WorldWideScience

Sample records for pinus pinaster acacia

  1. Utilização Potencial do Lenho de Acacia melanoxylon: a Crescer em Povoamentos Puros ou Mistos com Pinus pinaster - pela Indústria Florestal Portuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, António; Teixeira, Andreia; Anjos, Ofélia; Simões, Rogério; Nunes, Lina; Machado, José S.; Tavares, Mário

    2007-01-01

    A Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. (acácia-austrália ou austrália) cresce bem em Portugal, em povoamentos puros ou mistos com Pinus pinaster Aiton, ainda que apresente fortes constrangimentos ecológicos e legais. Apesar de algumas dificuldades, por exemplo na secagem, a madeira de austrália é usada em mobiliário e produtos manufacturados devido, principalmente, à sua textura e cor escura. Pode também ser usada para pasta, sendo plantada em muitos países com esse propósito juntamente com Acacia mangi...

  2. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  3. Evaluation of the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and gene conservation activities were combined with climatic data to evaluate the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster. Combinations of climatic variables explained much of the

  4. Cadmium and copper change root growth and morphology of Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arduini, I.; Onnis, A. (Dipart. di Agronomia e Gestione dell' Agro-Ecosistema, Univ. degli Studi Pisa, Pisa (Italy)); Boldbold, D.L. (Forstbotanishces Institut, Univ. Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Heavy metal loads in forest soils have been increasing over time due to atmospheric inputs. Accumulation in the upper soil layers could affect establishment of seedlings and forest regeneration. Mediterranean species show a high initial root development, allowing seedlings to reach the moisture of deeper soil layers. In the present work seedlings of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), were grown in culture solution supplied with 0.0, 0.1, 1 or 5 [mu]M CdSO[sub 4] or with 1 [mu]M CdSO[sub 4] and 1 [mu]M CuSO[sub 4] combined. In both species tap-root elongation was drastically reduced in the 5 [mu]M Cd[sup 2+] and in the (Cd[sup 2+] - Cu[sup 2+]) treatments. A supply of 0.1 or 1 [mu]M Cd[sup 2+] however, enhanced root elongation in Pinus pinea without significantly influencing root elongation in Pinus pinaster. In both species the root density (weight per unit length) and the width of the cortex increased in response to Cd[sup 2+] exposure. In Pinus pinaster the mitotic index decreased at the higher Cd[sup 2+] concentrations and when Cd[sup 2+] and Cu[sup 2+] were combined. The data suggest that cell elongation is more sensitive to Cd[sup 2+] than cell division. The number and length of the lateral roots were also affected by Cd[sup 2+] treatment to a higher degree in Pinus pinaster than in Pinus pinea, reflecting the different Cd-tolerance of the two species. (au)

  5. Pinus pinaster Knot: A Source of Polyphenols against Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaston, Julien; Richard, Tristan; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Palos Pinto, Antonio; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-10-11

    Pine knot extract from Pinus pinaster byproducts was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Fourteen polyphenols divided into four classes were identified as follows: lignans (nortrachelogenin, pinoresinol, matairesinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol), flavonoids (pinocembrin, pinobanksin, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin), stilbenes (pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, pterostilbene), and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid). The antifungal potential of pine knot extract, as well as the main compounds, was tested in vitro against Plasmopara viticola. The ethanolic extract showed a strong antimildew activity. In addition, pinosylvins and pinocembrin demonstrated significant inhibition of zoospore mobility and mildew development. These findings strongly suggest that pine knot is a potential biomass that could be used as a natural antifungal product.

  6. Root architecture and wind-firmness of mature Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjon, Frédéric; Fourcaud, Thierry; Bert, Didier

    2005-11-01

    This study aims to link three-dimensional coarse root architecture to tree stability in mature timber trees with an average of 1-m rooting depth. Undamaged and uprooted trees were sampled in a stand damaged by a storm. Root architecture was measured by three-dimensional (3-D) digitizing. The distribution of root volume by root type and in wind-oriented sectors was analysed. Mature Pinus pinaster root systems were organized in a rigid 'cage' composed of a taproot, the zone of rapid taper of horizontal surface roots and numerous sinkers and deep roots, imprisoning a large mass of soil and guyed by long horizontal surface roots. Key compartments for stability exhibited strong selective leeward or windward reinforcement. Uprooted trees showed a lower cage volume, a larger proportion of oblique and intermediate depth horizontal roots and less wind-oriented root reinforcement. Pinus pinaster stability on moderately deep soils is optimized through a typical rooting pattern and a considerable structural adaptation to the prevailing wind and soil profile.

  7. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  8. Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with declined Pinus pinaster stands in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Álvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We studied the presence of fungi and distribution patterns in relation to the health status of declining Pinus pinaster trees. Area of study: Trees in two declining stands in Central Spain were allotted to three declining classes. Material and Methods: Trees in two declining stands in Central Spain were allotted to three declining classes (healthy, declining and recently dead and 3 trees of each class were felled in each stand. Wood slides (phloem and xylem were taken at six positions along the trees and samples collected from fungal identification. Main results: A total of 21 fungal taxa were isolated and identified; eleven of these species belonged to the Ophiostomatoid group. Ophiostoma minus was the most frequently isolated fungus and was identified in 22% of the samples, mainly associated to dead and diseased trees. Research highlights: Together these results suggest a putative association of O. minor with the decline in this area, and thus we suggest paying more attention to this fungus as a potential agent of decline in P. pinaster stands.

  9. Flow cytometric and morphological analyses of Pinus pinaster somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Loureiro, João; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Santos, Conceição; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-09-25

    An approach combining morphological profiling and flow cytometric analysis was used to assess genetic stability during the several steps of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus pinaster. Embryogenic cell lines of P. pinaster were established from immature zygotic embryos excised from seeds obtained from open-pollinated trees. During the maturation stage, phenotype of somatic embryos was characterized as being either normal or abnormal. Based upon the prevalent morphological traits, different types of abnormal embryos underwent further classification and quantification. Nuclear DNA content of maritime pine using the zygotic embryos was estimated to be 57.04 pg/2C, using propidium iodide flow cytometry. According to the same methodology, no significant differences (P< or =0.01) in DNA ploidy were detected among the most frequently observed abnormal phenotypes, embryogenic cell lines, zygotic and normal somatic embryos, and somatic embryogenesis-derived plantlets. Although the differences in DNA ploidy level do not exclude the occurrence of a low level of aneuploidy, the results obtained point to the absence of major changes in ploidy level during the somatic embryogenesis process of this economically important species. Therefore, our primary goal of true-to-typeness was assured at this level.

  10. Needle Terpenes as Chemotaxonomic Markers in Pinus: Subsections Pinus and Pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Zorica S; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Nikolić, Biljana M; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2017-05-01

    Chemical compositions of needle essential oils of 27 taxa from the section Pinus, including 20 and 7 taxa of the subsections Pinus and Pinaster, respectively, were compared in order to determine chemotaxonomic significance of terpenes at infrageneric level. According to analysis of variance, six out of 31 studied terpene characters were characterized by a high level of significance, indicating statistically significant difference between the examined subsections. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis has shown separation of eight groups, where representatives of subsect. Pinaster were distributed within the first seven groups on the dendrogram together with P. nigra subsp. laricio and P. merkusii from the subsect. Pinus. On the other hand, the eighth group included the majority of the members of subsect. Pinus. Our findings, based on terpene characters, complement those obtained from morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters studied over the past two decades. In addition, results presented in this article confirmed that terpenes are good markers at infrageneric level. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  11. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa; Pala, Mauro; Bonaccurso, Bruna; Stella, Anna; Redaelli, Anna; Paola, Gaudenzio; Valerio, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated

  12. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)]. E-mail: chimamb@istge.it; Pala, Mauro [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Bonaccurso, Bruna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Stella, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Redaelli, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Paola, Gaudenzio [Botany Department, Genoa University, C.so Dogali 1 canc., 16136 Genova (Italy); Valerio, Federico [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated.

  13. Influencia de la poda en el desarrollo de masas de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias

    OpenAIRE

    Hevia Cabal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis evaluó la influencia de diferentes intensidades de poda sobre el crecimiento, desarrollo y persistencia de masas regulares jóvenes de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias, dentro de una selvicultura sostenible enfocada a la producción de madera de calidad.

  14. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris Essential Oils Chemotypes and Monoterpene Hydrocarbon Enantiomers, before and after Inoculation with the Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana M; Mendes, Marta D; Lima, Ana S; Barbosa, Pedro M; Ascensão, Lia; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Mota, Manuel M; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a serious threat to global forest populations of conifers, especially Pinus spp. A time-course study of the essential oils (EOs) of 2-year-old Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris following inoculation with the PWN was performed. The constitutive and nematode inoculation induced EOs components were analyzed at both the wounding or inoculation areas and at the whole plant level. The enantiomeric ratio of optically active main EOs components was also evaluated. External symptoms of infection were observed only in P. pinaster and P. sylvestris 21 and 15 days after inoculation, respectively. The EO composition analysis of uninoculated and unwounded plants revealed the occurrence of chemotypes for P. pinaster, P. halepensis and P. sylvestris, whereas P. pinea showed a homogenous EO composition. When whole plants were evaluated for EO and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomeric chemical composition, no relevant qualitative and quantitative differences were found. Instead, EO analysis of inoculated and uninoculated wounded areas revealed an increase of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic compounds, especially in P. pinea and P. halepensis, comparatively to healthy whole plants EOs. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Levels and sources of PAHs in selected sites from Portugal: biomonitoring with Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Amigo, José Manuel; Alves, Arminda

    2010-04-01

    Pine needle samples from two pine species (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) were collected at 29 sites scattered throughout Portugal, in order to biomonitor the levels and trends of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The values obtained for the sum of all PAHs ranged from 76 to 1944 ng/g [dry weight (dw)]. Despite the apparent matrix similarities between both pine species, P. pinaster needles revealed higher mean entrapment levels than P. pinea (748 and 399 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively). The urban and industrial sites have the highest average of PAH incidence [for P. pinea, 465 and 433 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively, and for P. pinaster, 1147 and 915 ng/g (dw)], followed by the rural sites [233 ng/g and 711 ng/g (dw) per site, for P. pinea and P. pinaster, respectively]. The remote sites, both from P. pinaster needles, show the least contamination, with 77 ng/g (dw) per site. A predominance of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs was observed in most samples, with phenanthrene having 30.1% of the total. Naphthalene prevailed in remote sites. Rainfall had no influence on the PAHs levels, but there was a relationship between higher wind speeds and lower concentrations. PAH molecular ratios revealed the influence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources.

  17. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  18. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi forming symbiosis with Pinus pinaster seedlings exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Nadine R.; Ramos, Miguel A.; Marques, Ana P.G.C.; Castro, Paula M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals and its accumulation in the upper layers of forest soils affects plants, microorganisms and their interactions. Adequate strategies for the reforestation of metal contaminated sites are of vital importance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the response of Pinus pinaster seedlings to Cd exposure and to assess the effect of inoculation with two selected ectomycorrhizal fungi, Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon roseolus on that response. Seedlings were exposed to soil contaminated at 15 and 30 mg Cd kg −1 . Shoot biomass of P. pinaster decreased ca. 36% when exposed to 15 mg Cd kg −1 . Overall, colonization by S. bovinus significantly enhanced shoot development up to 30% in contaminated soil while colonization by R. roseolus produced no significant effect at both Cd concentrations tested and significantly increased the level of Cd in the shoots at both Cd concentrations. Metal accumulation in the shoots and roots of non-inoculated and S. bovinus-inoculated seedlings increased at the higher Cd levels whereas R. roseolus-inoculated seedlings were not sensitive to Cd variation in the soil. The results from our research show that inoculation with ECM fungi has a significant impact on metal uptake and development of P. pinaster seedlings; the differential response induced by the two tested species highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate strains for nursery inoculation, and, as such, this biological tool ought to be considered in reforestation processes of heavy metal contaminated areas by woody species. - Highlights: ► Ectomycorrhizal fungi can aid the reforestation of heavy metal contaminated areas. ► Cd inhibited the growth of non-inoculated 6 months-old Pinus pinaster seedlings. ► Inoculation with Suillus bovinus enhanced P. pinaster growth in Cd contaminated soil. ► Mycorrhizal symbiosis influenced the accumulation of Cd in P. pinaster seedlings.

  19. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi forming symbiosis with Pinus pinaster seedlings exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Nadine R.; Ramos, Miguel A.; Marques, Ana P.G.C.; Castro, Paula M.L., E-mail: plcastro@esb.ucp.pt

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals and its accumulation in the upper layers of forest soils affects plants, microorganisms and their interactions. Adequate strategies for the reforestation of metal contaminated sites are of vital importance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the response of Pinus pinaster seedlings to Cd exposure and to assess the effect of inoculation with two selected ectomycorrhizal fungi, Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon roseolus on that response. Seedlings were exposed to soil contaminated at 15 and 30 mg Cd kg{sup -1}. Shoot biomass of P. pinaster decreased ca. 36% when exposed to 15 mg Cd kg{sup -1}. Overall, colonization by S. bovinus significantly enhanced shoot development up to 30% in contaminated soil while colonization by R. roseolus produced no significant effect at both Cd concentrations tested and significantly increased the level of Cd in the shoots at both Cd concentrations. Metal accumulation in the shoots and roots of non-inoculated and S. bovinus-inoculated seedlings increased at the higher Cd levels whereas R. roseolus-inoculated seedlings were not sensitive to Cd variation in the soil. The results from our research show that inoculation with ECM fungi has a significant impact on metal uptake and development of P. pinaster seedlings; the differential response induced by the two tested species highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate strains for nursery inoculation, and, as such, this biological tool ought to be considered in reforestation processes of heavy metal contaminated areas by woody species. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectomycorrhizal fungi can aid the reforestation of heavy metal contaminated areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd inhibited the growth of non-inoculated 6 months-old Pinus pinaster seedlings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inoculation with Suillus bovinus enhanced P. pinaster growth in Cd contaminated soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycorrhizal symbiosis

  20. Numerical simulations of fire spread in a Pinus pinaster needles fuel bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menage, D; Chetehouna, K; Mell, W

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to extend the cases of WFDS model validation by comparing its predictions to literature data on a ground fire spreading in a Pinus pinaster needles fuel bed. This comparison is based on the experimental results of Mendes-Lopes and co-workers. This study is performed using the same domain as in the experiments (3.0m×1.2m×0.9m) with a mesh of 49,280 cells. We investigate the influence of wind (varied between 0 and 2 m/s) and moisture content (10 and 18%) on the rate of spread. The WFDS rate of spread is determined using a cross-correlation function of ground temperature profiles. The simulated rate of spread, as well as temperature, compared favourably to experimental values and show the WFDS model capacity to predict ground fires in Pinus Pinaster fuel beds.

  1. Numerical simulations of fire spread in a Pinus pinaster needles fuel bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menage, D.; Chetehouna, K.; Mell, W.

    2012-11-01

    The main aim of this paper is to extend the cases of WFDS model validation by comparing its predictions to literature data on a ground fire spreading in a Pinus pinaster needles fuel bed. This comparison is based on the experimental results of Mendes-Lopes and co-workers. This study is performed using the same domain as in the experiments (3.0m×1.2m×0.9m) with a mesh of 49,280 cells. We investigate the influence of wind (varied between 0 and 2 m/s) and moisture content (10 and 18%) on the rate of spread. The WFDS rate of spread is determined using a cross-correlation function of ground temperature profiles. The simulated rate of spread, as well as temperature, compared favourably to experimental values and show the WFDS model capacity to predict ground fires in Pinus Pinaster fuel beds.

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouara Ait Mimoune

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay. Results: Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9% and β-selinene (13.45% were predominant compounds. The essential oil exhibited a moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, but did not affect the growth of Erwinia amylovora. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were not inhibited by maritime pine essential oils. Conclusions: The essential oils from Pinus pinaster can be used as an antibacterial agent.

  3. Biological characterization of young and aged embryogenic cultures of Pinus pinaster (Ait.)

    OpenAIRE

    Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Noceda, Carlos; Pelletier, Gervais; Label, Philippe; Rodriguez, Roberto; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2009-01-01

    Pinus pinaster (Ait.) somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been developed during the last decade, and its application in tree improvement programs is underway. Nevertheless, a few more or less important problems still exist, which have an impact on the efficiency of specific SE stages. One phenomenon, which had been observed in embryogenic tissue (embryonal mass, EM) initiated from immature seed, has been the loss of the ability to produce mature somatic embryos after the tissue had been cultured f...

  4. Dehydrins in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and their expression related to drought stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Conde, Tania; Yakovlev, Igor; Majada, J.P. (Juan); Johnsen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) is an important commercial species throughout its Atlantic distribution. With the anticipated increase in desiccation of its habitat as a result of climate change, the selection of genotypes with increased survival and growth capability under these conditions for breeding programs is of great interest for this species. We aimed to study the response to a realistic drought stress under controlled conditions, looked for a method to measure dehydration resistance, ...

  5. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Nouara Ait Mimoune; Djouher Ait Mimoune; Aziza Yataghene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay. Results: Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9%) and β-seli...

  6. Carbon stable isotope-climate association in tree rings of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogino, Stella M; Bravo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios, recorded as "1"3C/"1"2C variations in tree rings of woody species, are the result of physiological changes related to environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to analyze the association among carbon thirteen variability (δ"1"3C), climate variables and tree-ring growth of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in central Spain. Pulverized woody material from the period 1975-1999 from four trees for each pine species was analyzed. To detect common patterns in δ"1"3C within each species and between δ"1"3C and growth indices, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. δ"1"3C of trees and the residual tree-ring chronologies were used at the PCA. Multilevel mixed linear models were applied between intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and climate variables. Our results show an inverse significant correlation between δ"1"3C and tree-ring growth of both species. Winter and spring air moisture was negatively correlated with iWUE of Pinus pinaster. July maximum temperature was positively correlated with iWUE of Pinus sylvestris. As δ"1"3C is significantly related to climate and growth and it may be recommended as a valuable tool for tree growth dynamic analysis to withstand increasingly stressful climate conditions

  7. Biochemical modifications in Pinus pinaster Ait. as a result of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Rosaria; Vanella, Luca; Sorrenti, Valeria; Santangelo, Rosa; Iauk, Liliana; Russo, Alessandra; Savoca, Francesca; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Di Giacomo, Claudia

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to chemical pollution can cause significant damage to plants by imposing conditions of oxidative stress. Plants combat oxidative stress by inducing antioxidant metabolites, enzymatic scavengers of activated oxygen and heat shock proteins. The accumulation of these proteins, in particular heat shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase, is correlated with the acquisition of thermal and chemical adaptations and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we used Pinus pinaster Ait. collected in the areas of Priolo and Aci Castello representing sites with elevated pollution and reference conditions, respectively. The presence of heavy metals and the levels of markers of oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxide levels, thiol groups, superoxide dismutase activity and expression of heat shock protein 70, heme oxygenase and superoxide dismutase) were evaluated, and we measured in field-collected needles the response to environmental pollution. P. pinaster Ait. collected from a site characterized by industrial pollution including heavy metals had elevated stress response as indicated by significantly elevated lipid hydroperoxide levels and decreased thiol groups. In particular, we observed that following a chronic chemical exposure, P. pinaster Ait. showed significantly increased expression of heat shock protein 70, heme oxygenase and superoxide dismutase. This increased expression may have protective effects against oxidative stress and represents an adaptative cellular defence mechanism. These results suggest that evaluation of heme oxygenase, heat shock protein 70 and superoxide dismutase expression in P. pinaster Ait. could represent a useful tool for monitoring environmental contamination of a region and to better understand mechanisms involved in plant defence and stress tolerance.

  8. Characterization of a type-A response regulator differentially expressed during adventitious caulogenesis in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, José M; Cortizo, Millán; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2012-12-15

    The molecular cloning and characterization of PipsRR1, a type-A response regulator in Pinus pinaster, is reported here. Type-A response regulators mediate downstream responses to cytokinin and act as negative feedback regulators of the signal transduction pathway. Some type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis have been related to de novo meristem formation. However, little information exists in Pinus spp. The PipsRR1 gene contains 5 exons, as do all type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis, and the deduced protein contains a receiver domain with the conserved DDK residues and a short C terminal extension. Expression analysis showed that the PipsRR1 gene is differentially expressed during the first phases of adventitious caulogenesis induced by benzyladenine in P. pinaster cotyledons, suggesting that PipsRR1 plays a role in caulogenesis in conifers. Additionally, a binary vector carrying the PipsRR1 promoter driving GFP:GUS expression was constructed to analyze the promoter activity in P. pinaster somatic embryos. The results of genetic transformation showed GUS activity during somatic embryo mass proliferation and embryo maturation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of fire severity on ectomycorrhizal colonization and morphometric features in Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vásquez-Gassibe, P.; Oria-de-Rueda, J.A.; Santos-del-Blanco, L.; Martín-Pinto, P.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Mycorrhizal fungi in Mediterranean forests play a key role in the complex process of recovery after wildfires. A broader understanding of an important pyrophytic species as Pinus pinaster and its fungal symbionts is thus necessary for forest restoration purposes. This study aims to assess the effects of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on maritime pine seedlings and how fire severity affects fungal colonization ability. Area of study: Central Spain, in a Mediterranean region typically affected by wildfires dominated by Pinus pinaster, a species adapted to fire disturbance. Material and Methods: We studied P. pinaster root apexes from seedlings grown in soils collected one year after fire in undisturbed sites, sites moderately affected by fire and sites highly affected by fire. Natural ectomycorrhization was observed at the whole root system level as well as at two root vertical sections (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). We also measured several morphometric traits (tap root length, shoot length, dry biomass of shoots and root/shoot ratio), which were used to test the influence of fire severity and soil chemistry upon them. Main results: Ectomycorrhizal colonization in undisturbed soils for total and separated root vertical sections was higher than in soils that had been affected by fire to some degree. Inversely, seedling vegetative size increased according to fire severity. Research highlights: Fire severity affected soil properties and mycorrhizal colonization one year after occurrence, thus affecting plant development. These findings can contribute to a better knowledge of the factors mediating successful establishment of P. pinaster in Mediterranean forests after wildfires. (Author)

  10. CONTINUIDADE ESPACIAL DE CARACTERÍSTICAS DENDROMÉTRICAS DE PINUS (Pinus pinaster Aiton E DE ATRIBUTOS DO SOLO / SPATIAL CONTINUITY OF DENDROMETRICS CHARACTERISTICS OF PINUS (Pinus pinaster Aiton AND SOIL ATTRIBUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLÉCIO M. SIQUEIRA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação e a continuidade espacial de características dendrométricas de pinus (Pinus pinaster Aiton e de atributos do solo. As amostragens foram realizadas em uma área de 0,25 ha cultivada com Pinus pinaster em Muras (Província de Lugo, Galícia, Espanha. Os atributos amostrados foram: o diâmetro da base das árvores (DB; o diâmetro a 0,30 m acima da base (D30; o diâmetro a altura do peito (a 1,3 m de altura, DAP, altura das árvores (ALT, profundidade do perfil do solo (PROF e a condutividade elétrica aparente do solo a 0,3 m de profundidade (CEa-H e a 1,5 m de profundidade (CEa-V. O uso da geoestatística permitiu caracterizar a variabilidade espacial de todos os atributos em estudo, com exceção da profundidade da rocha que apresentou efeito pepita puro. Os dados apresentaram moderada razão de dependência espacial entre amostras. Os mapas de variabilidade espacial não demonstram uma relação entre os mapas dos atributos de solo e planta estudados.Palavras-Chave: geoestatística; silvicultura de precisão; condutividade elétrica aparente do solo.

  11. PpRT1: the first complete gypsy-like retrotransposon isolated in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheta, Margarida; Cordeiro, Jorge; Oliveira, M; Miguel, Célia

    2007-02-01

    We have isolated and characterized a complete retrotransposon sequence, named PpRT1, from the genome of Pinus pinaster. PpRT1 is 5,966 bp long and is closely related to IFG7 gypsy retrotransposon from Pinus radiata. The long terminal repeats (LTRs) have 333 bp each and show a 5.4% sequence divergence between them. In addition to the characteristic polypurine tract (PPT) and the primer binding site (PBS), PpRT1 carries internal regions with homology to retroviral genes gag and pol. The pol region contains sequence motifs related to the enzymes protease, reverse transcriptase, RNAseH and integrase in the same typical order known for Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons. PpRT1 was extended from an EST database sequence indicating that its transcription is occurring in pine tissues. Southern blot analyses indicate however, that PpRT1 is present in a unique or a low number of copies in the P. pinaster genome. The differences in nucleotide sequence found between PpRT1 and IFG7 may explain the strikingly different copy number in the two pine species genome. Based on the homologies observed when comparing LTR region among different gypsy elements we propose that the highly conserved LTR regions may be useful to amplify other retrotransposon sequences of the same or close retrotransposon family.

  12. First report of shoot blight and dieback caused by Diplodia pinea on Pinus pinaster and P. radiata trees in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Linaldeddu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by Diplodia pinea on Pinus pinaster and P. radiata forests are reported for the fi rst time in Tunisia. The affected plants show shoot blight, canker and branch dieback. On decaying and dead branches pycnidia of D. pinea are observed. The fungus was repeatedly isolated from the bark of symptomatic branches. The results of pathogenicity tests confirm the virulence of D. pinea and the susceptibility of both Pinus species to infection.

  13. Hydraulic efficiency and safety of vascular and non-vascular components in Pinus pinaster leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Badel, Eric; Burlett, Régis; Cochard, Hervé; Delzon, Sylvain; Mayr, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Leaves, the distal section of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, exhibit the lowest water potentials in a plant. In contrast to angiosperm leaves, knowledge of the hydraulic architecture of conifer needles is scant. We investigated the hydraulic efficiency and safety of Pinus pinaster needles, comparing different techniques. The xylem hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and embolism vulnerability (P(50)) of both needle and stem were measured using the cavitron technique. The conductance and vulnerability of whole needles were measured via rehydration kinetics, and Cryo-SEM and 3D X-ray microtomographic observations were used as reference tools to validate physical measurements. The needle xylem of P. pinaster had lower hydraulic efficiency (k(s) = 2.0 × 10(-4) m(2) MPa(-1) s(-1)) and safety (P(50) = - 1.5 MPa) than stem xylem (k(s) = 7.7 × 10(-4) m(2) MPa(-1) s(-1); P(50) = - 3.6 to - 3.2 MPa). P(50) of whole needles (both extra-vascular and vascular pathways) was - 0.5 MPa, suggesting that non-vascular tissues were more vulnerable than the xylem. During dehydration to - 3.5 MPa, collapse and embolism in xylem tracheids, and gap formation in surrounding tissues were observed. However, a discrepancy in hydraulic and acoustic results appeared compared with visualizations, arguing for greater caution with these techniques when applied to needles. Our results indicate that the most distal parts of the water transport pathway are limiting for hydraulics of P. pinaster. Needle tissues exhibit a low hydraulic efficiency and low hydraulic safety, but may also act to buffer short-term water deficits, thus preventing xylem embolism.

  14. Intraspecific variation in Pinus pinaster PSII photochemical efficiency in response to winter stress and freezing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcuera, Leyre; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Notivol, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    As part of a program to select maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) genotypes for resistance to low winter temperatures, we examined variation in photosystem II activity by chlorophyll fluorescence. Populations and families within populations from contrasting climates were tested during two consecutive winters through two progeny trials, one located at a continental and xeric site and one at a mesic site with Atlantic influence. We also obtained the LT₅₀, or the temperature that causes 50% damage, by controlled freezing and the subsequent analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in needles and stems that were collected from populations at the continental trial site.P. pinaster showed sensitivity to winter stress at the continental site, during the colder winter. The combination of low temperatures, high solar irradiation and low precipitation caused sustained decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), quantum yield of non-cyclic electron transport (Φ(PSII)) and photochemical quenching (qP). The variation in photochemical parameters was larger among families than among populations, and population differences appeared only under the harshest conditions at the continental site. As expected, the environmental effects (winter and site) on the photochemical parameters were much larger than the genotypic effects (population or family). LT₅₀ was closely related to the minimum winter temperatures of the population's range. The dark-adapted F(v)/F(m) ratio discriminated clearly between interior and coastal populations.In conclusion, variations in F(v)/F(m), Φ(PSII), qP and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in response to winter stress were primarily due to the differences between the winter conditions and the sites and secondarily due to the differences among families and their interactions with the environment. Populations from continental climates showed higher frost tolerance (LT₅₀) than coastal populations that typically experience mild winters

  15. Pinus pinaster seedlings and their fungal symbionts show high plasticity in phosphorus acquisition in acidic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M A; Louche, J; Legname, E; Duchemin, M; Plassard, C

    2009-12-01

    Young seedlings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Soland in Aït.) were grown in rhizoboxes using intact spodosol soil samples from the southwest of France, in Landes of Gascogne, presenting a large variation of phosphorus (P) availability. Soils were collected from a 93-year-old unfertilized stand and a 13-year-old P. pinaster stand with regular annual fertilization of either only P or P and nitrogen (N). After 6 months of culture in controlled conditions, different morphotypes of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) were used for the measurements of acid phosphatase activity and molecular identification of fungal species using amplification of the ITS region. Total biomass, N and P contents were measured in roots and shoots of plants. Bicarbonate- and NaOH-available inorganic P (Pi), organic P (Po) and ergosterol concentrations were measured in bulk and rhizosphere soil. The results showed that bulk soil from the 93-year-old forest stand presented the highest Po levels, but relatively higher bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels compared to 13-year-old unfertilized stand. Fertilizers significantly increased the concentrations of inorganic P fractions in bulk soil. Ergosterol contents in rhizosphere soil were increased by fertilizer application. The dominant fungal species was Rhizopogon luteolus forming 66.6% of analysed ECM tips. Acid phosphatase activity was highly variable and varied inversely with bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels in the rhizosphere soil. Total P or total N in plants was linearly correlated with total plant biomass, but the slope was steep only between total P and biomass in fertilized soil samples. In spite of high phosphatase activity in ECM tips, P availability remained a limiting nutrient in soil samples from unfertilized stands. Nevertheless young P. pinaster seedlings showed a high plasticity for biomass production at low P availability in soils.

  16. Aplicação do método de análise do tronco a povoamentos de Pinus pinaster na Zona do Pinhal

    OpenAIRE

    Grácio, C.

    1992-01-01

    Apresenta um estudo dendrométrico baseado na aplicação do método de análise do tronco em povoamentos de Pinus pinaster pertencentes a alguns concelhos do distrito de Castelo Branco. É uma abordagem preliminar integrada num projeto em curso na ESA-IPCB sobre "Estudos de Crescimento de e Produção em Povoamentos de Pinus pinaster na Região da Beira Interior".

  17. Envelope-like retrotransposons in the plant kingdom: evidence of their presence in gymnosperms (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Célia; Simões, Marta; Oliveira, Maria Margarida; Rocheta, Margarida

    2008-11-01

    Retroviruses differ from retrotransposons due to their infective capacity, which depends critically on the encoded envelope. Some plant retroelements contain domains reminiscent of the env of animal retroviruses but the number of such elements described to date is restricted to angiosperms. We show here the first evidence of the presence of putative env-like gene sequences in a gymnosperm species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine). Using a degenerate primer approach for conserved domains of RNaseH gene, three clones from putative envelope-like retrotransposons (PpRT2, PpRT3, and PpRT4) were identified. The env-like sequences of P. pinaster clones are predicted to encode proteins with transmembrane domains. These sequences showed identity scores of up to 30% with env-like sequences belonging to different organisms. A phylogenetic analysis based on protein alignment of deduced aminoacid sequences revealed that these clones clustered with env-containing plant retrotransposons, as well as with retrotransposons from invertebrate organisms. The differences found among the sequences of maritime pine clones isolated here suggest the existence of different putative classes of env-like retroelements. The identification for the first time of env-like genes in a gymnosperm species may support the ancestrality of retroviruses among plants shedding light on their role in plant evolution.

  18. Analysis of genetic stability at SSR loci during somatic embryogenesis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Rocheta, Margarida; Maroco, João; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-04-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a propagation tool of particular interest for accelerating the deployment of new high-performance planting stock in multivarietal forestry. However, genetic conformity in in vitro propagated plants should be assessed as early as possible, especially in long-living trees such as conifers. The main objective of this work was to study such conformity based on genetic stability at simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci during somatic embryogenesis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Embryogenic cell lines (ECLs) subjected to tissue proliferation during 6, 14 or 22 months, as well as emblings regenerated from several ECLs, were analyzed. Genetic variation at seven SSR loci was detected in ECLs under proliferation conditions for all time points, and in 5 out of 52 emblings recovered from somatic embryos. Three of these five emblings showed an abnormal phenotype consisting mainly of plagiotropism and loss of apical dominance. Despite the variation found in somatic embryogenesis-derived plant material, no correlation was established between genetic stability at the analyzed loci and abnormal embling phenotype, present in 64% of the emblings. The use of microsatellites in this work was efficient for monitoring mutation events during the somatic embryogenesis in P. pinaster. These molecular markers should be useful in the implementation of new breeding and deployment strategies for improved trees using SE.

  19. Substitution pattern elucidation of hydroxypropyl Pinus pinaster (Ait.) bark polyflavonoid derivatives by ESI(-)-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Marrero, Danny E; Glasser, Wolfgang G; Pizzi, Antonio; Paczkowski, Sebastian; Laborie, Marie-Pierre G

    2014-10-01

    The structure of condensed tannins (CTs) from Pinus pinaster bark extract and their hydroxypropylated derivatives with four degrees of substitution (DS 1, 2, 3 and 4) has been characterized for the first time using negative-ion mode electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(-)-MS/MS). The results showed that P. pinaster bark CTs possess structural homogeneity in terms of monomeric units (C(15), catechin). The oligomer sizes were detected to be dimers to heptamers. The derivatives showed typical phenyl-propyl ether mass fragmentation by substituent elimination (58 amu) and inherent C(15) flavonoid fissions. The relative abundance of the product ions revealed a preferential triple, tetra-/penta- and octa- hydroxypropylation substitution pattern in the monomer, dimer and trimer derivatives, respectively. A defined order of -OH reactivity towards propylene oxide was established by means of multistage experiments (A-ring ≥ B-ring > C-ring). A high structural heterogeneity of the modified oligomers was detected. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Relationship between lignin structure and delignification degree in Pinus pinaster kraft pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Robert, D; Duarte, A P

    2008-05-01

    This study examines the structure of residual and dissolved lignins from Pinus pinaster pulps obtained at different degrees of delignification by laboratory conventional kraft pulping. The cooking H factor was varied from 85 to 8049. The residual and dissolved lignin samples were characterised by elemental analysis, residual carbohydrate content, permanganate oxidation and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The reflectance factor of the pulps was also determined in order to tentatively correlate the delignification degree and residual lignin structure with the pulp colour. The obtained results confirmed that the delignification degree increases the condensation of the lignin structure, which might have an influence upon the observed increased pulp colour. The lack of selectivity of kraft pulping process in the case of more delignified pulps was also shown.

  1. Forest structure and plant diversity in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in central Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, L. F.; Bravo, F.; Zaldivar, P.; Pando, V.

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between forest structure and plant diversity in Mediterranean Maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in the Iberian Range (Spain) was studied. Forty eight stands were sampled. In each, a circular plot (15 m radius) and a transect (25*1 m{sup 2}) were established to estimate stand variables and record presence and abundance of vascular species respectively. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA), simple correlations and multiple stepwise linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between plant diversity and forest structure. Correlation between diversity measurements and stand variables is very weak, but significant correlations were found when evaluating each set of variables separately. Presence and cover of some species (for instance, Veronica arvensis L. or Micropyrum tenellum (L.) Link) is correlated with stand variables; however, determination coefficients found in step-by-step regression are not significant. (Author) 34 refs.

  2. Pinus Pinaster surface treatment realized in spatial and temporal afterglow DBD conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoq, E.; Clément, F.; Panousis, E.; Loiseau, J.-F.; Held, B.; Castetbon, A.; Guimon, C.

    2008-04-01

    This experimental work deals with the exposition of Pinus Pinaster wood samples to a DBD afterglow. Electrical parameters like duty cycle and injected energy in the gas are being varied and the modifications induced by the afterglow on the wood are analysed by several macroscopic and microscopic ways like wettability, XPS analyses and also soaking tests of treated wood in a commercial fungicide solution. Soaking tests show that plasma treatment could enhance the absorption of fungicide into the wood. The wettability results point out that the plasma treatment can inflict on the wood different surface properties, making it hydrophilic or hydrophobic, when varying electrical parameters. XPS analyses reveal several chemical modifications like an increase of the O/C ratio and the presence of carboxyl groups on the surface after plasma treatments.

  3. Soil moisture spatio-temporal behavior of Pinus pinaster stands on sandy flatlands of central Spain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Sanz, V.; Garcia-Vinas, J. I.

    2011-07-01

    Pinus pinaster stands in the center of the Iberian Peninsula frequently grow in a unique hydrological system characterized by a variable groundwater table near the soil surface and highly permeable soils (arenosols). Over the last few decades, this superficial aquifer has been overused as a water resource, especially for irrigated crops. Overuse has reached a critical level and has caused various environmental impacts and a water sustainability crisis wherein rainfall variability does not allow for a sufficient level of aquifer recharge by natural means. Within this changing scenario, soil water significantly affects the spatio-temporal ecological response, necessitating more extensive characterization of the complex soil-tree water relationship. The primary goal of the present work was to evaluate the influence of root zone soil moisture on the observed spatial response of Pinus pinaster stands. Volumetric soil moisture content was measured at eleven forest sites, using time-domain reflectometry (TDR), over a two-year observation period. The results demonstrate that the combined effect of groundwater table proximity and dune morphology associated with this area are the main factors driving very different water availability conditions among the monitored hydrological response units, which modulate maritime pine installation and development. Topographically lower areas are more heterogeneous in terms of soil moisture behavior. In these areas, the conifer forests that are connected to the water table may be the most sensitive to land use changes within current environmental change scenarios. Consequently, in these pine ecosystems, the combined influences of geomorphology and water table proximity on variations in root zone soil moisture are essential and must be considered to develop adequate adaptive management models. (Author) 25 refs.

  4. Molecular response to water stress in two contrasting Mediterranean pines (Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdiguero, Pedro; Barbero, María Del Carmen; Cervera, María Teresa; Collada, Carmen; Soto, Alvaro

    2013-06-01

    Adaptation to water stress has determined the evolution and diversification of vascular plants. Water stress is forecasted to increase drastically in the next decades in certain regions, such as in the Mediterranean basin. Consequently, a proper knowledge of the response and adaptations to drought stress is essential for the correct management of plant genetic resources. However, most of the advances in the understanding of the molecular response to water stress have been attained in angiosperms, and are not always applicable to gymnosperms. In this work we analyse the transcriptional response of two emblematic Mediterranean pines, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea, which show noticeable differences in their performance under water stress. Using microarray analysis, up to 113 genes have been detected as significantly induced by drought in both species. Reliability of expression patterns has been confirmed by RT-PCR. While induced genes with similar profiles in both species can be considered as general candidate genes for the study of drought response in conifers, genes with diverging expression patterns can underpin the differences displayed by these species under water stress. Most promising candidate genes for drought stress response include genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, such as glycosyltransferases or galactosidases, sugar transporters, dehydrins and transcription factors. Additionally, differences in the molecular response to drought and polyethylene-glycol-induced water stress are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of solar activity on growth of pine trees (Pinus cembra: 1610 - 1970; Pinus pinaster: 1910 -1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surový, P.; Dorotovič, I.; Karlovský, V.; Rodrigues, J. C.; Rybanský, M.; Fleischer, P.

    2010-12-01

    In this work we have focused on the analysis of the data on the annual growth of cembra pine (Pinus cembra) grown in the Kôprová dolina Valley in the High Tatra Mountains. The database covers the period of 1406 - 1970, however, the sunspot data (minima and maxima) at the NGDC web site are only available since 1610. Moreover, reliable sunspot data are only available since 1749. The results of this analysis agree with the observation made in our previous work, i.e. there is a negative impact of high SA on the pine tree growth. However, it should be noted that statistical significance of the results is low. We also applied wavelet analysis to the data on the tree growth evolution, with the results indicating growth variations' period of about 20 years (duration of approximately two solar cycles or one magnetic cycle, respectively). A negative impact of the SA was also observed in growth of a 90 year-old maritime pine tree (Pinus pinaster) grown in northern Portugal. The width of the annual rings was smaller in the years of maximum SA; furthermore, it was found that it is the latewood growth that it is affected while the earlywood growth is not, and consequently the latewood additions also show a significative negative correlation with SA.

  6. Short Communication. Recruitment and early growth of Pinus pinaster seedlings over five years after a wildfire in NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Calvo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The main aim of this study was to analyse the post-fire recruitment and growth of Pinus pinaster seedlings during the first five years after wildfire and also to analyse the effects of climatic conditions on the survival of P. pinaster seedlingsArea of study: The study area was located in a P. pinaster stand in León province (NW Spain burned in 1998.Material and Methods: Three sites in the burned area were selected. In each site three permanent transects of 20m x 1m were placed. In each transect, twenty 1m2 sampling units were marked and the number and height of each pine seedlings was recorded at 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 months and 2, 3, 4 and 5 years after the wildfire. The soil of study area is Cambisol.Mean results: Mean Pinus regeneration densities varied between 33.2 seedlings/m2 after 7 months and 6 seedlings/m2 five years after wildfire. In this P. pinaster stand, maximum mortality appeared during the summer months in the first year of regeneration. There was a significant increase in seedling height associated with a decrease in density.Research highlights: The post-fire recruitment is considered enough to ensure good natural Pinus pinaster forest regeneration. In the short term post-fire management strategy in this type of forest could be the remaining branches with cones of burned trees that allow the dissemination of the seeds during the first few years after fire and ensure natural regeneration.Keywords: Fire effects; natural regeneration; León province (NW Spain; seedlings density; growth and survival.

  7. Susceptibility of three clinical isolates of Actinomodura madurae to α-pinene, the bioactive agent of Pinus pinaster turpentine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro susceptibility of the turpentine oil obtained from Pinus pinaster oleoresin was evaluated against three Sudanese clinical isolates of Actinomadura madurae, which is the main causative agent of actinomycetoma. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the oil ranged from 100.3 to 124.8 μL/mL, and the minimum microbicidal concentrations (MMCs were between 100.3 and 150.0 μL/mL. α-Pinene exhibited prominent bioactivity with MICs ranging between 3.3 and 5.0 μL/mL, while its MMC was 10.0 μL/mL against the same clinical isolates. Pinus pinaster turpentine oil and α-pinene might be useful agents in the treatment of mycetoma caused by A. madurae.

  8. The adjustment of global and partial dry biomass models for Pinus pinaster in the North-East of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Domingos; Almeida, L.R.; Castro, João Paulo; Aranha, José

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystems net primary production quantification can be done by means of allometric equations. Carbon sequestration studies also involve the quantification of growth dry biomass, knowing the carbon percentage of dry biomass. Fieldwork complexity to collect these kind of data are often limitative for obtaining these mathematical models. Allometric equations were adjusted to estimate dry biomass of individual Pinus pinaster trees, using data from 30 trees. Statisticals form the final equatio...

  9. Transcriptome-wide analysis supports environmental adaptations of two Pinus pinaster populations from contrasting habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, Rafael A; Feito, Isabel; Fuente-Maqueda, José Francisco; Ávila, Concepción; Majada, Juan; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2015-11-06

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) grows in a range of different climates in the southwestern Mediterranean region and the existence of a variety of latitudinal ecotypes or provenances is well established. In this study, we have conducted a deep analysis of the transcriptome in needles from two P. pinaster provenances, Leiria (Portugal) and Tamrabta (Morocco), which were grown in northern Spain under the same conditions. An oligonucleotide microarray (PINARRAY3) and RNA-Seq were used for whole-transcriptome analyses, and we found that 90.95% of the data were concordant between the two platforms. Furthermore, the two methods identified very similar percentages of differentially expressed genes with values of 5.5% for PINARRAY3 and 5.7% for RNA-Seq. In total, 6,023 transcripts were shared and 88 differentially expressed genes overlapped in the two platforms. Among the differentially expressed genes, all transport related genes except aquaporins were expressed at higher levels in Tamrabta than in Leiria. In contrast, genes involved in secondary metabolism were expressed at higher levels in Tamrabta, and photosynthesis-related genes were expressed more highly in Leiria. The genes involved in light sensing in plants were well represented in the differentially expressed groups of genes. In addition, increased levels of hormones such as abscisic acid, gibberellins, jasmonic and salicylic acid were observed in Leiria. Both transcriptome platforms have proven to be useful resources, showing complementary and reliable results. The results presented here highlight the different abilities of the two maritime pine populations to sense environmental conditions and reveal one type of regulation that can be ascribed to different genetic and epigenetic backgrounds.

  10. Intraspecific variation in Pinus pinaster PSII photochemical efficiency in response to winter stress and freezing temperatures.

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    Leyre Corcuera

    Full Text Available As part of a program to select maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. genotypes for resistance to low winter temperatures, we examined variation in photosystem II activity by chlorophyll fluorescence. Populations and families within populations from contrasting climates were tested during two consecutive winters through two progeny trials, one located at a continental and xeric site and one at a mesic site with Atlantic influence. We also obtained the LT₅₀, or the temperature that causes 50% damage, by controlled freezing and the subsequent analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in needles and stems that were collected from populations at the continental trial site.P. pinaster showed sensitivity to winter stress at the continental site, during the colder winter. The combination of low temperatures, high solar irradiation and low precipitation caused sustained decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v/F(m, quantum yield of non-cyclic electron transport (Φ(PSII and photochemical quenching (qP. The variation in photochemical parameters was larger among families than among populations, and population differences appeared only under the harshest conditions at the continental site. As expected, the environmental effects (winter and site on the photochemical parameters were much larger than the genotypic effects (population or family. LT₅₀ was closely related to the minimum winter temperatures of the population's range. The dark-adapted F(v/F(m ratio discriminated clearly between interior and coastal populations.In conclusion, variations in F(v/F(m, Φ(PSII, qP and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ in response to winter stress were primarily due to the differences between the winter conditions and the sites and secondarily due to the differences among families and their interactions with the environment. Populations from continental climates showed higher frost tolerance (LT₅₀ than coastal populations that typically experience mild

  11. Research on the antioxidant, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activities and the phytochemical composition of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümen, İbrahim; Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Taştan, Hakkı; Süntar, Ipek; Kurtca, Mehmet

    2018-01-30

    Ethnobotanical investigations have shown that the Pinus species have been used against rheumatic pain and for wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. In this study, phytochemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing activities of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) that is collected in Turkey are investigated. Essential oil composition and the amount of extracts (lipophilic and hydrophilic) of maritime pine wood and fresh cone samples had been tested. The essential oil from cones of P. pinaster revealed the highest activities, whereas other parts of the plant did not display any appreciable wound healing, anti-inflammatory, or antioxidant effects. α-Pinene was the main constituent of the essential oil obtained from the cones of P. pinaster. Experimental studies shown that P. pinaster's remarkable anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities support the traditional use of the plant, and suggest it could have a place in modern medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of sulfuryl fluoride against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchidae), in Pinus pinaster boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Luís F; Sousa, Edmundo; Naves, Pedro; Inácio, Maria L; Henriques, Joana; Mota, Manuel; Barbosa, Pedro; Drinkall, Mike J; Buckley, Stanislas

    2014-01-01

    The pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is an important conifer disease worldwide. It is the direct cause of the death of millions of pines in south-east Asia (mainly Japan, China and Korea) and has been established in Portugal since 1999. The phasing out of methyl bromide has created an urgent need for alternative treatment of wood packaging materials. The effect of sulfuryl fluoride (SF), a broad-spectrum fumigant used to control insects, was tested in Pinus pinaster boards naturally infested by PWN. Boards were fumigated for 24 h at three different temperatures (15, 20 and 30 °C) with dosage ranges of 3169-4407, 1901-4051 and 1385-2141 gh m(-3) respectively. Treated wood was sampled for nematode identification and counting, before treatment and after 24 h, 72 h and 21 days. No survival was found in the 15 °C and 30 °C treatments, while at 20 °C the mortality ranged from 94.06 to 100%. Some reasons for the survival at 20 °C are presented. Results confirm SF to be an effective quarantine treatment for PWN at 15 and 30 °C. Further studies are needed to obtain the most effective dosage at 20 °C, and to determine the toxicity of SF fumigation on B. xylophilus at other temperatures, especially at 25 °C. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Expression Profiling in Pinus pinaster in Response to Infection with the Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

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    Daniel Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests are essential resources on a global scale, not only for the ecological benefits, but also for economical and landscape purposes. However, in recent years, a large number of forest species have suffered a serious decline, with maritime pine being one of the most affected. In Portugal, the maritime pine forest has been devastated by the pine wood nematode (PWN, the causal agent of pine wilt disease. In this study, RNA-Seq data was used to characterize the maritime pine response to infection with PWN, by determining the differentially expressed genes and identifying the regulatory networks and pathways associated. The analyses showed clear differences between an early response that occurs immediately after inoculation and a late response that is observed seven days after inoculation. Moreover, differentially expressed genes related to secondary metabolism, oxidative stress and defense against pathogen infection were identified over different time points. These results provide new insights about the molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways involved in the response of Pinus pinaster against PWN infection, which will be a useful resource in follow-up studies and for future breeding programs to select plants with lower susceptibility to this disease.

  14. Physiological aspects underlying the improved outplanting performance of Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings associated with ectomycorrhizal inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; Majada, Juan; Martín-Rodrigues, Noemí; Gonzalez-Murua, Carmen; Ortega, Unai; Alonso-Graña, Manuel; Arana, Orats; Duñabeitia, Miren K

    2013-11-01

    Mycorrhizal inoculation of conifer roots is a key strategy to optimize establishment and performance of forest tree species under both natural and cultivated conditions and also to mitigate transplantation shock. However, despite being a common practice, inoculation in outdoor nursery conditions has been poorly studied. Here, we have evaluated effectiveness of four fungal species (Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius quieticolor, Pisolithus arhizus, and Suillus luteus) in the production of mycorrhizal Pinus pinaster seedlings in an outdoor commercial nursery and their ability to improve seedling physiology and field performance. All inoculated seedlings showed a significant increase in growth at the end of the nursery stage and these differences remained after 3 years of growth in the field. Differences observed in the content of malondialdehyde, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic compounds from needles of mycorrhizal and control seedlings may reflect a different sensitivity to photo-oxidative damage. We conclude that ectomycorrhizal inoculation improves adaptability to changeable growing conditions of an outdoor nursery and produces a higher quality nursery stock, thereby enhancing seedling performance after planting.

  15. Characterization of Three L-Asparaginases from Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerckhoven, Sonia H; de la Torre, Fernando N; Cañas, Rafael A; Avila, Concepción; Cantón, Francisco R; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2017-01-01

    Asparaginases (ASPG, EC 3.5.1.1) catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide group of L-asparagine producing L-aspartate and ammonium. Three ASPG, PpASPG1, PpASPG2, and PpASPG3, have been identified in the transcriptome of maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster Ait.) that were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana by agroinfection. The three recombinant proteins were processed in planta to active enzymes and it was found that all mature forms exhibited double activity asparaginase/isoaspartyl dipeptidase but only PpASPG1 was able to catalyze efficiently L-asparagine hydrolysis. PpASPG1 contains a variable region of 77 amino acids that is critical for proteolytic processing of the precursor and is retained in the mature enzyme. Furthermore, the functional analysis of deletion mutants demonstrated that this protein fragment is required for specific recognition of the substrate and favors enzyme stability. Potassium has a limited effect on the activation of maritime pine ASPG what is consistent with the lack of a critical residue essential for interaction of cation. Taken together, the results presented here highlight the specific features of ASPG from conifers when compared to the enzymes from angiosperms.

  16. The role of arginine metabolic pathway during embryogenesis and germination in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llebrés, María-Teresa; Pascual, María-Belén; Debille, Sandrine; Trontin, Jean-François; Harvengt, Luc; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2018-03-01

    Vegetative propagation through somatic embryogenesis is critical in conifer biotechnology towards multivarietal forestry that uses elite varieties to cope with environmental and socio-economic issues. An important and still sub-optimal process during in vitro maturation of somatic embryos (SE) is the biosynthesis and deposition of storage proteins, which are rich in amino acids with high nitrogen (N) content, such as arginine. Mobilization of these N-rich proteins is essential for the germination and production of vigorous somatic seedlings. Somatic embryos accumulate lower levels of N reserves than zygotic embryos (ZE) at a similar stage of development. To understand the molecular basis for this difference, the arginine metabolic pathway has been characterized in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). The genes involved in arginine metabolism have been identified and GFP-fusion constructs were used to locate the enzymes in different cellular compartments and clarify their metabolic roles during embryogenesis and germination. Analysis of gene expression during somatic embryo maturation revealed high levels of transcripts for genes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of arginine. By contrast, enhanced expression levels were only observed during the last stages of maturation and germination of ZE, consistent with the adequate accumulation and mobilization of protein reserves. These results suggest that arginine metabolism is unbalanced in SE (simultaneous biosynthesis and degradation of arginine) and could explain the lower accumulation of storage proteins observed during the late stages of somatic embryogenesis.

  17. Characterization of Three L-Asparaginases from Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia H. Van Kerckhoven

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asparaginases (ASPG, EC 3.5.1.1 catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide group of L-asparagine producing L-aspartate and ammonium. Three ASPG, PpASPG1, PpASPG2, and PpASPG3, have been identified in the transcriptome of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. that were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana by agroinfection. The three recombinant proteins were processed in planta to active enzymes and it was found that all mature forms exhibited double activity asparaginase/isoaspartyl dipeptidase but only PpASPG1 was able to catalyze efficiently L-asparagine hydrolysis. PpASPG1 contains a variable region of 77 amino acids that is critical for proteolytic processing of the precursor and is retained in the mature enzyme. Furthermore, the functional analysis of deletion mutants demonstrated that this protein fragment is required for specific recognition of the substrate and favors enzyme stability. Potassium has a limited effect on the activation of maritime pine ASPG what is consistent with the lack of a critical residue essential for interaction of cation. Taken together, the results presented here highlight the specific features of ASPG from conifers when compared to the enzymes from angiosperms.

  18. Cryopreservation of somatic embryogenic cultures of Pinus pinaster: effects on regrowth and embryo maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, José M; Cortizo, Millán; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2012-01-01

    Pinus pinaster is one of the most economically important conifers in the world. Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful tool in breeding programmes because it allows the generation of a great number of different clonal lines from seeds of superior genotypes. Unfortunately, embryogenic competence decreases with the age of cultures. Therefore, it is necessary to have a cryopreservation protocol that ensures a continuous supply of juvenile mass while allowing good maturation and conversion rates into vigorously growing plants. In this work we studied the influence of several cryopreservation parameters, such as cryoprotectant solution and pre-cooling temperature, on embryogenic culture regrowth and embryo maturation. Recovery of rewarmed samples after cryopreservation in a -150 degree C freezer depended on the cooling temperature reached prior to plunging the tubes into liquid nitrogen. As a result, we present an optimised cryopreservation protocol that ensures high recovery and embryo maturation rates. The protocol presented is a simple and fast alternative and enabled successful cryopreservation and recovery of 100 percent of the lines tested. Cryopreserved lines presented the same maturation rates as non-cryopreserved controls.

  19. Plasticity of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) wood-forming tissues during a growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, J A P; Garnier-Géré, P H; Rodrigues, J C; Alves, A; Santos, S; Graça, J; Le Provost, G; Chaumeil, G; Da Silva-Perez, D; Bosc, A; Fevereiro, P; Plomion, C

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal effect is the most significant external source of variation affecting vascular cambial activity and the development of newly divided cells, and hence wood properties. Here, the effect of edapho-climatic conditions on the phenotypic and molecular plasticity of differentiating secondary xylem during a growing season was investigated. Wood-forming tissues of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) were collected from the beginning to the end of the growing season in 2003. Data from examination of fibre morphology, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), analytical pyrolysis, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were combined to characterize the samples. Strong variation was observed in response to changes in edapho-climatic conditions. A genomic approach was used to identify genes differentially expressed during this growing season. Out of 3512 studied genes, 19% showed a significant seasonal effect. These genes were clustered into five distinct groups, the largest two representing genes over-expressed in the early- or late-wood-forming tissues, respectively. The other three clusters were characterized by responses to specific edapho-climatic conditions. This work provides new insights into the plasticity of the molecular machinery involved in wood formation, and reveals candidate genes potentially responsible for the phenotypic differences found between early- and late-wood.

  20. PAH detection in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles: A fast method for biomonitoring purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Concha Graña, E; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J Á; López Mahía, P; Prada Rodríguez, D; Muniategui Lorenzo, S

    2016-06-01

    Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of plant matrices, new procedure should be standardized for each single biomonitor. Thus, here is described a matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction method, previously used for moss samples, improved and modified for the analyses of PAHs in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles, species widely used in biomonitoring studies across Europe. The improvements compared to the previous procedure are the use of Florisil added with further clean-up sorbents, 10% deactivated silica for pine needles and PSA for oak leaves, being these matrices rich in interfering compounds, as shown by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses acquired in full scan mode. Good trueness, with values in the range 90-120% for the most of compounds, high precision (intermediate precision between 2% and 12%) and good sensitivity using only 250mg of samples (limits of quantification lower than 3 and 1.5ngg(-1), respectively for pine and oak) were achieved by the selected procedures. These methods proved to be reliable for PAH analyses and, having advantage of fastness, can be used in biomonitoring studies of PAH air contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial genetic structure in continuous and fragmented populations of Pinus pinaster Aiton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Lucas, A I; González-Martínez, S C; Vendramin, G G; Hidalgo, E; Heuertz, M

    2009-11-01

    Habitat fragmentation, i.e., the reduction of populations into small isolated remnants, is expected to increase spatial genetic structure (SGS) in plant populations through nonrandom mating, lower population densities and potential aggregation of reproductive individuals. We investigated the effects of population size reduction and genetic isolation on SGS in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) using a combined experimental and simulation approach. Maritime pine is a wind-pollinated conifer which has a scattered distribution in the Iberian Peninsula as a result of forest fires and habitat fragmentation. Five highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellites were genotyped in a total of 394 individuals from two population pairs from the Iberian Peninsula, formed by one continuous and one fragmented population each. In agreement with predictions, SGS was significant and stronger in fragments (Sp = 0.020 and Sp = 0.026) than in continuous populations, where significant SGS was detected for one population only (Sp = 0.010). Simulations suggested that under fat-tailed dispersal, small population size is a stronger determinant of SGS than genetic isolation, while under normal dispersal, genetic isolation has a stronger effect. SGS was always stronger in real populations than in simulations, except if unrealistically narrow dispersal and/or high variance of reproductive success were modelled (even when accounting for potential overestimation of SGS in real populations as a result of short-distance sampling). This suggests that factors such as nonrandom mating or selection not considered in the simulations were additionally operating on SGS in Iberian maritime pine populations.

  2. Identification of genes differentially expressed in ectomycorrhizal roots during the Pinus pinaster-Laccaria bicolor interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Monterroso, Aranzazu; Canales, Javier; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal associations are of major ecological importance in temperate and boreal forests. The development of a functional ectomycorrhiza requires many genetic and biochemical changes. In this study, suppressive subtraction hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) inoculated with Laccaria bicolor, a mycorrhizal fungus. A total number of 200 unigenes were identified as being differentially regulated in maritime pine roots during the development of mycorrhiza. These unigenes were classified into 10 categories according to the function of their homologues in the GenBank database. Approximately, 40 % of the differentially expressed transcripts were genes that coded for unknown proteins in the databases or that had no homology to known genes. A group of these differentially expressed genes was selected to validate the results using quantitative real-time PCR. The transcript levels of the representative genes were compared between the non-inoculated and inoculated plants at 1, 5, 15 and 30 days after inoculation. The observed expression patterns indicate (1) changes in the composition of the wall cell, (2) tight regulation of defence genes during the development of mycorrhiza and (3) changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Ammonium excess or deficiency dramatically affected the stability of ectomycorrhiza and altered gene expression in maritime pine roots.

  3. Assessing wildfire occurrence probability in Pinus pinaster Ait. stands in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Botequim, B.; Ricardo, A.; Borges, J. G.; Tome, M.; Oliveira, M. M.

    2012-11-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) is an important conifer from the western Mediterranean Basin extending over 22% of the forest area in Portugal. In the last three decades nearly 4% of Maritime pine area has been burned by wildfires. Yet no wildfire occurrence probability models are available and forest and fire management planning activities are thus carried out mostly independently of each other. This paper presents research to address this gap. Specifically, it presents a model to assess wildfire occurrence probability in regular and pure Maritime pine stands in Portugal. Emphasis was in developing a model based on easily available inventory data so that it might be useful to forest managers. For that purpose, data from the last two Portuguese National Forest Inventories (NFI) and data from wildfire perimeters in the years from 1998 to 2004 and from 2006 to 2007 were used. A binary logistic regression model was build using biometrics data from the NFI. Biometric data included indicators that might be changed by operations prescribed in forest planning. Results showed that the probability of wildfire occurrence in a stand increases in stand located at steeper slopes and with high shrubs load while it decreases with precipitation and with stand basal area. These results are instrumental for assessing the impact of forest management options on wildfire probability thus helping forest managers to reduce the risk of wildfires. (Author) 57 refs.

  4. In vitro co-cultures of Pinus pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: a biotechnological approach to study pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge M S; Sena, Inês; Vieira da Silva, Inês; Ribeiro, Bruno; Barbosa, Pedro; Ascensão, Lia; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Co-cultures of Pinus pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were established as a biotechnological tool to evaluate the effect of nematotoxics addition in a host/parasite culture system. The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), was detected for the first time in Europe in 1999 spreading throughout the pine forests in Portugal and recently in Spain. Plant in vitro cultures may be a useful experimental system to investigate the plant/nematode relationships in loco, thus avoiding the difficulties of field assays. In this study, Pinus pinaster in vitro cultures were established and compared to in vivo 1 year-old plantlets by analyzing shoot structure and volatiles production. In vitro co-cultures were established with the PWN and the effect of the phytoparasite on in vitro shoot structure, water content and volatiles production was evaluated. In vitro shoots showed similar structure and volatiles production to in vivo maritime pine plantlets. The first macroscopic symptoms of PWD were observed about 4 weeks after in vitro co-culture establishment. Nematode population in the culture medium increased and PWNs were detected in gaps of the callus tissue and in cavities developed from the degradation of cambial cells. In terms of volatiles main components, plantlets, P. pinaster cultures, and P. pinaster with B. xylophilus co-cultures were all β- and α-pinene rich. Co-cultures may be an easy-to-handle biotechnological approach to study this pathology, envisioning the understanding of and finding ways to restrain this highly devastating nematode.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis highlights epigenetic and transcriptional regulation during zygotic embryo development of Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega-Bartol, José J; Simões, Marta; Lorenz, W Walter; Rodrigues, Andreia S; Alba, Rob; Dean, Jeffrey F D; Miguel, Célia M

    2013-08-30

    It is during embryogenesis that the plant body plan is established and the meristems responsible for all post-embryonic growth are specified. The molecular mechanisms governing conifer embryogenesis are still largely unknown. Their elucidation may contribute valuable information to clarify if the distinct features of embryo development in angiosperms and gymnosperms result from differential gene regulation. To address this issue, we have performed the first transcriptomic analysis of zygotic embryo development in a conifer species (Pinus pinaster) focusing our study in particular on regulatory genes playing important roles during plant embryo development, namely epigenetic regulators and transcription factors. Microarray analysis of P. pinaster zygotic embryogenesis was performed at five periods of embryo development from early developing to mature embryos. Our results show that most changes in transcript levels occurred in the first and the last embryo stage-to-stage transitions, namely early to pre-cotyledonary embryo and cotyledonary to mature embryo. An analysis of functional categories for genes that were differentially expressed through embryogenesis highlighted several epigenetic regulation mechanisms. While putative orthologs of transcripts associated with mechanisms that target transposable elements and repetitive sequences were strongly expressed in early embryogenesis, PRC2-mediated repression of genes seemed more relevant during late embryogenesis. On the other hand, functions related to sRNA pathways appeared differentially regulated across all stages of embryo development with a prevalence of miRNA functions in mid to late embryogenesis. Identification of putative transcription factor genes differentially regulated between consecutive embryo stages was strongly suggestive of the relevance of auxin responses and regulation of auxin carriers during early embryogenesis. Such responses could be involved in establishing embryo patterning. Later in

  6. Influence of instantaneous controlled pressure drop extraction conditions on composition and oil yield from Maritime Pine (Pinus Pinaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Rezzoug , Sid-Ahmed; Janocka , Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Experiments to extract the essential oil from maritime pine (pinus pinaster) were carried out using the instantaneous controlled pressure drop process: "Détente Instantanée Contrôlée" (D.I.C). This process involves subjecting the maritime pine needles for a short period of time to a steam pressure varying from 2 to 5 bar (120 to 150 °C) during a fixed processing time, followed by an instantaneous decompression towards a vacuum (about 50 mbar). In this contribution, we ...

  7. Differences in hydraulic architecture between mesic and xeric Pinus pinaster populations at the seedling stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcuera, Leyre; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Notivol, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    We studied the intraspecific variability of maritime pine in a set of morphological and physiological traits: soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE, estimated by carbon isotope composition, δ(13)C), root morphology, xylem anatomy, growth and carbon allocation patterns. The data were collected from Pinus pinaster Aiton seedlings (25 half-sib families from five populations) grown in a greenhouse and subjected to water and water-stress treatments. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in water availability at the geographic location of the populations, and to study the potential trade-offs among traits. The drought-stressed seedlings demonstrated a decrease in hydraulic conductance and root surface area and increased WUE and root tip number. The relationships among the growth, morphological, anatomical and physiological traits changed with the scale of study: within the species, among/within populations. The populations showed a highly significant relationship between the percentage reduction in whole-plant hydraulic conductance and WUE. The differences among the populations in root morphology, whole-plant conductance, carbon allocation, plant growth and WUE were significant and consistent with dryness of the site of seed origin. The xeric populations exhibited lower growth and a conservative water use, as opposed to the fast-growing, less water-use-efficient populations from mesic habitats. The xeric and mesic populations, Tamrabta and San Cipriano, respectively, showed the most contrasting traits and were clustered in opposite directions along the main axis in the canonical discriminant analysis under both the control and drought treatments. The results suggest the possibility of selecting the Arenas population, which presents a combination of traits that confer increased growth and drought resistance.

  8. Organ-specific metabolic responses to drought in Pinus pinaster Ait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Marina; Guevara, M Ángeles; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de María, Nuria; Díaz, Luis Manuel; Mancha, Jose A; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Desai, Nalini; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Drought is an important driver of plant survival, growth, and distribution. Water deficit affects different pathways of metabolism, depending on plant organ. While previous studies have mainly focused on the metabolic drought response of a single organ, analysis of metabolic differences between organs is essential to achieve an integrated understanding of the whole plant response. In this work, untargeted metabolic profiling was used to examine the response of roots, stems, adult and juvenile needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. full-sib individuals, subjected to a moderate and long lasting drought period. Cyclitols content showed a significant alteration, in response to drought in all organs examined, but other metabolites increased or decreased differentially depending on the analyzed organ. While a high number of flavonoids were only detected in aerial organs, an induction of the glutathione pathway was mainly detected in roots. This result may reflect different antioxidant mechanisms activated in aerial organs and roots. Metabolic changes were more remarkable in roots than in the other organs, highlighting its prominent role in the response to water stress. Significant changes in flavonoids and ascorbate metabolism were also observed between adult and juvenile needles, consistent with previously proven differential functional responses between the two developmental stages. Genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes coding for a Myb1 transcription factor and a malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) were associated with different concentration of phenylalanine, phenylpropanoids and malate, respectively. The results obtained will support further research on metabolites and genes potentially involved in functional mechanisms related to drought tolerance in trees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Zygotic and somatic embryo morphogenesis in Pinus pinaster: comparative histological and histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereso, Susana; Zoglauer, Kurt; Milhinhos, Ana; Miguel, Célia; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2007-05-01

    We compared morphogenesis and accumulation of storage proteins and starch in Pinus pinaster Ait. zygotic embryos with those in somatic embryos grown with different carbohydrate sources. The maturation medium for somatic embryos included 80 microM abscisic acid (ABA), 9 g l(-1) gellam gum and either glucose, sucrose or maltose at 44, 88, 175 or 263 mM in the presence or absence of 6% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 MW. Maturation medium containing 44 or 88 mM of a carbohydrate source produced only one or no cotyledonary somatic embryos per 0.6 g fresh mass of culture. The addition of PEG to the basal maturation medium resulted in a low yield of cotyledonary somatic embryos that generally showed incomplete development and anatomical abnormalities such as large intercellular spaces and large vacuoles. High concentrations of maltose also induced large intercellular spaces in the somatic embryonic cells, and 263 mM sucrose produced fewer and less developed cotyledonary somatic embryos compared with 175 mM sucrose, indicating that the effect of carbohydrate source is partially osmotic. Zygotic embryos had a lower dry mass than somatic embryos at the same stage of development. Starch granules followed a similar accumulation pattern in zygotic and somatic embryos. A low starch content was found in cotyledonary zygotic embryos and in somatic embryos developed in the presence of 175 mM maltose or 263 mM glucose. In zygotic embryos and in PEG-treated somatic embryos, protein bodies appeared later and were smaller and fewer than in well-developed somatic embryos grown without PEG. We propose that storage protein concentration might be a marker of embryo quality.

  10. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Elvira-Recuenco

    Full Text Available There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival. These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease.

  11. Mucilaginibacter pineti sp. nov., isolated from Pinus pinaster wood from a mixed grove of pines trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Gabriel; Abreu, Pedro; Proença, Diogo Neves; Santos, Susana; Nobre, Maria Fernanda; Morais, Paula V

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial strain M47C3B(T) was isolated from the endophytic microbial community of a Pinus pinaster tree branch from a mixed grove of pines. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this organism represented one distinct branch within the family Sphingobacteriaceae, most closely related to the genus Mucilaginibacter. Strain M47C3B(T) formed a distinct lineage, closely related to Mucilaginibacter dorajii KACC 14556(T), with which it shared 97.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The other members of the genus Mucilaginibacter included in the same clade were Mucilaginibacter lappiensis ATCC BAA-1855(T) sharing 97.0% similarity and Mucilaginibacter composti TR6-03(T) that had a lower similarity (95.7%). The novel strain was Gram-staining-negative, formed rod-shaped cells, grew optimally at 26 °C and at pH 7, and was able to grow with up to 0.3% (w/v) NaCl. The respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids of the strain were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, representing 73.5% of the total fatty acids. The major components of the polar lipid profile of strain M47C3B(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminophospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified polar lipids. The G+C content of the DNA was 40.6 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics we propose the name Mucilaginibacter pineti sp. nov. for the novel species represented by strain M47C3B(T) ( = CIP 110632(T) = LMG 28160(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  12. Chitinophaga costaii sp. nov., an endophyte of Pinus pinaster, and emended description of Chitinophaga niabensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Diogo Neves; Nobre, Maria Fernanda; Morais, Paula V

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial strain A37T2(T) was isolated from the endophytic microbial community of a Pinus pinaster tree trunk and characterized. Strain A37T2(T) was Gram-stain-negative, formed rod-shaped cells, and grew optimally at 26-30 °C and at pH 5.5-7.5. The G+C content of the DNA was 46.6 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids were C16 : 1ω5c and iso-C15 : 0, representing 61.7 % of the total fatty acids. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified aminophospholipids, one unidentified phospholipid, two unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified lipids. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain A37T2(T) belonged to the family Chitinophagaceae, forming a distinct branch with Chitinophaga niabensis JS13-10(T) within the genus Chitinophaga. Strain A37T2(T) shared between 92.7 and 95.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strains of species of the genus Chitinophaga. The phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data presented indicate that strain A37T2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga costaii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A37T2(T) ( = CIP 110584(T) = LMG 27458(T)). An emended description of Chitinophaga niabensis JS13-10(T) is also proposed.

  13. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease.

  14. Molecular proxies for climate maladaptation in a long-lived tree (Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Correa, Juan-Pablo; Rodríguez-Quilón, Isabel; Grivet, Delphine; Lepoittevin, Camille; Sebastiani, Federico; Heuertz, Myriam; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H; Alía, Ricardo; Plomion, Christophe; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2015-03-01

    Understanding adaptive genetic responses to climate change is a main challenge for preserving biological diversity. Successful predictive models for climate-driven range shifts of species depend on the integration of information on adaptation, including that derived from genomic studies. Long-lived forest trees can experience substantial environmental change across generations, which results in a much more prominent adaptation lag than in annual species. Here, we show that candidate-gene SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) can be used as predictors of maladaptation to climate in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an outcrossing long-lived keystone tree. A set of 18 SNPs potentially associated with climate, 5 of them involving amino acid-changing variants, were retained after performing logistic regression, latent factor mixed models, and Bayesian analyses of SNP-climate correlations. These relationships identified temperature as an important adaptive driver in maritime pine and highlighted that selective forces are operating differentially in geographically discrete gene pools. The frequency of the locally advantageous alleles at these selected loci was strongly correlated with survival in a common garden under extreme (hot and dry) climate conditions, which suggests that candidate-gene SNPs can be used to forecast the likely destiny of natural forest ecosystems under climate change scenarios. Differential levels of forest decline are anticipated for distinct maritime pine gene pools. Geographically defined molecular proxies for climate adaptation will thus critically enhance the predictive power of range-shift models and help establish mitigation measures for long-lived keystone forest trees in the face of impending climate change. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Characterization of juvenile maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) ectomycorrhizal fungal community using morphotyping, direct sequencing and fruitbodies sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestaña Nieto, Montserrat; Santolamazza Carbone, Serena

    2009-02-01

    Using ectomycorrhizal root tip morphotyping (anatomical and morphological identification), molecular analysis (internal transcribed spacer region amplification and sequencing), and fruitbody sampling, we assessed diversity and composition of the ectomycorrhizal fungal community colonizing juvenile Pinus pinaster Ait. under natural conditions in NW Spain. Overall, we found 15 Basidiomycetes and two Ascomycetes. Members of the family Thelephoraceae represented up to 59.4% of the samples. The most frequent species was Tomentella sublilacina followed by Thelephora terrestris, Russula drimeia, Suillus bovinus, and Paxillus involutus, while the less frequent were Pseudotomentella tristis, Lactarius subdulcis, Russula ochroleuca, and Entoloma conferendum. From October 2007 to June 2008, we sampled 208 sporocarps belonging to seven genera and nine species: Thelephora terrestris, Paxillus involutus, Suillus bovinus, Xerocomus badius, Scleroderma verrucosum, Amanita gemmata, A. rubescens, Amanita sp., and Russula sp. The species belonging to the genus Amanita, X. badius and S. verrucosum were not found on root samples. By comparing our results with a bibliographic review of papers published from 1922 to 2006, we found five genera and six species which have not been previously reported in symbiosis with P. pinaster. This is the first time that the diversity of the ectomycorrhizal fungal community associated with P. pinaster was investigated using molecular techniques. Considering that only 38% of the genera found by sequencing were found as fruitbodies, we conclude that integrating morphotyping and sporocarps surveys with molecular analysis of ectomycorrhizas is important to documenting the ectomycorrhizal fungus community.

  16. Diversity of bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from Pinus pinaster trees with pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Neves Proença

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been thought to be the only causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD, however, since bacteria have been suggested to play a role in PWD, it is important to know the diversity of the microbial community associated to it. This study aimed to assess the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and with other nematodes isolated from pine trees, Pinus pinaster, with PWD from three different affected forest areas in Portugal. One hundred and twenty three bacteria strains were isolated from PWN and other nematodes collected from 14 P. pinaster. The bacteria strains were identified by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence. All except one gram-positive strain (Actinobacteria belonged to the gram-negative Beta and Gammaproteobacteria. Most isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Species isolated in higher percentage were Pseudomonas lutea, Yersinia intermedia and Burkholderia tuberum. The major bacterial population associated to the nematodes differed according to the forest area and none of the isolated bacterial species was found in all different forest areas. For each of the sampled areas, 60 to 100% of the isolates produced siderophores and at least 40% produced lipases. The ability to produce siderophores and lipases by most isolates enables these bacteria to have a role in plant physiological response. This research showed a high diversity of the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from P. pinaster with PWD.

  17. Diversity of bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from Pinus pinaster trees with pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Diogo Neves; Francisco, Romeu; Santos, Clara Vieira; Lopes, André; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel M O; Morais, Paula V

    2010-12-09

    The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been thought to be the only causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), however, since bacteria have been suggested to play a role in PWD, it is important to know the diversity of the microbial community associated to it. This study aimed to assess the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and with other nematodes isolated from pine trees, Pinus pinaster, with PWD from three different affected forest areas in Portugal. One hundred and twenty three bacteria strains were isolated from PWN and other nematodes collected from 14 P. pinaster. The bacteria strains were identified by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence. All except one gram-positive strain (Actinobacteria) belonged to the gram-negative Beta and Gammaproteobacteria. Most isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Species isolated in higher percentage were Pseudomonas lutea, Yersinia intermedia and Burkholderia tuberum. The major bacterial population associated to the nematodes differed according to the forest area and none of the isolated bacterial species was found in all different forest areas. For each of the sampled areas, 60 to 100% of the isolates produced siderophores and at least 40% produced lipases. The ability to produce siderophores and lipases by most isolates enables these bacteria to have a role in plant physiological response. This research showed a high diversity of the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from P. pinaster with PWD.

  18. Effect of diflubenzuron on the development of Pinus pinaster seedlings inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Miguel A; Sousa, Nadine R; Franco, Albina R; Costa, Vítor; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2013-01-01

    Diflubenzuron (DFB) is an insecticide commonly used to control forest pests. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of diflubenzuron on the development of Pinus pinaster seedlings and Pisolithus tinctorius under laboratory conditions and to study the possible protective role of this ectomycorrhizal fungus against the effects of diflubenzuron. In vitro experiments revealed that diflubenzuron inhibited fungal growth at all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg L(-1)). Root growth was inhibited at the two highest diflubenzuron concentrations. The activity of the antioxidant defence system of non-inoculated P. pinaster increased at 1 and 10 mg DFB kg(-1) substrate, and inoculation increased the threshold to the highest concentration. The protective role of the ectomycorrhizal fungus was seen in the increase of CAT activity. This study revealed that despite causing no mortality, diflubenzuron has the ability to cause sub-lethal damage to P. pinaster. The disproportionate use of this insecticide may lead to higher amounts of its residues in soil and the biosphere, endangering trees, fungi and their symbiosis.

  19. Ectomycorrhizal fungi as an alternative to the use of chemical fertilisers in nursery production of Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Nadine R; Franco, Albina R; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2012-03-01

    Addition of fertilisers is a common practice in nursery production of conifer seedlings. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can be an alternative to the use of chemical fertilisers in the nursery production of Pinus pinaster. A greenhouse nursery experiment was conducted by inoculating seedlings obtained from seeds of P. pinaster plus trees with a range of compatible ECM fungi: (1) Thelephora terrestris, (2) Rhizopogon vulgaris, (3) a mixture of Pisolithus tinctorius and Scleroderma citrinum, and (4) a mixture of Suillus bovinus, Laccaria laccata and Lactarius deterrimus, using forest soil as substrate. Plant development was assessed at two levels of N-P-K fertiliser (0 or 600 mg/seedling). Inoculation with a mixture of mycelium from S. bovinus, L. laccata and L. deterrimus and with a mixture of spores of P. tinctorius and S. citrinum improved plant growth and nutrition, without the need of fertiliser. Results indicate that selected ECM fungi can be a beneficial biotechnological tool in nursery production of P. pinaster. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Incorporating exposure to pitch canker disease to support management decisions of Pinus pinaster Ait. in the face of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Varela, María Jesús; Alía, Ricardo; Pórtoles, Javier; Gonzalo, Julián; Soliño, Mario; Grivet, Delphine; Raposo, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is gravely affecting forest ecosystems, resulting in large distribution shifts as well as in increasing infection diseases and biological invasions. Accordingly, forest management requires an evaluation of exposure to climate change that should integrate both its abiotic and biotic components. Here we address the implications of climate change in an emerging disease by analysing both the host species (Pinus pinaster, Maritime pine) and the pathogen's (Fusarium circinatum, pitch canker) environmental suitability i.e. estimating the host's risk of habitat loss and the disease`s future environmental range. We constrained our study area to the Spanish Iberian Peninsula, where accurate climate and pitch canker occurrence databases were available. While P. pinaster is widely distributed across the study area, the disease has only been detected in its north-central and north-western edges. We fitted species distribution models for the current distribution of the conifer and the disease. Then, these models were projected into nine Global Climate Models and two different climatic scenarios which totalled to 18 different future climate predictions representative of 2050. Based on the level of agreement among them, we created future suitability maps for the pine and for the disease independently, which were then used to assess exposure of current populations of P. pinaster to abiotic and biotic effects of climate change. Almost the entire distribution of P. pinaster in the Spanish Iberian Peninsula will be subjected to abiotic exposure likely to be driven by the predicted increase in drought events in the future. Furthermore, we detected a reduction in exposure to pitch canker that will be concentrated along the north-western edge of the study area. Setting up breeding programs is recommended in highly exposed and productive populations, while silvicultural methods and monitoring should be applied in those less productive, but still exposed, populations.

  1. Two differentially regulated phosphate transporters from the symbiotic fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum and phosphorus acquisition by ectomycorrhizal Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatry, Marie-Violaine; El Kassis, Elie; Lambilliotte, Raphaël; Corratgé, Claire; van Aarle, Ingrid; Amenc, Laurie K; Alary, Rémi; Zimmermann, Sabine; Sentenac, Hervé; Plassard, Claude

    2009-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis markedly improves plant phosphate uptake, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this benefit are still poorly understood. We identified two ESTs in a cDNA library prepared from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum with significant similarities to phosphate transporters from the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme and from non-mycorrhizal fungi. The full-length cDNAs corresponding to these two ESTs complemented a yeast phosphate transport mutant (Deltapho84). Measurements of (33)P-phosphate influx into yeast expressing either cDNA demonstrated that the encoded proteins, named HcPT1 and HcPT2, were able to mediate Pi:H(+) symport with different affinities for Pi (K(m) values of 55 and 4 mum, respectively). Real-time RT-PCR showed that Pi starvation increased the levels of HcPT1 transcripts in H. cylindrosporum hyphae grown in pure culture. Transcript levels of HcPT2 were less dependent on Pi availability. The two transporters were expressed in H. cylindrosporum associated with its natural host plant, Pinus pinaster, grown under low or high P conditions. The presence of ectomycorrhizae increased net Pi uptake rates into intact Pinus pinaster roots at low or high soil P levels. The expression patterns of HcPT1 and HcPT2 indicate that the two fungal phosphate transporters may be involved in uptake of phosphate from the soil solution under the two soil P availability conditions used.

  2. Estimation of crown biomass of Pinus pinaster stands and shrubland above-ground biomass using forest inventory data, remotely sensed imagery and spatial prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Viana; J. Aranha; D. Lopes; Warren B. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Spatially crown biomass of Pinus pinaster stands and shrubland above-ground biomass (AGB) estimation was carried-out in a region located in Centre-North Portugal, by means of different approaches including forest inventory data, remotely sensed imagery and spatial prediction models. Two cover types (pine stands and shrubland) were inventoried and...

  3. An integer programming model for a forest harvest problem in Pinus pinaster stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, T. F.; Cerveira, A.; Mota, A.

    2012-11-01

    The study addresses the special case of a management plan for maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in common lands. The study area refers to 4,432 ha of maritime pine stands in North Portugal (Perimetro Florestal do Barroso in the county of Ribeira de Pena), distributed among five common lands called baldio areas. Those lands are co-managed by the Official Forest Services and the local communities, essentially for timber production, using empirical guidance. As the current procedure does not guarantee the best thinning and clear-cutting scheduling, it was considered important to develop easy-to-use models, supported by optimization techniques, to be employed by the forest managers in the harvest planning of these communitarian forests. Planning of the thinning and clear-cutting operations involved certain conditions, such as: (1) the optimal age for harvesting; (2) the maximum stand density permitted; (3) the minimum volume to be cut; (4) the guarantee of incomes for each of the five baldios in at least a two year period; (5) balanced incomes during the length of the projection period. In order to evaluate the sustainability of the wood resources, a set of constraints lower bounding the average ending age was additionally tested. The problem was formulated as an integer linear programming model where the incomes from thinning and clear-cutting are maximized while considering the constraints mentioned above. Five major scenarios were simulated. The simplest one allows for silvicultural constraints only, whereas the other four consider these constraints besides different management options. Two of them introduce joint management of all common areas with or without constraints addressing balanced distribution of incomes during the plan horizon, whilst the other two consider the same options but for individual management of the baldios. The proposed model is easy to apply, providing immediate advantages for short and mid-term planning periods compared to the empirical

  4. Carbon allocation belowground in Pinus pinaster using stable carbon isotope pulse labeling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannoura, M.; Bosc, A.; Chipeaux, C.; Sartore, M.; Lambrot, C.; Trichet, P.; Bakker, M.; Loustau, D.; Epron, D.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon allocation belowground competes with aboveground growth and biomass production. In the other hand, it contributes to resource acquisition such as nutrient, water and carbon sequestration in soil. Thus, a better characterization of carbon flow from plant to soil and its residence time within each compartment is an important issue for understanding and modeling forest ecosystem carbon budget. 13C pulse labeling of whole crown was conducted at 4 seasons to study the fate of assimilated carbon by photosynthesis into the root on 12 year old Pinus pinaster planted in the INRA domain of Pierroton. Maritime pine is the most widely planted species in South-West Europe. Stem, root and soil CO2 effluxes and their isotope composition were measured continuously by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with a trace gas analyzer (TGA 100A; Campbell Scientific) coupled to flow-through chambers. 13CO2 recovery and peak were observed in respiration of each compartment after labeling. It appeared sequentially from top of stem to bottom, and to coarse root. The maximum velocity of carbon transfer was calculated as the difference in time lag of recovery between two positions on the trunk or on the root. It ranged between 0.08-0.2 m h-1 in stem and between 0.04-0.12 m h-1 in coarse root. This velocity was higher in warmer season, and the difference between time lag of recovery and peak increased after first frost. Photosynthates arrived underground 1.5 to 5 days after labeling, at similar time in soil CO2 effluxes and coarse root respiration. 0.08-1.4 g of carbon was respired per tree during first 20 days following labeling. It presented 0.6 -10% of 13C used for labeling and it is strongly related to seasons. The isotope signal was detected in fine root organs and microbial biomass by periodical core sampling. The peak was observed 6 days after labeling in early summer while it was delayed more than 10 days in autumn and winter with less amount of carbon allocated

  5. Environment-dependent microevolution in a Mediterranean pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alía, Ricardo; Chambel, Regina; Notivol, Eduardo; Climent, José; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-09-23

    A central question for understanding the evolutionary responses of plant species to rapidly changing environments is the assessment of their potential for short-term (in one or a few generations) genetic change. In our study, we consider the case of Pinus pinaster Aiton (maritime pine), a widespread Mediterranean tree, and (i) test, under different experimental conditions (growth chamber and semi-natural), whether higher recruitment in the wild from the most successful mothers is due to better performance of their offspring; and (ii) evaluate genetic change in quantitative traits across generations at two different life stages (mature trees and seedlings) that are known to be under strong selection pressure in forest trees. Genetic control was high for most traits (h2 = 0.137-0.876) under the milder conditions of the growth chamber, but only for ontogenetic change (0.276), total height (0.415) and survival (0.719) under the more stressful semi-natural conditions. Significant phenotypic selection gradients were found in mature trees for traits related to seed quality (germination rate and number of empty seeds). Moreover, female relative reproductive success was significantly correlated with offspring performance for specific leaf area (SLA) in the growth chamber experiment, and stem mass fraction (SMF) in the experiment under semi-natural conditions, two adaptive traits related to abiotic stress-response in pines. Selection gradients based on genetic covariance of seedling traits and responses to selection at this stage involved traits related to biomass allocation (SMF) and growth (as decomposed by a Gompertz model) or delayed ontogenetic change, depending also on the testing environment. Despite the evidence of microevolutionary change in adaptive traits in maritime pine, directional or disruptive changes are difficult to predict due to variable selection at different life stages and environments. At mature-tree stages, higher female effective reproductive

  6. Effects of Recent Minimum Temperature and Water Deficit Increases on Pinus pinaster Radial Growth and Wood Density in Southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz-Besson, Cathy B; Lousada, José L; Gaspar, Maria J; Correia, Isabel E; David, Teresa S; Soares, Pedro M M; Cardoso, Rita M; Russo, Ana; Varino, Filipa; Mériaux, Catherine; Trigo, Ricardo M; Gouveia, Célia M

    2016-01-01

    Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events. To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a Pinus pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI) multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011. We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster's vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster's production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region.

  7. Determining mode I cohesive law of Pinus pinaster by coupling double cantilever beam test with digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The direct identification of the cohesive law in pure mode I of Pinus pinaster is addressed. The approach couples the double cantilever beam (DCB test with digital image correlation (DIC. Wooden beam specimens loaded in the radial-longitudinal (RL fracture propagation system are used. The strain energy release rate in mode I ( is uniquely determined from the load-displacement ( curve by means of the compliance-based beam method (CBBM. This method relies on the concept of equivalent elastic crack length ( and therefore does not require the monitoring of crack propagation during test. The crack tip opening displacement in mode I is determined from the displacement field at the initial crack tip. The cohesive law in mode I is then identified by numerical differentiation of the relationship. Moreover, the proposed procedure is validated by finite element analyses including cohesive zone modelling. It is concluded that the proposed data reduction scheme is adequate for assessing the cohesive law in pure mode I of P. pinaster

  8. Analysis of the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX gene family in Pinus pinaster: New insights into the gene family evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, José M; Bueno, Natalia; Cañas, Rafael A; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2018-02-01

    WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) genes are key players controlling stem cells in plants and can be divided into three clades according to the time of their appearance during plant evolution. Our knowledge of stem cell function in vascular plants other than angiosperms is limited, they separated from gymnosperms ca 300 million years ago and their patterning during embryogenesis differs significantly. For this reason, we have used the model gymnosperm Pinus pinaster to identify WOX genes and perform a thorough analysis of their gene expression patterns. Using transcriptomic data from a comprehensive range of tissues and stages of development we have shown three major outcomes: that the P. pinaster genome encodes at least fourteen members of the WOX family spanning all the major clades, that the genome of gymnosperms contains a WOX gene with no homologues in angiosperms representing a transitional stage between intermediate- and WUS-clade proteins, and that we can detect discrete WUS and WOX5 transcripts for the first time in a gymnosperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The necrotroph Botrytis cinerea induces a non-host type II resistance mechanism in Pinus pinaster suspension-cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Herlânder; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Tavares, Rui Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Models of non-host resistance have failed to account for the pathogenicity of necrotrophic agents. During the interaction of Pinus pinaster (maritime pine) with the non-host necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the induction of the hypersensitive response (HR) were analyzed. Elicitation of maritime pine suspended cells with B. cinerea spores resulted in the biphasic induction of ROS. The phase I oxidative burst was dependent on calcium influx, while the phase II oxidative burst also depended on NADPH oxidase, protein kinase activity, and de novo transcription and protein synthesis. A decline was observed in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, together with the down-regulation of Fe-Sod1, chlCu, Zn-Sod1 and csApx1, suggesting a coordinated response towards a decrease in the ROS-scavenging capacity of maritime pine cells during challenge. Following the second oxidative burst, programmed cell death events characteristic of the HR were observed. The results suggest the ROS-mediated and cell-breach-independent activation of Type II non-host resistance during the P. pinaster-B. cinerea interaction.

  10. Normalizing gene expression by quantitative PCR during somatic embryogenesis in two representative conifer species: Pinus pinaster and Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega-Bartol, José J; Santos, Raquen Raissa; Simões, Marta; Miguel, Célia M

    2013-05-01

    Suitable internal control genes to normalize qPCR data from different stages of embryo development and germination were identified in two representative conifer species. Clonal propagation by somatic embryogenesis has a great application potentiality in conifers. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is widely used for gene expression analysis during somatic embryogenesis and embryo germination. No single reference gene is universal, so a systematic characterization of endogenous genes for concrete conditions is fundamental for accuracy. We identified suitable internal control genes to normalize qPCR data obtained at different steps of somatic embryogenesis (embryonal mass proliferation, embryo maturation and germination) in two representative conifer species, Pinus pinaster and Picea abies. Candidate genes included endogenous genes commonly used in conifers, genes previously tested in model plants, and genes with a lower variation of the expression along embryo development according to genome-wide transcript profiling studies. Three different algorithms were used to evaluate expression stability. The geometric average of the expression values of elongation factor-1α, α-tubulin and histone 3 in P. pinaster, and elongation factor-1α, α-tubulin, adenosine kinase and CAC in P. abies were adequate for expression studies throughout somatic embryogenesis. However, improved accuracy was achieved when using other gene combinations in experiments with samples at a single developmental stage. The importance of studies selecting reference genes to use in different tissues or developmental stages within one or close species, and the instability of commonly used reference genes, is highlighted.

  11. Characterization of Pinus pinaster seedling growth in different photo- and thermoperiods in a phytotron as a basis for early selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, A.; Kremer, A. [INRA, Laboratory of Forest Trees Genetics and Breeding, Cestas (France); Dormling, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1995-07-01

    Seedlings of Pinus pinaster families exhibiting monocyclic or polycyclic adult growth patterns, were cultivated in climate chambers during two successive growth periods separated by a period of low temperature to satisfy the chilling requirement. Six treatments combining photoperiod and temperature factors were tested. The morphology of the apex was assessed and height and biomass measured. First season seedlings grown in continuous light varied in apex morphology from the typical juvenile rosette to the adult bud usually found outdoors on 2-yr-old plants. It seems possible to distinguish monocyclic and polycyclic populations at an early stage by characters related to development and growth height. The results indicate that special environmental conditions during seedling development may be used as a tool in the search for criteria for early selection. 35 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Caracterización de algunas propiedades en tableros de corteza de Pinus pinaster Ait. y tableros de vermiculita expandida

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    Pereiro López, G.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for new applications to use boards requires innovation of their pro-perties. The improvement of insulation properties, the possibility to regulate the environmental conditions, the improvement of fire resistance and the increase of physical and mechanical properties allow a more diverse use of boards. Using new components in the production of boards and/or component materials also called composites (1, enables the improvement of these properties. This publication analyses different physical and mechanical properties of various types of single-layer boards produced either based on expanded vermiculite particles bonded with soluble silicate glasses (2 or based on lignocelluloses particles bark of "Pinus pinaster" Ait., agglutinated with cement derivatives of magnesium (3, the latter included in the classification of the norm (4. Commercial wood wool boards (5 are used as reference material.La búsqueda de nuevas aplicaciones en el uso de los tableros requiere de la innovación en sus propiedades. Las mejoras en el aislamiento, en la regulación de las condiciones ambientales, en su resistencia al fuego y el incremento en sus propiedades físico-mecánicas, aumentan la diversificación de sus usos. El empleo de nuevas materias en los tableros y/o en los materiales compuestos, denominados composites (1, posibilita la mejora en estas propiedades. Esta publicación analiza diversas propiedades físicas y mecánicas de varios tipos de tableros monocapa, elaborados, por un lado, a base de partículas minerales de vermiculita expandida aglutinadas con silicatos de vidrios solubles (2, y por otro lado, a base de partículas lignocelulósicas de corteza de Pinus pinaster Ait., aglutinadas con cementos derivados del magnesio (3, incluidos ya estos últimos en la clasificación de la norma (4. Como material de referencia se emplean tableros comerciales de virutas de madera (5.

  13. Assessment of the variation of the moisture content in the Pinus pinaster Ait. using the non destructive GPR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díez Barra, R.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The moisture content variations in wood have a significant influence in wood’s physicochemical properties, as well as in its electromagnetic properties and to specific effects upon waves’ characteristics. In particular, this paper focuses on the analysis of the Ground-penetrating Radar’s (GPR using an antenna of 1.6GHz central frequency capacity to register the velocity and the amplitude of the electromagnetic waves’ variation during the drying process of Pinus pinaster Ait timber joists. The results showed that when timber MC descends, the propagation velocity and amplitude of both the direct and the reflected wave increased. The high correlation found between the variables studied demonstrates GPR efficiency and the innovative application of this technique as a non-destructive evaluation tool for timber structures, particularly when studying its moisture content.La variación en el contenido de humedad (CH tiene una influencia significativa tanto en las propiedades físico- químicas de la madera, como en sus propiedades electromagnéticas y por tanto afecta a las características de la propagación de las ondas. En concreto, en este trabajo se estudia la capacidad del georradar (GR empleando una antena de 1.6GHz de frecuencia central para registrar las variaciones que se producen en la velocidad y en la amplitud de las ondas electromagnéticas cuando se propagan en unas viguetas de madera de Pinus pinaster Ait de uso estructural cuyo CH va disminuyendo. Se ha comprobado como cuando el CH descendía la velocidad de propagación y las amplitudes, tanto de la onda directa como de la reflejada aumentaba. Los altos factores de correlación encontrados demuestran que el GR es una técnica capaz de evaluar, de forma no destructiva, el CH de la madera de uso estructural.

  14. Comparative study of two coniferous species (Pinus pinaster Aiton and Cupressus sempervirens L. var. dupreziana [A. Camus] Silba) essential oils: chemical composition and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Amri, Ismail; Hanana, Mohsen; Gargouri, Samia; Jamoussi, Bassem; Hamrouni, Lamia

    2013-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) and Saharan cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L. var. dupreziana [A. Camus] Silba) are two cone-bearing seed coniferous woody plants. The chemical composition of their essential oils, isolated from needles and leaves by hydrodistillation, was analyzed with gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 66 and 28 compounds were identified, which represented 99.5% and 98.9% of total pine and cypress oils, respectively. Pin...

  15. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carvalho

    Full Text Available The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate.

  16. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana; Nabais, Cristina; Vieira, Joana; Rossi, Sergio; Campelo, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT) to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD) or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT) in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate.

  17. Biomechanical differences in the stem straightening process among Pinus pinaster provenances. A new approach for early selection of stem straightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-de-Grado, Rosario; Pando, Valentín; Martínez-Zurimendi, Pablo; Peñalvo, Alejandro; Báscones, Esther; Moulia, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    Stem straightness is an important selection trait in Pinus pinaster Ait. breeding programs. Despite the stability of stem straightness rankings in provenance trials, the efficiency of breeding programs based on a quantitative index of stem straightness remains low. An alternative approach is to analyze biomechanical processes that underlie stem form. The rationale for this selection method is that genetic differences in the biomechanical processes that maintain stem straightness in young plants will continue to control stem form throughout the life of the tree. We analyzed the components contributing most to genetic differences among provenances in stem straightening processes by kinetic analysis and with a biomechanical model defining the interactions between the variables involved (Fournier's model). This framework was tested on three P. pinaster provenances differing in adult stem straightness and growth. One-year-old plants were tilted at 45 degrees, and individual stem positions and sizes were recorded weekly for 5 months. We measured the radial extension of reaction wood and the anatomical features of wood cells in serial stem cross sections. The integral effect of reaction wood on stem leaning was computed with Fournier's model. Responses driven by both primary and secondary growth were involved in the stem straightening process, but secondary-growth-driven responses accounted for most differences among provenances. Plants from the straight-stemmed provenance showed a greater capacity for stem straightening than plants from the sinuous provenances mainly because of (1) more efficient reaction wood (higher maturation strains) and (2) more pronounced secondary-growth-driven autotropic decurving. These two process-based traits are thus good candidates for early selection of stem straightness, but additional tests on a greater number of genotypes over a longer period are required.

  18. Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Marina; de Maria, Nuria; Guevara, M Angeles; Diaz, Luis; Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Chancerel, Emilie; Aranda, Ismael; Collada, Carmen; Plomion, Christophe; Cabezas, José-Antonio; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2012-10-04

    Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15) belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest.

  19. Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Miguel Marina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15 belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. Results We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. Conclusions This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest.

  20. Adaptive consequences of human-mediated introgression for indigenous tree species: the case of a relict Pinus pinaster population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Valiente, José Alberto; Robledo-Arnuncio, Juan José

    2014-12-01

    Human-induced gene movement via afforestation and restoration programs is a widespread phenomenon throughout the world. However, its effects on the genetic composition of native populations have received relatively little attention, particularly in forest trees. Here, we examine to what extent gene flow from allochthonous plantations of Pinus pinaster Aiton impacts offspring performance in a neighboring relict natural population and discuss the potential consequences for the long-term genetic composition of the latter. Specifically, we conducted a greenhouse experiment involving two contrasting watering treatments to test for differences in a set of functional traits and mortality rates between P. pinaster progenies from three different parental origins: (i) local native parents, (ii) exotic parents and (iii) intercrosses between local mothers and exotic fathers (intraspecific hybrids). Our results showed differences among crosses in cumulative mortality over time: seedlings of exotic parents exhibited the lowest mortality rates and seedlings of local origin the highest, while intraspecific hybrids exhibited an intermediate response. Linear regressions showed that seedlings with higher water-use efficiency (WUE, δ(13)C) were more likely to survive under drought stress, consistent with previous findings suggesting that WUE has an important role under dry conditions in this species. However, differences in mortality among crosses were only partially explained by WUE. Other non-measured traits and factors such as inbreeding depression in the relict population are more likely to explain the lower performance of native progenies. Overall, our results indicated that intraspecific hybrids and exotic individuals are more likely to survive under stressful conditions than local native individuals, at least during the first year of development. Since summer drought is the most important demographic and selective filter affecting tree establishment in Mediterranean ecosystems

  1. "Contrasting patterns of selection at Pinus pinaster Ait. Drought stress candidate genes as revealed by genetic differentiation analyses".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveno, Emmanuelle; Collada, Carmen; Guevara, M Angeles; Léger, Valérie; Soto, Alvaro; Díaz, Luis; Léger, Patrick; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Cervera, M Teresa; Plomion, Christophe; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H

    2008-02-01

    The importance of natural selection for shaping adaptive trait differentiation among natural populations of allogamous tree species has long been recognized. Determining the molecular basis of local adaptation remains largely unresolved, and the respective roles of selection and demography in shaping population structure are actively debated. Using a multilocus scan that aims to detect outliers from simulated neutral expectations, we analyzed patterns of nucleotide diversity and genetic differentiation at 11 polymorphic candidate genes for drought stress tolerance in phenotypically contrasted Pinus pinaster Ait. populations across its geographical range. We compared 3 coalescent-based methods: 2 frequentist-like, including 1 approach specifically developed for biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) here and 1 Bayesian. Five genes showed outlier patterns that were robust across methods at the haplotype level for 2 of them. Two genes presented higher F(ST) values than expected (PR-AGP4 and erd3), suggesting that they could have been affected by the action of diversifying selection among populations. In contrast, 3 genes presented lower F(ST) values than expected (dhn-1, dhn2, and lp3-1), which could represent signatures of homogenizing selection among populations. A smaller proportion of outliers were detected at the SNP level suggesting the potential functional significance of particular combinations of sites in drought-response candidate genes. The Bayesian method appeared robust to low sample sizes, flexible to assumptions regarding migration rates, and powerful for detecting selection at the haplotype level, but the frequentist-like method adapted to SNPs was more efficient for the identification of outlier SNPs showing low differentiation. Population-specific effects estimated in the Bayesian method also revealed populations with lower immigration rates, which could have led to favorable situations for local adaptation. Outlier patterns are discussed

  2. 13C-isotopic fingerprint of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. wood related to the quality of standing tree mass in forests from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Irene; González-Prieto, Serafin J; Cabaneiro, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Pine forest plantations of Pinus pinaster Ait. and P. sylvestris L. located in Galicia, NW Spain, were selected to study the 13C/12C-isotopic fingerprint in wood core samples in order to find possible relationships between the delta(13)C at natural abundance levels and the quality of the standing tree mass. For each pine species, 24 forests growing on acidic soils were studied: half developed over granite and half over schists. Two dominant trees from each plot, corresponding to all possible combinations of forest stands with high or low site index and with adults or young trees, were drilled at the basal part of trunks using a Pressler drill to obtain tree ring samples. The C-isotopic compositions of the litter and the soil organic matter from different soil depths were also determined and statistically significant correlations between these values and the 13C content of the wood were observed. Despite internal variations due to the influence of site index, tree age and parent material, the isotopic fingerprint of P. pinaster wood (mean value delta13C=-26.2+/-0.8 per thousand) significantly differed (Ppinaster stands (r=-0.667, Ppinaster growing over schists (r=-0.833, Ppinaster trees is higher when plots over granite or schists are separately considered. A similar fact occurs for adult P. sylvestris trees from schists stands, high quality specimens being 13C-depleted compared with low quality ones. On the other hand, 13C natural abundance of wood from P. sylvestris trees seems to be also strongly influenced by the underlying parent material, young trees from granite stands having a statistically higher 13C-isotopic composition (P<0.05) than young trees from schists stands. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Identification of water stress genes in Pinus pinaster Ait. by controlled progressive stress and suppression-subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdiguero, Pedro; Collada, Carmen; Barbero, María Del Carmen; García Casado, Gloria; Cervera, María Teresa; Soto, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is a major challenge particularly for forest tree species, which will have to face the severe alterations of environmental conditions with their current genetic pool. Thus, an understanding of their adaptive responses is of the utmost interest. In this work we have selected Pinus pinaster as a model species. This pine is one of the most important conifers (for which molecular tools and knowledge are far more scarce than for angiosperms) in the Mediterranean Basin, which is characterised in all foreseen scenarios as one of the regions most drastically affected by climate change, mainly because of increasing temperature and, particularly, by increasing drought. We have induced a controlled, increasing water stress by adding PEG to a hydroponic culture. We have generated a subtractive library, with the aim of identifying the genes induced by this stress and have searched for the most reliable expressional candidate genes, based on their overexpression during water stress, as revealed by microarray analysis and confirmed by RT-PCR. We have selected a set of 67 candidate genes belonging to different functional groups that will be useful molecular tools for further studies on drought stress responses, adaptation, and population genomics in conifers, as well as in breeding programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of population origin and microenvironment in seedling emergence and early survival in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaíno-Palomar, Natalia; Revuelta-Eugercios, Bárbara; Zavala, Miguel A; Alía, Ricardo; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover) in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any) was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local) origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes.

  5. Modelling available crown fuel for Pinus pinaster Ait. stands in the "Cazorla, Segura and Las Villas Natural Park" (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan Ramón; Rodríguez y Silva, Francisco; Mérida, Enrique; Herrera, Miguel Ángel

    2014-11-01

    One of the main limiting aspects in the application of crown fire models at landscape scale has been the uncertainty derived to describe canopy fuel stratum. Available crown fuel and canopy bulk density are essential in order to simulate crown fire behaviour and are of potential use in the evaluation of silvicultural treatments. Currently, the more accurate approach to estimate these parameters is to develop allometric models from common stand inventory data. In this sense, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) trees were destructively sampled in the South of the Iberian Peninsula, covering natural and artificial stands. Crown fine fuel was separated into size classes and allometric equations that estimate crown fuel load by biomass fractions were developed. Available crown fuel was determined according to the fuel load differences between un-burned and burned trees with similar characteristics. Taking our destructive post-fire inventory into account, available crown fuel was estimated as the sum of needles biomass, 87.63% of the twigs biomass and 62.79% of the fine branches biomass. In spite of the differences between natural and artificial stands, generic models explained 82% (needles biomass), 89% (crown fuel), 92% (available crown fuel) and 94% (canopy bulk density) of the observed variation. Inclusion of the fitted models in fire management decision-making can provide a decision support system for assessing the potential crown fire of different silvicultural alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Pinus pinaster Bark Extract and its Components Against Multidrug-resistant Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Ćurković-Perica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to test the antibacterial activity of Pinus pinaster aqueous bark extract (PABE and its basic components against multidrug-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii belonging to European clone I and II, isolated previously from the clinical outbreaks. The minimum bactericidal concentration of PABE against both clones of A. baumannii was 200 mg ml–1, while lower concentrations showed high antibacterial activity. After 24 h of treatment with 100, 50 or 10 mg ml–1 of extract, the reduction in the number of A. baumannii isolates belonging to European clone I and II was 85.8 ± 2.5 %, 78.5 ± 1.1 %, 66.3 ± 2.5 % and 90.2 ± 1.7 %, 78.6 ± 1.2 %, 69.8 ± 0.7 %, respectively. Several basic components: caffeic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid and vanillin, detected in the extract by high performance liquid chromatography, contributed to the antibacterial activity of the extract against both clones of A. baumannii. However, the antibacterial activity of extract was higher than that of each tested basic component suggesting that proanthocyanidins, which were present in quite a large amount in the extract, might have also contributed to the activity of the extract. Antibacterial activity of PABE against A. baumannii reveals that complex and inexpensive natural product might be useful in combat against naturally competent bacteria that easily acquire resistance against antibiotics.

  7. Pyrolysis of Pinus pinaster in a two-stage gasifier: Influence of processing parameters and thermal cracking of tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire-UFR-S.S.M.T. Universite de Cocody, 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Van de Steene, Laurent; Volle, Ghislaine; Girard, Philippe [CIRAD-Foret, TA 10/16, 73, avenue J.-F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-01-15

    A new two-stage gasifier with fixed-bed has recently been installed on CIRAD facilities in Montpellier. The pyrolysis and the gasifier units are removable. In order to characterise the pyrolysis products before their gasification, experiments were carried out, for the first time only with the pyrolysis unit and this paper deals with the results obtained. The biomass used is Pinus pinaster. The parameters investigated are: temperature, residence time and biomass flow rate. It has been found that increasing temperature and residence time improve the cracking of tars, gas production and char quality (fixed carbon rate more than 90%, volatile matter rate less than 4%). The increase of biomass flow rate leads to a bad char quality. The efficiency of tar cracking, the quality and the heating value of the charcoal and the gases, indicate that: temperature between 650 C and 750 C, residence time of 30 min, biomass flow rate between 10 and 15 kg/h should be the most convenient experimental conditions to get better results from the experimental device and from the biomass pyrolysis process. The kinetic study of charcoal generation shows that the pyrolysis process, in experimental conditions, is a first-order reaction. The kinetic parameters calculated are comparable with those found by other researchers. (author)

  8. Are needles of Pinus pinaster more vulnerable to xylem embolism than branches? New insights from X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouche, Pauline S; Delzon, Sylvain; Choat, Brendan; Badel, Eric; Brodribb, Timothy J; Burlett, Regis; Cochard, Hervé; Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Lavigne, Bruno; Li, Shan; Mayr, Stefan; Morris, Hugh; Torres-Ruiz, José M; Zufferey, Vivian; Jansen, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Plants can be highly segmented organisms with an independently redundant design of organs. In the context of plant hydraulics, leaves may be less embolism resistant than stems, allowing hydraulic failure to be restricted to distal organs that can be readily replaced. We quantified drought-induced embolism in needles and stems of Pinus pinaster using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). HRCT observations of needles were compared with the rehydration kinetics method to estimate the contribution of extra-xylary pathways to declining hydraulic conductance. High-resolution computed tomography images indicated that the pressure inducing 50% of embolized tracheids was similar between needle and stem xylem (P50 needle xylem  = -3.62 MPa, P50 stem xylem  = -3.88 MPa). Tracheids in both organs showed no difference in torus overlap of bordered pits. However, estimations of the pressure inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductance at the whole needle level by the rehydration kinetics method were significantly higher (P50 needle  = -1.71 MPa) than P50 needle xylem derived from HRCT. The vulnerability segmentation hypothesis appears to be valid only when considering hydraulic failure at the entire needle level, including extra-xylary pathways. Our findings suggest that native embolism in needles is limited and highlight the importance of imaging techniques for vulnerability curves. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles and bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià; Alves, Arminda

    2009-01-15

    Two different extraction strategies (microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic extraction (USE)) were tested in the extraction of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from pine trees. Extraction of needles and bark from two pine species common in the Iberian Peninsula (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) was optimized using two amounts of sample (1g and 5 g) and two PAHs spiking levels (20 ng/g and 100 ng/g). In all cases, the clean-up procedure following extraction consisted in solid-phase extraction (SPE) with alumina cartridges. Quantification was done by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS), using five deuterated PAH surrogate standards as internal standards. Limits of detection were globally below 0.2 ng/g. The method was robust for the matrices studied regardless of the extraction procedures. Recovery values between 70 and 130% were reached in most cases, except for high molecular weight PAHs (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene). A field study with naturally contaminated samples from eight sites (four in Portugal and four in Catalonia, Spain) showed that needles are more suitable biomonitors for PAHs, yielding concentrations from 2 to 17 times higher than those found in bark. The levels varied according to the sampling site, with the sum of the individual PAH concentrations between 213 and 1773 ng/g (dry weight). Phenanthrene was the most abundant PAH, followed by fluoranthene, naphthalene and pyrene.

  10. A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  11. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  12. Genetic differentiation for size at first reproduction through male versus female functions in the widespread Mediterranean tree Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-del-Blanco, L; Climent, J; González-Martínez, S C; Pannell, J R

    2012-11-01

    The study of local adaptation in plant reproductive traits has received substantial attention in short-lived species, but studies conducted on forest trees are scarce. This lack of research on long-lived species represents an important gap in our knowledge, because inferences about selection on the reproduction and life history of short-lived species cannot necessarily be extrapolated to trees. This study considers whether the size for first reproduction is locally adapted across a broad geographical range of the Mediterranean conifer species Pinus pinaster. In particular, the study investigates whether this monoecious species varies genetically among populations in terms of whether individuals start to reproduce through their male function, their female function or both sexual functions simultaneously. Whether differences among populations could be attributed to local adaptation across a climatic gradient is then considered. Male and female reproduction and growth were measured during early stages of sexual maturity of a P. pinaster common garden comprising 23 populations sampled across the species range. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess genetic variability of early reproductive life-history traits. Environmental correlations with reproductive life-history traits were tested after controlling for neutral genetic structure provided by 12 nuclear simple sequence repeat markers. Trees tended to reproduce first through their male function, at a size (height) that varied little among source populations. The transition to female reproduction was slower, showed higher levels of variability and was negatively correlated with vegetative growth traits. Several female reproductive traits were correlated with a gradient of growth conditions, even after accounting for neutral genetic structure, with populations from more unfavourable sites tending to commence female reproduction at a lower individual size. The study represents the first report of genetic

  13. Establishing gene models from the Pinus pinaster genome using gene capture and BAC sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Zonjic, Pedro; Cañas, Rafael A; Bautista, Rocío; Gómez-Maldonado, Josefa; Arrillaga, Isabel; Fernández-Pozo, Noé; Claros, M Gonzalo; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ávila, Concepción

    2016-02-27

    In the era of DNA throughput sequencing, assembling and understanding gymnosperm mega-genomes remains a challenge. Although drafts of three conifer genomes have recently been published, this number is too low to understand the full complexity of conifer genomes. Using techniques focused on specific genes, gene models can be established that can aid in the assembly of gene-rich regions, and this information can be used to compare genomes and understand functional evolution. In this study, gene capture technology combined with BAC isolation and sequencing was used as an experimental approach to establish de novo gene structures without a reference genome. Probes were designed for 866 maritime pine transcripts to sequence genes captured from genomic DNA. The gene models were constructed using GeneAssembler, a new bioinformatic pipeline, which reconstructed over 82% of the gene structures, and a high proportion (85%) of the captured gene models contained sequences from the promoter regulatory region. In a parallel experiment, the P. pinaster BAC library was screened to isolate clones containing genes whose cDNA sequence were already available. BAC clones containing the asparagine synthetase, sucrose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase gene sequences were isolated and used in this study. The gene models derived from the gene capture approach were compared with the genomic sequences derived from the BAC clones. This combined approach is a particularly efficient way to capture the genomic structures of gene families with a small number of members. The experimental approach used in this study is a valuable combined technique to study genomic gene structures in species for which a reference genome is unavailable. It can be used to establish exon/intron boundaries in unknown gene structures, to reconstruct incomplete genes and to obtain promoter sequences that can be used for transcriptional studies. A bioinformatics algorithm (GeneAssembler) is also provided as a

  14. Effects of Recent Minimum Temperature and Water Deficit Increases on Pinus pinaster Radial Growth and Wood Density in Southern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz-Besson, Cathy B.; Lousada, José L.; Gaspar, Maria J.; Correia, Isabel E.; David, Teresa S.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Russo, Ana; Varino, Filipa; Mériaux, Catherine; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Gouveia, Célia M.

    2016-01-01

    Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events. To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a Pinus pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI) multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011. We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster’s vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster’s production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region. PMID:27570527

  15. The role of population origin and microenvironment in seedling emergence and early survival in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vizcaíno-Palomar

    Full Text Available Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton, an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes.

  16. Transforming Pinus pinaster forest to recreation site: preliminary effects on LAI, some forest floor, and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Melih; Bolat, İlyas

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of forest transformation into recreation site. A fragment of a Pinus pinaster plantation forest was transferred to a recreation site in the city of Bartın located close to the Black Sea coast of northwestern Turkey. During the transformation, some of the trees were selectively removed from the forest to generate more open spaces for the recreationists. As a result, Leaf Area Index (LAI) decreased by 0.20 (about 11%). Additionally, roads and pathways were introduced into the site together with some recreational equipment sealing parts of the soil surface. Consequently, forest environment was altered with a semi-natural landscape within the recreation site. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of forest transformation into recreation site particularly in terms of the LAI parameter, forest floor, and soil properties. Preliminary monitoring results indicate that forest floor biomass is reduced by 26% in the recreation site compared to the control site. Soil temperature is increased by 15% in the recreation site where selective removal of trees expanded the gaps allowing more light transmission. On the other hand, the soil bulk density which is an indicator of soil compaction is unexpectedly slightly lower in the recreation site. Organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(total)) together with the other physical and chemical parameter values indicate that forest floor and soil have not been exposed to much disturbance. However, subsequent removal of trees that would threaten the vegetation, forest floor, and soil should not be allowed. The activities of the recreationists are to be concentrated on the paved spaces rather than soil surfaces. Furthermore, long-term monitoring and management is necessary for both the observation and conservation of the site.

  17. Variations in growth, survival and carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) among Pinus pinaster populations of different geographic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Isabel; Almeida, Maria Helena; Aguiar, Alexandre; Alía, Ricardo; David, Teresa Soares; Pereira, João Santos

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate differences in growth and adaptability of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), we studied growth, polycyclism, needle tissue carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) as an estimate of water-use efficiency (WUE) and survival of seven populations at 10 years of age growing in a performance trial at a provenance test site in Escaroupim, Portugal. Six populations were from relatively high rainfall sites in Portugal and southwestern France (Atlantic group), and one population was from a more arid Mediterranean site in Spain. There were significant differences between some populations in total height, diameter at breast height, delta(13)C of bulk needle tissue, polycyclism and survival. A population from central Portugal (Leiria, on the Atlantic coast) was the tallest and had the lowest delta(13)C. Overall, the variation in delta(13)C was better explained by the mean minimum temperatures of the coldest month than by annual precipitation at the place of origin. Analyses of the relationships between delta(13)C and growth or survival revealed a distinct pattern for the Mediterranean population, with low delta(13)C (and WUE) associated with the lowest growth potential and reduced survival. There were significant negative correlations between delta(13)C and height or survival in the Atlantic group. Variation in polycyclism was correlated with annual precipitation at the place of origin. Some Atlantic populations maintained a high growth potential while experiencing moderate water stress. A detailed knowledge of the relationships between growth, survival and delta(13)C in contrasting environments will enhance our ability to select populations for forestry or conservation.

  18. The NAC transcription factor family in maritime pine (Pinus Pinaster): molecular regulation of two genes involved in stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Ma Belén; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ávila, Concepción

    2015-10-24

    NAC transcription factors comprise a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes. Despite the growing number of studies on NAC transcription factors in various species, little information is available about this family in conifers. The goal of this study was to identify the NAC transcription family in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), to characterize ATAF-like genes in response to various stresses and to study their molecular regulation. We have isolated two maritime pine NAC genes and using a transient expression assay in N. benthamiana leaves estudied the promoter jasmonate response. In this study, we identified 37 NAC genes from maritime pine and classified them into six main subfamilies. The largest group includes 12 sequences corresponding to stress-related genes. Two of these NAC genes, PpNAC2 and PpNAC3, were isolated and their expression profiles were examined at various developmental stages and in response to various types of stress. The expression of both genes was strongly induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), mechanical wounding, and high salinity. The promoter regions of these genes were shown to contain cis-elements involved in the stress response and plant hormonal regulation, including E-boxes, which are commonly found in the promoters of genes that respond to jasmonate, and binding sites for bHLH proteins. Using a transient expression assay in N. benthamiana leaves, we found that the promoter of PpNAC3 was rapidly induced upon MeJA treatment, while this response disappeared in plants in which the transcription factor NbbHLH2 was silenced. Our results suggest that PpNAC2 and PpNAC3 encode stress-responsive NAC transcription factors involved in the jasmonate response in pine. Furthermore, these data also suggest that the jasmonate signaling pathway is conserved between angiosperms and gymnosperms. These findings may be useful for engineering stress tolerance in pine via biotechnological approaches.

  19. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately.

  20. Regeneration of Pinus pinaster Aiton after prescribed fires: Response to burn timing and biogeographical seed provenance across a climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagra, J; Ferrandis, P; Plaza-Álvarez, P A; Lucas-Borja, M E; González-Romero, J; Alfaro-Sánchez, R; De Las Heras, J; Moya, D

    2018-05-17

    Prescribed fires are used as a fuel reduction tool, but heat alter microsite conditions affecting the natural regeneration of Mediterranean pine forests. Our study tested the hypothesis that implementing prescription before or after pine seed release may influence the composition of tree communities by changing the regeneration patterns of Pinus pinaster Aiton across a climatic gradient in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. We ran a seed-sowing experiment to analyse the recruitment patterns of this pine species in prescribed-burned stands, in two different biogeographical seed provenances from wetter and drier areas than the local seeding site. Survival of seedlings was through one year, until the end of the first drought and winter period, respectively. >5400 seeds were sown during the study distributed in sixty plots (30 burned, 30 unburned) per site and treatment, with 10 seeding units per plot. General linear models (GLMs) and ANOVA analyses indicated higher performance for the Drier seed provenance in burned areas, whereas a similar performance was recorded in the control area. Control areas showed higher germination and success rates for plant establishment throughout the study period. Total germination and survival after one year were slightly higher, respectively, at northern sites due to massive mortality during summer in the southern stands. At the burned sites, the mean germination time was significantly longer in those seeds sown before fire passage than those sown after fire. Total germination and successful establishment were significantly higher in the individuals sown before the passage of the fire than in those sown after fire. Most of the mortality occurred in summer for the southern stand, while winter was the most constraining period at the northern sites. The understanding of the dynamics in this species' establishment can help managers to perform a better management planning according to the species' ecology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Changes in climate-growth relationships and IADF formation over time of pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Olivar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mediterranean basin has experienced an increase in the mean annual temperature, a decrease in the mean annual precipitation, and an increase in the frequency of severe drought periods during the second half of the 20th century. However, winter and spring precipitation has increased and summer precipitation has decreased in the western Mediterranean region. Aim of the study: The objectives of the present study were: i to compare changes in climate-growth relationships over time for Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris in Spain ii to quantify the presence of intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs on the three species, and iii to define the associated climatic variables. Area of study: 26 sampling sites (8 P. halepensis sites, 8 P. pinaster sites and 10 P. sylvestris sites were selected in their distribution area in Spain. Main results: Precipitation is the main factor influencing growth and IADF occurrence in the three species. Wet periods during previous winter and spring induced higher growth rates on P. halepensis and P. pinaster, while P. sylvestris was mostly influenced by summer precipitation. However, the influence of these climatic variables on the growth of these species changed over the studied period. The increase of winter and spring precipitation combined with increasingly harsh summer climatic conditions in the second half of the 20th century may have enhanced the importance of precipitation at the beginning of the growing season on the growth of species subject to higher summer drought stress (P. halepensis and P. pinaster and increased IADF occurrence. Research highlights: Besides reflecting changes in the environmental conditions during the growing season, the inclusion of IADF detection in chronologies adds new information to ring-width chronologies, thereby improving its quality.

  2. Diversity and persistence of ectomycorrhizal fungi and their effect on nursery-inoculated Pinus pinaster in a post-fire plantation in Northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Albina R; Sousa, Nadine R; Ramos, Miguel A; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) play an important role in forest ecosystems, often mitigating stress factors and increasing seedling performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nursery inoculation on Pinus pinaster growth and on the fungal communities established when reforesting burned areas. Inoculated P. pinaster saplings showed 1.5-fold higher stem height than the non-inoculated controls after a 5 year growth period, suggesting that fungal inoculation could potentiate tree growth in the field. Ordination analysis revealed the presence of different ECMF communities on both plots. Among the nursery-inoculated fungi, Laccaria sp., Rhizopogon sp., Suillus bovinus and Pisolithus sp. were detected on inoculated Pinus saplings on both sampling periods, indicating that they persisted after field establishment. Other fungi were also detected in the inoculated plants. Phialocephala sp. was found on the first assessment, while Terfezia sp. was detected on both sampling periods. Laccaria sp. and Rhizopogon sp. were identified in the control saplings, belonging however to different species than those found in the inoculated plot. Inocybe sp., Thelephora sp. and Paxillus involutus were present on both sampling periods in the non-inoculated plots. The results suggest that ECMF inoculation at nursery stage can benefit plant growth after transplantation to a post-fire site and that the inoculated fungi can persist in the field. This approach has great potential as a biotechnological tool to aid in the reforestation of burned areas.

  3. Change of the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation by a tree cover of Pinus pinaser; Modificacion de la distribucion temporal y espacial de la precipitacion por una cubierta arborea de Pinus pinaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Suarez, J. A.; Diaz-Fierros, F.; Soto, B.

    2009-07-01

    Throughfall and stem flow volume generation was measured over 1 year period in a Pinus pinaster stand 9 years old. Throughfall was measured using 8 collectors in a fixed position connected to a tipping bucket rainfall gauge in a representative 10 x 10 m plot of the forest and stem flow was measured in three trees using a rubber ring around the trunk connected to a tipping bucket rainfall gauge. The two tipping bucket rainfall gauges was connected to a data logger programmed to record data every 5 minutes. (Author) 4 refs.

  4. Adaptation of fine roots to annual fertilization and irrigation in a 13-year-old Pinus pinaster stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, M R; Jolicoeur, E; Trichet, P; Augusto, L; Plassard, C; Guinberteau, J; Loustau, D

    2009-02-01

    Effects of fertilization and irrigation on fine roots and fungal hyphae were studied in 13-year-old maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aït. in Soland), 7 years after the initiation of the treatments. The fertilization trials consisted of a phosphorus treatment, a complete fertilizer treatment (N, P, K, Ca and Mg), and an unfertilized treatment (control). Fertilizers were applied annually and were adjusted according to foliar target values. Two irrigation regimes (no irrigation and irrigation of a set amount each day) were applied from May to October. Root samples to depths of 120 cm were collected in summer of 2005, and the biomass of small roots (diameter 2-20 mm) and fine roots (diameter

  5. Flight Dynamics and Abundance of Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae in Different Sawmills from Northern Spain: Differences between Local Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae and Southern France Incoming P. pinaster Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2009, the windstorm “Klaus” struck the southern part of France, affecting 37.9 million m3 of maritime pine Pinus pinaster Aiton (Pinales: Pinaceae. This breeding plant material favored the outbreak of Ips sexdentatus (Börner (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae. As much of this timber is imported to the Basque Country (northern Spain, a potential risk to conifer stands is generated, due to the emergence of the incoming beetles. Thus, flight dynamics and beetle abundance were compared in different sawmills, according to the timber species (either local P. radiata D. Don or imported P. pinaster. A maximum flight peak of I. sexdentatus was observed in mid-June in P. pinaster importing sawmills, whereas a second lighter peak occurred in September. In contrast, only a maximum peak in mid-June was observed in P. radiata inhabiting beetles, being significantly smaller than in local P. pinaster trading sawmills. In addition, significant differences were found between imported P. pinaster and P. radiata regarding the number of insects beneath the bark. The development of IPM strategies for controlling I. sexdentatus populations is recommended, due to the insect abundance found in P. pinaster imported timber.

  6. Exploring natural variation of Pinus pinaster Aiton using metabolomics: Is it possible to identify the region of origin of a pine from its metabolites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijón, Mónica; Feito, Isabel; Oravec, Michal; Delatorre, Carolina; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Majada, Juan; Valledor, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Natural variation of the metabolome of Pinus pinaster was studied to improve understanding of its role in the adaptation process and phenotypic diversity. The metabolomes of needles and the apical and basal section of buds were analysed in ten provenances of P. pinaster, selected from France, Spain and Morocco, grown in a common garden for 5 years. The employment of complementary mass spectrometry techniques (GC-MS and LC-Orbitrap-MS) together with bioinformatics tools allowed the reliable quantification of 2403 molecular masses. The analysis of the metabolome showed that differences were maintained across provenances and that the metabolites characteristic of each organ are mainly related to amino acid metabolism, while provenances were distinguishable essentially through secondary metabolism when organs were analysed independently. Integrative analyses of metabolome, environmental and growth data provided a comprehensive picture of adaptation plasticity in conifers. These analyses defined two major groups of plants, distinguished by secondary metabolism: that is, either Atlantic or Mediterranean provenance. Needles were the most sensitive organ, where strong correlations were found between flavonoids and the water regime of the geographic origin of the provenance. The data obtained point to genome specialization aimed at maximizing the drought stress resistance of trees depending on their origin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Factors affecting cone production in Pinus pinaster Ait.: lack of growth-reproduction trade-offs but significant effects of climate and tree and stand characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bravo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Our main goal is to determine the relationship between cone production and radial growth in Pinus pinaster Ait. under different climatic conditions across the Iberian Peninsula. Area of study: Coca Intensive Sampling Plateau, Northern Plateau (Spain. Material and methods: Cone counts were conducted on an intensive monitoring plot in Coca (North-Central Spain during the years 2000, 2006 and 2007. A ZIP (zero-inflated Poisson model was adjusted for simultaneously estimating the probability of obtaining crop cones and its amount. The Northern Atlantic Oscillation (NAO index was used as explanatory variable, together with a wide variety of tree and local stand variables. Climate (as evaluated by NAO, local stand density (here estimated from the six nearest trees, tree size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency significantly influenced both occurrence and intensity of cone production. Main results: ZIP models for predicting reproductive effort seems an adequate tool to predict reproductive responses to climatic fluctuations and the resulting future species distribution in the face of climate change, as well as to identify silviculture actions that would promote reproductive success in naturally-regenerated stands, list and discuss relevant results (including numeric values of experimental results. Research highlights: Climate, stand density and tree conditions (size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency influence significantly both cone occurrence and intensity of fruiting as shown by a ZIP model. As the climate variables included in the model (based on Northern Atlantic Oscillation, NAO are general and easily obtained, the proposed model has practical applicability to predicting Pinus pinaster cone production in the Iberian Peninsula.

  8. Factors affecting cone production in Pinus pinaster Ait.: lack of growth-reproduction trade-offs but significant effects of climate and tree and stand characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, F.; Maguire, D.A.; González-Martínez, S.G.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: Our main goal is to determine the relationship between cone production and radial growth in Pinus pinaster Ait. under different climatic conditions across the Iberian Peninsula. Area of study: Coca Intensive Sampling Plateau, Northern Plateau (Spain). Material and methods: Cone counts were conducted on an intensive monitoring plot in Coca (North-Central Spain) during the years 2000, 2006 and 2007. A ZIP (zero-inflated Poisson) model was adjusted for simultaneously estimating the probability of obtaining crop cones and its amount. The Northern Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was used as explanatory variable, together with a wide variety of tree and local stand variables. Climate (as evaluated by NAO), local stand density (here estimated from the six nearest trees), tree size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency significantly influenced both occurrence and intensity of cone production. Main results: ZIP models for predicting reproductive effort seems an adequate tool to predict reproductive responses to climatic fluctuations and the resulting future species distribution in the face of climate change, as well as to identify silviculture actions that would promote reproductive success in naturally-regenerated stands, list and discuss relevant results (including numeric values of experimental results). Research highlights: Climate, stand density and tree conditions (size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency) influence significantly both cone occurrence and intensity of fruiting as shown by a ZIP model. As the climate variables included in the model (based on Northern Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) are general and easily obtained, the proposed model has practical applicability to predicting Pinus pinaster cone production in the Iberian Peninsula.

  9. Factors affecting cone production in Pinus pinaster Ait.: lack of growth-reproduction trade-offs but significant effects of climate and tree and stand characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, F.; Maguire, D.A.; González-Martínez, S.G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: Our main goal is to determine the relationship between cone production and radial growth in Pinus pinaster Ait. under different climatic conditions across the Iberian Peninsula. Area of study: Coca Intensive Sampling Plateau, Northern Plateau (Spain). Material and methods: Cone counts were conducted on an intensive monitoring plot in Coca (North-Central Spain) during the years 2000, 2006 and 2007. A ZIP (zero-inflated Poisson) model was adjusted for simultaneously estimating the probability of obtaining crop cones and its amount. The Northern Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was used as explanatory variable, together with a wide variety of tree and local stand variables. Climate (as evaluated by NAO), local stand density (here estimated from the six nearest trees), tree size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency significantly influenced both occurrence and intensity of cone production. Main results: ZIP models for predicting reproductive effort seems an adequate tool to predict reproductive responses to climatic fluctuations and the resulting future species distribution in the face of climate change, as well as to identify silviculture actions that would promote reproductive success in naturally-regenerated stands, list and discuss relevant results (including numeric values of experimental results). Research highlights: Climate, stand density and tree conditions (size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency) influence significantly both cone occurrence and intensity of fruiting as shown by a ZIP model. As the climate variables included in the model (based on Northern Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) are general and easily obtained, the proposed model has practical applicability to predicting Pinus pinaster cone production in the Iberian Peninsula.

  10. Biomass accumulation and carbon sequestration after heavy mechanical thinning on post-fire Pinus pinaster see dings (Monte Fraguas, Guadalajara, Central Spain); Distribucion de biomasa y fijacion de carbono tras clareos mecanizados intensos en regenerado post-incendio Pinus pinaster Ait. (Monte Fraguas, Guadalajara, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrigal, J.; Hernando, C.; Guijarro, M.; Diez, C.; Jimenez, E.

    2006-07-01

    An experience has been conducted on Pinus pinaster stand in Guadalajara (Central Spain) affected by a wildfire in 1992 to evaluate biomass allocation of different seeding fractions and to quantify the differences between two heavy pine seeding mechanical thinning. Nine permanent plots ( 20 m x 20 m) were installed in the study area, in 2000. After measuring initial seeding density (10,000 seedlings/ha), a completely randomized block design was used. Three plots remained as control, three were treated with a heavy pine seedling thinning and the other three were treated with a very heavy pine seedling thinning. In each plot, a yearly dasonomic inventory and a biomass destructive inventory every two years, removing 10 representative seedlings of each treatment, were carried out. Multiplicative models (y=ax''b) have been elaborated in order to relate dasometric variables with the biomass obtained through destructive samplings. The highest correlation coefficients (from 0.80 to 0.97) were obtained for the stem groundline diameter. Results show that biomass accumulation of different seedling fractions is significantly different among treatments, being the increment of C higher with the heaviest thinning. These changes were higher the two first years after thinning. Nevertheless, Carbon sequestration of the stand was significantly higher in the control plots. Consequently, heavy thinning on post-fire Pinus pinaster seedlings makes better their vigour, and decreases forest fire hazard, but at the sama time, it produces an important extraction of Carbon sequestrated. (Author) 35 refs.

  11. Modelling modulus of elasticity of Pinus pinaster Ait. in northwestern Spain with standing tree acoustic measurements, tree, stand and site variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Merlo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Modelling the structural quality of Pinus pinaster Ait. wood on the basis of measurements made on standing trees is essential because of the importance of the species in the Galician forestry and timber industries and the good mechanical properties of its wood. In this study, we investigated how timber stiffness is affected by tree and stand properties, climatic and edaphic characteristics and competition. Area of study: The study was performed in Galicia, north-western Spain.Material and methods: Ten pure and even-aged P. pinaster stands were selected and tree and stand variables and the stress wave velocity of 410 standing trees were measured. A sub-sample of 73 trees, representing the variability in acoustic velocity, were felled and sawed into structural timber pieces (224 which were subjected to a bending test to determine the modulus of elasticity (MOE. Main results: Linear models including wood properties explained more than 97%, 73% and 60% of the observed MOE variability at site, tree and board level, respectively, with acoustic velocity and wood density as the main regressors. Other linear models, which did not include wood density, explained more than 88%, 69% and 55% of the observed MOE variability at site, tree and board level, respectively, with acoustic velocity as the main regressor. Moreover, a classification tree for estimating the visual grade according to standard UNE 56544:2011 was developed. Research highlights: The results have demonstrated the usefulness of acoustic velocity for predicting MOE in standing trees. The use of the fitted equations together with existing dynamic growth models will enable preliminary assessment of timber stiffness in relation to different silvicultural alternatives used with this species.Keywords: stress wave velocity, modulus of elasticity, site index, competition index, stepwise regression, CART.

  12. [Associating Serenoa repens, Urtica dioica and Pinus pinaster. Safety and efficacy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. Prospective study on 320 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, C; Abbadessa, D; Tarantino, M L; Oxenius, I; Laganà, A; Lupo, A; Rinella, M

    2010-01-01

    Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) has been employed for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) for several years. Its mechanism of action is believed to be due to antiandrogenic, antiproliferative and antinflammatory properties. An association of Serenoa with the nettle "Urtica dioica" showing antiproliferative activity and the pine "Pinus pinaster" derivative, showing antinflammatory action, has been proposed in recent years. Such an action is hoped to act not only by reducing LUTS but also by preventing the development of prostate cancer. During the years 2007 and 2008, 320 patients suffering from LUTS were treated with an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Urtica dioica 120 mg and Pinus pinaster 5 mg, named IPBTRE. This treatment was administered to all patients for a minimal duration of 30 days to a maximum of a year, either alone or in association with antibiotics or alpha-blockers, if needed. Outcome analysis was based on evaluation of symptoms, prostate volume and maximum flow rate (Qmax). From a careful analysis of the data collected in our database, the following observations can be made: ages varied between 19 and 78 years. The patients were affected by BPH in 46% of cases, chronic prostatitis syndrome in 43%, chronic genital-pelvic pain in 7% and other conditions in 4%, the absolute numbers being 147, 138, 22 and 7 patients, respectively. No untoward side effect was reported in any case. Variations in symptom score could be fully evaluated only in 80 of 320 patients (25%), of whom 68 (85%) reported a significant benefit, with special reference to an improvement of pain, urgency, strangury and nocturia. Data on variations in prostate volume, as measured by digital rectal examination, were available in 84 (26.5%) patients. No significant change was observed. Qmax after treatment was measured in 83 (26%) patients. It did not show significant changes from the initial values. The association tested in our study appeared to be safe and well

  13. Potencialidades do Pinus pinaster e Cytisus multiflorus na fitoestabilização de escombreiras na mina de ouro de Santo António (Penedono Potencialities of Pinus pinaster and Cytisus multiflorus on the phytostabilization of the Santo António (Penedono gold mine dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Abreu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A mina de Santo António, localizada a cerca de 10 km ao norte de Penedono (Viseu, foi um importante centro mineiro, tendo-se aí principalmente explorado o ouro e outros elementos químicos, como o arsénio. Actualmente, todo o complexo mineiro está abandonado e bastante degradado. As escombreiras, cortadas por dois barrancos de grande dimensão, estão sujeitas a intensa erosão eólica e hídrica. Estas apresentam teores totais elevados para vários elementos, dos quais se destacam As, Pb, Cd e Au que atingem, respectivamente, 40 000, 653, 14 e 9,8 mg kg-1 . Estudou-se na área mineira, e em particular na envolvente das escombreiras, os solos e as plantas aí desenvolvidas (Pinus pinaster, Quercus pyrenaica, Castanea sativa, Cytisus multiflorus e uma gramínea do género Agrostis. As águas de drenagem da escombreira não vegetalizada apresentavam valores de pH de 2,58 e teores de As e Cd respectivamente de 160 e 0,05 mg/L. As águas recolhidas a jusante de escombreiras vegetalizadas com pinheiros e giestas, mostraram um decréscimo drástico de todos os elementos, em especial do As que ocorria com valores ambientalmente aceitáveis (The Santo António mine is located 10 km north of Penedono (Viseu, Portugal. This mine was in the first half of the twenty’s century an important gold and arsenic mining centre. Nowadays the mining complex is abandoned and presents high level of physical degradation. The waste dumps crossed by two large gullies are under strong water and wind erosion. The total concentrations of As, Pb, Cd e Au, in the dump material reached values as high as 40 000, 653, 14 and 9,8 mg kg-1, respectively. Soils and native plants as Pinus pinaster, Quercus pyrenaica, Castanea sativa, Cytisus multiflorus and gramineous plants (gen. Agrostis from the mining area and the waste dumps surroundings were collect and analysed. The draining waters from a no vegetated dump presented a pH value of 2.58, and As and Cd concentrations of 160

  14. FlorNExT®, a cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in Northeastern Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, S.; Rua, J.; Tomé, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. To introduce and describe FlorNExT®, a free cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) even-aged stands in the Northeast of Portugal (NE Portugal). Area of study: NE Portugal. Material and methods: FlorNExT® implements a dynamic growth and yield modelling framework which integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves) and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass, and carbon content. Main results: FlorNExT® is freely available from any device with an Internet connection at: http://flornext.esa.ipb.pt/. Research highlights: This application has been designed to make it possible for any stakeholder to easily estimate standing volume, biomass, and carbon content in maritime pine stands from stand data, as well as to estimate growth and yield based on four stand variables: age, density, dominant height, and basal area. FlorNExT® allows planning thinning treatments. FlorNExT® is a fundamental tool to support forest mobilization at local and regional scales in NE Portugal. (Author)

  15. Soil water stress affects both cuticular wax content and cuticle-related gene expression in young saplings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Provost, Grégoire; Domergue, Frédéric; Lalanne, Céline; Ramos Campos, Patricio; Grosbois, Antoine; Bert, Didier; Meredieu, Céline; Danjon, Frédéric; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2013-07-01

    The cuticle is a hydrophobic barrier located at the aerial surface of all terrestrial plants. Recent studies performed on model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, have suggested that the cuticle may be involved in drought stress adaptation, preventing non-stomatal water loss. Although forest trees will face more intense drought stresses (in duration and intensity) with global warming, very few studies on the role of the cuticle in drought stress adaptation in these long-lived organisms have been so far reported. This aspect was investigated in a conifer, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), in a factorial design with two genetic units (two half-sib families with different growth rates) and two treatments (irrigated vs non-irrigated), in field conditions. Saplings were grown in an open-sided greenhouse and half were irrigated three times per week for two growing seasons. Needles were sampled three times per year for cuticular wax (composition and content) and transcriptome (of 11 genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis) analysis. Non-irrigated saplings (i) had a higher cuticular wax content than irrigated saplings and (ii) overexpressed most of the genes studied. Both these trends were more marked in the faster growing family. The higher cuticular wax content observed in the non-irrigated treatment associated with strong modifications in products from the decarbonylation pathway suggest that cuticular wax may be involved in drought stress adaptation in maritime pine. This study provides also a set of promising candidate genes for future forward genetic studies in conifers.

  16. Genetic variation of drought tolerance in Pinus pinaster at three hierarchical levels: a comparison of induced osmotic stress and field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Maria João; Velasco, Tania; Feito, Isabel; Alía, Ricardo; Majada, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the survival capacity of forest trees to periods of severe water stress could improve knowledge of the adaptive potential of different species under future climatic scenarios. In long lived organisms, like forest trees, the combination of induced osmotic stress treatments and field testing can elucidate the role of drought tolerance during the early stages of establishment, the most critical in the life of the species. We performed a Polyethylene glycol-osmotic induced stress experiment and evaluated two common garden experiments (xeric and mesic sites) to test for survival and growth of a wide range clonal collection of Maritime pine. This study demonstrates the importance of additive vs non additive effects for drought tolerance traits in Pinus pinaster, and shows differences in parameters determining the adaptive trajectories of populations and family and clones within populations. The results show that osmotic adjustment plays an important role in population variation, while biomass allocation and hydric content greatly influence survival at population level. Survival in the induced osmotic stress experiment presented significant correlations with survival in the xeric site, and height growth at the mesic site, at population level, indicating constraints of adaptation for those traits, while at the within population level no significant correlation existed. These results demonstrate that population differentiation and within population genetic variation for drought tolerance follow different patterns.

  17. Functional and genetic characterization of gas exchange and intrinsic water use efficiency in a full-sib family of Pinus pinaster Ait. in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Marina; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Cervera, María Teresa; Aranda, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    Drought is an important environmental factor in Mediterranean ecosystems affecting seedling recruitment, productivity or susceptibility to fires and pathogens. Studying water use efficiency in these environments is crucial due to its adaptive value allowing trees to cope with low water availability. We studied the phenotypic variability and genetic control of intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i)) and related traits in a full-sib family of Pinus pinaster under drought imposition. We detected significant differences in WUE(i) between clones of the same family and moderate heritability estimates that indicate some degree of genetic control over this trait. Stomatal conductance to water vapor was the trait most affected by drought imposition and it showed the strongest influence in WUE(i). Stomatal conductance to water vapor and specific leaf area (SLA) were the traits with highest heritabilities and they showed a significant genetic correlation with WUE(i), suggesting that selection of needles with low SLA values will improve WUE(i) in this species by reducing water losses through stomatal control.

  18. FlorNExT®, a cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. stands in Northeastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To introduce and describe FlorNExT®, a free cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. even-aged stands in the Northeast of Portugal (NE Portugal. Area of study: NE Portugal. Material and methods: FlorNExT® implements a dynamic growth and yield modelling framework which integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass, and carbon content. Main results: FlorNExT® is freely available from any device with an Internet connection at: http://flornext.esa.ipb.pt/. Research highlights: This application has been designed to make it possible for any stakeholder to easily estimate standing volume, biomass, and carbon content in maritime pine stands from stand data, as well as to estimate growth and yield based on four stand variables: age, density, dominant height, and basal area. FlorNExT® allows planning thinning treatments. FlorNExT® is a fundamental tool to support forest mobilization at local and regional scales in NE Portugal. Keywords: forest management; maritime pine; forest modelling; knowledge transfer tool.

  19. Potassium nutrition of ectomycorrhizal Pinus pinaster: overexpression of the Hebeloma cylindrosporum HcTrk1 transporter affects the translocation of both K(+) and phosphorus in the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kevin; Delteil, Amandine; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Becquer, Adeline; Plassard, Claude; Sentenac, Hervé; Zimmermann, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Mycorrhizal associations are known to improve the hydro-mineral nutrition of their host plants. However, the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis for plant potassium nutrition has so far been poorly studied. We therefore investigated the impact of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum on the potassium nutrition of Pinus pinaster and examined the involvement of the fungal potassium transporter HcTrk1. HcTrk1 transcripts and proteins were localized in ectomycorrhizas using in situ hybridization and EGFP translational fusion constructs. Importantly, an overexpression strategy was performed on a H. cylindrosporum endogenous gene in order to dissect the role of this transporter. The potassium nutrition of mycorrhizal pine plants was significantly improved under potassium-limiting conditions. Fungal strains overexpressing HcTrk1 reduced the translocation of potassium and phosphorus from the roots to the shoots of inoculated plants in mycorrhizal experiments. Furthermore, expression of HcTrk1 and the phosphate transporter HcPT1.1 were reciprocally linked to the external inorganic phosphate and potassium availability. The development of these approaches provides a deeper insight into the role of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on host plant K(+) nutrition and in particular, the K(+) transporter HcTrk1. The work augments our knowledge of the link between potassium and phosphorus nutrition via the mycorrhizal pathway. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Assessing a Template Matching Approach for Tree Height and Position Extraction from Lidar-Derived Canopy Height Models of Pinus Pinaster Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pirotti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an assessment of a method using a correlation filter over a lidar-derived digital canopy height model (CHM is presented. The objective of the procedure is to obtain stem density, position, and height values, on a stand with the following characteristics: ellipsoidal canopy shape (Pinus pinaster, even-aged and single-layer structure. The process consists of three steps: extracting a correlation map from CHM by applying a template whose size and shape resembles the canopy to be detected, applying a threshold mask to the correlation map to keep a subset of candidate-pixels, and then applying a local maximum filter to the remaining pixel groups. The method performs satisfactorily considering the experimental conditions. The mean tree extraction percentage is 65% with a coefficient of agreement of 0.4. The mean absolute error of height is ~0.5 m for all plots except one. It can be considered a valid approach for extracting tree density and height in regularly spaced stands (i.e., poplar plantations which are fundamental for extracting related forest parameters such as volume and biomass.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, E.; Oral, H. V.; Akburak, S.; Makineci, E.; Yilmaz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils. Area of study: Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain) and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41° 09’-41° 12’ N latitude and 28° 54’-29° 00’ E longitude in Turkey. Material and methods: Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm) and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Research highlights: Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots. (Author)

  2. Effects of phosphorus availability and genetic variation of leaf terpene content and emission rate in Pinus pinaster seedlings susceptible and resistant to the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, J-S; Sampedro, L; Llusià, J; Moreira, X; Zas, R; Peñuelas, J

    2012-03-01

    We studied the effects of phosphorus fertilisation on foliar terpene concentrations and foliar volatile terpene emission rates in six half-sib families of Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings. Half of the seedlings were resistant to attack of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis L., a generalist phloem feeder, and the remaining seedlings were susceptible to this insect. We hypothesised that P stress could modify the terpene concentration in the needles and thus lead to altered terpene emission patterns relevant to plant-insect signalling. The total concentration and emission rate ranged between 5732 and 13,995 μg·g(-1) DW and between 2 and 22 μg·g(-1) DW·h(-1), respectively. Storage and emission were dominated by the isomers α- and β-pinene (77.2% and 84.2% of the total terpene amount amassed and released, respectively). In both resistant and susceptible families, P stress caused an increase of 31% in foliar terpene concentration with an associated 5-fold decrease in terpene emission rates. A higher terpene content in the leaves implies that the 'excess carbon', available under limiting growth conditions (P scarcity), is allocated to terpene production. Sensitive families showed a greater increase in terpene emission rates with increasing P concentrations, which could explain their susceptibility to H. abietis. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ozdemir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study : To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils.Area of study : Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L. at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41°09' -41°12' N latitude and 28°54' - 29°00' E longitude in Turkey.Material and Methods : Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.Research highlights : Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots.Keywords: carbon sequestration; C/N ratio; decomposition; exotic; tree provenance.

  4. Genetic variation of drought tolerance in Pinus pinaster at three hierarchical levels: a comparison of induced osmotic stress and field testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Gaspar

    Full Text Available Understanding the survival capacity of forest trees to periods of severe water stress could improve knowledge of the adaptive potential of different species under future climatic scenarios. In long lived organisms, like forest trees, the combination of induced osmotic stress treatments and field testing can elucidate the role of drought tolerance during the early stages of establishment, the most critical in the life of the species. We performed a Polyethylene glycol-osmotic induced stress experiment and evaluated two common garden experiments (xeric and mesic sites to test for survival and growth of a wide range clonal collection of Maritime pine. This study demonstrates the importance of additive vs non additive effects for drought tolerance traits in Pinus pinaster, and shows differences in parameters determining the adaptive trajectories of populations and family and clones within populations. The results show that osmotic adjustment plays an important role in population variation, while biomass allocation and hydric content greatly influence survival at population level. Survival in the induced osmotic stress experiment presented significant correlations with survival in the xeric site, and height growth at the mesic site, at population level, indicating constraints of adaptation for those traits, while at the within population level no significant correlation existed. These results demonstrate that population differentiation and within population genetic variation for drought tolerance follow different patterns.

  5. Population dynamics of bacteria associated with different strains of the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus after inoculation in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roriz, Mariana; Santos, Carla; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2011-08-01

    For a long time it was thought that Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was the only agent of the pine wilt disease. Recently, it was discovered that there are bacteria associated with the nematodes that contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease, mainly through the release of toxins that promote the death of the pines. Among the species most commonly found, are bacteria belonging to the Bacillus, Pantoea, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas genera. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of inoculation of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) with four different nematode isolates, in the bacterial population of nematodes and trees, at different stages of disease progression. The monitoring of progression of disease symptoms was also recorded. Also, the identification of bacteria isolated from the xylem of trees and the surface of nematodes was performed by classical identification methods, by the API20E identification system and by sequencing of bacterial DNA. The results showed that for the symptoms progression, the most striking difference was observed for the pines inoculated with the avirulent isolate, C14-5, which led to a slower and less severe aggravation of symptoms than in pines inoculated with the virulent isolates. In general, it was found that bacterial population, inside the tree, increased with disease progression. A superior bacterial quantity was isolated from pines inoculated with the nematode isolates HF and 20, and, comparatively, few bacteria were isolated from pines inoculated with the avirulent isolate. The identification system API20E was insufficient in the identification of bacterial species; Enterobacter cloacae species was identified in 79% of the isolated bacterial colonies and seven of these colonies could not be identified by this method. Molecular identification methods, through bacterial DNA sequencing, allowed a more reliable identification: eleven different bacterial species within the Bacillus, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia

  6. Determinación de la composición fenólica y actividad antioxidante en brotes de clones de Pinus pinaster procedentes de tres orígenes contrastantes

    OpenAIRE

    Baizán González, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Pinus pinaster es una especie de gran importancia económica y ecológica y que presenta una gran diversidad genética. En nuestro grupo de trabajo disponemos de una colección clonal representativa de toda el área de distribución natural de la especie. En una parcela que alberga un ensayo anidado de 10 procedencias x 5 familias x 5 clones x 8 copias y con distribución de bloques aleatorizados, se evaluó la variabilidad del color en base al Espacio de Color CIELAB de los brotes que emergen en pri...

  7. Biophysical modelling of intra-ring variations in tracheid features and wood density of Pinus pinaster trees exposed to seasonal droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Sarah; Ogée, Jérôme; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Rayment, Mark; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Process-based models that link seasonally varying environmental signals to morphological features within tree rings are essential tools to predict tree growth response and commercially important wood quality traits under future climate scenarios. This study evaluated model portrayal of radial growth and wood anatomy observations within a mature maritime pine (Pinus pinaster (L.) Aït.) stand exposed to seasonal droughts. Intra-annual variations in tracheid anatomy and wood density were identified through image analysis and X-ray densitometry on stem cores covering the growth period 1999-2010. A cambial growth model was integrated with modelled plant water status and sugar availability from the soil-plant-atmosphere transfer model MuSICA to generate estimates of cell number, cell volume, cell mass and wood density on a weekly time step. The model successfully predicted inter-annual variations in cell number, ring width and maximum wood density. The model was also able to predict the occurrence of special anatomical features such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in growth rings. Since cell wall thickness remained surprisingly constant within and between growth rings, variations in wood density were primarily the result of variations in lumen diameter, both in the model and anatomical data. In the model, changes in plant water status were identified as the main driver of the IADFs through a direct effect on cell volume. The anatomy data also revealed that a trade-off existed between hydraulic safety and hydraulic efficiency. Although a simplified description of cambial physiology is presented, this integrated modelling approach shows potential value for identifying universal patterns of tree-ring growth and anatomical features over a broad climatic gradient. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Inhibitory effect of jasmonic acid and ethylene on epicotyl growth and bud induction in the maritime pine, Pinus pinaster Soland. in ait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maria Teresa; Pedranzani, Hilda; García-Molinero, Patricia; Pando, Valentin; Sierra-de-Grado, Rosario

    2009-12-01

    Two independent parameters, epicotyl height (cm) and number of induced buds were studied on Pinus pinaster explants to analyse the effects of three phytohormones (6-benzylaminopurine, jasmonic acid, ethylene) which were combined or not in 11 different treatments. Epicotyle length diminished significantly in relation to the control medium (medium without exogen phytohormones) in presence of jasmonic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine or Ethephon (which is converted to ethylene in plants) in any of treatments. Concentrations of 100 microM of jasmonic acid and Ethephon had a greater inhibitory effect than the treatments with 10 microM. In addition to that, jasmonic acid was a stronger inhibitor than Ethephon in any of the tried combinations. There were no significant differences between the control treatment and the treatments with only 10 microM of jasmonic acid or Ethephon. However, 10 microM 6-benzylaminopurine induced bud formation. The different combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine with jasmonic acid and Ethephon showed that concentrations of 10 to 100 microM did not affect the number of induced buds. Jasmonic acid had an inhibitory effect which Ethephon only showed when combined with 100 microM of jasmonic acid and 10 microM of 6-benzylaminopurine. Three response groups were defined by cluster analysis: group 1 produced the greatest mean number of buds (4 to 5) and a mean epicotyl growth of 1 to 1.5 cm; group 2 produced 2 to 4 buds and a mean growth of 0.5 to 1.2 cm; group 3 produced only one bud and a mean epicotyl length of 1.2 to 2 cm.

  9. Nucleotide polymorphisms in a pine ortholog of the Arabidopsis degrading enzyme cellulase KORRIGAN are associated with early growth performance in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, José Antonio; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Collada, Carmen; Guevara, María Angeles; Boury, Christophe; de María, Nuria; Eveno, Emmanuelle; Aranda, Ismael; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H; Brach, Jean; Alía, Ricardo; Plomion, Christophe; Cervera, María Teresa

    2015-09-01

    We have carried out a candidate-gene-based association genetic study in Pinus pinaster Aiton and evaluated the predictive performance for genetic merit gain of the most significantly associated genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used a second generation 384-SNP array enriched with candidate genes for growth and wood properties to genotype mother trees collected in 20 natural populations covering most of the European distribution of the species. Phenotypic data for total height, polycyclism, root-collar diameter and biomass were obtained from a replicated provenance-progeny trial located in two sites with contrasting environments (Atlantic vs Mediterranean climate). General linear models identified strong associations between growth traits (total height and polycyclism) and four SNPs from the korrigan candidate gene, after multiple testing corrections using false discovery rate. The combined genomic breeding value predictions assessed for the four associated korrigan SNPs by ridge regression-best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) and cross-validation accounted for up to 8 and 15% of the phenotypic variance for height and polycyclic growth, respectively, and did not improve adding SNPs from other growth-related candidate genes. For root-collar diameter and total biomass, they accounted for 1.6 and 1.1% of the phenotypic variance, respectively, but increased to 15 and 4.1% when other SNPs from lp3.1, lp3.3 and cad were included in RR-BLUP models. These results point towards a desirable integration of candidate-gene studies as a means to pre-select relevant markers, and aid genomic selection in maritime pine breeding programs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A standardized bark extract of Pinus pinaster Aiton (Pycnogenol®) attenuated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease via Erk-sp1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na-Rae; Ryu, Hyung-Won; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Ji-Won; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, In-Sik; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2016-12-24

    A standardized bark extract of Pinus pinaster Aiton (Pycnogenol ® ; PYC) used as an herbal medicine to treat various diseases in Europe and North America. This study evaluates the ability of PYC to inhibit chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-stimulated human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and in a cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model. To induce COPD, the mice intranasally received LPS on day 4 and were exposed to CS for 1h per day (total eight cigarettes per day) from days 1-7. The mice were administered PYC at a dose of 15mg/kg and 30mg/kg 1h before CS exposure. In the CSE-stimulated NCI-H292 cells, PYC significantly inhibited Erk phosphorylation, sp1 expression, MUC5AC, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a concentration-dependent manner, as evidenced by a reduction in their mRNA levels. Co-treatment with PYC and Erk inhibitors markedly reduced the levels inflammatory mediators compared to only PYC-treatment. In the COPD mice model, PYC decreased the inflammatory cell count and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid compared with COPD mice. PYC attenuated the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the airways and decreased the expression levels of Erk phosphorylation and sp1. PYC also inhibited the expression of myeloperoxidase and matrix metalloproteinases-9 in lung tissue. Our results indicate that PYC inhibited the reduction in the inflammatory response in CSE-stimulated NCI-H292 cells and the COPD mouse model via the Erk-sp1 pathway. Therefore, we suggest that PYC has the potential to treat COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation on coal mine spoils reclaimed with maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Hakan; Makineci, Ender

    2009-08-01

    Mining operations on open coal mines in Agacli-Istanbul have resulted in the destruction of vast amounts of land. To rehabilitate these degraded lands, plantations on this area began in 1988. Twelve tree species were planted, however, the most planted tree species was maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). This study performed on 14 sample plots randomly selected in maritime pine plantations on coal mine soil/spoils in 2005. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil layers (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples; fine soil fraction (<2 mm), soil acidity (pH), organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated, and results were compared statistically among soil layers. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 17,973.20 kg ha(-1). Total nitrogen and organic matter amounts of forest floor were 113.90 and 14,640.92 kg ha(-1) respectively. Among soil layers, the highest levels of organic carbon (1.77%) and total nitrogen (0.096%) and the lowest pH value (pH 5.38) were found in 0-1 cm soil layer, and the variation differs significantly among soil layers. Both organic carbon and total nitrogen content decreased, pH values increased from 0-1 to 5-10 cm layer. In conclusion, according to results obtained maritime pine plantations on coal mine spoils; slow accumulation and decomposition of forest floor undergo simultaneously. Depending on these changes organic carbon and total nitrogen contents increased in upper layer of soil/spoil.

  12. Decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus em regiões do interior e do litoral de Portugal Decomposition of needle litter of Pinus pinaster and leaf litter of Eucalyptus globulus in the littoral and inland areas of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ribeiro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, pela metodologia dos litter-bags, a decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster (PP e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus (EG, considerando a taxa de decomposição e a dinâmica de libertação dos nutrientes mais relevantes para a sustentabilidade dos sistemas florestais. Os estudos decorreram no litoral da Região Centro (Furadouro, Óbidos, quer com folhas de EG quer com agulhas de PP, no interior da Região Norte (Vila Pouca de Aguiar, com agulhas de PP, e numa situação intermédia com folhas de EG (Pegões e Rio Maior. Para igual período, a taxa de decomposição das agulhas de PP, estimada pelo modelo exponencial simples, foi inferior à determinada para as folhas de EG, sendo a diferença mais acentuada na fase inicial da decomposição (6 meses, em que a perda de peso das agulhas de PP foi cerca de metade da observada para as folhas de EG. Durante a fase inicial decomposição, tanto das folhas de EG como das agulhas de PP, ocorreu uma assinalável libertação de P, K e de Mg. A libertação do N dependeu da taxa de decomposição, observando- -se imobilização para as agulhas de PP com mais baixa taxa de decomposição, e libertação rápida para as folhas de EG com mais elevada taxa de decomposição. No caso do Ca o factor diferenciador foi a espécie, sendo a respectiva libertação baixa para as agulhas de PP, mas acentuada para as folhas de EG. As folhas verdes de resíduos de abate de EG decompuseram-se e libertaram os nutrientes mais rapidamente do que as folhas senescentes da mesma espécie.Decomposition of needle litter of Pinus pinaster (PP and leaf litter of Eucalyptus globulus (EG was assessed using the litterbag methodology. Decomposition rate of these residues and release dynamics of nutrients with more relevance to the sustainability of forest systems were measured. The study was carried out in the litoral of Central Portugal (Furadouro,Óbidos, using both PP and EG, in inland of North Portugal (Vila Pouca

  13. Efeito da cinza de biomassa na dinâmica do C e N do solo de uma plantação de pinus pinaster Wood ash effects on C and N dynamics of a soil from a pinus pinaster plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Xesús Gómez-Rey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, através de incubação aeróbia, o efeito da aplicação de cinza de biomassa florestal nas características químicas e na actividade microbiana de um Arenossolo de um povoamento de Pinus pinaster Ait. As doses de cinza aplicadas foram de 0, 4, e 8 g kg-1 solo, sob forma pulverulenta ou peletizada, e na presença ou ausência de fertilizante azotado. A aplicação de cinza sob forma pulverulenta aumentou rápida e significativamente os valores de pH e os teores de bases de troca e de P extraível do solo. A nitrificação líquida foi igualmente estimulada. A quantidade de C microbiano nos solos com cinza pulverulenta foi inferior ao controlo, não sendo observados efeitos significativos para a respiração basal do solo. O quociente metabólico foi superior na fase inicial da incubação. Os efeitos observados foram, em geral, tanto mais intensos quanto maior a dose de cinza aplicada e mais acentuados na presença de N. A cinza aplicada sob forma peletizada não produziu um efeito tão acentuado nas características do solo nem na elevação da alcalinidade, determinando uma fraca influência na dinâmica de C e na produção de nitrato. Em sistemas como o estudado a aplicação de cinza sob forma peletizada é preferível, ao originar um efeito mais prolongado da sua acção, devendo ser acompanhada de fertilizantes azotados para aumentar a disponibilidade de N no solo.Effects of wood ash (loose and pelleted on chemical properties and microbial activity in an Arenosol from a Pinus pinaster plantation were assessed through laboratory incubation. Wood ash was applied at a rate of 0, 4 and 8 g kg-1 soil both alone or together with N. Loose ash significantly increased pH values and extractable nutrients from the soil. Net nitrification was stimulated by it application. Amounts of microbial biomass C were lower in soils with loose ash than in the control. Basal respiration was not affected by treatments. Effects increased with the

  14. Genetic control of functional traits related to photosynthesis and water use efficiency in Pinus pinaster Ait. drought response: integration of genome annotation, allele association and QTL detection for candidate gene identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Marina; Cabezas, José-Antonio; de María, Nuria; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Guevara, María-Ángeles; Vélez, María-Dolores; Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Díaz, Luis-Manuel; Mancha, Jose-Antonio; Barbero, María-Carmen; Collada, Carmen; Díaz-Sala, Carmen; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2014-06-12

    Understanding molecular mechanisms that control photosynthesis and water use efficiency in response to drought is crucial for plant species from dry areas. This study aimed to identify QTL for these traits in a Mediterranean conifer and tested their stability under drought. High density linkage maps for Pinus pinaster were used in the detection of QTL for photosynthesis and water use efficiency at three water irrigation regimes. A total of 28 significant and 27 suggestive QTL were found. QTL detected for photochemical traits accounted for the higher percentage of phenotypic variance. Functional annotation of genes within the QTL suggested 58 candidate genes for the analyzed traits. Allele association analysis in selected candidate genes showed three SNPs located in a MYB transcription factor that were significantly associated with efficiency of energy capture by open PSII reaction centers and specific leaf area. The integration of QTL mapping of functional traits, genome annotation and allele association yielded several candidate genes involved with molecular control of photosynthesis and water use efficiency in response to drought in a conifer species. The results obtained highlight the importance of maintaining the integrity of the photochemical machinery in P. pinaster drought response.

  15. Efeito do controle do sob coberto e da fertilização no cresci­mento e concentração de nutrientes em pinheiro bravo (Pinus pinaster Ait. Effect of controlling competing vegetation and fertilization on maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. growth and nutrient concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar o interesse do controle da vegetação do sob coberto e da aplicação de N, P e K no crescimento e concentração de nutrientes em pinheiro bravo (Pinus pinas­ter Ait. escolheu-se um pinhal com seis anos onde, em Julho de 2002, foram aplica­dos cinco tratamentos: testemunha (T; corte e remoção da vegetação (CR; corte, remo­ção da vegetação e fertilização (CRF; corte e destroçamento da vegetação (CD; corte, destroçamento da vegetação e fertilização (CDF. Entre 2002 e 2007, e em relação a todos os parâmetros dendrométricos considerados, altura, diâmetro, área basal e volume, verifi­cou-se que os acréscimos ocorridos no tra­tamento CDF foram superiores (pTo study the interest of controlling the understory vegetation and the addition of N, P and K on the growth and nutrient concen­tration in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait., a field trial was established in a 6-year old pine forest. Five treatments were tested: control (T; cutting and removal of compet­ing vegetation (CR; cutting, removal of competing vegetation and fertilization (CRF; cutting and chipping of competing vegetation (CD; cutting, chipping of com­peting vegetation and fertilization (CDF. Between 2002 and 2007, growth in the CDF treatment was higher (p <0.05 than in the other treatments. The lowest growth oc­curred in control and/or in the CR treatment. In general, there were no differences between CD and CRF treatments. Therefore, these re­sults point out that removal of competing vegetation should be considered only if fertil­izers are added (CRF treatment in order to avoid negative effects on pine growth. Ap­plying fertilizers increased N, P and K con­centrations only in 2002 and 2003, although the increase was not significant.

  16. The host plant Pinus pinaster exerts specific effects on phosphate efflux and polyphosphate metabolism of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum: a radiotracer, cytological staining and 31 P NMR spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Aquino, Margarita; Becquer, Adeline; Le Guernevé, Christine; Louche, Julien; Amenc, Laurie K; Staunton, Siobhan; Quiquampoix, Hervé; Plassard, Claude

    2017-02-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) association can improve plant phosphorus (P) nutrition. Polyphosphates (polyP) synthesized in distant fungal cells after P uptake may contribute to P supply from the fungus to the host plant if they are hydrolyzed to phosphate in ECM roots then transferred to the host plant when required. In this study, we addressed this hypothesis for the ECM fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum grown in vitro and incubated without plant or with host (Pinus pinaster) and non-host (Zea mays) plants, using an experimental system simulating the symbiotic interface. We used 32 P labelling to quantify P accumulation and P efflux and in vivo and in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and cytological staining to follow the fate of fungal polyP. Phosphate supply triggered a massive P accumulation as newly synthesized long-chain polyP in H. cylindrosporum if previously grown under P-deficient conditions. P efflux from H. cylindrosporum towards the roots was stimulated by both host and non-host plants. However, the host plant enhanced 32 P release compared with the non-host plant and specifically increased the proportion of short-chain polyP in the interacting mycelia. These results support the existence of specific host plant effects on fungal P metabolism able to provide P in the apoplast of ectomycorrhizal roots. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Biophysical modelling of intra-ring variations in tracheid features and wood density of Pinus pinaster trees exposed to seasonal droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Wilkinson; Jerome Ogee; Jean-Christophe Domec; Mark Rayment; Lisa Wingate

    2015-01-01

    Process-based models that link seasonally varying environmental signals to morphological features within tree rings are essential tools to predict tree growth response and commercially important wood quality traits under future climate scenarios. This study evaluated model portrayal of radial growth and wood anatomy observations within a mature maritime pine (Pinus...

  18. The effects of the recent minimum temperature and water deficit increases on Pinus pinaster wood radial growth and density in southern Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Béatrice Kurz Besson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events.To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a P. pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011.We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster’s vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster’s production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region.

  19. Evidence for an Opportunistic and Endophytic Lifestyle of the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus-Associated Bacteria Serratia marcescens PWN146 Isolated from Wilting Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Cláudia S L; Nascimento, Francisco X; Barbosa, Pedro; Ke, Huei-Mien; Tsai, Isheng J; Hirao, Tomonori; Cock, Peter J A; Kikuchi, Taisei; Hasegawa, Koichi; Mota, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) results from the interaction of three elements: the pathogenic nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; the insect-vector, Monochamus sp.; and the host tree, mostly Pinus species. Bacteria isolated from B. xylophilus may be a fourth element in this complex disease. However, the precise role of bacteria in this interaction is unclear as both plant-beneficial and as plant-pathogenic bacteria may be associated with PWD. Using whole genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization, we were able to investigate in more detail the genetic repertoire of Serratia marcescens PWN146, a bacterium associated with B. xylophilus. We show clear evidence that S. marcescens PWN146 is able to withstand and colonize the plant environment, without having any deleterious effects towards a susceptible host (Pinus thunbergii), B. xylophilus nor to the nematode model C. elegans. This bacterium is able to tolerate growth in presence of xenobiotic/organic compounds, and use phenylacetic acid as carbon source. Furthermore, we present a detailed list of S. marcescens PWN146 potentials to interfere with plant metabolism via hormonal pathways and/or nutritional acquisition, and to be competitive against other bacteria and/or fungi in terms of resource acquisition or production of antimicrobial compounds. Further investigation is required to understand the role of bacteria in PWD. We have now reinforced the theory that B. xylophilus-associated bacteria may have a plant origin.

  20. The birds of the alien Acacia thickets of the South-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 1876, the Cape Superintendent of Plantations began using the Australian Acacia cyanophylla and A. ... Strandveld; but 38 % of all nests recorded in the South-western Cape are in Acacia. S. senegalensis is .... of mixed exotic trees, often including some Acacia but also Eucalyptus, Pinus, Quercus,. Populus and other ...

  1. Partitioning soil CO2 fluxes by tree-girdling in a Mediterranean (Pinus pinaster) ecosystem reveals a different response of autotrophic and heterotrophic components to environmental variables and photosynthesis under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, M.; Cescatti, A.; Gruening, C.; Ballarin, I. G.; Guenther, S.; Magnani, F.; Nali, C.; Lorenzini, G.

    2012-04-01

    The response of ecosystems to environmental factors, such as temperature and rainfall, is crucial to understand the impact of climate change on the terrestrial C cycle. Forest soil respiration represents the main pathway by which photosynthetically assimilated C is released to atmosphere; its intensity depends not only on soil environmental conditions, but also on the availability of organic substrates respired by roots and microorganisms. Several techniques have been applied to partition the autotrophic and heterotrophic components of soil respiration in boreal and temperate forests; there is a general lack of information, on the contrary, on the dynamics of soil CO2 efflux in Mediterranean ecosystems. The IPCC A1B scenario highlighted the importance of the Mediterranean area since it is expected to experience a temperature increase (from 2.2 °C to 5.1 °C) and a rainfall reduction ranging from -4 to -27% on annual basis. We used the tree-girdling technique together with periodic chamber-based measurements to study the partitioning of total soil respiration (Rs) into its autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic (Rh) components in a 60-year old forest in Central Italy (San Rossore) dominated by Pinus pinaster. This technique has been extensively used to block the flux of photosynthates from leaves to roots, thus stopping the autotrophic root respiration in the soil. We found that two weeks after the treatment soil respiration in the girdled plots decreased by 29% and remained stable over the period of analysis, suggesting that Rh dominates total soil respiration. The anomalous low rainfall regimen of May to October 2011 (102 mm cumulated rain) associated with average air temperatures (with a mean value of 19,6 °C over the period) gave us the opportunity to investigate the decoupled response of soil respiration to water and temperature. Time series analysis performed under this severe drought conditions showed overall low values of soil respiration with three clear

  2. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%). PMID:25657795

  3. Australian blackwood acacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samraj, P; Chinnamani, S

    1981-01-01

    An account of the silviculture and uses of Tasmanian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon). The species is grown in the hills of Nilgiris and Pulneys (above altitude 1500 metres). It can also be grown near centre of livestock farming where the land is unsuitable for intensive cultivation of grasses and legumes, and planted as field boundaries, shelterbelts and ornamental or shade trees. The leaves are used as livestock fodder, twigs as fuelwood, and the wood for pulp, cabinet making, agricultural implements and construction timber.

  4. The potential of breeding for enhanced inducibility in Pinus pinaster and Pinus radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael Zas; Alejandro Solla; Xoaquin Moreira; Luis Sampedro

    2012-01-01

    Most resistance mechanisms against pests and pathogens in pine trees involve the production of chemical defenses. These defenses are not cost free and the production of secondary metabolisms is generally inversely related with other plant fitness correlates, such as growth. The existence of these negative genetic correlations imposes an important obstacle for breeding...

  5. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils from roots of Pinus growing in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia FEKIH; Hocine ALLALI; Abdeslem Nacer AREZKI AIT; Salima MERGHACHE; Djamila MAGHNIA; Jean COSTA

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils of three roots of genus Pinus (P. halepensis, P. pinea and P. pinaster) growing in Algeria for the first time. The essential oils used in the present study were isolated by hydrodistillation using a Cleavenger-type apparatus according the European Pharmacopoeia, and identified by GC and GC-MS. 14, 12, 11 constituents were identified, representing an average of 98.8 %, 9...

  7. Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by α-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by α-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and β-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by β-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, β-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and α-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 μL cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 μL cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito.

  8. Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will serve a dual purpose: to develop a process of learning and reflection on gender within IDRC's Acacia (Communities and the Information Society in Africa) program initiative; and to undertake an evaluation of Acacia's gender strategy. This will be accomplished in three phases. During the preparatory phase, ...

  9. Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will serve a dual purpose: to develop a process of learning and reflection on gender within IDRC's Acacia (Communities and the Information Society in Africa) program initiative; and to undertake an evaluation of Acacia's gender strategy. This will be accomplished in three phases. During the preparatory phase, ...

  10. Wood Quality of Acacia Hybrid and Second-Generation Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Jusoh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new tree variants, namely Acacia hybrid and second-generation Acacia mangium, have been introduced in plantation forests in Sarawak, Malaysia, and their wood qualities were examined. The mean basic density of Acacia hybrid was comparable with Acacia mangium. However basic density and strength properties of second-generation A. mangium were significantly lower compared to Acacia hybrid. The mean fibre length and fibre wall thickness in the hybrid were found to be greater than that of second-generation A. mangium. Fibre diameter and fibre lumen diameter of Acacia hybrid were smaller compared to second-generation A. mangium. Runkel and slenderness ratios of Acacia hybrid and second-generation A. mangium fibres showed that they were suitable for pulp and paper production. Acacia hybrid was more resistant to Coptotermes curvignathus attack than second-generation A. mangium. A laboratory soil block test showed that Acacia hybrid and second-generation A. mangium were moderately durable timbers. In summary, marked differences in wood properties and qualities were observed between Acacia hybrid and second-generation A. mangium.

  11. (acacia senegal) in jigawa state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    tapping and tapping methods.Forest products may be ... the management practices, the precise technique and ... The gum production potential of this species (Acacia senegal) is still ..... Manual on gum Arabic production Pp. 20-23. Wekesa, C ...

  12. Chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils from roots of Pinus growing in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia FEKIH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils of three roots of genus Pinus (P. halepensis, P. pinea and P. pinaster growing in Algeria for the first time. The essential oils used in the present study were isolated by hydrodistillation using a Cleavenger-type apparatus according the European Pharmacopoeia, and identified by GC and GC-MS. 14, 12, 11 constituents were identified, representing an average of 98.8 %, 91.3 % and 83.6 % of the total oil of roots of P. halepensis, P. pinea and P. pinaster respectively. The chemical profile reveals the dominance of monoterpenes compounds, although some quantitative variance was noticed. The main constituents of the oil root of P. halepensis were α-Pinene (87.4 % and trans-p-Caryophyllene (3.5 %. The oil of P. pinea was dominated by Limonene (66.3 %, Trans-p-Caryophyllene (9.6 %, Myrcene (3.2 % and Osmorhizol (3.2 %. The oil of P. pinaster was rich by α-Pinene (22 %, β-Pinene (27.1 % and Trans-p-Caryophyllene (21.4 %. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from roots of P. halepensis, P. pinea and P. pinaster were tested against a panel of bacteria and one yeast strain using the agar well diffusion technique and dilution methods. The diameters of zones of inhibition exhibited by the essential oils were between 7 and 25 mm. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 28.4 μg/mL of P. halepensis and P. pinaster against S. aureus and C. albicans respectively.

  13. Inducible defences in Acacia sieberiana in response to giraffe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The resultant browsing pressure has led to the evolution of both physical and chemical responses in Acacia trees. In an observational study, we investigated the physical and chemical defenses in Acacia sieberiana var. woodii in response to ...

  14. Change of the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation by a tree cover of Pinus pinaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Suarez, J. A.; Diaz-Fierros, F.; Soto, B.

    2009-01-01

    Throughfall and stem flow volume generation was measured over 1 year period in a Pinus pinaster stand 9 years old. Throughfall was measured using 8 collectors in a fixed position connected to a tipping bucket rainfall gauge in a representative 10 x 10 m plot of the forest and stem flow was measured in three trees using a rubber ring around the trunk connected to a tipping bucket rainfall gauge. The two tipping bucket rainfall gauges was connected to a data logger programmed to record data every 5 minutes. (Author) 4 refs.

  15. Determination of Tannins of Three Common Acacia Species of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze and compare tannins of three common Acacia species of Sudan, since vegetable tannins are important in leather industry. Acacia nilotica and Acacia seyal samples were collected from Sunt Forest in Khartoum State, while Acacia senegal samples were collected from the Debabat Forest in South Kordofan State. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with boiled deionized water. The amount of tannins present in these bulk samples was determined by Folin-Denis method for total phenolic materials, followed by precipitation with hide-powder. The difference between the amount of phenolic materials present before and after addition of hide-powder represents the amount of tannins present. The percentage of tannins in the leaves, bark, and mature and immature fruits of collections of individuals of Acacia species was estimated; mature and immature fruits of Acacia nilotica contain tannins (22.15% and 22.10%, resp.. The leaves of Acacia nilotica and Acacia seyal contain tannins (11.80% and 6.30%, resp.. The barks of Acacia seyal, Acacia nilotica, and Acacia senegal contain tannins (12.15%, 10.47%, and 3.49%, resp..

  16. Ganancia obtenida mediante recogida selectiva de semilla en un huerto semillero de Pinus pinaster Ait.

    OpenAIRE

    Merlo, E.; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Fernández López, Josefa

    2005-01-01

    8 páginas, 3 figuras, 3 tablas -- Comunicación presentada al 4º Congreso Forestal Español que se celebró en Zaragoza entre el 26 y el 30 de septiembre de 2005 bajo el lema ‘La ciencia forestal: Respuestas para la sostenibilidad’.

  17. Silvicultural evaluations on maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton plantations in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Balekoğlu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial plantations have substantially reduced the pressure on natural forests. There are approximately 80.000 hectares of industrial plantations, established with fast growing coniferous species, 77.000 hectares of which are maritime pine plantations in Turkey. Furthermore, approximately 16.000 hectares of maritime pine plantations, which amount to about 20 percent of all maritime pine plantations in Turkey, occur in Istanbul. The aim of this study is to determine the growth pattern of maritime pine plantations located in Anatolian and European Istanbul: Kanlıca, Beykoz, Sultanbeyli and Şile-Sahilköy; and Bahçeköy-Bentler, Arnavutköy and Terkos-Durusu respectively. Specifically, the study examined individual trees within the above-mentioned sites to determine the first thinning age of the plantations. In addition, some specific silvicultural suggestions were offered for the plantations. The minimum and maximum recorded values for the trees’ age, DBH, height and stem volume were found in the range of 22-50 years, 26.6-46.8 cm, 14.0-23.0 m and 0.5150-1.8560 m3 respectively. In order to take advantage of the fast growing attributes of maritime pine which was found to grow fast within first 10 years, the first thinning should commence at the age of 11-12 years; thereafter, the second thinning should commence at the age of 18-20 years; finally, the final cut should be performed when the plantation is approximately 30 years of age. If rotation age is considered 40 years, the third thinning should commence at the age of 30 years.

  18. Changes in various physical/chemical parameters of Pinus pinaster wood after steam explosion pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, M.J.; Manzanares, P.; Oliva, J.M.; Ballesteros, I.; Ballesteros, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Energias Renovables

    2003-09-01

    Steam-explosion process can be satisfactorily used as a pretreatment in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Traditionally, pretreatment effectiveness is evaluated in terms of hemicellulose solubilization, enzymatic convertibility of cellulosic fraction, and recovery of both polysaccharides. In this study some parameters different from composition (main components) have been evaluated as an alternative tool to characterise the effect of steaming pretreatment on lignocellulosic materials. The effect of the most important variables in steam explosion pretreatment (temperature, residence time and chip size) on various physical/chemical parameters of pine biomass were investigated. Changes in O/C and H/C atomic ratios, colour analysis, elementary composition, water drop penetration time, organic soluble content, cellulose crystallinity index, and thermogravimetric analysis after the pretreatment were evaluated. Furthermore the influence of operational pretreatment variables on all such parameters and their interactions were examined with the Yates' algorithm. (author)

  19. Multiple resistances against diseases and insects in a breeding population of pinus pinaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandr Solla; Maria Vivas; Elena Cubera; Luis Sampedro; Xoaquin Moreira; Esther Merlo; Raul de la Mata; Rafael Zas

    2012-01-01

    The different plant defenses existing within a given taxon have been commonly assumed to trade-off among each other because of both evolutionary and physiological reasons. The higher the efficiency of a single defensive trait, the lower selective pressure for other redundant defenses expected. On the other hand, production of multiple defenses might be...

  20. Mechanical properties of structural maritime pine sawn timber from Galicia (Pinus pinaster Ait. ssp. atlantica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo, J.; Hermoso, E.; Fernandez-Golfin, J. I.

    2009-07-01

    The use of maritime pine sawn timber in structural applications requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. Standards have changed, however, since the last research on this timber was performed. In the present study, 491 beams of maritime pine from Gaelic, of structural-use size but different cross-section, were tested according to these modified standards. Each beam was visually graded according to standard UNE 56.544 and subjected to a four point bending test. The strength classes assigned by the visual grades awarded suggest this material to have greater structural capacity than that currently assumed. The relationships between the modulus of elasticity, strength and density were also examined. (Author) 25 refs.

  1. Measurement and modelling of radiation transmission within a stand of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbigier, P.; Bonnefond, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A semi-empirical model of radiation penetration in a maritime pine canopy was developed so that mean solar (and net) radiation absorption by crowns and understorey could be estimated from above-canopy measurements only. Beam radiation Rb was assumed to penetrate the canopy according to Beer's law with an extinction coefficient of 0.32; this figure was found using non-linear regression techniques. For diffuse sky radiation, Beer's law was integrated over the sky vault assuming a SOC (standard overcast sky) luminance model; the upward and downward scattered radiative fluxes were obtained using the Kubelka-Munk equations and measurements of needle transmittance and reflectance. The penetration of net radiation within the canopy was also modelled. The model predicts the measured albedo of the stand very well. The estimation of solar radiation transmitted by the canopy was also satisfactory with the maximum difference between this and the mean output of mobile sensors at ground level being only 18 W m -2 . Due to the poor precision of net radiometers, the net radiation model could not be tested critically. However, as the modelled longwave radiation balance under the canopy is always between -10 and -20 Wm -2 , the below-canopy net radiation must be very close to the solar radiation balance. (author) [fr

  2. Changes in various physical/chemical parameters of Pinus pinaster wood after steam explosion pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, M.J.; Manzanares, P.; Oliva, J.M.; Ballesteros, I.; Ballesteros, M.

    2003-01-01

    Steam-explosion process can be satisfactorily used as a pretreatment in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Traditionally, pretreatment effectiveness is evaluated in terms of hemicellulose solubilization, enzymatic convertibility of cellulose fraction, and recovery of both polysaccharides. In this study some parameters different from composition (main components) have been evaluated as an alternative tool to characterise the effect of steaming pretreatment on lignocellulosic materials. The effect of the most important variables in steam explosion pretreatment (temperature, residence time and chip size) on various physical/chemical parameters of pine biomass were investigated. Changes in O/C and H/C atomic ratios, colour analysis, elementary composition, water drop penetration time, organic soluble content, cellulose cristallinity index, and thermogravimetric analysis after the pretreatment were evaluated. Furthermore the influence of operational pretreatment variables on all such parameters and their interactions were examined with the Yates' algorithm

  3. High-density SNP assay development for genetic analysis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomion, C; Bartholomé, J; Lesur, I; Boury, C; Rodríguez-Quilón, I; Lagraulet, H; Ehrenmann, F; Bouffier, L; Gion, J M; Grivet, D; de Miguel, M; de María, N; Cervera, M T; Bagnoli, F; Isik, F; Vendramin, G G; González-Martínez, S C

    2016-03-01

    Maritime pine provides essential ecosystem services in the south-western Mediterranean basin, where it covers around 4 million ha. Its scattered distribution over a range of environmental conditions makes it an ideal forest tree species for studies of local adaptation and evolutionary responses to climatic change. Highly multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are increasingly used to study genetic variation in living organisms and for practical applications in plant and animal breeding and genetic resource conservation. We developed a 9k Illumina Infinium SNP array and genotyped maritime pine trees from (i) a three-generation inbred (F2) pedigree, (ii) the French breeding population and (iii) natural populations from Portugal and the French Atlantic coast. A large proportion of the exploitable SNPs (2052/8410, i.e. 24.4%) segregated in the mapping population and could be mapped, providing the densest ever gene-based linkage map for this species. Based on 5016 SNPs, natural and breeding populations from the French gene pool exhibited similar level of genetic diversity. Population genetics and structure analyses based on 3981 SNP markers common to the Portuguese and French gene pools revealed high levels of differentiation, leading to the identification of a set of highly differentiated SNPs that could be used for seed provenance certification. Finally, we discuss how the validated SNPs could facilitate the identification of ecologically and economically relevant genes in this species, improving our understanding of the demography and selective forces shaping its natural genetic diversity, and providing support for new breeding strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Evidence for an operative glutamine translocator in chloroplasts from maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claros, M G; Aguilar, M L; Cánovas, F M

    2010-09-01

    In higher plants, ammonium is assimilated into amino acids through the glutamine synthetase (GS)/glutamate synthase (GOGAT) cycle. This metabolic cycle is distributed in different cellular compartments in conifer seedlings: glutamine synthesis occurs in the cytosol and glutamate synthesis within the chloroplast. A method for preparing intact chloroplasts of pine cotyledons is presented with the aim of identifying a glutamine-glutamate translocator. Glutamine-glutamate exchange has been studied using the double silicone layer system, suggesting the existence of a translocator that imports glutamine into the chloroplast and exports glutamate to the cytoplasm. The translocator identified is specific for glutamine and glutamate, and the kinetic constants for both substrates indicate that it is unsaturated at intracellular concentrations. Thus, the experimental evidence obtained supports the model of the GS/GOGAT cycle in developing pine seedlings that accounts for the stoichiometric balance of metabolites. As a result, the efficient assimilation of free ammonia produced by photorespiration, nitrate reduction, storage protein mobilisation, phenylpropanoid pathway or S-adenosylmethionine synthesis is guaranteed.

  5. Identification of water-deficit responsive genes in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubos, Christian; Plomion, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    Root adaptation to soil environmental factors is very important to maritime pine, the main conifer species used for reforestation in France. The range of climates in the sites where this species is established varies from flooded in winter to drought-prone in summer. No studies have yet focused on the morphological, physiological or molecular variability of the root system to adapt its growth to such an environment. We developed a strategy to isolate drought-responsive genes in the root tissue in order to identify the molecular mechanisms that trees have evolved to cope with drought (the main problem affecting wood productivity), and to exploit this information to improve drought stress tolerance. In order to provide easy access to the root system, seedlings were raised in hydroponic solution. Polyethylene glycol was used as an osmoticum to induce water deficit. Using the cDNA-AFLP technique, we screened more than 2500 transcript derived fragments, of which 33 (1.2%) showed clear variation in presence/absence between non stressed and stressed medium. The relative abundance of these transcripts was then analysed by reverse northern. Only two out of these 33 genes showed significant opposite behaviour between both techniques. The identification and characterization of water-deficit responsive genes in roots provide the emergence of physiological understanding of the patterns of gene expression and regulation involved in the drought stress response of maritime pine.

  6. Genetic improvement of tropical acacias: achievements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential for genetic improvement in form traits and wood properties has also been demonstrated. Genetic improvement objectives must now give heavy weighting to improving disease resistance and tolerance. Ganoderma root rot and Ceratocystis stem wilt have destroyed large areas of acacia plantations in Indonesia ...

  7. A photographic guide to Acacia koa defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Betsy S. Porterfield

    2013-01-01

    Acacia koa (A. Gray), native to the Hawaiian Islands, has both cultural and economic significance. Koa wood is world-renowned for its extensive use in furniture, tone wood for musical instruments, and other items of cultural importance. Old-growth koa is decreasing in supply, yet dead and dying koa is still being harvested for manufacture of...

  8. In vitro propagation of Acacia hybrid through alginate-encapsulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed collected from Acacia hybrid trees yields highly variable and poorly performing offspring and are not commonly used in regeneration. The present study described the incapsulation of Acacia hybrid shoots and axillary buds in the calcium alginate gel. The aim of the study was to evaluate the germination of the buds in ...

  9. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of. Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream ...

  10. Investigation into nanocellulosics versus acacia reinforced acrylic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunqiao Pu; Jianguo Zhang; Thomas Elder; Yulin Deng; Paul Gatenholm; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2007-01-01

    Three closely related cellulosic acrylic latex films were prepared employing acacia pulp fibers, cellulose whiskers and nonocellulose balls and their respective strength properties were determined. Cellulose whisker reinforced composites had enhanced strength properties compared to the acacia pulp and nanoball composites. AFM analysis indicated that the cellulose...

  11. Performance of Broilers Given Different Dietary Levels of Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the seeds of a leguminous plant, Acacia sieberiana DC as an alternative source of dietary plant protein for broilers. Five experimental diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10, 15 and 20% Acacia sieberiana seeds (ASS) were formulated and fed to 5 groups of birds during starter (0 - 4 weeks), ...

  12. Phylogenic analysis in Acacia senegal using AFLP molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA markers were used to characterize the genetic diversity and relationships in gum Arabic tree (Acacia senegal). Twenty eight samples of Acacia senegal collected from populations distributed throughout the Gum Arabic belt were tested in comparison with samples of ...

  13. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Acacia nilotica Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    that had maximum bactericidal activity against all the tested isolates, but showed < 30 % host cell cytotoxicity. Conclusion: The lysate of Acacia nilotica ... cytotoxic effects on human cells. EXPERIMENTAL. Plant material. Acacia nilotica Lam .... a detergent that permeabilizes eukaryotic cells and results in HBMEC damage.

  14. Acacia Prospectus 2006-2011 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Executive Summary. The Acacia Prospectus (2006-2011) represents the third generation of Acacia programming, which began in 1996. Much has changed with respect to ICTs and African development in that time. While Africa still has the lowest teledensity of any region on earth, it is now the fastest ...

  15. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER DIMENSION OF PRICKLY ACACIA (Acacia nilotica L. FROM BALURAN NATIONAL PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Krisdianto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex. Delile growing in Baluran National Park has dramatically altered the ecological balance of grasslands and thereby threatens the existence of local biodiversity. Prickly acacia is able to spread rapidly and remains uncontrollable. Baluran National Park authorization has been struggling to control this prickly acacia trees. One possible action that can be taken to encounter this problem is allowing wood based industries, and local people take advantages of this nilotica timber utilization. This paper studies the anatomical properties and fiber dimensions of nilotica timber and discusses the possible utilization of  nilotica timber.   This timber is characterized by dark brown heartwood which is clearly distinct from reddish brown color of sapwood. The denser cell wall shows attractively streaked in tangential surfaces. The length of  wood fiber decreases from pith toward periphery portion. Longitudinally, higher stem has shorter fiber. Nilotica wood has second class quality of fiber, which means its fiber is moderately thick with narrow lumen diameter. Due to small log diameter and branches, the nilotica timber is not recommended for construction material. The timber is suitable for carved and turnery products. Nilotica timber is suitable for charcoal manufacture and fuel wood due to its high calorific value.

  16. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Keywords: Acacia nilotica, Cream, Visioscan VC 98, Skin texture, Anti-aging. Tropical Journal of .... volunteer (A) before and (B) after application of extract cream for 3 months The .... Antioxidants and vitamins in Cosmetics. Clin. Dermatol. 2001 ...

  17. Germination Response of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to Hot Water Pre-Treatment in Maiduguri, ... of Maiduguri under tree shade, to study the effect of hot water pre-treatment duration. ... Germination response, pre-sowing treatment, gum Arabic, orthodox seeds.

  18. Fitness and its variation among populations of Acacia tortilis subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-07-23

    Jul 23, 2008 ... Habitat destruction and fragmentation has been an increasingly dominant process shaping landscapes over the last 100 - 150 years ..... not only to estimates for other tropical acacias but for plants in ..... pollinated prairie forb.

  19. Antibacterial activity of six indigenous Indian plants: Acacia nilotica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... The antibacterial activity of extracts (water, acetone and methanol) from six indigenous Indian plants: Acacia ... attention to traditional methods, looking for novel ... Five grams powder of each plant was equally divided into.

  20. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Acacia nilotica Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Keywords: Acacia nilotica, ESBLs, MRSA, E. coli, Klebsiella, Antibacterial resistance, Cytotoxicity. Received: ... infectious diseases, is an age-long practice, especially ... used in a variety of infections. ... E. coli K1 [14] and MRSA [15] were used.

  1. PROPRIETES CHIMIQUES ET BIOLOGIQUES DES HUILES ESSENTIELLES DE TROIS ESPECES DU GENRE PINUS POUSSANT EN ALGERIE

    OpenAIRE

    FEKIH, NADIA

    2015-01-01

    Le but de ce travail est l’étude de trois espèces médicinales et aromatiques appartenant au même genre Pinus de la famille des Pinacées, elles sont très utilisées par la population locale. La première partie de cette étude concerne l’extraction et l’analyse des huiles essentielles de P.halepensis, P.Pinea et P.pinaster par CPG et CPG/SM. La deuxième partie consiste en l’étude de l’activité antioxydante et anti microbienne des huiles essentielles. L’activité antioxydante est éva...

  2. Estudio genecológico en prosopis laevigata, acacia farnesiana y acacia schaffneri (leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Luz Gómez Acevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se emplea una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire (splash para cromosomas vegetales a fin de analizar la posible respuesta genotipo-ambiente de tres especies de leguminosas típicas de las zonas áridas y semiáridas mexicanas, ubicadas en poblaciones con características climáticas diferentes. Las especies estudiadas fueron Prosopis laevigata y Acacia schaffneri del municipio de Santiago de Anaya, estado de Hidalgo (20o 16’ N y P. laevigata y Acacia farnesiana del municipio de Bermejillo, estado de Durango (25o 49’ N. Los parámetros evaluados fueron las longitudes cromosómicas totales, el cariotipo, la frecuencia de polisomatía y el peso de las semillas. En Prosopis laevigata se corrobora un 2n=28 y diferencias interpoblacionales estadísticamente significativas (a=0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales, sin modificación de la fórmula cariotípica (2m+10sm+2st con frecuencia de polisomatía que no rebasó el 10%. En las especies del género Acacia se registraron números cromosómicos diploides 2n=26 sin diferencias interespecíficas estadísticamente significativas (a= 0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales; no obstante se obtuvieron fórmulas cariotípicas diferentes, reportadas por primera vez empleando una técnica de extendido y secado al aire: 9m+4sm para A. schaffneri y 9m+2sm+2st para A. farnesiana. En ambas especies la polisomatía tuvo una frecuencia similar sin rebasar el 30%. Para Prosopis y Acacia no se encontraron diferencias significativas (a= 0,01 en relación al peso de la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos señalan una clase de adaptación en estrecha

  3. Aplicaciones de la embriogénesis somática para la propagación y mejora de Quercus ilex L. y Pinus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Carlos, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis está enfocada a la aplicación de la embriogénesis somática para la conservación y mejora de Quercus ilex L., Pinus pinaster Aiton y Pinus pinea L., especies forestales representativas de los bosques de la Península Ibérica. La propagación clonal mediante embriogénesis somática (ES) es la herramienta más adecuada para la propagación de genotipos de élite y para la implementación de la llamada silvicultura multivarietal. Además los cultivos embriogénicos son explantos adecuados para ...

  4. 77 FR 63311 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR13-1-000] Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on October 9, 2012, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) filed a Petition for Rate Approval pursuant to 284.123(b)(2) of the...

  5. Tree invasion in a semi-arid savanna in Zimbabwe : seedling recruitment of Acacia karroo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirara, C. (Chipangura)

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis Chirara reports on his study on the competitive interaction between savanna grasses and young tree seedlings of Acacia karroo, from hereon indicated as ' Acacia seedlings' . Acacia is one of the tree species that dominates savanna grassland in situations of overgrazing (bush

  6. Genetic differentiation for size at first reproduction through male versus female functions in the widespread Mediterranean tree Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-del-Blanco, L.; Climent, J.; González-Martínez, S. C.; Pannell, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The study of local adaptation in plant reproductive traits has received substantial attention in short-lived species, but studies conducted on forest trees are scarce. This lack of research on long-lived species represents an important gap in our knowledge, because inferences about selection on the reproduction and life history of short-lived species cannot necessarily be extrapolated to trees. This study considers whether the size for first reproduction is locally adapted...

  7. Early molecular events involved in Pinus pinaster Ait. somatic embryo development under reduced water availability: transcriptomic and proteomic analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morel, A.; Teyssier, C.; Trontin, J.F.; Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Beaufour, M.; Morabito, D.; Boizot, N.; Le Mette, C.; Belal-Bessai, L.; Vágner, Martin; Label, P.; Lelu-Walter, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 152, č. 1 (2014), s. 184-201 ISSN 0031-9317 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN * ABSCISIC-ACID * HYBRID LARCH Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.138, year: 2014

  8. Mediation of seed provisioning in the transmission of environmental maternal effects in Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zas, R; Cendán, C; Sampedro, L

    2013-09-01

    Although maternal environmental effects are increasingly recognized as an important source of phenotypic variation with relevant impacts in evolutionary processes, their relevance in long-lived plants such as pine trees is largely unknown. Here, we used a powerful sample size and a strong quantitative genetic approach to analyse the sources of variation of early seedling performance and to identify seed mass (SM)-dependent and -independent maternal environmental effects in Maritime pine. We measured SM of 8924 individual seeds collected from 10 genotypes clonally replicated in two environments of contrasting quality (favourable and stressful), and we measured seedling growth rate and biomass allocation to roots and shoots. SM was extremely variable (up to 14-fold) and strongly determined by the maternal environment and the genotype of the mother tree. The favourable maternal environment led to larger cones, larger seeds and reduced SM variability. The maternal environment also determined the offspring phenotype, with seedlings coming from the favourable environment being 35% larger and with greater root/shoot ratio. Transgenerational plasticity appears, thus, to be a relevant source of phenotypic variation in the early performance of this pine species. Seed provisioning explained most of the effect of the maternal environment on seedling total biomass. Environmental maternal effects on seedling biomass allocation were, however, determined through SM-independent mechanisms, suggesting that other epigenetic regulation channels may be involved.

  9. Cotyledonary somatic embryos of Pinus pinaster Ait. most closely resemble fresh, maturing cotyledonary zygotic embryos: biological, carbohydrate and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Trontin, Jean-François; Corbineau, Françoise; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Beaufour, Martine; Reymond, Isabelle; Le Metté, Claire; Ader, Kevin; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Label, Philippe; Teyssier, Caroline; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Cotyledonary somatic embryos (SEs) of maritime pine are routinely matured for 12 weeks before being germinated and converted to plantlets. Although regeneration success is highly dependent on SEs quality, the date of harvesting is currently determined mainly on the basis of morphological features. This empirical method does not provide any accurate information about embryo quality with respect to storage compounds (proteins, carbohydrates). We first analyzed SEs matured for 10, 12 and 14 weeks by carrying out biological (dry weight, water content) and biochemical measurements (total protein and carbohydrate contents). No difference could be found between collection dates, suggesting that harvesting SEs after 12 weeks is appropriate. Cotyledonary SEs were then compared to various stages, from fresh to fully desiccated, in the development of cotyledonary zygotic embryos (ZEs). We identified profiles that were similar using hierarchical ascendant cluster analysis (HCA). Fresh and dehydrated ZEs could be distinguished, and SEs clustered with fresh ZEs. Both types of embryo exhibited similar carbohydrate and protein contents and signatures. This high level of similarity (94.5 %) was further supported by proteome profiling. Highly expressed proteins included storage, stress-related, late embryogenesis abundant and energy metabolism proteins. By comparing overexpressed proteins in developing and cotyledonary SEs or ZEs, some (23 proteins) could be identified as candidate biomarkers for the late, cotyledonary stage. This is the first report of useful generic protein markers for monitoring embryo development in maritime pine. Our results also suggest that improvements of SEs quality may be achieved if the current maturation conditions are refined.

  10. Analysis of diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi retrieved from a Mediterranean forest dominated by Pinus pinaster Aiton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D'Aguanno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is focused on the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in a poorly investigated habitat: a Mediterranean forest dominated by maritime pine. The sampling area lies in Tocchi biogenetic Reserve, located in the province of Siena (Tuscany, Italy. The monitoring campaign was carried out in 10 permanents plots, taking note of all the fungal species found on each piece of dead wood, irrespective of size and stage of decay. Over one year of surveys, 56 taxa of wood-inhabiting fungi were recorded, among which 39 are corticoids species, 16 polypores and 1 Heterobasidiomycetes. The fungal community seems to be dominated by a small number of species, which are more abundant than the others. Moreover, there are some specific features of deadwood influencing the species composition, such as the presence of coarse woody debris at the first decay stage and fine woody debris at the late decay stages. The results allowed characterizing the wood-inhabiting fungal community in this forest reserve, broadening our knowledge on several species and providing a preliminary database for further studies in Mediterranean areas.

  11. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain M47T1, carried by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus isolated from Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Diogo Neves; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Grass, Gregor; Morais, Paula V

    2012-09-01

    The draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain M47T1, carried by the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus pinewood nematode, the causative agent of pine wilt disease, is presented. In Pseudomonas sp. strain M47T1, genes that make this a plant growth-promoting bacterium, as well as genes potentially involved in nematotoxicity, were identified.

  12. Early molecular events involved in Pinus pinaster Ait. somatic embryo development under reduced water availability: transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Teyssier, Caroline; Trontin, Jean-François; Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Beaufour, Martine; Morabito, Domenico; Boizot, Nathalie; Le Metté, Claire; Belal-Bessai, Leila; Reymond, Isabelle; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Corbineau, Françoise; Vágner, Martin; Label, Philippe; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-09-01

    Maritime pine somatic embryos (SEs) require a reduction in water availability (high gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium) to reach the cotyledonary stage. This key switch, reported specifically for pine species, is not yet well understood. To facilitate the use of somatic embryogenesis for mass propagation of conifers, we need a better understanding of embryo development. Comparison of both transcriptome (Illumina RNA sequencing) and proteome [two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (MS) identification] of immature SEs, cultured on either high (9G) or low (4G) gellan gum concentration, was performed, together with analysis of water content, fresh and dry mass, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA; gas chromatography-MS), soluble sugars (high-pressure liquid chromatography), starch and confocal laser microscope observations. This multiscale, integrated analysis was used to unravel early molecular and physiological events involved in SE development. Under unfavorable conditions (4G), the glycolytic pathway was enhanced, possibly in relation to cell proliferation that may be antagonistic to SE development. Under favorable conditions (9G), SEs adapted to culture constraint by activating specific protective pathways, and ABA-mediated molecular and physiological responses promoting embryo development. Our results suggest that on 9G, germin-like protein and ubiquitin-protein ligase could be used as predictive markers of SE development, whereas protein phosphatase 2C could be a biomarker for culture adaptive responses. This is the first characterization of early molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pine SEs following an increase in gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium, and it is also the first report on somatic embryogenesis in conifers combining transcriptomic and proteomic datasets. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Extraction of valuable compounds from agro-residues of elder (Sambus nigra), pine (Pinus pinaster) and tara (Caesalpinia spinosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Seabra, Inês José Abrantes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química (Processos Químicos) apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra Agricultural processing inevitably goes along with the production of large amounts of agro-residues, which may represent a major waste disposal problem. Legislation regulating the management of waste materials has appeared throughout the European Union and has significantly contributed to the introduction of sustainable waste management proced...

  14. Estudio de tratamientos alternativos para mejorar la estabilidad dimensional y la dureza de Populus x euramericana y Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Tomé, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    La madera es un material que está siendo demandado de nuevo por la sociedad, después de haber sido relegada a un segundo plano por otros materiales alternativos como los plásticos, aceros y hormigones. La madera es un material que posee muchas virtudes como material estructural, sin embargo posee otras propiedades que deben de ser estudiadas. El sector maderero debe resolver este nuevo reto por medio del desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías industriales y la investigación. Este estudio t...

  15. In situ genetic association for serotiny, a fire-related trait, in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Katharina B; Heuertz, Myriam; Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Pausas, Juli G; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is a major ecological driver of plant evolution. Understanding the genetic basis of plant adaptation to wildfire is crucial, because impending climate change will involve fire regime changes worldwide. We studied the molecular genetic basis of serotiny, a fire-related trait, in Mediterranean maritime pine using association genetics. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) set was used to identify genotype : phenotype associations in situ in an unstructured natural population of maritime pine (eastern Iberian Peninsula) under a mixed-effects model framework. RR-BLUP was used to build predictive models for serotiny in this region. Model prediction power outside the focal region was tested using independent range-wide serotiny data. Seventeen SNPs were potentially associated with serotiny, explaining approximately 29% of the trait phenotypic variation in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. Similar prediction power was found for nearby geographical regions from the same maternal lineage, but not for other genetic lineages. Association genetics for ecologically relevant traits evaluated in situ is an attractive approach for forest trees provided that traits are under strong genetic control and populations are unstructured, with large phenotypic variability. This will help to extend the research focus to ecological keystone non-model species in their natural environments, where polymorphisms acquired their adaptive value. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S.; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account ...

  17. Alkaline Pulping and Bleaching of Acacia auriculiformis Grown in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    JAHAN, M. Sarwar; SABINA, Rowshan; RUBAIYAT, Arjumand

    2014-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and morphological characteristics of Acacia auriculiformis were evaluated in terms of its suitability for papermaking. The fiber length (1.1 mm) of A. auriculiformis in this study was within the range of tropical hardwoods. The lignin content in A. auriculiformis was 19.4% and a-cellulose 44.1%, which was within the range of other acacias, but that of extractives was higher. Soda, soda-AQ, and kraft processes were studied in pulping. Screened pulp yield was increased w...

  18. A review of Sphaeropsis sapinea occurrence on Pinus species in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Georgieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr. Dyko & Sutton causes shoot blight and canker disease throughout the world on conifers predisposed by stress. The disease is most important to Pinus species that are affected from the seedling stage in nurseries to mature trees in ornamental planting, forest plantations and natural stands. In Bulgaria, the first findings of the disease were noted in 1989 on Pinus nigra plantations in the North-eastern part of the country. Over the past few years, new emergency and severe damages have developed rapidly as a consequence of the prolonged drought periods during the last growing seasons. The high existence of S. sapinea outbreaks contributed considerably to the physiological weakness of pine trees that become more susceptible to attack by aggressive xylophages and other fungal pathogens. Disease occurrence and its pathogenicity are economically important affecting a number of pine trees from all ages. In Bulgaria, S. sapinea has been obtained on six pine species P. nigra, P. strobus, P. radiata, P. ponderosa, P. pinaster and P. halepensis. The aim of this review is to present the available knowledge on distribution, host specificity, biology, ecology, management of the disease, and to discuss its current prevalence and pathogenicity effect on pine species in Bulgaria.

  19. Soil Respiration Changes after Prescribed Fires in Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii Monospecific and Mixed Forest Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Plaza-Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration is a major carbon pathway sensitive to environmental changes. Using prescribed burnings to reduce fuel accumulation and lower risks of large-scale wildfires has recently become more important. Prescribed burning can significantly alter the soil environment, but its effect in practice on soil respiration is not sufficiently understood. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning on soil respiration before and after burning (May–July 2016. Prescribed burning was conducted in two natural pine areas by comparing a mixed stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii with Pinus pinaster Ait. to a pure stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii in the central Iberian Peninsula. Soil respiration was measured by an EGM-4 (Environmental Gas Monitor infrared gas analyser in both burned and unburned (control plots. Burnings were low-intensity, and slightly more energetic in the pure stand given its larger litter volume. Post-burning soil respiration followed a similar evolution to that in the control plots, but was greater in the pure stand burned zone and slightly lower in the burned plots in the mixed stand. No significant differences were found in any stand. Soil respiration significantly changed in temporal evolution due to increasing temperatures when summer began. We conclude that prescribed fire induces no changes in SR immediately after fire. This study helps understand how prescribed burnings can affect soil respiration in pure and mixed Spanish black pine forest stands.

  20. Alternatives for composting Caribbean Pine sawdust (Pinus caribaea in the wood industry Refocosta S. A., in the municipality of Villanueva, Casanare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bibiana Sarmiento Oviedo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the day-to-day accumulation of sawdust, a byproduct of the milling process of the Pinus caribaea species in the Wood industry of Refocosta, a composting process was tested in three treatments with different nitrogen sources (urea, industrial palm oil sludge, cattle dung and it was compared with composted pine bark and sawdust exposed to the weather. To assess possible inhibition of the substrates, the fresh biomass and germination of Zea maize and Acacia mangium was measured. Seedlings of Pinus caribaea, eucalyptus Pellita and Acacia Mangium were transplanted, and two months later the stem length, strength and survival were assessed. There were differences between maize and Acacia mangium and a lower germination and biomass in the substrates, sawdust and bark exposed to the weather and without composting were observed. The vigor and stem length were significantly better in composted bark, substrate which is currently used in the vivarium of Refocosta to produce seedlings; the sawdust-based substrates showed marked deficits (red colors, necrosis and stunting.

  1. Study of Volatile Components of Acacia farnesiana Willd . Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaefthimiou Evangelia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil and the absolute of five populations of Acacia farnesiana, cultivated in Greece, have been investigated. The saturated hydrocarbons tricosane, nonadecane and heneicosane, along with methyl salicylate, characterized the chemical analysis of the essential oils and the absolutes, while hexadecanoic acid and α -amyrine were important constituents of some absolutes.

  2. Sprout selection and performance of goats fed Acacia karroo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Casper Nyamukanza

    Goats are important browsers in the Eastern Cape Province, which keeps ... Acacia karroo Hayne (Fabaceae = Leguminosae) trees are abundant and able to ... savanna and consists of subtropical thicket vegetation dominated by deciduous woody shrubs shorter than ..... National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

  3. Evaluation of heavy metal uptake and translocation by Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Acacia mangium as a phytoremediator of copper contaminated soil. Nik M. Majid, M. M. Islam*, Veronica Justin, Arifin Abdu and Parisa Ahmadpour. Department of ... The different levels of Cu were: T0 (control, soil), T1 (50 ppm Cu), T2 (100 ppm ..... aspects such as photosynthesis and respiration rate need.

  4. Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Rami S. Habeballa*, Nada B. Hamza and Eisa I. El Gaali. Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan. P. O. Box.

  5. Characterization of tannin-based adhesives from Acacia mangium barks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Fatahiyah Mohamada; Pizzi, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate the performances of Acacia Mangium tannin-based tannin designed as adhesive in the particleboard production. The tannin was extracted from acacia mangium barks in differences medium extraction. Three difference medium, (1)Water (Control), (2)Na 2 SO 3 (4 %) / Na 2 CO 3 (0.4 %) and (3) Na 2 SO 3 (8 %) / Na 2 CO 3 (0.8 %) used, the (3) medium extraction produce then highest yield (25.8 %) follow the (2) medium extraction (21.6%) and the less yield (17.7%). To evaluate the mechanical performances of optimal Acacia mangium tannin-based adhesives, particleboard were produced using 3 differences hardener and mechanical properties (Internal bonding) were investigated. The performance of these panels is comparable to those of particle panels commercial. The results showed that particleboard panels bonded with parafomaldehid (0.392 Mpa) exhibited better mechanical properties, continue particleboard panel hardened with hexamine (0.367 MPa) and particleboard panel bonded with glyoxol-tannin based adhesives (0.244 MPa). This show the suitable harder for acacia mangium tannin are formaldehyde > hexamine > glyoxol. (author)

  6. Simulating browse production and response of Acacia karroo to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even if it is possible to reduce stock in times of drought, this was shown to be of very little benefit. Keywords: acacia karroo; browse production; browsing; defoliation; drought; eastern cape; goats; growth; management; management strategy; model; number of camps; production; productivity; simulation model; south africa; ...

  7. Ecology and Conservation of Acacia senegal in the Rangelands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecology and Conservation of Acacia senegal in the Rangelands ofLuwero and Nakasongola Districts. Jacob Godfrey Agea, Joseph Obua, Sara Namirembe, Mukadasi Buyinza, Daniel Waiswa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  8. Genetic diversity in Kenyan populations of Acacia senegal (L.) willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia senegal belongs to the subgenus, Aculeiferum. It is an African arid and semi arid zone multipurpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production, agroforestry and desertification control besides other multiple uses. Genetic variation and resulting variable groupings were assessed using combined ...

  9. Agroforestry potential of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of luwero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agroforestry potential of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of luwero and Nakasongola districts. Jacob Godfrey Agea, Joseph Obua, Sara Namirembe, Mukadasi Buyinza, Daniel Waiswa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Analysis of dendrometric characteristics of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study gives an analysis of the dendrometric parameters of a middle Sahelian species (Acacia senegal) in semi-arid environment to get better knowledge of its behavior. The research lays the principle that the species behaves differently according to the ecogeographical stations. So, its characteristics change from one ...

  11. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the beetle Agrilus nubeculosus and gum arabic production by Acacia senegal. Some trees were tapped and left open to facilitate infestation by A. nubeculosus and others were covered with wire mesh as control. Gum yield, physical and chemical properties of ...

  12. Allelopathic potential of Robinia pseudo-acacia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Habib; Iqbal, Zahida; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2005-09-01

    Robinia pseudo-acacia L. (black locust) is a nonindigenous species currently invading the central part of Japanese grasslands. Several allelochemicals were identified and characterized from the leaf tissue. The growth of both radicle and hypocotyl in the tested species (barnyard grass, white clover, lettuce, and Chinese cabbage) was reduced when grown in soil mixed with the leaves of R. pseudo-acacia at various concentrations. Aqueous leaf extracts, when bioassayed, exhibited a significant suppression of radicle growth. Chromatographic separation of an ethanolic extract of R. pseudo-acacia leaves resulted in isolation of three compounds, identified as robinetin (1), myricetin (2), and quercetin (3) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. All inhibited root and shoot growth of lettuce. Robinetin, found in a large amount, caused 50% suppression of the root and shoot growth of lettuce at 100 ppm. The presence of these bioactive substances in leaf tissue suggests a potential role for flavonoids in R. pseudo-acacia invasion in introduced habitats.

  13. The response of Acacia karroo plants to defoliation by hand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot production of all plants defoliated by hand was no different to that of the undefoliated control plants and was considerably less than that of the plants defoliated by goats. Keywords: acacia karroo; browse production; browsing; clipping; defoliation; goats; growth stimulation; leaf growth; leaves; shoot growth; shoot ...

  14. Evaluation Support and Follow Up (Acacia) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The IDRC program initiative, Acacia (communities and the information society in Africa), seeks to integrate an evaluation process within its activities and those of its partners. This project aims to ... A new website and resource library will help improve developing country registration and information systems for vital events.

  15. The effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal preparation on consumer sensory scores of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goat breed. 18 castrated four-month-old Xhosa lop-eared kids were kept at the University of Fort Hare Farm until slaughter. Sample ...

  16. Gum acacia coating with garlic and cinnamon as an alternate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madhumita

    The antibacterial activity of gum arabic coating with ... Key words: Gum acacia coating, garlic, cinnamon, antioxidant, antimicrobial, meat, ... cinnamaldehyde and eugenol inhibit production of an ... antioxidant activity because these two properties are ... temperatures .... activity of these spices but no report on its application.

  17. Soil nutrient ecology associated with Acacia sieberana at different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on a study conducted on three aspects of soil nutrient ecology in an Acacia sieberana savanna. Information was collected about the effects of a savanna tree species on soil fertility, and the influence of savanna trees on mycorrhizal abundance was investigated. Mycorrhizal dependence of the indigenous African ...

  18. Antipyretic and analgesic activities of aqueous extract of Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the scientific basis for the use of Acacia nilotica root extract for treatment of fever and pain in traditional medical practice. Anti-Pyretic study was carried out using Brewerʼs yeast suspension to induce pyrexia. The hot plate, tail immersion and acetic acid-induced writhing tests were the ...

  19. Acacia plantations in Vietnam: Research and knowledge application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greater efforts are required on surveillance of major diseases and tree breeding to improve disease resistance. Because acacia plantations deliver high economic benefits and there are opportunities for improving productivity, an R&D strategy focused on underpinning sustainable management and application would serve ...

  20. Cadmium tolerance and phytoremediation potential of acacia (Acacia nilotica L.) under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Rahat; Abbas, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Akram, Muhammad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Munawar; Ashraf, Farah

    2018-06-07

    In this study, we explored the effect of salinity on cadmium (Cd) tolerance and phytoremediation potential of Acacia nilotica. Two-month-old uniform plants of A. nilotica were grown in pots contaminated with various levels of Cd (0, 5, 10, and 15 mg kg -1 ), NaCl (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% (hereafter referred as salinity), and all possible combinations of Cd + salinity for a period of six months. Results showed that shoot and root growth, biomass, tissue water content and chlorophyll (chl a, chl b, and total chl a+b) contents decreased more in response to salinity and combination of Cd + salinity compared to Cd alone. Shoot and root K concentrations significantly decreased with increasing soil Cd levels, whereas Na and Cl concentrations were not affected significantly. Shoot and root Cd concentrations, bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) increased with increasing soil Cd and Cd + salinity levels. At low level of salinity (0.5%), shoot and root Cd uptake enhanced, while it decreased at high level of salinity (1.0%). Due to Cd tolerance, high shoot biomass and shoot Cd uptake, this tree species has some potential for phytoremediation of Cd from the metal contaminated saline and nonsaline soils.

  1. Carbon isotopes confirm the competitive advantages of Prosopis over Acacia erioloba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, I.; Woodborne, S.

    2002-01-01

    The landscape of the Kalahari Desert is changing as the indigenous Acacia erioloba E.Mey. is being replaced by the invasive Prosopis spp. Although both species are phreatophytic, the disproportionately large taproot of Prosopis enables it to survive extreme moisture stress. δ 13 C values were determined on annually resolved Prosopis and Acacia erioloba samples to investigate adaptation to changing edaphic conditions. The results confirm that the Acacia erioloba sample died during a period of water stress

  2. Conversion Efficiency of Photosynthetically Active Radiation Into Acacia mearnsii Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Eloy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this experiment was to determine the conversion efficiency of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation into biomass of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. seedlings. A forest species, plastic tubes (90 cm3, and 11 evaluation periods (up to 180 days after emergence were used in this study. The leaf area index (LAI, total dry biomass (BIO, global solar radiation (GSR, cumulative intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PARic, and conversion efficiency of radiation (εb were determined using a pyranometer (LI200X, LICOR. The value of εb in BIO seedlings of Acacia mearnsii was 7.76 g MJ-1. LAI was directly related to the efficiency of PARic, and this influenced the development, production potential and accumulation of BIO. The value of GSR flow was 11.81 MJ m-2 day-1, while the value inside the greenhouse was 6.26 MJ m-2 day-1.

  3. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfuração simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3-seriados e fibras libriformes separadas. A preseça de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na séire Vulgares Benth.,  que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  4. Methods for extraction and characterization of tannins from some acacia species of sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgailani, I.E.H.; Ishak, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05), 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins. (author)

  5. Methods for Extraction and Charaterization of Tannins from Some Acacia Species of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05, 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins

  6. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA DE Acacia nitidifolia Speg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae. Wood anatomy of Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Speg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfurações simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3 seriados e fibras libriformes septadas. A presença de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na série Vulgares Benth., que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  7. Kemampuan Ganoderma dan Trichoderma Mendekomposisi Serasah Acacia mangium (The Ability of Ganoderma and Trichoderma to Decompose Acacia mangium Litter)

    OpenAIRE

    SAMINGAN, Samingan

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition ability of fungi has an important role in forest floor ecosystem. The abilities of Ganoderma sp and Trichoderma sp to decompose Acacia mangium leaf litters at laboratory scale were observed. Litters from L and F layers in the field ca. 100 g were used as substrates in plastic bags. Each fungus was inoculating onto substrates and incubates at room temperature, then observed each month during six months. Weight losses (WL) of litter, lignin and cellulose contents during dec...

  8. Diversity and frequency of Acacia spp. in three regions in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bismillha

    2012-06-28

    Jun 28, 2012 ... effect of soil texture on the frequency of Acacia spp. ... structure. There were great differences between species in relation to diameter distribution. The study shows the scarcity of large diameter trees and also in some cases ... Key words: Acacia, diversity, soil texture, diameter at breast height (DBH) classes.

  9. 75 FR 24940 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted its baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for the interruptible transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-16-000] Acacia Natural...

  10. 75 FR 28599 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a corrected baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for the interruptible transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-16-002] Acacia Natural...

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE LA REGENERACION DE Acacia decurrens, Acacia melanoxylon Y Ulex europaeus EN ÁREAS EN PROCESO DE RESTAURACIÓN ECOLÓGICA

    OpenAIRE

    SOLORZA BEJARANO, JAIRO HERNÁN

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó la regeneración de Acacia decurrens, Acacia melanoxylon y Ulex europaeus, en una zona sujeta a un proceso de restauaración ecológica. En las áreas con presencia de individuos arboreos de Acacia decurrens y Acacia melanoxylon se presenta expresión del banco de semillas con formación periódica de la capa de hojarasca que detiene o desvía el proceso sucesional. En las áreas de claro se presenta regeneración de Ulex europaeus, ocupando rápidamente los espacios libres de vegetación. La p...

  12. Effect of Rhizobium and Mycorhiza inoculation on the nursery growth of Acacia and Teline monspessulana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, G; Lozano de Yunda, A; Chaparro, H

    1999-01-01

    In an experiment accomplished in the tree nursery Tisquesusa located in Madrid (Cundinamarca) was evaluated the effect of the inoculation with strains selected of foreign and Indigenous rhizobium and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi am (Glomus folescutolum) on the growth, nitrogen fixation, and micorrization of Acacia (Acacia decurrens) and Retamo (Teline monspessulana) that they are used In soils recovery by the Corporacion Autonoma Regional de Cundinamarca CAR. The studied species presented positive response to the inoculation with rhizobium; the indigenous strain DQ6-09, isolated in Guatavita (Cundinamarca), presented the better results in Retamo and also in Acacia alone and in mixture with the foreign strain T1881. The inoculation with fungi AM increased the heights, dry weights, phosphorus content and percentage of micorrization in Acacia and Retamo. The double inoculation with fungi ma and rhizobium it did not increase the nitrogen fixing of Acacia while in Retamo was presented a positive effect with the strain DQ6-09

  13. Effects of fire and fire intensity on the germination and establishment of Acacia karroo, Acacia nilotica, Acacia luederitzii and Dichrostachys cinerea in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somers Michael J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While fire has been used in some instances to control the increase of woody plants, it has also been reported that fire may cause an increase in certain fire-tolerant Acacia tree species. This study investigated germination of Acacia karroo, A. luederitzii and Dichrostachys cinerea, thought to be increasing in density, as well as the historically successful encroaching woody species, A. nilotica, in savanna grassland, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa. A. karroo is thought to be replacing A. nilotica as the dominant microphyllous species in the park. We tested the hypothesis that observed increases in certain woody plants in a savanna were related to seed germination and seedling establishment. Germination is compared among species for burnt and unburnt seeds on burnt and unburnt plots at three different locations for both hot and cool fires. Results Acacia karroo showed higher germination (A. karroo 5.1%, A. nilotica 1.5% and A. luederitzii 5.0% levels and better establishment (A. karroo 4.9%, A. nilotica 0.4% and A. luederitzii 0.4%. Seeds of the shrub Dichrostachys cinerea did not germinate in the field after fire and it is thought that some other germination cue is needed. On average, burning of A. karroo, A. nilotica and A. luederitzii seeds did not affect germination. There was a significant difference in the germination of burnt seeds on burnt sites (4.5% and burnt seeds on unburnt plots (2.5%. Similarly, unburnt seeds on unburnt sites germinated better (4.9% than unburnt seeds on burnt sites (2.8%. Conclusion We conclude that a combination of factors may be responsible for the success of A. karroo and that fires may not be hot enough or may occur at the wrong time of year to control A. karroo establishment in HiP. Although germination and establishment of A. karroo was higher than for A. nilotica a competitive advantage after fire could not be shown.

  14. Chemical and pharmacological investigation of Acacia and Santalum species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger

    compounds from plants still have a huge potential for investigation for medicinal properties as possible drug leads. Humans have a long history of using plant medicine in treatments and indigenous cultures are a remarkable source for immense knowledge about plants and the uses of them - knowledge that has...... often only exists amongst members of communities or groups of the land where it has arisen. In this PhD project the three Australian plant species Acacia ligulata A.Cunn. ex Benth, Santalum spicatum (R.Br.) A.DC and Santalum lanceolatum R.Br were investigated for their bioactivity and chemistry...

  15. Anomalous needle numbers on dwarf shoots of Pinus mugo and P. uncinata (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Boratyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of occurrence of abnormal, three- (or more needle dwarf shoots of most southern and central European two-needle pine (Pinus species were studied. No specimens with more than two-needle dwarf shoots were found in a population of P. nigra Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal Franco from the Iberian Peninsula and in two populations of P. uliginosa Neumann from the Sudeten Mountains in Central Europe. Single specimens were found within one population of P. pinaster Aiton from the Iberian Peninsula and among six populations of P. sylvestris L. from the Iberian Peninsula and Central Europe. Abnormal dwarf shoots mostly with three, but also four, five or six needles were found among 24 of 25 surveyed populations of P. mugo Turra and P. uncinata Ramond. The average frequency of specimens with at least one three-needle dwarf shoot was 24% for P. mugo and 20% for P. uncinata. The frequencies of occurrence varied significantly among studied populations and were highest in samples collected from the upper elevational range limits of the species in the mountains and near the northern limits of their ranges. The frequency of abnormal dwarf shoots in the same populations was significantly high in 2-3 consecutive years. Needles from three-needle dwarf shoots were not significantly shorter than those of two-needle shoots.

  16. Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko & Sutton - agents of pinus species decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage is caused on the introduced Pinus species and on those cultivated in artificial plantations, shelterbelts and in urban environments. In Yugoslavia S. sapinea is widely distributed both in the continental and in the Mediterranean parts. It was identified from ten pine species and six hosts from other coniferous genera. By the study in our country, the new hosts of this fungus were detected - Pinus jeffrey, P. peuce and P. heldreichii. The most endangered species in our country is Austrian pine, both in urban environments, and in plantations The symptoms of the disease are bud wilt, curling, stunting and necrosis of current year shoots and needles, dieback of top shoots, parts of crown or tree tops, branch and stem bark canker, root collar rot on the young plants in nurseries and their dying. This fungus also prevents seed germination of Pinus species and causes blue sap stain of the freshly cut wood, although sap stain was also observed on standing trees. More rarely it causes root rot and crown wilt of Pinus species. The main symptoms of infection, both of young plants and older trees, are the dieback of current year shoots S. sapinea can penetrate through buds, bark of young shoots and needles. The critical time of infection is the period from mid April to mid May. Then infection mainly penetrates through the bark of young shoots, which results in their dying. Infection through the needles occurs mainly at the time of their sudden growth or during summer

  17. PROPAGACIÓN IN VITRO DE Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ ANGELA TORRES

    Full Text Available Acacia Acacia mangium Willd es una de las especies forestales más plantadas por la calidad de su madera y rápido crecimiento; sin embargo, los estudios de propagación clonal son pocos. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un protocolo de micropropagacion a partir de explantes con meristemos preexistentes. Los explantes consistieron de brotes de plantas de tres meses de edad mantenidas en invernadero. La desinfección se realizó con diferentes concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio y antibióticos, y fueron establecidos en medio MS con diferentes concentraciones (0; 0,44; 0,88 y 2,22 µM de BAP. Los brotes micropropagados fueron enraizados con diferentes dosis de ANA y AIB, finalmente los brotes, con o sin raíces, fueron transferidos a condiciones ex vitro para evaluar el porcentaje de supervivencia. Los datos mostraron que 1,0% NaOCl y cefalexina (2 mg L-1 permitieron obtener el mayor porcentaje de explantes libres de contaminación (67%. El mayor número promedio de brotes ocurrió con 2,22 µM de BAP y el mayor número promedio de raíces se observo al utilizar 2,69 µM de ANA. La adaptación de las plantas en condiciones ex vitro fue exitoso lográndose obtener un 87% de supervivencia

  18. Colloids removal from water resources using natural coagulant: Acacia auriculiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Roslan, A.; Kamarulzaman, M. F. H.; Erat, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    All waters, especially surface waters contain dissolved, suspended particles and/or inorganic matter, as well as several biological organisms, such as bacteria, algae or viruses. This material must be removed because it can affect the water quality that can cause turbidity and colour. The objective of this study is to develop water treatment process from Seri Alam (Johor, Malaysia) lake water resources by using natural coagulant Acacia auriculiformis pods through a jar test experiment. Jar test is designed to show the effectiveness of the water treatment. This process is a laboratory procedure that will simulate coagulation/flocculation with several parameters selected namely contact time, coagulant dosage and agitation speed. The most optimum percentage of colloids removal for each parameter is determined at 0.2 g, 90 min and 80 rpm. FESEM (Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscope) observed the small structures of final floc particles for optimum parameter in this study to show that the colloids coagulated the coagulant. All result showed that the Acacia auriculiformis pods can be a very efficient coagulant in removing colloids from water.

  19. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Assis Castro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10 had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48. We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth.

  20. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and ethanolic extract (EE of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings.

  1. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  2. A preliminary report on decay and canker of Acacia richii caused by Inonotus rickii in China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cui, B.K.; Zhao, C.L.; Vlasák, Josef; Dai, Y.C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2014), s. 82-84 ISSN 1437-4781 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : wood-decaying fungus * Inonotus rickii * Acacia richii Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.373, year: 2014

  3. Controlled dual release study of curcumin and a 4-aminoquinoline analog from gum acacia containing hydrogels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderibigbe, BA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of gum acacia containing hydrogels as controlled dual-drug delivery systems for antiprotozoal agents was investigated. 4-Aminoquinoline analog and curcumin were selected as model drugs because they exhibit antiprotozoal activity...

  4. Tannins quantification in barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its chemical complexity, there are several methodologies for vegetable tannins quantification. Thus, this work aims at quantifying both tannin and non-tannin substances present in the barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii by two different methods. From bark particles of both species, analytical solutions were produced by using a steam-jacketed extractor. The solution was analyzed by Stiasny and hide-powder (no chromed methods. For both species, tannin levels were superior when analyzed by hide-powder method, reaching 47.8% and 24.1% for A. mearnsii and M. tenuiflora, respectively. By Stiasny method, the tannins levels considered were 39.0% for A. mearnsii, and 15.5% for M. tenuiflora. Despite the best results presented by A. mearnsii, the bark of M. tenuiflora also showed great potential due to its considerable amount of tannin and the availability of the species at Caatinga biome.

  5. Antifungal Activity from Leaves of Acacia Nilotica against Pythium Aphanidermatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Khan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallic acid and methyl ester of gallic acid has been identified as antifungal compounds against the mycelial growth of Pythium aphanidermatum from acetone-water extracts of Acacia nilotica leaves. The growth of fungus was completely ceased by gallic acid and its methyl ester at 1000 ppm and 750 ppm, respectively. Antifungal properties of both compounds were found to be higher in combination than alone. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both compounds was 1000 ppm. No phytotoxic effect of the compounds was observed on watermelon seed germination. The growth of roots and shoots of watermelon seedlings was promoted by gallic acid but decreased with methyl ester of gallic acid. Nitrate reductase activity of the fungus was significantly inhibited by both compounds.

  6. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Renata Assis; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Almeida, Jaqueline Raquel de; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Nave, André; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Azevedo, João Lucio de; Quecine, Maria Carolina

    Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000km 2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10) had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48). We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. The Importance of Acacia Trees for Insectivorous Bats and Arthropods in the Arava Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Talya D.; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica) were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats. PMID:23441145

  8. The importance of Acacia trees for insectivorous bats and arthropods in the Arava desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya D Hackett

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats.

  9. Analysis of Leucaena mimosine, Acacia tannins and total phenols by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M N.V. [Hyderabad Univ. (India). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    1995-11-01

    The mimosine contents of Leucaena foliage, Acacia tannins and total phenols from leaf, bark and pod were analyzed by a near infrared relectance spectrophotometer (Compscan 3000). A calibration equation (linear summation regression) was developed with near infrared spectral analysis software, using 30 spectra from old and young leaves of Leucaena and 23 spectra from different samples of Acacia. The near infrared analyzer calculated that the percentages of mimosine, total phenols and tannins are closely comparable to laboratory results. (author)

  10. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. Wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é a descrição anatômica da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. Hook. et Arn. A estrutura anatômica é comparada com outras espécies sul-brasileiras do mesmo gênero. A presença de raios multisseriados estreitos e fibras septadas permitem classificar a espécie na série Vulgares Bentham ou sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.The wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. is described and compared with other south-american Acacias. The presence of narrow multisseriate rays and libriform fibres, observed in the wood, are commonly found among species of the series Vulgares Benth. or sub-genus Aculeiferum Vassal.

  11. Preparation and physicochemical properties of protein concentrate and isolate produced from Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Hassan E; Swailam, Hesham M; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2018-02-01

    The composition and physicochemical properties of defatted acacia flour (DFAF), acacia protein concentrate (APC) and acacia protein isolate (API) were evaluated. The results indicated that API had lower, ash and fat content, than DFAF and APC. Also, significant difference in protein content was noticed among DFAF, APC and API (37.5, 63.7 and 91.8%, respectively). Acacia protein concentrate and isolates were good sources of essential amino acids except cystine and methionine. The physicochemical and functional properties of acacia protein improved with the processing of acacia into protein concentrate and protein isolate. The results of scanning electron micrographs showed that DFAF had a compact structure; protein concentrate were, flaky, and porous type, and protein isolate had intact flakes morphology.

  12. Pharmacological evidence of neuro-pharmacological activity of Acacia tortilis leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha

    2016-08-01

    Acacia tortilis is abundantly present in Saudi Arabia but its neuro-pharmacological activity has not yet been evaluated. In this study, the antidepressant by Forced swim test, Anxiolytic (Light and Dark box) and sedative effects (by using Open Field) of Acacia leaves extract were evaluated in mice. Aqueous extracts of the Acacia tortilis leaves were prepared. Two different doses (400 and 800 mg/kg) of the extracts were administered to the mice orally (p.o.). In exploratory behavior, Acacia leave extract (800 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 46.33 ± 3.24 p < 0.05) similar to the effect observed with chlorpromazine (CPZ) (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; CPZ 1.0 mg/kg, 24.20 ± 3.40 p < 0.05). A dose-dependent significant decrease in immobility time was also observed in mice and this effect was comparable to its positive control (Imipramine). However, In light-dark box test, mice treated with high dose (800 mg/kg/day) spent significant (p < 0.05) time on the light side of the light-dark box similar to positive control DZP. (Veh, 114.40 ± 6.30 s; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 162.2 ± 14.9; DZP 1.0 mg/kg, 184.20 ± 9.24 p < 0.05). The present research propounded that Acacia tortilis leave extract contains some active ingredients with potential anxiolytic activity at low doses and antidepressant and sedative activity at high doses.

  13. Termites, vertebrate herbivores, and the fruiting success of Acacia drepanolobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Alison K; Palmer, Todd M; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Doak, Dan F

    2010-02-01

    In African savannas, vertebrate herbivores are often identified as key determinants of plant growth, survivorship, and reproduction. However, plant reproduction is likely to be the product of responses to a suite of abiotic and biotic factors, including nutrient availability and interactions with antagonists and mutualists. In a relatively simple system, we examined the role of termites (which act as ecosystem engineers--modifying physical habitat and creating islands of high soil fertility), vertebrate herbivores, and symbiotic ants, on the fruiting success of a dominant plant, Acacia drepanolobium, in East African savannas. Using observational data, large-scale experimental manipulations, and analysis of foliar N, we found that Acacia drepanolobium trees growing at the edge of termite mounds were more likely to reproduce than those growing farther away, in off-mound soils. Although vertebrate herbivores preferentially used termite mounds as demonstrated by dung deposits, long-term exclusion of mammalian grazers did not significantly reduce A. drepanolobium fruit production. Leaf N was significantly greater in trees growing next to mounds than in those growing farther away, and this pattern was unaffected by exclusion of vertebrates. Thus, soil enrichment by termites, rather than through dung and urine deposition by large herbivores, is of primary importance to fruit production near mounds. Across all mound-herbivore treatment combinations, trees that harbored Crematogaster sjostedti were more likely to fruit than those that harbored one of the other three ant species. Although C. sjostedti is less aggressive than the other ants, it tends to inhabit large, old trees near termite mounds which are more likely to fruit than smaller ones. Termites play a key role in generating patches of nutrient-rich habitat important to the reproductive success of A. drepanolobium in East African savannas. Enhanced nutrient acquisition from termite mounds appears to allow plants to

  14. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  15. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  16. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  17. Field grown Acacia Mangium: how intensive is root growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Rasidah Kadir; Azizol Abdul Kadir; Van Cleemput, O.; Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    1998-01-01

    Under rainfed conditions, root development of trees can be very unpredictable and variable, depending on the amount and distribution of rainfall received. This becomes more critical when the rainfall is seasonal and the soil has a high clay content. Our investigation dealt with the root development of Acacia mangium established as plantation forest on a soil with heavy clay texture in Kemasul Forest Reserve, Malaysia. The distribution of active roots was measured at 9- and 21- month-old plantations using the radioactive P injection method. Growth at different distances from the tree base and at different soil depths was studied. After nine months of field planting, we found that roots were mostly concentrated at the surface within 1000 mm distance from the tree base. At one year after the first measurement, roots were traced as far as 6400 mm away. A large part of these roots, however, were detected within 3700 mm distance in the upper 300 mm soil. At this stage, roots can still did not go deeper than 450 mm depth, probably due to the high clay content at lower depth and low pH. This rapid root growth indicates that below-ground competition can be very intense if this species is established as a mixed-species plantation

  18. Cellulose nanocrystals from acacia bark-Influence of solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflick, Ticiane; Schwendler, Luana A; Rosa, Simone M L; Bica, Clara I D; Nachtigall, Sônia M B

    2017-08-01

    The isolation of cellulose nanocrystals from different lignocellulosic materials has shown increased interest in academic and technological research. These materials have excellent mechanical properties and can be used as nanofillers for polymer composites as well as transparent films for various applications. In this work, cellulose isolation was performed following an environmental friendly procedure without chlorine. Cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from the exhausted acacia bark (after the industrial process of extracting tannin) with the objective of evaluating the effect of the solvent extraction steps on the characteristics of cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals. It was also assessed the effect of acid hydrolysis time on the thermal stability, morphology and size of the nanocrystals, through TGA, TEM and light scattering analyses. It was concluded that the extraction step with solvents was important in the isolation of cellulose, but irrelevant in the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Light scattering experiments indicated that 30min of hydrolysis was long enough for the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transient behaviour and control of the ACACIA plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikstra, J.F.; Heek, A.I. van; Verkooijen, A.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This article deals with dynamic modelling and control of the ACACIA plant. A one-dimensional flow model describing the helium flow and the two-phase water flow is used through the whole plant, with different source terms in different pieces of equipment. A stage-by-stage model is produced for the radial compressor and axial turbine. Other models include the recuperator, water/helium heat exchangers, a natural convection evaporator, valves, etc. The models have been checked by comparison of the transient behavior with several other models, e.g. produced in RELAP. The dynamic behavior of this plant is analysed and a control structure is designed. First the requirements and options for a control system design are investigated. A number of possible control valve positions in the flowsheet are tested with transients in order to make an argued choice. The model is subsequently used to determine the optimal working conditions for different heat and power demands, these are used as set-points for the control system. Then the interaction between manipulated and controlled variables is mapped and based on this information a choice for coupling them in decentralised feedback control loops is made. This control structure is then tuned and tested. It can be concluded that both heat and power demand can be followed with acceptable performance over a wide range. (author)

  20. Controle de Acacia farnesiana e de Mimosa pteridofita em pastagem Control of Acacia farnesiana and of Mimosa pteridofita in pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carmona

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de estudar a eficácia agronômica e econômica de herbicidas para o controle de duas sérias plantas daninhas de pastagens: Acacia farnesiana e Mimosa pteridofita. Os produtos utilizados, por meio de pincelamento no toco, foram o óleo diesel, óleo lubrificante usado de trator, solução aquosa de 2,4-D + picloram e solução oleosa de 2,4-D + picloram. À exceção do óleo lubrificante, os herbicidas foram testados em dois tamanhos de planta daninha e duas alturas de corte. Avaliaram-se a porcentagem de controle e o vigor de brotação das plantas não-controladas. Concluiu-se que o corte das plantas só é eficiente no controle das duas espécies, quando realizado no nível do solo e seguido da aplicação de herbicida específico, como o 2,4-D + picloram. O óleo diesel também controla totalmente ambas as espécies, e com menores custos que o 2,4-D + picloram, porém apenas quando aplicado nas plantas mais jovens. Há incompatibilidade entre o óleo diesel e o 2,4-D + picloram no controle das duas espécies. O óleo lubrificante usado não apresenta nenhum efeito herbicida em plantas adultas destas espécies.An experiment was carried out to study the efficacy of herbicide treatments in controlling two serious pasture weeds: Acacia farnesiana and Mimosa pteridofita. The following herbicides were applied to the stump, after cutting: diesel oil, used engine lubricant oil, 2,4-D + picloram diluted in water or diesel oil and a control treatment without herbicide. All herbicide treatments were tested on two sizes of the plants and two heights of cutting, except the lubricant oil. The shrub control and sprouting vigor were evaluated in all treatments. The results showed that cutting of plants is effective only when it is carried out at the soil surface level and followed by a specific herbicide treatment, such as 2,4-D + picloram. Diesel oil controlled 100% of the younger plants of both species, at lower

  1. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heera Ram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae seeds are essential ingredient of “Pachkutta,” a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels; atherogenic index (AI; cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO; planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34±0.72 and increased lumen volume (51.65±3.66, administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics.

  2. Regeneration of Pinus cubensis Griseb. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raima Cantillo Ardebol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of plants from the genus Pinus has been done in several species. However, micropropagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb has not been reported. This species has a great economical importance. Then, the aim of the current research was to achieve in vitro propagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb. to increase the number of individuals in their natural habitat. The concentration of sodium hypochlorite and immersion time were determined for seeds disinfection and embryos establishment. The effect of the presence or absence of the seed coat was also studied. Two growth regulators and three concentrations of each one were tested to achieve the emission of axillary buds in the multiplication phase. Five subcultures every 21 days were done. Rooting and acclimatization were carried out simultaneously. Shoots were individualized and immersed in a rooting solution. Zygotic embryos of P. cubensis wer e dev el o ped in vitro. The highest percentages of disinfection and germination were obtained by introducing the seeds in a solution of sodium hypochlorite at 20% for 15 minutes, planting them after that without the seed coat. The number and length of axillary buds increased by using 22.5 µM of 6-benzylaminopurine and 5.4 µM naphthaleneacetic acid in the multiplication phase. The in vitro propagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb. from zygotic embryos was achieved for the first time. A protocol was also established, reaching 50% of survival in the acclimatization phase. Key words: acclimatization, axillary buds, forestry, multiplication, pinus

  3. Discriminating the Mediterranean Pinus spp. using the land surface phenology extracted from the whole MODIS NDVI time series and machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Aragones, David; Caparros-Santiago, Jose A.; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2017-10-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) can improve the characterisation of forest areas and their change processes. The aim of this work was: i) to characterise the temporal dynamics in Mediterranean Pinus forests, and ii) to evaluate the potential of LSP for species discrimination. The different experiments were based on 679 mono-specific plots for the 5 native species on the Iberian Peninsula: P. sylvestris, P. pinea, P. halepensis, P. nigra and P. pinaster. The entire MODIS NDVI time series (2000-2016) of the MOD13Q1 product was used to characterise phenology. The following phenological parameters were extracted: the start, end and median days of the season, and the length of the season in days, as well as the base value, maximum value, amplitude and integrated value. Multi-temporal metrics were calculated to synthesise the inter-annual variability of the phenological parameters. The species were discriminated by the application of Random Forest (RF) classifiers from different subsets of variables: model 1) NDVI-smoothed time series, model 2) multi-temporal metrics of the phenological parameters, and model 3) multi-temporal metrics and the auxiliary physical variables (altitude, slope, aspect and distance to the coastline). Model 3 was the best, with an overall accuracy of 82%, a kappa coefficient of 0.77 and whose most important variables were: elevation, coast distance, and the end and start days of the growing season. The species that presented the largest errors was P. nigra, (kappa= 0.45), having locations with a similar behaviour to P. sylvestris or P. pinaster.

  4. Effect of Rhizobium and Mycorhiza inoculation on the nursery growth of Acacia and Teline monspessulana; Efecto de la aplicacion de biofertilizantes en Acacia decurrens y Teline monspessulana en vivero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, G; Lozano de Yunda, A; Chaparro, H

    1999-12-01

    In an experiment accomplished in the tree nursery Tisquesusa located in Madrid (Cundinamarca) was evaluated the effect of the inoculation with strains selected of foreign and Indigenous rhizobium and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi am (Glomus folescutolum) on the growth, nitrogen fixation, and micorrization of Acacia (Acacia decurrens) and Retamo (Teline monspessulana) that they are used In soils recovery by the Corporacion Autonoma Regional de Cundinamarca CAR. The studied species presented positive response to the inoculation with rhizobium; the indigenous strain DQ6-09, isolated in Guatavita (Cundinamarca), presented the better results in Retamo and also in Acacia alone and in mixture with the foreign strain T1881. The inoculation with fungi AM increased the heights, dry weights, phosphorus content and percentage of micorrization in Acacia and Retamo. The double inoculation with fungi ma and rhizobium it did not increase the nitrogen fixing of Acacia while in Retamo was presented a positive effect with the strain DQ6-09.

  5. Modelling merchantable volumes for uneven aged maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton stands establi-shed by natural regeneration in the central Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alegria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uneven aged maritime pine stands established by natural regeneration have a great expression in Portugal. These stands being overstocked, as opposed to those established from plantations, provide straight and cylindrical tree boles and logs with less knots that makes them very suitable for certain industrial purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to fit a set of equations to predict total volume and merchantable volumes to any merchantable limit for uneven aged maritime pine stands established by natural regeneration in the central inland region of Portugal. Data were collected in 30 circular sampling plots of 500 m2 of area, on 1426 trees and 314 sample trees for volume assessment, corresponding to 2353 diameter/height mea-surements. A total height equation, a total volume equation, a volume ratio equation to any top height limit and a taper equation, over bark, were fitted. To select among the best models, several statistics were computed during model fitting and the independent validation procedure to evaluate model fitting, collinearity and prediction performances. A ranking index was used to support the final decision. The models selected were then fitted again using robust regression and weighted regression techniques, because studentized residuals distribution normality and homogeneity assumptions were not observed. This research showed that the models selected for these stands were not the same as those selected in previous studies for the species in this region, suggesting that these results may be due to the influence of stand density conditions on diameter and total height growth, and consequently, on stem form and volume. This set of equations will also be included as components in a single tree growth and yield model developed for these stands. 

  6. Exploring natural variation of Pinus pinaster Aiton using metabolomics: Is it possible to identify the region of origin of a pine from its metabolites?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meijon, M.; Feito, I.; Oravec, Michal; Delatorre, C.; Weckwerth, W.; Majada, J.; Valledor, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2016), s. 959-976 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0256 Grant - others:Akademie věd České Republiky(CZ) M200871201 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : abiotic stress * adaptation * conifers * flavonoids * terpenoids * UPLC-Orbitrap-MS Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  7. Pinus taeda AND Pinus oocarpa PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING WITH FENOL-FORMALDHEYDE RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the plywood, manufactured from Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa, with 20 and 24 years old respectively, using three differentformulations of the fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of the glue line shearing tests not showed statistical differences between the species and three resin formulations. In the hot water test, all of the boards were classified as “BR” and, the boards of the Pinus oocarpa produced with formulations (1and (3, were classified as “WBP”. The different resin formulations not influenced on the modulus ofelasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR The boards of Pinus taeda with formulations (1 and(2 showed higher values of MOE in comparison of the Pinus oocarpa. The MOR of the Pinus oocarpa withformulation (2 was higher than Pinus taeda. The mechanical properties of the plywood wereprobably influenced by wood variability related to sapwood and hartwood, thickness of growth ringsand, springwood and summerwood.

  8. Low chitinase activity in Acacia myrmecophytes: a potential trade-off between biotic and chemical defences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, M; Staehelin, C; McKey, D

    2000-12-01

    We determined chitinase activity in leaves of four myrmecophytic and four non-myrmecophytic leguminous species at the plants' natural growing sites in Mexico. Myrmecophytic plants (or 'ant plants') have obligate mutualisms with ants protecting them against herbivores and pathogenic fungi. Plant chitinases can be considered a reliable measure of plant resistance to pathogenic fungi. The myrmecophytic Acacia species, which were colonised by mutualistic ants, exhibited at least six-fold lower levels of chitinase activity compared with the non-myrmecophytic Acacia farnesiana and three other non-myrmecophytes. Though belonging to different phylogenetic groups, the myrmecophytic Acacia species formed one distinct group in the data set, which was clearly separated from the non-myrmecophytic species. These findings allowed for comparison between two recent hypotheses that attempt to explain low chitinase activity in ant plants. Most probably, chitinases are reduced in myrmecophytic plant species because these are effectively defended indirectly due to their symbiosis with mutualistic ants.

  9. Delayed colonisation of Acacia by thrips and the timing of host-conservatism and behavioural specialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Michael J; Miller, Joseph T; Mound, Laurence A

    2013-09-09

    Repeated colonisation of novel host-plants is believed to be an essential component of the evolutionary success of phytophagous insects. The relative timing between the origin of an insect lineage and the plant clade they eat or reproduce on is important for understanding how host-range expansion can lead to resource specialisation and speciation. Path and stepping-stone sampling are used in a Bayesian approach to test divergence timing between the origin of Acacia and colonisation by thrips. The evolution of host-plant conservatism and ecological specialisation is discussed. Results indicated very strong support for a model describing the origin of the common ancestor of Acacia thrips subsequent to that of Acacia. A current estimate puts the origin of Acacia at approximately 6 million years before the common ancestor of Acacia thrips, and 15 million years before the origin of a gall-inducing clade. The evolution of host conservatism and resource specialisation resulted in a phylogenetically under-dispersed pattern of host-use by several thrips lineages. Thrips colonised a diversity of Acacia species over a protracted period as Australia experienced aridification. Host conservatism evolved on phenotypically and environmentally suitable host lineages. Ecological specialisation resulted from habitat selection and selection on thrips behavior that promoted primary and secondary host associations. These findings suggest that delayed and repeated colonisation is characterised by cycles of oligo- or poly-phagy. This results in a cumulation of lineages that each evolve host conservatism on different and potentially transient host-related traits, and facilitates both ecological and resource specialisation.

  10. Acacia shrubs respond positively to high severity wildfire: Implications for conservation and fuel hazard management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher E; Price, Owen F; Tasker, Elizabeth M; Denham, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    High severity wildfires pose threats to human assets, but are also perceived to impact vegetation communities because a small number of species may become dominant immediately after fire. However there are considerable gaps in our knowledge about species-specific responses of plants to different fire severities, and how this influences fuel hazard in the short and long-term. Here we conduct a floristic survey at sites before and two years after a wildfire of unprecedented size and severity in the Warrumbungle National Park (Australia) to explore relationships between post-fire growth of a fire responsive shrub genera (Acacia), total mid-story vegetation cover, fire severity and fuel hazard. We then survey 129 plots surrounding the park to assess relationships between mid-story vegetation cover and time-since-fire. Acacia species richness and cover were 2.3 and 4.3 times greater at plots after than before the fire. However the same common dominant species were present throughout the study. Mid-story vegetation cover was 1.5 times greater after than before the wildfire, and Acacia species contribution to mid-story cover increased from 10 to 40%. Acacia species richness was not affected by fire severity, however strong positive associations were observed between Acacia and total mid-story vegetation cover and severity. Our analysis of mid-story vegetation recovery showed that cover was similarly high between 2 and 30years post-fire, then decreased until 52years. Collectively, our results suggest that Acacia species are extremely resilient to high severity wildfire and drive short to mid-term increases in fuel hazard. Our results are discussed in relation to fire regime management from the twin perspectives of conserving biodiversity and mitigating human losses due to wildfire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of efficient microorganisms on cation exchange capacity in acacia seedlings (Acacia melanoxylon) for soil recovery in Mondonedo, Cundinamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barragan Olga Angelica; Montero Robayo Diana Mercedes; Lagos Caballero Jesus Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We determined the effect of efficient microorganisms (EM) on the cation exchange capacity for soil recovery in the municipality of Mondonedo, Cundinamarca. A greenhouse unit was installed in order to maintain stable conditions. After harvesting, sifted and homogenization of the soil sample, initial physical and chemical analyses were made. For the experimental units we used Acacia melanoxylon seedlings from Zabrinsky. A completely randomized design was done with eight treatments and three repetitions. For the maintenance and monitoring of the seedlings behaviour, a frequency of irrigation of three times per week was found. The application of the EM was done during three months: in the first month, it was applied four times (once a week); during the second month, it was applied twice (biweekly), and during the third month there was only one application. Additionally, every 15 days morphological analyses were made (number of leaves, branches and stem diameter). In the end, soil samples were taken from each plant pot. In the laboratory we analysed the cation exchange capacity, alkali ion exchange, saturation alkali, relations between elements and plant tissue. These were done using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses consisted on multiple comparisons test and variance tests, in order to find whether or not treatments exhibited significant differences. In that way, the best alternative for improving environmental quality of eroded soils as the Zabrinsky desert is the efficient microorganisms in 5% doses in irrigation water. Additionally, the cation exchange capacity must be enhanced using organic fertilizers (compost, mulch and gallinaza) in one pound doses, and chemical fertilizers: electrolytic Mn (0.0002 g), Cu (0.0002 g), Zn (0.0001 g), URFOS 44 (166.66 g) and klip-boro (5 g).

  12. Ecosystem carbon stocks in Pinus palustris forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Pete Anderson; Jason Jackson; Lorenzo Ferrari; Tim A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper

    2014-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) restoration in the southeastern United States offers opportunities for carbon (C) sequestration. Ecosystem C stocks are not well understood in longleaf pine forests, which are typically of low density and maintained by prescribed fire. The objectives of this research were to develop allometric equations for...

  13. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  14. Modeling relaxation length and density of acacia mangium wood using gamma - ray attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamer A Tabet; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2009-01-01

    Wood density measurement is related to the several factors that influence wood quality. In this paper, density, relaxation length and half-thickness value of eight ages, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 13 and 15 year-old of Acacia mangium wood were determined using gamma radiation from 137 Cs source. Results show that Acacia mangium tree of age 3 year has the highest relaxation length of 83.33 cm and least density of 0.43 gcm -3 , while the tree of age 15 year has the least Relaxation length of 28.56 cm and highest density of 0.76 gcm -3 . Results also show that the 3 year-old Acacia mangium wood has the highest half thickness value of 57.75 cm and 15 year-old tree has the least half thickness value of 19.85 cm. Two mathematical models have been developed for the prediction of density, variation with relaxation length and half-thickness value of different age of tree. A good agreement (greater than 85% in most cases) was observed between the measured values and predicted ones. Very good linear correlation was found between measured density and the age of tree (R2 = 0.824), and between estimated density and Acacia mangium tree age (R2 = 0.952). (Author)

  15. Performance of Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances in soils low in phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamai, D.O.; Juma, P.O.

    1996-01-01

    Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances were screened to determine their potential for adaptability under P limiting conditions as a strategy to exploit genotypic differences in terms of utilization and uptake efficiencies. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse at the Kenya Forestry Research Institute using soils taken from the field which are critically low in available P. The experimental treatments comprised of P application at 0 and 60 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha for 11 provenances of Acacia, 6 Prosopis and 4 Casuarina spp. Trait for adaptability to P deficiency was determined by measuring the growth performance, P uptake and utilization efficiencies at zero and moderate application of P. The results indicated considerable differences in the growth performance and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE). Acacia provenances showed the highest PUE compared with Prosopis and Casuarina spp although this was not reflected in the total dry matter yield. However, it was observed that P application resulted in an increase in shoot dry matter, height, root collar diameter and root dry matter in the case of Casuarina. Similarly, the highest total P uptake was obtained in Casuarina and Prosopis spp. The results further indicated that P application probably contributed to the reduction in root dry matter and root: shoot ratios of Acacia and Prosopis but not Casuarina spp. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only some parameters show significant intra-species variation. The specific optical rotations of the gum exudates have been found to vary from ---43.2o to ---52o for Acacia senegal var. senegal ...

  17. In vitro biological activity of tannins from Acacia and other tree fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate impact of tannins on in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters as well as relationships between concentration and in vitro biological activity of tannins present in tree fruits. Dry and mature fruits of known phenolic content harvested from Acacia nilotica, A. erubescens, A. erioloba, ...

  18. Early growth and survival of Acacia galpinii after planting in a semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliage transparency was in excess of 80% for all age groups while crown dieback and stem damage was below 5%. A. galpinii was found to be suitable for dry-zone afforestation. Key Words: Indigenous tree planting; Acacia galpinii; Growth rate; Survival rate; Tree health. Southern African Forestry Journal Issue 202 2004: ...

  19. STRATEGI DIVERSIFIKASI PRODUK KAYU OLAHAN Acacia mangium (studi kasus : PT. Musi Hutan Persada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Hamzah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objective of this study is to suggest  the best wood  products of Acacia mangium  that have  high value-added as an alternative business and to formulate the fitting  strategy. This study  is descriptive case study applying  purposive sampling method which involved wood product Experts and Senior PT. Musi Hutan Persada Management.  Data have been analyzed through Exponential Compare Method (MPE to select the best product alternative based on eleven set criteria, using AHP method, Hayami value-added Analysis, and Cost Analysis.  The study shows that there are five superior Acacia mangium based products, namely 1 Sawnwood and woodworking (KGKO, 2 Furniture, 3 Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF, 4 Tannin-glue of Acacia mangium  bark and 5 Wood Charcoal.  And  Sawnwood and Woodworking (KGKO, Furniture, and   Tannin-glue  have the best chance.  Best business strategy to be adhered by MHP, “related-diversification”, then is  to continue utilizing  Acacia mangium wood  as renewable resources,  integrated and sustainable business.

  20. Aboveground biomass equations for 7-year-old Acacia mangium Willd in Botucatu, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo A. A. Veiga; Maria A. M. Brasil; Carlos M. Carvalho

    2000-01-01

    The biomass of steins, leaves, and branches was determined for 152 sample trees of Acacia mangium Willd were in a 7-year-old experimental plantation in Botucatu, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After felling, dimensional measurements were taken from each tree. Cross sections were collected in 125 sample trees at ground level (0 percent), 25 percent, 50...

  1. Antioxidant capacities of extracts in relation to toasting oak and acacia wood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Híc, P.; Soural, I.; Balík, J.; Kulichová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 129-137 ISSN 1336-8672 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : oak * acacia * toasting wood * barrique extract * antioxidant capacity * weight loss Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.950, year: 2016

  2. Performance of Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances in soils low in phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamai, D O; Juma, P O [Kenya Forestry Research Inst., Nairobi (Kenya). Agroforestry Research Programme

    1996-07-01

    Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances were screened to determine their potential for adaptability under P limiting conditions as a strategy to exploit genotypic differences in terms of utilization and uptake efficiencies. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse at the Kenya Forestry Research Institute using soils taken from the field which are critically low in available P. The experimental treatments comprised of P application at 0 and 60 Kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha for 11 provenances of Acacia, 6 Prosopis and 4 Casuarina spp. Trait for adaptability to P deficiency was determined by measuring the growth performance, P uptake and utilization efficiencies at zero and moderate application of P. The results indicated considerable differences in the growth performance and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE). Acacia provenances showed the highest PUE compared with Prosopis and Casuarina spp although this was not reflected in the total dry matter yield. However, it was observed that P application resulted in an increase in shoot dry matter, height, root collar diameter and root dry matter in the case of Casuarina. Similarly, the highest total P uptake was obtained in Casuarina and Prosopis spp. The results further indicated that P application probably contributed to the reduction in root dry matter and root: shoot ratios of Acacia and Prosopis but not Casuarina spp. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Preparation and Evaluation of Pellets Using Acacia and Tragacanth by Extrusion-Spheronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pirmoradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Extrusion-spheronization is an established technique for the production of pellets for pharmaceutical applications. In this study, the feasibility and influence of the incorporation of acacia, by itself and in combination with tragacanth, on the ability of formulations containing 2 model of drugs (ibuprofen and theophylline to form spherical pellets by extrusion-spheronization was investigated.Material and Methods: Formulations containing different ratios of acacia and tragacanth (8:2, 9:1, and 10:0 and different drug concentrations (20%, 40%, and 60% were prepared, on the basis of a 32 full factorial design. Pellet properties, such as aspect ratio, sphericity (image analysis, crushing strength and elastic modulus (mechanical tests, mean dissolution time, and dissolution profiles were evaluated. The effect of particular factors on responses was determined by linear regression analysis.Results: The sphericity, drug release rate, and the mechanical properties of the pellets were affected by the amounts and types of the drugs, and the ratio of the gums. Acacia, relative to tragacanth, produced pellets with higher mechanical strength and a faster drug release rate. Addition of small amounts of tragacanth to ibuprofen formulations resulted in matrix pellets with slow drug release.Conclusion: The results showed that acacia and tragacanth can be used successfully as 2 natural binders in the pellet formulations.

  4. Trial production of fuel pellet from Acacia mangium bark waste biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirta, R.; Anwar, T.; Sudrajat; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.

    2018-04-01

    Fuel pellet is one of the innovation products that can be produced from various sources of biomass such as agricultural residues, forestry and also wood industries including wood bark. Herein this paper, the potential fuel pellet production using Acacia mangium bark that abundant wasted from chip mill industry was studied. Fuel pellet was produced using a modified animal feed pellet press machine equipped with rotating roller-cylinders. The international standards quality of fuel pellet such as ONORM (Austria), SS (Sweden), DIN (Germany), EN (European) and ITEBE (Italy) were used to evaluate the optimum composition of feedstock and additive used. Theresults showed the quality offuel pellet produced were good compared to commercial sawdust pellet. Mixed of Acacia bark (dust) with 10% of tapioca and 20% of glycerol (w/w) was increased the stable form of pellet and the highest heating value to reached 4,383 Kcal/kg (calorific value). Blending of Acacia bark with tapioca and glycerol was positively improved its physical, chemical and combustion properties to met the international standards requirement for export market. Based on this finding, production of fuel pellet from Acacia bark waste biomass was promising to be developed as an alternative substitution of fossil energy in the future.

  5. intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    . 1997, 11, 493. 22. Food Chemicals Codex III. Acacia (Gum arabic), National Academy of Sciences,. Washington D.C.; 1981, p 7. 23. Mhinzi, G.S.; Mosha, D.M.S. J. Chem. Soc. Pak. 1993, 15, 269. 24. Mhinzi, G.S.; Mosha, D.M.S. J.Food Sci.

  6. Acacia saligna: an invasive species on the coast of Molise (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calabrese V

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the European countries most affected by biological invasions. In this study, we focused on the impact of Acacia saligna, an Australian invasive plant species, on the coastal ecosystem’s ecology and biodiversity along the sandy coasts of Molise (southern Italy. We analyzed data from 61 vegetation plots recorded in coastal pine forest and Mediterranean scrub habitats of Molise throughout the preparatory actions of the “LIFE Maestrale” project (NAT/IT/000262. In order to study the ecological impact of Acacia saligna comparing invaded and non-invaded areas, we first assigned the Ellenberg’s indicator values to each plant species, which were then used to relate the presence of Acacia saligna with ecological characteristics of sites through a generalized linear model (GLM. Our results showed a significant positive relationship between the presence of Acacia saligna and high levels of soil nutrients and, on the contrary, a negative relationship with the presence of mesophilic species, which are typical of the community interest habitats of pine forest (2270*. The use of ecological indicators is effective to pinpoint the ecological effects of biological invasions, as well as to evaluate habitat conservation state and to identify vulnerable native species.

  7. The response of Acacia karroo plants to defoliation of the upper or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the canopy. Plants were very sensitive to defoliation in the early-flush phenophase. This probably masked the positive effects of the partial defoliations applied at this phenophase. Keywords: acacia karroo; browse production; defoliation; eastern cape; goats; growth stimulation; leaves; south africa; university of fort hare ...

  8. Preparation and evaluation of pellets using acacia and tragacanth by extrusion-spheronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhgari, A; Abbaspour, M R; Pirmoradi, S

    2011-01-01

    Extrusion-spheronization is an established technique for the production of pellets for pharmaceutical applications. In this study, the feasibility and influence of the incorporation of acacia, by itself and in combination with tragacanth, on the ability of formulations containing 2 model of drugs (ibuprofen and theophylline) to form spherical pellets by extrusion-spheronization was investigated. Formulations containing different ratios of acacia and tragacanth (8:2, 9:1, and 10:0) and different drug concentrations (20%, 40%, and 60%) were prepared, on the basis of a 3(2) full factorial design. Pellet properties, such as aspect ratio, sphericity (image analysis), crushing strength and elastic modulus (mechanical tests), mean dissolution time, and dissolution profiles were evaluated. The effect of particular factors on responses was determined by linear regression analysis. The sphericity, drug release rate, and the mechanical properties of the pellets were affected by the amounts and types of the drugs, and the ratio of the gums. Acacia, relative to tragacanth, produced pellets with higher mechanical strength and a faster drug release rate. Addition of small amounts of tragacanth to ibuprofen formulations resulted in matrix pellets with slow drug release. The results showed that acacia and tragacanth can be used successfully as 2 natural binders in the pellet formulations.

  9. Impact of Hurricane Iniki on native Hawaiian Acacia koa forests: damage and two-year recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Harrington; James H. Fownes; Paul G. Scowcroft; Cheryl S. Vann

    1997-01-01

    Damage to Hawaiian Acacia koa forest by Hurricane Iniki was assessed by comparison with our previous measures of stand structure and leaf area index (LAI) at sites along a precipitation/elevation gradient on western Kauai. Reductions in LAI ranged from 29 to 80% and were correlated with pre-hurricane LAI and canopy height. The canopy damage...

  10. Pollination ecology of Acacia gerrardii Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae under extremely hot-dry conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Saad Alqarni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth. are acacias that are native to the arid and semiarid Africa and west Asia. We investigated the flowering biology, pod set and flower visitors of Talh and discussed the role of these visitors in pollen transfer. The Talh trees blossomed laterally on the nodes of one-year-old twigs. Each node produced 21 flower buds seasonally. Each flower bud opened to a flower head (FH of 60 florets. The bagged FHs podded significantly (p ⩽ 0.05 less than did the unbagged FHs. The FHs were visited by 31 insect species (25 genera, 16 families and 5 orders. The major taxa were honeybees, megachilids, butterflies, ants, beetles and thrips. Each of honeybees, megachilids and beetles showed a significant (p ⩽ 0.05 hourly pattern, while each of butterflies, ants and thrips had no hourly pattern (p > 0.05. Furthermore, some birds and mammals touched the Talh FHs. Talh trees evolved a mass flowering behavior to face pre- and post-flowering obstacles. Megachilids seemed to play the major effort of zoophily because of their relatively high numbers of individuals and species and their effective movement behavior on the FH surface. Nevertheless, honeybees and other insects and vertebrate taxa also contributed to the pollen transfer. These results greatly contribute to our understanding of the pollination ecology of acacias, especially Arabian acacias.

  11. Operational disease screening program for resistance to wilt in Acacia koa in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick Dudley; Robert James; Richard Sniezko; Phil Cannon; Aileen Yeh; Tyler Jones; Michael Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    In Hawaii, koa (Acacia koa A. Gray) is a valuable tree species economically, ecologically, and culturally. With significant land use change and declines in sugarcane, pineapple, and cattle production, there is an opportunity and keen interest in utilizing native koa in reforestation and restoration efforts. However, moderate to high mortality rates...

  12. PRODUCTION OF MANGIUM (Acacia mangium WOOD VINEGAR AND ITS UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjutju Nurhayati

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Production  of  wood vinegar from mangium (Acacia  mangium wood bolts/pieces  with their diameter of 3  17 cm, length of 30  67 cm, moisture content of 84.4%, and specific gravity of 0.52 conducted in a dome-shaped kiln with 1.2 m'-capacity afforded a yield of 40.3%.   The mangium wood vinegar was produced  through condensation  (cooling of  smoke/gas fractions released during the charcoaling (carbonization process  of  mangium wood.    The  process  could be regarded  as an integrated production of wood vinegar and charcoal.  The yield of wood vinegar combined with the resulting charcoal was 73.9%  based on  the dry weight of  inputed  mangium wood.    Results of chromatography analysis on mangium wood vinegar as conducted in Japan revealed its organic acid content at 73.9 ppm, phenol content 8.09 ppm, methanol 3.34 ppm, acidity degree 4.91  ppm, and pH 3.89.   Similar analysis on the mangium wood vinegar was conducted in Indonesia's laboratories, and the results were comparable with  those  of  Japan.     Results of  inhibition  testings  on  particular microorganisms   (i.e.  Pseudomonas  aerogjnosa,  Stafi/ococms   attreus,  and  Candidi   albicans  fimgz indicated that the mangium wood vinegar could inflict antirnicrobe action on those microorganism with its effectiveness somewhat below that of  liquid betel soap which could be purchased  from drugstores.  The experimental use of mangium wood vinegar at 3-5% concentration on ginger (Zingiber officinale var. white ginger plants revealed significantly positive growth responses/  characteristics with respect to their height, leaf length, and sprout/ shoot development, in comparison with the untreated ginger plants (control.   Such responses/characteristics were not significantly different from those using atonik's growth hormone.  Likewise, the preliminary use of mangium wood vinegar at 2-percent concentration on teak

  13. STUDI PRODUKTIVITAS DAN RENDEMEN INDUSTRI PENGGERGAJIAN KAYU AKASIA DAUN LEBAR (Acacia mangium Willd DI KECAMATAN LANDASAN ULIN KOTA BANJARBARU KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosidah R Radam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The activity of sawmill have been long enough done by local society because very assistive and add production socialize, some of owner of bandsaw/sawmill also make this effort as effort remain to and there is also making it as effort peripheral.  Intention of this research is to know industrial and rendemen productivity of sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood (Acacia mangium Willd.  The method that being used is method of direct measurement and observation in industrial location of sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood and method of direct interview and also record data that related to this research.  The analyse data is productivity calculation, rendemen and waste.  Productivity mean of industrial sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood is equal to 6,38 m3/day or 0,0160 m3/hours. Rendemen mean of industrial sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood is equal to 80,011%.  Mean of industrial disposal of sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood is equal to 19,99% (1,62 m3, this matter is caused by a quality wood of good Acacia (not many experiencing of handicap of wood.  From result of research suggested to conduct research of continuation hit influence of other factor to productivity and rendemen at acacia wide leaf wood sawmill like age, environmental work (arrange situation, and the worker education. Keyords :  productivity, rendemen, waste, sawmill, acacia wide leaf wood (Acacia mangium Willd

  14. [Comparison of chemical components of essential oils in needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm from Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changmao; Duan, Wengui; Cen, Bo; Tan, Jianhui

    2006-11-01

    Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm grown in Guangxi. Various factors such as pine needle dosage and extraction time which may influence the oil yield were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pine needle dosage 700 g, extraction time 5 h. The essential oil yields from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm were 0.45% and 0.19%, respectively. Moreover, the chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty four components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus massoniana Lamb were separated and twenty of them (98.59%) were identified while seventy three components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus elliottottii Engelm were separated and twenty nine of them (94.23%) were identified. Generally, the compositions of the essential oils from needles of the two varieties were similar but the contents of some compounds differed greatly. Especially, the content of alpha-pinene in the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb needles was 2.6 times as that from Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles, but the content of beta-pinene was less than the latter. Mono- and sesquiterpenes were the main composition of the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles.

  15. Comparative mapping in Pinus: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).Tree Genet Genomes 7:457-468

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Andrew J. Eckert; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Annette Delfino-Mix; Dean A Davis; Deems C. Burton; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    The majority of genomic research in conifers has been conducted in the Pinus subgenus Pinus mostly due to the high economic importance of the species within this taxon. Genetic maps have been constructed for several of these pines and comparative mapping analyses have consistently revealed notable synteny. In contrast,...

  16. Modeling natural regeneration biomass of Pinus stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cubas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliable biomass data are very important in the evaluation of ecosystems, and help in understanding the contribution of forests in climate change. Variables that describe the size of the tree, like diameter and height are directly associated with biomass, which allows the use of regression models to estimate this element. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate by regression models, the biomass of different compartments of natural regeneration of trees of a Pinus taeda L. stand. The data were obtained through direct destructive method, using 100 randomly selected trees in the understory of a stand of Pinus taeda. We analyzed three arithmetical models, three logarithmic and two models developed by Stepwise process. Logarithmic equations developed by Stepwise procedure showed the best estimates of total and stems biomass. However, for needles and twigs compartments the best adjust was observed with Husch model and for root biomass Berkhout model proved to be the most suitable.

  17. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  18. Carbon content of forest floor and mineral soil in Mediterranean Pinus spp. and Oak stands in acid soils in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, C.; Turrión, M.B.; Pando, V.; Bravo, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to determine the baseline carbon stock in forest floor and mineral soils in pine and oak stands in acid soils in Northern Spain. Area of study: The study area is situated in northern Spain (42° N, 4° W) on “Paramos y Valles” region of Palencia. aterial and methods: An extensive monitoring composed of 48 plots (31 in pine and 17 in oak stands) was carried out. Litter layers and mineral soil samples, at depths of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm, were taken in each plot. An intensive monitoring was also performed by sampling 12 of these 48 plots selected taken in account species forest composition and their stand development stage. Microbial biomass C (CMB), C mineralization (CRB), and soil organic C balance at stand level were determined in surface soil samples of intensive monitoring. Main results: No differences in soil C content were detected in the two forest ecosystems up to 60 cm depth (53.0±25.8 Mg C ha-1 in Pinus spp. plantations and 60.3±43.8 Mg C ha-1 in oak stands). However, differences in total C (CT), CMB and CRB were found in the upper 10 cm of the soils depending on the stand development stage in each species forest composition (Pinus nigra, Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica). Plots with high development stage exhibited significant lower metabolic quotient (qCO2), so, meant more efficient utilization of C by the microbial community. The C content in the forest floor was higher in pine stands (13.7±0.9 Mg C ha-1) than in oak stands (5.4±0.7 Mg C ha-1). A greater turnover time was found in pine ecosystems vs. oak stands. In contrast, forest floor H layer was nonexistent in oak stands. Research highlights: Results about litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil dynamics in this paper can be used strategically to reach environmental goals in new afforestation programs and sustainable forest management approaches. (Author)

  19. A comparison of the stability of beverage cloud emulsions formulated with different gum acacia- and starch-based emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, S J; Reineccius, G A; Peppard, T L

    2010-06-01

    The performance of several hydrocolloids (3 gum acacias, 1 modified gum acacia, and 3 modified starches) in stabilizing beverage emulsions and corresponding model beverages was investigated employing different core materials, emulsifier usage levels, and storage temperatures. Concentrated emulsions were prepared using orange terpenes or Miglyol 812 (comprising medium-chain triglycerides, MCT) weighted 1:1 with ester gum, stored at 25 or 35 degrees C, and analyzed on days 0, 1, and 3. On day 3, model beverages were made from each emulsion, stored at both temperatures, and analyzed weekly for 4 wk. Stability of concentrated emulsions was assessed by measuring mean particle size and by visual observations of ringing; beverage stability was judged similarly and also by loss of turbidity. Particle size measurements showed concentrated emulsions containing gum acacia or modified gum acacia with either core material were stable over 3 d storage at both temperatures whereas those made with modified starches were not, destabilization being faster at 35 degrees C. Beverages based on orange terpenes, in contrast to Miglyol, yielded smaller mean particle sizes, both on manufacture and during storage, regardless of hydrocolloid used. Visual observations of ringing generally supported this finding. Modified gum acacia was evaluated at both recommended and higher usage levels, stability increasing in the latter case. In general, all gum acacia and modified gum acacia emulsifiers were superior in stability to those based on modified starches, at either temperature, for orange terpene-based beverages. In Miglyol-based beverages, similar results were seen, except 1 modified starch performed as well as the gum acacia products.

  20. Isolation of Abscisic Acid from Korean Acacia Honey with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SeGun; Hong, InPyo; Woo, SoonOk; Jang, HyeRi; Pak, SokCheon; Han, SangMi

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide. This study is aimed at evaluating the anti- H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n -hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n -butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti- H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay. Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36-72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori . Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori -induced infections. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n -hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n -butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfractionAll the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pylori Abscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori . Abbreviations used: MeOH: Methanol; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; TSB: Trypticase

  1. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsbiranvand, Mohammad-Hosein; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Borsi, Seyed Hamid; Amini, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora. PMID:24949020

  2. Contenido de carotenos en el follaje de Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Quert Álvarez

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis del material vegetal de las especies Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet, con el objetivo de determinar su contenido de caroteno tomando como base las condiciones y tiempo de exposición del follaje de las especies objeto de estudio al sol y a la sombra, y teniendo en cuenta la extracción del aceite esencias como factores influyentes en la variación de las concentraciones de caroteno. Para determinar el contenido de caroteno se tomaron muestras del follaje entre 1 y 20 d, expuesto a las condiciones de trabajo en intervalos de 1, 3, 6, 10 y 20 d, tanto antes como después de extraer el aceite esencial. Los resultados obtenidos para ambas especies demostraron que el follaje expuesto a la sombra contiene un mayor porcentaje de caroteno que el expuesto al sol, como era de esperar; el tiempo de exposición influye significativamente en este contenido, así como la extracción del aceite esencial que aumenta el contenido de caroteno; los valores máximos fueron de 130,7 y 157,2 mg/kg de follaje y los mínimos de 55,3 y 57,2 mg/kg de follaje para Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet respectivamente.An analysis of the vegetable material from the species Pinus cariabaea Morelet and Pinus tropicalis Morelet was carried out and their content of carotene was determined taking as the basis the conditions and time of exposure of the foliage of the species studied to the sun and shade, and also taking into account the extraction of the essential oil as factors influencing on the variation of carotene concentrations. For the determination of the carotene content, samples of the foliage between 1 and 20 exposed to working conditions at intervals of 1, 3, 6, 10 and 20 d were taken, both before and after the extraction of the essential oil. Results obteined from both species showed that the foliage exposed to shade contains a higher percentage of carotene than the one exposed to the sun, as it was expected to

  3. Chemical characterisation of PM10 emissions from combustion in a closed stove of common woods grown in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, C.; Alves, C.; Pio, C.; Rzaca, M.; Schmidl, C.; Puxbaum, H.

    2009-04-01

    A series of source tests were conducted to determine the wood elemental composition, combustion gases and the chemical constitution of PM10 emissions from the closed stove combustion of four species of woods grown in Portugal: Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia. The burning tests were made in a closed stove with a dilution source sampler. To ascertain the combustion phase and conditions, continuous emission monitors measured O2, CO2, CO, NO, hydrocarbons, temperature and pressure, during each burning cycle. Woodsmoke samples have been collected and analysed to estimate the contribution of plant debris and biomass smoke to atmospheric aerosols. At this stage of work, cellulose, anhydrosugars and humic-like substances (HULIS) have been measured. Cellulose was determined photometrically after its conversion to D-Glucose. The determination of levoglucosan and other anhydrosugars, including mannosan and galactosan, was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. HULIS determination was made with a total organic carbon analyser and an infrared non dispersive detector, after the isolation of substances. Cellulose was present in PM10 at mass fractions (w/w) of 0.13%, 0.13%, 0.05% and 0.08% for Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major anhydrosugar present in the samples, representing mass fractions of 14.71%, 3.80%, 6.78% and 1.91%, concerning the above mentioned wood species, respectively. The levoglucosan-to-mannosan ratio, usually used to evaluate the proportion of hardwood or softwood smoke in PM10, gave average values of 34.9 (Eucalyptus globulos), 3.40 (Pinus pinaster), 24.8 (Quercus suber) and 10.4 (Acacia longifolia). HULIS were present at mass fractions of 2.35%, 2.99%, 1.52% and 1.72% for the four wood species listed in the same order as before.

  4. Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved in secondary cell wall formation in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium via de novo transcriptome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon Charles H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrids are commercially important trees for the timber and pulp industry in Southeast Asia. Increasing pulp yield while reducing pulping costs are major objectives of tree breeding programs. The general monolignol biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation pathways are well-characterized but genes in these pathways are poorly characterized in Acacia hybrids. RNA-seq on short-read platforms is a rapid approach for obtaining comprehensive transcriptomic data and to discover informative sequence variants. Results We sequenced transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium from non-normalized cDNA libraries synthesized from pooled young stem and inner bark tissues using paired-end libraries and a single lane of an Illumina GAII machine. De novo assembly produced a total of 42,217 and 35,759 contigs with an average length of 496 bp and 498 bp for A. auriculiformis and A. mangium respectively. The assemblies of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium had a total length of 21,022,649 bp and 17,838,260 bp, respectively, with the largest contig 15,262 bp long. We detected all ten monolignol biosynthetic genes using Blastx and further analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3-MYB proteins in other plant species that are involved in transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database and predicted the stem-loop structures of six highly conserved microRNA families (miR319, miR396, miR160, miR172, miR162 and miR168 and one legume-specific family (miR2086. Three microRNA target genes were predicted to be involved in wood formation and flavonoid biosynthesis. By using the assemblies as a reference, we discovered 16,648 and 9,335 high quality putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium

  5. Nitrogen fixation in Acacia auriculiformis and Albizia lebbeck and their contributions to crop-productivity improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbaya, N.; Mwange, K.Nk.; Luyindula, N.

    1998-01-01

    Pot and field experiments assessed N 2 fixation by Albizia lebbeck and Acacia auriculiformis and contributions from prunings to yields of corn and hibiscus. Nitrogen fixation in these tree legumes was poor, with less than 50% N derived from fixation (%Ndfa) when grown in pots, but higher (>70%) in field conditions, after inoculation with compatible Bradyrhizobium strains. Prunings from A. lebbeck, as green manure improved growth of maize and hibiscus, inducing greater corn-kernel yields than did urea. Acacia auriculiformis prunings were similarly beneficial when mixed with leaves of A. lebbeck or L. leucocephala. Application of slow- and fast-nutrient-releasing leaves is required to maximize their contributions to crop productivity. (author)

  6. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Balmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  7. Neem Gum as a Binder in a Formulated Paracetamol Tablet with Reference to Acacia Gum BP

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing ...

  8. Mekanisme Parasitisme Trichoderma Harzianum Terhadap Fusarium Oxysporum Pada Semai Acacia Mangium

    OpenAIRE

    Tasik, Susanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah; Harjono

    2015-01-01

    Mechanism of parasitism of Trichoderma harzianum on Fusarium oxysporum on Acacia mangium seedlings. Fusarium oxysporum is one of the most important soil-borne fungi the causal agent of damping-off disease. Detailed information it needed to know how the pathogen can be inhibited by Trichoderma harzianum. The objective of this research was to investigate the inhibition mechanism of T. harzianum on F. oxysporum in vitro and in planta. Green Flourescent Protein (GFP) T. harzianum was used as bioc...

  9. Impacts, efficacy and economics of Bushwacker Sc (Bromacil) In controlling Acacia invasion in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available on the upper horizon of the soil profile. Grasses are assumed to extract water from the top soil layer (0 - 15 cm) due to their shallow rooting characteristics, while trees and bushes derive their nutrients from the lower layers (Wiegand et al., 2006... and slower degradation rates than soils with a 10 year history of asparagus management and associated bromacil use. 6. The economic implications of bromacil application methods on rangelands encroached by Acacia karroo The encroachment of woody plants...

  10. Intercropping Acacia mangium stimulates AMF colonization and soil phosphatase activity in Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Daniel; Santos, Cristiane Alcantara dos; Silva, Mylenne Calcciolari Pinheiro da; Bonfim, Joice Andrade; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are very important to plant nutrition, mostly in terms of acquisition of P and micronutrients. While Acacia mangium is closely associated with AMF throughout the whole cycle, Eucalyptus grandis presents this symbiosis primarily at the seedling stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of AMF in these two tree species in both pure and mixed plantations during the first 20 months after planting. We evaluated the abundance, richness an...

  11. Preparation and Evaluation of Pellets Using Acacia and Tragacanth by Extrusion-Spheronization

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pirmoradi; M R. Abbaspour; A. Akhgari

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study: Extrusion-spheronization is an established technique for the production of pellets for pharmaceutical applications. In this study, the feasibility and influence of the incorporation of acacia, by itself and in combination with tragacanth, on the ability of formulations containing 2 model of drugs (ibuprofen and theophylline) to form spherical pellets by extrusion-spheronization was investigated.Material and Methods: Formulations containing different ra...

  12. Assessing the impacts of Acacia mearnsii on grazing provision and livestock production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yapi, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available with selective grazing Others: grass invaders, forbs and serge Bare: refers to bare ground RESULTS: Grass species composition and basal cover 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Uninvaded Cleared Light Dense Co ver (% ) A. mearnsii invasion status... Light Dense M o is tu re (% ) Acacia mearnsii invasion status P?0.05 CONCLUSIONS and RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions ?High density invasions of A. mearnsii have negative effects on rangelands productivity ?Removal of A. mearnsii improves grazing...

  13. Growth and dynamic modulus of elasticity of Pinus patula × Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field establishment of South Africa's most important commercial pine species, Pinus patula, is severely hampered by the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum. Importantly, hybrids between P. patula and other pine species tolerant to the pitch canker fungus, such as P. tecunumanii and P. oocarpa, have been identified ...

  14. The flexural properties of young Pinus elliottii × Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the bending strength and stiffness properties of young Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis timber from the Southern Cape, South Africa, and to evaluate the predictability of these properties from acoustic measurements on standing trees, logs and their sawn boards.

  15. Rust resistance in seedling families of Pinus albicaulis and Pinus strobiformis and implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; J. Hamlin; J. Hill; D. Conklin

    2011-01-01

    Infection and mortality levels from Cronartium ribicola, the fungus causing white pine blister rust, are very high in parts of the geographic range of Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) and P. strobiformis (Southwestern white pine). Genetic resistance to this non-native fungus will be one of the key factors in maintaining or restoring populations of these species in...

  16. Minor lipid components of some Acacia species: potential dietary health benefits of the unexploited seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Nizar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oilseed samples from four Acacia species ( A. cyclops, A. ligulata, A. salicina and A. cyanophylla were analyzed in order to evaluate the potential nutritional value of their unexploited seeds. Methods Samples were collected from different Tunisian geographic locations. Seed oils were extracted and carotenoids, tocopherols and sterols were analyzed using chromatographic methods. Results The studied Acacia seeds seem to be quite rich in lipids (from 6% to 12%. All Acacia species contain mainly the xanthophylls zeaxanthin and lutein compounds: from ca. 38 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 113 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyanophylla. Total tocopherols varied from ca. 221 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 808 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. ligulata. Sterols are highly present and their contents ranged between ca. 7 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. salicina and 11 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops. Conclusion This study highlights that these unexploited seeds might have a potential nutritional value and encourages researchers to more explore and find developments for these plants for healthy purposes.

  17. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.

  18. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  19. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima.

  20. Digestibility Nutrient Contents on Acacia Seyal, Balanities Aegyptiaca and Chloris Gayana Hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiliti, J.K

    2002-01-01

    A study was carried to determine the nutrients and their digestibility in Acacia seyal and Balanities aegyptiaca legume browses and compared with Chloris gayana hay. Samples were taken from these two leguminous forages at Mogotio and Emining divisions of Koibatek district and fed to sheep in a change over design. The sheep were housed in individual pens and fitted with faecal collection bags. They were fed and faeces collected twice daily. An adaptation period of 14 days, Faecal collection of 7 days and changeover of 10 days were enforced. Nutrients analysed for during digestibility included DM, OM, CP, NDF, Hemicellulose and Cellulose. The nutrients compositions were 651, 916, 112, 370, 339, 59 and 84; 665, 920, 152, 443, 341, 89 and 80, 845, 924, 68, 730, 463, 57, and 76 for DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and ash in Acacia seal, Balanities aegyptiaca and Chloris gayana hay. The in vivio digestibility results were different (p<0.05) for all nutrients. The digestibilities of DM, OM, CP NDF, Hemicellulose and Cellulose in Acacia seyal, Balanities aegyptiaca and Chloris gayana hay were 54.7, 66.5, 32.8, 40.3, 51.7, and 82.7; 48.5, 58.9, 67.4, 36.9, 36.3, and 40.6 and 48.1, 50.4, 41.7, 53.7, 63.0 and 62.3% respectively. The two legume forages had nutrients that had higher digestibility than hay except for fibre

  1. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  3. Germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata Mast. provenances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulan Xu; Nianhui Cai; Bin He; Ruili Zhang; Wei Zhao; Jianfeng Mao; Anan Duan; Yue Li; Keith Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We studied seed germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata to explore the range of variability within the species and to inform afforestation practices. Phenotypes were evaluated at a forest tree nursery under conditions that support Pinus yunnanensis, one of the presumed parental species of P. densata...

  4. Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their relation to measures of seedling morphology. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... A pot trial was implemented to determine the effect of soil water stress following transplanting on shoot water potential and stomatal conductance of Pinus patula ...

  5. Effect on nursery and field performance of Pinus patula seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium circinatum is an important fungal pathogen of Pinus species. In South Africa, it is the most significant pathogen of Pinus patula seedlings in forestry nurseries where it presents a substantial constraint to productivity and can continue to cause mortality in-field for up to two years after establishment. This study ...

  6. Morphological evaluation of the Pinus kesiya complex (Pinaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Businský, R.; Frantík, Tomáš; Vít, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 300, č. 2 (2014), s. 273-285 ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : morphological var iation * Pinus densata ssp. tibetica * Pinus kesiya complex Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2014

  7. An evaluation of wood properties of Pinus caribeae (Morelet) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of within tree variation on wood density, ring width and anisotropic shrinkage of Pinus caribeae (Morelet) among tree partitions in Oluwa pine plantation. Five 15-year old Pinus caribeae (Morelet) in three partitions were randomly selected from the plantation and felled for the study. Wood ...

  8. Risk assessment, eradication, and biological control: global efforts to limit Australian acacia invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R.U.; Gairifo, Carla; Gibson, Michelle R.; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bakar, Baki B.; Baret, Stephane; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Dufour-Dror, Jean-Marc; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A.; Hoffman, John H.; Impson, Fiona A.C.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Marchante, Elizabete; Harchante, Helia; Moore, Joslin L.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Tassin, Jacques; Witt, Arne; Zenni, Rafael D.; Richardson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Many Australian Acacia species have been planted around the world, some are highly valued, some are invasive, and some are both highly valued and invasive. We review global efforts to minimize the risk and limit the impact of invasions in this widely used plant group. Location Global. Methods Using information from literature sources, knowledge and experience of the authors, and the responses from a questionnaire sent to experts around the world, we reviewed: (1) a generalized life cycle of Australian acacias and how to control each life stage, (2) different management approaches and (3) what is required to help limit or prevent invasions. Results Relatively few Australian acacias have been introduced in large numbers, but all species with a long and extensive history of planting have become invasive somewhere. Australian acacias, as a group, have a high risk of becoming invasive and causing significant impacts as determined by existing assessment schemes. Moreover, in most situations, long-lived seed banks mean it is very difficult to control established infestations. Control has focused almost exclusively on widespread invaders, and eradication has rarely been attempted. Classical biological control is being used in South Africa with increasing success. Main conclusions A greater emphasis on pro-active rather than reactive management is required given the difficulties managing established invasions of Australian acacias. Adverse effects of proposed new introductions can be minimized by conducting detailed risk assessments in advance, planning for on-going monitoring and management, and ensuring resources are in place for long-term mitigation. Benign alternatives (e.g. sterile hybrids) could be developed to replace existing utilized taxa. Eradication should be set as a management goal more often to reduce the invasion debt. Introducing classical biological control agents that have a successful track-record in South Africa to other regions and identifying new

  9. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  10. The Effect of Sonic Bloom Fertilizing Technology on The Seed Germination and Growth of Acacia mangium Willd Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyadi A T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium Willd is one of the promising wood species, it is a fast growing species and can be used as raw materials for pulp, furniture and wood working. Musi Hutan Persada Company has planted Acacia mangium Willd in large scale for pulp processing raw materials and for wood working industry. The faculty of forestry of the Nusa Bangsa University in collaboration with the Musi Hutan Persada have examined  the effect of “Sonic Bloom” to the Acacia mangium Willd germination and seedling growth. The results of the research are the following : (1 The seed germination with “Sonic Bloom” provided percented of germination of 82%, better than those without “Sonic Bloom”, i.e. only 34%; (2 With Sonic Bloom,  the height of 80-days old seedling is 129.6 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom”of only 90.7 cm  ; (3 the diameter of 80-days old seedling with “Sonic Bloom” is 0,24 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom” harving diameters of only 0.19 cm.The study concludes that sonic bloom treatment is very useful for the seed germination and the growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedling Key Words : Sonic Bloom, persemaian, Acacia mangium, perkecambahan, bibit   Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  11. The effects of passage through the gut of goats and cattle, and the application of dung as a fertiliser on seedling establishment of Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tjelele, TJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed pods of Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica have higher nutritive value than grasses and other browse plants during the dry season and form an important part of the diet of livestock. Seeds of Acacia may be destroyed during passage...

  12. Tree size as a factor influencing leaf emergence and leaf fall in Acacia nigrescens and Combretum apiculatum in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Novellie

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available In Acacia nigrescens and Combretum apiculatum saplings tended to retain leaves over the dry season, whereas the mature trees generally lost most of their leaves. In Acacia nigrescens the production of new leaves over the dry season was more commonly observed in saplings than in mature trees.

  13. POTENSI ALELOPAT DAUN PINUS (Pinus spp. SEBAGAI BIOHERBISIDA PRA TUMBUH PADA GULMA KROKOT (Portulaca oleracea

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    Lutfy Ditya Cahyanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the effectof pine leaf as allelophaty on purslane germination. Theexperiment were conducted at screen house Departmentof Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, BrawijayaUniversity. The research is experimental design by nonfactorial Completely Randomized Blok Design, with threereplications, consisted of eleven levels. Purslane seeds sprout with control treatment, signifi cantly different from seedssprout ability in treatment solution leaves Pinus merkusii 2000ppm, and solution leaves of P. longaeva 2000 ppm. The resultshowed that 2000 ppm of P. merkusii extraction signifi cantlysuppressed 46% of purslane germination whereas 2000 ppmPinus longeava extraction signifi cantly suppressed of 41%campared to without any treatments (control.

  14. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive

  15. Biologia reprodutiva de Acacia mearnsii de wild. (Fabaceae IV: visitantes florais Reproductive biology of Acacia mearnsii de wild. (Fabaceae IV: flower visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudes Maria Stiehl Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para que as estratégias de melhoramento genético em espécies arbóreas tenham sucesso, o conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva da espécie envolvida é indispensável. Um dos fatores críticos ao sucesso reprodutivo das espécies do gênero Acacia é a presença de vetores para a polinização. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar os visitantes florais em um plantio comercial de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. e quantificar as políades aderidas à superfície corporal dos insetos. As observações foram realizadas em uma torre localizada no plantio comercial durante o período de floração de 2002 e 2003. Os visitantes florais foram capturados no período diurno com o auxílio de rede entomológica e de um cesto aéreo instalado em um trator. No período noturno, os insetos foram capturados com o auxílio de armadilhas luminosas instaladas entre as copas florescidas. Foram observados insetos pertencentes às ordens Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera e Lepidoptera. Os besouros da espécie Macrodactylus suturalis foram considerados como dispersores do pólen de acácia-negra, pela alta frequência de indivíduos presentes no povoamento estudado e pela grande quantidade de políades aderidas no corpo dos insetos capturados (X=229,36 políades/inseto. As abelhas da espécie Apis mellifera, embora tenha sido quantificada uma grande quantidade de políades nos indivíduos capturados (X=448,50 políades/inseto, não foram observadas com frequência na área analisada. Uma das formas recomendadas para aumentar a frequência de abelhas e vespas nos plantios comerciais de acácia-negra é a manutenção de fontes de néctar e a introdução de caixas com abelhas A. mellifera.To ensure the success of the strategies of genetic improvement in tree species, knowledge of the reproductive biology of the species involved is essential. One of these critical factors in reproductive success of the genus Acacia is the presence of vectors to

  16. Efeito de diferentes substratos sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de Acacia sp. Effect of different substrates on the development of Acacia sp. seedlings

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    Alexson de Mello Cunha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Os biossólidos têm sido estudados como fonte de matéria orgânica na agricultura. Objetivou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de Acacia mangium e Acacia auriculiformis em diferentes substratos: a horizonte Bw com areia lavada (1:1, v:v e adubação mineral de 160, 640 e 160 g m-3de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (HB; b horizonte Bw com areia lavada e esterco bovino (1:1:1, v:v (HBE; c horizonte Bw com areia lavada e lodo de esgoto (1:1:1, v:v (HBL; e d 100% de lodo de esgoto (LE. Aplicou-se 1 kg de CaCO3 p.a. por m³ de substrato. Foram utilizadas sementes inoculadas com rizóbio e não-inoculadas, determinando-se, aos 90 dias após a semeadura, a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do colo e o peso da matéria seca da raiz e da parte aérea, na qual se determinaram N, P, K, Ca e Mg. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (com ou sem inoculação x 4 substratos. No LE com inoculação, obteve-se melhor crescimento das mudas. O HBE produziu efeito superior no desenvolvimento das mudas em relação àquele com a mesma proporção de material orgânico na forma de lodo (HBL. Na maioria dos parâmetros avaliados não houve diferença devido à inoculação dos substratos HBE, HBL e HB, provavelmente devido à existência de bactérias nativas nesses substratos. As mudas desenvolvidas no substrato LE foram as que acumularam mais N e Ca, principalmente quando inoculadas. Houve tendência de maior acúmulo de P, K e Mg na parte aérea das mudas desenvolvidas no substrato HBE.Sewage sludge has been studied as source of organic matter on seedling production. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the development of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis seedlings in the following substrates: a oxic horizon + sand (1:1, v:v + 160, 640 e 160 g m-3 of N, P2O5 and K2O respectively (HB; b oxic horizon + sand + cattle manure (1:1:1, v:v (HBE; c oxic horizon + sand + sewage sludge (1:1:1, v:v (HBL and; d 100% sewage

  17. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

  18. Tannins from Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Bark: Tannin Determination and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Sosuke; Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2018-04-05

    The bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (black wattle) contains significant amounts of water-soluble components acalled "wattle tannin". Following the discovery of its strong antioxidant activity, a wattle tannin dietary supplement has been developed and as part of developing new dietary supplements, a literature search was conducted using the SciFinder data base for " Acacia species and their biological activities". An analysis of the references found indicated that the name of Acacia nilotica had been changed to Vachellia nilotica , even though the name of the genus Acacia originated from its original name. This review briefly describes why and how the name of A. nilotica changed. Tannin has been analyzed using the Stiasny method when the tannin is used to make adhesives and the hide-powder method is used when the tannin is to be used for leather tanning. A simple UV method is also able to be used to estimate the values for both adhesives and leather tanning applications. The tannin content in bark can also be estimated using NIR and NMR. Tannin content estimations using pyrolysis/GC, electrospray mass spectrometry and quantitative 31 P-NMR analyses have also been described. Tannins consists mostly of polyflavanoids and all the compounds isolated have been updated. Antioxidant activities of the tannin relating to anti-tumor properties, the viability of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and also anti-hypertensive effects have been studied. The antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins was found to be higher than that of flavan-3-ol monomers. A total of fourteen papers and two patents reported the antimicrobial activities of wattle tannin. Bacteria were more susceptible to the tannins than the fungal strains tested. Several bacteria were inhibited by the extract from A. mearnsii bark. The growth inhibition mechanisms of E. coli were investigated. An interaction between extracts from A. mearnsii bark and antibiotics has also been studied. The extracts from A. mearnsii

  19. Tannins from Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Bark: Tannin Determination and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosuke Ogawa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (black wattle contains significant amounts of water-soluble components acalled “wattle tannin”. Following the discovery of its strong antioxidant activity, a wattle tannin dietary supplement has been developed and as part of developing new dietary supplements, a literature search was conducted using the SciFinder data base for “Acacia species and their biological activities”. An analysis of the references found indicated that the name of Acacia nilotica had been changed to Vachellia nilotica, even though the name of the genus Acacia originated from its original name. This review briefly describes why and how the name of A. nilotica changed. Tannin has been analyzed using the Stiasny method when the tannin is used to make adhesives and the hide-powder method is used when the tannin is to be used for leather tanning. A simple UV method is also able to be used to estimate the values for both adhesives and leather tanning applications. The tannin content in bark can also be estimated using NIR and NMR. Tannin content estimations using pyrolysis/GC, electrospray mass spectrometry and quantitative 31P-NMR analyses have also been described. Tannins consists mostly of polyflavanoids and all the compounds isolated have been updated. Antioxidant activities of the tannin relating to anti-tumor properties, the viability of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and also anti-hypertensive effects have been studied. The antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins was found to be higher than that of flavan-3-ol monomers. A total of fourteen papers and two patents reported the antimicrobial activities of wattle tannin. Bacteria were more susceptible to the tannins than the fungal strains tested. Several bacteria were inhibited by the extract from A. mearnsii bark. The growth inhibition mechanisms of E. coli were investigated. An interaction between extracts from A. mearnsii bark and antibiotics has also been studied. The

  20. Climate trends in the wood anatomy of Acacia sensu stricto (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Nigel W M; Hailey, Luke; Clarke, Kerri L; Gasson, Peter E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E-W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto ( s.s. ) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis. The wood usually has thick-walled vessels and fibres, paratracheal parenchyma and uniseriate and biseriate rays, occasionally up to four cells wide. The greater abundance of gelatinous fibres in arid and semi-arid species may have ecological significance. Prismatic crystals in chambered fibres and axial parenchyma increased in abundance in semi-arid and arid species. Whereas vessel diameter showed only a small decrease from the sub-tropical to the arid region, there was a significant 2-fold increase in vessel frequency and a consequent 3-fold decrease in the vulnerability index. Although the underlying phylogeny determines the qualitative wood structure, climate has a significant influence on the functional wood anatomy of Acacia s.s. , which is an ideal genus to study the effect of these factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Raut, Josna; Deo, Akash; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2013-01-01

    Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark) of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil) while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components) was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E)-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5%) and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3%) as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1%) and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%). The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively). Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL) along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL). The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL). The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  2. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  3. Analisis Komponen Kimia Dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Minyak Atsiri Daun Pinus (Pinus Merkusii Jungh.Et Devries) Dari Kabupaten Samosir

    OpenAIRE

    Siringo-Ringo, Mawar

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of pinus leaves (Pinus merkusii Jungh.et deVries) have been isolated by hydrodestilation method using Stahl. Pinus leaves have destilated for five hours roduced essential oil 0.1531% (w/w). The results of the analyse use GC-MS showed 23 peaks and can be identified 20 compounds and have five major compounds are Limonene (22.72%), α-Pinene (17.53%), β-Caryophyllene (16.76%), β-Ocimene (14.68%), and Germacren-d (11.24%). Antibacterial activity of the test have been done using ag...

  4. Genetic Diversity of Acacia mangium Seed Orchard in Wonogiri Indonesia Using Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVI YUSKIANTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important in tree improvement programs. To evaluate levels of genetic diversity of first generation Acacia mangium seedling seed orchard in Wonogiri, Central Java, Indonesia, three populations from each region of Papua New Guinea (PNG and Queensland, Australia (QLD were selected and analyzed using 25 microsatellite markers. Statistical analysis showed that PNG populations have higher number of detected alleles and level of genetic diversity than QLD populations. This study provides a basic information about the genetic background of the populations used in the development of an A. mangium seed orchard in Indonesia.

  5. Invasive Acacia longifolia induce changes in the microbial catabolic diversity of sand dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten

    2008-01-01

    diversity. Five substrate groups were tested: amino acids, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, plant litters, and plant polymers. CRP clearly discriminated between the three different areas. Respiratory responses to the individual substrates a-ketoglutaric acid, oxalic acid, starch, citric acid, and xylose...... and to the groups of amino acids and plant polymers were similar in both invaded areas and different in the non-invaded. The responses to tartaric acid, gallic acid, fumaric acid, Cistus litter, and Acacia litter were the same in long- and non-invaded areas, but different from recently invaded areas. The duration...

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE QUANTITY OF ACACIA AND LIME HONEY HARVESTED IN 2008 IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BEEHIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA PĂTRUICĂ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paperwork present the results of a comparative study regarding the production of acacia (Robinia pseudacacia and lime honey harvested in 2008 in flat, vertical and multi-frame hives. A total of 45 bee families (Apis mellifica carpatica, Banatica ecotipe, divided in three experimental groups, with 15 families on each hive, were examined for every type of hive. During the experiment there were tracked the number of honeycombs with larvae starting from 7th to 10th of April and from 1st to 5th of May, the acacia and lime honey yield.

  7. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  8. Litterfall and nutrient dynamics in Acacia mangium (Mimosaceae) forest plantations of Antioquia, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos Barliza, Jeiner; Leon Pelaez, Juan Diego

    2010-01-01

    Fine litter production, nutrient return, nutrient resorption, and nutrient use efficiency were studied during one year in Acacia mangium forest plantations in mining gold degraded soils at the Bajo Cauca region of Colombia. annual fine litter production was estimated at 10.4 mg ha -1 and it was dominated by the leaf fraction (54%), followed by the reproductive material (24%) and to a lesser proportion by other debris (6%) and other species leaves (1.5%). the highest organic matter and nutrients returns were found on sites classified as high quality. Soil plowing realized previous Acacia mangium planting, did not show any significant effect on organic matter and nutrients returns. A. mangium leaf litter had a high N concentration and consequently, given the high leaf litter production values, it was found a high N return. By the opposite, leaf litter P content and P returns via litter fall were very low. The high values found for p retranslocation and P use efficiency indexes showed that P was the most limiting nutrient for the species. the high values of fine litter production and nutrient return via leaf litter indicate that A. mangium has a great capacity for degraded areas reclamation, as of the restoration of the biogeochemical cycles.

  9. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of the seeds of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Hassan E; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2016-06-01

    Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation as well as physicochemical and functional properties of seed flour of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 5.30% moisture, 3.99% ash, 9.19% fat, 14.31% fiber, 27.21% protein and 45.30% carbohydrates. Potassium was the predominant element followed by calcium and then phosphorous. Phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor as antinutrients were detected. The amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cystine/methionine, isoleucine, tyrosine/phenylalanine, lysine and threonine. Also, the first limiting amino acid was lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, stearic, oleic and arachidic acids. The seed oil showed absorbance in the ultraviolet ranges, thus it can be used as a broad spectrum UV protectant. For physicochemical and functional properties, acacia seeds flour had excellent water holding index, swelling index, foaming capacity and foam stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Responses to water stress of gas exchange and metabolites in Eucalyptus and Acacia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles R; Aranda, Ismael; Cano, F Javier

    2011-10-01

    Studies of water stress commonly examine either gas exchange or leaf metabolites, and many fail to quantify the concentration of CO₂ in the chloroplasts (C(c)). We redress these limitations by quantifying C(c) from discrimination against ¹³CO₂ and using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for leaf metabolite profiling. Five Eucalyptus and two Acacia species from semi-arid to mesic habitats were subjected to a 2 month water stress treatment (Ψ(pre-dawn) = -1.7 to -2.3 MPa). Carbohydrates dominated the leaf metabolite profiles of species from dry areas, whereas organic acids dominated the metabolite profiles of species from wet areas. Water stress caused large decreases in photosynthesis and C(c), increases in 17-33 metabolites and decreases in 0-9 metabolites. In most species, fructose, glucose and sucrose made major contributions to osmotic adjustment. In Acacia, significant osmotic adjustment was also caused by increases in pinitol, pipecolic acid and trans-4-hydroxypipecolic acid. There were also increases in low-abundance metabolites (e.g. proline and erythritol), and metabolites that are indicative of stress-induced changes in metabolism [e.g. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, photorespiration, phenylpropanoid pathway]. The response of gas exchange to water stress and rewatering is rather consistent among species originating from mesic to semi-arid habitats, and the general response of metabolites to water stress is rather similar, although the specific metabolites involved may vary. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Arsenic toxicity in Acacia mangium willd. and mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia benth. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Nery Cipriani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia are fast-growing woody fabaceous species that might be suitable for phytoremediation of arsenic (As-contaminated sites. To date, few studies on their tolerance to As toxicity have been published. Therefore, this study assessed As toxicity symptoms in A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia seedlings under As stress in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Acacia mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia were grown for 120 d in an Oxisol-sand mixture with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 As, in four replications in four randomized blocks. The plants were assessed for visible toxicity symptoms, dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, root anatomy and As uptake. Analyses of variance and regression showed that the growth of A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia was severely hindered by As, with a reduction in dry matter production of more than 80 % at the highest As rate. The root/shoot ratio increased with increasing As rates. At a rate of 400 mg kg-1 As, whitish chlorosis appeared on Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia seedlings. The root anatomy of both species was altered, resulting in cell collapse, death of root buds and accumulation of phenolic compounds. Arsenic concentration was several times greater in roots than in shoots, with more than 150 and 350 mg kg-1 in M. caesalpiniaefolia and A. mangium roots, respectively. These species could be suitable for phytostabilization of As-contaminated sites, but growth-stimulating measures should be used.

  12. A green approach to prepare silver nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(acrylate) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, S K; Kumari, Mamta

    2015-09-01

    In this work, gum acacia (GA)/poly(sodium acrylate) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPN) have been fabricated via free radical initiated aqueous polymerization of monomer sodium acrylate (SA) in the presence of dissolved Gum acacia (GA), using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MB) as cross-linker and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator. The semi-IPNs, synthesized, were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The dynamic water uptake behavior of semi-IPNs was investigated and the data were interpreted by various kinetic models. The equilibrium swelling data were used to evaluate various network parameters. The semi-IPNs were used as template for the in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles using extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the antibacterial activity of GA/poly(SA)/silver nanocomposites was tested against E. coli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physico-mechanical properties of plywood bonded with ecological adhesives from Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhazi, Naima; Oumam, Mina; Sesbou, Abdessadek; Hannache, Hassan; Charrier-El Bouhtoury, Fatima

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this research was to develop ecological adhesives for bonding plywood panels using lignosulfonates, a common waste product of the wood pulp industry, and natural tannin extracted from Moroccan bark of Acacia mollissima using different process. Natural tannin and lignin were used in wood adhesives formulation to substitute resins based on phenol and formaldehyde. To achieve this, the lignosulfonates were glyoxalated to enhance their reactivity and the used tannins obtained by three different extraction methods were compared with commercial mimosa tannin. The proportion of Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates, the pressing time, the pressing temperature, and the pressure used were studied to improve mechanical properties, and bonding quality of plywood panel. The properties of plywood panels produced with these adhesives were tested in accordance with normative tests. Thus, the tensile strength, and the shear strength were measured. The results showed that the performance of the plywood panels made using biobased tannin adhesives was influenced by physical conditions such as pressure, press temperature as well as by chemical conditions, such as the tannin-lignin ratio. It exhibited excellent mechanical properties comparable to commercially available phenol-formaldehyde plywood adhesives. This study showed that biobased adhesives formulations presented good and higher mechanical performance and no formaldehyde emission. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  14. [Growth effect of eucalyptus-acacia mixed plantation in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeng-Jiang; Xu, Da-Ping; Chen, Wen-Ping; Huang, Lie-Jian; Li, Shang-Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2009-10-01

    Eucalyptus U6 and Acacia crassicarpa were mixed planted with different ratios and modes to investigate the growth parameters of the two tree species. In the 2-3 years old mixed plantation, the wind-throw of A. crassicarpa decreased markedly with increasing ratio of Eucalyptus U6, the decrement being 26.14% when the Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa ratio was 3 : 1, but the survival rates of Eucalyptus U6 and A. crassicarpa had no significant difference under different planting modes. Mixed planting retarded the A. crassicarpa growth to some extent, with the DBH being 90% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. The mixed planting had little effects on the height growth of Eucalyptus U6, but promoted its DBH growth markedly, and the beneficial effect increased with increasing ratio of A. crassicarpa. In the 6 years old 1 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa plantation, the Eucalyptus U6 individuals with DBH > 15 cm occupied 32.1%; while in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, they only accounted for 5.83%. Mixed planting with 2 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa could obtain a maximum total biomass of 198.8 m3 x hm(-2), which was 118.8% of the total biomass in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, or 169.9% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. Mixture of Eucalyptus with Acacia would be a good choice to produce Eucalyptus trees with larger DBH.

  15. Anatomical characters of the phyllode and stem of Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Duarte

    Full Text Available The Acacia genus has presented various secondary metabolites, such as tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and gums. Preparations from different species have been applied for diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory diseases in the traditional medicine and have demonstrated cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae is a small wood, indigenous to Australia and cultivated worldwide for its ornamental feature. This work aimed to characterize the anatomy of the phyllode and stem, in order to contribute to the species identification. The botanical material was fixed, sectioned and prepared according to usual light and scanning microtechniques. The epidermal cells, in surface view, are polygonal and coated with striate and thick cuticle, and filaments of epicuticular wax. Paracytic stomata and unicellular non-glandular trichomes are seen. Palisade and ground parenchymas, and minor collateral bundles with xylem directed alternately to upper and lower sides occur in the blade. The midrib shows two collateral bundles facing each other. The stem, in incipient secondary growth, exhibits epidermis, annular collenchyma, sclerenchymatic sheath and collateral vascular organization. Cells containing phenolic compounds and prisms of calcium oxalate are observed.

  16. Economics of mixed plantation of Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica for fuel in Agra ravines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, R.; Puri, D.N.; Singh, J.P.; Sharma, K.

    1984-09-01

    Economic analysis of the mixed plantation of Acacia nilotica (60%), Prosopis juliflora (20%) and miscellaneous species (20%) in severe ravine lands along the bank of river Yamuna at Agra, was carried out. The benefit-cost ratios of the first 15 years rotation at 10% and 15% discount rates were worked out to be 1.81 and 1.09, respectively with internal rate of return (IRR) of 16.2%. Twenty percent of the area covered with Prosopis juliflora in the first rotation coppiced profusely and was retained. The remaining area was resown with Prosopis juliflora. The benefit-cost ratios of the second rotation of seven years (Prosopis juliflora - 78% and miscellaneous species - 22%) worked out to be 1.61 and 1.40 at 10% and 15% discount rates having IRR of 27%. Both the rotations gave a favourable benefit-cost ratio which establishes the economic feasibility of raising mixed plantation of Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica in ravine lands whose opportunity cost is very low.

  17. Economic assessment and comparison of acacia energy crop with annual traditional crops in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasol, Carles M.; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier; Brun, Filippo; Mosso, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In several policy documents bioenergy is recognized as an important renewable energy source in Italy. The increase in energy prices represents an opportunity for lignocellulosic energy crops such as acacia and poplar. However, for Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) to be adopted by farmers, these crops must be perceived to be at least as profitable as crops that normally compete with these plantations for land use. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the economic feasibility of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) as an energy crop in a low input production regime in Italy and, in particular, to consider its competitiveness with wheat. Our results show that neither SRC and SRF techniques using assumed production costs (EUR3820 and EUR5285 ha -1 yr -1 ) nor biomass productions are able to obtain a positive profit (-EUR184 and -EUR172 ha -1 yr -1 ) that can convince farmers to invest in biomass plantations on their land. The results demonstrate that wheat is a more economically secure option than SRC or SRF. The viability of local biomass production in Italy and Southern Europe depends on the active support of the governments; without them, biomass is not economically competitive for the farmers when compared to crops such as wheat. (author)

  18. Ectomycorrhizal Communities Associated with the Legume Acacia spirorbis Growing on Contrasted Edaphic Constraints in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houles, Anne; Vincent, Bryan; David, Magali; Ducousso, Marc; Galiana, Antoine; Juillot, Farid; Hannibal, Laure; Carriconde, Fabian; Fritsch, Emmanuel; Jourand, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to characterize the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities associated with Acacia spirorbis, a legume tree widely spread in New Caledonia that spontaneously grows on contrasted edaphic constraints, i.e. calcareous, ferralitic and volcano-sedimentary soils. Soil geochemical parameters and diversity of ECM communities were assessed in 12 sites representative of the three mains categories of soils. The ectomycorrhizal status of Acacia spirorbis was confirmed in all studied soils, with a fungal community dominated at 92% by Basidiomycota, mostly represented by/tomentella-thelephora (27.6%), /boletus (15.8%), /sebacina (10.5%), /russula-lactarius (10.5%) and /pisolithus-scleroderma (7.9%) lineages. The diversity and the proportion of the ECM lineages were similar for the ferralitic and volcano-sedimentary soils but significantly different for the calcareous soils. These differences in the distribution of the ECM communities were statistically correlated with pH, Ca, P and Al in the calcareous soils and with Co in the ferralitic soils. Altogether, these data suggest a high capacity of A. spirorbis to form ECM symbioses with a large spectrum of fungi regardless the soil categories with contrasted edaphic parameters.

  19. 90SR uptake by Pinus ponderosa and Pinus radiata seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Emmingham, W.H.; Rygiewicz, P.T.

    1994-01-01

    Strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. Prior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90 Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. In this study, we inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Inoculated and noninoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove 90 Sr from an organic growth medium. Ectomycorrhizal P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings are able to remove 3-5 times more 90 Sr from contaminated soil than seedlings without ectomycorrhizae. (Author)

  20. Biological activity and LC-MS/MS profiling of extracts from the Australian medicinal plant Acacia ligulata (Fabaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger; Simpson, Bradley S.; Ndi, Chi P.

    2018-01-01

    Acacia ligulata A.Cunn. ex Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) is a native Australian plant used traditionally by Australian Aboriginal groups. This study was undertaken to investigate the bioactivity of A. ligulata extracts and to evaluate their chemical composition. Potential antibacterial, cytotoxic...

  1. Effect of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii on milk production and prolactin release in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lompo, Z.; Heide, van der D.; Beek, van der E.M.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Mattheij, J.A.M.; Sawadogo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In view of the traditional belief that Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii (AN) can stimulate milk production in lactating women, experiments were performed to determine the effect of an aqueous extract of AN on milk production in rats. Female rats that received oral doses of aqueous extract of this plant

  2. Cryptic speciation and host specificity among Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on Australian Acacia species grown as exotics in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Pongpanich, K.; Himaman, W.; Arzanlou, M.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Species of Mycosphaerella and their anamorphs represent serious pathogens of two phyllodenous species of Acacia, A. mangium and A. crassicarpa. In recent years, these fungi have been collected during surveys in South America and South-East Asia, where these trees are widely planted as exotics. In

  3. Antibacterial Activities and Possible Modes of Action of Acacia nilotica (L. Del. against Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal Sadiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments. The clinical isolates of E. coli and Salmonella were found resistant to more of the tested antibiotics, compared to food isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of acacia leaf extracts were in the ranges of 1.56–3.12 mg/mL and 3.12–6.25 mg/mL, respectively, whereas pods and bark extracts showed somewhat higher values of 3.12–6.25 mg/mL and 6.25–12.5 mg/mL, respectively, against all tested pathogens. The release of electrolytes and essential cellular constituents (proteins and nucleic acids indicated that acacia extracts damaged the cellular membrane of the pathogens. These changes corresponded to simultaneous reduction in the growth of viable bacteria. This study indicates that A. nilotica can be a potential source of new antimicrobials, effective against antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens.

  4. A flavanone: 6, 7-dihydroxy-3, 5-dimethy I-4, methoxyflavone from the pods of acacia nilotica var astringens (sunt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Abdel Karim, M.; Abdalla, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    A flavanone 6,7-dihydroxy-3, 5-dimethyl-4-methoxyflavone was isolated from the alcoholic extractives of the pods of acacia nilotica var astringens and structure was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra.(Author)

  5. Amenability of Acacia and Eucalyptus Hardwood Pulps to Elemental Chlorine-Free Bleaching: Application and Efficacy of Microbial Xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdhesh Kumar Gangwar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines the results of a biobleaching study of acacia (A. mangium and eucalyptus (E. globulus hardwood kraft pulps with commercial xylanase (Optimase CX 72 L. The comparative study was carried out using an elemental chlorine-free (ECF bleaching sequence (D0EPD1D2 after the enzyme (X stage. The enzyme treatment resulted in improved optical properties with a reduction in bleach chemical consumption. At an equivalent bleach chemical consumption, a brightness gain of 2.1 and 1.7 units and a whiteness gain of 2.7 and 2.3 units were observed with xylanase treatment in acacia and eucalyptus pulps, respectively. In ECF bleaching using the D0EPD1D2 sequence, a final brightness was achieved to the extent of 90% ISO and 89% ISO for acacia and eucalyptus, respectively, at an equivalent charge of bleach chemicals. The post-color (PC number was also reduced by up to 45% for both hardwood pulps compared with the control. The bleachability of acacia was observed to be significantly higher than that of eucalyptus. In addition, a 17.0% and 23.0% reduction in chlorine dioxide and sodium hydroxide, respectively, were obtained for both hardwood pulps after xylanase pre-bleaching, thus indicating an environmentally friendly approach to the process.

  6. Passive restoration augments active restoration in deforested landscapes: the role of root suckering adjacent to planted stands of Acacia koa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Justin T. Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Active forest restoration in Hawaii’s Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge has produced a network of Acacia koa tree corridors and islands in deforested grasslands. Passive restoration by root suckering has potential to expand tree cover and close gaps between planted stands. This study documents rates of encroachment into grassland, clonal...

  7. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  8. Dendrochronology of bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1953 the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey, sp. nov.) in the White Mountains of California. This research resulted in the establishment of a continuous tree-ring sequence of 8253 yr. The millennia-old pines have emerged as a unique source of chronological data and the precisely dated wood is essential to certain paleoenvironmental and geophysical investigations. Over 1000 dendrochronologically dated decade samples of bristlecone pine supplied to three C-14 laboratories have been used to calibrate the radiocarbon time scale for the past seven millennia, a development of far reaching consequences in the fields of archaeology and geology. In addition, recent advances in other methods of analyzing past climatic variability - techniques involving stable isotope ratios, amino acid racemization, remanent magnetism and trace element abundances - have greatly increased the demand for wood of known age and, hence, for chronology development. Spanning the past 7500 yr, 1138 prepared decade samples, with a total weight of nearly 16 kg are available for study. (author)

  9. Pollination Biology and Spatio-Temporal Structuring of Some Major Acacia Species (Leguminosae) of the Arabian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adgaba, N.; Alghamidi, A.; Tadesse, Y.; Getachew, A.; Ansari, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Acacias are the dominant woody plant species distributed over the vast tracts of land throughout the Arabian Peninsula. However, information on spatio-temporal structuring and pollination biology of the species is not precisely available. To determine whether any variations exist among the Acacia species in their temporal distribution, their flowering period was determined through monitoring the commencing, peaking and ending of flowering of each species. Moreover, if any variations exist in release of floral rewards among the different co-existing and co-flowering species as mechanisms of partitioning of pollinators, to minimize competition for pollination, the progress of their anthesis over time was recorded by scoring polyads to anthers ratio at different hours of a day. In addition, the amount and dynamics of nectar sugar per inflorescence (N =225/species) was determined following flower nectar sugar washing technique. Types and frequencies of flower visitors and their preferences were determined by recording the visitors 6 times a day. The current study revealed that the Acacia species of the Arabian Peninsula are spatio-temporally structured: some species co-exist yet have different flowering seasons, whereas others co-exist, flowering concurrently yet exhibit a shift in their time of peak flowering and in the time at which the peak pollen is released during the day. This study demonstrates that all Acacia species examined secrete a considerable amount of nectar (2.24+-1.72 -10.02+-4.0mg/inflorescence) which serves as a floral reward for pollinators. Insects of the Order Hymenoptera are the most prevalent visitors to Acacia species in the region. The variations in spatio-temporal structuring of the Acaciaspecies could be due to their adaptation of reducing competition for pollinators and minimizing hetero-specific pollen transfer. (author)

  10. Mapping invasive alien Acacia dealbata Link using ASTER multispectral imagery: a case study in central-eastern of Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, F.; Alegria, C.; Artur, G.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Acacia dealbata is an alien invasive species that is widely spread in Portugal. The main goal of this study was to produce an accurate and detailed map for this invasive species using ASTER multispectral imagery. Area of study: The central-eastern zone of Portugal was used as study area. This whole area is represented in an ASTER scene covering about 321.1 x 103 ha. Material and methods: ASTER imagery of two dates (flowering season and dry season) were classified by applying three supervised classifiers (Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Networks) to five different land cover classifications (from most generic to most detailed land cover categories). The spectral separability of the land cover categories was analyzed and the accuracy of the 30 produced maps compared. Main results: The highest classification accuracy for acacia mapping was obtained using the flowering season imagery, the Maximum Likelihood classifier and the most detailed land cover classification (overall accuracy of 86%; Kappa statistics of 85%; acacia class Kappa statistics of 100%). As a result, the area occupied by acacia was estimated to be approximated 24,770 ha (i.e. 8% of the study area). Research highlights: The methodology explored proved to be a cost-effective solution for acacia mapping in central-eastern of Portugal. The obtained map enables a more accurate and detailed identification of this species’ invaded areas due to its spatial resolution (minimum mapping unit of 0.02 ha) providing a substantial improvement comparably to the existent national land cover maps to support monitoring and control activities. (Author)

  11. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  12. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  13. GANANCIA GENÉTICA ESPERADA EN Acacia mangium EN LOS CHILES, ZONA NORTE DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjam\\u00EDn Pavlotzky-Blank

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganancia genética esperada en Acacia mangium en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica. Con el objetivo de seleccionar los materiales de mayor crecimiento y calidad de fuste en Acacia mangium, se evaluó un ensayo de progenie de Acacia mangium Willd. conformado por veinticinco familias. El ensayo fue establecido en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica, en 2006 con evaluaciones en el 2007 y en 2010. Se utilizó material genético seleccionado por la Cooperativa de Conservación y Mejoramiento Genético Forestal "GENFORES", en Costa Rica y Colombia. Cada familia estuvo representada por 48 progenies, plantadas en cuatro parejas distribuidas en forma aleatoria dentro de cada uno de los seis bloques del ensayo. Se evaluó el diámetro a la altura de pecho "DAP", incremento en DAP, adaptabilidad al sitio, número de trozas comerciales, bifurcación, altura de bifurcación, calidad de las primeras cuatro trozas. Se determinó el volumen de madera comercial por árbol y hectárea. Los datos fueron analizados por medio del software SELEGEN de EMBRAPA para obtener los parámetros genéticos. Todos los caracteres registraron valores de heredabilidad media familiar superiores a 0,68. Si se seleccionaran los dos mejores individuos dentro de las mejores doce familias, se obtendría una ganancia genética del 40,8% en volumen comercial/ha a los cuatro años de edad. Esta ganancia corresponde a un volumen comercial de 91,65 m3/ha, a una tasa de 22,9 m3/ha/año. Las dos procedencias derivadas de Colombia son signifi cativamente superiores a los demás materiales evaluados. El análisis de correlación genética entre caracteres muestra que la tasa de crecimiento diamétrico se expresa desde temprana edad en esta especie, lo que podría ser utilizado a futuro en una selección a menor edad.

  14. Influence of Acacia trees on soil nutrient levels in arid lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boever, Maarten; Gabriels, Donald; Ouessar, Mohamed; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    The potential of scattered trees as keystone structures in restoring degraded environments is gaining importance. Scattered trees have strong influence on their abiotic environment, mainly causing changes in microclimate, water budget and soil properties. They often function as 'nursing trees', facilitating the recruitment of other plants. Acacia raddiana is such a keystone species which persists on the edge of the Sahara desert. The study was conducted in a forest-steppe ecosystem in central Tunisia where several reforestation campaigns with Acacia took place. To indentify the impact of those trees on soil nutrients, changes in nutrient levels under scattered trees of three age stages were examined for the upper soil layer (0-10 cm) at five microsites with increasing distance from the trunk. In addition, changes in soil nutrient levels with depth underneath and outside the canopy were determined for the 0-30 cm soil layer. Higher concentrations of organic matter (OM) were found along the gradient from underneath to outside the canopy for large trees compared to medium and small trees, especially at microsites close to the trunk. Levels of soluble K, electrical conductivity (EC), available P, OM, total C and N decreased whereas pH and levels of soluble Mg increased with increasing distance from tree. Levels of soluble Ca and Na remained unchanged along the gradient. At the microsite closest to the trunk a significant decrease in levels of soluble K, EC, OM, available P, total C and N, while a significant increase in pH was found with increasing depth. The concentration of other nutrients remained unchanged or declined not differently underneath compared to outside the canopy with increasing depth. Differences in nutrient levels were largely driven by greater inputs of organic matter under trees. Hence, Acacia trees can affect the productivity and reproduction of understory species with the latter in term an important source of organic matter. This positive feedback

  15. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... essential oil of Pinus caribaea from Nigeria. O. Oluwadayo ... Key words: Pinus caribbea, Pinaceae, essential oil, β-phellandrene, β-caryophyllene, antibacterial. .... cones of Pinus. Pinea, P. halepensis, P. pinaster and P. nigra.

  16. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  17. Algunas propiedades físico-mecánicas y de trabajabilidad de la Acacia melanoxylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Correcha R.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados obtenidos de las propiedades físicas como: gravedad especifica anhidra, seca al aire y en estado verde; densidad verde, seca al aire, anhidra y básica; y contracciones radial, tangencial y volumétrica. Propiedades mecánicas tales como: flexión estática en estado verde y seca al aire, compresión paralela al grano en estado verde y seca al aire. Además ensayos de trabajabilidad de cepillado, moldurado, taladrado y torneado de la Acacia melanoxylon. Se usaron metodologías establecidas por ASTM, ICONTEC y COPANT. Estos ensayos se realizaron en los laboratorios del Instituto de Ensayos e Investigación (IEI de la facultad de Ingenleria, Universidad Nacional de Bogotá.

  18. Soil recovery after removal of the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia: consequences for ecosystem restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise Helene; Struwe, Sten

    2009-01-01

    Invasion by Acacia longifolia alters soil characteristics and processes. The present study was conducted to determine if the changes in soil C and N pools and processes induced by A. longifolia persist after its removal, at the São Jacinto Dunes Nature Reserve (Portugal). Some areas had been...... invaded for a long time (>20 years) and others more recently (Soil samples...... decrease (>54% and >95%, respectively) after removal of both A. longifolia and litter. Our results suggest that after removal of an N2-fixing invasive tree that changes ecosystem-level processes, it takes several years before soil nutrients and processes return to pre-invasion levels, but this legacy...

  19. Water use efficiency studies of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, A F; Elamin, K H [Forestry Research Section, Wad Medani (Sudan); Salih, A A [Soil Science Section, Wad Medani (Sudan)

    1996-07-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1989 to screen Acacia senegal L. Willd provenances collected from within the natural gum belt for high water use efficiency. Thirteen provenances were tested for water use efficiency and consequently 6 out of them were selected for further screening. The selection was based on their performance in the preliminary screening. Both the preliminary and the detailed study revealed that provenances 7, 3 and 11 combine high dry matter production with high water use efficiency. Water use efficiency and dry matter production appears to be negatively correlated with root length density and root/shoot ratios. Provenances 7 which exhibited the highest water use efficiency and dry matter yield had the lowest root/shoot ratio and also a low root length density. Based on these studies provenance 7 can be considered a suitable candidate for introduction into gum-belt of Sudan through for rehabilitation of this region. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Anti-free radical activities of kaempferol isolated from Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex. Del.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajbir; Singh, Bikram; Singh, Sukhpreet; Kumar, Neeraj; Kumar, Subodh; Arora, Saroj

    2008-12-01

    In the present study the polyphenolic compound has been isolated from methanol extract of Acacia nilotica Willd. Ex. Del. which has been identified as kaempferol (AN-5) by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant potential of the AN-5 was demonstrated in several in vitro assays: measuring the proton radical scavenging activity (DPPH scavenging assay), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (deoxyribose degradation assay), metal chelating activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. It was found that the effect of the compound AN-5 was strongly dose dependent up to the concentrations 1-50 microg/ml in DPPH assay and 1-100 microg/ml in deoxyribose degradation assay but did not show further change above the highest concentrations.

  1. Water use efficiency studies of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, A.F.; Elamin, K.H.; Salih, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1989 to screen Acacia senegal L. Willd provenances collected from within the natural gum belt for high water use efficiency. Thirteen provenances were tested for water use efficiency and consequently 6 out of them were selected for further screening. The selection was based on their performance in the preliminary screening. Both the preliminary and the detailed study revealed that provenances 7, 3 and 11 combine high dry matter production with high water use efficiency. Water use efficiency and dry matter production appears to be negatively correlated with root length density and root/shoot ratios. Provenances 7 which exhibited the highest water use efficiency and dry matter yield had the lowest root/shoot ratio and also a low root length density. Based on these studies provenance 7 can be considered a suitable candidate for introduction into gum-belt of Sudan through for rehabilitation of this region. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  2. Acacia saligna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-07

    Jul 7, 2008 ... flow reduction through incremental water use (additional water use compared to ... Materials and methods. A one-year field ... within the boundaries planned for clearing by. WfW and free of human activities, except occa- sional cattle .... sity, porosity and soil water retention characteristics of undis- turbed soil ...

  3. Effects of chopping, and soaking in water, hydrochloric acidic and calcium hydroxide solutions on the nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wina, E. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)]. E-mail: winabudi@yahoo.com; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)

    2005-08-19

    Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P < 0.05). In the second digestibility experiment, the three diets were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops water soaked Acacia (7:3), (3) sugar cane tops: calcium hydroxide soaked Acacia (7:3). A supplement of 100 g/day of cassava flour was added to each of these three diets. In both digestibility experiments, soaking improved intake and digestibility of Acacia leaves, and cassava flour increased the intake, but when all the diets contained cassava flour, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the

  4. Morpho-physiological response of Acacia auriculiformis as influenced by seawater induced salinity stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, A.; Rahman, M.; Nihad, S.A.I.; Howlader, R.A.; Akand, M.H.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To evaluate the morpho-physiological changes of Acacia auriculiformis in response to seawater induced salinity stress along with its tolerance limit. Area of study: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Material and methods: Three saline treatments (4, 8, 12 dS m-1) were applied to six-month aged Acacia auriculiformis seedlings from January 2014 to June 2014 and the tap water was used as control treatment. To observe salinity effects, the following parameters were measured by using various established techniques: plant height and leaf number, plant biomass, shoot and root distribution as well as shoot and root density, water uptake capacity (WUC), water saturation deficit (WSD) and water retention capacity (WRC), exudation rate, and cell membrane stability. Main results: Diluted seawater caused a notable reduction in shoot and root distribution in addition to shoot and root density, though plant height, leaf number and plant biomass were found to be decreased to some extent compared to control plants. Water status of the plant also altered when plants were subjected to salinity stress. Nevertheless, membrane stability revealed good findings towards salinity tolerance. Research highlights: Considering the above facts, despite salinity exerts some negative effects on overall plant performance, interestingly the percent reduction value doesn’t exceed 50% as compared to control plants, and the plants were successful to tolerate salinity stress till the end of the experiment (150 days) through adopting some tolerance mechanisms. Abbreviations used: BSMRAU (Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University); RCBD (randomized complete block design); DATI (days after treatment imposition); RWC (relative water content); WUC (water uptake capacity); WSD (water saturation deficit); WRC (water retention capacity); FW (fresh weight); DW (dry weight); TW (turgid weight); ROS (reactive oxygen species). (Author)

  5. The Spatial Suitable Habitat Model of Acacia decurrens in Mount Merbabu National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Untoro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Green wattle (Acacia decurrens is an invasive alien species (IAS found in the Mount Merbabu National Park (TNGMb. This study aim to obtain spatially studies on habitat suitability models of A. decurrens in TNGMb region. In fact, this species became as a high invasive and dominance in the TNGMb and contributes the negative impact to the ecosystem. In addition, the result of this study should be useful for controling activities of A. decurrens. Predictor variables in this research were (altitude, slope, rainfall, air temperature, distance from river, NDVI, NDMI, distance from hiking trail, and distance from burnt area. The survey was conducted with random sampling of presence or absence of A. decurrens by marking the coordinate point of location using GPS. Data analysis in this research was used binary logistic regression enter method. Binary logistic regression involves the data acquisition of the presence and absence of A. decurrens as the y variable, while the predictor variable map as the variable x. The type of spatial distribution of A. decurrens in the TNGMb was identified as clumped. The Nagelkerke R2 values obtained in the model was 39,2%, while 60,8% was explained by other variables were not used in the model. The results of the logistic regression model showed a high percentage of suitability of 64,29%, a medium suitability of 28,57%, and a low suitability of 7.14% then the Implications for controlling activities of A. decurrens in TNGMb could be prioritized in high suitability habitat. Keywords: Acacia decurrens, green wattle, invasive, spatial suitable habitat 

  6. Salt tolerance traits increase the invasive success of Acacia longifolia in Portuguese coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Maria Cristina; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Muscolo, Adele; Freitas, Helena

    2012-06-01

    Salt tolerance of two co-occurring legumes in coastal areas of Portugal, a native species--Ulex europaeus, and an invasive species--Acacia longifolia, was evaluated in relation to plant growth, ion content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Plants were submitted to four concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) for three months, under controlled conditions. The results showed that NaCl affects the growth of both species in different ways. Salt stress significantly reduced the plant height and the dry weight in Acacia longifolia whereas in U. europaeus the effect was not significant. Under salt stress, the root:shoot ratio (W(R):W(S)) and root mass ratio (W(R):W(RS)) increased as a result of increasing salinity in A. longifolia but the same was not observed in U. europaeus. In addition, salt stress caused a significant accumulation of Na+, especially in U. europaeus, and a decrease in K+ content and K+/Na+ ratio. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in A. longifolia compared to U. europaeus. In A. longifolia, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2.) activities increased significantly, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) activities remained unchanged in comparison with the control. In U. europaeus, NaCl concentration significantly reduced APX activity but did not significantly affect CAT, GR and POX activities. Our results suggest that the invasive species copes better with salinity stress in part due to a higher rates of CAT and GR activities and a higher K+/Na+ ratio, which may represent an additional advantage when competing with native species in co-occurring salty habitats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Induction of leafy galls in Acacia mearnsii De Wild seedlings infected by Rhodococcus fascians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Quoirin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of blackwattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild were inoculated with the bacterium Rhodococcus fascians and cultured in vitro. Leafy galls appeared at the cotyledonary nodes in 75% of the infected plants. The galls were separated from the plants and cultured on a medium containing three-quarters-strength MS salts (Murashige and Skoog, 1962, MS vitamins, 2% sucrose and an antibiotic (cephalothin, supplemented with or without 0.2% activated charcoal. Histological studies conducted from the sixth to the twenty-second day after plant infection revealed the presence of newly formed meristematic centers, first in the axillary region, then on the petioles and lamina of the leaflets around the apical meristem. Approximately 37% of the galls developed one shoot with both concentrations of cephalothin.Plantas recém germinadas de acácia negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. foram inoculadas com a bactéria Rhodococcus fascians e cultivadas in vitro. Galhas cobertas por folhas apareceram na altura do nó cotiledonar em 75% das plantas infectadas. As galhas foram separadas das plantas e cultivadas num meio de cultura contendo os sais do meio MS (Murashige e Skoog, 1962 reduzidos a 3/4, as vitaminas do mesmo meio, 2% de sacarose e um antibiótico (cefalotina, adicionado ou não de 0,2% de carvão ativo. Estudos histológicos realizados entre o sexto e o vigésimo segundo dia depois da inoculação, revelaram a presença de centros meristemáticos novos, primeiro nas regiões axilares, em seguida nos pecíolos e limbos dos folíolos ao redor do meristema apical. Aproximadamente 37% das galhas desenvolveram um broto na presença de cefalotina.

  8. Canker and decline caused by Neofusiccocum parvum on Acacia melanoxylon in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidoti A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2012, in reforested areas of Peloritani Mountains (Sicily, Italy a severe dieback of Acacia melanoxylon R. Brown was observed. The main symptoms on both young and adults plants consisted of elongated cankers on the trunks and epicormic shoots, wilt of the canopy and dieback interested mostly aged trees. The woody tissues showed browning beyond the cankers. Sapwood and heartwood appeared decayed with a brown to gray-greenish discoloration. One fungal species was consistently isolated from infected woody tissues, which was morphologically attributed to Neofusiccocum sp. The sequencing of the ITS regions of a representative isolate allowed to identify (99% similarity the species Neofusiccocum parvum (Pennycook & Samuels Crous, Slippers and Phillips, teleomorph Botryosphaeria parva Pennycook & Samuels. The pathogenicity tests have reproduced symptoms similar to those observed in the field. N. parvum is the aetiologic agent of mortality of australian blackwood observed in Sicily and to our knowledge this is the first report of this fungus on Acacia melanoxylon. It is a generalist pathogen, cosmopolitan, present in many temperate areas, Mediterranean and subtropical. The older Peloritani Mountains populations of australian blackwood seem particularly susceptible to the pathogen, the latter favored by the lack of silvicultural interventions that generate interspecific and intraspecific competition, as well as the increase and spread of the fungus. To minimize the consequential damage is necessary to adopt sanitation measures that would lower the fungal inoculum and program substitutions of this exotic species with others that have multiple functions suited to environments (e.g., Chestnut or encouraging the establishment and development of native species, such as the holm oak and shrub.

  9. Shelterbelt plantations in arid regions. [Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora, Cassia siamea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthana, K.D.; Mahander, S.; Mertia, R.S.; Arora, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Three shelterbelts were planted on sandy soils at the Jodhpur Research Farm in 1973. Belts had 3 rows of trees each and spacing between and within rows was 3 m; they were laid out perpendicular to the wind direction. The length of each belt was 300 m and they were spaced 165 m apart centre to centre. The outside rows were made up of 33 plants each of (a) Acacia tortilis, (b) Prosopis juliflora (Israel variety) and (c) Cassia siamea planted on either side of the belts randomly in the paterns abc, bca and cab. The centre rows were planted with Azadirachta indica, Albizzia (Albizia) lebbek and Eucalyptus camaldulensis respectively in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd shelterbelts. The shelterbelts were easily established and grew well. Grain yield of bajra sown between the belts increased with distance from them reaching a maximum at 25 X belt height and then declining. Average yield between the belts was higher than in control plots. Consumptive water use and water use efficiencies were less near the 1st shelterbelt (leeward side) and increased away from it, again reaching maximum at 25 X belt height. Mean air temperature 1-2m above ground level was 0.1-0.2 degrees C higher on leeward than on windward sides of shelterbelts in the summer months, and 0-0.1 degrees higher in the monsoon months. Pan evaporation on the leeward side was reduced by 8% in the summer and 6% in the monsoon months. Belts of C. siamea and Acacia tortilis were more effective in reducing wind speed than those of P. juliflora (which grew least of all species).

  10. PRODUÇÃO DE CHAPAS DE MADEIRA COMPENSADA DE CINCO ESPÉCIES DE PINUS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de 5 espécies de pinus tropicais para produção de painéis compensados. As espécies estudadas foram: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii e Pinus taeda, sendo esta última espécie como testemunha. Foram produzidos compensados de 5 lâminas com resinas uréia-formaldeído e fenol-formaldeído. Os resultados de inchamento e recuperação em espessura foram estatisticamente iguais entre as espécies estudadas, com exceção para inchamento em espessura das chapas coladas com resina fenol-formaldeído. As chapas de Pinus maximinoi e Pinus oocarpa, apresentaram melhores resultados de módulos de elasticidade. Para o módulo de ruptura, as chapas de Pinus maxininoi, Pinus oocarpa e Pinus taeda, coladas com resina fenol-formaldeído, apresentaram valores estatisticamente superiores em relação às demais espécies. Quanto a resistência da linha de cola, as chapas de Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda e Pinus chiapensis, foram as que apresentaram melhor desempenho. Com base nos resultados gerais da pesquisa, pode-se destacar a potencialidade da madeira de Pinus maximinoi e Pinus oocarpa para produção de chapas de madeira compensada.

  11. Pharmacognostic and Physicochemical evaluation of stem bark of Acacia pennata (L.) Willd., a folk plant of the Dimasa tribe of Assam.

    OpenAIRE

    Reena Terangpi; Ratan Basumatary; A K Tamuli; R Teron

    2013-01-01

    Bark of Acacia pennata is used in preparation of starter cakes among the Dimasa community of Assam state. The present study attempts to evaluate the pharmacognostical and physicochemical parameters of Acacia pennata (L.) Willd. The transverse section of the stem revealed an epidermis externally subtended by trichomes, a crashed cortical region due to massive secondary growth and large stellate pith. The physico-chemical parameters were evaluated- loss on drying (7%), total ash content (9.3%),...

  12. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and A. seyal (Del.) Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Galiana, Antoine; Le Roux, Christine; Kane, Aboubacry; Duponnois, Robin; Ndoye, Fatou; Fall, Dioumacor; Noba, Kandioura; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Diouf, Diégane

    2015-04-01

    Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. senegal and A. seyal in Senegal. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes (nodA and nodC). All A. senegal rhizobial strains showed identical nodA, nodC, and nifH gene sequences. By contrast, A. seyal rhizobial strains exhibited different symbiotic gene sequences. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and specific acetylene reduction activity (SARA) of plants. However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis (PCA). This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. senegal and A. seyal in the framework of reafforestation programs requires a preliminary step of rhizobial strain selection for both Acacia species.

  13. Non-protein amino acids in Australian acacia seed: implications for food security and recommended processing methods to reduce djenkolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Berin A; Reddy, Priyanka; Boland, Martin P; Roessner, Ute; Yates, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Seed of Australian acacia species, Acacia colei, Acacia elecantha, Acacia torulosa, Acacia turmida and Acacia saligna, were analysed for the presence of toxic non-protein amino acids and the levels of essential amino acids. Amines were derivatised with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate before analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ-MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with optimised transitions and collision energies for each analyte were employed. The known nephrotoxic compound djenkolic acid was found to be present at elevated levels in all species tested. The lowest levels were in A. colei (0.49% w/w) and the highest in A. saligna (1.85% w/w). Observed levels of djenkolic acid are comparable to measured and reported levels found in the djenkol bean. Subsequent testing of seed processing methods showed djenkolic acid levels can be significantly reduced by over 90% by dry roasting at 180 °C rendering the seed safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydraulic architecture and tracheid allometry in mature Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benecke, C A; Martin, T A; Peter, G F

    2010-03-01

    Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine, LL) and Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii (slash pine, SL) frequently co-occur in lower coastal plain flatwoods of the USA, with LL typically inhabiting slightly higher and better-drained microsites than SL. The hydraulic architecture and tracheid dimensions of roots, trunk and branches of mature LL and SL trees were compared to understand their role in species microsite occupation. Root xylem had higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and was less resistant to cavitation compared with branches and trunk sapwood. Root k(s) of LL was significantly higher than SL, whereas branch and trunk k(s) did not differ between species. No differences in vulnerability to cavitation were observed in any of the organs between species. Across all organs, there was a significant but weak trade-off between water conduction efficiency and safety. Tracheid hydraulic diameter (D(h)) was strongly correlated with k(s) across all organs, explaining >73% of the variation in k(s). In contrast, tracheid length (L(t)) explained only 2.4% of the variability. Nevertheless, for trunk xylem, k(s) was 39.5% higher at 20 m compared with 1.8 m; this increase in k(s) was uncorrelated with D(h) and cell-wall thickness but was strongly correlated with the difference in L(t). Tracheid allometry markedly changed between sapwood of roots, trunks and branches, possibly reflecting different mechanical constraints. Even though vulnerability to cavitation was not different for sapwood of roots, branches or the trunks of LL and SL, higher sapwood to leaf area ratio and higher maximum sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity in roots of LL are functional traits that may provide LL with a competitive advantage on drier soil microsites.

  15. Seed oil composition of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile from Iran / Skład oleju z nasion Acacia nilotica (L. Delile rosnącej w Iranie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasian Karim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp: Acacia nilotica (L. Delile należy do rodziny Fabaceae, podrodziny Mimosoideae; otrzymuje się z niej gumę arabską. W południowym Iranie są spożywane pieczone młode strąki i nasiona tej rośliny Cel: Badano skład oleju z dojrzałych nasion A. nilotica zebranych z naturalnych stanowisk na południu Iranu w celu określenia jego przydatności do spożycia przez ludzi i zwierzęta. Metody: Wyekstrahowany olej analizowano metodą chromatografii gazowej sprzężonej ze spektrometrią mas (GC/MS. Wyniki: Zawartość oleju w jadalnych nasionach wynosiła 3.4% (v/w świeżej masy. Olej zawierał rzadko spotykany fitosterol, sześć kwasów tłuszczowych, dziewięć węgolwodorów i jeden diterpenoid; związki te stanowiły łącznie około 83.5% oleju. Głównymi składnikami oleju były: fitosterol, 26-ethylcholesta-5,25(Z-dien-3.β-ol (20.8% oraz nasycone i nienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe. Zawartość pozostałych składników nie przekroczyła 5%. Wniosek: Olej z nasion omawianego gatunku może być nowym naturalnym środkiem odżywczym dla ludzi.

  16. Scavenging remazol brilliant blue R dye using microwave-assisted activated carbon from acacia sawdust: Equilibrium and kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, M. F. M.; Aziz, H. A.; Ahmad, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    This work explores the feasibility of microwave-assisted acacia wood based activated carbon (AWAC) for remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) dye removal from synthetic wastewater. Acacia wood (AW) was impregnated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and heated using microwave, resulting tremendously high fixed carbon content, surface area, total pore volume and adsorption capacity of 81.14%, 1045.56m2/g, 0.535cm3/g and 263.16mg/g respectively. Batch study conducted divulged an increasing trend in RBBR uptake when initial RBBR concentration and contact time were increased. pH study revealed that RBBR adsorption was best at acidic condition. Langmuir isotherm model fitted well the adsorption equilibrium data while the adsorption kinetic was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  17. Isolation and structural characterization of echinocystic acid triterpenoid saponins from the Australian medicinal and food plant Acacia ligulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger; Ndi, Chi P.; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The Australian plant Acacia ligulata has a number of traditional food and medicinal uses by Australian Aboriginal people, although no bioactive compounds have previously been isolated from this species. Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the mature pods of A. ligulata led...... to the isolation of the two new echinocystic acid triterpenoid saponins, ligulatasides A (1) and B (2), which differ in the fine structure of their glycan substituents. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and saccharide linkage analysis. These are the first isolated...... compounds from A. ligulata and the first fully elucidated structures of triterpenoid saponins from Acacia sensu stricto having echinocystic acid reported as the aglycone. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against a human melanoma cancer cell line (SK-MEL28) and a diploid fibroblast...

  18. Produção de chapas de madeira compensada de cinco espécies de pinus tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming at evaluating the feasibility of the use of 5 species of tropical pine to plywood manufacture. The following species were studied: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii and Pinus taeda, being the last used as the referential species. Plywood were manufactured with 5 plies, bonded with ureaformaldheyde and fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of thickness sweeling and recovering were the same for all species studied, with exception to thickness sweeling for the boards glued with fenolformaldheyde resin. The boards made from Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa, showed the higher values in modulus of elasticity. The boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa and Pinus taeda, glued with fenol-formaldheyde resin, resulted in higher values of the modulus of rupture, in comparison to other species. For the glue line strength, the boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda and Pinus chiapensis, showed the better results. Based on the general results of this research it, could be said that the Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa present the high potentiality to plywood manufacture.

  19. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aliyu; Sani Ibrahim; Hajiya M. Inuwa; Abdullahi B. Sallau; Olagunju Abbas; Idowu A. Aimola; Nathan Habila; Ndidi S. Uche

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups...

  20. Assessing the impacts of Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) on grazing provision and livestock production in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yapi, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ecosystems (Robles and Chapin, 1995). Invasive alien tree species and shrubs negatively affect ecosystems in various ways, and often result in a decline in benefits that people derive from the functioning of these systems ? or ecosystem services... the ecological impacts of the invasive alien plant species, Acacia mearnsii, on the function and productivity of rangelands in South Africa and their ability to sustain livestock production. AIM The central aim of this research is to develop a deeper...

  1. PRODUÇÃO DE CHAPAS DE MADEIRA COMPENSADA DE CINCO ESPÉCIES DE PINUS TROPICAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Setsuo Iwakiri; Danielle Previdi Olandoski; Gabriela Leonhardt; Martha Andreia Brand

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de 5 espécies de pinus tropicais para produção de painéis compensados. As espécies estudadas foram: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii e Pinus taeda, sendo esta última espécie como testemunha. Foram produzidos compensados de 5 lâminas com resinas uréia-formaldeído e fenol-formaldeído. Os resultados de inchamento e recuperação em espessura foram estatisticamente iguais entre as ...

  2. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models.

  3. A new C-methylated flavonoid glycoside from Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M J; Choi, J H; Chung, H Y; Jung, J H; Choi, J S

    2001-12-01

    A new C-methyl flavonol glycoside, 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from the needles of Pinus densiflora, together with kaempferol 3-O-beta-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside.

  4. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Carlo; Heidi J. Renninger; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots...

  5. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Online resources. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L. populations based on molecular data and inferences about the future use of this germplasm. J. Cipriano A. Carvalho C. Fernandes M. J. Gaspar J. Pires J. Bento L. Roxo J. Louzada J. Lima- ...

  6. Growth process and diameter structure of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... and sunny slope Pinus tabulaeformis forest were investigated in hilly loess-gully ... tabulaeformis, the main species of tree for forestation, ... Biomass in different artificial P. tabulaformis stands ..... The change of plant diversity during natural ... elements and stand biomass in forest communities in Hilly Loess.

  7. Genomic DNA extraction from sapwood of Pinus roxburghii for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for extraction of genomic DNA from sapwood tissues of mature tall trees of Pinus roxburghii, where collection of needle tissues is extremely difficult has been standardized. The extracted DNA was comparable to that obtained from the needle tissue in terms of yield and purity. The yield of extracted DNA ranged ...

  8. Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) of inland Marin County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1986-01-01

    The locations and characteristics of five, small, previously undescribed stands of bishop pine (Pinus muricata) in central Marin Co., California, are reported. Three stands lie on dry sites in the Kent Lake Drainage north of Mt. Tamalpais: San Geronimo Ridge, a spur ridge above Little Carson Cr., and Oat Hill. These stands are anomalous in occurring...

  9. Experiments in rooting bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1987-01-01

    Presented here are results of rooting studies using hedges established from juvenile seedlings of "blue" and "green" foliaged bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) from Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. Rootability, averaged over all clones and all setting dates, was 88%. The average time for 50% of the...

  10. A holistic approach to genetic conservation of Pinus strobiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Waring; R. Sniezko; B.A. Goodrich; C. Wehenkel; J.J. Jacobs

    2017-01-01

    Pinus strobiformis (southwestern white pine) is threatened by both a rapidly changing climate and the tree disease white pine blister rust, caused by an introduced fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola. We began a proactive program in ~2009 to sustain P. strobiformis that includes genetic conservation, research, and management strategies. Research...

  11. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  12. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  13. evaluation of the leave and bud decoctions pinus halepensis mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 déc. 2014 ... L'espèce Pinus halepensis Mill (ou pin d'Alep), appartenant à la famille des Pinaceae, a ... au moyen d'un moulin électrique à usage domestique (model Moulinex D5001) au niveau du ..... central ltaly Flavour Frag. J., 2003 ...

  14. Pinus ponderosa : A checkered past obscured four species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Willyard; David S. Gernandt; Kevin Potter; Valerie Hipkins; Paula E. Marquardt; Mary Frances Mahalovich; Stephen K. Langer; Frank W. Telewski; Blake Cooper; Connor Douglas; Kristen Finch; Hassani H. Karemera; Julia Lefler; Payton Lea; Austin Wofford

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae ) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at...

  15. Growth models for Pinus patula in Angola | Delgado-Matas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study developed growth models for Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham. for the Central Highlands of Angola for simulating the development of stand characteristics. The model set included dominant height, individual-tree diameter increment, individual-tree height and self-thinning models. The study was based ...

  16. Some physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula grown in Iringa and Njombe regions of Tanzania. Sample trees aged 5 to 15 years were collected from farmers' woodlots. The trees were categorized into 5 age classes: 5 - 7, 8 - 10, 11 - 12, 13 - 14 and 15 years. Four trees from ...

  17. Impact of the eocene on the evolution of Pinus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1993-01-01

    Pinus evolved in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Mesozoic. By the late Cretaceous pines had spread east and west throughout Laurasia, attaining high diversity in eastern Asia, the eastern United States, and western Europe, but having little representation at high northern latitudes. Changing climates in the early Tertiary...

  18. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  19. Percentile-based Weibull diameter distribution model for Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a site index equation and stem volume model developed for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines, a yield prediction system was created to predict the volume per ha (VPH) for each diameter class and, subsequently, the total volume of a stand. To evaluate the yield prediction system, the predicted mean VPH for each ...

  20. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatou Diouf

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal (L Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60% clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4. We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T, one in MSP1 (STM8789, MSP2 (ORS3359 and MSP3 (ORS3324. The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  1. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Fatou; Diouf, Diegane; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Le Queré, Antoine; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Fall, Dioumacor; Neyra, Marc; Parrinello, Hugues; Diouf, Mayecor; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Moulin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Acacia senegal (L) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60%) clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4). We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T), one in MSP1 (STM8789), MSP2 (ORS3359) and MSP3 (ORS3324). The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  2. Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Monica; Parwani, Laxmi; Sharma, Vinay; Ganguli, Jhuma; Bhatnagar, Ashish

    2013-10-01

    Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 microg mL(-1) for GA and 300-700 microg mL(-1) for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography.

  3. Germinação de aquênios de arnica (Lychnophora pinaster Mart. armazenados em diferentes condições Seed germination of arnica (Lychnophora pinaster Mart stored at different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Régis Bandeira de Melo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A antecipação da coleta pode contribuir para redução da rápida deterioração das sementes no campo, preservando, assim, sua qualidade fisiológica. No caso da arnica (Lychnophora pinaster Mart., a formação dos aquênios ocorre de maneira desuniforme na planta, sendo dristibuída ao longo do período de frutificação. Assim, em se tratando de uma espécie medicinal não domesticada, ameaçada de extinção, e tendo seu potencial genético ainda pouco estudado, urge a necessidade de monitoramento do comportamento dos aquênios no armazenamento, visando garantir sua reprodução e conseqüente preservação. Esse trabalho foi conduzido com a finalidade de se verificar o desempenho germinativo de aquênios de arnica coletados em dois estádios de maturação e armazenados em diferentes condições. Os aquênios utilizados foram provenientes do município de Itumirim, MG, tendo a coleta sido realizada em dezembro de 2003, em função das características morfológicas dos capítulos, constituindo, assim, dois estádios de maturação. Após a coleta, os aquênios foram submetidos à secagem, pré-limpeza e separados com auxílio de um soprador vertical. Os aquênios foram acondicionados em dois tipos de embalagens (papel ou plástico e armazenados em diferentes ambientes (câmara fria a 10ºC/50%UR ou ambiente de laboratório, por um período de 6 meses. O teste de germinação foi conduzido em BOD ajustada à temperatura alternada 20-30ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas. O substrato utilizado foi o papel mata-borrão e os aquênios foram dispostos em caixas plásticas tipo gerbox. Foram utilizadas 4 repetições de 100 aquênios para cada tratamento. A análise sanitária foi efetuada pelo método "Blotter test" com 4 repetições de 50 aquênios por tratamento. As avaliações da umidade, da qualidade fisiológica e sanitária foram realizadas aos 0, 2, 4 e 6 meses. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que não houve diferença entre as quatro condi

  4. Growth and photosynthetic responses of two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in a polluted industrial region in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.S.; Kayama, M.; Jin, H.O.; Lee, C.H.; Izuta, T.; Koike, T.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of pollutants on two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in an industrial region in Korea, using a physiological approach. The concentrations of fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl) in the atmosphere, in precipitation and soil water at the damaged site were all significantly higher than at a control site. Moreover, the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in pine needles were significantly higher, and essential elements and chlorophyll in needles were significantly lower at the damaged site than at the control site. The photosynthetic capacities, shoot length and survival statistics of needles of the two pines were all significantly reduced at the damaged site compared to the control site, especially P. rigida. Based on our comparison of photosynthetic responses and the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in needles of the two pine species, P. koraiensis is more resistant to excess Mn in its needles than P. rigida. - Pinus koraiensis seems to be more pollution tolerant than Pinus rigida

  5. Effects of chopping, and soaking in water, hydrochloric acidic and calcium hydroxide solutions on the nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wina, E.; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the presence of cassava flour, soaking improved average daily gain. Diets supplemented with water soaked Acacia leaves probably also need an energy supplement and cassava flour is one of the feed ingredients that is satisfactory. (author)

  6. Stable annual pattern of water use by Acacia tortilis in Sahelian Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Frederic C; Rocheteau, Alain; Diagne, Amadou L; Goudiaby, Venceslas; Granier, André; Lhomme, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Water use by mature trees of Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan var. raddiana growing in the northern Sahel was continuously recorded over 4 years. Water use was estimated from xylem sap flow measured by transient heat dissipation. Concurrently, cambial growth, canopy phenology, leaf water potential, climatic conditions and soil water availability (SWA) were monitored. In addition to the variation attributable to interannual variation in rainfall, SWA was increased by irrigation during one wet season. The wet season lasted from July to September, and annual rainfall ranged between 146 and 367 mm. The annual amount and pattern of tree water use were stable from year-to-year despite interannual and seasonal variations in SWA in the upper soil layers. Acacia tortilis transpired readily throughout the year, except for one month during the dry season when defoliation was at a maximum. Maximum water use of about 23 l (dm sapwood area)(-2) day(-1) was recorded at the end of the wet season. While trees retained foliage in the dry season, the decline in water use was modest at around 30%. Variation in predawn leaf water potential indicated that the trees were subject to soil water constraint. The rapid depletion of water in the uppermost soil layers after the wet season implies that there was extensive use of water from deep soil layers. The deep soil profile revealed (1) the existence of living roots at 25 m and (2) that the availability of soil water was low (-1.6 MPa) down to the water table at a depth of 31 m. However, transpiration was recorded at a predawn leaf water potential of -2.0 MPa, indicating that the trees used water from both intermediary soil layers and the water table. During the full canopy stage, mean values of whole-tree hydraulic conductance were similar in the wet and dry seasons. We propose that the stability of water use at the seasonal and annual scales resulted from a combination of features, including an extensive rooting

  7. Terpene chemodiversity of relict conifers Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce, endemic to Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D; Bojović, Srdjan

    2011-12-01

    Terpenes are often used as ecological and chemotaxonomic markers of plant species, as well as for estimation of geographic variability. Essential oils of relic and Balkan endemic/subendemic conifers, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and P. peuce, in central part of Balkan Peninsula (Serbia and Montenegro), on the level of terpene classes and common terpene compounds were investigated. In finding terpene combinations, which could show the best diversity between species and their natural populations, several statistical methods were applied. Apart from the content of different terpene classes (P. omorika has the most abundant O-containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes; P. heldreichii and P. peuce have the largest abundance of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, resp.), the species are clearly separated according to terpene profile with 22 common compounds. But, divergences in their populations were established only in combination of several compounds (specific for each species), and they were found to be the results of geomorphologic, climatic, and genetic factors. We found similarities between investigated species and some taxa from literature with respect to terpene composition, possibly due to hybridization and phylogenetic relations. Obtained results are also important regarding to chemotaxonomy, biogeography, phylogeny, and evolution of these taxa. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Paired comparison of water, energy and carbon exchanges over two young maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.): effects of thinning and weeding in the early stage of tree growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreaux, Virginie; Lamaud, Eric; Bosc, Alexandre; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Medlyn, Belinda E; Loustau, Denis

    2011-09-01

    The effects of management practices on energy, water and carbon exchanges were investigated in a young pine plantation in south-west France. In 2009-10, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2)O and heat fluxes were monitored using the eddy covariance and sap flow techniques in a control plot (C) with a developed gorse layer, and an adjacent plot that was mechanically weeded and thinned (W). Despite large differences in the total leaf area index and canopy structure, the annual net radiation absorbed was only 4% lower in plot W. We showed that higher albedo in this plot was offset by lower emitted long-wave radiation. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) from plot W was 15% lower, due to lower rainfall interception and transpiration by the tree canopy, partly counterbalanced by the larger evaporation from both soil and regrowing weedy vegetation. The drainage belowground from plot W was larger by 113 mm annually. The seasonal variability of ET was driven by the dynamics of the soil and weed layers, which was more severely affected by drought in plot C. Conversely, the temporal changes in pine transpiration and stem diameter growth were synchronous between sites despite higher soil water content in the weeded plot. At the annual scale, both plots were carbon sinks, but thinning and weeding reduced the carbon uptake by 73%: annual carbon uptake was 243 and 65 g C m(-2) on plots C and W, respectively. Summer drought dramatically impacted the net ecosystem exchange: plot C became a carbon source as the gross primary production (GPP) severely decreased. However, plot W remained a carbon sink during drought, as a result of decreases in both GPP and ecosystem respiration (R(E)). In winter, both plots were carbon sources, plots C and W emitting 67.5 and 32.4 g C m(-2), respectively. Overall, this study highlighted the significant contribution of the gorse layer to mass and energy exchange in young pine plantations.

  9. Mycorrhizal association of maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, with Rhizopogon roseolus has contrasting effects on the uptake from soil and root-to-shoot transfer of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 95m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladeyn, Ingrid; Plassard, Claude [INRA, UMR 1222, Biogeochimie du Sol et de la Rhizosphere, place Viala, 34060 Montpellier (France); Staunton, Siobhan [INRA, UMR 1222, Biogeochimie du Sol et de la Rhizosphere, place Viala, 34060 Montpellier (France)], E-mail: staunton@montpellier.inra.fr

    2008-05-15

    The beneficial role of mycorrhizal association on plant nutrition and water supply is well-known, however, very little information exists with respect to the availability of radionuclides. We have measured the effect of controlled mycorrhizal association on the root uptake from soil and accumulation in leaves of three radionuclides. The radionuclides have contrasting chemical and biological properties: Cs is strongly adsorbed on soil, has no biological role and is a close analogue of potassium; Sr is less strongly adsorbed on soil and behaves very similarly to calcium; and Tc is very mobile in soil as pertechnetate, but immobilised when reduced to Tc(IV), it is also considered to be easily assimilated by biological systems. We found that mycorrhizal association had no effect on root-to-needle transfer of Cs, but increased root uptake and that this increase could not be explained by improved potassium nutrition. In contrast, the symbiotic relation decreased Tc soil-to-needle transfer, but this resulted from complex dynamics of root uptake and rapid immobilisation of Tc in soil. No effect of mycorrhizal association on Sr, like its stable analogue Ca, was observed. The addition of a phytotoxic metal, Cu, inhibited mycorrhizal association, thus eliminating the effects observed for non-contaminated plant-fungus couples, but had no additional effect on radionuclide dynamics.

  10. Mycorrhizal association of maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, with Rhizopogon roseolus has contrasting effects on the uptake from soil and root-to-shoot transfer of 137Cs, 85Sr and 95mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladeyn, Ingrid; Plassard, Claude; Staunton, Siobhan

    2008-01-01

    The beneficial role of mycorrhizal association on plant nutrition and water supply is well-known, however, very little information exists with respect to the availability of radionuclides. We have measured the effect of controlled mycorrhizal association on the root uptake from soil and accumulation in leaves of three radionuclides. The radionuclides have contrasting chemical and biological properties: Cs is strongly adsorbed on soil, has no biological role and is a close analogue of potassium; Sr is less strongly adsorbed on soil and behaves very similarly to calcium; and Tc is very mobile in soil as pertechnetate, but immobilised when reduced to Tc(IV), it is also considered to be easily assimilated by biological systems. We found that mycorrhizal association had no effect on root-to-needle transfer of Cs, but increased root uptake and that this increase could not be explained by improved potassium nutrition. In contrast, the symbiotic relation decreased Tc soil-to-needle transfer, but this resulted from complex dynamics of root uptake and rapid immobilisation of Tc in soil. No effect of mycorrhizal association on Sr, like its stable analogue Ca, was observed. The addition of a phytotoxic metal, Cu, inhibited mycorrhizal association, thus eliminating the effects observed for non-contaminated plant-fungus couples, but had no additional effect on radionuclide dynamics

  11. A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and extent of linkage disequilibrium in two genotype-phenotype discovery populations of Pinua taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared W. Westbrook; Vikram E. Chhatre; Le-Shin Wu; Srikar Chamala; Leandro Gomide Neves; Patricio Munoz; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; David B. Neale; Matias Kirst; Keithanne Mockaitis; C. Dana Nelson; Gary F. Peter; John M. Davis; Craig S. Echt

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via...

  12. Soil nutritional status and biogeography influence rhizosphere microbial communities associated with the invasive tree Acacia dealbata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamutando, Casper N; Vikram, Surendra; Kamgan-Nkuekam, Gilbert; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Greve, Michelle; Roux, Johannes J Le; Richardson, David M; Cowan, Don; Valverde, Angel

    2017-07-26

    Invasiveness and the impacts of introduced plants are known to be mediated by plant-microbe interactions. Yet, the microbial communities associated with invasive plants are generally poorly understood. Here we report on the first comprehensive investigation of the bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting the rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil of a widespread invasive tree, Acacia dealbata. Amplicon sequencing data indicated that rhizospheric microbial communities differed significantly in structure and composition from those of the bulk soil. Two bacterial (Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria) and two fungal (Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes) classes were enriched in the rhizosphere compared with bulk soils. Changes in nutritional status, possibly induced by A. dealbata, primarily shaped rhizosphere soil communities. Despite a high degree of geographic variability in the diversity and composition of microbial communities, invasive A. dealbata populations shared a core of bacterial and fungal taxa, some of which are known to be involved in N and P cycling, while others are regarded as plant pathogens. Shotgun metagenomic analysis also showed that several functional genes related to plant growth promotion were overrepresented in the rhizospheres of A. dealbata. Overall, results suggest that rhizosphere microbes may contribute to the widespread success of this invader in novel environments.

  13. Performance of two honey bee subspecies during harsh weather and Acacia gerrardii nectar-rich flow

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    Awad Mohamed Awad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Both climatic factors and bee forage characteristics affect the population size and productivity of honey bee colonies. To our knowledge, no scientific investigation has as yet considered the potential effect of nectar-rich bee forage exposed to drastic subtropical weather conditions on the performance of honey bee colonies. This study investigated the performance of the honey bee subspecies Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (Yemeni and Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann (Carniolan in weather that was hot and dry and in an environment of nectar-rich flora. The brood production, food storage, bee population and honey yield of Yemeni (native and Carniolan (imported colonies on Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth., a nectar-rich, subtropical, and summer bee forage source in Central Arabia were evaluated. Owing to their structural and behavioral adaptations, the Yemeni bees constructed stronger (high population size colonies than the Carniolan bees. Although both groups yielded similar amounts of Talh honey, the Yemeni bees consumed their stored honey rapidly if not timely harvested. A. m. jemenitica has a higher performance than A. m. carnica during extremely hot-dry conditions and A. gerrardii nectar-rich flow.

  14. [Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Acacia mangium plantations established on degraded soils of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Barliza, Jeiner; León Peláez, Juan Diego

    2011-03-01

    Several factors control the decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as humidity, temperature, quality of litter and microbial activity. We investigated the effects of rainfall and soil plowing prior to the establishment of Acacia mangium plantations, using the litterbag technique, during a six month period, in forests plantations in Bajo Cauca region, Colombia. The annual decomposition constants (k) of simple exponential model, oscillated between 1.24 and 1.80, meanwhile k1 y k2 decomposition constants of double exponential model were 0.88-1.81 and 0.58-7.01. At the end of the study, the mean residual dry matter (RDM) was 47% of the initial value for the three sites. We found a slow N, Ca and Mg release pattern from the A. mangium leaf litter, meanwhile, phosphorus (P) showed a dominant immobilization phase, suggesting its low availability in soils. Chemical leaf litter quality parameters (e.g. N and P concentrations, C/N, N/P ratios and phenols content) showed an important influence on decomposition rates. The results of this study indicated that rainfall plays an important role on the decomposition process, but not soil plowing.

  15. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

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    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of verify the behavior of these insects in relation with twig girdler O. saga.

  16. Biosorption studies on powder of stem of Acacia nilotica: Removal of arsenic from surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Jameel A.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Shah, Abdul Q.; Kandhro, Ghulam A.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida F.

    2010-01-01

    In present study a biomass derived from the stem of Acacia nilotica has been investigated to remove As ions from surface water samples of different origins (lake, canal and river). The effects of various parameters viz. pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time and temperature on the biosorption processes were systematically studied. Experimental data were modeled by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. It was observed that As biosorption best fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The mean sorption energy (E) calculated from D-R model, indicated physico-chemical biosorption. Study of thermodynamic parameters revealed the endothermic, spontaneous and feasible nature of biosorption process. The pseudo-second-order rate equation described better the kinetics of As biosorption with good correlation coefficients than pseudo-first-order equation. The biomass of A. nilotica was found to be effective for the removal of As with 95% sorption efficiency at a concentration of <200 μg/L of As solution, and thus uptake capacity is 50.8 mg As/g of biomass. The A. nilotica biomass could be used as a low-cost biosorbent for As ion removal.

  17. Acacia catechu ethanolic bark extract induces apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells

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    Thangavelu Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is in approximately 30% of all cancers in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark (ACB against human squamous cell carcinoma cell line-25 (SCC-25. Cytotoxic effect of ACB extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. A. catechu extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Apoptosis markers such as caspases-8 and 9, bcl-2, bax, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c were done by RT-PCR. Morphological changes of ACB treated cells were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation were evaluated using propidium iodide (PI staining. Further, cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. A. catechu treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC50 of 52.09 μg/mL. Apoptotic marker gene expressions were significantly increased on ACB treatment. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing and nuclear membrane distortion, respectively, and it confirms the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. These results suggest that ACB extract can be used as a modulating agent in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. DETECTION OF POLLEN FLOW IN THE SEEDLING SEED ORCHARD OF Acacia mangium USING DNA MARKER

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    Vivi Yuskianti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen pattern dispersal in seedling seed orchard (SSO is an essential part of a tree-improvement program. Two SSOs of Acacia mangium in South Kalimantan and South Sumatra that represent similar resources in different environments were used in this study.  Genotypes of all trees and seeds from a subset of 10 mother trees in each orchard were determined for 12 microsatellite loci, and parentage analysis was carried out. The results shows that the pollen dispersal pattern in both SSOs decrease with distance from mother tree. Patterns of pollen dispersal, dispersal distance and cumulative frequency of pollen dispersal distance were similar in both SSOs. Random pollen dispersal were found in both SSOs. About 80% of all crosses were found within a 40-m distance range with the most frequent pollination distance between mother tree and male male parents was 0-10 m. No self-pollinated seed was detected. Application of all these aspects found in this study such as random pollen dispersal and the effective pollen dispersal distance can be useful for establishing seedling seed orchard, clonal seed orchard and in other tree improvement activities of A. mangium.

  19. Neem gum as a binder in a formulated paracetamol tablet with reference to Acacia gum BP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-04-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing strength-friability/disintegration time ratio were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration time and dissolution times. Tablet formulations containing NMG exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower mechanical strength; however, the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate was lower when compared to those containing ACA. Inclusion of NMG improved the balance between binding and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets produced than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower disintegration and dissolution times than those containing ACA.

  20. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA E CASCA DO ESPINILHO, Acacia caven (Mol. Mol.

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os aspectos anatômicos da madeira e casca de Acacia cavem (Mol. Mol. São apresentados dados quantitativos de 34 características do xilema secundário, bem como fotomicrografias das estruturas anatômicas da madeira e casca. A ausência de septos em fibras, a abundância de parênquima axial e a elevada percentagem de raios com 4 ou mais células de largura, são os caracteres mais importantes na estrutura do lenho. O arranjo das fibras floemáticas em feixes tangenciais regulares, rodeados por sériescristalíferas, é, por sua vez, o aspecto mais notável da casca. Este caráter ainda não havia sido reportado pela literatura anatômica das acácias sul-americanas, e pode ter valor taxonômico em nivel infra-genético.

  1. PENGARUH UMUR BAHAN SETEK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SETEK AKOR (Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth

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    nurmawati siregar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Akor (Acacia auriculiformis termasuk salah satu jenis sumber energi biomassa mempunyai prospek yang baik untuk dikembangkan. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan untuk pengembangannya adalah ketersediaan bibit bermutu. Bibit bermutu dapat diperoleh dari perbanyakan generatif (biji dan vegetatif (setek. Melalui setek dapat diproduksi bibit bermutu dalam jumlah yang cukup, setiap waktu dan tidak tergantung dengan musim. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan perbanyakan vegetatif dengan setek adalah juvenilitas (umur bahan setek, oleh karena itu dilakukan penelitian pengaruh umur bahan setek. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK dengan perlakuan umur bahan setek yaitu umur 2,3,4 dan 5 bulan, ulangan tiga kali dan setiap unit perlakuan terdiri dari 45 setek. Respon pertumbuhan yang diamati meliputi: waktu tumbuh tunas setek, persentase tumbuh setek, panjang akar, jumlah akar, panjang tunas, berat kering akar, berat kering tunas, ratio tunas dengan akar dan analisis ratio C/N. Umur bahan setek berpengaruh nyata terhadap semua parameter yang diamati kecuali persen tumbuh setek. Bahan setek yang paling optimal digunakan untuk jenis akor adalah pada umur 3 - 4 bulan.

  2. Biodiversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Acacia gerrardii Benth in different habitats of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A.; Huqail, A.A.; Alqarawi, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are the most influential and ubiquitous rhizosphere microbiome. AMF improve the soil characteristics and assist the symbiotic plants by improving plant absorption of soil nutrients particularly phosphorus. The biodiversity of native AMF highly influenced by soil nature and plant composition. The present investigation studied the enumeration and biodiversity of AMF associated with rhizosphere soil and roots of Acacia gerrardii (Talh trees) grown natively in different habitats of Saudi Arabia (SA). Soil analysis were varied with locations nonetheless, there are no distinct correlations has been estimated among the root colonization with AMF, spores number of AMF and soil properties. Fifteen mycorrhizal fungal species belong to seven genus (Funneliformis; Glomus; Rhizophagus; Septoglomus; Acaulospora; Claroideoglomus; Archaeospora) and four families (Glomeraceae; Acaulosporaceae; Claroideoglomeraceae; Archaeosporaceae) were identified from forty soil samples collected from four different locations belong to Riyadh region (Rawdhat Khuraim, Houta Bani Tamim) and Holy Madina region (Ola city, Werqaan Mountain) in SA. The present investigation extends our knowledge on the biodiversity of AMF associated with rhizosphere soil of Talh trees (A.gerrardii) grown natively in different Saudi locations. (author)

  3. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Acacia confusa flowers and buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yu Tang; Chang, Wei Chun; Chen, Ping Sheng; Chang, Tzu Cheng; Chang, Shang Tzen

    2011-04-01

    Acacia confusa Merr. (Leguminosae), a species native to Taiwan, is widely distributed on the hills and lowlands of Taiwan, and has been used in traditional medicines. In this study, the application of ultrasound-assisted extraction was used to extract the phenolic compounds from A. confusa flowers and buds for the first time. Among the extraction methods, it can significantly enhance the contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in A. confusa flower and bud extracts using ultrasound-assisted extraction (10  min×12 times). Considering both the solvent consumption and the time needed for extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction was found to be the most practical approach for the rapid and efficient extraction of bioactive phenolic constituents. In addition, gallic acid, myricitrin-3-rhamnoside, quercitrin-3-rhamnoside, europetin-3-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, rhamnetin-3-glucoside, and rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside were also quantified in different extracts by RP-HPLC. It is clear that ultrasound-assisted extraction is an efficient method for extracting phenolic compounds from A. confusa flowers and buds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Physical Damages of Wood Fiber in Acacia Mangium due to Biopulping Treatment

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    Ridwan Yahya

    2016-05-01

    chrysosporium to Acacia mangium Willd can reduce lignin and improve holocellulose and cellulose content of the material. Fiber dimension recognized as other important factor for paper properties. The question is how the integrity and dimensions of the wood fiber that has been pretreated with the fungus. The objectives of present study were to know effect of pretreatment of P. chrysosporium to the integrity and dimensions of the fiber. The P. chrysosporium was cultured for 14 days in growth medium, and inoculated to wood chips 5% (w/v and incubated for 0, 15 and 30 days. The inoculated wood chips were chipped into 1 mm x 1 mm x 20 mm and macerated using franklin solution at 60 oC for 48 hours. Forty fibers from each incubated time were analized their physical damages using a light microscope at a 400 magnification. The inoculated fibers were measured theirs dimensions. The physical damage percentage of fibers pretreated using P. chrysosporium was 0%. Length and wall thickness of the pretreated fibers were can be categorized as middle class and thin fibers, respectively.

  5. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa

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    Mohammed Shaibu Auwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod.

  6. NUTRIENTS POOL IN CONSORTIA OF Eucalyptus urograndis, Acacia mearnsii AND Zea mays

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    Márcio Viera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810543This study aimed to determine the nutrient pool in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in a consortium with Zea mays.The amount determination of nutrients of forest species was carried out in the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus; 100A (100% of black wattle and 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black-wattle. On the other hand, for corn, it was carried out in all treatments (100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A – 75% of eucalyptus + 25% black-wattle and 25E:75A – 25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle. The delimitation adopted was the one of a randomized block with three replications. The magnitude of the nutrient pool in the agrossilvicultural systems biomass was: N> K > Ca > Mg > P > S, for macronutrients, and Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu, for micronutrients. Due to the great export of nutrients through the corn harvest, residues should be kept and it is necessary to make a nutritional reposition, mainly with P, N, K, S and Zn in the following crops, because of the higher amount that are exported with the extraction of the corn tang, which reaches 75.3; 60.6; 59.9; 55.8 e 53.8%, respectively, in relation to the total stocked in the biomass.

  7. Pengaruh variasi ukuran biji terhadap perkecambahan Acacia fauntleroyi (maiden maiden and blakely

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    Mangadas Lumban Gaol

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent are germination of A. fauntleroyi affected by seed size. Does pre-treatment improve germination? Under what temperature regime does most seed germinate? Three seed size classes (small, medium and largewere chosen. Seeds were pre-treatments either at ambient, 50 °C, 75 °C or 100 ° C and incubated at 15 ° C or 30 °C. Then, number of seed that germinate and speed of germination were measure. Five seeds representing each of small, medium and large seed sizes were also selected and the seed coat thickness measured. Seed size, pre-treatment temperature and incubation temperature all affected the number of seed that germinated. Pre-treatment temperature affected germination more than incubation temperature. Incubation temperature affected germination more than seed size. The interaction of seed size and pre-treatment temperature was stronger than that between seed size and incubation temperature. Small seeds produce less germination than medium or large seeds, however small seed germinated sooner. Seed coat thickness varied among seed sizes. Thinner seed coats occur in smaller than larger seeds. Acacia; Germination; Incubation; Pre-treatment; Seed size

  8. From Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar to Acacia monofloral honey: biochemical changes and variation of biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; De Rossi, Silvia; Canuti, Lorena; Novelli, Silvia; Di Marco, Gabriele; Fattorini, Laura; Canini, Antonella

    2018-02-10

    Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar and its derivative monofloral honey were systematically compared in this study, to understand how much the starting solution reflected the final product, after re-elaboration by Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. Subjected to dehydration in the hive, nectar changed in its water and sugar content when transformed into honey, as physicochemical and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses revealed. Spectrophotometric measurements and characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection of 18 plant molecules demonstrated honey to be richer than nectar in secondary metabolites. For the first time, the hypothesis of the existence of a nectar redox cycle in R. pseudoacacia was reported, as previously described for Nicotiana sp., based on 1D-protein profiles, western blot analysis and detection of H 2 O 2 and ascorbate. The bioactivity of both matrices was also investigated. Antiradical in vitro tests showed that Acacia honey was more antioxidant than nectar, which was even able to induce oxidative stress directly in a eukaryotic cell system. Antimicrobial assays demonstrated that nectar was bacteriostatic, due to H 2 O 2 activity, whereas honey was even bactericidal. All these data support the ecological role of nectar and honey in nature: protection of the gynoecium from pathogens and preservation from degradative processes, respectively. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Intercropping Acacia mangium stimulates AMF colonization and soil phosphatase activity in Eucalyptus grandis

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    Daniel Bini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are very important to plant nutrition, mostly in terms of acquisition of P and micronutrients. While Acacia mangium is closely associated with AMF throughout the whole cycle, Eucalyptus grandis presents this symbiosis primarily at the seedling stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of AMF in these two tree species in both pure and mixed plantations during the first 20 months after planting. We evaluated the abundance, richness and diversity of AMF spores, the rate of AMF mycorrhizal root colonization, enzymatic activity and soil and litter C, N and P. There was an increase in AMF root colonization of E. grandis when intercropped with A. mangium as well as an increase in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in the presence of leguminous trees. AMF colonization and phosphatase activities were both involved in improvements in P cycling and P nutrition in soil. In addition, P cycling was favored in the intercropped plantation, which showed negative correlation with litter C/N and C/P ratios and positive correlation with soil acid phosphatase activity and soil N and P concentrations. Intercropping A. mangium and E. grandis maximized AMF root colonization of E. grandis and phosphatase activity in the soil, both of which accelerate P cycling and forest performance.

  10. CATEGORIZATION OF GELAM, ACACIA AND TUALANG HONEY ODORPROFILE USING K-NEAREST NEIGHBORS

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    Nurdiyana Zahed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey authenticity refer to honey types is of great importance issue and interest in agriculture. In current research, several documents of specific types of honey have their own usage in medical field. However, it is quite challenging task to classify different types of honey by simply using our naked eye. This work demostrated a successful an electronic nose (E-nose application as an instrument for identifying odor profile pattern of three common honey in Malaysia (Gelam, Acacia and Tualang honey. The applied E-nose has produced signal for odor measurement in form of numeric resistance (Ω. The data reading have been pre-processed using normalization technique for standardized scale of unique features. Mean features is extracted and boxplot used as the statistical tool to present the data pattern according to three types of honey. Mean features that have been extracted were employed into K-Nearest Neighbors classifier as an input features and evaluated using several splitting ratio. Excellent results were obtained by showing 100% rate of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of classification from KNN using weigh (k=1, ratio 90:10 and Euclidean distance. The findings confirmed the ability of KNN classifier as intelligent classification to classify different honey types from E-nose calibration. Outperform of other classifier, KNN required less parameter optimization and achieved promising result.

  11. The Allelopathic Effect of the Exotic Tree Acacia saligna on the Germination of Wheat and Canola

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    Mohamed Kamel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts derived from leaves and stems of Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L.Wendl. upon two agricultural crops, wheat and canola. Seed germination (%, shoot and root elongation, fresh and dry weight, vigor index and phytotoxicity parameters were estimated. Leaf extract exhibits higher inhibitory effect than stem extract. Wheat seeds were more tolerant to the allelopathic action of A. saligna extracts than canola. Canola germination minimized to 8.33% at concentration 10% of leaf extract but the percent of germination was 60% in the case of stem extract. At 10% leaf extract, 76.67% of wheat seeds germinated; but at 10% stem extract, 93.33% of the seeds were germinated. The other growth parameters as shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight and vigor index also showed continued decrease with the increasing of allelopathic extract concentration. Leaf extract exhibits the stronger allelopathic effect. The phytotoxic effect was stronger on the germination of canola compared with wheat. It reached up to 91.76% inhibition at concentration 10%, but reached up only 23.33% in the case of wheat, respectively

  12. Polyphenols From Cutch Tree (Acacia catechu Willd.: Normalize In Vitro Oxidative Stress and Exerts Antiproliferative Activity

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    Rakesh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oxidative stress, being the main cause of most of the human diseases, has always been the highlight of research worldwide. This stress can be overcome by administration of natural polyphenols. The Acacia catechu Willd. has many refrences available in Ayurveda as important disease curative plant. Its leaves are investigated for ameliorating oxidative stress in present work. Leaves of A. catechu were extracted with 80% methanol to get methanol extract (AME. It was assessed for antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, ferric ion reducing, superoxide scavenging and peroxyl radical scavenging assays. DNA protective activity was also investigated using plasmid nicking assay. Further, antiproliferative activity was determined using MTT assay in various human cancer cell lines. The quantification of polyphenols was done by UHPLC analysis. Results confirmed that polyphenols of A. catechu were successful in normalizing oxidative stress. AME was found to be most effective in scavenging ABTS radicals while least effective in scavenging ferric ions. UHPLC analysis showed abundance of ellagic acid, rutin and quercetin in AME. Further, AME showed maximum antiproliferative activity against Hep G2 cancer cells. It is concluded that the polyphenols from A. catechu effectively remediates oxidative stress and hence can be used in curing numerous dreadful diseases.

  13. Monosaccharide composition of acidic gum exudates from Indian Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhera, Ajeet Kumar; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan commonly known as Israeli Babool has contributed immensely for sand dunes management in Indian desert leading to wind erosion control and increased biological productivity. The species is extensively used in traditional medicine system for a number of therapeutic applications and as nutraceutical. The polysaccharide was isolated in 43.6% yield from gum exudates. The monosaccharides, L-arabinose, D-galactose D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-mannose were determined in molar ratio of 78.1%, 18.64%, 0.60%, 1.71% and 0.74% respectively. The molar ratio of uronic acids was studied using diverse spectrophotometric methods and compared with GLC. The content of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic was determined as 3.88% and 4.35% respectively by GLC. The results were compared with the spectrophotometric methods. The results using DMP as chromogenic reagent are closer to that obtained by GLC. Structural analysis of the polysaccharide may provide scientific basis for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biological applications of gum exudates from A. tortilis, which is extensively planted in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Seletion of arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi for efficient symbiosis with Acacia mangium willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Robles Angelini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium forms two kinds of mycorrhizal symbiosis, a arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs type and another with ectomycorrhizal fungi (fECTOs. The present study aimed to select different AMFs species and fECTOs isolates for effective symbiosis with A. mangium, which provide seedlings well colonized, nodulated and developed. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at Embrapa Agrobiology, one for AMF species selection and another for fECTOs, using a randomized block design with five replicates. Treatments were species AMFs (Acaulospora laevis, Acaulospora morrowiae, Entrophospora colombiana, Entrophospora contigua, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus clarum, Scutellospora calospora, Scutellospora heterogama, Scutellospora gilmorei and Scutellospora pellucida or fECTOs isolated (UFSC Pt116; UFSC Pt24; UFSC Pt193; O 64–ITA6; UFSC Pt187 and O 40–ORS 7870. The AMFs species that promoted greater vegetative growth, mycorrhizal colonization and more effective symbioses were S. calospora, S. heterogama, S. gilmorei e A. morrowiae. The fECTOs not demonstrated effectiveness in promoting growth, but the isolate O64-ITA6 (Pisolithus tinctorius provided greater colonization. Seedlings of A. mangium have high responsiveness to inoculation with AMFs and depends on high root colonization, between 40 and 80%, to obtain relevant benefits from symbiose over nodule formation and growth.

  15. KAJIAN KONSERVASI Pinus merkusii strain Tapanuli DI SUMATERA

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    Hendi Suhendi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Di Indonesia, Pinus yang tumbuh secara alami hanyalah Pinus merkusii di Sumatera yang terdiri dari strain Tapanuli, strain Kerinci dan strain Aceh. Berdasarkan persebarannya, strain Tapanuli tidak banyak dijumpai karena tercampur dengan jenis-jenis kayu daun lebar. Secara alami, strain Tapanuli ditemukan di Cagar Alam Dolok Sipirok dan Cagar Alam Dolok Saut. Dalam bentuk hutan tanaman, strain Tapanuli dibuat oleh masyarakat atau rakyat dengan anakan alam dan diambil secara cabutan di Tegakan Benih Dolok Tusam, dan sekarang sudah habis ditebang karena digantikan oleh tanaman kopi. Di wilayah kerja Dinas Kehutanan Propinsi Sumatera Utara hampir tidak pernah didapatkan informasi tentang keberadaan strain Tapanuli. Konservasi in situ dalam bentuk Cagar Alam perlu dilengkapi dengan konservasi ex situ. Sebagai langkah awal konservasi, terlebih dahulu perlu dikaji permudaan alamnya. Di samping itu, analisis kebijakan berkaitan dengan pentingnya eksplorasi dengan metode sensus pada semua kawasan konservasi di Sumatera perlu dipertimbangkan, dan pertemuan formal antar pengambil kebijakan di Departemen Kehutanan perlu direkomendasikan

  16. Sexual stability in the nearly dioecious Pinus johannis (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Whipple, Amy V; Gehring, Catherine A; Domínguez, C A

    2013-03-01

    Even though dioecy is a dominant sexual system among gymnosperms, little is known about its evolutionary history. Pinus johannis may represent a model system because unisexual and monoecious individuals compose its populations. The presence of unisexual individuals in other Pinus species is a consequence of sexual lability. Here we determined whether P. johannis represents the first example of a dioecious or nearly dioecious reproductive system in conifers by evaluating its sexual stability. • To assess the stability of sexual expression, we quantified the proportion of male vs. female reproductive structures produced by trees over multiple years and tested for the presence of sexual dimorphism. Sexual lability hypotheses were also examined by looking at the relationship between environmental factors and sexual expression and by comparing the reproductive behavior of P. johannis with its closest labile relative, P. edulis. • Pinus johannis is nearly dioecious: ~99% of individuals are unisexual or express a low proportion of the opposite gender with few changes in sexual expression through time. We found sexual dimorphism consistent with sexual stability. Sexual expression did not vary with tree size/age, abiotic environment, or herbivore removal, providing evidence against sexual lability. Individuals of P. johannis tended to produce only male or female strobili, whereas those of P. edulis were mainly monoecious with a gradient in the female to male strobili ratio. • This study represents the first report of a nearly stable dioecious Pinus species. The variety of sexual morphs coexisting in the same population makes P. johannis a model for studying the evolution of dioecy in gymnosperms.

  17. Genomic DNA extraction from sapwood of Pinus roxburghii for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashish

    2013-02-22

    Feb 22, 2013 ... A method for extraction of genomic DNA from sapwood tissues of mature tall trees of Pinus roxburghii, .... DNA as a template. PCR was performed on a thermal cycler. (Biorad, Mycycler) incorporating 10 ng genomic DNA to a 25 µl reaction mix containing 1X Taq buffer, 3 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM each of dNTPs ...

  18. MICROBIOTA OF PINUS POLLEN AS ADJUVANT FACTOR OF ALLERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Tetiana Shevtsova; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Petrová; Ján Brindza; Kateryna Garkava

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria, their endotoxin and mold found on pollen can be a reason of respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. This question concerns an anemophilous pollen more acute. In this work quantitative by dilution plating method and qualitative microbial analysis by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper of pollen and other plants organs of Pinus sylvestris L., P. nigra Arnold, P. mugo Turra, P. armandii Franch., P. wallichiana A.B. Jacks from Nitra, Slovakia are performed which shows quantitative and species...

  19. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

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    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  20. Biological invasion of Pinus ponderosa and Pinus contorta: case study of a forest plantation in Northwestern Patagonia; Invasion biologica de Pinus ponderosa y Pinus contorta: estudio de caso de una plantacion en la Patagonia noroccidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezzotti, A.; Sbrancia, R.; Mortoro, A.; Monte, C.

    2009-07-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, Pinus species from plantations can bring about processes of biological invasion that cause significant and permanent changes on the structure and functioning of surrounding natural ecosystems. The invasive character of Pinus ponderosa (P) and Pinus contorta (C) was examined for a 20-year old plantation located in the Alicura Forest Station (40 degree centigrade 40' S and 71 degree centigrade 00' W), through the analysis of abundance, age and spatial structures, and dispersal of natural regeneration. Seedlings and saplings were located largely within the plantation boundaries, and exhibited a density of 6.9 ind / ha (41 % for P and 59 % for C), a clustered spatial pattern with clumps dispersed not randomly, and a mean dispersal rate of 9.5 m / yr for P. ponderosa and 5.4 m / yr for P. contorta. Both species were invading the adjacent area, according to technical criteria based on ecological responses. However, regeneration niche is strongly hindering tree establishment and dispersal, probably due to high plant cover, presence of vertic soils, and absence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. These results can contribute to predict the capability of P. contorta and P. ponderosa to become invasive, in order to maximize the positive balance of forestry based on these species in northwestern Patagonia. (Author) 50 refs.

  1. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  2. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  3. Substrates of Mauritia flexuosa and wastewater from pig farming on growth and quality in seedlings of Acacia mangium

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    Emanuel França Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sustainable alternatives should be adopted to minimise the negative environmental impacts of agricultural activities. The use of wastewater as well as organic waste, from agricultural activities or found naturally, such as the decomposed stems of the Buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa, can be a sustainable alternative in the production of seedlings for the reforestation of areas in the process of degradation or desertification, common in the State of Piauí, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate growth and quality in seedlings of Acacia mangium Willd grown in substrates with different proportions of decomposed stems of Mauritia flexuosa (DSB, and irrigated with wastewater from pig farming (WPF. The experimental design was completely randomised, arranged in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five proportions of DSB and soil (v/v,% - 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, and two sources of irrigation water (well water and WPF, with four replications. At 100 days after sowing (DAS, the seedlings were collected to measure the variables related to growth, quality and nodulation. Height, root collar diameter, shoot dry weight, leaf area and nitrogen accumulation in the shoots were significantly influenced (p≤0.05 by the interaction between substrate and source of irrigation water. The WPF had no significant influence on the growth or quality of the Acacia mangium Willd seedlings. The best ratio between DSB substrate and soil was 46:54, considered the most suitable for seedling production in Acacia mangium Willd.

  4. Duration Effect of Acacia Nilotica Leaves Extract and Glibenclamide as Hypolipidaemic and Hypoglycaemic Activity in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Shah, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the duration and effects of aqueous methanol Acacia-nilotica leaves extract and glibenclamide as hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Shifa International Hospital in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad, from September 2010 to August 2011.Male Sprague Dawley albino rats were taken and divided into 8 equal groups. Groups I and II were the normal and diabetic control rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in group II to VIII by administering 110 mg/kg body weight alloxan and at day 4, fasting blood glucose level of >200 mg/dl confirmed diabetes. Acacia-nilotica leaves extract was given to group III, IV and V and glibenclamide to group VI to VIII for a period of 1-3 weeks. Blood samples were analysed for lipid profile using enzymatic calorimetric method and serum insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Results: There were 64 rats in the study, with 8(12.5 percent) in each group. Statistically significant decreases in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and an increase in high density lipoprotein and serum insulin levels were observed in diabetic rats compared to diabetic controls after 2 weeks of treatment with plant extract and glibenclamide (p<0.05 each).When plant extract and drug treated diabetic rats were compared, a significant difference in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were noted after 2 and 3 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Acacia-nilotica leaves extract resulted in hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats similar to glibenclamide. (author)

  5. Ciclagem de nutrientes em Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantificação do conteúdo de nutrientes na biomassa aérea de Acacia mearnsii de wild. Procedência australiana Nutrient cycling in Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantification of nutrient contents in the above-ground biomass of australian provenance of Acacia mearnsii de wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi quantificado o conteúdo de nutrientes na procedência Australiana Bodalla de Acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild., aos 2,4 anos de idade. A procedência encontra-se estabelecida em solo de baixa fertilidade, com acidez elevada e localizado na Fazenda Menezes, no Distrito de Capão Comprido, município de Butiá-RS, pertencente à Empresa Florestal Agroseta S.A.. Foi selecionado um total de nove árvores para comporem as amostras. A amostragem destrutiva constituiu na individualização dos compartimentos da biomassa aérea (folhas, galhos vivos, galhos mortos, casca e madeira visando à determinação da matéria seca e do conteúdo de nutrientes. As quantidades de nutrientes contidos na biomassa aérea total da procedência Bodalla foram de 182,1kg ha-1 de N; 8,2kg ha-1 de P; 104,4kg ha-1 de K; 66,7kg ha-1 de Ca; 16,1kg ha-1 de Mg e 10,0kg ha-1 de S. Na procedência Bodalla, 57,4% da matéria seca foi alocada para folhas, galhos vivos e galhos mortos, contento 74% do N; 72,1% do P; 63% do K; 68,5% do Ca, 69,3% do Mg e 74,1% do S do total existente na parte aérea. O componente fuste ( casca e madeira acumulou 26% do N; 27,9% do P; 37% do K; 31,5% do Ca; 30,7% do Mg e 25,8% do S.Nutrient contents of 2.4 years old black wattle (., from Bodalla Australian provenance, were quantified. This provenance was established on soils of low fertility and high acidity, at Menezes Farm of Agroseta S.A. Forest CompAcacia mearnsii De Wildany in the Capão Comprido District, municipality of Butiá-RS. A total of nine trees were selected to form the sample. The destructive sampling was constituted in the individualization of compartments of above-ground biomass (leaves, live branches, dead branches, bark and wood to determine dry matter and nutrient contents. The quantity of total nutrients in the above-ground biomass from Bodalla provenance was 182.1kg ha-1 of N; 8.2kg ha-1 of P; 104.4kg ha-1 of K; 66.7kg ha-1 of Ca; 16.1kg ha-1 of

  6. Effect of feeding Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. on goats stabled during late pregnancy and lactation Efecto de la alimentación con Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. en caprinos estabulados en el último tercio de prenez y lactancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Meneses R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. forage is an alternative feed supply for goats during dry periods It was used as feed during pregnancy and lactation to evaluate production response and some blood parameters. Six animals in each group were fed with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of acacia as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. hay replacement in a completely randomized design. Forage chemical analysis was done to calculate nutrient intake. Blood samples were analyzed for albumin, urea N, globulin, total protein, Ca, and P. Productive parameters were analyzed by ANOVA, Duncan, and regression analyses between acacia and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, metabolizable energy (ME, and milk production. Acacia consumption during pregnancy was 65.5% of control, affected by the consumption of CP, ME intake and body condition (P La Acacia saligna es una alternativa de alimentación para caprinos, por lo que se ofreció a hembras en prenez y lactancia para evaluar su respuesta y algunos parámetros sanguíneos. Los animales fueron asignados a grupos que recibieron 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de acacia en reemplazo de heno de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., en un diseno completamente al azar. Análisis químico de forraje fue realizado para calcular consumo de nutrientes. Albumina, N úrico, globulinas, proteína total, Ca, y P fueron analizados en sangre. Se controló peso, condición corporal, y peso de nacimiento. Se realizó ANDEVA, Duncan, y regresión para acacia y las variables evaluadas. El consumo de acacia en la prenez fue 65,5% del control, afectó el consumo de proteína cruda (PC, energía metabolizable (EM y condición corporal (P < 0,01. El peso corporal no fue afectado (P < 0,01, siendo 25,9% el nivel límite de inclusión de acacia. El peso de nacimiento fue diferente con 100% de acacia (P < 0,05. En lactancia, el consumo de MS, PC, y EM aumentó (P < 0,01. Niveles de 50 y 25% acacia disminuyeron el peso y la condición corporal. El N úrico y albumina fueron

  7. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DAS PODAS DAS LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS Gliricidia sepium E Acacia angustissima EM UM SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Diniz de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Agroforestry Systems (SAFs bring multiple benefits and they are an alternative to minimize environmental degradation, and to achieve a sustainable development, due to greatest diversity of species. This study evaluated the contribution of the leguminous trees, gliricídia sepium and Acacia angustissima , grown in alley cropping of banana ( Musa sp. and “açaí” palm ( Euterpe oleraceae used as green manure in the implantation of an Agroforestry Systems. They were compared the production of biomass, nutrients cycling, nitrogen intake, activity and diversity of soil fauna, and banana productivity in the SAF, and with the usage of the legume Pueraria phaseoloides and nitrogen fertilization. The SAF implantation occurred in May 2004, at the Research Center of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. The following year it was planted the forest African mahogany specie ( Kaya senegalensis , at the centre of the legumes alleys. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the leguminous trees arranged between the lines of bananas and the “açaí” palm, and they were: acacia angustíssima ( Acacia angustissima , tropical kudzu ( Pueraria phaseoloides , and gliricídia (G liricídia sepium ; besides application of nitrogen as urea and spontaneous vegetation. To quantify the production of biomass, and the release of N, P, Ca, Mg and K, the legumes branches were cut and the kudzu tropical and spontaneous vegetation were mowed, in the rainy and dry seasons. The determination of remaining dry matter, releasing of nutrients, decomposition rates, and half life time of plant residues were held to 50 grams of fresh material from litterbags, placed on the soil surface, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 75 days after the installation of the experiment. Acacia angustissima and kudzu tropical showed higher dry biomass, 9.5 and 10.8 Mg ha

  8. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  9. Effect of efficient microorganisms on cation exchange capacity in acacia seedlings (Acacia melanoxylon) for soil recovery in Mondonedo, Cundinamarca; Accion de microorganismos eficientes sobre la actividad de intercambio cationico en plantulas de acacia (Acacia melanoxylon Burret) para la recuperacion de un suelo del municipio de Mondonedo, Cundinamarca.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olga Angelica, Diaz Barragan; Diana Mercedes, Montero Robayo; Jesus Alberto, Lagos Caballero

    2009-07-01

    We determined the effect of efficient microorganisms (EM) on the cation exchange capacity for soil recovery in the municipality of Mondonedo, Cundinamarca. A greenhouse unit was installed in order to maintain stable conditions. After harvesting, sifted and homogenization of the soil sample, initial physical and chemical analyses were made. For the experimental units we used Acacia melanoxylon seedlings from Zabrinsky. A completely randomized design was done with eight treatments and three repetitions. For the maintenance and monitoring of the seedlings behaviour, a frequency of irrigation of three times per week was found. The application of the EM was done during three months: in the first month, it was applied four times (once a week); during the second month, it was applied twice (biweekly), and during the third month there was only one application. Additionally, every 15 days morphological analyses were made (number of leaves, branches and stem diameter). In the end, soil samples were taken from each plant pot. In the laboratory we analysed the cation exchange capacity, alkali ion exchange, saturation alkali, relations between elements and plant tissue. These were done using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses consisted on multiple comparisons test and variance tests, in order to find whether or not treatments exhibited significant differences. In that way, the best alternative for improving environmental quality of eroded soils as the Zabrinsky desert is the efficient microorganisms in 5% doses in irrigation water. Additionally, the cation exchange capacity must be enhanced using organic fertilizers (compost, mulch and gallinaza) in one pound doses, and chemical fertilizers: electrolytic Mn (0.0002 g), Cu (0.0002 g), Zn (0.0001 g), URFOS 44 (166.66 g) and klip-boro (5 g).

  10. Spatial genetic structure within populations and management implications of the South American species Acacia aroma (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pometti, Carolina; Bessega, Cecilia; Cialdella, Ana; Ewens, Mauricio; Saidman, Beatriz; Vilardi, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The identification of factors that structure intraspecific diversity is of particular interest for biological conservation and restoration ecology. All rangelands in Argentina are currently experiencing some form of deterioration or desertification. Acacia aroma is a multipurpose species widely distributed throughout this country. In this study, we used the AFLP technique to study genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in 170 individuals belonging to 6 natural Argentinean populations. With 401 loci, the mean heterozygosity (HE = 0.2) and the mean percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL = 62.1%) coefficients indicated that the genetic variation is relatively high in A. aroma. The analysis with STRUCTURE showed that the number of clusters (K) was 3. With Geneland analysis, the number of clusters was K = 4, sharing the same grouping as STRUCTURE but dividing one population into two groups. When studying SGS, significant structure was detected in 3 of 6 populations. The neighbourhood size in these populations ranged from 15.2 to 64.3 individuals. The estimated gene dispersal distance depended on the effective population density and disturbance level and ranged from 45 to 864 m. The combined results suggest that a sampling strategy, which aims to maintain a considerable part of the variability contained in natural populations sampled here, would include at least 3 units defined by the clusters analyses that exhibit particular genetic properties. Moreover, the current SGS analysis suggests that within the wider management units/provinces, seed collection from A. aroma should target trees separated by a minimum distance of 50 m but preferably 150 m to reduce genetic relatedness among seeds from different trees.

  11. Stability and solubility improvement of Sompoi (Acacia concinna Linn. pod extract by topical microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worrapan Poomanee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance the solubility and stability of Acacia concinna extract by loading in a microemulsion for topical application. Both physical appearance and biological activities of the extract-loaded microemulsion were determined in comparison with the extract solution. Pseudoternary phase diagrams of three oil types including tea seed oil, grape seed oil, and sesame oil, together with polysorbate 85 or the mixture of polysorbate 85 and sorbitan oleate as surfactants, and absolute ethanol as a co-surfactant were constructed to optimize the microemulsion area. The selected microemulsion was then characterized for droplet size, polydispersity index, and viscosity. Tea seed oil exhibited the highest microemulsion area in the phase diagram because it had the highest unsaturated fatty acid content. The microemulsion composed of tea seed oil (5%, polysorbate 85 (40%, ethanol (20%, and water (35% exhibited Newtonian flow behavior with the droplet size and polydispersity index of 68.03 ± 1.09 nm and 0.44 ± 0.04, respectively. After 4% w/w of the extract was incorporated into the microemulsion, larger droplets size was observed (239.77 ± 12.69 nm with a lower polydispersity index (0.37 ± 0.02. After storage in various conditions, both physical appearances and the stability of biological activity of the extract-loaded microemulsion were improved compared to the solution. Therefore, the A. concinna loaded microemulsion may be a promising carrier for further development into a topical formulation and clinical trials for pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications are also suggested.

  12. Polar extracts from (Tunisian Acacia salicina Lindl. Study of the antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubaker Jihed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanolic, aqueous and Total Oligomer Flavonoids (TOF-enriched extracts obtained from the leaves of Acacia salicina 'Lindl.' were investigated for antibacterial, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested on the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains. The Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD, and indirect acting mutagens, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA and benzo[a]pyrene (B(aP were performed with S. typhimurium TA102 and TA98 assay systems. In addition, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of the tested extracts. Results A significant effect against the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains was observed with all the extracts. The mutagenic and antimutagenic studies revealed that all the extracts decreased the mutagenicity induced by B(aP (7.5 μg/plate, 2-AA (5 μg/plate, MMS (1.3 mg/plate and NOPD (10 μg/plate. Likewise, all the extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system, as well as high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC, against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS+• radical. TOF-enriched extract exhibited the highest protective effect against free radicals, direct acting-mutagen and metabolically activated S9-dependent mutagens. Conclusions The present study indicates that the extracts from A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances.

  13. Investigation of the rumen microbial community responsible for degradation of a putative toxin in Acacia angustissima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.M.C.; Blackall, L.L.; Mcsweeney, C.S.; Krause, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    Acacia angustissima has been proposed as a protein supplement in countries where availability of high quality fodder for grazing animals is a problem due to extreme, dry climates. While A. angustissima thrives in harsh environments and provides valuable nutrients required by ruminants, it has also been found to contain anti-nutritive factors that currently preclude its widespread application. A number of non-protein amino acids have been identified in the leaves of A. angustissima and in the past these have been linked to toxicity in ruminants. The non-protein amino acid 4-n-acetyl-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (ADAB) had been determined to be the major non-protein amino acid in the leaves of A. angustissima. Thus, in this study, the aim was to identify microorganisms from the rumen environment capable of degrading ADAB. Using an ADAB-containing plant extract, a mixed enrichment culture was obtained that exhibited substantial ADAB-degrading ability. Attempts to isolate an ADAB-degrading micro-organism were carried out, but no isolates were able to degrade ADAB in pure culture. The mixed microbial community of the ADAB-degrading enrichment culture was further examined through the use of pure-culture-independent techniques. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to investigate the diversity within this sample. In addition two bacterial 16S rDNA clone libraries were constructed in an attempt to further elucidate the members of the microbial population. The clone libraries were constructed from serial dilutions of the enrichment culture, a 10 -5 dilution where complete degradation of ADAB occurred, and a 10 -7 dilution where ADAB degradation did not occur. Through the comparison of these two libraries it was hypothesized that clones belonging to the Firmicutes phylum were involved in ADAB degradation. A FISH probe, ADAB1268, was then designed to target these clones and was applied to the enrichment cultures to investigate their relative abundance within the

  14. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

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    S.K. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be predicted.

  15. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological Activity of Tannins from Acacia mangium Bark Extracted by Different Solvents

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    E. Wina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium bark is abundant byproduct of wood industry in Indonesia. It is underutilized and mainly used as fire wood for the wood industry. The bark contains high level of tannin but the tannin has not been extracted or produced commercially. Tannin isolate can be used for several purposes such as tanning agent for leather, adhesive for plywood or particle board, etc. In ruminant, tannin can be detrimental but can also be beneficial. This experiment was aimed of getting the highest yield of tannin extract with the highest biological activity in rumen fermentation. Nine different solvents at different temperatures were used to extract tannin from A. mangium bark. The extracts were analyzed for their tannin contents and biological activities. Tannin content was analyzed using folin ciocalteau and butanol-HCl methods. Biological activity was described as a percentage of an increase in gas production in the in vitro rumen-buffer fermentation, with and without addition of PEG. The results show that Na2SO3 solution extracted more tannin than other solutions and the higher the concentration of Na2SO3 solution, the higher the yield of tannin extract. The solution of 6% sodium sulphite gave the highest yield of tannin extract (31.2% of original bark sample and the highest concentration of tannin (18.26% but produced a negative effect on in vitro fermentation (% increase of gas production = 2.70%. Extraction with 50% acetone gave a high yield of extract (22.28% of original bark which contained 12.98% of tannin and showed the highest biological response (% increase of gas production = 216%. In conclusion, sodium sulphite solution is not recommended for tannin extraction if the tannin will be used as feed additive in ruminant feed; on the other hand, the aqueous acetone (50% acetone solution is a better choice to be used.

  17. The effects of temperature and salinity on Acacia harpophylla (brigalow) (Mimosaceae) germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichman, S.M.; Bellairs, S.M.; Mulligan, D.R. [Lincoln University, Lincoln (New Zealand). Division of Agriculture & Life Science

    2006-07-01

    Some coal mining companies in central Queensland have become interested in providing habitat for the endangered bridle nail-tailed wallaby that lives in brigalow vegetation. However, there is little known about establishment techniques for brigalow on mine sites and other disturbed ground; an understanding of brigalow biology and ecology is required to assist in the conservation of this threatened vegetation community and for re-creation of bridled nail-tail wallaby habitat in the post mining landscape. Brigalow is an unusual species of Acacia because it is not hard-seeded and germinates readily without the need to break seed-coat imposed dormancy. Germination trials were undertaken to test the ability of brigalow seed to germinate with a range of temperatures and salinity levels similar to those experienced in coal mine spoil. Optimum germination was found to occur at temperatures from 15 to 38{sup o}C and no germination was recorded at 45{sup o}C. Brigalow was very tolerant of high salt levels and germinated at percentages greater than 50% up to the highest salinity tested, 30 dS/m. Germination of greater than 90% occurred up to an electrical conductivity of 20 dS/m. The results indicate brigalow seed can be sown in summer when rains are most likely to occur; however, shading of the seed with extra soil or mulch may ensure the ground surface does not become too hot for germination. Because of its ability to germinate at high salinity levels, brigalow may be suitable for use in saline mine wastes which are common on sites to be rehabilitated after mining.

  18. Photosynthesis and sink activity of wasp-induced galls in Acacia pycnantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchin, Netta; Cramer, Michael D; Hoffmann, John H

    2006-07-01

    Although insect galls are widely known to influence source-sink relationships in plants, the relationship between photosynthesis and gall activity has not been extensively studied. In this study we used 14CO2, photosynthesis, and respiration measurements to examine the capacity of bud galls induced by the wasp Trichilogaster signiventris (Pteromalidae) as carbon sinks in Acacia pycnantha. Galls of this species develop either in vegetative or reproductive buds, depending on the availability of tissues at different times of the year, and effectively eliminate seed production by the plant. Photosynthetic rates in phyllodes subtending clusters of galls were greater than rates in control phyllodes, a result we attributed to photosynthesis compensating for increased carbon demand by the galls. Contrary to previous studies, we found that photosynthesis within galls contributed substantially to the carbon budgets of the galls, particularly in large, mature galls, which exhibited lower specific respiration rates allowing for a net carbon gain in the light. To determine the sink capacity and competitive potential of galls, we measured the proportion of specific radioactivity in galls originating from either vegetative or reproductive buds and found no difference between them. The proportion of the total amount of phyllode-derived 14C accumulated in both clustered and solitary galls was less than that in fruits. Galls and fruits were predominantly reliant on subtending rather than on distant phyllodes for photosynthate. Solitary galls that developed in vegetative buds constituted considerably stronger sinks than galls in clusters on inflorescences where there was competition between galls or fruits for resources from the subtending phyllode. Wasps developing in solitary vegetative galls were correspondingly significantly larger than those from clustered galls. We conclude that, in the absence of inflorescence buds during summer and fall, the ability of the wasps to cause gall

  19. Hepatoprotective and Antiviral Efficacy of Acacia mellifera Leaves Fractions against Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. Arbab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the hepatoprotective and anti-HBV efficacy of Acacia mellifera (AM leaves extracts. The crude ethanolic-extract, including organic and aqueous fractions, were tested for cytotoxicity on HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells (IC50 = 684 μg/mL. Of these, the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-toxicated cells at 48 h. In CCl4-injured rats, oral administration of AM ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg·bw for three weeks significantly normalized the sera aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein levels and elevated tissue nonprotein sulphydryl and total protein. The histopathology of dissected livers also revealed that AM cured the tissue lesions. The phytochemical screening of the fractions showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, and saponins. Further, anti-HBV potential of the fractions was evaluated on HepG2.2.15 cells. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions exhibited the best inhibitory effects on HBsAg and HBeAg expressions in dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, while the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions exhibited the most promising antioxidant/hepatoprotective and anti-HBV activity, respectively, the n-butanol partition showed both activities. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of AM extracts warrants further isolation of the active principle(s and its phytochemical as well as biological studies.

  20. Polyphenols isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark with anti-inflammatory and carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jia; GRACE Mary H; ESPOSITO Debora; KOMARNYTSKY Slavko; WANG Fei; LILA Mary Ann

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the polyphenols isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark crude extract (B) and fractions (B1-B7) obtained by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and evaluate their anti-inflammatory and carbolytic enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) inhibitory activities.Fractions B4,B5,B6,B7 (total phenolics 850.3,983.0,843.9,and 572.5 mg·g-1,respectively;proanthocyanidins 75.7,90.5,95.0,and 44.8 mg·g-1,respectively) showed significant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS),nitric oxide (NO) production,and expression of pro-inflammatory genes interleukin-lβ (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.All the extracts suppressed α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities,two primary enzymes responsible for carbohydrate digestion.A.mearnsii bark samples possessed significantly stronger inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC50 of 0.4-1.4 tg·mL-1) than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 141.8 μg·mL-1).B6 and B7 (IC5017.6 and 11.7 μg·mL-1,respectively) exhibited α-amylase inhibitory activity as efficacious as acarbose (IC50 15.4 μg·mL-1).Moreover,B extract,at 25 μg·mL-l,significantly decreased the non-mitochondrial oxidative burst that is often associated with inflammatory response in human monocytic macrophages.