual tree rings were measured to compute basal area increments (BAI). Secondly, soil moisture was estimated over 20 hydrological years (1992-2012) by means of the HYDROBAL ecohydrological model. Finally, the tree growth was linked, to mean monthly and seasonal temperature, precipitation and soil moisture. Results depict the effect of soil moisture on growth (BAI) and explain 69-73% of the variance in semiarid forests, but only 51% in the subhumid forests. This highlights the fact that that soil moisture is a suitable and promising variable to explain growth variations of afforested Pinus halepensis in semiarid conditions and useful for guiding adaptation plans to respond pro-actively to water-related global challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for potential impacts of ozone on Pinus cembra L. at mountain sites in Europe: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, G. [Division Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Bundesamt und Forschungszentrum fuer Wald, Rennweg 1, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]. E-mail: gerhard.wieser@uibk.ac.at; Manning, W.J. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amsherst, MA 01003 (United States); Tausz, M. [Institute of Plant Sciences, Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, 8010 Graz (Austria); School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, University of Melbourne, Water Street, Creswick Victoria 3363 (Australia); Bytnerowicz, A. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside (United States)

    2006-01-15

    We summarize what is known about the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on Pinus cembra in the timberline ecotone of the central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains. In the central European Alps exposure to ambient and two-fold ambient O{sub 3} throughout one growing season did neither cause any visible injury nor affect the photosynthetic machinery and biochemical parameters in current to 1-year-old needles. By contrast, in the southern French Alps and in the Carpathians 1-year-old needles of Pinus cembra trees showed visual symptoms similar to those observed in O{sub 3} stressed pine stands in southern California. For the southern French Alps the observed symptoms could clearly be attributed O{sub 3} and differences in O{sub 3} uptake seems to be the likely key factor for explaining the observed decline. For the Carpathians however, other reasons such as drought may not be excluded in eliciting the observed symptoms. Thus, the action of O{sub 3} has always to be evaluated in concert with other environmental impacts, determining the tree's sensitivity to stress. - An overview of ozone effects on Pinus cembra an important European coniferous tree species in the timberline ecotone.

  18. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT MULCH MATERIALS AND SHELTER, IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PLANTS OF Pinus taeda L., BY DIRECT SOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Ricardo Serpa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has had as its objectives to evaluate different covering materials and physical protector's use in the forest population of Pinus taeda L. in direct sowing in the field. Three materials were used: vermiculit, dried and pricked pine needles, peel of rice and reference without covering, with and without physical protector (plastic cup of 300 ml, without botton, with five replications. The sowing was accomplished in the first half of May of 1997, being used three seeds per point. The evaluations done were: emergency at the 60 and 90 days, survival at the 120, 180 and 210 days and population density at the 210 days after sowing. The variance and averages analysis (Duncan 5%, has allowed to conclude that: the vermiculit and pine needles affected beneficially the number of plants emerged in the first 60 days, that is the most critical phase for the future of the forest population of Pinus taeda; the physical protector, provides the formation of a microenvironment, that guarantees larger percentage in the emergence, survival and initial density of plants of Pinus taeda; the direct sowing demonstrated to be a viable technique.

  19. Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and patterns of diversification for Pinus (Pinaceae): phylogenetic tests of fossil-based hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; Hall, Benjamin D

    2006-07-01

    Pines comprise one of the largest coniferous genera, are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, and have an abundant fossil record. Distributions of fossils have been used to derive a three-step hypothesis of early pine evolution, which postulates a Mesozoic origin for the genus, east-west expansions across Laurasia, and retraction into Eocene refugia. Here, we present phylogenetic tests of this hypothesis using chloroplast sequence data from four loci for 83 pine species. We used the fossil-based hypothesis to derive null expectations concerning monophyly of taxonomic groups, dates of cladogenesis, and patterns of diversification. Phylogenetic analyses using several algorithms subsequently provided rigorous tests of these expectations. Our inferred phylogenies illustrated broad congruence with taxonomic groups, but highlighted consistent problems within subgenus Strobus. Estimated minimum dates of divergence derived from relaxed clock methods were largely consistent with the fossil record and yielded a date for the ingroup node of Pinus of 128+/-4 mya, depending upon the calibration used for subgenus Pinus. Ancestral area reconstructions showed Pinus to have most likely originated in Eurasia. Major clades differed in biogeographic patterns, but were consistent with the fossil-based hypothesis. We found weak support, however, for a change in diversification rate in the Eocene as interpretations of fossil distributions would have predicted.

  20. Holocene variability in the range distribution and abundance of Pinus, Picea abies, and Quercus in Romania; implications for their current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Tanţău, Ioan; Fărcaş, Sorina

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines fourteen fossil pollen datasets from Romania. It aims to investigate the temporal and spatial variability in the range distribution and abundance of three forest taxa, Pinus, Picea abies, and Quercus, during the Holocene. This is essential for understanding their current status in the forests of Eastern Europe, the conditions under which they arose, and the timing and processes responsible for their variability. Results from this synthesis do not indicate any apparent time lag in the establishment of Pinus diploxylon type ( Pinus sylvestris and Pinus mugo), Pinus cembra, P. abies, and Quercus across Romania within the limits of the dating resolution. However, the onset of the mass expansion of P. abies was not uniform, spreading earlier from sites in the western and north-western Carpathians (11,000-10,500 yr BP) than in the east (10,000 yr BP). We found that sites from the western, north-western, and northern Carpathians contained higher abundances of P. abies, whilst Quercus was in higher abundances in sites from the east, but there was no regional distinctiveness in the abundance of Pinus across the study area. However, P. diploxylon type was found in much higher abundance than P. cembra. Additionally, results indicate a greater proportion of Pinus (mainly P. diplxylon type) at high elevations, P. abies at mid to high elevations, and Quercus at low elevations (Pinus in the early Holocene boreal forest is likely the legacy of its local glacial refugia, fast life history strategies, high stress tolerance, and large habitat availability. In contrast, Pinus exhibited poor competitive abilities and was quickly replaced with P. abies and temperate deciduous taxa after 10,500 yr BP. P. abies has persisted in large abundances at higher elevations (above 1000 m) until the present day, as a result of good competitive abilities, and resilience to climate change and disturbance. The long-term dominance of P. abies appears to have been spatially

  1. Essential oil composition variability among natural populations of Pinus mugo Turra in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Ahmeti, Gresa; Pulaj, Bledar; Lukas, Brigitte; Ibraliu, Alban; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Pinus mugo Turra, is a native pine species in central and southern Europe, growing in high mountains area (altitudes 1.800-2.300 m.a.s.l.). In Kosovo, it is one of the native pines too, distributed in high altitudes in the Sharri Mountains and Albanian Alps Mountains. Its populations represent an important wealth of essential oil resources available, which make this species very important in terms of economic values. The chemical composition and yields of the essential oils of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra) needles, twigs and cones from six wild populations in Kosovo were investigated with the aim to assess their natural variability. The identity of P. mugo was confirmed by morphology and DNA barcoding. Sixty-two compounds were identified representing 69-95 % of the total identified compounds. The yield ranged from 0.3-0.8 % v/w in needles, 1.0-2.4 % v/w in twigs and 0.1-0.5 % v/w in cones, depending on the origin of plant material and plant organs. α-Pinene (needles: 16.9-24.5 %; twigs: 4.5-8.8 %; cones: 3.1-5.6 %), β-pinene (needles: 1.5-5.4 %; twigs: 2.2-15.4 %; cones: 1.3-14.2 %), δ-3-carene (needles: 15.4-27.8 %; twigs: 24.0-51.6 %; cones: 10.5-31.5 %), limonene + β-phellandrene (needles: 1.9-5.9 %; twigs: 12.6-24.2 %; cones: 2.1-9.3 %), (E)-caryophyllene (needles: 4.4-8.9 %; twigs: 4.0-10.8 %; cones: 10.3-26.9 %) and germacrene D (needles: 4.0-8.3 %; twigs: 0.2-6.19 %; cones: 0.1-12.4 %) were the major components of the essential oil. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analyses (HCA) suggests that the population of P. mugo clustering is not related to their geographic location, but rather seemed to be linked to local selective forces acting on chemotype diversity. Low variability related to their geographic location has an economic importance since samples originating from different locations in Kosovo can treated with same standards.

  2. Fauna do solo em áreas com Eucalyptus spp. e Pinus elliottii, Santa Maria, RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Jacques Soares

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Este trabalho, com início na primavera de 1996 e término no inverno de 1997, teve como objetivo realizar o levantamento populacional da fauna do solo em áreas com Eucalyptus spp. e Pinus elliottii, situadas no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Para a coleta do solo, utilizou-se um extrator, formando-se amostras em dez pontos, nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 e de 15-20 cm, em cada estação do ano. Por meio deste estudo, pôde-se identificar alguns representantes dos Phylum Annelida e Arthropoda que participam do contexto fauna-solo-vegetação. O total de indivíduos, seu respectivo percentual e número de indivíduos por metro quadrado foram obtidos. Observou-se o predomínio do Phylum Arthropoda e, mais especificamente, da classe Insecta na área com Eucalyptus spp. e do Phylum Annelida na área com Pinus elliottii. A variável profundidade originou modelos matemáticos que explicam a distribuição populacional dentre as áreas estudadas. A variável estação do ano não apresentou uma diferença significativa. Não foi possível, portanto, estabelecer um modelo de distribuição populacional.

  3. Propriedades mecânicas da madeira resinada de Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Missio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades mecânicas por flexão estática da madeira resinada de Pinus elliottii foram avaliadas por meio de testes destrutivos e não destrutivos. Para tanto, foram confeccionados corpos de prova de 10x10x200mm3 (radial, tangencial e longitudinal, levando em consideração dois fatores: lenho (juvenil, próximo à medula e adulto, próximo à casca e resina, isto é, corpos de prova oriundos de toras com e sem estrias de resinagem. Para a avaliação não destrutiva, utilizou-se um aparelho de ultrassom com transdutores do tipo ponto seco, em que se pode calcular a velocidade da onda ultrassônica e consequentemente o módulo de elasticidade dinâmico (ED. Para obtenção do módulo de elasticidade (MOE e do módulo de ruptura (MOR, realizou-se o ensaio destrutivo de flexão estática de três pontos. De posse das curvas de força x deformação, calculou-se a fragilidade do material. Os resultados confirmaram que o fator lenho foi significativo para as propriedades analisadas e o fator resina, em especial, para aumento do MOR e da massa específica. A fragilidade aumentou quando analisada a madeira juvenil e o fator resina quando incluso tendeu a aumentar a fragilidade no lenho adulto. O modelo de regressão múltiplo com variáveis Dummies, proposto para estimar o MOE pelo ED, foi significativo em 1% de probabilidade de erro (r2=0,75. Os resultados apresentados no presente trabalho mostraram que os fatores lenho e resina não afetaram negativamente as propriedades mecânicas da madeira de Pinus elliottii, em que, para o segundo fator, conclui-se, de maneira geral, que a madeira serrada oriunda de toras resinadas pode não representar danos significativos quando em serviço estrutural

  4. A Novel Semiochemical Tool for Protecting Pinus contorta From Mortality Attributed to Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Christopher J; Munson, A Steven; Reinke, Michael; Mafra-Neto, Agenor

    2015-02-01

    Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregant of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a notable forest insect capable of causing extensive levels of tree mortality in western North America. Several formulations of verbenone are registered for tree protection, but failures in efficacy are not uncommon, particularly when applied during large infestations. A formulation of (-)-verbenone was developed (Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology [SPLAT] Verb, ISCA Technologies Inc., Riverside, CA) and evaluated for protecting individual lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon, and small stands of P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae. SPLAT Verb applied to individual P. contorta resulted in complete tree protection, while 93.3% mortality occurred in the untreated controls. Significantly fewer P. contorta were killed by D. ponderosae within 0.041-ha circular plots surrounding P. contorta treated with SPLAT Verb compared with the untreated control. In a second study, a smaller percentage of P. contorta were colonized and killed on 0.4-ha square plots treated with SPLAT Verb compared with the untreated control. No significant differences in levels of tree mortality were observed between the untreated control and another formulation of verbenone (7-g pouch) or between the 7-g pouch and SPLAT Verb. In a trapping bioassay, no significant differences were observed among captures in multiple-funnel traps at 1, 2, or 4 m from the point of release of SPLAT Verb. Significantly fewer D. ponderosae were collected at 1 and 2 m compared with 8 m. Significantly more D. ponderosae were captured at the farthest distance evaluated (16 m) than at any other distance. Our data indicate that SPLAT Verb is effective for protecting individual P. contorta and small stands of P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae at moderate doses. The high levels of tree

  5. Monoterpene synthases of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) produce pinene isomers and enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M A; Savage, T J; Croteau, R

    1999-12-01

    The turpentine fraction of conifer oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene olefins and plays important roles in defense and in the mediation of chemical communication between conifer hosts and insect predators. The stereochemistry of the turpentine monoterpenes is critical in these interactions, influencing host recognition, toxicity, and potency of derived pheromones, and the stereochemical composition of these compounds lends insight into their biogenetic origin, with implications for the numbers and types of enzymes responsible and their corresponding genes. Analysis of the oleoresin from several tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) showed the derived turpentine to consist mainly of (+)-(3R:5R)-alpha-pinene and (-)-(3S:5S)-beta-pinene. Cell-free extracts from xylem tissue yielded three monoterpene synthases which together account for the monoterpene isomer and enantiomer content of the turpentine of this tissue. The major products of these enzymes, produced from the universal precursor of monoterpenes, geranyl diphosphate, were shown to be (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, respectively. In most properties (molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa, K(m) for geranyl diphosphate of 3 microM, requirement for monovalent and divalent cations), these enzymes resemble other monoterpene synthases from conifer species.

  6. Propriedades de resistência e rigidez da madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballarin Adriano Wagner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o estudo da variabilidade das propriedades de resistência e rigidez à flexão estática e à densidade aparente (12% entre a madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda L., de 37 anos de idade, procedente do Horto Florestal de Manduri, Estado de São Paulo. Na primeira parte do trabalho foram determinadas a região de madeira juvenil, a região de transição e a região de madeira adulta, por meio de estudos anatômicos (comprimento dos traqueídes axiais, segundo as recomendações das normas ABNT e IAWA. Os resultados mostraram que a região de madeira juvenil dessa espécie ocorre aproximadamente até o 18º anel de crescimento. Na segunda parte do trabalho foram analisados a resistência (módulo de ruptura - MOR à flexão, o módulo de elasticidade (MOE nessa mesma solicitação e a densidade aparente (12% para as madeiras juvenil e adulta. Os resultados mostraram que o MOE e o MOR da madeira juvenil foram menores e mais variáveis que aqueles obtidos para madeira adulta. A densidade apresentou a mesma tendência observada nas propriedades avaliadas no ensaio de flexão estática.

  7. Pharmacophore Modeling and Molecular Docking Studies on Pinus roxburghii as a Target for Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to establish a relationship between ethnopharmacological claims and bioactive constituents present in Pinus roxburghii against all possible targets for diabetes through molecular docking and to develop a pharmacophore model for the active target. The process of molecular docking involves study of different bonding modes of one ligand with active cavities of target receptors protein tyrosine phosphatase 1-beta (PTP-1β, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV, aldose reductase (AR, and insulin receptor (IR with help of docking software Molegro virtual docker (MVD. From the results of docking score values on different receptors for antidiabetic activity, it is observed that constituents, namely, secoisoresinol, pinoresinol, and cedeodarin, showed the best docking results on almost all the receptors, while the most significant results were observed on AR. Then, LigandScout was applied to develop a pharmacophore model for active target. LigandScout revealed that 2 hydrogen bond donors pointing towards Tyr 48 and His 110 are a major requirement of the pharmacophore generated. In our molecular docking studies, the active constituent, secoisoresinol, has also shown hydrogen bonding with His 110 residue which is a part of the pharmacophore. The docking results have given better insights into the development of better aldose reductase inhibitor so as to treat diabetes related secondary complications.

  8. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.H.; Lee, J.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M.H. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  9. Spatial distribution pattern, scale and gap characteristics of Pinus armandii population in Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Guoyu; CHEN Wei; LEI Ruide

    2007-01-01

    Based on the data collected from 27 plots of the Pinus armandii community in Qinling Mountains,we studied the spatial distribution pattern,scale,and gap characteristics of the P.armandii population.The results showed that the population had a clumped distribution before age 50.At the age range from 15 to 25,though the population tended to be distributed randomly,the distribution was still clumped.The population distribution at the age range from 40 to 50 was at the transitional stage from clumped to random.After age 50,the population started to be senesced,the distribution pattern turning from clumped to random.The distribution pattern scale of P.armandii always changes with the development stage of the population,being 100 m2 in general.The gap size of P armandii population was similar to its distribution pattem scale,and the gaps of 80-130 m2 occupied 59% of the total.Because of the better light and nutrient condition in the gap,P.armandii seedlings grew well,which helped the population keep its stability through "mobile mosaic circling".

  10. Efeitos econômicos de diferentes programas de desbaste em povoamentos de pinus elliottii

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    Peter Spathelf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different thinning programs (light thinning, medium and heavy thinning on the internal rate of return was studied in stands of Pinus elliottii. The sampled stands were planted in 1976 with an inicial spacing of 2 x 2 m. Thinning intensity was expressed by the stand density index of Reinecke (SDI. Thinned volume was determined using the assortment tables of SCHNEIDER & OESTEN (1991 and costs/prices of the year 1998 of the Association of Forest Enterprises of Rio Grande do Sul (AGEFLOR. The highest internal rate of return was obtained with a light thinning with a rotation length of 15 years and an initial density of 2500 trees. The lowest internal rate of return resulted from a light thinning, but in 45 years and with an initial density of 1500 trees. In general, the internal rate of return diminished with increasing rotation length. A sensitivity analysis showed that timber price was the most sensitive variable to influence profitability.

  11. Golgi enrichment and proteomic analysis of developing Pinus radiata xylem by free-flow electrophoresis.

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    Harriet T Parsons

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the contribution of Golgi proteins to cell wall and wood formation in any woody plant species is limited. Currently, little Golgi proteomics data exists for wood-forming tissues. In this study, we attempted to address this issue by generating and analyzing Golgi-enriched membrane preparations from developing xylem of compression wood from the conifer Pinus radiata. Developing xylem samples from 3-year-old pine trees were harvested for this purpose at a time of active growth and subjected to a combination of density centrifugation followed by free flow electrophoresis, a surface charge separation technique used in the enrichment of Golgi membranes. This combination of techniques was successful in achieving an approximately 200-fold increase in the activity of the Golgi marker galactan synthase and represents a significant improvement for proteomic analyses of the Golgi from conifers. A total of thirty known Golgi proteins were identified by mass spectrometry including glycosyltransferases from gene families involved in glucomannan and glucuronoxylan biosynthesis. The free flow electrophoresis fractions of enriched Golgi were highly abundant in structural proteins (actin and tubulin indicating a role for the cytoskeleton during compression wood formation. The mass spectrometry proteomics data associated with this study have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000557.

  12. SOME NEEDLE CONTENTS AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS EMITTED BY PINUS BRUTIA IN RELATION TO HERBIVORE ATTACK

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    G. SEMİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores can cause many types of damage to plants. Caterpillars ingest small sections of the leaves, while others feed on specific parts of the leaf material. In this point, essential oils from coniferous trees contain secondary metabolites that act as feeding deterrent for a great number of herbivore insect species. Attacks by herbivores elicit changes in the bouquet of volatiles released by plants. Terpenoid chemicals exist both as constitutive and massively induced defenses in conifers. Hereby we studied the factors contributing to the specificity of induced defensive responses in economically important pine species of Turkey, Pinus brutia Ten., against most famous pest, pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams. We quantified volatile organic compounds (VOCs emissions of needle and some other needle contents. Needle feeding by the caterpillar increased emissions of VOCs. We discuss the possible mechanisms responsible for reducing the tree's signalling capacity triggered by Th. wilkinsoni oviposition and how enhancement/suppression of VOCs can influence the interaction between the tree, the pest and other biotic/abiotic factors in environment.

  13. Pinus mugo Krummholz Dynamics During Concomitant Change in Pastoralism and Climate in the Central Apennines

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    Li Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Pinus mugo krummholz during concomitant change in pastoral land use and climate in central Italy since the mid-20th century was investigated. Krummholz dynamics were detected using sequential aerial photography and fitted to a logistic regression model with elevation, grazing, proximity to beech forest, and proximity to krummholz as explanatory variables. Dendrochronological series were correlated with temperature and precipitation and fitted to a linear model. During this period krummholz doubled in extent and migrated 35–65 m upslope. Expansion was positively associated with krummholz proximity, residual pastoral grazing, and proximity to beech forest beyond 10 m and negatively associated with elevation and beech forest closer than 10 m. The logistic regression model forecasts krummholz migration by an additional 30 m upslope by 2060. During the 20th century, winter and spring minimum temperatures increased but did not result in increased radial stem growth of P. mugo. The combined evidence suggests that krummholz dynamics can be explained by the legacy of summer pastoralism and the dispersal limitations of P. mugo, rather than by climate change.

  14. Anomalous needle numbers on dwarf shoots of Pinus mugo and P. uncinata (Pinaceae

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    Krystyna Boratyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of occurrence of abnormal, three- (or more needle dwarf shoots of most southern and central European two-needle pine (Pinus species were studied. No specimens with more than two-needle dwarf shoots were found in a population of P. nigra Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal Franco from the Iberian Peninsula and in two populations of P. uliginosa Neumann from the Sudeten Mountains in Central Europe. Single specimens were found within one population of P. pinaster Aiton from the Iberian Peninsula and among six populations of P. sylvestris L. from the Iberian Peninsula and Central Europe. Abnormal dwarf shoots mostly with three, but also four, five or six needles were found among 24 of 25 surveyed populations of P. mugo Turra and P. uncinata Ramond. The average frequency of specimens with at least one three-needle dwarf shoot was 24% for P. mugo and 20% for P. uncinata. The frequencies of occurrence varied significantly among studied populations and were highest in samples collected from the upper elevational range limits of the species in the mountains and near the northern limits of their ranges. The frequency of abnormal dwarf shoots in the same populations was significantly high in 2-3 consecutive years. Needles from three-needle dwarf shoots were not significantly shorter than those of two-needle shoots.

  15. The hydraulic conductivity of the xylem in conifer needles (Picea abies and Pinus mugo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Mayr, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Main resistances of the plant water transport system are situated in leaves. In contrast to angiosperm leaves, knowledge of conifer needle hydraulics and of the partitioning of resistances within needles is poor. A new technique was developed which enabled flow-meter measurements through needles embedded in paraffin and thus quantification of the specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) of the needle xylem. In Picea abies, xylem K(s) of needle and axes as well as in needles of different age were compared. In Pinus mugo, resistance partitioning within needles was estimated by measurements of xylem K(s) and leaf conductance (K(leaf), measured via 'rehydration kinetics'). Mean K(s) in P. abies needles was 3.5×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) with a decrease in older needles, and over all similar to K(s) of corresponding axes xylem. In needles of P. mugo, K(s) was 0.9×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1), and 24% of total needle resistance was situated in the xylem. The results indicate species-specific differences in the hydraulic efficiency of conifer needle xylem. The vascular section of the water transport system is a minor but relevant resistance in needles.

  16. Essential-Oil Variability in Natural Populations of Pinus mugo Turra from the Julian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojović, Srdjan; Jurc, Maja; Ristić, Mihailo; Popović, Zorica; Matić, Rada; Vidaković, Vera; Stefanović, Milena; Jurc, Dušan

    2016-02-01

    The composition and variability of the terpenes and their derivatives isolated from the needles of a representative pool of 114 adult trees originating from four natural populations of dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) from the Julian Alps were investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 54 of the 57 detected essential-oil components were identified. Among the different compound classes present in the essential oils, the chief constituents belonged to the monoterpenes, comprising an average content of 79.67% of the total oil composition (74.80% of monoterpene hydrocarbons and 4.87% of oxygenated monoterpenes). Sesquiterpenes were present in smaller amounts (average content of 19.02%), out of which 16.39% were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and 2.62% oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The most abundant components in the needle essential oils were the monoterpenes δ-car-3-ene, β-phellandrene, α-pinene, β-myrcene, and β-pinene and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. From the total data set of 57 detected compounds, 40 were selected for principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA), and cluster analysis (CA). The overlap tendency of the four populations suggested by PCA, was as well observed by DA. CA also demonstrated similarity among the populations, which was the highest between Populations I and II.

  17. Characterization of glutathione S-transferase from dwarf pine needles (Pinus mugo Turra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, P; Rennenberg, H

    1992-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity conjugating xenobiotics with glutathione (GSH) was found in extracts from needles of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra). In vivo incubation of needle segments with the herbicide fluorodifen at 25 degrees C resulted in conversion of the xenobiotic to water-soluble products at initial rates of 0.7 nmol h(-1) g(fw) (-1). At 15 degrees C, the initial rate of product formation was decreased to 0.1 nmol h(-1) g(fw) (-1). In vitro conjugation studies with chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) as model substrates gave apparent K(m) values of 0.5 mM GSH and 1.14 mM CDNB in the GSH/CDNB system and 0.3 mM GSH and 0.44 mM DCNB in the GSH/DCNB system. The pH optimum was between 7.7 and 7.9 for both the GSH/CDNB and the GSH/DCNB systems. The temperature optimum for these model substrates was between 30 and 35 degrees C, and only minute amounts of enzyme activity were detected at 15 degrees C. The activation energy in the temperature range of 15 to 30 degrees C was 46 kJ mol(-1). Dwarf pine glutathione S-transferase exhibited an approximate molecular weight of 52 kD.

  18. Expression Profiling in Pinus pinaster in Response to Infection with the Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

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    Daniel Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests are essential resources on a global scale, not only for the ecological benefits, but also for economical and landscape purposes. However, in recent years, a large number of forest species have suffered a serious decline, with maritime pine being one of the most affected. In Portugal, the maritime pine forest has been devastated by the pine wood nematode (PWN, the causal agent of pine wilt disease. In this study, RNA-Seq data was used to characterize the maritime pine response to infection with PWN, by determining the differentially expressed genes and identifying the regulatory networks and pathways associated. The analyses showed clear differences between an early response that occurs immediately after inoculation and a late response that is observed seven days after inoculation. Moreover, differentially expressed genes related to secondary metabolism, oxidative stress and defense against pathogen infection were identified over different time points. These results provide new insights about the molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways involved in the response of Pinus pinaster against PWN infection, which will be a useful resource in follow-up studies and for future breeding programs to select plants with lower susceptibility to this disease.

  19. Cluster analysis of Pinus taiwanensis for its ex situ conservation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Shi, L; Wu, Z

    2015-06-01

    Pinus taiwanensis Hayata is one of the most famous sights in the Huangshan Scenic Resort, China, because of its strong adaptability and ability to survive; however, this endemic species is currently under threat in China. Relationships between different P. taiwanensis populations have been well-documented; however, few studies have been conducted on how to protect this rare pine. In the present study, we propose the ex situ conservation of this species using geographical information system (GIS) cluster and genetic diversity analyses. The GIS cluster method was conducted as a preliminary analysis for establishing a sampling site category based on climatic factors. Genetic diversity was analyzed using morphological and genetic traits. By combining geographical information with genetic data, we demonstrate that growing conditions, morphological traits, and the genetic make-up of the population in the Huangshan Scenic Resort were most similar to conditions on Tianmu Mountain. Therefore, we suggest that Tianmu Mountain is the best choice for the ex situ conservation of P. taiwanensis. Our results provide a molecular basis for the sustainable management, utilization, and conservation of this species in Huangshan Scenic Resort.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation in pinus section trifoliae inferrred from plastid DNA.

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    Sergio Hernández-León

    Full Text Available Recent diversification followed by secondary contact and hybridization may explain complex patterns of intra- and interspecific morphological and genetic variation in the North American hard pines (Pinus section Trifoliae, a group of approximately 49 tree species distributed in North and Central America and the Caribbean islands. We concatenated five plastid DNA markers for an average of 3.9 individuals per putative species and assessed the suitability of the five regions as DNA bar codes for species identification, species delimitation, and phylogenetic reconstruction. The ycf1 gene accounted for the greatest proportion of the alignment (46.9%, the greatest proportion of variable sites (74.9%, and the most unique sequences (75 haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis recovered clades corresponding to subsections Australes, Contortae, and Ponderosae. Sequences for 23 of the 49 species were monophyletic and sequences for another 9 species were paraphyletic. Morphologically similar species within subsections usually grouped together, but there were exceptions consistent with incomplete lineage sorting or introgression. Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses indicated that all three subsections diversified relatively recently during the Miocene. The general mixed Yule-coalescent method gave a mixed model estimate of only 22 or 23 evolutionary entities for the plastid sequences, which corresponds to less than half the 49 species recognized based on morphological species assignments. Including more unique haplotypes per species may result in higher estimates, but low mutation rates, recent diversification, and large effective population sizes may limit the effectiveness of this method to detect evolutionary entities.

  1. Fine-scale genetic structure in Pinus clausa (Pinaceae) populations: effects of disturbance history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K C; Hamrick, J L; Parker, A J; Nason, J D

    2001-07-01

    Spatial autocorrelation analyses of 12 allozyme loci were used to compare genetic structure within populations of two varieties of Pinus clausa. P. clausa var. immuginata populations tend to be uneven-aged, with continuous recruitment in small gaps created by wind damage, whereas P. clausa var. clausa populations are more even-aged, with recruitment postdating periodic canopy fires. Three var. immuginata populations and three matched pairs of var. clausa populations, including both a mature and a nearby recently burned population, were examined. Aggregation of multilocus genotypes at small distances was evident in all young var. clausa populations. Little inbreeding was apparent among juveniles or adults in these populations; their genetic structure is likely to have resulted from limited seed dispersal. Genotypes were not significantly spatially structured in nearby matched mature populations. Genetic structure was less evident in var. immuginata populations. Aggregated genotypes were only apparent in the population where patches included juveniles of similar ages; dense juvenile clumps in the other two var. immuginata populations comprised a variety of ages. Interannual variability in allele frequencies of surviving seedlings may account for the absence of genetic structure in these populations.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation in pinus section trifoliae inferrred from plastid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-León, Sergio; Gernandt, David S; Pérez de la Rosa, Jorge A; Jardón-Barbolla, Lev

    2013-01-01

    Recent diversification followed by secondary contact and hybridization may explain complex patterns of intra- and interspecific morphological and genetic variation in the North American hard pines (Pinus section Trifoliae), a group of approximately 49 tree species distributed in North and Central America and the Caribbean islands. We concatenated five plastid DNA markers for an average of 3.9 individuals per putative species and assessed the suitability of the five regions as DNA bar codes for species identification, species delimitation, and phylogenetic reconstruction. The ycf1 gene accounted for the greatest proportion of the alignment (46.9%), the greatest proportion of variable sites (74.9%), and the most unique sequences (75 haplotypes). Phylogenetic analysis recovered clades corresponding to subsections Australes, Contortae, and Ponderosae. Sequences for 23 of the 49 species were monophyletic and sequences for another 9 species were paraphyletic. Morphologically similar species within subsections usually grouped together, but there were exceptions consistent with incomplete lineage sorting or introgression. Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses indicated that all three subsections diversified relatively recently during the Miocene. The general mixed Yule-coalescent method gave a mixed model estimate of only 22 or 23 evolutionary entities for the plastid sequences, which corresponds to less than half the 49 species recognized based on morphological species assignments. Including more unique haplotypes per species may result in higher estimates, but low mutation rates, recent diversification, and large effective population sizes may limit the effectiveness of this method to detect evolutionary entities.

  3. Chloroplast phylogeography and evolution of highly polymorphic microsatellites in lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn Marshall, H.; Newton, C.; Ritland, K.

    2002-02-01

    We employed a novel set of six highly polymophic chloroplastic simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) loci to investigate the phylogeography of lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta Dougl. Ex. Loud.), and to examine aspects of the evolutionary process operating on these repetitive DNA sequences. Chloroplast haplotypes of 500 trees, sampled throughout the range of lodgepole pine, were determined. We found a marked association of genetic distance with physical distance within the scale of 0 to 1,000 km, but no association beyond that range. Likewise, geographic clustering was observed only among recent clades in a dendrogram. These phylogeographic patterns are consistant with a rapid rangewide expansion ("big-bang") followed by recent, local population differentiation ("galaxy formation"). In support of this expansion, coalescent simulations of the genealogical process gave a long-term effective population size in the low thousands, and a time to common ancestry of about 1,500 generations (12,000 years), consistent with a post-Pleistocene population expansion as documented by previous pollen-sediment analyses. Two lines of evidence (mapping mutational events onto a phylogeny, and evaluation of observed versus expected gene diversity) suggest that five of the cpSSR loci evolve primarily by a stepwise model of evolution of single repeat changes (but with a small proportion of changes involving two or more repeats), and the coalescent simulations point to a mutation rate of about 10(-3).

  4. An assessment of nitrogen saturation in Pinus banksiana plots in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta

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    Shaun A. WATMOUGH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During the past 15 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the amount of reactive nitrogen (N in the atmosphere, leading to concerns that chronic elevated N deposition may result in negative effects on natural ecosystems. This study examines the response of jack pine (Pinus banksiana plots to N air concentrations within the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR in northern Alberta, which has experienced elevated N emissions since the 1990s. Air concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ammonia, and nitric acid at the study plots are generally low although NO2 is strongly correlated with sulphur dioxide indicating an exposure gradient associated with industrial emissions. Nitrogen concentrations in P. banksiana foliage and two lichen indicator species (Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia mesomorpha were significantly correlated with annual NO2 exposure. Relationships between NO2 (or N exposure and other aspects of N cycling were less evident. Nitrogen content and carbon to nitrogen ratio in the forest floor and soil or potential net N mineralization rates were not correlated with N exposure. Nitrification was negligible suggesting efficient ecosystem immobilization of current N deposition. Based on the response of foliage to N exposure, sites closest to industrial activity appear to be in the early stages of N saturation.

  5. Content Changes of Several Endogenous Plant Hormones in Female-Sterile Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To determine the relationship between female sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. and plant hormones, content changes of several endogenous plant hormones in a female-sterile clone and a normal clone were analyzed during the key period of female gametophyte abortion in mutant clones. The change of ABA content showed a similar pattern between normal and mutant clones, but the ABA content of the mutant clone was always much higher than that of the normal clone. In the normal clone, the IAA content decreased significantly at the early stage of the period and reached its minimum during the first ten days of April and stabilized thereafter. The endogenous ZR levels increased sharply at the early stages and reached a maximum in the middle of April, then decreased dramatically. The IAA and ZR contents of the mutant clone did not change perceptively through the entire period. We conclude that the high levels of ABA and the deficit of IAA and ZR may be the reasons of female gametophyte abortion in the female-sterile clones of P. tabulaeformis.

  6. DETERMINING THE TRANSITION AGE FROM JUVENILE TO MATURE WOOD IN Pinus patula SCHL. et CHAM.

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    David Josué Meza Juárez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare several criteria to estimate the transition age from juvenile to mature wood formation in a 16-year-old Pinus patula plantation, radial trends of latewood proportion, wood density and tracheid length were identified in a sample of 100 trees. A wood sample from each tree was taken with an increment borer at 50 cm stem height. Latewood proportion increased gradually from pith to bark, but after 14 years old showed a higher rate of increase; wood density decreased initially and then increased gradually, slowing down after 12-14 years old. Tracheid length showed a steady radial trend, increasing gradually from the pith and stabilizing after 8-10 years old. A piecewise regression analysis, using mean annual values for tracheid length and wood density showed that age of transition from juvenile to mature wood occurred at age 10 in this plantation. The criterion based on tracheid length was more useful than that based on wood density, since its slope change was more evident. Using this criterion, a broad variation in transition age (from 6 to 16 years was found among trees, which might be related to genetic effects; however, a larger sample size is required to estimate genetic variation in this trait.

  7. Effect of plant growth regulators in the rooting of Pinus cuttings

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    Henrique Andréia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the rooting of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet cuttings under the action of different levels of plant growth regulators. The cuttings consisted of 4-6 cm long shoots of P. caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet with their basal needles removed. The basal part of the cuttings were treated for 2 seconds with the following treatments: 1- NAA 2000mg L-1; 2- NAA 4000mg L-1; 3- NAA 6000mg L-1; 4- NAA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ 100mg L-1; 5- NAA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 6- NAA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; 7- IBA 2000mg L-1; 8- IBA 4000mg L-1; 9- IBA 6000mg L-1; 10-IBA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ; 11- IBA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 12- IBA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; and a control. After receiving the treatment, the cuttings were planted in tubes containing 50% carbonized rice hulls and 50% vermiculite. The evaluations, performed 60 days after planting, showed that P. caribaea var. hondurensis cuttings treated with IBA produced a higher percentage of rooted cuttings than those treated with NAA; the most effective treatment was IBA 4000mg L-1 plus 100mg L-1 paclobutrazol.

  8. Aqueous extract of Pinus caribaea inhibits the damage induced by ultraviolet radiations, in plasmid DNA

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    Marioly Vernhes Tamayo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: The incidence of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV on Earth has increased due to diminish of the ozone layer. This enviromental agent is highly genotoxic causing numerous damage in DNA molecule. Nowadays there is a growing interest in the search of compounds capable to minimize these effects. In particular, phytocompounds have been tested as excelent candidates for their antigenotoxic properties. Aims: To evaluate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Pinus caribaea (EPC against the damage induced by the UVB and UVC radiation. Methods: The cell-free plasmid DNA assay was employed. The forms of plasmid were separated electrophoretically in agarose gel. For genotoxic and photoprotective evaluation of P. caribaea, different concentrations of the extract (0.1 – 2.0 mg/mL and exposure times were evaluated. The CPD lesions were detected enzymatically. Additionally, the transmittance of the aqueous extract against 254 nm and 312 nm was measured. Results: None of the concentrations were genotoxic in 30 min of treatment, for superior times a clastogenic effect was observed. The EPC despite inhibiting the activity of the enzyme T4 endo V, impedes photolesions formation in DNA at concentrations ≥ 0.1 mg/mL. Conclusions: The EPC has photoprotective properties, this effect could be related with its antioxidants and absorptives capacities.

  9. Non-photoperiodic regulation of reproductive physiology in the flexibly breeding pine siskin (Spinus pinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Heather E; Hahn, Thomas P

    2012-09-01

    In order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable conditions, animals use environmental cues to up- and down-regulate the reproductive axis appropriately. Although photoperiodic cues are one of the best studied of such environmental cues, animals also attend to others such as temperature, food availability, rainfall and social cues. Such non-photic cues are expected to be particularly important for tropical species and temperate-zone species that exhibit flexible or opportunistic breeding schedules. In this study, we investigate the use of non-photic cues, specifically food availability and social cues, to time the initiation of reproductive development in the pine siskin (Spinus pinus), a temperate-zone songbird with a flexible breeding schedule. Following winter solstice, males were housed on a 12L:12D photoperiod with either access to a preferred food, a potential mate (social cue), or both. Control birds received only maintenance diet and no mate. Access to a preferred food had a significant positive effect on testis size and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH). However, we found no effect of social treatment on reproductive development. The effect of the food treatment on reproductive development did not appear to result from effects on body mass or fat, as neither measure differed across treatments. The food treatment influenced not only reproductive physiology, but also reproductive behavior in this species, as access to seeds had a positive effect on affiliation of pairs. This study demonstrates that food is a potent stimulus for the initiation of reproductive development in pine siskins.

  10. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Novak, Johannes

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6-34.9%; twigs: 11.0-24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1-27.7; twigs: 29.0-49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0-16.1; twigs: 6.9-20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.

  11. Influence of drying schedules on the redistribution of low-molecular sugars in pinus sylvestris l

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, N.; Boutelje, J.; Soederstroem, O.

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of the water soluble substances in green wood and subsequent redistribution during drying, is of importance for the colonization by microorganisms. In the study the influence of a fast and a slow drying schedule on the redistribution of low-molecular sugars in the wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was investigated and for this purpose through-and-through sawn, 50 mm thick planks, were dried in a mobile batch kiln. There is a considerably greater amount of sugars at the surface of the planks after the fast drying schedule compared with the slow drying schedule, but for both schedules there is always a high gradient of the sugars from the inside to the surface of the planks. Obviously, sucrose is very liable to be hydrolysed during handling or/and drying. The distribution of the sugars along the height of the tree after drying is also given. A selective choice of the drying schedule could be a means to regulate the redistribution and thereby decreasing risk of deterioration.

  12. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

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    Akram Ghadirkhomi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50 of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels.  There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (pConclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.

  13. Impact of Geography and Climate on the Genetic Differentiation of the Subtropical Pine Pinus yunnanensis.

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    Baosheng Wang

    Full Text Available Southwest China is a biodiversity hotspot characterized by complex topography, heterogeneous regional climates and rich flora. The processes and driving factors underlying this hotspot remain to be explicitly tested across taxa to gain a general understanding of the evolution of biodiversity and speciation in the region. In this study, we examined the role played by historically neutral processes, geography and environment in producing the current genetic diversity of the subtropical pine Pinus yunnanensis. We used genetic and ecological methods to investigate the patterns of genetic differentiation and ecological niche divergence across the distribution range of this species. We found both continuous genetic differentiation over the majority of its range, and discrete isolated local clusters. The discrete differentiation between two genetic groups in the west and east peripheries is consistent with niche divergence and geographical isolation of these groups. In the central area of the species' range, population structure was shaped mainly by neutral processes and geography rather than by ecological selection. These results show that geographical and environmental factors together created stronger and more discrete genetic differentiation than isolation by distance alone, and illustrate the importance of ecological factors in forming or maintaining genetic divergence across a complex landscape. Our findings differ from other phylogenetic studies that identified the historical drainage system in the region as the primary factor shaping population structure, and highlight the heterogeneous contributions that geography and environment have made to genetic diversity among taxa in southwest China.

  14. Heavy metal binding properties of Pinus sylvestris mycorrhizas from industrial wastes

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    Katarzyna Turnau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizas of Pinus sylvestris, collected from zinc wastes in Poland and France were investigated using transmission electron microscope (TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS. At both sites, mycorrhizas of Hebeloma were the most frequent, however, they were often characterised by a sparse or only locally developed fungal mantle. Mycorrhizas formed by suilloid fungi were much less frequent, and usually produced a clearly defined fungal mantle characterised by abundant formation of pigments and crystals covering the hyphae of the outer mantle. These two groups of mycorrhizas differed in their heavy metal binding properties. A biofiltering effect of Pb and Zn by the fungal mantle was observed only in the case of suilloid mycorrhizas, which represented up to 10% of the total number of mycorrhizas. No statistical differences between the mantle, the cortical cell walls and the vascular tissue were demonstrated in mycorrhizas formed by other fungi dominating on industrial wastes. In the case of Hebeloma and Inocybe, however, elements such as Cu and Cd were present in higher amounts in the extra-matrical mycelium, whereas no or only low amounts of these elements were detected within fungal mantles, mainly in mycorrhizas from the French waste. Analysis of the root systems has shown relatively high percentage of nonmycorrhizal short roots, suggesting the inhibition of mycorrhiza formation or a decreased number of mycorrhizal propagules. The role of dead roots and mycorrhizas in biosorption and immobilization of heavy metals was discussed.

  15. Paleophytochemical Constituents from the Pliocene Fossil Wood of Pinus Armandii from Longling, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Youxing; LI Chengsen; YI Tiemei; LUO Xiaodong; ZHOU Jun

    2008-01-01

    Specimens of fossil wood preserved lignified in Pliocene brown coal and identified as Pinus armandii Francher come from an opencast coalmine at Longling in western Yunnan Province, China. Phytochemical investigation of the fossil wood isolated using liquid column chromatography seven compounds (1-7) including a new fluorene derivative named 11,11-dimethy1-11H-benzo[b]fluorene.A further 28 volatiles were detected by gas chromatogrphy-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).Spectroscopic investigation methods,including MS and 1D and 2D-NMR techniques eucidated the structure of the seven compounds.Two types of natural products,isopimara and stilbene commonly occuring in extant and pliocene fossil p. armandii indicate phytochemical fidelith during burial under certain circumstances in sediments.Discovery of stilbenes that can inhibit the activities of wood-destroying fungi in the pliocene p.armandii prompts the assumption that the chemical preservation of this pliocene fossil wood of p.armandii in brown coal might contribute to the presence of inne natural inhibitors against wood-destroying fungi.

  16. Characterization of the Pinus massoniana transcriptional response to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus infection using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Kai; Lu, Quan; Liang, Jun; Zhang, Xing-Yao

    2013-05-28

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the most destructive diseases of pine and poses a threat of serious economic losses worldwide. Although several of the mechanisms involved in disease progression have been discovered, the molecular response of Pinus massoniana to PWN infection has not been explored. We constructed four subtractive suppression hybridization cDNA libraries by taking time-course samples from PWN-inoculated Masson pine trees. One-hundred forty-four significantly differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified, and 124 high-quality sequences with transcriptional features were selected for gene ontology (GO) and individual gene analyses. There were marked differences in the types of transcripts, as well as in the timing and levels of transcript expression in the pine trees following PWN inoculation. Genes involved in signal transduction, transcription and translation and secondary metabolism were highly expressed after 24 h and 72 h, while stress response genes were highly expressed only after 72 h. Certain transcripts responding to PWN infection were discriminative; pathogenesis and cell wall-related genes were more abundant, while detoxification or redox process-related genes were less abundant. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the biochemical and physiological responses of pine trees to PWN infection, particularly during the initial stage of infection.

  17. Characterization of the Pinus massoniana Transcriptional Response to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

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    Xing-Yao Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD caused by pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the most destructive diseases of pine and poses a threat of serious economic losses worldwide. Although several of the mechanisms involved in disease progression have been discovered, the molecular response of Pinus massoniana to PWN infection has not been explored. We constructed four subtractive suppression hybridization cDNA libraries by taking time-course samples from PWN-inoculated Masson pine trees. One-hundred forty-four significantly differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs were identified, and 124 high-quality sequences with transcriptional features were selected for gene ontology (GO and individual gene analyses. There were marked differences in the types of transcripts, as well as in the timing and levels of transcript expression in the pine trees following PWN inoculation. Genes involved in signal transduction, transcription and translation and secondary metabolism were highly expressed after 24 h and 72 h, while stress response genes were highly expressed only after 72 h. Certain transcripts responding to PWN infection were discriminative; pathogenesis and cell wall-related genes were more abundant, while detoxification or redox process-related genes were less abundant. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the biochemical and physiological responses of pine trees to PWN infection, particularly during the initial stage of infection.

  18. Physiological responses of needles of Pinus massoniana elite families to phosphorus stress in acid soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE You-lan; LIU Ai-qin; Mulualem Tigabu; WUPeng-fei; MA Xiang-qing; WANG Chen; Per Christer Oden

    2013-01-01

    Pinus massoniana Lamb.is a major timber species widely planted in the South China,where the soil is acidic and deficient in phosphorus (P) due to fixation by aluminum and iron.Understanding the physiological responses to rhizospheric insoluble P is essential for enhancing plantation productivity.Thus,a sand culture experiment was conducted with four levels of P treatment (0,5,20 g insoluble P and 10 g soluble P),and 11 P.massoniana elite families.Physiological responses were measured after two months of stress.Compared to the normal soluble P treatment,the insoluble P treatment significantly reduced the proline content and the APase activity in the needles,while it significantly increased the catalase activity by 1.3-fold and malondialdehyde content by 1.2-fold.Soluble protein content was unaffected by the treatments,but chlorophyll content was significantly lower in P-deprived treatment compared with soluble and insoluble P treatments.These physiological responses also exhibited highly significant variation among families (p < 0.01).The findings suggest that increased catalase activities in the presence of insoluble P might be involved in the activation of an anti-oxidation defense mechanism that scavenges the reactive oxygen species elicited by the stress.And this response has a strong genetic control that can be exploited to identify desirable genotypes.

  19. Indirect Evidence for Genetic Differentiation in Vulnerability to Embolism in Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paudel, Indira; Mizrachi, Maayan; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervé; Lukyanov, Victor; Badel, Eric; Capdeville, Gaelle; Shklar, Galina; Cohen, Shabtai

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is increasing mean temperatures and in the eastern Mediterranean is expected to decrease annual precipitation. The resulting increase in aridity may be too rapid for adaptation of tree species unless their gene pool already possesses variation in drought resistance. Vulnerability to embolism, estimated by the pressure inducing 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (P 50), is strongly associated with drought stress resistance in trees. Yet, previous studies on various tree species reported low intraspecific genetic variation for this trait, and therefore limited adaptive capacities to increasing aridity. Here we quantified differences in hydraulic efficiency (xylem hydraulic conductance) and safety (resistance to embolism) in four contrasting provenances of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) in a provenance trial, which is indirect evidence for genetic differences. Results obtained with three techniques (bench dehydration, centrifugation and X-ray micro-CT) evidenced significant differentiation with similar ranking between provenances. Inter-provenance variation in P 50 correlated with pit anatomical properties (torus overlap and pit aperture size). These results suggest that adaptation of P. halepensis to xeric habitats has been accompanied by modifications of bordered pit function driven by variation in pit aperture. This study thus provides evidence that appropriate exploitation of provenance differences will allow continued forestry with P. halepensis in future climates of the Eastern Mediterranean.

  20. Indirect evidence for genetic differentiation in vulnerability to embolism in Pinus halepensis

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    Rakefet eDavid-Schwartz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is increasing mean temperatures and in the eastern Mediterranean is expected to decrease annual precipitation. The resulting increase in aridity may be too rapid for adaptation of tree species unless their gene pool already possesses variation in drought resistance. Vulnerability to embolism, estimated by the pressure inducing 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (P50, is strongly associated with drought stress resistance in trees. Yet, previous studies on various tree species reported low intraspecific genetic variation for this trait, and therefore limited adaptive capacities to increasing aridity. Here we quantified differences in hydraulic efficiency (xylem hydraulic conductance and safety (resistance to embolism in four contrasting provenances of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine in a provenance trial, which is indirect evidence for genetic differences. Results obtained with three techniques (bench dehydration, centrifugation and X-ray micro-CT evidenced significant differentiation with similar ranking between provenances. Inter-provenance variation in P50 correlated with pit anatomical properties (torus overlap and pit aperture size. These results suggest that adaptation of P. halepensis to xeric habitats has been accompanied by modifications of bordered pit function driven by variation in pit aperture. This study thus provides evidence that appropriate exploitation of provenance differences will allow continued forestry with P. halepensis in future climates of the Eastern Mediterranean.

  1. Effects of ozone and climate on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growth in the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.L. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)); Arbaugh, M.J.; Robinson, L.J. (United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Riverside, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Long-term radial growth trends of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum) were studied in second-growth stands in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains to determine if there has been any impact from oxidant air pollution. Although ozone concentrations are relatively high at some locations, visible pollutant injury was not found in any trees. Time series of basal area increments are generally homogeneous within stands. Concurrent periods of increasing and decreasing growth can be found in stands throughout the Front Range, which indicates that there are temporal growth trends at the regional level. Most of these trends appear to be related to the effects of stand dynamics and climate. Correlation analysis with climatic variables indicates that soil moisture supply is the dominant factor controlling interannual variation of basal area growth. Palmer hydrological drought index is highly correlated (positively) with growth during the summer months; total precipitation in spring is positively correlated with growth, and mean temperature in spring is negatively correlated with growth. There are no recent changes in growth trends that might be associated with elevated levels of ambient ozone in the Front Range. 66 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions.

  3. Pollen tube reuses intracellular components of nucellar cells undergoing programmed cell death in Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Rie; Terasaka, Osamu

    2011-04-01

    Through the process known as programmed cell death (PCD), nucelli of Pinus densiflora serve as the transmitting tissue for growth of the pollen tube. We sought to clarify the processes of degradation of nucellar cell components and their transport to the pollen tube during PCD in response to pollen tube penetration of such nucelli. Stimulated by pollination, synthesis of large amounts of starch grains occurred in cells in a wide region of the nucellus, but as the pollen tube penetrated the nucellus, starch grains were degraded in amyloplasts of nucellar cells. In cells undergoing PCD, electron-dense vacuoles with high membrane contrast appeared, assumed a variety of autophagic structures, expanded, and ultimately collapsed and disappeared. Vesicles and electron-dense amorphous materials were released inside the thickened walls of cells undergoing PCD, and those vesicles and materials reaching the pollen tube after passing through the extracellular matrix were taken into the tube by endocytosis. These results show that in PCD of nucellar cells, intracellular materials are degraded in amyloplasts and vacuoles, and some of the degraded material is supplied to the pollen tube by vesicular transport to support tube growth.

  4. Outcrossing and paternity analysis of Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine) by microsatellite polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, C; Miwa, M; Hogetsu, T

    2001-07-01

    This study employed microsatellite loci to analyse outcrossing rate and pollen dispersal in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) in an isolated stand. The average offspring outcrossing rate for 29 cones was 0.955. Significant differences in outcrossing rates between offspring groups on individual branches that extended in different directions at different heights were not detected. Male parents of 874 offspring collected from the maternal tree were assessed by exclusion using polymorphisms at three microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis indicated that at least 31% of the offspring were fertilized by pollen from trees outside the stand. The average distance of pollen migration within the study stand was 68 m, with a maximum value of 325 m. There was excess mating with nearby P. densiflora trees, of which only a few were predominant pollen donors. In addition, a weakly directional bias in P. densiflora pollination was also detected in the study stand, suggesting that female strobili on a branch of the maternal tree were more easily fertilized by pollen from trees in that direction.

  5. Spore Dispersion of Tricholoma matsutake at a Pinus densiflora Stand in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun; Ka, Kang-Hyeon

    2010-09-01

    The spore of Tricholoma matsutake is considered to be the starting point of the mushroom growth cycle, but the mechanism of mycelial development from the spore stage is not yet clarified. In this study, we tried to measure how far the spores of T. matsutake disperse from a fruiting body located at a Pinus densiflora stand in Korea. We established 16 slide glasses coated with glycerin near a fruiting body in four directions separated by four different distance intervals within a mushroom productive stand after removing all other fruiting bodies from three plots. The number of dispersed spores increased with time from the first day (475 spores/cm(2)) to the fourth day (836 spores/cm(2)) after the pileus opened. The number of spores dispersed downward was about 1.5 times greater than that dispersed toward the ridge. The number of dispersed spores decreased exponentially as the distance from each fruiting body increased. More than 95% of the spores dropped within a meter from the fruiting body, with 75% dropping within 0.5 m. Even so, the number of spores dispersed over 5 m from the fruiting body was more than 50 million when considering the total number of spores produced by a fruiting body is about 5 billion.

  6. Estimating basic wood density and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora in the Republic of Korea

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    Jung Kee Pyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC guidelines, uncertainty assessment is an important aspect of a greenhouse gas inventory, and effort should be made to incorporate it into the reporting. The goal of this study was to estimate basic wood density (BWD and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora (Siebold & Zucc. in Korea. In this study, P. densiflora forests throughout the country were divided into two regional variants, which were the Gangwon region variant, distributed on the northeastern part of the country, and the central region variant. A total of 36 representative sampling plots were selected in both regions to collect sampletrees for destructive sampling. The trees were selected considering the distributions of tree age and diameter at breast height. Hypothesis testing was carried out to test the BWD differences between two age groups, i.e. age ≥ 20 and < 20, and differences between the two regions. The test suggested that there was no statistically significant difference between the two age classes. On the other hand, it is suggested a strong evidence of a statistically significant difference between regions. The BWD and its uncertainty were0.418 g/cm3 and 11.9% for the Gangwon region, whereas they were 0.471g/ cm3 and 3.8% for the central region. As a result, the estimated BWD for P.densiflora was more precise than the value provided by the IPCC guidelines.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nanosilver with antibacterial properties using Pinus densiflora young cone extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Jang, Jum-Suk; Lee, Kui-Jae; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-06-01

    This study describes an eco-friendly, rapid method for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) from an aqueous solution of silver nitrate using Pinus densiflora for. multicaulis Uyeki young cone extract in a single-pot process. Color changes, ultraviolet-visible spectra (444.5 nm), X-ray diffraction peaks (2θ=39.68, 46.92, 68.12, and 79.10), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the presence of Ag NPs and phytochemicals. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were mostly oval in shape, with a few triangular-shaped particles. Average particle size was 30-80 nm. Phytochemicals present in the young pine cone extract were likely responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) ions. The synthesized Ag NPs (40 μg) had a 7 mm larger zone of inhibition against the skin pathogen Brevibacterium linens than commercial Ag NPs, Propionibacterium acnes (14 mm), Bacillus cereus (9 mm) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (10mm).

  8. Effects of pollen supply and quality on seed formation and maturation in Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaizumi, Masakazu G; Takahashi, Makoto

    2012-07-01

    To understand the detailed mechanisms underlying variations in seed productivity per cone, it is important to examine simultaneously the effects of two pollination mode components (pollen supply and quality) on two seed production processes (seed formation and maturation). We conducted artificial pollination experiments with four pollination treatments (selfing, polycross, no-pollination and open-pollination treatments) in each of two vertical crown layers (upper and lower) for 19 Pinus densiflora ramets. We measured formed seeds as a proportion of ovules (P(Form)), and filled seeds as a proportion of formed seeds (P(Fill)) per cone in each treatment and layer, and inferred the relative influences of pollination mode and resource availability on seed productivity. In the no-pollination treatment, no seeds were formed in any cones of all five ramets. The Generalized Linear Model showed that there were no significant differences in P(Form) both between selfing and polycross treatments and upper and lower layers. The mean P(Fill) values in the selfing treatment were significantly lower than those in the polycross treatment in both layers. The mean P(Fill)s of the two layers did not differ significantly in the selfing treatment, but did in the open-pollination and polycross treatments. The results show that pollen supply affects mainly seed formation, whereas pollen quality affects mainly seed maturation. Resource availability also affects mainly seed maturation, if pollen quality is higher than a certain threshold.

  9. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C. H.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M. H.; Kim, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  10. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from heated needles and twigs of Pinus pumila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Feng-jun; SHU Li-fu; WANG Qiu-hua; WANG Ming-yu; TIAN Xiao-rui

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the mechanism that emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from heated needles and twigs (200℃, within 15 min) of Pinus purnila affect fire behaviours using the technology of Thermal Desorption - Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The results indicated that the main components of VOC from heated needles and twigs are terpenoids. Most of these terpenoids are monoterpenes. Terpenoids account for 72.93% for the needles and 92.40% for the twigs of the total VOC, and their emis sion ratios are 61.200 μg·g-1 and 217.060 μtg·g-1 respectively. Heated twigs can emit more terpenoids than heated needles because twigs had more volatile oils than needles. In actual fires, these large amounts of terpenoid emissions, especially the monoterpene emissions, have strong effects on fire behaviors that are not only in the initial stage but also in the fast propagation stage of fires. These flammable gases are capable of causing violent combustion and creating crown fires. In addition, if these gases accumulate in an uneven geographical area, there will be a possible for eruptive fires and/or fires fiashover to occur.

  11. Production, composition and toxicology studies of Enzogenol® Pinus radiata bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frevel, Mathias A E; Pipingas, Andrew; Grigsby, Warren J; Frampton, Chris M; Gilchrist, Nigel L

    2012-12-01

    Enzogenol® pine bark extract is a dietary supplement and food ingredient produced by water extraction of Pinus radiata. We present production method, composition, and safety data from rat and dog toxicological and human clinical studies. The dry powder contains proanthocyanidins (>80%), taxifolin (1-2%), other flavonoids and phenolic acids (up to 8%), and carbohydrates (5-10%). Reverse mutation assays showed lack of mutagenic activity. Single and 14-day repeat dosing in rats and dogs had no influence on body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, and haematology at any dose level. There were no treatment related findings on gross and detailed necroscopy, organ weights, organ weight ratios and histology. The only adverse events were emesis and diarrhoea in dogs occurring mainly in un-fed condition and at the highest dose level in a total of 18% of applications. The MTD and NOAEL in the present rat and dog studies were 2500 and 750 mg/kg/day, respectively. Consumption of 480 mg/day for 6 months and 960 mg/day for 5 weeks in two human studies showed Enzogenol® had no adverse influence on liver and kidney function, haematology, and did not cause any adverse events. Our studies indicate lack of toxicity of Enzogenol® and support safe use as a food ingredient.

  12. Biological activities of procyanidins from the bark of Pinus caribaea Morelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengge; Du, Xueyu; Wang, Fei

    2009-01-01

    The extraction and biological activities of procyanidins from the bark of Pinus caribaea Morelet (P. caribaea) have been studied for the first time in our research. The main factors influencing the extraction, including solvent, temperature and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, were discussed. The results illustrate that the suitable conditions for the extraction of procyanidins from the bark of P. caribaea are as follows: extraction temperature at 50 degrees C, L/S ratio at 11 : 1 and ethanol volume fraction at 70%. The focus of this study is to investigate the biological activities of the procyanidins from the bark of P. caribaea. Free-radical scavenging activity of the procyanidins was measured by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, and it was clear that the procyanidins product had a strong radical scavenging ability. Furthermore, the inhibition effect of the procyanidins from the bark of P. caribaea on different human cancer cells cultured in vitro was investigated. The results indicated that the procyanidins extracted with water had a stronger inhibition on promycelocytic cells HL-60, an effective inhibition on human stomach adenocarcinoma cells BGC-823 and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells BEL-7402, but no effect on human lung carcinoma cells A549, whereas the procyanidins extracted with ethanol had an effective inhibition on HL-60 and BGC-823, but no effect on A549 or BEL-7402.

  13. Development and growth of plantlets of Pinus contorta regenerated from adventitious buds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flygh, G.; Groenroos, R.; Arnold, S. von [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics; Hoegberg, K.A. [The Association for Forest Tree Breeding, Svaloev (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    Before micropropagation techniques can be applied to a particular species, it is crucial to optimize the method and to determine how the micropropagated plants grow in the field. Adventitious shoots developed on embryos of Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. after a 2 h pulse treatment with 250 {mu}M N6-benzyladenine. The time to first subculture after the pulse treatment influenced the yield of adventitious shoots. On average, 68% of the adventitious shoots had developed roots 12 weeks after treatment with 1.25 mM indole-3-butyric acid for 6 h. The auxin treatment stimulated early rooting (i.e. within 6 weeks) but had no effect on late rooting (i.e. after 6 weeks). The size of the plantlets was of importance for the survival when potted. All plantlets with a distinct stem elongated during the first growth period while some without did not. The relative height growth rate of plantlets was similar to that of seedlings. In the field the increase of height was similar for plantlets and seedlings. Plagiotropy was higher for the plantlets than for the seedlings (35 and 10% respectively). We concluded that most plantlets of P. contorta elongate normally and have a similar gross morphology to seedlings 23 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Foliage Chemistry of Pinus baksiana in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette C. Proemse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial emissions in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Alberta, Canada, have caused concerns about the effect of oil sands operations on the surrounding terrestrial environments, including jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. stands. We collected jack pine needles from 19 sites in the AOSR (13–128 km from main operations for foliar chemical analyses to investigate the environmental impact on jack pine. Pine needles from three age classes, the current annual growth (CAG, 2011, one year and two year old pine needles, were collected. Samples were analyzed for total carbon (TC, nitrogen (TN, and sulfur (TS, inorganic S (SO4-S, base cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and other elements (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, P, Zn; CAG needles were also analyzed for their nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions. Only TN, TS, Ca, B, Zn, and Fe contents showed weak but significant increases with proximity to the major oil sands operations. C and N isotopic compositions showed no trend with distance or TC and TN contents. Total S contents in CAG of pine foliage increased significantly with proximity to the main industrial operation while foliar inorganic S to organic S ratios (SO4-S/Sorg ranged consistently between 0.13 and 0.32, indicating low to moderately high S loading. Hence, this study suggests some evidence of uptake of S emissions in close proximity to anthropogenic sources, although the reported values have not reached a level of environmental concern.

  15. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) female gametophyte and embryo pH changes during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Johnson, Shannon

    2009-06-01

    Stage-specific measurements of female gametophyte (FG) and embryo pH (hydrogen ion concentration) were made through the sequence of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed development. The FG tissue from two open-pollinated trees showed similar pH profiles starting at 5.5 shortly after fertilization, increasing to about 6.1 at stage 7, levelling off at 6.3-6.5 towards the end of development and dropping to 6.0 just before cone opening. Measurements of the chalazal end were 0.05-0.2 pH units less than the micropylar end through early-to-mid-development. In contrast, embryo pH maintained a nearly constant value near 7.0 through development. Profiles of pH through seed development were similar whether portrayed by date or stage of embryo present in the seed. The pH profiles assisted in the development of improved embryogenic tissue initiation techniques. When post-autoclaving maturation medium pH was raised from about 5.3 in control medium to 5.7 or 5.5-5.7 with 2(n-morpholino)ethanesulphonic acid, cotyledonary embryo yields increased.

  16. Dispersal syndrome differentiation of Pinus armandii in Southwest China: Key elements of a potential selection mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Chen, Jin

    2011-11-01

    Pinus armandii is a species of pine native to China with a wide geographical distribution and large-wingless seeds (about 300 mg). The study is to determine the variation in seed dispersal traits among populations within a relative small geographic scale and furthermore to explore if the trait differentiation results in the differences in dispersers, in particular nutcrackers ( Nucifraga caryocatactes) and scatter-hoarding rodents. We conducted studies at five sites at different elevations in northwest Yunnan Province. The study sites are separated by 10-200 km and divided into populations partly isolated by mountains and rivers. The cone and seed traits diverged significantly among the five study sites while the traits among individual trees at each site did not differ significantly. Nutcrackers and scatter-hoarding rodents presented conflicting preference in cone and seed traits: nutcrackers preferred smaller cones with smaller seeds, which increased the foraging efficiency of nutcrackers; while scatter-hoarding rodents tended to cache larger seeds. Consistent with variation in preferences by nutcrackers and scatter-hoarding rodents, in nutcracker-dominated sites, pines were characterized by smaller cones, smaller seeds, and thinner seed coats; while in sites where nutcrackers were not abundant, pines had relatively larger cones with larger seeds, which could enhance caching activities by scatter-hoarding rodents. The study provided some key elements for potential selection mosaic on cone and seed traits of a long-lived perennial tree among populations with limited geographical range.

  17. Envelope-like retrotransposons in the plant kingdom: evidence of their presence in gymnosperms (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Célia; Simões, Marta; Oliveira, Maria Margarida; Rocheta, Margarida

    2008-11-01

    Retroviruses differ from retrotransposons due to their infective capacity, which depends critically on the encoded envelope. Some plant retroelements contain domains reminiscent of the env of animal retroviruses but the number of such elements described to date is restricted to angiosperms. We show here the first evidence of the presence of putative env-like gene sequences in a gymnosperm species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine). Using a degenerate primer approach for conserved domains of RNaseH gene, three clones from putative envelope-like retrotransposons (PpRT2, PpRT3, and PpRT4) were identified. The env-like sequences of P. pinaster clones are predicted to encode proteins with transmembrane domains. These sequences showed identity scores of up to 30% with env-like sequences belonging to different organisms. A phylogenetic analysis based on protein alignment of deduced aminoacid sequences revealed that these clones clustered with env-containing plant retrotransposons, as well as with retrotransposons from invertebrate organisms. The differences found among the sequences of maritime pine clones isolated here suggest the existence of different putative classes of env-like retroelements. The identification for the first time of env-like genes in a gymnosperm species may support the ancestrality of retroviruses among plants shedding light on their role in plant evolution.

  18. Genet Variation of Ectomycorrhizal Suillus granulatus Fruiting Bodies in Pinus strobus Stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2016-03-01

    The genets of Suillus granulatus in a Pinus strobus stand (13 m × 60 m) were identified using random amplified polymorphic DNA molecular markers and the DNA of mushrooms that fruited for two years, and variations in genet size and distribution were analyzed. From a total of 116 mushrooms, 73 genets were identified and were grouped into three locations. The genets of mushrooms in close proximity differed from each other. The genet sizes varied at any of the three locations. The lengths of the identified genets in the pine stand ranged from 0.09 to 2.90 m. The average number of mushrooms per genet was 1.2 to 2.3, and the percentage of genets that were represented by a single mushroom was 44% to 94%. This variation in the genets of mushrooms in close proximity suggests that the ectomycorrhizal mycelial bodies of S. granulatus propagated sexually by fusing haploid spores derived from the mushrooms gills with below-ground mycelia. Therefore, it is necessary further to investigate the formation of new genets through spores in ectomycorrhizal fungal colonies.

  19. Biogenic emissions from Pinus halepensis: a typical species of the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, V.; Dumergues, L.; Solignac, G.; Torres, L.

    2005-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions by vegetation present in the Mediterranean area are not well known. They may contribute with anthropogenic VOC emissions to the tropospheric ozone formation that reaches important level in the European Mediterranean region. The present work, carried out as part of the European ESCOMPTE project «fiEld experimentS to COnstrain Models of atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions», adds a new contribution to the inventory of the main natural hydrocarbons sources likely to participate in the ozone production. The corresponding measurement campaign was conducted in La Barben, a site close to Marseilles (France), with the aim to quantify the terpenic emission pattern and the behaviour of Pinus halepensis, an important Mediterranean species slightly studied. The determination of biogenic emissions from P. halepensis was done by the enclosure of an intact branch in a Teflon cuvette. Main emitted monoterpenes were β trans-ocimene and linalool. The total monoterpenic emission rates thus recorded were found to reach maximum values around 30 μg g dry weight-1 h -1. The normalized emission rates calculated at 30 °C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 with Guenther's algorithm was 14.76, 8.65 and 4.05 μg g dry weight-1 h -1, respectively, for the total monoterpenes, β trans-ocimene and linalool.

  20. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

    2014-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kehinde Adenike Fayemiwo; Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke; Ovie Princewill Okoro; Shola Hezekiah Awojide; Ilias Olufemi Awoniyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). Method:The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. Results:The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85%larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L;LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control.

  2. ENERGY BALANCE AND CO2 EXCHANGE BEHAVIOUR IN SUB-TROPICAL YOUNG PINE (Pinus roxburghii PLANTATION

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    B. K. Bhattacharya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to understand the seasonal and annual energy balance behaviour of young and growing sub-tropical chir pine (Pinus roxburghii plantation of eight years age in the Doon valley, India and its coupling with CO2 exchange. The seasonal cycle of dekadal daytime latent heat fluxes mostly followed net radiation cycle with two minima and range between 50–200 Wm-2 but differed from the latter during the period when soil wetness and cloudiness were not coupled. Dekadal evaporative fraction closely followed the seasonal dryness-wetness cycle thus minimizing the effect of wind on energy partitioning as compared to diurnal variation. Daytime latent heat fluxes were found to have linear relationship with canopy net assimilation rate (Y = 0.023X + 0.171, R2 = 0.80 though nonlinearity exists between canopy latent heat flux and hourly net CO2 assimilation rate . Night-time plant respiration was found to have linear relationship (Y = 0.088 + 1.736, R2 = 0.72 with night-time average vapour pressure deficit (VPD. Daily average soil respiration was found to be non-linearly correlated to average soil temperatures (Y = -0.034X2 + 1.676X – 5.382, R2 = 0.63 The coupled use of empirical models, seasonal energy fluxes and associated parameters would be useful to annual water and carbon accounting in subtropical pine ecosystem of India in the absence high-response eddy covariance tower.

  3. Microenvironmental heterogeneity of physical soil properties in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbiao DUAN; Jing WANG; Yan LI

    2009-01-01

    Microenvironmental heterogeneity of soil phy-sical properties in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap in Xiao Xing'anl-ing Mountains were analyzed by geostatistical method.The results show that the amount of soil water, saturation water capacity, capillary water capacity and porosity in the top layer were greater than those in the lower layer, except for bulk density, where the opposite applied. Soil physical properties in the top soil layer had relatively higher ranges and coefficients of variation. The total and auto correlation spatial heterogeneity of soil physical properties in the top layer were larger than those in the lower layer. The soil water had a strong anisotropic structure in an easterly and northerly direction, but porosity shows isotropy in the same directions. With increasing spatial distance, the other three physical factors exhibited anisotropic structures. The mutual effect between semi-variograms of soil physical properties in the top layer within the spatial autocorrelation range was not significant. For spatial distribution of physical properties within different layers, the patches at the middle and lower ranks in the forest gap dominated.Patches at higher rank were only distributed in the 0-20 cm soil layer and were located north of the forest gap center.

  4. Hygroscopicity of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda subjected to thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the thermal treatment technique under two conditions—autoclave combined with electric oven and electric oven only—on the hygroscopic properties of wood from Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, comparing them with results obtained for untreated wood. Three trees at age 25 years were sampled, with boards being removed at DBH level in order to make specimens 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size in the radial, tangential and axial direction respectively. In the combined treatment, specimens were subjected to thermal treatment in an autoclave set at 130°C/± 3°C and kgf/cm² pressure for 3 hours, then to a conditioning period, followed by heat in an electric oven set at 160°C/±1°C for the same time. Properties being evaluated included water absorption rate, volumetric swelling, water repellency effectiveness and anti-swelling efficiency. Results revealed that the thermal treatments being adopted were effective in reducing hygroscopicity and in increasing the dimensional stability of both species, revealing also that the combined autoclave and electric oven treatment provides best results.

  5. PASTAS ESTIMULANTES EM SISTEMAS DE RESINAGEM DE Pinus elliottii var. elliottii

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    André Luiz Marretto Fusatto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of stimulating pastes aims to increase the rate of resin flow and its time of duration. In the Forest Experiment Station of Itatinga, São Paulo state, 159 trees of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii were were submitted to the treatments with 5 stimulant pastes, (Red Alchem, Paste with Ethephon Planebrás, Black Resin Brazil, Red Eldorado and Test Paste (Paraquat + Ethephon that was compared to the Control (Black Planebrás. Biweekly chipping and collects every three months were accomplished (from the result of 5 grooves, being determined the resin weight during 2.5 years. The application of stimulating pastes with ethephon did not show significant advantage about application of pastes without ethephon. The stimulant pastes applied were different in the weightings performed. In the treatments applied, the percentage of pitch ranged from 71.33% to 76.56% and the turpentine ranged from 10.37% to 13.78%. The yield of alpha-pinene ranged from 37.70% to 53.31%, and of beta-pinene from 34.34% to 50.41%.

  6. THE COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED WOOD MATERIALS PREPARED FROM SCOTCH PINE (Pinus sylvestris L.

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    Ramazan ÖZEN

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of 3 ply laminated wood material, which was produced from scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L. impregnated with Sodium perborat, Sodium tetra borat, Imersol (I-WR 2000 and TanalithCBC (T-CBC by using dipping method has been investigated. Prepared materials have been bonded with Desmodur- VTKA adhesive and tested according to the procedure of ASTM-E 69 standards. As a result, the highest weight loss (60.83 g in laminated sample impregnated with I-WR 2000, CO rate (6340.85 ppm in neutral sample impregnated with T-CBC, CO2 rate (7.48 %, O2 rate (13.03 % and according to the first weight rate the highest combustion rate (82.73 % in control samples, heat increasing (406.55 o C in laminated sample impregnated with T-CBC have been obtained. According to these results, in the combustion tests of laminated samples sodium tetra borat and sodium perborat have been determined as a successful fire retardant chemical.

  7. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark

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    Masoud Sadeghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds. In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml. After incubation at 37 °C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001 of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations.

  8. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener and beta (Jaccard and Magurran biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design of two treatments (continuous and rotational grazing. Biomass, and species abundances were measured - biodiversity metrics were calculated based on these results for a two years of grazing and two years of post-grazing periods. Both continuous and rotational grazing systems were useful tools for reducing biomass and, therefore, fire risk. The rotational grazing system caused damage to the U. europaeus shrub, limiting its recovery once grazing was stopped. However, the more intensive grazing of U. europaeus plants under rotational had a positive effect on both alpha and beta biodiversity indexes due to the low capacity of food selection in the whole plot rather than continuous grazing systems. Biomass was not affected by the grazing system; however the rotational grazing system is more appropriate to reduce U. europaeus biomass and therefore forest fire risk at a long term and to enhance pasture biodiversity than the continuous grazing system.

  9. Molecular identification of white morphotype strains of endophytic fungi from Pinus tabulaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang Dong; Huang, Guo R; Wang, Yu; He, Wen H; Zheng, Wei H; Hyde, Kevin D

    2003-06-01

    Sterile mycelia isolated from Pinus tabulaeformis were grouped into white morphotype strains based on cultural characteristics. Eighteen of the isolates were randomly selected and identified to various taxonomic levels based on nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) sequence analysis. The 5.8S gene and flanking internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) regions of nrDNA were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5.8S gene sequences indicated that the white morphotype strains were Ascomycota. Further identification was achieved by means of sequence similarity comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the ITS regions. Results showed that strains WMS9 and WMS10 were Lophodermium species (Rhytismataceae), while strains WMS11, WMS13 and WMS18 were species of Rhytismataceae. Strains WMS2, WMS3, WMS4, WMS5 and WMS6 were identified to Rosellinia, strain WMS1 to Entoleuca, and strain WMS14 to Nemania (Xylariaceae). Strains WMS7, WMS8, WMS12, WMS15, WMS16 and WMS17 were xylariaceous species. The potential of using DNA sequence analysis in the identification of endophytic fungi is discussed.

  10. Association between herbivore stress and glutathione S-transferase expression in Pinus brutia Ten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz, A; Çelik-Turgut, G; Semiz, G; Özgün, Ö; Şen, A

    2016-03-31

    Plants have developed mechanisms to defend themselves against many factors including biotic stress such as herbivores and pathogens. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzyme and plays critical roles in stress tolerance and detoxification metabolism in plants. Pinus brutia Ten. is a prominent native forest tree species in Turkey, due to both its economic and ecological assets. One of the problems faced by P. brutia afforestation sites is the attacks by pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams.). In this study, we investigated the changes in activity and mRNA expression of GST in pine samples taken from both resistant and susceptible clones against T. wilkinsoni over a nine month period in a clonal seed orchard. It was found that the average cytosolic GST activities of trees in March and July were significantly higher than the values obtained in November. November was considered to be the control since trees were not under stress yet. In addition, RT-PCR results clearly showed that levels of GST transcripts in March and July samples were significantly higher as compared to the level seen in November. These findings strongly suggest that GST activity from P. brutia would be a valuable marker for exposure to herbivory stress.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Plant Diversity of Pinus tabulaeformis Forests in Ten Regions of Beijing Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liping; Xing Shaohua; Zhao Bo; Wang Qingchun; Cui Guofa

    2006-01-01

    Based on investigations during 1998-2003,shrubs and herbs,as well as indicators of similarity and diversity in Pinus tabulaeformis forests of ten regions around Beijing were compared and analyzed,and protection measures were suggested.Generally,the shrubs and herbs in P.tabulaeformis forests of Shidu,Mutianyu,and Yunfengshan are rich in species diversity and have great similarities.The percentages of common species in each of these three paired regions are above 50%,while many peculiar plant species that could not be found in the other nine regions exist in Labagoumen.As for plant diversity indices,plants in the P.tabulaeformis forests of Baihuashan,Shidu,and Labagoumen occur more frequently than in other regions,while the number of plants in Tanjiesi and Miaofengshan are far less.Some endangered orchid species were found distributed in P.tabulaeformis forests with a clumped spatial pattern but rarely appeared in other forest types,indicating that P.tabulaeformis forests are ideal habitats for orchid species.

  12. Response of Pinus sylvestris roots to sheet-erosion exposure: an anatomical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, J. M.; Bodoque, J. M.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Diez-Herrero, A.

    2008-03-01

    Anatomical changes of exposed tree roots are valuable tools to date erosion events, but the responses of diverse species under different types of erosion need still to be studied in detail. In this paper we analyze the histological changes that occur in roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) subjected to continuous denudation. A descriptive and quantitative study was conducted in the Senda Schmidt, a popular trail located on the northern slope of the Sierra de Guadarrama (Central Iberian System, Spain). Measurement of significant parameters allowed the moment of exposure of the roots to be identified. These parameters were: a) width of the growth ring; b) number of cells per ring; c) percentage of latewood and d) diameter of cellular light in earlywood. A one-way analysis ANOVA was also carried out in order to establish statistically significant differences between homogeneous groups of measurements in pre-exposed and exposed roots. Based on these analyses, Scots pine roots show a remarkable anatomical response to sheet-erosion exposure. Increased growth in the ring is accompanied by a slight reduction of the cell lumina of the earlywood tracheids. At the end of the ring, several rows of thick-walled tracheids define latewood tissue and visible annual borders very clearly. Furthermore, resin ducts often appear in tangential rows, increasing resin density in the tissue. All of these indicators made it possible to determine with precision the first year of exposure and to estimate precisely sheet erosion rates.

  13. Assessing wildfire occurrence probability in Pinus pinaster Ait. stands in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Botequim, B.; Ricardo, A.; Borges, J. G.; Tome, M.; Oliveira, M. M.

    2012-11-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) is an important conifer from the western Mediterranean Basin extending over 22% of the forest area in Portugal. In the last three decades nearly 4% of Maritime pine area has been burned by wildfires. Yet no wildfire occurrence probability models are available and forest and fire management planning activities are thus carried out mostly independently of each other. This paper presents research to address this gap. Specifically, it presents a model to assess wildfire occurrence probability in regular and pure Maritime pine stands in Portugal. Emphasis was in developing a model based on easily available inventory data so that it might be useful to forest managers. For that purpose, data from the last two Portuguese National Forest Inventories (NFI) and data from wildfire perimeters in the years from 1998 to 2004 and from 2006 to 2007 were used. A binary logistic regression model was build using biometrics data from the NFI. Biometric data included indicators that might be changed by operations prescribed in forest planning. Results showed that the probability of wildfire occurrence in a stand increases in stand located at steeper slopes and with high shrubs load while it decreases with precipitation and with stand basal area. These results are instrumental for assessing the impact of forest management options on wildfire probability thus helping forest managers to reduce the risk of wildfires. (Author) 57 refs.

  14. Soil Enzyme Activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére Plantations in Northern China

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    Weiwei Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn following harvesting at two depths in the mineral soil (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm. Invertase and urease increased significantly with time since thinning. Catalase activity was highest in the 24-year-old stand and there were no statistically significant differences between the 32- and 40-year-old stands. In addition, maximum invertase, urease, catalase, and phenol oxidase activities occurred during the summer; minimum activities occurred in autumn. Invertase and urease were positively correlated with each other, as were catalase and phenol oxidase. Most soil enzyme activity was higher in the 0–10 cm layer than at the 10–20 cm depth. As time from thinning increased, differences among soil depth became less significant. These results suggest that seasonal changes of these enzymes have different roles, as the time since thinning and thinning treatments may have both short- and long-term impacts on soil microbial activity.

  15. Modeling compatible single-tree aboveground biomass equations for masson pine (Pinus massoniana) in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Wei-sheng; TANG Shou-zheng

    2012-01-01

    Because of global climate change,it is necessary to add forest biomass estimation to national forest resource monitoring.The biomass equations developed for forest biomass estimation should be compatible with volume equations.Based on the tree volume and aboveground biomass data of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) in southern China,we constructed one-,two-and three-variable aboveground biomass equations and biomass conversion functions compatible with tree volume equations by using error-in-variable simultaneous equations.The prediction precision of aboveground biomass estimates from one variable equation exceeded 95%.The regressions of aboveground biomass equations were improved slightly when tree height and crown width were used together with diameter on breast height,although the contributions to regressions were statistically insignificant.For the biomass conversion function on one variable,the conversion factor decreased with increasing diameter,but for the conversion function on two variables,the conversion factor increased with increasing diameter but decreased with increasing tree height.

  16. Spatial variability of throughfall in a Chinese Pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Weiqing; ZHANG Zhiqiang; WU Jun; XIAO Jinqiang

    2007-01-01

    The interception of rainfall by vegetation and the subsequent evaporation of intercepted water from the canopy surface play an important role in hydrological processes,and the water and energy balance of forest ecosystems.Spatial variability of interception has different effects on water yield from watersheds located in different climatic and biome regions.In order to explain the spatial patterns of interception,we adopted grid-sampling method to install rain-gauges to measure throughfall.Results show that the coefficient of variation (Cv) of throughfall tends to decline as rain intensity increases.After the canopy is saturated,Cv of throughfall remained at a constant value,which is close to the Cv of the canopy leaf area index (LAI) value 0.18.Thus,the Cv of LAI is regarded as the extremum of that of throughfall.Because of the special characteristic of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis),and the lower droopy branches,negative values for interception account for only 13% of the total samples.Furthermore,the max is above 70% of gross rainfall.

  17. Observation and modeling of NPP for Pinus elliottii plantation in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ZeQing; LIU QiJing; WANG HuiMin; LI XuanRan; ZENG HuiQing; XU WenJia

    2008-01-01

    Based on the stem analysis of 59 individuals of Pinus elliottii in combination with tree biomass models,we calculated annual biomass increment of forest plots at Qianyanzhou Ecological Station,Chinese Academy of Sciences in subtropical China. In addition,canopy layer and community NPP were calculated based on 12 years' litter fall data. NPP of the 21-year-old forest was estimated by using the BIOME BGC model; and both measured NPP and estimated NPP were compared with flux data. Community lation between annual litter fall and annual biomass increment; and the litter fall was 1.19 times the biomass increment of living trees. From 1985 to 2005,average NPP and GPP values based on BGC simulated tree layer NPP values. NPP accounted for 30.2% (25.6%-32.9%) of GPP,while NEP accounted for 57.5% (48.1%-66.5%) of tree-layer NPP and 41.74% (37%-52%) of stand NPP. Soil respiration accounted for 77.0% of measured tree NPP and 55.9% of the measured stand NPP. NEE based on eddy covariance method was 12.97% higher than the observed NEP.

  18. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avni Hajdari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%, β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%, and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%. HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and PCA (Principal Component Analyses were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.

  19. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Novak, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:27579344

  20. Photosynthetic induction responses of Pinus koraiensis seedlings grown in different light environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYong-bin; YINYou; LIUXing-shuang; WANGQing-li

    2004-01-01

    The time processes of photosynthetic induction responses to various irradiances in Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) seedlings grown in open-light environments and in understory of forest were studied in an area near the Research Station of Changbai Mountain Forest Ecosystems, Jilin Province, China from July 15 to August 5, 1997. The results showed that at 200 IJmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and 500 pmol·m-2·s-1 PPFD, the induction time for the photosynthetic rates of understory-grown seedlings to reach 50% and 90% steady-state net photosynthetic rates was longer than that of the open-grown seedlings. The induction responses of open-growth seedlings at 500 pmol·m-2·s-1 PPFD were slower than those at 200 pmol·m-2·s-1 PPFD, but it was the very reverse for understory-growth seedlings, which indicates that the photosynthetic induction times of Korean pine seedlings grown in the understory depended on the sunfleck intensity.

  1. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO{sub 2} responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO{sub 2} responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO{sub 2} responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO{sub 2} exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO{sub 2} scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  2. EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENT ON CALABRIAN PINE (PINUS BRUTIA TEN. WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim Ates

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of heat treatment on some physical, mechanical, chemical properties, and cellulose crystallinity of calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. were evaluated. Wood specimens were treated with heat under atmospheric pressure at three different temperatures (130, 180, and 230 oC and two different time levels (2 and 8 h. Air-dry density (Dm, oven-dry density (D0, shrinkage (β, swelling (α, fiber saturation point (FSP, compression strength parallel to grain (σc//, bending strength (σb, modulus of elasticity (MOE in bending, equilibrium moisture content (EMC, holocellulose, and alcohol solubility were decreased, whereas 1% NaOH solubility and lignin content were increased, depending on the heating temperature and time. Cellulose crystallinity of the samples was not changed significantly. 130 oC showed a minimal effect; on the other hand, 230 oC showed a maximum effect on all properties of the treated wood. That’s why, for the heat treatment process, 130 oC for 2 h should be applied in situations where mechanical properties such as modulus of elasticity, compression strength, bending strength, and hardness are important. However, 230 oC for 2 h should be used in situations where it is preferred to obtain favorable physical properties, such as density, shrinkage, swelling, and moisture content.

  3. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent activities of Pine (Pinus longifolia, Family: Pinaceae oil

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    M.A. Ansari, P.K. Mittal, R.K. Razdan & U. Sreehari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Various plant-based products are safe and biodegradable alternatives tosynthetic chemicals for use against mosquitoes. Oil of Pinus longifolia is traditionally used forprotection against mosquitoes in some rural areas but there is no documented report of its use againstmosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the activity of Pine oilagainst mosquitoes.Methods: The oil was procured from the market and its contents were chemically analysed. Larvicidalactivity of oil was tested in laboratory bioassays, while repellent action was studied during wholenight bait collections in field by direct application on the skin and after its impregnation on mats.Results: Results showed varying degree of larvicidal activity of Pine oil against mosquitoes with LC50values ranging between 82 and 112 ppm. The Pine oil had strong repellent action against mosquitoesas it provided 100% protection against Anopheles culicifacies for 11 h and 97% protection againstCulex quinquefasciatus for nine hours respectively. Electrically heated mats prepared from Pine oilprovided, 94 and 88% protection against An. culicifacies and Cx. quinquefasciatus for 10 and sevenhours respectively.Interpretaion & conclusion: Pine oil is effective against mosquito larvae at very higher doses whichare not of any practical utility. However, Pine oil showed strong repellent action against An. culicifacies(malaria vector and Cx. quinquefasciatus (pest mosquito. Thus its use could be popularised asmosquito repellent.

  4. PROPERTIES OF THERMO-MECHANICALLY TREATED WOOD FROM PINUS CARIBAEA VAR. HONDURENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Moreira Tavares Santos,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of thermo-mechanical treatment on properties of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis wood. Two pressure levels (25% and 50% of the compression strength perpendicular to grain were evaluated. The treatment was applied in a laboratory hot press in one-step or two-step modes for 50 minutes. In the one-step treatment, the total pressure was applied after the temperature of the center of the wood reached 170°C. In the two-steps treatment, half of the pressure was applied after the center of the wood reached 100°C, and the final pressure was applied when it reached 170°C. The weight loss immediately after treatment was equivalent to the wood moisture content, indicating that degradation of wood polymers did not occur. However, the treatments showed decreasing values of the moisture content, which were reduced from 12.3% to 9.8%. A moderate improvement on surface roughness was achieved, while wood wettability was highly reduced in all treatments, as determined by contact angle measurement. On the other hand, the treatment applied did not improve the wood dimensional stability, but all mechanical properties presented a trend of improvement.

  5. The role of endophytic fungal individuals and communities in the decomposition of Pinus massoniana needle litter.

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    Zhilin Yuan

    Full Text Available The role of fungal endophytes (FEs as "pioneer" decomposers has recently been recognized; however, the extent to which FEs contribute to litter loss is less well understood. The genetic and enzymatic bases of FE-mediated decomposition have also rarely been addressed. The effects of populations and individuals (with an emphasis on two dominant Lophodermium taxa of FEs on needle-litter decomposition were assessed for Pinus massoniana, a ubiquitous pine in southern China. Data from in vivo (microcosm experiments indicated that the percentage of litter-mass loss triggered by FEs was linearly correlated with incubation time and approached 60% after seven months. In vitro decomposition tests also confirmed that endophytic Lophodermium isolates caused 14-22% mass loss within two months. Qualitative analysis of exoenzymes (cellulase and laccase, important for lignocellulose degradation revealed that almost all of the Lophodermium isolates showed moderate or strong positive reactions. Furthermore, partial sequences of β-glucosidase (glycoside hydrolase family 3, GH3, laccase, and cellobiohydrolase (GH7 genes were amplified from Lophodermium isolates as "functional markers" to evaluate their potential for lignocellulolytic activity. Three different genes were detected, suggesting a flexible and delicate decomposition system rich in FEs. Our work highlights the possibility that the saprophytism and endophytism of FEs may be prerequisites to initiating rapid decomposition and thus may be key in Fes' contribution to litter decomposition, at least in the early stage. Potential indicators of the presence of core fungal decomposers are also briefly discussed.

  6. [Relationships between understory vegetation coverage and environmental factors in Pinus massoniana plantations from aerial seeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ouyang, Xun-zhi

    2015-04-01

    The relationships between understory vegetation coverage and environmental factors in Pinus massoniana plantations from aerial seeding were studied by using principal component analysis, redundancy analysis and variation partitioning. The selected environmental factors in total explained 74.2% variation of the understory vegetation coverage. At low altitude, stand characteristics were the key factor to influence the understory vegetation coverage. Stand characteristics, soil property and topographic factor were respectively explained 55.0% (including 29.1% for separateness and 25.9% for interaction with other factors), 38. 9% (including 12.1% for separateness and 26.8% for interaction with other factors) and 9.0% (including 5.6% for separateness and 3.4% for interaction with other factors) of the total variation. Average diameter at breast height and canopy density affected mostly and positively correlated with the coverage of bryophyta, graminoid and shurb groups at significant level. Noncapillary porosity and soil water content showed a highly significant positive correlation to dicranopteris coverage, whereas average diameter at breast height, canopy density, soil nutrients and enzyme activity significantly negatively correlated with it. The coverage of graminoid, bryophyta and shurb groups showed the positive correlations, which indicated the three groups could promote each other, while the dicranopteris coverage had significant negative correlation with the three groups mentioned above.

  7. Transpiration rates and canopy conductance of Pinus radiata growing with different pasture understories in agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Blair J.; Clinton, Peter W.; Buchan, Graeme D.; Robson, A. Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We measured tree transpiration and canopy conductance in Pinus radiata D. Don at two low rainfall sites of differing soil fertility in Canterbury, New Zealand. At the more fertile Lincoln site, we also assessed the effects of two common pasture grasses on tree transpiration and canopy conductance. At the less fertile Eyrewell Forest site, the effect of no understory, and the effects of irrigation in combination with mixtures of grass or legume species were determined. Tree xylem sap flux (F(d)') was measured by the heat pulse method. Total canopy conductance to diffusion of water vapor (G(t)) was calculated by inverting a simplified Penman-Monteith model. The different treatment effects were modeled by the simple decaying exponential relationship G(t) = G(tmax)e((-bD)), where D = air saturation deficit. At the Lincoln site, trees with an understory of cocksfoot had lower F(d)' and G(tmax) than trees with an understory of ryegrass, although the sensitivity of G(t) to increasing D (i.e., the value of b) did not differ between treatments. At the Eyrewell site, irrigation only increased F(d)' in the absence of an understory, whereas the presence of understory vegetation, or lack of irrigation, or both, significantly reduced G(tmax) and increased b. We conclude that the selection of understory species is critical in designing successful agroforestry systems for low rainfall areas.

  8. Dynamics of natural regeneration in Pinus laricio stands from southern Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanesi E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings establishment was studied in small (380 m2, medium (855 m2 and large (1520 m2 gaps created in calabrian pine (Pinus laricio Poiret stands (mean height 22 m in the Southern Apennine. After three growing seasons first results put in evidence: a no significant differences of water soil content were observed between gap sizes; b transmittance was higher in large and medium gaps than in small ones and in the centre and northern sides in both gap sizes; c calabrian pine seedling density was higher in large gaps than in medium and small ones and namely in the centre positions; silver fir seedlings appear after the second growing season in small and medium gaps; d seedling mortality of calabrian pine was relevant in small and medium gaps in the edge and silver fir seedling mortality in the centre of the large ones; e in these first years the ground vegetation (bramble and bracken represents a moderate detrimental effect on seedlings establishment that could be removed by partial cuttings.

  9. Structural profiling of wax biopolymer from Pinus roxburghii Sarg. needles using spectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Pallavi; Sharma, Pradeep; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-11-01

    Pinus roxburghii Sarg. is the most abundant species in Himalayan region. The needles of the species largely contribute to the forest biomass and remain the major cause of forest fires leading to climate change, biodiversity loss, etc. Intriguingly, the layer of needles contains wax, a biomacromolecule with potential chemical functionalities for value addition. In the present study, a distinctive approach towards complete structural analysis of the isolated wax in its native state has been done using (1)H, (13)C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY, TOCSY along with GC-MS of the methyl esters of constituent fatty acids. The wax was isolated in a quantitative yield of 1.64% and analyses suggest that it is a polymer of linearly attached fatty acid esters which on hydrolysis yielded three types of ω-hydroxy fatty acids viz. 12-hydroxydodecanoic acid, 14-hydroxytetradecanoic acid and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid in a ratio of 1:1:2 respectively. Complete assignments for a carbonyl group, α-, β- and other methylenes present in wax were achieved; corroborating the presence of polyester. In particular, identification of wax structure was accomplished through NMR; thereby providing a lead towards future structural analysis of waxes in their native form. The study would also be helpful to generate commercially important compounds derived from pine needle wax. This will offer an opportunity for utilisation of pine needle biomass: a root cause of Himalayan forest fires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated physiological and hormonal profile of heat-induced thermotolerance in Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandón, Mónica; Cañal, María Jesús; Pascual, Jesús; Pinto, Glória; Correia, Barbara; Amaral, Joana; Meijón, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Despite great interest, not only from the economic point of view but also in terms of basic science, research on heat stress tolerance in conifers remains scarce. To fill this gap, a time-course experiment using expected temperature increase was performed aiming to identify physiological and biochemical traits that allow the characterization of heat-induced thermotolerance and recovery in Pinus radiata D. Don plants. Several physiological parameters were assessed during heat exposure and after recovery, and multiple phytohormones-abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), gibberellins, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and brassinosteroids-were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry from unique sample. Furthermore, tissue specific stress-signaling was monitored by IAA and ABA immunolocalization. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data enabled clustering of the shorter- and longer-term effects of heat stress exposure. Two sequential physiological responses were identified: an immediate and a delayed response, essentially determined by specific phytohormones, proline, malondialdehyde and total soluble sugar patterns. Results showed that ABA and SA play a crucial role in the first stage of response to heat stress, probably due to the plant's urgent need to regulate stomatal closure and counteract the increase in oxidative membrane damage demonstrated in shorter-term exposures. However, in longer exposures and recovery, proline, total sugars, IAA and CKs seem to be more relevant. This integrated approach pinpointed some basic mechanisms of P. radiata physiological responses underlying thermotolerance processes and after recovery.

  11. Influence of repeated prescribed fire on tree growth and mortality in Pinus resinosa forests, northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Alessandra; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Palik, Brian J.; Kern, Christel C.; Bradford, John B.; Scherer, Sawyer S.

    2017-01-01

    Prescribed fire is widely used for ecological restoration and fuel reduction in fire-dependent ecosystems, most of which are also prone to drought. Despite the importance of drought in fire-adapted forests, little is known about cumulative effects of repeated prescribed burning on tree growth and related response to drought. Using dendrochronological data in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.)-dominated forests in northern Minnesota, USA, we examined growth responses before and after understory prescribed fires between 1960 and 1970, to assess whether repeated burning influences growth responses of overstory trees and vulnerability of overstory tree growth to drought. We found no difference in tree-level growth vulnerability to drought, expressed as growth resistance, resilience, and recovery, between areas receiving prescribed fire treatments and untreated forests. Annual mortality rates during the period of active burning were also low (less than 2%) in all treatments. These findings indicate that prescribed fire can be effectively integrated into management plans and climate change adaptation strategies for red pine forest ecosystems without significant short- or long-term negative consequences for growth or mortality rates of overstory trees.

  12. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W. Campbell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensively-managed pine (Pinus spp. have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine (P. taeda plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3–4 year old pine plantations and 9–10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.

  13. The distribution shifts of Pinus armandii and its response to temperature and precipitation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The changing climate, particularly in regard to temperature and precipitation, is already affecting tree species’ distributions. Pinus armandii, which dominates on the Yungui Plateau and in the Qinba Mountains in China, is of economic, cultural and ecological value. We wish to test the correlations between the distribution shift of P. armandii and changing climate, and figure out how it tracks future climate change. Methods We sampled the surface soil at sites throughout the distribution of P. armandii to compare the relative abundance of pollen to the current percent cover of plant species. This was used to determine possible changes in the distribution P. armandii. Given the hilly terrain, elevation was considered together with temperature and precipitation as variables correlated with distribution shifts of P. armandii. Results We show that P. armandii is undergoing change in its geographic range, including retraction, a shift to more northern areas and from the upper high part of the mountains to a lower-altitude part in hilly areas. Temperature was the strongest correlate of this distribution shift. Elevation and precipitation were also both significantly correlated with distribution change of P. armandii, but to a lesser degree than temperature. Conclusion The geographic range of P. armandii has been gradually decreasing under the influence of climate change. This provides evidence of the effect of climate change on trees at the species level and suggests that at least some species will have a limited ability to track the changing climate.

  14. MERISTEM STRUCTURE, DEVELOPMENT OF CONES AND MICROSPOROGENESIS OF TEHRAN PINE (PINUS ELDARICA Medw.

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    Ahmad MAJD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tehran pine (Pinus eldarica Medw. belongs to Pinaceae family with significant economic and ecological benefits. To gain further insight into anatomical-developmental structure of P. eldarica, both the vegetative and generative meristematic tissues and microsporogenesis were been studied during certain stages of development. To do this, meristematic tissues and male cones were initially fixed in FAA solution (37% formaldehyde, 96% ethanol and glacial acetic acid with a 2:7:1 ratio, respectively. They were then embedded in paraffin and sectioned using a rotary microtome. Prior to visualization and photography under a camera-equipped light microscope, they were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (Zeiss model. Our results revealed the vegetative meristem of P. eldarica to be in the Cryptomerya-Abies category. The results also indicated it is a protuberant (dome-like type containing four regions. The meiosis occurs before the winter dormancy and continues through the winter. The pollen is shed at the four-cell stage of development.

  15. Slow pyrolysis of wood barks from Pinus brutia Ten. and product compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensöz, Sevgi

    2003-09-01

    Biomass in the form of pine bark (Pinus brutia Ten.) was pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effects of temperature and heating rate on the yields and compositions of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures between 300 and 500 degrees C with heating rates of 7 and 40 degrees Cmin(-1). The product yields were significantly influenced by the process conditions. The bio-oil obtained at 450 degrees C, at which the liquid product yield was maximum, was analysed. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the solid and liquid products were analysed to determine their elemental composition and calorific value. Chemical fractionation of bio-oil showed that only low quantities of hydrocarbons were present, while oxygenated and polar fractions dominated. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.03 MJkg(-1) was established as CH(1.43)O(0.332)N(0.0013).

  16. Introduction of Pinus radiata for afforestation: a review with reference to Aba, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIHui-quan; JackSimpson; LIRong-wei; YANHong; WUZong-xing; CAIShi-min; RobertEldridge

    2003-01-01

    Pinus radiata D. Don, native to a Californian coastal environment, has been introduced to many parts of the world as an exotic species for afforestation. It is now a major plantation species in the Southern Hemisphere. In 1990, it was introduced to the heavily degraded, dry Min river valley area in Aba prefecture of Sichuan Province, P. R. China. Survival and growth of young trees planted at several sites appear to be reasonable. This review is to serve as an introduction to the large body of literature on P.radiata for forest scientists in China. It covers the following aspects: P. radiata in its native environment and in ex situ plantations,provenance and genetic variations, environmental limitations and climate niche, diseases and pests, lessons from unsuccessful introductions, and the use of P. radiata for ecological restoration. The early growth of P. radiata planted in the dry river valley area is briefly described. Potential problems associated with the introduction of P. radiata in Aba and future research needs are also identified.

  17. Ostryopsis davidiana seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi facilitate formation of mycorrhizae on Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shu-Lan; Li, Guo-Lei; Liu, Yong; Kasten Dumroese, R; Lv, Rui-Heng

    2009-08-01

    Reforestation in China is important for reversing anthropogenic activities that degrade the environment. Pinus tabulaeformis is desired for these activities, but survival and growth of seedlings can be hampered by lack of ectomycorrhizae. When outplanted in association with Ostryopsis davidiana plants on reforestation sites, P. tabulaeformis seedlings become mycorrhizal and survival and growth are enhanced; without O. davidiana, pines often remain without mycorrhizae and performance is poorer. To better understand this relationship, we initiated an experiment using rhizoboxes that restricted root and tested the hypothesis that O. davidiana seedlings facilitated ectomycorrhizae formation on P. tabulaeformis seedlings through hyphal contact. We found that without O. davidiana seedlings, inocula of five indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi were unable to grow and associate with P. tabulaeformis seedlings. Inocula placed alongside O. davidiana seedlings, however, resulted in enhanced growth and nutritional status of O. davidiana and P. tabulaeformis seedlings, and also altered rhizosphere pH and phosphatase activity. We speculate that these species form a common mycorrhizal network and this association enhances outplanting performance of P. tabulaeformis seedlings used for forest restoration.

  18. Mycorrhizal synthesis of Tuber indicum with two indigenous hosts, Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Li-Ying; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Yu, Fu-Qiang; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Tian, Xiao-Fei; Shi, Xiao-Fei; Xie, Xue-Dan; Liu, Pei-Gui; Shen, Yu-Ying

    2009-09-01

    Tuber indicum is one of the most renowned commercialized fungi in China. Mycorrhizal investigations, however, have been carried out mainly with exotic trees. Up to now there is no detailed description of morphology of the mycorrhizae formed with the indigenous hosts of T. indicum. Containerized seedlings of two indigenous hosts of the fungus in southwestern China, Pinus armandii and Castanea mollissima, were inoculated with aqueous spore suspension of T. indicum in two kinds of substrates. Mycorrhizae began to form 4 months after inoculation and were harvested at 9 months. The contributing fungus of the mycorrhizae was confirmed to be T. indicum by morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analyses. The morphology of emanating hyphae and epidermoid-like mantle appearance was similar to the mycorrhizae obtained with some European trees. The high morphological variation and the similarity to that of Tuber melanosporum makes it difficult to distinguish the mycorrhizae of the two species by morphology alone. The synthesis of mycorrhizae of T. indicum with its indigenous hosts will be of great significance for planned cultivation of the Asian black truffles.

  19. Acidity and conductivity of Pinus massoniana bark as indicators to atmospheric acid deposition in Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Yuan-wen; ZHOU Guo-yi; WEN Da-zhi; LIU Shi-zhong

    2006-01-01

    Barks of Pinus masoniana collected from two polluted sites, Qujiang and Xiqiaoshan, and from the relatively clean site Dinghushan were used to evaluate the pollution indication by the determination of their acidity and conductivity. The acidity of the inner and outer barks from the polluted sites was significantly higher than those from the clean site, suggesting that the acidity of the bark occurred in concurrent with the air pollution. The significant lower pH values of the outer bark than the inner bark collected from all sites indicated that the outer bark was more sensitive than the inner bark in response to acid pollution, implying that the outer bark is more preferable when used as indication of atmospheric acid pollution. The conductivities of the inner barks differed significantly among the three sites, with higher values at the clean site. However, the significant differences were not observed among these sites.Furthermore, the pH values for the inner and outer barks were not correlated with the conductivity, which did not coincide with some other studies.

  20. Diversity and saline resistance of endophytic fungi associated with Pinus thunbergii in coastal shelterbelts of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Young Ju; Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Quan, Ying; Jung, Sungcheol; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-03-28

    The Black Pine, Pinus thunbergii, is widely distributed along the eastern coast of Korea and its importance as a shelterbelt was highlighted after tsunamis in Indonesia and Japan. The root endophytic diversity of P. thunbergii was investigated in three coastal regions; Goseong, Uljin, and Busan. Fungi were isolated from the root tips, and growth rates of pure cultures were measured and compared between PDA with and without 3% NaCl to determine their saline resistance. A total of 259 isolates were divided into 136 morphotypes, of which internal transcribed spacer region sequences identified 58 species. Representatives of each major fungi phylum were present: 44 Ascomycota, 8 Zygomycota, and 6 Basidiomycota. Eighteen species exhibited saline resistance, many of which were Penicillium and Trichoderma species. Shoreline habitats harbored higher saline-tolerant endophytic diversity compared with inland sites. This investigation indicates that endophytes of P. thunbergii living closer to the coast may have higher resistance to salinity and potentially have specific relationships with P. thunbergii.