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Sample records for pinus nigra mediante

  1. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa; Pala, Mauro; Bonaccurso, Bruna; Stella, Anna; Redaelli, Anna; Paola, Gaudenzio; Valerio, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated

  2. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)]. E-mail: chimamb@istge.it; Pala, Mauro [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Bonaccurso, Bruna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Stella, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Redaelli, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Paola, Gaudenzio [Botany Department, Genoa University, C.so Dogali 1 canc., 16136 Genova (Italy); Valerio, Federico [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated.

  3. Mycorrhization of containerised Pinus nigra seedlings with Suillus granulatus under open field conditions

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    Lazarevic, J.; Keca, N.; Martinovie, A.

    2012-07-01

    Seedling mycorrhization acts as an efficient tool for improving the quality of seedlings. In this study, the effectiveness of Suillus granulatus, originating from Pinus heldreichii forests (Montenegro), to produce containerized ectomycorrhizal seedlings of autochthonous Pinus nigra in open field conditions was investigated. Spore (106, 107, 108) and vegetative (1:16, 1:8, 1:4) inoculation on ectomycorrhizal formation and seedling growth were tested. Spore and vegetative inoculums of autochthonous Pisolithus arhizus were used in the same trial as additional control treatments. The utilization of vegetative and spore inoculums of autochthonous S. granulatus has proven to be an effective method of obtaining containerized ectomycorrhizal P. nigra seedlings under open field conditions after 11 months. S. granulatus spore inoculations resulted in well developed ectomycorrhiza, decreasing the growth of the P. nigra seedlings in the first growing season. Mycelial inoculations resulted in slightly developed S. granulatus ectomycorrhiza, which increased the growth of the seedlings. Therefore, it would be feasible to use spore inocula of S. granulatus, with 10{sup 6} spores per plant, to produce ectomycorrhizal P. nigra plants on a large scale. Controlled mycorrhizal inoculation of seedlings is not a common practice in Montenegrin and Serbian nurseries; as such, the obtained results will contribute to the enhancement of nursery production of Pinus nigra and other conifers. This also could be assumed as a starting point for many further efforts and investigations with autochthonous fungal and plant material in this region. (Author) 47 refs.

  4. Composition of the essential oils of Pinus nigra Arnold from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Turkey, Composition of the essential oils of Pin

    2010-01-01

    Essential oil composition of the needles of Pinus nigra Arnold collected from different localities in Turkey was investigated by GC and GC/MS. The main components in the oils were a-pinene, b-pinene, b-caryophyllene, and germacrene D.

  5. Composition of the essential oils of Pinus nigra Arnold from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Turkey, Composition of the essential oils of Pin; SEZİK, Ekrem; ÜSTÜN, Osman; DEMİRCİ, Betül; BAŞER, K. Hüsnü Can

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil composition of the needles of Pinus nigra Arnold collected from different localities in Turkey was investigated by GC and GC/MS. The main components in the oils were a-pinene, b-pinene, b-caryophyllene, and germacrene D.

  6. Intra- and interpopulation relationships and taxonomic status of Pinus nigra Arnold in Croatia according to morphology and anatomy of needles

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    Zlatko Liber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational relationships and taxonomic status of six natural black pine populations (Pinus nigra Arnold from Croatia were analyzed. Special attention in this research was paid to the establishment of taxonomic status and distribution of stenoendemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. dalmatica (Vis. Franco. Three morphological and twenty-one anatomical traits of needles were used as well as analysis by the methods of multivariate statistics. Most of the researched individuals showed strong population affiliation, whereas a clinal transition of morphological and anatomical traits of needles was determined among the populations. The opinion of the existence of three subspecies of black pine on the territory of Republic of Croatia (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. nigra, Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. dalmatica (Vis. Franco and Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. illyrica (Vid. Fukarek was confirmed. For each of the three subspecies new ranges were represented. Four Croatian populations were included in the stenoendemic subspecies of the Dalmatian black pine (Brač, Hvar, Grobnik and Pelješac, and a new distribution, broken in two, was suggested. Since the Dalmatian black pine has been reduced to several populations only, and there are some signs of continuous diminishing of its range, this research points out the need of making an action plan to preserve all natural populations of this subspecies.

  7. Diversity and expression of nitrogenase genes (nifH) from ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-12-01

    The diversity of bacterial nitrogenase genes (nifH) and their mRNA transcription in ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) were examined. DNA and RNA were extracted from surface-sterilized and non-sterilized Corsican pine roots colonized by the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Suillus variegatus and Tomentellopsis submollis. DNA-derived nifH polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were obtained from all samples, but only a few reverse transcription PCRs for nifH mRNA were successful, suggesting that nitrogenase genes were not always transcribed. Several different nifH sequences were detected and the bacteria actively transcribing nifH were different from those whose genes were detected through DNA-based PCR. Putative nitrogenase amino acid sequences revealed that more than half of the nifH products were derived from methylotrophic bacteria, such as Methylocella spp. The next most frequent sequence types were similar to those from Burkholderia.

  8. Effects of water stress on germination of Pinus nigra Arnold. seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topacoglu, O.; Sevik, H.; Akkuzu, E.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change, global warming and the deterioration of related environmental conditions cause an important problem for forest tree species. For this reason, it is necessary to determine the response of trees to these conditions. The Objective of this study was to investigate the effects of water stress on seed germination of fifteen Pinus nigra Arnold. provenances in Turkey. For this purpose, the water stresses between 0 and -8.0 bars were obtained using polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG) solutions. Seeds were kept for 35 days at 20 ± 0.5 degree C. In this study, significant variations between the provenances were found. Ankara Uluhan ( percent 95, 08) and Isparta Tota ( percent 85, 41) provenances at -8.0 bars having the highest cumulative germination percentages were the most resistant provenances against the water stress. This study has shown that the water stress reduced the germination speed, germination percentage and germination value. (author)

  9. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model.

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    Rafael M. Navarro-Cerrillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería. Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm, basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1 and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2 in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1, age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99 between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68. Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. Keywords: Hybrid process model; forest management models; growth prediction; Pinus spp, Parameterization; forest decline.

  10. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, R.M.; Beira, J.; Suarez, J.; Xenakis, G.; Sánchez-Salguero, R.; Hernández-Clemente, R.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería). Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm), basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1) and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2) in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1), age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB) included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99) between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68). Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. (Author)

  11. Soil Respiration Changes after Prescribed Fires in Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii Monospecific and Mixed Forest Stands

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    Pedro Antonio Plaza-Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration is a major carbon pathway sensitive to environmental changes. Using prescribed burnings to reduce fuel accumulation and lower risks of large-scale wildfires has recently become more important. Prescribed burning can significantly alter the soil environment, but its effect in practice on soil respiration is not sufficiently understood. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning on soil respiration before and after burning (May–July 2016. Prescribed burning was conducted in two natural pine areas by comparing a mixed stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii with Pinus pinaster Ait. to a pure stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii in the central Iberian Peninsula. Soil respiration was measured by an EGM-4 (Environmental Gas Monitor infrared gas analyser in both burned and unburned (control plots. Burnings were low-intensity, and slightly more energetic in the pure stand given its larger litter volume. Post-burning soil respiration followed a similar evolution to that in the control plots, but was greater in the pure stand burned zone and slightly lower in the burned plots in the mixed stand. No significant differences were found in any stand. Soil respiration significantly changed in temporal evolution due to increasing temperatures when summer began. We conclude that prescribed fire induces no changes in SR immediately after fire. This study helps understand how prescribed burnings can affect soil respiration in pure and mixed Spanish black pine forest stands.

  12. Chemotaxonomic significance of the terpene composition in natural populations of Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Zorica; Bojović, Srdjan; Nikolić, Biljana; Tešević, Vele; Ethorđević, Iris; Marin, Petar D

    2013-08-01

    The essential-oil variability in seven native populations belonging to different infraspecific taxa of Pinus nigra (ssp. nigra, var. gocensis, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) growing wild in Serbia was analyzed. In the needles of 195 trees from seven populations, 58 essential-oil components were identified. The major components were α-pinene (43.6%) and germacrene D (29.8%), comprising together 73.4% of the total oil composition. Based on the average chemical profile of the main terpene components (with contents >5%), the studied populations were found to be the most similar to populations from central Italy and Greece (ssp. nigra). Cluster analysis showed the division of the populations into three principal groups: the first group consisted of Populations I, II, III, IV, and V (considered as ssp. nigra group), the second of Population VI (ssp. pallasiana group), and the third of Population VII, which had the most distinct oil composition (ssp. banatica group). The taxonomic implications of the essential-oil profiles of the investigated taxa of this very complex species are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Essential oils of Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold subsp. laricio Maire: Chemical composition and study of their herbicidal potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Amri; Mohsen Hanana; Bassem Jamoussi; Lamia Hamrouni

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the needles of Tunisian Pinus nigra L. subsp. laricio was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. 27 compounds were identified, representing 97.9% of total oil, which was found to be rich in oxygenated diterpenes (38.5%) particularly manool oxide (38%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (41.4%) that included germacrene D (16.7%), δ-cadinene (9%) and (E)-caryophyllene (8.9%). Results of the herbicidal effects of the oil when tested on...

  14. Essential oils of Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold subsp. laricio Maire: Chemical composition and study of their herbicidal potential

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    Ismail Amri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the needles of Tunisian Pinus nigra L. subsp. laricio was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. 27 compounds were identified, representing 97.9% of total oil, which was found to be rich in oxygenated diterpenes (38.5% particularly manool oxide (38% and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (41.4% that included germacrene D (16.7%, δ-cadinene (9% and (E-caryophyllene (8.9%. Results of the herbicidal effects of the oil when tested on Phalaris canariensis L., Trifolium campestre Schreb. and Sinapis arvensis L., indicated that the oil completely inhibited germination and seedling growth at a high concentration (5 μL/mL−1, while at low doses the oil acted by decreasing germination and partially inhibiting seedling growth of all tested weeds.

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica).

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    Politeo, Olivera; Skocibusic, Mirjana; Maravic, Ana; Ruscic, Mirko; Milos, Mladen

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil isolated from the needles of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica) from Croatia were investigated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC and GC/MS analyses, and the main compounds identified were α-pinene, β-pinene, germacrene D, and β-caryophyllene. Disc-diffusion and broth-microdilution assays were used for the in vitro antimicrobial screening. The Dalmatian black pine essential oil exhibited a great potential of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC=0.03-0.50% (v/v)) and a less pronounced activity against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC=0.12-3.2% (v/v)). The volatile compounds also inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including yeast. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Effectiveness of mechanical thinning and prescribed burning on fire behavior in Pinus nigra forests in NE Spain.

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    Piqué, Míriam; Domènech, Rut

    2018-03-15

    Fuel treatments can mitigate present and future impacts of climate change by reducing fire intensity and severity. In recent years, Pinus nigra forests in the Mediterranean basin have been dramatically affected by the new risk of highly intense and extreme fires and its distribution area has been reduced. New tools are necessary for assessing the management of these forests so they can adapt to the challenges to come. Our main goal was to evaluate the effects of different fuel treatments on Mediterranean Pinus nigra forests. We assessed the forest response, in terms of forest structure and fire behavior, to different intensities of low thinning treatments followed by different slash prescriptions (resulting in: light thinning and lop and scatter; light thinning and burn; heavy thinning and lop and scatter; heavy thinning and burn; and, untreated control). Treatments that used fire to decrease the resulting slash were the most effective for reducing active crown fires decreasing the rate of spread and flame length more than 89%. Low thinning had an effect on torching potential, but there was no difference between intensities of thinning. Only an outcoming crown fire could spread actively if it was sustained by a high-enough constant wind speed and enough surface fuel load. Overall, treatments reduce fire intensity and treated areas have a more homogenous fire behavior response than untreated areas. This provides opportunities to extinguish the fire and reduce the probability of trees dying from the fire. It would be helpful to include ecological principles and fire behavior criteria in silvicultural treatment guidelines in order to perform more efficient management techniques in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. RAPD markers and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold intraspecies taxonomy - Evidence from the study of nine populations

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    Zlatko Liber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although intraspecies researches within the black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold have a long tradition, the intraspecies taxonomy, classification and chorology are still unclear. Among the numerous reasons that have caused this situation the most important are: the absence of a study that would completely cover the whole range of this species, the impossibility of connection of results of the existing detailed studies of certain areas, and the high variability of traits which have been used so far. Since the characteristics of the molecular systematic techniques could make possible the research free of the mentioned shortages, the intention of this study was to determine the relationships among nine populations of black pine using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. The obtained results were compared to the recent results of the morphological and anatomical analysis of the leaves of the same populations. The RAPD results clearly divided the Croatian populations from populations of Austria (subsp. nigra and Turkey (subsp. pallasiana, while among Croatian populations, as in previous study, the existence of several groups (subsp. illyrica, subsp. dalmatica and transitional population between them was noticed. It is assumed that the optimisations conducted in this study will finally make possible estimating the relationships on the level of the whole range of the black pine and the classification based on molecular traits that are probably less dependent on environmental influences than it has been the case with the characteristics mostly used so far.

  18. Future scenarios and conservation strategies for a rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra Arnold in Italian central Apennines

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    Maurizio Marchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To forecast the effects of climate change on the spatial distribution of Black pine of Villetta Barrea in its natural range and to define a possible conservation strategy for the species Area of study: A rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra spp. nigra in Abruzzo region, central Italian Apennines Matherials and Methods: For its adaptive and genetic traits this population is considered endemic of the Italian peninsula and represents a rear-edge marginal population of nigra subspecies. The spatial distribution of the tree in the administrative Region (Abruzzo was used to define the ecological traits while three modelling techniques (GLM, GAM, Random Forest were used to build a Species distribution model according to two climatic scenarios. Main results: The marginal population's range was predicted to shift at higher elevations as consequence of climatic adaptation. Many zones, represented by the higher part of the mountains surrounding the study area (currently bare and inhospitable for trees, were identified as suitable in future for the species. However, in the case of a rapid climate change, this marginal population may not be able to move as fast as necessary. An in-situ adaptive management integrated with an assisted migration protocol might be considered to enforce the natural regeneration and improve the richness and variability of the genetic pool. Research highlights: Most of the genetic richness is held in small populations at the borders of natural distribution of forest species. Monitoring this MAP could be useful to understand the adaptive processes of the species and could support the future management of many other within-core populations. Keywords: Species Distribution Models; Mediterranean forests; Abruzzo; climate change; altitudinal shift.

  19. Future scenarios and conservation strategies for a rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra Arnold in Italian central Apennines

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    Marchi, M.; Nocentini, S.; Ducci, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To forecast the effects of climate change on the spatial distribution of Black pine of Villetta Barrea in its natural range and to define a possible conservation strategy for the species. Area of study: A rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra spp. nigra in Abruzzo region, central Italian Apennines. Matherials and Methods: For its adaptive and genetic traits this population is considered endemic of the Italian peninsula and represents a rear-edge marginal population of nigra subspecies. The spatial distribution of the tree in the administrative Region (Abruzzo) was used to define the ecological traits while three modelling techniques (GLM, GAM, Random Forest) were used to build a Species distribution model according to two climatic scenarios. Main results: The marginal population's range was predicted to shift at higher elevations as consequence of climatic adaptation. Many zones, represented by the higher part of the mountains surrounding the study area (currently bare and inhospitable for trees), were identified as suitable in future for the species. However, in the case of a rapid climate change, this marginal population may not be able to move as fast as necessary. An in-situ adaptive management integrated with an assisted migration protocol might be considered to enforce the natural regeneration and improve the richness and variability of the genetic pool. Research highlights: Most of the genetic richness is held in small populations at the borders of natural distribution of forest species. Monitoring this MAP could be useful to understand the adaptive processes of the species and could support the future management of many other within-core populations. (Author)

  20. Large-Scale Regeneration Patterns of Pinus nigra Subsp. salzmannii: Poor Evidence of Increasing Facilitation Across a Drought Gradient

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    Pedro Antonio Tíscar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree recruitment is a key process underlying stand dynamics and sustainability in managed forests. Woody plant cover is known to affect the regeneration success of Pinus nigra, suggesting the existence of facilitative plant-plant interactions. The regeneration patterns of this Mediterranean pine were analyzed across its distribution area, using data from 3226 plots of the Spanish National Forest Inventory. We aimed to test the hypothesis that seedlings establishment occurs under higher values of either canopy or shrub cover in the driest populations, as predicted by the stress-gradient hypothesis. Data were analyzed by means of Generalized Linear Models and multivariate methods. Results revealed that regeneration failure occurs on a regional scale, and that regeneration is facilitated by tree canopy cover of 55%–80%. A non-linear pattern of interaction along an aridity gradient was identified, with competition at the wettest site, high facilitation at the mid-dry sites, and low facilitation at the driest site. Evidence suggests that some shrub species may facilitate recruitment in the harsher areas. Collectively, our results reduce the possibilities of adapting forest management to drying climates by the application of alternative silvicultural prescriptions involving canopy cover.

  1. Effect on Shear Strength of Machining Methods in Pinus nigra Arnold Bonded with Polyurethane and Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesives

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    Murat Kılıç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Specimens taken from Pinus nigra Arnold were subject to surfacing techniques by being cut with a circular saw, planed with a thickness machine, and sanded with a calibrating sanding machine (with P80 grit sandpaper. First, their surface roughness values were measured; then, the specimens were processed in the machines in a radial and tangential process. Afterwards, the change in shear strength (adhesiveness resistance was analyzed as a result of bonding with various adhesive types (PVAc, PU and pressure applications (0.45 N/mm² or 0.9 N/mm². Approximately 600 specimens were prepared with the purpose of identifying the effect of variables on the bonding performance, and they were subjected to shear testing. The greatest shear strength achieved for both the tangential and radial surfaces in terms of cutting was observed in specimens processed in the thickness machine, on which polyvinyl acetate adhesive and 0.9 N/mm². pressure were applied. Specimens bonded with polyvinyl acetate adhesive displayed higher shear strength in general in comparison to those bonded with polyurethane for both tangential and radial surfaces.

  2. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  3. Are the Economically Optimal Harvesting Strategies of Uneven-Aged Pinus nigra Stands Always Sustainable and Stabilizing?

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    Carmen Fullana-Belda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional uneven-aged forest management seeks a balance between equilibrium stand structure and economic profitability, which often leads to harvesting strategies concentrated in the larger diameter classes. The sustainability (i.e., population persistence over time and influence of such economically optimal strategies on the equilibrium position of a stand (given by the stable diameter distribution have not been sufficiently investigated in prior forest literature. This article therefore proposes a discrete optimal control model to analyze the sustainability and stability of the economically optimal harvesting strategies of uneven-aged Pinus nigra stands. For this model, we rely on an objective function that integrates financial data of harvesting operations with a projection matrix model that can describe the population dynamics. The model solution reveals the optimal management schedules for a wide variety of scenarios. To measure the distance between the stable diameter distribution and the economically optimal harvesting strategy distribution, the model uses Keyfitz’s delta, which returns high values for all the scenarios and, thus, suggests that those economically optimal harvesting strategies have an unstabilizing influence on the equilibrium positions. Moreover, the economically optimal harvesting strategies were unsustainable for all the scenarios.

  4. Using Landsat satellite imagery to detect small-size forest stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae; Uso de imagenes satelite Landsat para la deteccion de rodales de Pinus nigra Arn. y Pinus sylvestris L. afectados por escolitidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, E.; Bonet, J. A.; Eizaguirre, M.

    2009-07-01

    Medium resolution images from multispectral sensors like Landsat TM have been extensively used for decades in order to identify decline and defoliation generated by insects and other forest pests. The present work analyses the usefulness of these kinds of images to detect small-size stands of Pinus nigra Arn. and Pinus sylvestris L. affected by Scolytidae attacks. The study area was located in the Solsones region (Eastern Pyrenees), selecting 34 training zones (17 damaged small-size stands and 17 healthy small-size stands). The exploratory analysis of the images was conducted with the ERDAS IMAGINE 8.x. program.The results of the study showed significant differences between the affected and non-affected stands in 5 of the 7 spectral bands analysed. TM5 and TM7 bands were identified as those having the highest power to detect damaged stands. The digital levels obtained and the spaces of characteristics created, both showed trends to group small-size affected stands versus healthy, achieving improvements in the methodological procedure employed. (Author) 31 refs.

  5. A 323-year long reconstruction of drought for SW Romania based on black pine (Pinus Nigra) tree-ring widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanič, Tom; Popa, Ionel; Poljanšek, Simon; Nechita, Constantin

    2013-09-01

    Increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation pose a major future challenge for sustainable ecosystem management in Romania. To understand ecosystem response and the wider social consequences of environmental change, we constructed a 396-year long (1615-2010) drought sensitive tree-ring width chronology (TRW) of Pinus nigra var. banatica (Georg. et Ion.) growing on steep slopes and shallow organic soil. We established a statistical relationship between TRW and two meteorological parameters-monthly sum of precipitation (PP) and standardised precipitation index (SPI). PP and SPI correlate significantly with TRW (r = 0.54 and 0.58) and are stable in time. Rigorous statistical tests, which measure the accuracy and prediction ability of the model, were all significant. SPI was eventually reconstructed back to 1688, with extreme dry and wet years identified using the percentile method. By means of reconstruction, we identified two so far unknown extremely dry years in Romania--1725 and 1782. Those 2 years are almost as dry as 1946, which was known as the "year of great famine." Since no historical documents for these 2 years were available in local archives, we compared the results with those from neighbouring countries and discovered that both years were extremely dry in the wider region (Slovakia, Hungary, Anatolia, Syria, and Turkey). While the 1800-1900 period was relatively mild, with only two moderately extreme years as far as weather is concerned, the 1900-2009 period was highly salient owing to the very high number of wet and dry extremes--five extremely wet and three extremely dry events (one of them in 1946) were identified.

  6. Soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed burning in young Corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Kucuk, Mehmet; Saglam, Bulent; Bilgili, Ertugrul; Altun, Lokman

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important tool in the management of forest ecosystems. Although both prescribed and wildland fires are common in Turkey, few studies have addressed the influence of such disturbances on soil properties and root biomass dynamics. In this study, soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed fire were investigated in 25-year-old corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands in Kastamonu, Turkey. The stands were established by planting and were subjected to prescribed burning in July 2003. Soil respiration rates were determined every two months using soda-lime method over a two-year period. Fine (0-2 mm diameter) and small root (2-5 mm diameter) biomass were sampled approximately bimonthly using sequential coring method. Mean daily soil respiration ranged from 0.65 to 2.19 g Cm(-2) d(-1) among all sites. Soil respiration rates were significantly higher in burned sites than in controls. Soil respiration rates were correlated significantly with soil moisture and soil temperature. Fine root biomass was significantly lower in burned sites than in control sites. Mean fine root biomass values were 4940 kg ha(-1) for burned and 5450 kg ha(-1) for control sites. Soil pH was significantly higher in burned sites than in control sites in 15-35 cm soil depth. Soil organic matter content did not differ significantly between control and burned sites. Our results indicate that, depending on site conditions, fire could be used successfully as a tool in the management of forest stands in the study area.

  7. Effective population size estimation in seed orchards: A case study of Pinus nigra ARNOLD and Fraxinus excelsior L./ F. angustifolia VAHL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machanská Eva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective population size as a parameter closely correlating with the genetic and genotypic diversity of the seed orchard output is an important indicator of seed orchard functioning. It is determined by the variation of male and female gametic contributions of parental genotypes (including those outside the seed orchard, influenced by the variation in male and female gamete production, reproductive phenology, pollen dispersal within seed orchard and other factors. We assessed male and female fecundity, as well as temporal course of male and female flowering in two seed orchards of Pinus nigra ARNOLD and Fraxinus excelsior L./F. angustifolia VAHL. in Slovakia. In both cases, male and female gametic contributions of plus-tree clones were modeled on the basis of fecundity and flowering phenology, and were used to calculate status number as an estimator of effective population size. In the seed orchard of Pinus nigra, marker-aided verification of clonal fidelity revealed unexpectedly high proportion of misplaced ramets (29.9% and alien genotypes (44.4%. Monitoring of reproductive processes in 2002 and 2003 showed high variation in both male and female fecundity, and pollen shedding preceding female receptivity in Pinus nigra. All these factors contributed to a very low relative status effective number, representing 8.6% to 38.6% of the population census (depending from the management option in relation to misplaced and alien genotypes. In the mixed seed orchard of Fraxinus excelsior and F. angustifolia, the proportion of misplaced and alien genotypes was much lower (22.4% and 12.3%, respectively. However, a high fecundity variation and protogyny resulted in a low relative status number (18.8% to 29.5% of the census number of clones also in this seed orchard. Practical implications of these findings are shortly discussed and practical management options are proposed.

  8. PREACONDICIONAMIENTO DE Pinus engelmannii Carr. MEDIANTE DÉFICIT DE RIEGO EN VIVERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel J. Ávila-Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de mejorar el preacondicionamiento de plántulas de Pinus engelmannii Carr. en vivero, se evaluaron tres frecuencias de riego: 48, 96 y 192 h. Las plántulas de ocho meses de edad se evaluaron durante 40 días. El ensayo se desarrolló en condiciones de invernadero en el vivero del Campo Experimental Valle del Guadiana del INIFAP. Los datos se analizaron mediante prueba de permutaciones. Los resultados muestran que el riego cada 48 h causó los mejores efectos en altura (7.70 cm, diámetro (4.38 mm, biomasa total (6.59 g e índice de calidad de Dickson (0.55. Por otro lado, el estrés hídrico originado por el tratamiento con riego cada 192 h (-1.22 MPa limitó el crecimiento de las plántulas; sin embargo, el índice de lignificación (26.63 fue significativa - mente mejor ( P = 0.0001 con esta frecuencia de riego. A pesar de haberse encontrado diferencias im - portantes ( P = 0.0001 en el potencial hídrico y en las variables morfológicas, no se encontró evidencia suficiente que permita definir un tratamiento absolutamente superior para mejorar el preacondiciona - miento de las plántulas en vivero. Por lo tanto, es recomendable evaluar dichos tratamientos durante mayor tiempo, además de evaluarlos en campo.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Pinus nigra Arn. Populations in Southern Spain and Northern Morocco Revealed By Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Ahrazem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eight Pinus nigra Arn. populations from Southern Spain and Northern Morocco were examined using inter-simple sequence repeat markers to characterize the genetic variability amongst populations. Pair-wise population genetic distance ranged from 0.031 to 0.283, with a mean of 0.150 between populations. The highest inter-population average distance was between PaCU from Cuenca and YeCA from Cazorla, while the lowest distance was between TaMO from Morocco and MA Sierra Mágina populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA and Nei’s genetic diversity analyses revealed higher genetic variation within the same population than among different populations. Genetic differentiation (Gst was 0.233. Cuenca showed the highest Nei’s genetic diversity followed by the Moroccan region, Sierra Mágina, and Cazorla region. However, clustering of populations was not in accordance with their geographical locations. Principal component analysis showed the presence of two major groups—Group 1 contained all populations from Cuenca while Group 2 contained populations from Cazorla, Sierra Mágina and Morocco—while Bayesian analysis revealed the presence of three clusters. The low genetic diversity observed in PaCU and YeCA is probably a consequence of inappropriate management since no estimation of genetic variability was performed before the silvicultural treatments. Data indicates that the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR method is sufficiently informative and powerful to assess genetic variability among populations of P. nigra.

  10. Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Conti, Fabio; Nicoletti, Marcello; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold var. italica (Pinaceae), Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Lamiaceae), Satureja montana L. subsp. montana (Lamiaceae), Aloysia citriodora Palau (Verbenaceae) and Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér (Geraniaceae), was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, it was evaluated their acute toxicity on larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Then, the most effective oils were selected, in order to focus on the potential synergistic and antagonistic effects, testing them in binary mixtures on C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Results showed that the higher effectiveness was obtained by S. montana subsp. montana essential oil (LC 50 =25.6μL·L -1 ), followed by P. nigra var. italica (LC 50 =49.8μL·L -1 ) and A. citriodora (LC 50 =65.6μL·L -1 ), while the other essential oils showed LC 50 values higher than 90μL·L -1 . The larvicidal effectiveness can be enhanced by preparing simple binary mixtures of essential oils, such as S. montana+A. citriodora (ratio 1:1), which showed higher larvicidal toxicity (LC 50 =18.3μL·L -1 ). On the other hand, testing S. montana+P. nigra (1:1) an antagonistic effect was detected, leading to a LC 50 (72.5μL·L -1 ) higher than the LC 50 values calculated for the two oils tested separately. Overall, our results add useful knowledge to allow the employ of synergistic essential oil blends as effective, cheap and eco-friendly mosquito

  11. A 560 yr summer temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio (Corsica/France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kuhlemann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be affected strongly by current climate change. However, temperature records for the past centuries which can contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse for this region. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often mirror temperature history but their application as climate proxies is difficult due to the influence of the anthropogenic change in atmospheric CO2 on the carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthetic CO2 uptake. We tested the influence of different correction models accounting for plant response to increased atmospheric CO2 on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 yr derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica. The different correction factors have only a minor influence on the main climate signals and resulting temperature reconstructions. Carbon isotope series show strong correlations with summer temperature and precipitation. A summer temperature reconstruction (1448–2007 AD reveals that the Little Ice Age was characterised by low, but not extremely low temperatures on Corsica. Temperatures have been to modern temperatures at around 1500 AD. The reconstruction reveals warm summers during 1480–1520 and 1950–2007 AD and cool summers during 1580–1620 and 1820–1890 AD.

  12. Isotope signals and anatomical features in tree rings suggest a role for hydraulic strategies in diffuse drought-induced die-back of Pinus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucco, Laura; Nardini, Andrea; von Arx, Georg; Saurer, Matthias; Cherubini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The 2003 and 2012 summer seasons were among the warmest and driest of the last 200 years over southeastern Europe, and in particular in the Karst region (northeastern Italy). Starting from winter-spring 2013, several black pines (Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold) suffered crown die-back. Declining trees occurred nearby individuals with no signs of die-back, raising hypotheses about the occurrence of individual-specific hydraulic strategies underlying different responses to extreme drought. We investigated possible processes driving black pine decline by dendrochronological and wood anatomical measurements, coupled with analysis of tree-ring carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopic composition in healthy trees (H) and trees suffering die-back (D). Die-back trees showed higher growth rates than H trees at the beginning of the last century, but suffered important growth reduction following the dry summers in 2003 and 2012. After the 2012 drought, D trees produced tracheids with larger diameter and greater vulnerability to implosion than H ones. Healthy trees had significantly higher wood δ13C than D trees, reflecting higher water-use efficiency for the surviving trees, i.e., less water transpired per unit carbon gain, which could be related to lower stomatal conductance and a more conservative use of water. Relatively high δ18O for D trees indicates that they were strongly dependent on shallow water sources, or that they sustained higher transpiration rates than H trees. Our results suggest that H trees adopted a more conservative water-use strategy under drought stress compared with D trees. We speculate that this diversity might have a genotypic basis, but other possible explanations, like different rooting depth, cannot be ruled out. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. MICROBIOTA OF PINUS POLLEN AS ADJUVANT FACTOR OF ALLERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Tetiana Shevtsova; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Petrová; Ján Brindza; Kateryna Garkava

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria, their endotoxin and mold found on pollen can be a reason of respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. This question concerns an anemophilous pollen more acute. In this work quantitative by dilution plating method and qualitative microbial analysis by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper of pollen and other plants organs of Pinus sylvestris L., P. nigra Arnold, P. mugo Turra, P. armandii Franch., P. wallichiana A.B. Jacks from Nitra, Slovakia are performed which shows quantitative and species...

  14. Using flotation in ethanol to separate filled and empty seeds of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the separation of filled and empty seeds of Crimean pine [Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe] by flotation in ethanol and the effect of this treatment on seed germination were investigated. Flotation tests in 96% ethanol by the density method and then germination tests were made on the seeds ...

  15. Potential allelochemicals from Sambucus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrosca, B; DellaGreca, M; Fiorentino, A; Monaco, P; Previtera, L; Simonet, A M; Zarrelli, A

    2001-12-01

    Twenty-four aromatic metabolites belonging to cyanogenins, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic glycosides were obtained from Sambucus nigra. Structures were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic features. Two compounds have been isolated and identified as (2S)-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and benzyl 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2,6-dihydroxybenzoate. All the compounds have been assayed on dicotyledons Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Raphanus sativus (radish) and monocotyledon Allium cepa (onion) to test their stimulatory or inhibitory effects on seed germination and radicle elongation. Cyanogenins have a mainly inhibiting effect while lignans stimulate the growth. Some compounds show different effects on dicotyledons and monocotyledons.

  16. Estimación de la densidad de la madera aserrada de conífera mediante técnicas no destructivas de arranque de tornillos y penetrómetro y su aplicación en la estimación del módulo de elasticidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Monteagudo, José

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of probing 395 sawn pieces of Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Laricio pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii from Spanish sources are presented. Specimens had a cross section from 150 x 200 mm, 150 x 250 mm, and 200 x 250 mm. The Screw Withdrawal Force Meter (SWFM developed by the Wood NDT Laboratory of the University of Western Hungary, in Sopron, and the Pilodyn 6J Wood Tester by Proceq, are the items of equipment used to measure screw withdrawal force and penetration depth, respectively. Based on our results, this paper concludes that for structural coniferous timber the density values estimated from probing measurements are reliable. There is a positive correlation between non-destructive parameters and density (a coefficient of determination r2 of 48.5% to 49.9% is obtained. The authors believe that it is possible to use probing with ultrasonic methods as a good combined nondestructive technique to improve the results of visual grading and modulus of elasticity assessment, at least as an additional parameter in structural sawn timber.Se han efectuado medidas indirectas de la densidad de la madera mediante métodos no destructivos, como la penetración de una varilla con penetrómetro o el arranque de tornillos, sobre probetas procedentes de 395 vigas de tamaño estructural de Pinus radiata D. Don (155, Pinus sylvestris L (120, y Pinus nigra Arn (120. El objeto es tratar de establecer una metodología, para la estimación en obra de la densidad, cuando se realizan tareas de mantenimiento, rehabilitación o restauración. Se han obtenido relaciones estadísticamente significativas entre los valores obtenidos en los ensayos no destructivos y la densidad real de las piezas. Se proponen tres modelos para la estimación de la densidad basados en el resultado del ensayo no destructivo de arranque de tornillos con coeficientes de determinación (R2 de 48,5%, 49,5% y 49,9%. Por ultimo, se plantea

  17. Needle Terpenes as Chemotaxonomic Markers in Pinus: Subsections Pinus and Pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Zorica S; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Nikolić, Biljana M; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2017-05-01

    Chemical compositions of needle essential oils of 27 taxa from the section Pinus, including 20 and 7 taxa of the subsections Pinus and Pinaster, respectively, were compared in order to determine chemotaxonomic significance of terpenes at infrageneric level. According to analysis of variance, six out of 31 studied terpene characters were characterized by a high level of significance, indicating statistically significant difference between the examined subsections. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis has shown separation of eight groups, where representatives of subsect. Pinaster were distributed within the first seven groups on the dendrogram together with P. nigra subsp. laricio and P. merkusii from the subsect. Pinus. On the other hand, the eighth group included the majority of the members of subsect. Pinus. Our findings, based on terpene characters, complement those obtained from morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters studied over the past two decades. In addition, results presented in this article confirmed that terpenes are good markers at infrageneric level. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by α-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by α-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and β-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by β-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, β-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and α-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 μL cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 μL cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito.

  19. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Pinus laricio Needles and Their Responses to Prescribed Burnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Ferrat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Management strategies include prescribed (controlled burning, which has been used in the management of several species, such as Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. The effects of prescribed burning on Pinus laricio have been little studied. The first aim of this study was to characterize total and simple phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The second aim was to understand: i the short term (one to three months and medium term (three years effects of prescribed burning, and ii the effects of periodic prescribed burning on the production of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The first result of this study is the presence of total and simple phenolic compounds in the needles of Pinus laricio. 3-Vanillyl propanol is the major compound. After a prescribed burning, the synthesis of total phenolic compounds increases in Pinus laricio for a period of three months. Total phenolic compounds could be used as bioindicators for the short-term response of Pinus laricio needles to prescribed burning. Simple phenolic compounds do not seem to be good indicators of the impact of prescribed burning because prescribed burnings are low in intensity.

  20. Characterization of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio needles and their responses to prescribed burnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannac, Magali; Pasqualini, Vanina; Greff, Stéphane; Fernandez, Catherine; Ferrat, Lila

    2007-07-30

    Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Management strategies include prescribed (controlled) burning, which has been used in the management of several species, such as Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. The effects of prescribed burning on Pinus laricio have been little studied. The first aim of this study was to characterize total and simple phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The second aim was to understand: i) the short term (one to three months) and medium term (three years) effects of prescribed burning, and ii) the effects of periodic prescribed burning on the production of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The first result of this study is the presence of total and simple phenolic compounds in the needles of Pinus laricio. 3-Vanillyl propanol is the major compound. After a prescribed burning, the synthesis of total phenolic compounds increases in Pinus laricio for a period of three months. Total phenolic compounds could be used as bioindicators for the short-term response of Pinus laricio needles to prescribed burning. Simple phenolic compounds do not seem to be good indicators of the impact of prescribed burning because prescribed burnings are low in intensity.

  1. Dermatosis papulosa nigra in a young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babapour, R; Leach, J; Levy, H

    1993-12-01

    Dermatosis papulosa nigra was diagnosed in a 3-year-old black boy. This follicular nevoid condition, which is common in adult blacks, is seldom diagnosed in prepubescent children. The diagnosis was confirmed by the biopsy specimen that showed features of epidermal acanthosis and papillomatosis, similar to seborrheic keratosis.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Pinus species essential oils and their constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Conforti, Filomena; Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; Statti, Giancarlo A; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the essential oils from Pinus nigra subsp. nigra, P. nigra var. calabrica, and P. heldreichii subsp. leucodermis. This activity is relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), since cholinesterase drugs are currently the only drugs available to treat AD. P. heldreichii subsp. leucodermis exhibited the most promising activity, with IC(50) values of 51.1 and 80.6 microg/mL against AChE and BChE, respectively. An interesting activity against AChE was also observed with P. nigra subsp. nigra essential oil, with an IC(50) value of 94.4 microg/mL. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS with the purpose of investigating their relationships with the observed activities. Among the identified constituents, terpinolene, beta-phellandrene, linalyl acetate, trans-caryophyllene, and terpinen-4-ol were tested. trans-Caryophyllene and terpinen-4-ol inhibited BChE with IC(50) values of 78.6 and 107.6 microg/mL, respectively. beta-Phellandrene was selective against AChE (IC(50) value of 120.2 microg/mL).

  3. COMPARAÇÃO GRÁFICA ENTRE CURVAS DE ÍNDICE DE SÍTIO PARA Pinus elliottii E Pinus taeda DESENVOLVIDAS NO SUL DO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Tonini; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Paulo Renato Schneider; Peter Spathelf

    2002-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000) para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Macha...

  4. Antitumor and biological effects of black pine (Pinus nigra) pollen nuclease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipovová, P.; Podzimek, T.; Orctová, Lidmila; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Poučková, P.; Souček, J.; Matoušek, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, - (2008), s. 158-164 ISSN 0028-2685 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : pollen nuclease * Antitumor effect Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.179, year: 2008

  5. Tolerance of Brassica nigra to Pieris brassicae herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatt, S.E.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hess, L.; Harvey, J.A.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, is a wild annual species found throughout Europe and fed on by larvae of the large cabbage-white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. We examined the impact of herbivory from P. brassicae, a gregarious herbivore, on B. nigra grown from wild seed collected locally.

  6. Tolerence of Braccica nigra to Pieris brassicae herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatt, S.E.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hess, L.; Harvey, J.A.; Dicke, D.; van Loon, J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, is a wild annual species found throughout Europe and fed on by larvae of the large cabbage-white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. We examined the impact of herbivory from P. brassicae, a gregarious herbivore, on B. nigra grown from wild seed collected locally.

  7. Trinucleotide repeat microsatellite markers for Black Poplar (Populus nigra L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Schoot, van der J.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.

    2001-01-01

    Using an enrichment procedure, we have cloned microsatellite repeats from black poplar (Populus nigra L.) and developed primers for microsatellite marker analysis. Ten primer pairs, mostly for trinucleotide repeats, produced polymorphic fragments in P. nigra. Some of them also showed amplification

  8. Substantia Nigra Free Water Increases Longitudinally in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttuso, T; Bergsland, N; Hagemeier, J; Lichter, D G; Pasternak, O; Zivadinov, R

    2018-02-01

    Free water in the posterior substantia nigra obtained from a bi-tensor diffusion MR imaging model has been shown to significantly increase over 1- and 4-year periods in patients with early-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease compared with healthy controls, which suggests that posterior substantia nigra free water may be an idiopathic Parkinson disease progression biomarker. Due to the known temporal posterior-to-anterior substantia nigra degeneration in idiopathic Parkinson disease, we assessed longitudinal changes in free water in both the posterior and anterior substantia nigra in patients with later-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease and age-matched healthy controls for comparison. Nineteen subjects with idiopathic Parkinson disease and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects were assessed on the same 3T MR imaging scanner at baseline and after approximately 3 years. Baseline mean idiopathic Parkinson disease duration was 7.1 years. Both anterior and posterior substantia nigra free water showed significant intergroup differences at baseline ( P Parkinson disease versus healthy controls); however, only anterior substantia nigra free water showed significant longitudinal group × time interaction increases ( P = .021, idiopathic Parkinson disease versus healthy controls). There were no significant longitudinal group × time interaction differences found for conventional diffusion tensor imaging or free water-corrected DTI assessments in either the anterior or posterior substantia nigra. Results from this study provide further evidence supporting substantia nigra free water as a promising disease-progression biomarker in idiopathic Parkinson disease that may help to identify disease-modifying therapies if used in future clinical trials. Our novel finding of longitudinal increases in anterior but not posterior substantia nigra free water is potentially a result of the much longer disease duration of our cohort compared with previously studied cohorts and the known

  9. A review of Sphaeropsis sapinea occurrence on Pinus species in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Georgieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr. Dyko & Sutton causes shoot blight and canker disease throughout the world on conifers predisposed by stress. The disease is most important to Pinus species that are affected from the seedling stage in nurseries to mature trees in ornamental planting, forest plantations and natural stands. In Bulgaria, the first findings of the disease were noted in 1989 on Pinus nigra plantations in the North-eastern part of the country. Over the past few years, new emergency and severe damages have developed rapidly as a consequence of the prolonged drought periods during the last growing seasons. The high existence of S. sapinea outbreaks contributed considerably to the physiological weakness of pine trees that become more susceptible to attack by aggressive xylophages and other fungal pathogens. Disease occurrence and its pathogenicity are economically important affecting a number of pine trees from all ages. In Bulgaria, S. sapinea has been obtained on six pine species P. nigra, P. strobus, P. radiata, P. ponderosa, P. pinaster and P. halepensis. The aim of this review is to present the available knowledge on distribution, host specificity, biology, ecology, management of the disease, and to discuss its current prevalence and pathogenicity effect on pine species in Bulgaria.

  10. Comparação gráfica entre curvas de índice de sítio para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda desenvolvidas no sul do Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Tonini; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Paulo Renato Schneider; Peter Spathelf

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000) para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Macha...

  11. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of mild running on substantia nigra during early neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Michael F; Silva, Carolliny M; Chaves, Rodrigo S; Lima, Nathan C R; Almeida, Renato S; Melo, Karla P; Demasi, Marilene; Fernandes, Tiago; Oliveira, Edilamar M; Netto, Luis E S; Cardoso, Sandra M; Ferrari, Merari F R

    2018-06-01

    Moderate physical exercise acts at molecular and behavioural levels, such as interfering in neuroplasticity, cell death, neurogenesis, cognition and motor functions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the cellular effects of moderate treadmill running upon substantia nigra during early neurodegeneration. Aged male Lewis rats (9-month-old) were exposed to rotenone 1mg/kg/day (8 weeks) and 6 weeks of moderate treadmill running, beginning 4 weeks after rotenone exposure. Substantia nigra was extracted and submitted to proteasome and antioxidant enzymes activities, hydrogen peroxide levels and Western blot to evaluate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), alpha-synuclein, Tom-20, PINK1, TrkB, SLP1, CRMP-2, Rab-27b, LC3II and Beclin-1 level. It was demonstrated that moderate treadmill running, practiced during early neurodegeneration, prevented the increase of alpha-synuclein and maintained the levels of TH unaltered in substantia nigra of aged rats. Physical exercise also stimulated autophagy and prevented impairment of mitophagy, but decreased proteasome activity in rotenone-exposed aged rats. Physical activity also prevented H 2 O 2 increase during early neurodegeneration, although the involved mechanism remains to be elucidated. TrkB levels and its anterograde trafficking seem not to be influenced by moderate treadmill running. In conclusion, moderate physical training could prevent early neurodegeneration in substantia nigra through the improvement of autophagy and mitophagy.

  13. Do Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons Differentiate Between Reward and Punishment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Frank; D. James Surmeier

    2009-01-01

    The activity of dopaminergic neurons are thought to be increased by stimuli that predict reward and decreased by stimuli that predict aversive outcomes. Recent work by Matsumoto and Hikosaka challenges this model by asserting that stimuli associated with either rewarding or aversive outcomes increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

  14. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

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    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  15. MICROBIOTA OF PINUS POLLEN AS ADJUVANT FACTOR OF ALLERGY

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    Tetiana Shevtsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria, their endotoxin and mold found on pollen can be a reason of respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. This question concerns an anemophilous pollen more acute. In this work quantitative by dilution plating method and qualitative microbial analysis by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper of pollen and other plants organs of Pinus sylvestris L., P. nigra Arnold, P. mugo Turra, P. armandii Franch., P. wallichiana A.B. Jacks from Nitra, Slovakia are performed which shows quantitative and species differences in mesophilic aerobic (0.00-6.27 log cfu/g and anaerobic bacteria (0.00-3.70 log cfu/g, enterococci (0.00 log cfu/g, coliform bacteria (0.00-5.29 log cfu/g, lactobacilli (0.00-4.20 log cfu/g, microscopic fungi and yeasts (2.60-5.29 log cfu/g content. Representatives of Pseudomonas (14, Bacillus (2, Acinetobacter (1, Arthrobacter (1, Pantoea (1, Klebsiella (1, Penicillium (6, Aspergillus (4, Cladosporium (1, Debaryomyces (1 genera were revealed on pine trees. The allergenic potential of the identified association of microorganisms on pollen has been evaluated based on published data. The results may be useful for aerobiologists, allergists and microbiologists, at least at the local level.

  16. Pharmacognostical Investigations on Sambucus ebulus L. and Sambucus nigra L

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    Dr. A. R. Ghannadi

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the genus Sambucus have been used in treating symptoms of the common cold and some skin ailments. Four species of this plant are growing extensively in Iran. One of these species is S.ebulus. In this study, S. ebulus was examined botanically and phytochemicatly in comparison to S. nigra."nMorphological as well as microscopical characteristics of S. ebulus and S. nigra were examined. By means of TLC in comparison to authentic samples, Rutin, Hyperin. Apigenin and Chlorogenic acid were identified in these plants. By preparative TLC method, Rutin is isolated and then purified from these plants. The structure of Rutin was determined by the UV-Vis. Techniques in methanol and by addition of the shift reagents and hydrolysis. The quantitative determinations of fiavonoids in these plants were also performed by using an UV-Vis. Spectroscopy method.

  17. Bidirectional modulation of substantia nigra activity by motivational state.

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    Mark A Rossi

    Full Text Available A major output nucleus of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which sends GABAergic projections to brainstem and thalamic nuclei. The GABAergic (GABA neurons are reciprocally connected with nearby dopaminergic neurons, which project mainly to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei critical for goal-directed behaviors. Here we examined the impact of motivational states on the activity of GABA neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the neighboring dopaminergic (DA neurons in the pars compacta. Both types of neurons show short-latency bursts to a cue predicting a food reward. As mice became sated by repeated consumption of food pellets, one class of neurons reduced cue-elicited firing, whereas another class of neurons progressively increased firing. Extinction or pre-feeding just before the test session dramatically reduced the phasic responses and their motivational modulation. These results suggest that signals related to the current motivational state bidirectionally modulate behavior and the magnitude of phasic response of both DA and GABA neurons in the substantia nigra.

  18. Bidirectional Modulation of Substantia Nigra Activity by Motivational State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mark A.; Fan, David; Barter, Joseph W.; Yin, Henry H.

    2013-01-01

    A major output nucleus of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which sends GABAergic projections to brainstem and thalamic nuclei. The GABAergic (GABA) neurons are reciprocally connected with nearby dopaminergic neurons, which project mainly to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei critical for goal-directed behaviors. Here we examined the impact of motivational states on the activity of GABA neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the neighboring dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the pars compacta. Both types of neurons show short-latency bursts to a cue predicting a food reward. As mice became sated by repeated consumption of food pellets, one class of neurons reduced cue-elicited firing, whereas another class of neurons progressively increased firing. Extinction or pre-feeding just before the test session dramatically reduced the phasic responses and their motivational modulation. These results suggest that signals related to the current motivational state bidirectionally modulate behavior and the magnitude of phasic response of both DA and GABA neurons in the substantia nigra. PMID:23936522

  19. Proteins in seed and seedlings of selected Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold trees as genetic markers tolerant to drought

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    Mataruga Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A precondition necessary for creation and selection of genotypes tolerant of stress conditions is a study of physiological, biochemical and molecular bases of their adaptive reaction to stress. The study includes 40 lines of free pollination originating from 5 provenances: Sutjeska, Višegrad, Tara, Teslić and Durmitor (B&H, Serbia and Montenegro. Two populations were selected from each provenance, i.e.: 5 lines of free pollination represent the population growing on the cliffs and 3 lines of free pollination represent the population growing at the best site of Austrian pine. Specific characteristics of the studied provenances, populations, and free pollination lines were confirmed by the analyses in the salt-soluble proteins. The identical protein composition was proved in a small number of cases in the replicates of the same free pollination line, which indicates a high intra-line variability, which can be the result of the effect of father, as well as of heterozygosity of mother trees. The analyses of protein composition of seed showed considerable differences at provenance level. Inter-line, population and provenance differences, and also, the interaction between the origin and drought factor, were recorded for 9-day-old seedlings germinated in induced drought conditions and in normal conditions.

  20. Extraction of valuable compounds from agro-residues of elder (Sambus nigra), pine (Pinus pinaster) and tara (Caesalpinia spinosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Seabra, Inês José Abrantes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química (Processos Químicos) apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra Agricultural processing inevitably goes along with the production of large amounts of agro-residues, which may represent a major waste disposal problem. Legislation regulating the management of waste materials has appeared throughout the European Union and has significantly contributed to the introduction of sustainable waste management proced...

  1. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery production method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

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    Vladan Ivetić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methodson quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine wereinvestigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goč, Studenica and Šargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gočko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gočko led to the highestseedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.

  2. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery provenance method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Ivetić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methods on quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine were investigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goc, Studenica and Sargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gocko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gocko led to the highest seedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.     

  3. Clonal Variations in Flower Production at the Anatolian Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold.subsp. pallasiana Seed Orchard

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    Murat ERTEKİN, Korhan TUNÇTANER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for three years (2002-2004 in a black pine seed orchard established with 30 clonesoriginating from the forest of Yenice-Bakraz in Bartın, 1990. During the research, the variations between theclones in the seed orchard were determined based on the number of male and female flowers. According to theresults, the average values of flower production in three years at seed orchard showed considerable variations. Itwas determined that the number of the male and female flowers were 817,2 and 99,3 respectively. 62% ofaverage number of male flowers and 49% of female flowers were produced by 10 clones in 3 years. It was alsodetermined that the amount of the flowers for the clones showed significant differences within the years.

  4. Effects of different soil preparation techniques on the Anatolian Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe regeneration

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    Adil Çalışkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of different soil preparation treatments on regeneration of black pine success were examined and some suggestions were given according to the results. Twelve sample plots were randomly set in the research area. The size of each sample plot was 4 m². Sample plots were seeded equally with a total number of 2304 (48 seeds per m2 seeds in April 2012. The number of surviving seedlings was recorded every month from May to November in 2012. Surviving seedlings were recorded again in November 2013 and growths of thirty seedlings which are selected randomly from the all sample plots were examined. It was found that soil treatment with machine was more successful in regeneration at semi-arid regions like Cerkes-Turkey. Plowing equipment as mechanical soil cultivation has more economically advantageous in first years. However, the success and quality of seedlings were better in soil preparation with ripper equipment compared to plowing.

  5. Ganancia obtenida mediante recogida selectiva de semilla en un huerto semillero de Pinus pinaster Ait.

    OpenAIRE

    Merlo, E.; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Fernández López, Josefa

    2005-01-01

    8 páginas, 3 figuras, 3 tablas -- Comunicación presentada al 4º Congreso Forestal Español que se celebró en Zaragoza entre el 26 y el 30 de septiembre de 2005 bajo el lema ‘La ciencia forestal: Respuestas para la sostenibilidad’.

  6. Antioxidant effect of Morus nigra on Chagas disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenote, Michelly Cristina; Wajsman, Vithor Zuccaro; Konno, Yoichi Takaki; Ferreira, Paulo César; Silva, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves; Therezo, Altino Luiz Silva; Silva, Luciana Pereira; Martins, Luciamáre Perinetti Alves

    2017-11-06

    Considering the widespread popular use of Morus nigra and the amount of scientific information on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, the effectiveness of this phytotherapeutic compound in the parasitemia progression during the acute phase of Chagas disease and its role in the development of the inflammatory process as well as its effects on the oxidative damage in the chronic phase of infection were evaluated. Thus, 96 male Swiss mice were randomly divided into eight groups, four groups were uninfected controls, and four groups were intraperitoneally infected with 5.0 x 104 blood trypomastigotes forms of T. cruzi QM2 strain. Four batches composed of one uninfected and one infected group were respectively treated with 70% alcohol solution and 25 μL, 50 μL and 75 μL of the phytotherapeutic compound. Levels of antioxidant elements (TBARS, FRAP, GSH and Sulfhydryl groups) were measured in plasma samples. The phytotherapeutic compound's antioxidant activity was measured by polyphenol and total flavonoid quantification, DPPH, NO, and FRAP method. Our results showed that the vehicle influenced some of the results that may have physiological relevance in Chagas disease. However, an important action of M. nigra tincture was observed in the progression of Chagas disease, since our results demonstrated a reduction in parasitemia of treated groups when compared to controls, especially in the group receiving 25 µL. However, in the chronic phase, the 50-µL dosage presented a better activity on some antioxidant defenses and minimized the tissue inflammatory process. Results indicated an important action of M. nigra tincture on the Chagas disease progression.

  7. Tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, white piedra, and black piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gómez-Daza, Fernando; Paredes, Vanessa; Ponce, Rosa María

    2010-03-04

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections limited to the stratum corneum and its adnexal structures. The most frequent types are dermatophytoses or tineas. Tinea versicolor involves the skin in the form of hypochromic or hyperchromic plaques, and tinea nigra affects the skin of the palms with dark plaques. White piedra and black piedra are parasitic infections of scalp hairs in the form of concretions caused by fungal growth. Diagnosis of these mycoses is made from mycologic studies, direct examination, stains, and isolation, and identification of the fungi. Treatment includes systemic antifungals, topical antifungals, and keratolytics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances

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    Süleyman Gülcü

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p>0.05 for the characters, while there were significant differences (p≤0.05 among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA. Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p<0.05 correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  9. Determination of trace elements in the human substantia nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawski, M. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: morm@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Meinecke, Ch. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany); Reinert, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany); Doerffel, A.C. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Riederer, P. [Klin. Neurochemie, Abt. Psychiatrie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Arendt, T. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    'The gain in brain is mainly in the stain' was long time a key sentence for research in neurodegenerative disease. However, for a quantification of the element concentrations (especially iron) in brain tissue, standard staining methods are insufficient. Advanced physical methods allow a quantitative elemental analysis of brain tissue. The sophisticated ion beam analysis provides a quantitative determination of elemental concentrations with a subcellular spatial resolution using a scanning proton beam focussed down to below 1 {mu}m that induces characteristic X-rays in the specimen (PIXE - particle induced X-ray emission). Histochemical and biochemical determinations of total iron content in brain regions from idiopathic Parkinson's disease have demonstrated an increase of iron in parkinsonian substantia nigra pars compacta but not in the pars reticulata, however without a clear cellular classification. For the first time, we have differentially investigated the intra- and extraneuronal elemental concentrations (especially iron) of the human substantia nigra pars compacta versus pars reticulata with detection limits in the range of 50 {mu}mol/l. Thus, we could compare the neuronal iron concentration in human brain sections of healthy and parkinsonian brain tissue. Clear differences in the iron concentration and distribution could be disclosed. Additionally, we could show in situ that the increased intraneuronal iron content is linked to neuromelanin.

  10. STRUCTURE IDENTIFICATION OF A TRIMER STILBENOID COMPOUND FROM STEM BARK Hopea nigra (DIPTEROCARPACEAE

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    Sri Atun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity as antihephatotoxic directed fractionation of aceton extract from the stem bark of Hopea nigra (Dipterocarpaceae afforded a stilbenoid trimer, namely vaticanol G (1. The structure of this compound were elucidated based on physical and spectroscopic data (UV, IR, MS, 1H and 13C NMR 1D and 2D. Keywords: Vaticanol G; Hopea nigra; antihepatotoxic; Dipterocarpaceae.

  11. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Morus nigra against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Morus nigra (Family Moraceae is traditionally used injaundice, diabetes, hypertension, cough, fever and cancer. The current study was conducted to determine hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of leaves of M. nigra. Two doses of 250 mg/kg p.o and 500 mg/kg p.o showed that extract of M. nigra produced significant (p<0.001 reduction in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin induced by paracetamol and the results are comparable to silymarin (p<0.001. Results were supported by histopathologi-cal investigations, phytochemical screening and detection of active consti-tuents by HPLC. The current study showed that aqueous methanolic extract of M. nigra possess hepatoprotective activity that might be due to quercetin, luteolin and isorhamnetin. It was concluded from this study that M. nigra has hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver injury in mice.

  12. Glycine receptors in the human substantia nigra as defined by (3H)strychnine binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Montis, G; Beaumont, K; Javoy-Agid, F; Agid, Y; Constandinidis, J; Lowenthal, A; Lloyd, K G

    1982-03-01

    Specific (3H)strychnine binding was used to identify the glycine receptor macromolecular complex in human spinal cord, substantia nigra, inferior olivary nucleus, and cerebral cortex. In material from control patients a high-affinity KD (3--8 nM) was observed in the spinal cord and the substantia nigra, both the pars compacta and the pars reticulata. This is very similar to the values observed in the rat and bovine spinal cord (8 and 3 nM, respectively) and rat substantia nigra (12 nM). In the human brain the distribution of (3H)strychnine binding (at 10 nM) was: spinal cord . substantia nigra, pars compacta greater than substantia nigra, pars reticulata . inferior olivary nucleus greater than cerebral cortex. The binding capacity (Bmax) of the rat brain (substantia nigra or spinal cord) was approximately 10-fold that of the human brain. (3H)Strychnine binding was significantly decreased in the substantia nigra from Parkinson's disease patients, both in the pars compacta (67% of control) and the pars reticulata (50% of control), but not in the inferior olivary nucleus. The results were reproduced in preliminary experiment in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. In the substantia nigra from patients who died with Huntington's disease, (3H)strychnine binding tended to be high (150% of control, NS) in both the pars compacta and the reticulata. (3H)Strychnine binding was unaltered in the substantia nigra of patients with senile dementia. Together with previous neurophysiological and neuropharmacological findings, those results support the hypothesis of glycine receptors occurring on dopamine cell bodies and/or dendrites in the substantia nigra.

  13. Proteome analysis of human substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease

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    Werner Cornelius J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder involving the motor system. Although not being the only region involved in PD, affection of the substantia nigra and its projections is responsible for some of the most debilitating features of the disease. To further advance a comprehensive understanding of nigral pathology, we conducted a tissue based comparative proteome study of healthy and diseased human substantia nigra. Results The gross number of differentially regulated proteins in PD was 221. In total, we identified 37 proteins, of which 16 were differentially expressed. Identified differential proteins comprised elements of iron metabolism (H-ferritin and glutathione-related redox metabolism (GST M3, GST P1, GST O1, including novel redox proteins (SH3BGRL. Additionally, many glial or related proteins were found to be differentially regulated in PD (GFAP, GMFB, galectin-1, sorcin, as well as proteins belonging to metabolic pathways sparsely described in PD, such as adenosyl homocysteinase (methylation, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (aldehyde metabolism. Further differentially regulated proteins included annexin V, beta-tubulin cofactor A, coactosin-like protein and V-type ATPase subunit 1. Proteins that were similarly expressed in healthy or diseased substantia nigra comprised housekeeping proteins such as COX5A, Rho GDI alpha, actin gamma 1, creatin-kinase B, lactate dehydrogenase B, disulfide isomerase ER-60, Rab GDI beta, methyl glyoxalase 1 (AGE metabolism and glutamine synthetase. Interestingly, also DJ-1 and UCH-L1 were expressed similarly. Furthermore, proteins believed to serve as internal standards were found to be expressed in a constant manner, such as 14-3-3 epsilon and hCRMP-2, thus lending further validity to our results. Conclusion Using an approach encompassing high sensitivity and high resolution, we show that alterations of SN in PD include many

  14. Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea nigra, and piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Chaudhry, Maria; Elewski, Boni

    2003-07-01

    Tinea infections are among the most common dermatologic conditions throughout the world. To avoid a misdiagnosis, identification of dermatophyte infections requires both a fungal culture on Sabouraud's agar media, and a light microscopic mycologic examination from skin scrapings. Topical antifungals may be sufficient for treatment of tinea corporis and cruris and tinea nigra, and the shaving of hair infected by piedra may also be beneficial. Systemic therapy, however, may be required when the infected areas are large, macerated with a secondary infection, or in immunocompromised individuals. Preventative measures of tinea infections include practicing good personal hygiene; keeping the skin dry and cool at all times; and avoiding sharing towels, clothing, or hair accessories with infected individuals.

  15. Phenolic compounds of Pinus laricio needles: a bioindicator of the effects of prescribed burning in function of season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannac, Magali; Pasqualini, Vanina; Barboni, Toussaint; Morandini, Frederic; Ferrat, Lila

    2009-07-15

    Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Forest management includes many preventive tools, in particular for fire prevention, such as mechanical treatments and prescribed burning. Prescribed burning is a commonly used method for treating fuel loads, but fuel reduction targets for reducing wildfire hazards must be balanced against fuel retention targets in order to maintain habitat and other forest functions. This approach was used on Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. Many studies of plant phenolic compounds have been carried out concerning responses to various stresses. The aim of this study was to understand i) the effects of prescribed burning 1 to 16 months later and ii) the effects of the seasonality of burning, spring or fall, on the production of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. After prescribed burning conducted in spring, Pinus laricio increases the synthesis of total phenolic compounds for a period of 7 months. The increase is greater after spring-burning than fall-burning. With regard to simple phenols, only dihydroferulic acid responds about 1 year after both types of prescribed burning. The causes of these increases are discussed in this paper. Total phenolic compounds could be used as a bioindicator for the short-term response of Pinus laricio needles to prescribed burning. Simple phenols may be useful for revealing the medium-term effects of prescribed burning. The results of this study include recommending forest managers to use prescribed burning in the fall rather than spring to reduce fuel loads and have less impact on the trees.

  16. Dalnigrin, a neoflavonoid marker for the identification of Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra) in CITES enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Groves, Madeleine C; Gasson, Peter E; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2010-07-01

    International trade in Brazilian rosewood, Dalbergia nigra (Vell.) Allemão ex Benth., is regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). One problem in enforcing these regulations is the difficulty in distinguishing the wood of D. nigra from that of a closely-related but unregulated species, Dalbergia spruceana Benth. Using LC-MS to analyse methanol extracts of xylaria specimens, we identified a chemical marker for D. nigra heartwood, and determined its structure as the neoflavonoid 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (4'-O-methylmelanettin; dalnigrin), using spectroscopic techniques. Dalnigrin was present in all nine available heartwood specimens of D. nigra, but it was not detected in extracts of 59 other heartwood samples representing 15 species of Dalbergia, including D. spruceana. Five other phenolic compounds were also isolated from D. nigra heartwood and similarly identified as the neoflavonoids 3'-hydroxymelanettin, melanettin, melannein and dalbergin, and the isoflavone caviunin. In extracts of D. spruceana heartwood, pseudobaptigenin was identified by LC-MS to be a major phenolic component that was not detected in wood extracts of D. nigra. We conclude that chemical analysis, in combination with anatomical investigation, can provide persuasive evidence to support the positive identification of untreated heartwood of D. nigra. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  18. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  19. Regeneration of Pinus cubensis Griseb. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raima Cantillo Ardebol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of plants from the genus Pinus has been done in several species. However, micropropagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb has not been reported. This species has a great economical importance. Then, the aim of the current research was to achieve in vitro propagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb. to increase the number of individuals in their natural habitat. The concentration of sodium hypochlorite and immersion time were determined for seeds disinfection and embryos establishment. The effect of the presence or absence of the seed coat was also studied. Two growth regulators and three concentrations of each one were tested to achieve the emission of axillary buds in the multiplication phase. Five subcultures every 21 days were done. Rooting and acclimatization were carried out simultaneously. Shoots were individualized and immersed in a rooting solution. Zygotic embryos of P. cubensis wer e dev el o ped in vitro. The highest percentages of disinfection and germination were obtained by introducing the seeds in a solution of sodium hypochlorite at 20% for 15 minutes, planting them after that without the seed coat. The number and length of axillary buds increased by using 22.5 µM of 6-benzylaminopurine and 5.4 µM naphthaleneacetic acid in the multiplication phase. The in vitro propagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb. from zygotic embryos was achieved for the first time. A protocol was also established, reaching 50% of survival in the acclimatization phase. Key words: acclimatization, axillary buds, forestry, multiplication, pinus

  20. Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris Essential Oils Chemotypes and Monoterpene Hydrocarbon Enantiomers, before and after Inoculation with the Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana M; Mendes, Marta D; Lima, Ana S; Barbosa, Pedro M; Ascensão, Lia; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Mota, Manuel M; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a serious threat to global forest populations of conifers, especially Pinus spp. A time-course study of the essential oils (EOs) of 2-year-old Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris following inoculation with the PWN was performed. The constitutive and nematode inoculation induced EOs components were analyzed at both the wounding or inoculation areas and at the whole plant level. The enantiomeric ratio of optically active main EOs components was also evaluated. External symptoms of infection were observed only in P. pinaster and P. sylvestris 21 and 15 days after inoculation, respectively. The EO composition analysis of uninoculated and unwounded plants revealed the occurrence of chemotypes for P. pinaster, P. halepensis and P. sylvestris, whereas P. pinea showed a homogenous EO composition. When whole plants were evaluated for EO and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomeric chemical composition, no relevant qualitative and quantitative differences were found. Instead, EO analysis of inoculated and uninoculated wounded areas revealed an increase of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic compounds, especially in P. pinea and P. halepensis, comparatively to healthy whole plants EOs. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko & Sutton - agents of pinus species decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage is caused on the introduced Pinus species and on those cultivated in artificial plantations, shelterbelts and in urban environments. In Yugoslavia S. sapinea is widely distributed both in the continental and in the Mediterranean parts. It was identified from ten pine species and six hosts from other coniferous genera. By the study in our country, the new hosts of this fungus were detected - Pinus jeffrey, P. peuce and P. heldreichii. The most endangered species in our country is Austrian pine, both in urban environments, and in plantations The symptoms of the disease are bud wilt, curling, stunting and necrosis of current year shoots and needles, dieback of top shoots, parts of crown or tree tops, branch and stem bark canker, root collar rot on the young plants in nurseries and their dying. This fungus also prevents seed germination of Pinus species and causes blue sap stain of the freshly cut wood, although sap stain was also observed on standing trees. More rarely it causes root rot and crown wilt of Pinus species. The main symptoms of infection, both of young plants and older trees, are the dieback of current year shoots S. sapinea can penetrate through buds, bark of young shoots and needles. The critical time of infection is the period from mid April to mid May. Then infection mainly penetrates through the bark of young shoots, which results in their dying. Infection through the needles occurs mainly at the time of their sudden growth or during summer

  2. Efecto de la temperatura de secado del suelo sobre la repelencia al agua en andisoles bajo cobertura de Pinus patula.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Jaramillo, Daniel Francisco

    2003-01-01

    En dos lotes con Pinus patula en la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas, con sueldos que tenían antecedentes de repelencia al agua, se llevó a cabo un muestreo intensivo: una muestra cada 5cm, a cuatro profundidades, en transectos de diferente longitud y orientación, con el fin de estudiar el comportamiento del grado de repelencia al agua, mediante el método WDPT, en condiciones de campo y de laboratorio, cuando las muestras eran sometidas a secado a 35 y 105 ºC. Se encontró que al incre...

  3. Pinus taeda AND Pinus oocarpa PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING WITH FENOL-FORMALDHEYDE RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the plywood, manufactured from Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa, with 20 and 24 years old respectively, using three differentformulations of the fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of the glue line shearing tests not showed statistical differences between the species and three resin formulations. In the hot water test, all of the boards were classified as “BR” and, the boards of the Pinus oocarpa produced with formulations (1and (3, were classified as “WBP”. The different resin formulations not influenced on the modulus ofelasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR The boards of Pinus taeda with formulations (1 and(2 showed higher values of MOE in comparison of the Pinus oocarpa. The MOR of the Pinus oocarpa withformulation (2 was higher than Pinus taeda. The mechanical properties of the plywood wereprobably influenced by wood variability related to sapwood and hartwood, thickness of growth ringsand, springwood and summerwood.

  4. COMPARAÇÃO GRÁFICA ENTRE CURVAS DE ÍNDICE DE SÍTIO PARA Pinus elliottii E Pinus taeda DESENVOLVIDAS NO SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000 para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Machado (1988, para os estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina; Brasil (1989a, para a região de Passo Fundo RS, Marcolin (1990, para o Segundo Planalto Paranaense e Selle (1993, para a região de Cambará do Sul. No entanto, o comportamento em relação às curvas de índice de sítio feitas por Brasil (1989b, para a região de São Francisco de Paula mostraram-se semelhantes, havendo somente uma diferença de nível entre estas.

  5. Evaluation of the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and gene conservation activities were combined with climatic data to evaluate the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster. Combinations of climatic variables explained much of the

  6. Illicit stimulant use is associated with abnormal substantia nigra morphology in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Todd

    Full Text Available Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is an increasing health problem. Chronic use can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term consequences are not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on the morphology of the human substantia nigra. We hypothesised that history of illicit stimulant use is associated with an abnormally bright and enlarged substantia nigra (termed 'hyperechogenicity' when viewed with transcranial sonography. Substantia nigra morphology was assessed in abstinent stimulant users (n = 36; 31±9 yrs and in two groups of control subjects: non-drug users (n = 29; 24±5 yrs and cannabis users (n = 12; 25±7 yrs. Substantia nigra morphology was viewed with transcranial sonography and the area of echogenicity at the anatomical site of the substantia nigra was measured at its greatest extent. The area of substantia nigra echogenicity was significantly larger in the stimulant group (0.273±0.078 cm(2 than in the control (0.201±0.054 cm(2; P<0.001 and cannabis (0.202±0.045 cm(2; P<0.007 groups. 53% of stimulant users exhibited echogenicity that exceeded the 90(th percentile for the control group. The results of the current study suggest that individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use exhibit abnormal substantia nigra morphology. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is a strong risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease later in life and further research is required to determine if the observed abnormality in stimulant users is associated with a functional deficit of the nigro-striatal system.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, Lidia K; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Witold; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2012-02-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi.

  8. Evaluation of phenolic compounds and lipid-lowering effect of Morus nigra leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA LÚCIA B. ZENI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morus nigra L. (Moraceae is a tree known as black mulberry and the leaves are used in folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes, high cholesterol and menopause symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the M. nigra leaves phytochemical profile in different extractions and the hypolipidemic effect of the infusion comparing to the fenofibrate. Morus nigra infusion (MN showed higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids (83.85 mg/g and 79.96 µg/g, respectively, as well as antioxidant activity (83.85% than decoction or hydromethanolic extracts. Although, decoction showed the best result for ascorbic acid (4.35 mg/100 g than hydromethanolic or infusion (2.51 or 2.13 mg/100 g, respectively. The phenolic acids gallic, chlorogenic and caffeic and the flavonoids quercetin, rutin and catechin were found in the M. nigra extracts. Hyperlipidemic rats treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg of MN decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides and normalized lipoproteins. Furthermore, MN inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain of hyperlipidemic rats. This study provides evidence that M. nigra leaves extracts are rich in polyphenols, mainly chlorogenic acid, which normalized hyperlipidemic disturbance. The results suggest a potential therapeutic effect of the M. nigra leaves infusion on dislipidemic condition and related oxidative stress.

  9. Assessment of substantia nigra echogenicity in German and Filipino populations using a portable ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Criscely L; Frenzel, Antonia; Rosales, Raymond L; Lee, Lillian V; Benecke, Reiner; Dressler, Dirk; Walter, Uwe

    2012-02-01

    Transcranial sonography of the substantia nigra for diagnosing premotor stages of Parkinson disease has been attracting increasing interest. Standard reference values defining an abnormal increased echogenic size (hyperechogenicity) of the substantia nigra have been established in several populations using high-end stationary ultrasound systems. It is unknown whether a portable ultrasound system can be appropriately used and how the Filipino population would compare with the well-studied white population. We prospectively studied substantia nigra echogenic sizes and third ventricle widths in 71 healthy adult German participants and 30 age- and sex-matched Filipino participants using both a well-established stationary ultrasound system (in the German cohort) and a recently distributed portable ultrasound system (in both ethnic cohorts). Mean substantia nigra echogenic sizes, cutoff values defining abnormal hyperechogenicity, and intra-rater reliability were similar with both systems and in both ethnic cohorts studied. The Filipino and German participants did not differ with respect to the frequency of insufficient insonation conditions (each 3%) and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (10% versus 9%; P = .80). However, third ventricle widths were smaller in the Filipino than the German participants (mean ± SD, 1.6 ± 1.1 versus 2.4 ± 1.0 mm; P = .004). The frequency of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity appears to be homogeneous in white and Asian populations. Screening for this feature may well be performed with a present-day portable ultrasound system.

  10. Dopamine-dependent neurotoxicity of lipopolysaccharide in substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pablos, Rocío M; Herrera, Antonio J; Villarán, Ruth F; Cano, Josefina; Machado, Alberto

    2005-03-01

    Intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inductor of inflammation, induces degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, along with an inflammatory process that features activation of microglial cells and loss of astrocytes. To test the involvement of dopamine (DA) in this degeneration induced by LPS, we treated albino Wistar rats with different concentrations of alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MPT), an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity. Results showed that alpha-MPT prevented LPS-induced loss of TH immunostaining and expression of mRNA for TH and DA transporter; it also prevented substantial activation of microglial cells. Loss of the astroglial population, a marker of damage in our model, was also prevented. This protective effect resulted from inhibition of TH and the consequent decrease in DA concentration, because treatment with L-DOPA/benserazide, which bypasses TH inhibition induced by alpha-MPT, reversed the protective effect produced by this drug. These results point out the important contribution of DA to the vulnerability and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Knowledge about the involvement of DA in this process may lead to the possibility of new protection strategies against this important degenerative process.

  11. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  12. Gamma radiation effect on Populus nigra assimilatory pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creanga, I. A.; Tudorie, Marcela; Mocanasu, C.; Creanga, Dorina

    2002-01-01

    The influence of low intensity gamma radiation on the photosynthesis in young poplar saplings was studied. Black poplar (Populus nigra) was chosen due to its ecological importance, as fast growing tree species with many hybrids, in the frame of a polluted environment. Assimilatory pigments in the leaves of irradiated saplings were assayed using standard spectrophotometric method in acetone extract. Series of five saplings formed the experimental samples. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b levels appeared as diminished in exposed samples in comparison to the controls. Linear regression was established in every case, the line slope showing the higher effect in chlorophyll b. Carotene pigments presented a slight increasing tendency in the exposed samples. Assimilatory pigment sum was shown to be affected by the same decreasing tendency. Student t-test was applied (two tailed, pair type) to reveal statistical significance of observed modifications. Though not very deep, the modifications induced by exposure to gamma radiation of low intensity (comparable to the local atmospheric variations, caused by both natural and artificial sources) represent putative inhibitory factors in young plant photosynthesis. The main mechanism of radiation action seems to be water radiolysis, triggering peroxide cascade, generally producing toxic products for the cell metabolism. Nevertheless, living cell ability to repair some damages caused by external stress could be revealed in the present case by the enhancing tendency of the carotenes which sustain photosynthesis as secondary pigments. (authors)

  13. Ecosystem carbon stocks in Pinus palustris forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Pete Anderson; Jason Jackson; Lorenzo Ferrari; Tim A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper

    2014-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) restoration in the southeastern United States offers opportunities for carbon (C) sequestration. Ecosystem C stocks are not well understood in longleaf pine forests, which are typically of low density and maintained by prescribed fire. The objectives of this research were to develop allometric equations for...

  14. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  15. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  16. Provenance variations of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Southern PART of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulcu, S.; Bilir, N.

    2015-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, stem form, number, angle and diameter of branches were assessed in eight-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Aydogmus and Kemer experimental sites of Southern part of Turkey. Growth of the provenances was also compared to two native species (Taurus cedar- Cedrus libani A. Rich and Black pine-Pinus nigra Arnold.) of the region. Variations within provenance and among provenances, and relations among the traits were estimated. There were large differences (p <= 0.05) within provenance and among provenances for the traits, while sites showed similar (0.05 <= p) performance for tree height and stem form. For instance, average of tree height was 181 cm and varied between 138.3 cm and 229.8 cm in provenances of Aydogmus site, it was 184 cm and ranged from 130 cm to 246.1 cm in that of Kemer site. Averages of tree height of a provenance were 144.4 cm in Aydogmus and 194.5 cm in Kemer. Individual tree height of the provenance varied between 69 cm and 267 cm, and ranged from 51 cm to 280 cm in sites. Averages of tree height were 143.2 cm in Black pine 145.6 cm in Taurus cedar which were natural species of the region. There were mostly positive and significant (p <= 0.05) correlations among the traits. Results of the study were discussed for new plantations and breeding of the species. (author)

  17. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  18. Substantia nigra depigmentation and exposure to encephalitis lethargica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Nawaz; Jicha, Gregory A; Abell, Annalisa; Dean, Dawson; Vitek, Jerrold L; Berger, Joseph R

    2012-12-01

    Parkinsonism has occasionally been reported as a consequence of infectious diseases. The present study examines the clinical and pathological correlates of parkinsonism across birth cohorts in relation to critical exposure to the encephalitis lethargica epidemic in the early 1900s. The study population consisted of 678 participants in the Nun Study, of whom 432 died and came to autopsy. Qualitative indices of substantia nigra (SN) depigmentation were verified in a subset of 40 randomly selected subjects using quantitative stereological techniques. SN depigmentation, detected neuropathologically, was correlated with clinical parameters of Parkinson disease, age, and birth cohort. SN depigmentation was detected in 57 (13.2%) of the cohort. Although qualitative SN depigmentation correlated modestly with age (p = 0.02), it correlated best with birth cohort (p = 0.009) for women born in the years 1895-1899. Quantitative measures of SN depigmentation were increased in this birth cohort compared to age matched subjects from flanking birth cohorts 1890-1894 and 1900-1904 (p < 0.001). SN depigmentation correlated with speed of 6- and 50-foot walk (p < 0.0001), up and go test (p < 0.0001), and hand coordination (p < 0.0001). Subjects in the birth cohort 1895-1899 would have been in their late teens and 20s at the onset and during the peak of the encephalitis lethargica epidemic. These were precisely the age ranges of persons who were most often affected by the illness. These data suggest the possibility that the coexistence of parkinsonism and SN depigmentation in this birth cohort may have resulted from the yet undetermined infectious agent responsible for encephalitis lethargica. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  19. Intrinsic and integrative properties of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fu-Ming; Lee, Christian R.

    2011-01-01

    The GABA projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are output neurons for the basal ganglia and thus critical for movement control. Their most striking neurophysiological feature is sustained, spontaneous high frequency spike firing. A fundamental question is: what are the key ion channels supporting the remarkable firing capability in these neurons? Recent studies indicate that these neurons express tonically active TRPC3 channels that conduct a Na-dependent inward current even at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. When the membrane potential reaches −60 mV, a voltage-gated persistent sodium current (INaP) starts to activate, further depolarizing the membrane potential. At or slightly below −50 mV, the large transient voltage-activated sodium current (INaT) starts to activate and eventually triggers the rapid rising phase of action potentials. SNr GABA neurons have a higher density of (INaT), contributing to the faster rise and larger amplitude of action potentials, compared with the slow-spiking dopamine neurons. INaT also recovers from inactivation more quickly in SNr GABA neurons than in nigral dopamine neurons. In SNr GABA neurons, the rising phase of the action potential triggers the activation of high-threshold, inactivation-resistant Kv3-like channels that can rapidly repolarize the membrane. These intrinsic ion channels provide SNr GABA neurons with the ability to fire spontaneous and sustained high frequency spikes. Additionally, robust GABA inputs from direct pathway medium spiny neurons in the striatum and GABA neurons in the globus pallidus may inhibit and silence SNr GABA neurons, whereas glutamate synaptic input from the subthalamic nucleus may induce burst firing in SNr GABA neurons. Thus, afferent GABA and glutamate synaptic inputs sculpt the tonic high frequency firing of SNr GABA neurons and the consequent inhibition of their targets into an integrated motor control signal that is further fine-tuned by neuromodulators

  20. Cadmium and copper change root growth and morphology of Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arduini, I.; Onnis, A. (Dipart. di Agronomia e Gestione dell' Agro-Ecosistema, Univ. degli Studi Pisa, Pisa (Italy)); Boldbold, D.L. (Forstbotanishces Institut, Univ. Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Heavy metal loads in forest soils have been increasing over time due to atmospheric inputs. Accumulation in the upper soil layers could affect establishment of seedlings and forest regeneration. Mediterranean species show a high initial root development, allowing seedlings to reach the moisture of deeper soil layers. In the present work seedlings of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), were grown in culture solution supplied with 0.0, 0.1, 1 or 5 [mu]M CdSO[sub 4] or with 1 [mu]M CdSO[sub 4] and 1 [mu]M CuSO[sub 4] combined. In both species tap-root elongation was drastically reduced in the 5 [mu]M Cd[sup 2+] and in the (Cd[sup 2+] - Cu[sup 2+]) treatments. A supply of 0.1 or 1 [mu]M Cd[sup 2+] however, enhanced root elongation in Pinus pinea without significantly influencing root elongation in Pinus pinaster. In both species the root density (weight per unit length) and the width of the cortex increased in response to Cd[sup 2+] exposure. In Pinus pinaster the mitotic index decreased at the higher Cd[sup 2+] concentrations and when Cd[sup 2+] and Cu[sup 2+] were combined. The data suggest that cell elongation is more sensitive to Cd[sup 2+] than cell division. The number and length of the lateral roots were also affected by Cd[sup 2+] treatment to a higher degree in Pinus pinaster than in Pinus pinea, reflecting the different Cd-tolerance of the two species. (au)

  1. [Morphochemical changes in the substantia nigra cellular structures in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkov, V N; Khudoerkov, R M; Voronkov, D N; Sobolev, V B; Kutukova, K A

    to clarify the features of morphochemical changes in the substantia nigra cellular structures in Parkinson's disease. The structural characteristics of the substantia nigra were studied microscopically and quantified using computer morphometric methods at brain autopsies of individuals with Parkinson's disease who had died from intercurrent diseases and those who had no evidence of neurological disorders in their history (a control group). This investigation could clarify the features of morphochemical changes in both the neural network structures and the glial populations of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease. The number of neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of dopamine neurons) in the compact part of the substantia nigra (a ventral region) was smaller and the density distribution of Lewy bodies was higher in the patients with Parkinson's disease than in the control group. The accumulation of iron (II) compounds in the cellular elements and neuropile and the increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in Parkinson's disease were more pronounced than those in the controls. Postmortem diagnosis in Parkinson's disease should be based on a full description of a set of neuronal and glial morphochemical and structural changes in the substantia nigra rather than on the identification of cellular markers for the neurodegenerative process.

  2. Anomalous needle numbers on dwarf shoots of Pinus mugo and P. uncinata (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Boratyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of occurrence of abnormal, three- (or more needle dwarf shoots of most southern and central European two-needle pine (Pinus species were studied. No specimens with more than two-needle dwarf shoots were found in a population of P. nigra Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal Franco from the Iberian Peninsula and in two populations of P. uliginosa Neumann from the Sudeten Mountains in Central Europe. Single specimens were found within one population of P. pinaster Aiton from the Iberian Peninsula and among six populations of P. sylvestris L. from the Iberian Peninsula and Central Europe. Abnormal dwarf shoots mostly with three, but also four, five or six needles were found among 24 of 25 surveyed populations of P. mugo Turra and P. uncinata Ramond. The average frequency of specimens with at least one three-needle dwarf shoot was 24% for P. mugo and 20% for P. uncinata. The frequencies of occurrence varied significantly among studied populations and were highest in samples collected from the upper elevational range limits of the species in the mountains and near the northern limits of their ranges. The frequency of abnormal dwarf shoots in the same populations was significantly high in 2-3 consecutive years. Needles from three-needle dwarf shoots were not significantly shorter than those of two-needle shoots.

  3. [Comparison of chemical components of essential oils in needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm from Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changmao; Duan, Wengui; Cen, Bo; Tan, Jianhui

    2006-11-01

    Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm grown in Guangxi. Various factors such as pine needle dosage and extraction time which may influence the oil yield were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pine needle dosage 700 g, extraction time 5 h. The essential oil yields from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm were 0.45% and 0.19%, respectively. Moreover, the chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty four components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus massoniana Lamb were separated and twenty of them (98.59%) were identified while seventy three components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus elliottottii Engelm were separated and twenty nine of them (94.23%) were identified. Generally, the compositions of the essential oils from needles of the two varieties were similar but the contents of some compounds differed greatly. Especially, the content of alpha-pinene in the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb needles was 2.6 times as that from Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles, but the content of beta-pinene was less than the latter. Mono- and sesquiterpenes were the main composition of the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles.

  4. Comparative mapping in Pinus: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).Tree Genet Genomes 7:457-468

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Andrew J. Eckert; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Annette Delfino-Mix; Dean A Davis; Deems C. Burton; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    The majority of genomic research in conifers has been conducted in the Pinus subgenus Pinus mostly due to the high economic importance of the species within this taxon. Genetic maps have been constructed for several of these pines and comparative mapping analyses have consistently revealed notable synteny. In contrast,...

  5. Infusion of opiates into substantia nigra protects against maximal electroshock seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garant, D S; Gale, K

    1985-07-01

    Microinfusion of morphine sulfate (50 nmol), [d-Ala2]-Met-enkephalin (35 nmol) or dynorphin A 1-13 (1 nmol) bilaterally into the substantia nigra significantly attenuated seizures induced by maximal electroshock in rats. This action was accompanied by stereotyped behavioral hyperactivity. These anticonvulsant and behavioral effects were antagonized by systemic naloxone administration; neither effect was observed after intranigral microinjection of dynorphin A 1-17 amide (1 nmol). These results are consistent with a mu opiate receptor-mediated inhibition of substantia nigra efferent neurons, and with the proposal that bilateral inhibition of nigral efferents attenuates seizure propagation. However, intranigral morphine failed to alter the severity of i.v. bicuculline seizures, indicating that opiate-mediated inhibition in substantia nigra is distinct from that produced by gamma-aminobutyric acid.

  6. Variation of leaf margin serration in Populus nigra of industrial dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Shtirs

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The variability of leaf margin serration of Populus nigra L. in conditions of industrial dumps (coal mines dumps and overburden dumps and city park is estimated. The value of this indicator is in the range from 1.25 to 1.76 and significantly increases along the gradient: coal mines dumps – overburden dumps – city park. From the number of selected gradations of P. nigra leaf blades, the gradation with values of 1.45-1.55 is most pronounced according to the analyzed index for industrial dumps, for the park – with the values of 1.55-1.65. The degree of serration of edge leaf blade is characterized by low values of variation – coefficient of variation is less than 10.0%. We registered the significant positive correlation between the average values of leaf margin serration and the length of P. nigra leaf blade.

  7. Modeling natural regeneration biomass of Pinus stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cubas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliable biomass data are very important in the evaluation of ecosystems, and help in understanding the contribution of forests in climate change. Variables that describe the size of the tree, like diameter and height are directly associated with biomass, which allows the use of regression models to estimate this element. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate by regression models, the biomass of different compartments of natural regeneration of trees of a Pinus taeda L. stand. The data were obtained through direct destructive method, using 100 randomly selected trees in the understory of a stand of Pinus taeda. We analyzed three arithmetical models, three logarithmic and two models developed by Stepwise process. Logarithmic equations developed by Stepwise procedure showed the best estimates of total and stems biomass. However, for needles and twigs compartments the best adjust was observed with Husch model and for root biomass Berkhout model proved to be the most suitable.

  8. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  9. Development of Brassica oleracea-nigra monosomic alien addition lines: genotypic, cytological and morphological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chen; Cui, Cheng; Xiang, Yi; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2017-12-01

    We report the development and characterization of Brassica oleracea - nigra monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) to dissect the Brassica B genome. Brassica nigra (2n = 16, BB) represents the diploid Brassica B genome which carries many useful genes and traits for breeding but received limited studies. To dissect the B genome from B. nigra, the triploid F 1 hybrid (2n = 26, CCB) obtained previously from the cross B. oleracea var. alboglabra (2n = 18, CC) × B. nigra was used as the maternal parent and backcrossed successively to parental B. oleracea. The progenies in BC 1 to BC 3 generations were analyzed by the methods of FISH and SSR markers to screen the monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) with each of eight different B-genome chromosomes added to C genome (2n = 19, CC + 1B 1-8 ), and seven different MAALs were established, except for the one with chromosome B2 which existed in one triple addition. Most of these MAALs were distinguishable morphologically from each other, as they expressed the characters from B. nigra differently and at variable extents. The alien chromosome remained unpaired as a univalent in 86.24% pollen mother cells at diakinesis or metaphase I, and formed a trivalent with two C-genome chromosomes in 13.76% cells. Transmission frequency of all the added chromosomes was far higher through the ovules (averagely 14.40%) than the pollen (2.64%). The B1, B4 and B5 chromosomes were transmitted by female at much higher rates (22.38-30.00%) than the other four (B3, B6, B7, B8) (5.04-8.42%). The MAALs should be valuable for exploiting the genome structure and evolution of B. nigra.

  10. Insights into some physiological and biochemical responses of Populus alba and Populus nigra to lead contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Etemadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of lead (PbCl2 increment, under hydroponic conditions up to 15, 45 and 90 mg/l in presence of EDTA, on some physiological and biochemical traits of one year old saplings of P. nigra and P. alba, were investigated. Six weeks after establishing in target concentration, the amount of lead, biomass, water, soluble sugars, proline, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, and pigments were assessed in different organs. The results revealed that with increasing lead concentration in culture medium in the studied period, the amount of lead in saplings increased, but no effect was observed on their biomass. In both species the magnitude of lead accumulation in root was higher than leaf. P. nigra had more water and less soluble sugars than P. alba. The concentration of soluble sugars increased up to 1.5 times with lead increment in both species, but proline content increased only in P. nigra up to 2 times and remained constant in P. alba. Elevation of electrolyte leakage in saplings of P. nigra in excess lead treatment was accompanied by no change in malondialdehyde content. Concentrations of pigments were not affected by lead, and only the ratio of chlorophyll a to b in P. nigra increased in high lead concentration. In general both species accumulated high extent of lead in their organs. But it seems that P. nigra, at least with respect of enhancing plasma membrane permeability, increasing proline and the ratio of chlorophyll a to b, was more sensitive to this toxic metal in compare with P. alba.

  11. Contenido de carotenos en el follaje de Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Quert Álvarez

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis del material vegetal de las especies Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet, con el objetivo de determinar su contenido de caroteno tomando como base las condiciones y tiempo de exposición del follaje de las especies objeto de estudio al sol y a la sombra, y teniendo en cuenta la extracción del aceite esencias como factores influyentes en la variación de las concentraciones de caroteno. Para determinar el contenido de caroteno se tomaron muestras del follaje entre 1 y 20 d, expuesto a las condiciones de trabajo en intervalos de 1, 3, 6, 10 y 20 d, tanto antes como después de extraer el aceite esencial. Los resultados obtenidos para ambas especies demostraron que el follaje expuesto a la sombra contiene un mayor porcentaje de caroteno que el expuesto al sol, como era de esperar; el tiempo de exposición influye significativamente en este contenido, así como la extracción del aceite esencial que aumenta el contenido de caroteno; los valores máximos fueron de 130,7 y 157,2 mg/kg de follaje y los mínimos de 55,3 y 57,2 mg/kg de follaje para Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet respectivamente.An analysis of the vegetable material from the species Pinus cariabaea Morelet and Pinus tropicalis Morelet was carried out and their content of carotene was determined taking as the basis the conditions and time of exposure of the foliage of the species studied to the sun and shade, and also taking into account the extraction of the essential oil as factors influencing on the variation of carotene concentrations. For the determination of the carotene content, samples of the foliage between 1 and 20 exposed to working conditions at intervals of 1, 3, 6, 10 and 20 d were taken, both before and after the extraction of the essential oil. Results obteined from both species showed that the foliage exposed to shade contains a higher percentage of carotene than the one exposed to the sun, as it was expected to

  12. Aplicaciones de la embriogénesis somática para la propagación y mejora de Quercus ilex L. y Pinus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Carlos, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis está enfocada a la aplicación de la embriogénesis somática para la conservación y mejora de Quercus ilex L., Pinus pinaster Aiton y Pinus pinea L., especies forestales representativas de los bosques de la Península Ibérica. La propagación clonal mediante embriogénesis somática (ES) es la herramienta más adecuada para la propagación de genotipos de élite y para la implementación de la llamada silvicultura multivarietal. Además los cultivos embriogénicos son explantos adecuados para ...

  13. Ventral Tegmental Area and Substantia Nigra Neural Correlates of Spatial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Adria K.; Mizumori, Sheri J. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) may provide modulatory signals that, respectively, influence hippocampal (HPC)- and striatal-dependent memory. Electrophysiological studies investigating neural correlates of learning and memory of dopamine (DA) neurons during classical conditioning tasks have found DA…

  14. Effect of variety on content of bioactive phenolic compounds in common elder (Sambucus nigra L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrchotová, Naděžda; Dadáková, E.; Matějíček, A.; Tříska, Jan; Kaplan, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 6 (2017), s. 700-703 ISSN 1478-6419 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Sambucus nigra * flavonoids * phenolic acids * HPLC-MS Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.828, year: 2016

  15. Rapid in vitro shoot multiplication of the recalcitrant species Juglans nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micah E. Stevens; Paula M. Pijut

    2018-01-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) has long been prized for its timber, leading to commercial cultivation and significant breeding efforts for improving marketable traits. Vegetative and in vitro black walnut propagation techniques, however, are variable and highly genotype dependent. Optimizing plant growth regulator type and...

  16. Substantia nigra in MR images in Parkinson disease and MPTP exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Paz, R.L.; Duguid, J.; Langston, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Eight patients, aged 60-77 years, with idiopathic Parkinson disease were studied to determine whether the characteristic degeneration of the substantia nigra (zona compacta), seen pathologically, could be identified in vivo on T2-weighted proton MR imaging (1.5 T). The mean width of the substantia nigra in the eight patients was 4.1 mm (SEM = 0.21 mm), significantly (rho < .004) less than the mean width of 5.2 mm (SEM= 0.30 mm) in ten age-matched controls. Overlap with control values was seen in only one patient. No clear correlation between low signal in the putamen (suggesting excess deposition of iron, Fe/sup 3+/) and Parkinson disease was seen. Narrowing of the substantia nigra on MR imaging was also seen in one patient with drug-induced Parkinson syndrome (MPTP exposure). These changes on MR imaging are probably due to atrophy of the zona compacta of the substantia nigra, but excess iron in the zona reticulata may partially contribute to these findings. MR imaging may be useful for differentiating ''classic'' Parkinson disease from other extrapyramidal degenerative disorders and for predicting response to drug therapy

  17. Wood Anatomical Structure of Morus alba L. and Morus nigra L., Native to Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham KARAMI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Iran is a wast country with many different tree species. Among those there are two species of Morus genus including alba and nigra. Since long time ago, white mulberry�s wood (Morus alba has been used for making musical instruments especially bowl shaped instruments in Iran.. In contrast, black mulberry�s wood (Morus nigra has never been used for these types of applications. In order to investigate the possible replacement choices, this study has been carried out to investigate the anatomical differences and similarities between these two species. Wood samples of the two species have been collected from same site and microsections for light microscopic studies and maceration samples have been prepared. The anatomical characteristics were studied according to the IAWA List of Hardwoods. The most important similarities between them are: vessel solitary in short radial multiples or irregular clusters, fiber nonseptate, rays uniseriate and multiseriate type, paratracheal parenchyma, varying from vasicentric to aliform confluent, apotracheal as marginal bands, Rhombic crystals present in rays and sometimes in parenchyma. The main differences are: semi-ring porous distribution of vessels in M. alba, fewer number of vessels and presence of aliform parenchyma in M. nigra. Taking these results into consideration, the most important features of both species are similar and it could be recommended to use the nigra species as well as the alba for making musical instruments.

  18. Lead tolerance of Populus nigra in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, A.; Tabari, M.; Mohammadi Goltapeh, E.; Shirvani, A.

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to examine lead tolerance of Populus nigra (clone 62/154) in symbiosis witharbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a greenhouse experiment was carried out in a factorial randomized complete scheme with two factors 1) fungal inoculation in 4 levels (control, inoculation with Glomus mosseae, inoculation with G. intraradices and inoculation with G. mosseae+G. intraradices) and 2) lead in 4 levels (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 soil). Mycorrhizal colonization and physiological parameters of plants were measured at the end of growth season. Results showed that at all Pb levels, the percentage of root mycorrhizal colonization in fungal treatments was significantly higher than that in control treatment (without fungal inoculation), however without significant differences between 3 fungal treatments. Pb treatments had no significant effect on root mycorrhizal colonization of P. nigra plants. Also, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, intercellular CO2 concentration and water use efficiency of P. nigra plants had no significant inhibitory effects versus the control found under Pb and fungal treatments or their interaction.The results of present study demonstrated that fungal treatments had no significant effects on physiological parameters and Pb tolerance of P. nigraplants. While, in relation to mycorrhizal colonization and physiological parameters, P. nigra clone 62/154 showeda good tolerance to Pb stress. So, in further investigations of phytoremediation of lead-contaminated soils, this clone can be considered as a proposed species.

  19. Molecular genetic analysis of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) along Dutch rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, P.; Coops, H.; Jansen, J.; Vosman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The genetic structure of remaining black poplar (Populus nigra) trees on the banks of the Dutch Rhine branches was investigated using the AFLP technique. In total, 143 trees, including one P. deltoides and some P. x euramericana, were analysed using six AFLP primer combinations which generated 319

  20. Habitat characteristics at den sites of the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; John E. Hunter; Robin Hamlin; Keith M. Slauson; M. J. Mazurek

    2010-01-01

    The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is a federally listed endangered species, but has been the subject of few studies. Mountain beavers use burrows that include a single subterranean den. Foremost among the information needs for this subspecies is a description of the above-ground habitat features associated with dens. Using...

  1. Reproductive characteristics of the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Zielinski; M. J. Mazurek

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the ecology and life history of the federally endangered Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra). The distribution of this primitive burrowing rodent is disjunct from the balance of the species’ range and occurs in a unique maritime environment of coastal grasslands and forests. Fundamental to protecting this taxon...

  2. First Record of Dicheilonema Ciconiae (Nematoda, Diplotriaenoidea From Ciconia Nigra (Aves, Ciconiidae in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrota Ya. Yu.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Five specimens of a parasitic nematode Dicheilonema ciconiae (Schrank, 1788 were collected from black stork, Ciconia nigra Linnaeus, in Kyiv Zoological Park. Identification of the nematodes was confirmed by morphological examination of the specimens collected. The ornamentation of the body cuticle in caudal region of males (area rugosa is first described in D. ciconiae.

  3. Neurosteroid biosynthetic pathway changes in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchetti, Sabina; Bossers, Koen; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Swaab, Dick F.

    2010-01-01

    There is emerging evidence from animal studies for a neuroprotective role of sex steroids in neurodegenerative diseases, but studies in human brain are lacking. We have carried out an extensive study of the neurosteroid biosynthetic pathways in substantia nigra (SN), caudate nucleus (CN) and putamen

  4. Developing new microsatellite markers in walnut (Juglans regia L.) from Juglans nigra genomic GA enriched library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat Topcu; Nergiz Coban; Keith Woeste; Mehmet Sutyemez; Salih. Kafkas

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to develop new polymorphic SSR primer pairs in walnut using sequences derived from Juglans nigra L. genomic enriched library with GA repeat. The designed 94 SSR primer pairs were subjected to gradient PCR in 12 walnut cultivars to determine their optimum annealing temperatures and to determine whether they produce bands. Then, the...

  5. Growth and dynamic modulus of elasticity of Pinus patula × Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field establishment of South Africa's most important commercial pine species, Pinus patula, is severely hampered by the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum. Importantly, hybrids between P. patula and other pine species tolerant to the pitch canker fungus, such as P. tecunumanii and P. oocarpa, have been identified ...

  6. The flexural properties of young Pinus elliottii × Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the bending strength and stiffness properties of young Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis timber from the Southern Cape, South Africa, and to evaluate the predictability of these properties from acoustic measurements on standing trees, logs and their sawn boards.

  7. Rust resistance in seedling families of Pinus albicaulis and Pinus strobiformis and implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; J. Hamlin; J. Hill; D. Conklin

    2011-01-01

    Infection and mortality levels from Cronartium ribicola, the fungus causing white pine blister rust, are very high in parts of the geographic range of Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) and P. strobiformis (Southwestern white pine). Genetic resistance to this non-native fungus will be one of the key factors in maintaining or restoring populations of these species in...

  8. Stimulation of the substantia nigra influences the specification of memory-guided saccades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamed, Safraaz; Garrison, Tiffany J.; Shires, Joel

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of sensory information, we rely on past experience or memories to guide our actions. Because previous experimental and clinical reports implicate basal ganglia nuclei in the generation of movement in the absence of sensory stimuli, we ask here whether one output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (nigra), influences the specification of an eye movement in the absence of sensory information to guide the movement. We manipulated the level of activity of neurons in the nigra by introducing electrical stimulation to the nigra at different time intervals while monkeys made saccades to different locations in two conditions: one in which the target location remained visible and a second in which the target location appeared only briefly, requiring information stored in memory to specify the movement. Electrical manipulation of the nigra occurring during the delay period of the task, when information about the target was maintained in memory, altered the direction and the occurrence of subsequent saccades. Stimulation during other intervals of the memory task or during the delay period of the visually guided saccade task had less effect on eye movements. On stimulated trials, and only when the visual stimulus was absent, monkeys occasionally (∼20% of the time) failed to make saccades. When monkeys made saccades in the absence of a visual stimulus, stimulation of the nigra resulted in a rotation of the endpoints ipsilaterally (∼2°) and increased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades. When the visual stimulus was present, stimulation of the nigra resulted in no significant rotation and decreased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades slightly. Based on these measurements, stimulation during the delay period of the memory-guided saccade task influenced the metrics of saccades much more than did stimulation during the same period of the visually guided saccade task. Because these effects

  9. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  10. Germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata Mast. provenances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulan Xu; Nianhui Cai; Bin He; Ruili Zhang; Wei Zhao; Jianfeng Mao; Anan Duan; Yue Li; Keith Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We studied seed germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata to explore the range of variability within the species and to inform afforestation practices. Phenotypes were evaluated at a forest tree nursery under conditions that support Pinus yunnanensis, one of the presumed parental species of P. densata...

  11. Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their relation to measures of seedling morphology. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... A pot trial was implemented to determine the effect of soil water stress following transplanting on shoot water potential and stomatal conductance of Pinus patula ...

  12. Effect on nursery and field performance of Pinus patula seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium circinatum is an important fungal pathogen of Pinus species. In South Africa, it is the most significant pathogen of Pinus patula seedlings in forestry nurseries where it presents a substantial constraint to productivity and can continue to cause mortality in-field for up to two years after establishment. This study ...

  13. Morphological evaluation of the Pinus kesiya complex (Pinaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Businský, R.; Frantík, Tomáš; Vít, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 300, č. 2 (2014), s. 273-285 ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : morphological var iation * Pinus densata ssp. tibetica * Pinus kesiya complex Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2014

  14. An evaluation of wood properties of Pinus caribeae (Morelet) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of within tree variation on wood density, ring width and anisotropic shrinkage of Pinus caribeae (Morelet) among tree partitions in Oluwa pine plantation. Five 15-year old Pinus caribeae (Morelet) in three partitions were randomly selected from the plantation and felled for the study. Wood ...

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  16. Influencia de la poda en el desarrollo de masas de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias

    OpenAIRE

    Hevia Cabal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis evaluó la influencia de diferentes intensidades de poda sobre el crecimiento, desarrollo y persistencia de masas regulares jóvenes de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias, dentro de una selvicultura sostenible enfocada a la producción de madera de calidad.

  17. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  18. Sensado de variables mediante terminal Android

    OpenAIRE

    Altaba Rosas, Mar

    2017-01-01

    El presente documento describe los procesos de diseño y desarrollo de un sistema que, a través de una aplicación móvil, sirve como dispositivo para el registro de la actividad cardíaca del paciente, mediante la obtención del electrocardiograma (ECG), y que permite detectar irregularidades para posteriormente, en caso que fuera necesario, poder enviar los datos adquiridos al profesional sanitario pertinente para que éste los analice. El sistema tiene dos componentes diferenciados, por un lado,...

  19. Reconciliando modularidad y eficiencia mediante atajos

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Gómez, Jordi; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    1997-01-01

    Se presenta en este artículo una propuesta para el desarrollo de programas eficientes en el marco de la programación con tipos abstractos de datos (TAD), con el objetivo de respetar la estructura modular de los programas propia de este ámbito. La propuesta se centra en el concepto de atajo como camino eficiente de acceso a los datos, alternativo al acceso mediante las operaciones propias del TAD, y se desarrolla sobre un TAD concreto, el almacén de elementos. La definición de los atajos es al...

  20. POTENSI ALELOPAT DAUN PINUS (Pinus spp. SEBAGAI BIOHERBISIDA PRA TUMBUH PADA GULMA KROKOT (Portulaca oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfy Ditya Cahyanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the effectof pine leaf as allelophaty on purslane germination. Theexperiment were conducted at screen house Departmentof Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, BrawijayaUniversity. The research is experimental design by nonfactorial Completely Randomized Blok Design, with threereplications, consisted of eleven levels. Purslane seeds sprout with control treatment, signifi cantly different from seedssprout ability in treatment solution leaves Pinus merkusii 2000ppm, and solution leaves of P. longaeva 2000 ppm. The resultshowed that 2000 ppm of P. merkusii extraction signifi cantlysuppressed 46% of purslane germination whereas 2000 ppmPinus longeava extraction signifi cantly suppressed of 41%campared to without any treatments (control.

  1. The dynamics of germination and morphometrics properties of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold saplings in terms of early indicators of tolerance toward the drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mataruga Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early indicators of tolerance toward drought, have been an object of research and scientific papers for many years. It starts with the hypothesis that seedlings produced from seeds that were collected from population of extremely different site conditions, on the level of open pollinated families, will have different results concerning drought tolerance. By tracking the dynamics of germination and morphological parameters of saplings, we are researching the interdependence of these parameters with the survival and growth of two-year-old seedlings in conditions where there is a lack of water. Austrian Pine seeds were collected from forty trees, distributed over five provenances on the Balkan Peninsula. Within each provenance a group is assigned to an extremely harsh and dry habitat, while also another group is assigned to prosperous (the most productive habitat. The analysis of the twenty-one-day-old seedlings (saplings is performed in the laboratory, while the tolerance test of the two-year-old seedlings is performed in the field. Seedlings that are exposed to conditions in which there is lack of water, have the coefficient of water formation evaluation 22.59 times bigger than sandy-clay soil with fraction of sand bigger than 60 percent. The results show significant and positive correlation between some parameters of saplings and the dynamics of growth (high increments of the seedlings in drought, but no correlation with the survival of the seedlings.

  2. Influence of ecological and botanical factors on the culture of black pine (Pinus nigra and proposed future management in Šumadija region (Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šikanja Severin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available All ecological aspects have been analysed and studied: botanical factors at black pine cultures in the area of Šumadija. Cultures of black pine of age 33 and 55−60 years within five experimental fields can be found in (1 good habitats, (2 medium habitats and (3 bad habitats were analysed in order to see how the same aged cultures act in different habitats. We analysed all the plants that appear as terrestrial flora, all the plants that occur as a shrub vegetation and, finally, floor trees. We analysed all the biotic and abiotic factors. The measures for most appropriate care for the cultures of black pine. Black pine in Serbia reaches its highest elevation amplitude in Europe and covers most diverse habitats and soil, mainly because of its visibly pronounced ecological modesty. For this reason, the black pine is one of the most usable kinds of artificial afforestation in the Republic of Serbia at all devastated, treeless terrain in the oak belt, where there is a danger that through the action of erosion, soil degradation occurs. That in the management unit, Gružansko Lepeničke, Jaseničke forests, to answer all the questions, the pine, when it comes to artificially established black lines on the same or on different sites and the same and the various soils, as when it comes to tending these crops. It should be noted that of the 125,000 ha conifer cultures in the Republic of Serbia, 86 000 ha of trees were all pines, roughly 70% of all conifer cultures. Of the 86 000 ha pine, 65,200 ha was occupied by black pine, which is about 70%. In the above,Management Unit separate the five sample plots of 25 acres in size.

  3. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease in black walnut (Juglans nigra)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadziabdic, D.; Vito, L.; Windham, M. T.; Pscheidt, J. W.; Trigiano, R. N.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2014), s. 75-87 ISSN 0172-8083 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Thousand cankers disease * Juglans nigra * Geosmithia morbida Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2014

  4. A New Record of Chaunocephalus ferox (Digenea, Echinostomatidae from Ciconia nigra in Ukraine Including Morphological and Molecular Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greben О. B.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and molecular data on the type-species of Chaunocephalus Dietz, 1910, Chaunocephalus ferox (Rudolphi, 1795 is provided based on material collected from the type-host, Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus, from Kiev Zoo, Ukraine.

  5. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from seed extract of Brassica nigra and its antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAKSHA PANDIT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pandit R. 2015. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from seed extract of Brassica nigra and its antibacterial activity. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 15-19. We report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of Brassica nigra. UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peak at 432 nm which indicated the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles Tracking and Analysis (NTA was used to determine the size of synthesized silver nanoparticles. Zeta potential analysis was carried out to study the stability of nanoparticles while FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of proteins as capping agents that provided stability to nanoparticles in colloid. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The activity of Vancomycin was significantly increased in combination with silver nanoparticles showing synergistic activity against all bacteria while the maximum activity was noted against P. acnes.

  6. Reproductive biology and food habits of Pseudoboa nigra (Serpentes: Dipsadidae from the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Paula Orofino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein we provide data on body size, sexual size dimorphism,reproductive cycle, and food habits of the pseudoboini snake Pseudoboa nigra, which is distributed mainly in central South America throughout the Cerrado domain. Based on dissections of 147 preserved specimens, it is shown that females attain, and mature at,larger body sizes than males. There is no significant sexual dimorphism in head length, but males have longer tails relative to their body sizes. Vitellogenesis, egg-laying, and sperm production occur throughout the year, but males do not exhibit long-term sperm storage. The main prey of P. nigra is lizards; there is no evidence of ontogenetic change or sex differences in the diet of this species.

  7. Electrophysiological localization of distinct calcium potentials at selective somatodendritic sites in the substantia nigra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J; Nedergaard, S; Greenfield, S A

    1992-01-01

    of differential polarization through applied electric fields, the cell body and dendrites have been activated in effective isolation during intracellular recordings from pars compacta neurons in the substantia nigra in vitro. In one class of neurons, which discharge in a "phasic" fashion and are located......The dendrites of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra play a pivotal role in the neurochemical homeostasis of the nucleus. It is conceivable therefore that the cell body and dendrites of these nigral neurons possess distinct and independent electro-responsive features. By means......, a high-threshold calcium spike is located principally in the cell body. The differential localization of these calcium conductances in sub-populations of neurons is likely to determine the functions for the calcium responses in each type of neuron, and moreover highlight the dendrites as dynamic...

  8. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

  9. Protective Effects of Water Extract of Morus Nigra L. on 6-Hydroxydopamine Induced Parkinson’s Disease in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Ziai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although the etiology of PD is unknown, but major biochemical processes such as oxidative stress is largely described. Angiotensin II activates NADPH depending oxidases and produce superoxides formation. Morus nigra L. extract is an Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE inhibitor and tested for anti-Parkinsonism effects by biochemical and behavioral evaluations.Materials and Methods: In total 48 Male Wistar rats weighting 200-250 g were divided into 4 groups: (1 Sham (normal saline was injected in the left SNC, (2 Neurotoxin (injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into left SNC, (3 Morus nigra L. aqueous extract and (4 captopril. Morus nigra (10 mg/kg and captopril (5 mg/kg were daily-injected i.p. from 6 days before neurotoxin injection, until one day after 6-hydroxydopamine injection. Muscle stiffness and apomorphine test were assessed in 6 rats of any groups after two weeks. Protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and ACE activity were assessed in brains of 6 rats of each group after 24 hours.Results: Rotation test with apomorphine, Rigidity with Murprogo’s test, and lipid peroxidation in sham, captopril and Morus nigra groups were significantly lower than neurotoxin group. Protein oxidation in Morus nigra group was significantly lower than neurotoxin group. Brain ACE activity in neurotoxin, captopril and Morus nigra groups were inhibited.Conclusion: Morus nigra L. extract had protective effects on neuronal oxidation and death and improved signs of PD possibly by ACE inhibition.

  10. 9.4 T MR microscopy of the substantia nigra with pathological validation in controls and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA Massey

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: We present a histologically validated anatomical description of the substantia nigra on high field spin-echo high resolution magnetic resonance images and were able to delineate all five nigrosomes. In accordance with the pathological literature we did not observe changes in the nigrosome structure as manifest by volume or signal characteristics within the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease whereas in progressive supranuclear palsy there was microarchitectural destruction.

  11. The development of hyperhydric tissue on the stems of Sambucus nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga A. Tarkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhydric intumescences on the stems of Sambucus nigra arise in places where the stem lenticels are immersed in water. The hyperhydric tissue develops through the transformation of the multilayered phelloderm, the parenchyma of the cortex. endodermis and pericycle. The phellogen loses its meristematic properties and is either incorporated into the developing hyperhydric tissue or crushed. The succesive stages of hyperhydric changes which depend on the intense growth of cells and on the ability to devide acquired by them are presented.

  12. The stability of rutin and chlorogenic acid during the processing of black elder (Sambucus nigra) inflorescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dadáková, E.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Chmelová, Š.; Šerá, Božena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2011), s. 327-334 ISSN 0139-3006 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/05/2546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : black elder * Sambucus nigra L * rutin * chlorogenic acid * high-performance liquid chromatography * micellar electrokinetic chromatography Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.444, year: 2011

  13. PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF TETRA ACETYL ETHYLENE DIAMINE ACTIVATED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF POPULUS NIGRA CTMP

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Zhao; Junwen Pu; Shulei Mao; Guibo Qi

    2010-01-01

    To enhance the bleaching efficiency, the activator of tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) was used in conventional H2O2 bleaching. The H2O2/TAED bleaching system can accelerate the reaction rate and shorten bleaching time at relative low temperature, which can reduce the production cost. In this research, the process with hydrogen peroxide activated by TAED bleaching of Populus nigra chemi-thermo mechanical pulp was optimized. Suitable bleaching conditions were confirmed as follows: pulp con...

  14. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Morus nigra extract on human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Turan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morus nigra L. belongs to the family Moraceae and is frequently used in traditional medicine. Numerous studies have investigated the antiproliferative effects of various extracts of different Morus species, but studies involving the in vitro cytotoxic effect of M. nigra extract are very limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of dimethyl sulfoxide extract of M. nigra (DEM and to investigate, for the first time, the probable cytotoxic effect in human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3 cells together with the mechanism involved. Methods: Total polyphenolic contents (TPC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and phenolic compounds of DEM were evaluated using spectrophotometric procedures and HPLC. The cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells was revealed using the MTT assay. Mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells were then investigated in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle using flow cytometry, while caspase activity was investigated using luminometric analysis. Results: TPC and FRAP values were 20.7 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalents and 48.8 ± 1.6 mg trolox equivalents per g sample, respectively. Ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid were the major phenolic compounds detected at HPLC analysis. DEM arrested the cell cycle of PC-3 cells at the G1 phase, induced apoptosis via increased caspase activity and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusions: Our results indicate that M. nigra may be a novel candidate for the development of new natural product based therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.

  15. White piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra: contribution to the diagnosis of superficial mycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi de; Miguel, Barbara Arruda Fraletti; Muramatu, Laura Hitomi

    2017-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections restricted to the stratum corneum and to the hair shafts, with no penetration in the epidermis; they are: white piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra. This study presents images of mycological tests performed in the laboratory, as well as exams performed at the authors office, in order to improve the dermatologist's knowledge about the diagnosis of these dermatoses, which are common in many countries.

  16. White piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra: contribution to the diagnosis of superficial mycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, John Verrinder; de Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi; Miguel, Barbara Arruda Fraletti; Muramatu, Laura Hitomi

    2017-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections restricted to the stratum corneum and to the hair shafts, with no penetration in the epidermis; they are: white piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra. This study presents images of mycological tests performed in the laboratory, as well as exams performed at the authors office, in order to improve the dermatologist's knowledge about the diagnosis of these dermatoses, which are common in many countries. PMID:29186263

  17. Comparação gráfica entre curvas de índice de sítio para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda desenvolvidas no sul do Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000 para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Machado (1988, para os estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina; Brasil (1989a, para a região de Passo Fundo RS, Marcolin (1990, para o Segundo Planalto Paranaense e Selle (1993, para a região de Cambará do Sul. No entanto, o comportamento em relação às curvas de índice de sítio feitas por Brasil (1989b, para a região de São Francisco de Paula mostraram-se semelhantes, havendo somente uma diferença de nível entre estas.

  18. Wood identification of Dalbergia nigra (CITES Appendix I) using quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naive Bayes classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Peter; Miller, Regis; Stekel, Dov J; Whinder, Frances; Zieminska, Kasia

    2010-01-01

    Dalbergia nigra is one of the most valuable timber species of its genus, having been traded for over 300 years. Due to over-exploitation it is facing extinction and trade has been banned under CITES Appendix I since 1992. Current methods, primarily comparative wood anatomy, are inadequate for conclusive species identification. This study aims to find a set of anatomical characters that distinguish the wood of D. nigra from other commercially important species of Dalbergia from Latin America. Qualitative and quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naïve Bayes classification were conducted on 43 specimens of Dalbergia, eight D. nigra and 35 from six other Latin American species. Dalbergia cearensis and D. miscolobium can be distinguished from D. nigra on the basis of vessel frequency for the former, and ray frequency for the latter. Principal components analysis was unable to provide any further basis for separating the species. Naïve Bayes classification using the four characters: minimum vessel diameter; frequency of solitary vessels; mean ray width; and frequency of axially fused rays, classified all eight D. nigra correctly with no false negatives, but there was a false positive rate of 36.36 %. Wood anatomy alone cannot distinguish D. nigra from all other commercially important Dalbergia species likely to be encountered by customs officials, but can be used to reduce the number of specimens that would need further study.

  19. Saturated salt method determination of hysteresis of Pinus sylvestris L. wood for 35 ºC isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Esteban, L.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The saturated salts method was used in this study to quantify hysteresis in Pinus sylvestris L. wood, in an exercise that involved plotting the 35 ºC desorption and sorption isotherms. Nine salts were used, all of which establish stable and known relative humidity values when saturated in water The wood was kept at the relative humidity generated by each of these salts until the equilibrium moisture content (EMC was reached, both in the water loss or desorption, and the water uptake or sorption processes. The Guggenheim method was used to fit the values obtained to the respective curves. Hysteresis was evaluated in terms of the hysteresis coefficient, for which a mean value of 0.87 was found.

    Con este trabajo se ha cuantificado la histéresis de la madera de Pinus sylvestris L. Para ello, se han construido las isotermas de 35 ºC de adsorción y sorción, mediante el método de las sales saturadas. Se han utilizado nueve sales que cuando se saturan en agua dan lugar a unas humedades relativas estables y conocidas. La madera fue colocada bajo las distintas humedades relativas que confieren cada una de las sales hasta que alcanzaron las distintas humedades de equilibrio higroscópico, tanto en el proceso de pérdida de agua o desorción, como en el de adquisición de agua o de sorción. Los valores obtenidos fueron ajustados a las respectivas sigmoides, haciendo uso del método de Guggenheim. La valoración de la histéresis se determinó mediante el coeficiente de histéresis, obteniendo un valor medio de 0,87.

  20. Diagnostic value of combined assessment of olfaction and sustantia nigra hyperechogenicity for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Hernández, N; García Escrivá, A; Shalabi Benavent, M

    2015-10-01

    Hyposmia and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (SN+) are characteristic markers of Parkinson's disease (PD), although their diagnostic value in isolation may be limited. We evaluated the combined prevalence of both disorders in patients diagnosed with PD and assessed their diagnostic yield compared to a sample with essential tremor (ET) and another group of healthy subjects. Patients diagnosed with PD and ET and treated in our outpatient clinic were enrolled. Olfaction was assessed using the "Sniffin' Sticks" odour identification test (SS-12) and hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+) was assessed by transcranial duplex ultrasound. A total of 98 subjects were analysed, comprising 30 with PD, 21 with ET, and 47 controls. The respective prevalence rates of hyposmia (SS-12 .24cm(2)) were 70% and 83.3% in PD, 33.3% and 9.5% in ET, and 17% and 10.6% in controls. Both markers were present in 63% of patients with PD, none of the patients with ET, and only 2 of the controls. Combined use of substantia nigra sonography and olfactory testing with SS-12, two rapid, safe, and accessible tests, was more specific than each isolated marker for distinguishing patients with PD from patients with ET and control subjects. Since both markers have been described in very early phases of PD, combined use may be helpful in providing early diagnosis of PD. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.; Blande, James D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  2. Determination of Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Sambucus nigra Fruit Extract Using Alternative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Doroftei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to measure the in vitro antioxidant activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra fruit extract and to study its toxicity in a plant model system with regard to its possible application in food and agricultural industry. The antioxidant capacity of Sambucus nigra fruit powder was quantified by a photochemiluminescence method. The study of phytotoxicity of aqueous solutions of powder extract was performed using Allium cepa as a test organism. Photochemiluminescence determinations showed a very high antioxidant capacity of the product but also revealed its cytotoxic effect, along with mitodepressive activity and even inhibiton of mitosis at the preprophase stage when the fruit extract was used at higher concentrations. Aqueous solutions of the fruit powder have a reasonably expressed mutagenic activity in vivo on the radicles of Allium cepa, especially when they are used at a concentration of 1 g/dL for a prolonged time (48 h. At lower concentrations (0.1 g/dL, however, the mutagenic effect was not observed any more. The conclusion of our study is that Sambucus nigra fruit extract powder has a very high in vitro antioxidant activity and no mutagenic effects at low concentrations, which makes it recommendable for applications in the food industry.

  3. Apelin-13 ameliorates cognitive impairments in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced substantia nigra lesion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Elham; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Sheibani, Vahid

    2018-04-01

    Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known with its motor deficits, the patients often suffer from cognitive dysfunction. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is found in several brain regions such as substantia nigra and mesolimbic pathway. However, the role of apelin in cognition and cognitive disorders has not been fully clarified. In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on cognitive disorders in rat Parkinsonism experimental model. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was administrated into the substantia nigra. Apelin-13 (1, 2 and 3μg/rat) was administered into the substantia nigra one week after the 6-OHDA injection. Morris water maze (MWM), object location and novel object recognition tests were performed one month after the apelin injection. 6-OHDA-treated animals showed a significant impairment in cognitive functions which was revealed by the increased in the escape latency and traveled distance in MWM test and decreased in the exploration index in novel object recognition and object location tasks. Apelin-13 (3μg/rat) significantly attenuates the mentioned cognitive impairments in 6-OHDA-treated animals. In conclusion, the data support the pro-cognitive property of apelin-13 in 6-OHDA-induced cognitive deficit and provided a new pharmacological aspect of the neuropeptide apelin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Raut, Josna; Deo, Akash; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2013-01-01

    Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark) of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil) while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components) was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E)-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5%) and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3%) as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1%) and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%). The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively). Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL) along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL). The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL). The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  5. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%). PMID:25657795

  6. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  7. Analisis Komponen Kimia Dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Minyak Atsiri Daun Pinus (Pinus Merkusii Jungh.Et Devries) Dari Kabupaten Samosir

    OpenAIRE

    Siringo-Ringo, Mawar

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of pinus leaves (Pinus merkusii Jungh.et deVries) have been isolated by hydrodestilation method using Stahl. Pinus leaves have destilated for five hours roduced essential oil 0.1531% (w/w). The results of the analyse use GC-MS showed 23 peaks and can be identified 20 compounds and have five major compounds are Limonene (22.72%), α-Pinene (17.53%), β-Caryophyllene (16.76%), β-Ocimene (14.68%), and Germacren-d (11.24%). Antibacterial activity of the test have been done using ag...

  8. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  9. Reserva de carbono en un sistema silvopastoril compuesto de Pinus patula y herbáceas nativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Oliva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar la reserva de carbono retenida bajo un sistema silvopastoril con Pinus patula , localizado en Amazonas, Perú. Para la estimación de carbono se utilizaron 06 plantas mediante el método directo, los fustes fueron seccionados cada 2 metros y a partir de estos se obtuvieron muestras de 5 cm de espesor previo al pesaje total. Para las ramas y hojas se realizó el pesaje total y se seleccionaron muestras de 200 g. Para la recolección de muestras de hojarasca y herbáceas nativas, se utilizó el mé todo del cuadrante y las muestras de suelo se recolectaron alrededor de cada planta. Los datos fueron obtenidos mediante la formulación de ecuaciones alométricas y selección de la mayor correlación estimada, a partir de variables como diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP y altura del fuste (AF. Como resultado, se encontró 92,13 t/ha de carbono almacenado y 337,20 t/ha de carbono equivalente. Además, la investigación permitió establecer una ecuación que ayudó a estimar la cantidad de carbono y CO 2 en pino p átula: Biomasa seca = 0,6575*DAP 1,1794 (r 2 = 0,91 .

  10. 90SR uptake by Pinus ponderosa and Pinus radiata seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Emmingham, W.H.; Rygiewicz, P.T.

    1994-01-01

    Strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. Prior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90 Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. In this study, we inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Inoculated and noninoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove 90 Sr from an organic growth medium. Ectomycorrhizal P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings are able to remove 3-5 times more 90 Sr from contaminated soil than seedlings without ectomycorrhizae. (Author)

  11. Dendrochronology of bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1953 the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey, sp. nov.) in the White Mountains of California. This research resulted in the establishment of a continuous tree-ring sequence of 8253 yr. The millennia-old pines have emerged as a unique source of chronological data and the precisely dated wood is essential to certain paleoenvironmental and geophysical investigations. Over 1000 dendrochronologically dated decade samples of bristlecone pine supplied to three C-14 laboratories have been used to calibrate the radiocarbon time scale for the past seven millennia, a development of far reaching consequences in the fields of archaeology and geology. In addition, recent advances in other methods of analyzing past climatic variability - techniques involving stable isotope ratios, amino acid racemization, remanent magnetism and trace element abundances - have greatly increased the demand for wood of known age and, hence, for chronology development. Spanning the past 7500 yr, 1138 prepared decade samples, with a total weight of nearly 16 kg are available for study. (author)

  12. In vitro antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities, phytochemical screening and heavy metals toxicity of different parts of Ballota nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Najeeb; Ahmad, Ijaz; Ayaz, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    The study was done to assess the phytochemicals (flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannin, alkaloids, and phenol) in different parts (root, stem, and leaves) of Ballota nigra and correlated it to inhibition of microbes (bacteria and fungi), protozoan (Leishmania), and heavy metals toxicity evaluation. In root and stem flavonoids, terpenes and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate soluble fraction; these were found to be the most active inhibiting fractions against all the tested strains of bacteria, fungi, and leishmania. While in leaves flavonoids, terpenes, and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and n-butanol fractions which were the most active fractions against both types of microbes and protozoan (leishmania) in in vitro study. Ethanol and chloroform fractions show maximum inhibition against Escherichia coli (17 mm). The phytochemical and biological screenings were correlated with the presence of heavy metals in selected plant Ballota nigra. Cr was found above permissible value (above 1.5 mg/kg) in all parts of the plant. Ni was above WHO limit in B. nigra root and leaves (3.35 ± 1.20 mg/kg and 5.09 ± 0.47 mg/kg, respectively). Fe was above permissible value in all parts of B. nigra (above 20 mg/kg). Cd was above permissible value in all parts of the plant (above 0.3 mg/kg). Pb was above WHO limit (above 2 mg/kg) in all parts of Ballota nigra.

  13. Near-Infrared Confocal Laser Reflectance Cytoarchitectural Imaging of the Substantia Nigra and Cerebellum in the Fresh Human Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyuo, Cletus; Grand, Walter; Balos, Lucia L

    2017-01-01

    Cytoarchitectural neuroimaging remains critical for diagnosis of many brain diseases. Fluorescent dye-enhanced, near-infrared confocal in situ cellular imaging of the brain has been reported. However, impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to most fluorescent dyes limits clinical utility of this modality. The differential degree of reflectance from brain tissue with unenhanced near-infrared imaging may represent an alternative technique for in situ cytoarchitectural neuroimaging. We assessed the utility of unenhanced near-infrared confocal laser reflectance imaging of the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra in 2 fresh human cadaver brains using a confocal near-infrared laser probe. Cellular images based on near-infrared differential reflectance were captured at depths of 20-180 μm from the brain surface. Parts of the cerebellum and substantia nigra imaged using the probe were subsequently excised and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic correlation. Near-infrared reflectance imaging revealed the 3-layered cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum, with Purkinje cells appearing hyperreflectant. In the substantia nigra, neurons appeared hyporeflectant with hyperreflectant neuromelanin cytoplasmic inclusions. Cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra revealed on near-infrared imaging closely correlated with the histology on hematoxylin-eosin staining. We showed that unenhanced near-infrared reflectance imaging of fresh human cadaver brain can reliably identify and distinguish neurons and detailed cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional recovery of supersensitive dopamine receptors after intrastriatal grafts of fetal substantia nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Gage, F.H.; Fisher, L.J.; Hunt, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative [3H]BTCP. This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number (Bmax) of [3H]SCH 23390-labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum (36.7%) and the substantia nigra (35.1%) and a 54.4% increase in the number (Bmax) of [3H]sulpiride-labeled striatal D-2 receptors without an apparent change in affinity (Kd). Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior. In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of [3H]BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning. In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat

  15. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  16. Morphological, biochemical and sensory characteristics of black mulberry fruits (Morus nigra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Beáta Stehlíková; Marcela Čuláková; Andrej Sinica; Lucia Kucelová; Ján Brindza

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed at the morphological, biochemical, technological and sensorial determination of black mulberry (Morus nigra L. – MN)  fruitage and their utilization in the food production branches. For the experimental purposes were selected 50 genotypes of this population grown in the Pukanec surroundings. The medium fruitage weight determined in the selected collection ranged from 7.26 g (MN-1) to 1.42 g (MN-14), fruitage length in a range of 13.51 mm (MN-14) to 29.20 mm (MN-12) and the med...

  17. Ultrasonic surface measurements at the Porta Nigra, Trier, and the Neptungrotte, Park Sanssouci Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Thomas; Auras, Michael; Fehr, Moritz; Köhn, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasonic measurements along profiles at the surface of an object are well suited to characterize non-destructively weathering of natural stone near the surface. Ultrasonic waveforms of surface measurements in the frequency range between 10 kHz and 300 kHz are often dominated by the Rayleigh wave - a surface wave that is mainly sensitive to the velocity and attenuation of S-waves in the upper 0.3 cm to 3 cm. The frequency dependence of the Rayleigh wave velocity may be used to analyze variations of the material properties with depth. Applications of ultrasonic surface measurements are shown for two buildings: the Roman Porta Nigra in Trier from the 3rd century AD and the Neptungrotte at Park Sanssouci in Potsdam designed by von Knobelsdorff in the 18th century. Both buildings belong to the world cultural heritage and restorations are planned for the near future. It is interesting to compare measurements at these two buildings because they show the applicability of ultrasonic surface measurements to different natural stones. The Porta Nigra is made of local sandstones whereas the facades of the Neptungrotte are made of Carrara and Kauffunger marble. 71 and 46 surface measurements have been carried out, respectively. At both buildings, Rayleigh-wave group velocities show huge variations. At the Porta Nigra they vary between ca. 0.4 km/s and 1.8 km/s and at the Neptungrotte between ca. 0.7 km/s and 3.0 km/s pointing to alterations in the Rayleigh- and S-wave velocities of more than 50 % due to weathering. Note that velocities of elastic waves may increase e.g. because of the formation of black crusts like at the Porta Nigra or they may be strongly reduced due to weathering. The accuracy of the ultrasonic surface measurements, its reproducibility, and the influence of varying water saturation are discussed. Options for the analysis of ultrasonic waveforms are presented ranging from dispersion analysis to full waveform inversions for one-dimensional and two

  18. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of prenylated substances isolated from Morus alba and Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelová, Hana; Hanáková, Zuzana; Čermáková, Zuzana; Šmejkal, Karel; Dalĺ Acqua, Stefano; Babula, Petr; Cvačka, Josef; Hošek, Jan

    2014-06-27

    Chromatographic separation of root extracts of Morus alba and M. nigra led to the identification of the 2-arylbenzofurans moracin C (1), mulberrofuran Y (2), and mulberrofuran H (3), and the prenylated flavonoids kuwanon E (4), kuwanon C (5), sanggenon H (6), cudraflavone B (7), and morusinol (8), and the Diels-Alder adducts soroceal (9), and sanggenon E (10). The cytotoxicity and their antiphlogistic activity, determined as the attenuation of the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β and the inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation in LPS-stimulated macrophages, were evaluated for compounds 1-10.

  19. Carbon content of forest floor and mineral soil in Mediterranean Pinus spp. and Oak stands in acid soils in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, C.; Turrión, M.B.; Pando, V.; Bravo, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to determine the baseline carbon stock in forest floor and mineral soils in pine and oak stands in acid soils in Northern Spain. Area of study: The study area is situated in northern Spain (42° N, 4° W) on “Paramos y Valles” region of Palencia. aterial and methods: An extensive monitoring composed of 48 plots (31 in pine and 17 in oak stands) was carried out. Litter layers and mineral soil samples, at depths of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm, were taken in each plot. An intensive monitoring was also performed by sampling 12 of these 48 plots selected taken in account species forest composition and their stand development stage. Microbial biomass C (CMB), C mineralization (CRB), and soil organic C balance at stand level were determined in surface soil samples of intensive monitoring. Main results: No differences in soil C content were detected in the two forest ecosystems up to 60 cm depth (53.0±25.8 Mg C ha-1 in Pinus spp. plantations and 60.3±43.8 Mg C ha-1 in oak stands). However, differences in total C (CT), CMB and CRB were found in the upper 10 cm of the soils depending on the stand development stage in each species forest composition (Pinus nigra, Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica). Plots with high development stage exhibited significant lower metabolic quotient (qCO2), so, meant more efficient utilization of C by the microbial community. The C content in the forest floor was higher in pine stands (13.7±0.9 Mg C ha-1) than in oak stands (5.4±0.7 Mg C ha-1). A greater turnover time was found in pine ecosystems vs. oak stands. In contrast, forest floor H layer was nonexistent in oak stands. Research highlights: Results about litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil dynamics in this paper can be used strategically to reach environmental goals in new afforestation programs and sustainable forest management approaches. (Author)

  20. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  1. Mechanism by Sambucus nigra Extract Improves Bone Mineral Density in Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Badescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit were studied in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced hyperglycemic rats to evaluate its possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiglycosylation activity, and antiosteoporosis effects in diabetes. DEXA bone mineral density tests were performed in order to determine bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and fat (%Fat in control and diabetic animals, before and after polyphenol delivery. As compared to the normoglycemic group, the rats treated with STZ (60 mg/kg body weight revealed a significant malondialdehyde (MDA increase, as an index of the lipid peroxidation level, by 69%, while the total antioxidant activity (TAS dropped by 36%, with a consistently significant decrease (<0.05 in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX. Also, the treatment of rats with STZ revealed a significant increase of IL-6, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and osteopenia detected by DEXA bone mineral density tests. The recorded results highlight a significant improvement (<0.001 in the antioxidative capacity of the serum in diabetic rats treated with natural polyphenols, bringing back to normal the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as an important decrease in the serum concentration of MDA, with improved osteoporosis status. Knowing the effects of polyphenols could lead to the use of the polyphenolic extract of Sambucus nigra as a dietary supplement in diabetic osteoporosis.

  2. Boron accumulation and toxicity in hybrid poplar (Populus nigra × euramericana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Menon, Manoj; Lehmann, Eberhard; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Schulin, Rainer

    2011-12-15

    Poplars accumulate high B concentrations and are thus used for the phytomanagement of B contaminated soils. Here, we performed pot experiments in which Populus nigra × euramericana were grown on a substrate with B concentrations ranging from 13 to 280 mg kg(-1) as H(3)BO(3). Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Lupinus albus were grown under some growing conditions for comparison. Poplar growth was unaffected at soil B treatment levels up to 93 mg kg(-1). Growth was progressively reduced at levels of 168 and 280 mg kg(-1). None of the other species survived at these substrate B levels. At leaf B concentrations toxicity. Neutron radiography revealed that chlorotic leaf tissues had B concentrations of 1000-2000 mg kg(-1), while necrotic tissues had >2000 mg kg(-1). Average B concentrations of up to 3500 mg kg(-1) were found in leaves, while spots within leaves had concentrations >7000 mg kg(-1), showing that B accumulation in leaf tissue continued even after the onset of necrosis. The B accumulation ability of P. nigra × euramericana is associated with B hypertolerance in the living tissue and storage of B in dead leaf tissue.

  3. Alpha-synuclein suppression by targeted small interfering RNA in the primate substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L McCormack

    Full Text Available The protein alpha-synuclein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Its toxic potential appears to be enhanced by increased protein expression, providing a compelling rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing neuronal alpha-synuclein burden. Here, feasibility and safety of alpha-synuclein suppression were evaluated by treating monkeys with small interfering RNA (siRNA directed against alpha-synuclein. The siRNA molecule was chemically modified to prevent degradation by exo- and endonucleases and directly infused into the left substantia nigra. Results compared levels of alpha-synuclein mRNA and protein in the infused (left vs. untreated (right hemisphere and revealed a significant 40-50% suppression of alpha-synuclein expression. These findings could not be attributable to non-specific effects of siRNA infusion since treatment of a separate set of animals with luciferase-targeting siRNA produced no changes in alpha-synuclein. Infusion with alpha-synuclein siRNA, while lowering alpha-synuclein expression, had no overt adverse consequences. In particular, it did not cause tissue inflammation and did not change (i the number and phenotype of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and (ii the concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites. The data represent the first evidence of successful anti-alpha-synuclein intervention in the primate substantia nigra and support further development of RNA interference-based therapeutics.

  4. Morus nigra plant leaves as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Waheed, S.; Wasim, M.; Arif, M.; Zaidi, J.H. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper deals with the determination of 36 elements in 120 leaf samples of Morus nigra plant to assess their potential as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring. The elemental quantification was made by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in spring, summer and winter seasons from various sites in Islamabad with different types of anthropogenic activities as well as from a reference site with minimum of such activities. Twenty four soil samples from the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the adopted procedures was established by analyzing the certified reference materials, i.e., citrus leaves-1572 and soil-7, from NIST and IAEA, respectively, under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtained with the certified values which are in quite good agreement with each other. The enrichment values and Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the determined elements were computed and discussed accordingly. The elemental translocation from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been studied by analyzing these parts of the same plant. The results indicated that the leaves of Morus nigra plant have promising potential to monitor the extent of air pollution in the vicinity of industrial as well as in high traffic areas. (orig.)

  5. PRODUÇÃO DE CHAPAS DE MADEIRA COMPENSADA DE CINCO ESPÉCIES DE PINUS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de 5 espécies de pinus tropicais para produção de painéis compensados. As espécies estudadas foram: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii e Pinus taeda, sendo esta última espécie como testemunha. Foram produzidos compensados de 5 lâminas com resinas uréia-formaldeído e fenol-formaldeído. Os resultados de inchamento e recuperação em espessura foram estatisticamente iguais entre as espécies estudadas, com exceção para inchamento em espessura das chapas coladas com resina fenol-formaldeído. As chapas de Pinus maximinoi e Pinus oocarpa, apresentaram melhores resultados de módulos de elasticidade. Para o módulo de ruptura, as chapas de Pinus maxininoi, Pinus oocarpa e Pinus taeda, coladas com resina fenol-formaldeído, apresentaram valores estatisticamente superiores em relação às demais espécies. Quanto a resistência da linha de cola, as chapas de Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda e Pinus chiapensis, foram as que apresentaram melhor desempenho. Com base nos resultados gerais da pesquisa, pode-se destacar a potencialidade da madeira de Pinus maximinoi e Pinus oocarpa para produção de chapas de madeira compensada.

  6. The subspecific characters and distribution of the New World Skimmers - Rynchops nigra The subspecific characters and distribution of the New World Skimmers - Rynchops nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetmore Alexander

    1944-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the forms of the New World rayador, or skimmer, Rynchops nigra, and the characters that mark the geographic races, have been matters of interest to me for a number of years, an interest heightened by recent discussions in current literature of the identity of the birds found on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and far to the south in Chile. Investigation into these matters with the material available in the National Museum not being conclusive, specimens from Mexico and the West Indies southward to Argentina and Chile in other large collections in the United states have been assembled through the courtesy of Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy of the American Museum of Natural History, James l.. Peters of the Museum of Comparative Zoology,W. E. C. Todd of the Carnegie Museum, and Dr. Karl P. Schmidt of the Field Museum of Natural History. I have also to thank Dr. Alden H. Miller for the use of one specimen from Chubut in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, and Dean Amadon for certain notes on this group of birds that he had assembled.The distribution of the forms of the New World rayador, or skimmer, Rynchops nigra, and the characters that mark the geographic races, have been matters of interest to me for a number of years, an interest heightened by recent discussions in current literature of the identity of the birds found on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and far to the south in Chile. Investigation into these matters with the material available in the National Museum not being conclusive, specimens from Mexico and the West Indies southward to Argentina and Chile in other large collections in the United states have been assembled through the courtesy of Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy of the American Museum of Natural History, James l.. Peters of the Museum of Comparative Zoology,W. E. C. Todd of the Carnegie Museum, and Dr. Karl P. Schmidt of the Field Museum of Natural History. I have also to thank Dr. Alden H. Miller for the use of one specimen

  7. Discriminating the Mediterranean Pinus spp. using the land surface phenology extracted from the whole MODIS NDVI time series and machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Aragones, David; Caparros-Santiago, Jose A.; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2017-10-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) can improve the characterisation of forest areas and their change processes. The aim of this work was: i) to characterise the temporal dynamics in Mediterranean Pinus forests, and ii) to evaluate the potential of LSP for species discrimination. The different experiments were based on 679 mono-specific plots for the 5 native species on the Iberian Peninsula: P. sylvestris, P. pinea, P. halepensis, P. nigra and P. pinaster. The entire MODIS NDVI time series (2000-2016) of the MOD13Q1 product was used to characterise phenology. The following phenological parameters were extracted: the start, end and median days of the season, and the length of the season in days, as well as the base value, maximum value, amplitude and integrated value. Multi-temporal metrics were calculated to synthesise the inter-annual variability of the phenological parameters. The species were discriminated by the application of Random Forest (RF) classifiers from different subsets of variables: model 1) NDVI-smoothed time series, model 2) multi-temporal metrics of the phenological parameters, and model 3) multi-temporal metrics and the auxiliary physical variables (altitude, slope, aspect and distance to the coastline). Model 3 was the best, with an overall accuracy of 82%, a kappa coefficient of 0.77 and whose most important variables were: elevation, coast distance, and the end and start days of the growing season. The species that presented the largest errors was P. nigra, (kappa= 0.45), having locations with a similar behaviour to P. sylvestris or P. pinaster.

  8. Canopy treatment influences growth of replacement tree species in Fraxinus nigra forests threatened by the emerald ash borer in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Looney; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Robert A. Slesak

    2017-01-01

    Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash), a dominant tree species of wetland forests in northern Minnesota, USA, is imperiled by the invasive insect emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888). Regeneration of associated tree species is generally low in F. nigra forests and could be impacted...

  9. Natural hybridization between Populus nigra L. and P. x canadensis Moench. Hybrid offspring competes for niches along the Rhine river in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Beringen, R.; Volosyanchuk, R.; Vanden Broeck, A.; Schoot, van der J.; Arens, P.F.P.; Vosman, B.

    2008-01-01

    Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is a major species for European riparian forests but its abundance has decreased over the decades due to human influences. For restoration of floodplain woodlands, the remaining black poplar stands may act as source population. A potential problem is that P. nigra and

  10. Hydraulic architecture and tracheid allometry in mature Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benecke, C A; Martin, T A; Peter, G F

    2010-03-01

    Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine, LL) and Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii (slash pine, SL) frequently co-occur in lower coastal plain flatwoods of the USA, with LL typically inhabiting slightly higher and better-drained microsites than SL. The hydraulic architecture and tracheid dimensions of roots, trunk and branches of mature LL and SL trees were compared to understand their role in species microsite occupation. Root xylem had higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and was less resistant to cavitation compared with branches and trunk sapwood. Root k(s) of LL was significantly higher than SL, whereas branch and trunk k(s) did not differ between species. No differences in vulnerability to cavitation were observed in any of the organs between species. Across all organs, there was a significant but weak trade-off between water conduction efficiency and safety. Tracheid hydraulic diameter (D(h)) was strongly correlated with k(s) across all organs, explaining >73% of the variation in k(s). In contrast, tracheid length (L(t)) explained only 2.4% of the variability. Nevertheless, for trunk xylem, k(s) was 39.5% higher at 20 m compared with 1.8 m; this increase in k(s) was uncorrelated with D(h) and cell-wall thickness but was strongly correlated with the difference in L(t). Tracheid allometry markedly changed between sapwood of roots, trunks and branches, possibly reflecting different mechanical constraints. Even though vulnerability to cavitation was not different for sapwood of roots, branches or the trunks of LL and SL, higher sapwood to leaf area ratio and higher maximum sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity in roots of LL are functional traits that may provide LL with a competitive advantage on drier soil microsites.

  11. Produção de chapas de madeira compensada de cinco espécies de pinus tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming at evaluating the feasibility of the use of 5 species of tropical pine to plywood manufacture. The following species were studied: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii and Pinus taeda, being the last used as the referential species. Plywood were manufactured with 5 plies, bonded with ureaformaldheyde and fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of thickness sweeling and recovering were the same for all species studied, with exception to thickness sweeling for the boards glued with fenolformaldheyde resin. The boards made from Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa, showed the higher values in modulus of elasticity. The boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa and Pinus taeda, glued with fenol-formaldheyde resin, resulted in higher values of the modulus of rupture, in comparison to other species. For the glue line strength, the boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda and Pinus chiapensis, showed the better results. Based on the general results of this research it, could be said that the Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa present the high potentiality to plywood manufacture.

  12. Complement activation in the Parkinson's disease substantia nigra: an immunocytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conant Stephanie B

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory processes are increased in the Parkinson's disease (PD brain. The long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated, in retrospective studies, with decreased risk for PD, suggesting that inflammation may contribute to development of this disorder. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of complement activation, a major inflammatory mechanism, in PD. Methods Substantia nigra specimens from young normal subjects (n = 11–13, aged normal subjects (n = 24–28, and subjects with PD (n = 19–20, Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 12–13, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 9 were stained for iC3b and C9, representing early- and late-stage complement activation, respectively. Numbers of iC3b+, C9+, and total melanized neurons in each section were counted in a blinded fashion. Nonparametric analyses were used to evaluate differences between groups and to evaluate correlations between complement staining, numbers of melanized neurons, and the duration of PD. Results Lewy bodies in both PD and DLB specimens stained for iC3b and C9. Staining was also prominent on melanized neurons. The percentage of iC3b+ neurons was significantly increased in PD vs. aged normal and AD specimens, and in young normal vs. aged normal specimens. C9 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in PD vs. AD specimens, but unlike iC3b, the increased C9 staining in PD and young normal specimens did not achieve statistical significance vs. aged normal specimens. iC3b and C9 staining in PD specimens was not correlated with the numbers of remaining melanized neurons, nor with the duration of PD. Conclusion Complement activation occurs on Lewy bodies and melanized neurons in the PD substantia nigra. Early complement activation (iC3b is increased on melanized neurons in PD vs. aged normal specimens, and late-stage complement activation (C9 also tends to increase. This latter finding suggests that complement

  13. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the substantia nigra of healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeger, Adriane; Godau, Jana; Berg, Daniela; Chadzynski, Grzegorz; Klose, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with high spatial resolution at 3 Tesla was performed. Regional variations of spectroscopic data between the rostral and caudal regions of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were evaluated in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Data were acquired by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging measurements. The ratios between rostral and caudal voxels of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were calculated for the main-metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol. Additionally, the metabolite/creatine ratios were calculated. In all subjects spectra of acceptable quality could be obtained with a nominal voxel size of 0.252 ml. The calculated rostral-to-caudal ratios of the metabolites as well as of the metabolite/creatine ratios showed with exception of choline/creatine ratio significant differences between healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The findings from this study indicate that regional variations in N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios in the regions of the substantia nigra may differentiate patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. (orig.)

  14. Species verification of Dalbergia nigra and Dalbergia spruceana samples in the wood collection of the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wiemann; Edgard O. Espinoza

    2017-01-01

    To evade endangered timber species laws, unscrupulous importers sometimes attempt to pass protected Dalbergia nigra as look-alike but unprotected, Dalbergia Spruceana. Wood density and fluorescence properties are sometimes used to identify the species. Although these properties are useful and do not require special equipment,...

  15. OXIDATIVE STRESS-DEPENDENT ALTERED IMMUNE RESPONSES AND CELL DEATH IN SUBSTANTIA NIGRA AFTER OZONE EXPOSURE IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selva eRivas - Arancibia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease has been associated with the selective loss of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role. The resulting increase in reactive oxygen species triggers a sequence of events that leads to cell damage, activation of microglia cells and neuroinflammatory responses. Our objective was to study whether chronic exposure to low doses of ozone, which produces oxidative stress itself, induces progressive cell death in conjunction with glial alterations in the substantia nigra. Animals were exposed to an ozone-free air stream (control or to low doses of ozone for 7, 15, 30, 60, or 90 days. Each group underwent 1 spectrophotometric analysis for protein oxidation; 2 western blot testing for microglia reactivity and nuclear factor kappa B expression levels; and 3 immunohistochemistry for cytochrome c, GFAP, Iba-1, NFkB and COX-2. Our results indicate that ozone induces an increase in protein oxidation levels, changes in activated astrocytes and microglia, and cell death. NFkB and cytochrome c showed an increase until 30 days of exposure, while cyclooxygenase 2 in the substantia nigra increased from 7 days up to 90 days of repetitive ozone exposure. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused by ozone exposure induces changes in inflammatory responses and progressive cell death in the substantia nigra in rats, which could also be occurring in Parkinson’s disease.

  16. First report of Geosmithia morbida on ambrosia beetles emerged from thousand cankers-diseased Juglans nigra in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; M. McDermott-Kubeczko; T. J. Stewart; M. D. Ginzel

    2016-01-01

    Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra) is a highly-valued species for timber and nut production in the eastern United States. Thousand cankers disease (TCD), caused by the interaction of the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis) and the canker fungus Geosmithia morbida (Tisserat et al. 2009), was first...

  17. Development of a reliable method for determining sex for a primitive rodent, the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristine L. Pilgrim; William J. Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Michael K. Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    The mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is a primitive species of rodent, often considered a living fossil. The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is an endangered subspecies that occurs in a very restricted range in northern California. Efforts to recover this taxon have been limited by the lack of knowledge on their demography, particularly sex and age...

  18. PRODUÇÃO DE CHAPAS DE MADEIRA COMPENSADA DE CINCO ESPÉCIES DE PINUS TROPICAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Setsuo Iwakiri; Danielle Previdi Olandoski; Gabriela Leonhardt; Martha Andreia Brand

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de 5 espécies de pinus tropicais para produção de painéis compensados. As espécies estudadas foram: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii e Pinus taeda, sendo esta última espécie como testemunha. Foram produzidos compensados de 5 lâminas com resinas uréia-formaldeído e fenol-formaldeído. Os resultados de inchamento e recuperação em espessura foram estatisticamente iguais entre as ...

  19. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models.

  20. A new C-methylated flavonoid glycoside from Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M J; Choi, J H; Chung, H Y; Jung, J H; Choi, J S

    2001-12-01

    A new C-methyl flavonol glycoside, 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from the needles of Pinus densiflora, together with kaempferol 3-O-beta-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside.

  1. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Carlo; Heidi J. Renninger; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots...

  2. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Online resources. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L. populations based on molecular data and inferences about the future use of this germplasm. J. Cipriano A. Carvalho C. Fernandes M. J. Gaspar J. Pires J. Bento L. Roxo J. Louzada J. Lima- ...

  3. Growth process and diameter structure of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... and sunny slope Pinus tabulaeformis forest were investigated in hilly loess-gully ... tabulaeformis, the main species of tree for forestation, ... Biomass in different artificial P. tabulaformis stands ..... The change of plant diversity during natural ... elements and stand biomass in forest communities in Hilly Loess.

  4. Genomic DNA extraction from sapwood of Pinus roxburghii for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for extraction of genomic DNA from sapwood tissues of mature tall trees of Pinus roxburghii, where collection of needle tissues is extremely difficult has been standardized. The extracted DNA was comparable to that obtained from the needle tissue in terms of yield and purity. The yield of extracted DNA ranged ...

  5. Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) of inland Marin County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1986-01-01

    The locations and characteristics of five, small, previously undescribed stands of bishop pine (Pinus muricata) in central Marin Co., California, are reported. Three stands lie on dry sites in the Kent Lake Drainage north of Mt. Tamalpais: San Geronimo Ridge, a spur ridge above Little Carson Cr., and Oat Hill. These stands are anomalous in occurring...

  6. Experiments in rooting bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1987-01-01

    Presented here are results of rooting studies using hedges established from juvenile seedlings of "blue" and "green" foliaged bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) from Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. Rootability, averaged over all clones and all setting dates, was 88%. The average time for 50% of the...

  7. A holistic approach to genetic conservation of Pinus strobiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Waring; R. Sniezko; B.A. Goodrich; C. Wehenkel; J.J. Jacobs

    2017-01-01

    Pinus strobiformis (southwestern white pine) is threatened by both a rapidly changing climate and the tree disease white pine blister rust, caused by an introduced fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola. We began a proactive program in ~2009 to sustain P. strobiformis that includes genetic conservation, research, and management strategies. Research...

  8. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  9. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  10. evaluation of the leave and bud decoctions pinus halepensis mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 déc. 2014 ... L'espèce Pinus halepensis Mill (ou pin d'Alep), appartenant à la famille des Pinaceae, a ... au moyen d'un moulin électrique à usage domestique (model Moulinex D5001) au niveau du ..... central ltaly Flavour Frag. J., 2003 ...

  11. Pinus ponderosa : A checkered past obscured four species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Willyard; David S. Gernandt; Kevin Potter; Valerie Hipkins; Paula E. Marquardt; Mary Frances Mahalovich; Stephen K. Langer; Frank W. Telewski; Blake Cooper; Connor Douglas; Kristen Finch; Hassani H. Karemera; Julia Lefler; Payton Lea; Austin Wofford

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae ) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at...

  12. Growth models for Pinus patula in Angola | Delgado-Matas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study developed growth models for Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham. for the Central Highlands of Angola for simulating the development of stand characteristics. The model set included dominant height, individual-tree diameter increment, individual-tree height and self-thinning models. The study was based ...

  13. Some physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula grown in Iringa and Njombe regions of Tanzania. Sample trees aged 5 to 15 years were collected from farmers' woodlots. The trees were categorized into 5 age classes: 5 - 7, 8 - 10, 11 - 12, 13 - 14 and 15 years. Four trees from ...

  14. Impact of the eocene on the evolution of Pinus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1993-01-01

    Pinus evolved in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Mesozoic. By the late Cretaceous pines had spread east and west throughout Laurasia, attaining high diversity in eastern Asia, the eastern United States, and western Europe, but having little representation at high northern latitudes. Changing climates in the early Tertiary...

  15. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  16. Percentile-based Weibull diameter distribution model for Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a site index equation and stem volume model developed for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines, a yield prediction system was created to predict the volume per ha (VPH) for each diameter class and, subsequently, the total volume of a stand. To evaluate the yield prediction system, the predicted mean VPH for each ...

  17. Rhabdomyosarcoma in a terrestrial tortoise (Geochelone nigra in Nigeria: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenemega D. Eyarefe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A skeletal muscle tumour (rhabdomysarcoma was diagnosed in a 4-year-old captive female terrestrial tortoise (Geochelone nigra weighing 7 kg presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The tumour was located at the anterior right portion of the body and ventral to the carapace. The location of the tumour prevented the tortoise from extending its head from the body. The tumour was a sessile, smooth white mass, with a soft myxomatous consistency. The histological features that were diagnostic of rhabdomyosarcoma included a sparse population of haphazardly arranged spindle-shaped cells within a homogenous matrix (anisocytosis, occasional tumour giant and binucleate cells, and some well differentiated myofibrils with cross striations within the cytoplasm. The paucity of information on tumours in the land tortoise was the reason for this report, which appears to be the first report of rhabdomyosarcoma in the tortoise.

  18. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia

  19. Identification of Peptides in Flowers of Sambucus nigra with Antimicrobial Activity against Aquaculture Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Claudio Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Albericio, Fernando; Romero, María Soledad; Guzmán, Fanny

    2018-04-27

    The elder ( Sambucus spp.) tree has a number of uses in traditional medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial properties of elderberry liquid extract against human pathogenic bacteria and also influenza viruses. These properties have been mainly attributed to phenolic compounds. However, other plant defense molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), may be present. Here, we studied peptide extracts from flowers of Sambucus nigra L. The mass spectrometry analyses determined peptides of 3 to 3.6 kDa, among them, cysteine-rich peptides were identified with antimicrobial activity against various Gram-negative bacteria, including recurrent pathogens of Chilean aquaculture. In addition, membrane blebbing on the bacterial surface after exposure to the cyclotide was visualized by SEM microscopy and SYTOX Green permeabilization assay showed the ability to disrupt the bacterial membrane. We postulate that these peptides exert their action by destroying the bacterial membrane.

  20. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA) National Institute of Mental Health, Washington, DC (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia.

  2. GERMINAÇÃO IN VITRO DE DALBERGIA NIGRA VELL. FR. ALL. EX BENTH

    OpenAIRE

    João Otávio Silva Malaquias; Aline Tintori Mantovani; Tabatta Caroline Cerri França; Geisiele Silva Martins; Renan Carrari dos Santos; Mariana Spala Corrêa; Elias Terra Werner

    2017-01-01

    A história do Brasil é inteiramente ligada a espécies nativas que moveram a economia do país por décadas, entre essas espécies está o jacarandá-da-bahia (Dalbergia nigra Vell. Fr. All. Ex Benth), cuja madeira possui alto valor comercial. Sua exploração aliada à falta de manejo levou essa espécie a figurar na lista das espécies ameaçadas de extinção da flora brasileira. Diante do exposto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as condições mais favoráveis à germinação e estabelecimento in...

  3. Fermentation of an Aromatized Wine-Based Beverage with Sambucus nigra L. Syrup (after Champenoise Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Emilia Coldea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L. syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was used elderflower syrup both to improve the product s sensorial properties, and for their multiple benefits to health. The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower syrup was produced by fermentation in the bottle (after Champenoise method, with the addition of wine yeast. The novelty brought by this paper is the use of elderflower syrup in alcoholic-beverage industry.

  4. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of ovarian tissue storage in Morus nigra extract on the morphology and DNA fragmentation of ovine preantral follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Yasmin Pitombeira Cavalcante

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the effect of Morus nigra leaf extract during ovine ovarian tissue transportation on the survival and apoptosis of preantral follicles in vitro. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the crude ethanolic extract. Four pairs of ovaries from four sheep were collected. The ovarian cortex was fragmented and one fragment was fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and processed for histological and TUNEL analysis (fresh control. The other fragments were placed in Minimal Essential Medium (MEM – control medium or M. nigra extract (0.025; 0.05 or 0.1 mg/mL and stored (simulating transport at 4ºC for 6, 12 or 24 h. Preserved fragments (6 h were also destined to histological and TUNEL analysis. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of antioxidant compounds (rutin, isoquercetin e kaempferitrin in the extract. There was a decrease (P 0.05 to 0.1 mg/mL of the extract. Apoptosis increased (P < 0.05 after conservation for 6 h in all treatments compared to the fresh control. Moreover, TUNEL positive cells decreased (P < 0.05 after preservation in 0.05 or 0.1 mg/mL M. nigra compared to MEM or 0.025 mg/mL M. nigra. In conclusion, 0.05 mg/mL M. nigra extract can be used as a preservation medium for ovine ovarian tissue at 4°C for up to 6 h.

  6. SAXS and other spectroscopic analysis of 12S cruciferin isolated from the seeds of Brassica nigra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Binish; Falke, Sven; Negm, Amr; Buck, Friedrich; Munawar, Aisha; Saqib, Maria; Mahmood, Seema; Ahmad, Malik Shoaib; Betzel, Christian; Akrem, Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Oilseeds of the plant family Brassicaceae are important for providing both lipid and protein contents to human nutrition. Cruciferins (12S globulins) are seed storage proteins, which are getting attention due to their allergenic and pathogenicity related nature. This study describes the purification and characterization of a trimeric (∼190 kDa) cruciferin protein from the seeds of Brassica nigra (L.). Cruciferin was first partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (30% saturation constant) and further purified by size exclusion chromatography. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis showed 82% sequence homology with cruciferin from Arabidopsis thaliana. The 50-55 kDa monomeric cruciferin produced multiple bands of two major molecular weight ranges (α-polypeptides of 28-32 kDa and β-polypeptides of 17-20 kDa) under reduced conditions of SDS-PAGE. The 2D gel electrophoretic analysis showed the further separation of the bands into their isoforms with major pI ranges between 5.7 and 8.0 (α-polypeptides) and 5.5-8.5 (β-polypeptides). The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) showed the monodisperse nature of the cruciferin with hydrodynamic radius of 5.8 ± 0.1 nm confirming the trimeric nature of the protein. The Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra showed both α-helices and β-sheets in the native conformation of the trimeric protein. The pure cruciferin protein (40 mg/ml) was successfully crystallized; however, the crystals diffracted only to low resolution data (8 Å). Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was applied to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure in solution. SAXS showed that the radius of gyration is 4.24 ± 0.25 nm and confirmed the nearly globular shape. The SAXS based ab initio dummy model of B. nigra cruciferin was compared with 11S globulins.

  7. Study of the relative toxicity of anions, with Polycelis nigra as test animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J R.E.

    1942-01-01

    A brief review is given of existing knowledge regarding the physiological effects of anions, and literature dealing with their relative toxicity. The degree of toxicity of twenty-seven anions to Polycelis nigra (Mueller) has been assessed, by determining in each case the molar concentration the animal survives for 48 hr. at 15-18/sup 0/C. On this basis their order of increasing toxicity is as follows; commas separate ions of similar degree of toxicity: Clnigra is 0.165 cc O/sub 2//g./hr. This is not very much less than that of the trout. Polycelis is considerably the more resistant to cyanide. This is probably connected with its capability of surviving very many hours in water containing a very reduced supply of oxygen. 34 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  8. Acondicionamiento de reproductores, desove y cultivo larval de Graus nigra (Philippi, 1887 (Kyphosidae: Girellinae Broodstock conditioning, spawning and larval culture of Graus nigra (Philippi, 1887 (Kyphosidae: Girellinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Muñoz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen resultados sobre acondicionamiento reproductivo, desove y cultivo larval de Graus nigra ("vieja negra", "mulata". Peces adultos silvestres se recolectaron y se utilizaron como reproductores, los que al final del período de acondicionamiento alcanzaron el estado de maduración gonadal y desovaron en forma natural y espontánea. Los huevos fueron recolectados y después de 36 h de incubación eclosionaron, con una tasa de eclosión promedio de 60%. Las larvas recién eclosionadas midieron 2,9 ± 0,23 mm y alcanzaron el día 50 post-eclosión (PE una longitud total de 12,6 ± 0,37 mm. La sobrevivencia larval posterior a la eclosión fue entre 50,9 y 79,1% y al día 30 PE fue de 12,1%. El cultivo larval se desarrolló en estanques con suministro de agua de mar filtrada y esterilizada. Después de la reabsorción del saco vitelino se produjo el desarrollo del tracto digestivo y las larvas se alimentaron con dieta viva enriquecida con emulsión de ácidos grasos altamente insaturados. A los 35 días de cultivo se ofreció alimento artificial a las larvas cuyo tamano fue aumentando progresivamente a medida que progresó su desarrollo ontogénico. Se describe la evolución anatómica de las larvas y las relaciones morfométricas que representan su desarrollo; se caracteriza el patrón de crecimiento de las larvas hasta los 50 días post-eclosión y se discuten aspectos relacionados con la sobrevivencia larval y la introducción de mejoras para optimizar la producción de larvas y juveniles.In this study results related to reproductive conditioning, spawning and larval culture of Graus nigra ("vieja negra", "mulata" are given. Wild adult fishes were collected and used as brooders which at the end of the conditioning period reached gonadal maturation state and spawned naturally and spontaneously. Eggs were collected and after 36 hours of incubation they hatched at average rate of 60%. The hatched larvae measured 2.9 ± 0.23 mm and at day 50

  9. Growth and photosynthetic responses of two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in a polluted industrial region in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.S.; Kayama, M.; Jin, H.O.; Lee, C.H.; Izuta, T.; Koike, T.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of pollutants on two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in an industrial region in Korea, using a physiological approach. The concentrations of fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl) in the atmosphere, in precipitation and soil water at the damaged site were all significantly higher than at a control site. Moreover, the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in pine needles were significantly higher, and essential elements and chlorophyll in needles were significantly lower at the damaged site than at the control site. The photosynthetic capacities, shoot length and survival statistics of needles of the two pines were all significantly reduced at the damaged site compared to the control site, especially P. rigida. Based on our comparison of photosynthetic responses and the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in needles of the two pine species, P. koraiensis is more resistant to excess Mn in its needles than P. rigida. - Pinus koraiensis seems to be more pollution tolerant than Pinus rigida

  10. Carbon stable isotope-climate association in tree rings of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogino, Stella M; Bravo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios, recorded as "1"3C/"1"2C variations in tree rings of woody species, are the result of physiological changes related to environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to analyze the association among carbon thirteen variability (δ"1"3C), climate variables and tree-ring growth of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in central Spain. Pulverized woody material from the period 1975-1999 from four trees for each pine species was analyzed. To detect common patterns in δ"1"3C within each species and between δ"1"3C and growth indices, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. δ"1"3C of trees and the residual tree-ring chronologies were used at the PCA. Multilevel mixed linear models were applied between intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and climate variables. Our results show an inverse significant correlation between δ"1"3C and tree-ring growth of both species. Winter and spring air moisture was negatively correlated with iWUE of Pinus pinaster. July maximum temperature was positively correlated with iWUE of Pinus sylvestris. As δ"1"3C is significantly related to climate and growth and it may be recommended as a valuable tool for tree growth dynamic analysis to withstand increasingly stressful climate conditions

  11. Hardening of Pinus oaxacana Mirov seedlings under irrigation management in nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Ávila-Angulo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las plantas deben someterse a un proceso de endurecimiento en el vivero para mejorar la supervivencia de las plantaciones forestales en áreas degradadas. Objetivo: El efecto de tres niveles de riego se evaluó en la etapa de endurecimiento sobre algunas variables morfológicas y fisiológicas de Pinus oaxacana . Materiales y métodos: Los tratamientos evaluados fueron tres niveles de riego más un testigo. El riego se realizó cuando los tubetes reducían su peso de saturación 30 % (frecuente, 40 a 45 % (medio y 45 a 50 % (escaso; en el testigo, el riego se aplicó cada dos o tres d ías . El experimento se estableció en un diseño de bloques completos al azar; cada tratamiento constó de 100 plantas. Resultados y discusión: Los indicadores morfológicos con diferencias significativas ( P ≤ 0.05 entre tratamientos fueron diámetro del cuello de la raíz, peso seco de vástago y peso seco total. Los indicadores fisiológicos mediante la prueba de potencial de crecimiento de raíz no presentaron diferencias significativas. Las plantas con riego frecuente obtuvieron el mayor diámetro, peso seco del vástago y peso seco total. Conclusión: Una reducción del riego entre 30 a 45 % en P. oaxacana permite la producción de plantas endurecidas, con mayor posibilidad de éxito al momento de su trasplante en campo.

  12. Terpene chemodiversity of relict conifers Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce, endemic to Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D; Bojović, Srdjan

    2011-12-01

    Terpenes are often used as ecological and chemotaxonomic markers of plant species, as well as for estimation of geographic variability. Essential oils of relic and Balkan endemic/subendemic conifers, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and P. peuce, in central part of Balkan Peninsula (Serbia and Montenegro), on the level of terpene classes and common terpene compounds were investigated. In finding terpene combinations, which could show the best diversity between species and their natural populations, several statistical methods were applied. Apart from the content of different terpene classes (P. omorika has the most abundant O-containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes; P. heldreichii and P. peuce have the largest abundance of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, resp.), the species are clearly separated according to terpene profile with 22 common compounds. But, divergences in their populations were established only in combination of several compounds (specific for each species), and they were found to be the results of geomorphologic, climatic, and genetic factors. We found similarities between investigated species and some taxa from literature with respect to terpene composition, possibly due to hybridization and phylogenetic relations. Obtained results are also important regarding to chemotaxonomy, biogeography, phylogeny, and evolution of these taxa. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and extent of linkage disequilibrium in two genotype-phenotype discovery populations of Pinua taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared W. Westbrook; Vikram E. Chhatre; Le-Shin Wu; Srikar Chamala; Leandro Gomide Neves; Patricio Munoz; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; David B. Neale; Matias Kirst; Keithanne Mockaitis; C. Dana Nelson; Gary F. Peter; John M. Davis; Craig S. Echt

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via...

  14. DESCRIPCIÓN DE LA DINÁMICA DE CARBONO EN SUELOS FORESTALES MEDIANTE UN MODELO DE RESERVORIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Orellana-Rivadeneyra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una aproximación sobre variables medioambientales mediante funciones de distribución dependientes del tiempo para simplificar un modelo de la dinámica del carbono orgánico en el suelo. El modelo se basa en el concepto de reservorios, que supone que los diferentes estados de la materia orgánica del suelo constituyen masas homogéneas. Este modelo se enfoca en el intercambio de materia orgánica entre dichas masas, estableciendo relaciones de contacto. Usando el modelo simplificado se calculó la acumulación de materia orgánica en el suelo y la emisión de CO2 desde un ecosistema de bosque de pino (Pinus elliottii ubicado en Gainesville, Florida, EU. Se verificó la viabilidad de las aproximaciones en el modelo para estudiar la dinámica del carbono orgánico en suelos forestales. Se calculó la acumulación relativa de materia orgánica en el suelo. Con esto se obtuvo una estimación de la actividad del bosque de P. elliottii como secuestrador.

  15. KAJIAN KONSERVASI Pinus merkusii strain Tapanuli DI SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendi Suhendi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Di Indonesia, Pinus yang tumbuh secara alami hanyalah Pinus merkusii di Sumatera yang terdiri dari strain Tapanuli, strain Kerinci dan strain Aceh. Berdasarkan persebarannya, strain Tapanuli tidak banyak dijumpai karena tercampur dengan jenis-jenis kayu daun lebar. Secara alami, strain Tapanuli ditemukan di Cagar Alam Dolok Sipirok dan Cagar Alam Dolok Saut. Dalam bentuk hutan tanaman, strain Tapanuli dibuat oleh masyarakat atau rakyat dengan anakan alam dan diambil secara cabutan di Tegakan Benih Dolok Tusam, dan sekarang sudah habis ditebang karena digantikan oleh tanaman kopi. Di wilayah kerja Dinas Kehutanan Propinsi Sumatera Utara hampir tidak pernah didapatkan informasi tentang keberadaan strain Tapanuli. Konservasi in situ dalam bentuk Cagar Alam perlu dilengkapi dengan konservasi ex situ. Sebagai langkah awal konservasi, terlebih dahulu perlu dikaji permudaan alamnya. Di samping itu, analisis kebijakan berkaitan dengan pentingnya eksplorasi dengan metode sensus pada semua kawasan konservasi di Sumatera perlu dipertimbangkan, dan pertemuan formal antar pengambil kebijakan di Departemen Kehutanan perlu direkomendasikan

  16. Conducta alimenticia, supervivencia y crecimiento de juveniles silvestres de Graus nigra Philippi, 1887 en cautiverio (Perciformes: Kyphosidae Feeding behavior, survival, and growth of wild Graus nigra Philippi, 1887 juveniles in captivity (Perciformes: Kyphosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Flores

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron juveniles silvestres de Graus nigra, que fueron aclimatados durante 30 días en estanques con flujo de agua abierto y a temperatura ambiente, siendo alimentados con alimento formulado. Los peces fueron separados en seis grupos que se mantuvieron en experimentación por 196 días. La supervivencia promedio fue de 80%. El crecimiento en longitud total mostró un incremento promedio del 93,3% para los juveniles grandes (grupos 4, 5 y 6 y 125% para los pequeños (grupos 1, 2 y 3. El crecimiento en peso total mostró un incremento promedio de 434% para los peces grandes (grupos 4, 5 y 6 y de 707% para los pequeños (grupos 1, 2 y 3. Se concluyó que G. nigra toleró el cautiverio y el manejo, con una supervivencia relativamente alta, lo que hace de ella una especie atractiva para la acuicultura chilena.Wild juveniles of Graus nigra were collected and acclimated for 30 days in ponds with open-water flow and ambient temperature; the specimens were given a formulated feed. Fish individuals were separated into six groups that were studied for 196 days. The average survival was 80%. The total length increased an average of 93.3% for large individuals (groups 4, 5, 6 and 125% for small ones (groups 1, 2, 3. The total weight showed an average increase of 434% for large fishes (groups 4, 5, 6 and 707% for small ones (groups 1, 2, 3. Graus nigra was found to tolerate captivity and handling, with a relatively high survival rate, making it an attractive species for aquaculture in Chile.

  17. Sexual stability in the nearly dioecious Pinus johannis (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Whipple, Amy V; Gehring, Catherine A; Domínguez, C A

    2013-03-01

    Even though dioecy is a dominant sexual system among gymnosperms, little is known about its evolutionary history. Pinus johannis may represent a model system because unisexual and monoecious individuals compose its populations. The presence of unisexual individuals in other Pinus species is a consequence of sexual lability. Here we determined whether P. johannis represents the first example of a dioecious or nearly dioecious reproductive system in conifers by evaluating its sexual stability. • To assess the stability of sexual expression, we quantified the proportion of male vs. female reproductive structures produced by trees over multiple years and tested for the presence of sexual dimorphism. Sexual lability hypotheses were also examined by looking at the relationship between environmental factors and sexual expression and by comparing the reproductive behavior of P. johannis with its closest labile relative, P. edulis. • Pinus johannis is nearly dioecious: ~99% of individuals are unisexual or express a low proportion of the opposite gender with few changes in sexual expression through time. We found sexual dimorphism consistent with sexual stability. Sexual expression did not vary with tree size/age, abiotic environment, or herbivore removal, providing evidence against sexual lability. Individuals of P. johannis tended to produce only male or female strobili, whereas those of P. edulis were mainly monoecious with a gradient in the female to male strobili ratio. • This study represents the first report of a nearly stable dioecious Pinus species. The variety of sexual morphs coexisting in the same population makes P. johannis a model for studying the evolution of dioecy in gymnosperms.

  18. Genomic DNA extraction from sapwood of Pinus roxburghii for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashish

    2013-02-22

    Feb 22, 2013 ... A method for extraction of genomic DNA from sapwood tissues of mature tall trees of Pinus roxburghii, .... DNA as a template. PCR was performed on a thermal cycler. (Biorad, Mycycler) incorporating 10 ng genomic DNA to a 25 µl reaction mix containing 1X Taq buffer, 3 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM each of dNTPs ...

  19. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  20. Biological invasion of Pinus ponderosa and Pinus contorta: case study of a forest plantation in Northwestern Patagonia; Invasion biologica de Pinus ponderosa y Pinus contorta: estudio de caso de una plantacion en la Patagonia noroccidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezzotti, A.; Sbrancia, R.; Mortoro, A.; Monte, C.

    2009-07-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, Pinus species from plantations can bring about processes of biological invasion that cause significant and permanent changes on the structure and functioning of surrounding natural ecosystems. The invasive character of Pinus ponderosa (P) and Pinus contorta (C) was examined for a 20-year old plantation located in the Alicura Forest Station (40 degree centigrade 40' S and 71 degree centigrade 00' W), through the analysis of abundance, age and spatial structures, and dispersal of natural regeneration. Seedlings and saplings were located largely within the plantation boundaries, and exhibited a density of 6.9 ind / ha (41 % for P and 59 % for C), a clustered spatial pattern with clumps dispersed not randomly, and a mean dispersal rate of 9.5 m / yr for P. ponderosa and 5.4 m / yr for P. contorta. Both species were invading the adjacent area, according to technical criteria based on ecological responses. However, regeneration niche is strongly hindering tree establishment and dispersal, probably due to high plant cover, presence of vertic soils, and absence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. These results can contribute to predict the capability of P. contorta and P. ponderosa to become invasive, in order to maximize the positive balance of forestry based on these species in northwestern Patagonia. (Author) 50 refs.

  1. MRI in Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism; Study on the lesion of substantia nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aotsuka, Akiyo; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1991-06-01

    We examined the magnetic resonance (MR) image of midbrain and striatum in 30 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 10 patients with vascular Parkinsonism (VP) and 10 age-matched control subjects. Studies were performed on a high field strength (1.5 tesla) MRI unit. T2-weighted spin echo pulse sequence (TR 2500 ms/TE 40 ms) was used. Intensity profiles of a straight line perpendicular to the pars compacta through the center of the red nucleus were made on an image of the midbrain. We measured the width of the valley at half-height between the peaks of intensity representing the red nucleus and the crus cerebri-pars reticulata complex and used this as an index of the width of the pars compacta signal. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 2.7 mm in the PD group and 4.3 mm in controls. The difference between the means was highly significant (p<0.01). While not significant statistically, there was a trend toward narrowing of the width of pars compacta signal of substantia nigra in the PD group as the Yahr's grade or disease duration progressed. In hemiparkinsonism, MRI revealed significant narrowing of the pars compacta signal on the contra-lateral side to the clinical predominant side. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 3.9 mm in the VP group, but the decrease was not significant. MRI in VP group showed multiple high intensity area in the basal ganglia and the white matter, and periventricular hyperintensity area (PVHIA). There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of restoration of the signal intensity in the lateral portion of the substantia nigra among PD, VP and control groups. The low signal intensity in the posterolateral putamen was not found in the 3 groups. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal has been attributed either to atrophy of the pars compacta or to increased deposition of iron in this region. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal reflected pathophysiology of PD. (J.P.N.).

  2. Assessment of extracts of Helichrysum arenarium, Crataegus monogyna, Sambucus nigra in photoprotective UVA and UVB; photostability in cosmetic emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzycka, Anna; Lewińska, Agnieszka; Gancarz, Roman; Wilk, Kazimiera A

    2013-11-05

    The aim of our study was to investigate the photoprotective activity and photostability efficacy of sunscreen formulations containing Helichrysum arenarium, Sambucus nigra, Crataegus monogyna extracts and their combination. UV transmission of the emulsion films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection and photostability efficacy were evaluated according to the following parameters: sun protection factor (SPF), UVA protection factor (PF-UVA), UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength (λc) before and after UV irradiation. The results obtained show that the formulations containing polyphenols fulfill the official requirements for sunscreen products due to their broad spectrum of UV protection combined with their high photostability and remarkable antioxidant properties. Therefore H. arenarium, S. nigra, C. monogyna extracts represent useful additives for cosmetic formulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular and functional differences in voltage-activated sodium currents between GABA projection neurons and dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Shengyuan; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    GABA projection neurons (GABA neurons) in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and dopamine projection neurons (DA neurons) in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) have strikingly different firing properties. SNc DA neurons fire low-frequency, long-duration spikes, whereas SNr GABA neurons fire high-frequency, short-duration spikes. Since voltage-activated sodium (NaV) channels are critical to spike generation, the different firing properties raise the possibility that, compared with DA...

  4. Direct monitoring of dopamine and 5-HT release in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rice, M E; Richards, C D; Nedergaard, S

    1994-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with carbon fibre microelectrodes was used to detect endogenous dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from three distinct regions of guinea-pig mid-brain in vitro: rostral and caudal substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Previous...... these regions with in situ electrodes and demonstrates the utility of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to investigate the mechanisms and possible non-classical functions of somato-dendritic DA release....

  5. Comparative study on bioremediation of heavy metals by solitary ascidian, Phallusia nigra, between Thoothukudi and Vizhinjam ports of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Jaffar Ali, H; Tamilselvi, M; Akram, A Soban; Kaleem Arshan, M L; Sivakumar, V

    2015-11-01

    Ascidians belonging to the sub-phylum Uro-chordata are used as potential model organisms in various parts of the world for biosorption of metals. The sedentary nature, filter feeding habits, presence of vanadocytes and the absence of kidneys cause them to accumulate metals. The present study was aimed to compare biosorption of metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and vanadium in test and mantle body of solitary ascidian Phallusia nigra between two ecologically significant stations such as Thoothukudi (Station 1) and Vizhinjam (Station 2) ports of India. Monthly samplings of water and P. nigra were done for a period of one year from September 2010 to August 2011 and subjected to analysis of metal accumulation. The average metal concentrations except mercury in the Thoothukudi water were found to be higher of comparable magnitudes than the Vizhinjam water. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences between the stations. A comparison of average metal concentrations in the test and mantle body of P. nigra between two stations showed that the enrichment of V, Cd, Pb, Cu and Hg in the Thoothukudi samples may be due to high bioaccumulation factors of these elements as compared to other species of ascidians. The bioaccumulation factors were in the order of V>Pb>Cd>Cu> Hg for the test and mantle body in stations 1 and 2. Application of one-way ANOVA for the concentration of these metals between test and mantle body showed significant differences in both stations. Similarly, ANOVA for biosorption of these trace metals by P. nigra showed significant difference between stations. Metal concentrations recorded in this ascidian could effectively be used as good reference material for monitoring metal contamination in Indian sea waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  7. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  8. CONCENTRACIÓN DE CARBONO EN Pinus cembroides Zucc: FUENTE POTENCIAL DE MITIGACIÓN DEL CALENTAMIENTO GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Pompa-García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques de Pinus cembroides Zucc, usualmente, han sido segregados del aprovechamiento forestal comercial dadas sus desventajas maderables. Sin embargo, esta especie desempeña un papel importante en la biodiversidad de México. El objetivo del presente estudio fue deter - minar la concentración de carbono (C en los principales compartimentos de P. cembroides : raíz, corteza, fuste, ramas, yemas y hojas. La concentración de C total expresado como porcentaje de la biomasa fue determinado con el Solids TOC Analyzer. Los resultados se analizaron en un diseño completamente al azar y mediante comparación de medias de Tukey. El análisis indicó que la concen - tración de C var ía entre los componentes ( P < 0.05; la yema tuvo el valor más alto (57.1 %, mientras que el fuste y las ramas registraron los valores más bajos (47.7 y 47.8 %, respectivamente. Los resul - tados contribuyen a mejorar las estimaciones de C y proveen información importante para definir si los bosques de P. cembroides pueden considerarse como una posible fuente con potencial de mitigación ante el cambio climático y así utilizarlos en un programa de secuestro de C.

  9. Wood identification of Dalbergia nigra (CITES Appendix I) using quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naïve Bayes classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Peter; Miller, Regis; Stekel, Dov J.; Whinder, Frances; Ziemińska, Kasia

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Dalbergia nigra is one of the most valuable timber species of its genus, having been traded for over 300 years. Due to over-exploitation it is facing extinction and trade has been banned under CITES Appendix I since 1992. Current methods, primarily comparative wood anatomy, are inadequate for conclusive species identification. This study aims to find a set of anatomical characters that distinguish the wood of D. nigra from other commercially important species of Dalbergia from Latin America. Methods Qualitative and quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naïve Bayes classification were conducted on 43 specimens of Dalbergia, eight D. nigra and 35 from six other Latin American species. Key Results Dalbergia cearensis and D. miscolobium can be distinguished from D. nigra on the basis of vessel frequency for the former, and ray frequency for the latter. Principal components analysis was unable to provide any further basis for separating the species. Naïve Bayes classification using the four characters: minimum vessel diameter; frequency of solitary vessels; mean ray width; and frequency of axially fused rays, classified all eight D. nigra correctly with no false negatives, but there was a false positive rate of 36·36 %. Conclusions Wood anatomy alone cannot distinguish D. nigra from all other commercially important Dalbergia species likely to be encountered by customs officials, but can be used to reduce the number of specimens that would need further study. PMID:19884155

  10. Acute Neuroinflammatory Response in the Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta of Rats after a Local Injection of Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmin M. Flores-Martinez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Models of Parkinson’s disease with neurotoxins have shown that microglial activation does not evoke a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra, questioning whether neuroinflammation leads to neurodegeneration. To address this issue, the archetypal inflammatory stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, was injected into the rat substantia nigra. LPS induced fever, sickness behavior, and microglial activation (OX42 immunoreactivity, followed by astrocyte activation and leukocyte infiltration (GFAP and CD45 immunoreactivities. During the acute phase of neuroinflammation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 responded differentially at mRNA and protein level. Increased NO production and lipid peroxidation occurred at 168 h after LPS injection. At this time, evidence of neurodegeneration could be seen, entailing decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunoreactivity, irregular body contour, and prolongation discontinuity of TH+ cells, as well as apparent phagocytosis of TH+ cells by OX42+ cells. Altogether, these results show that LPS evokes a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra that is followed by dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  11. Acute Neuroinflammatory Response in the Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta of Rats after a Local Injection of Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan A.; Gutierrez-Castillo, Maria E.

    2018-01-01

    Models of Parkinson's disease with neurotoxins have shown that microglial activation does not evoke a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra, questioning whether neuroinflammation leads to neurodegeneration. To address this issue, the archetypal inflammatory stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was injected into the rat substantia nigra. LPS induced fever, sickness behavior, and microglial activation (OX42 immunoreactivity), followed by astrocyte activation and leukocyte infiltration (GFAP and CD45 immunoreactivities). During the acute phase of neuroinflammation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10) responded differentially at mRNA and protein level. Increased NO production and lipid peroxidation occurred at 168 h after LPS injection. At this time, evidence of neurodegeneration could be seen, entailing decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity, irregular body contour, and prolongation discontinuity of TH+ cells, as well as apparent phagocytosis of TH+ cells by OX42+ cells. Altogether, these results show that LPS evokes a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra that is followed by dopaminergic neurodegeneration. PMID:29854828

  12. Clinical features and treatment of dermatosis papulosa nigra in migrants to Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, Roberta; Franco, Gennaro; Valenzano, Mariacarla; Fazio, Raffaella; Morrone, Aldo

    2010-01-01

    Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a benign epithelial tumor that is common in dark-skinned people. Although the diagnosis is easily made on medical examination, DPN is characterized by a chronic and worsening course. Therefore, even if DPN is a benign disease, the lesions are unaesthetic and the therapeutic options are quite inefficient. A prospective study was carried out during a period of 24 months (January 2006 to December 2007) at the Department for Preventive Medicine for Migration, Tourism and Tropical Dermatology of San Gallicano Dermatological Institute in Rome. Among 58 patients, 41 (71%) were women and 17 (29%) were men. The mean age was 33.5 years (range, 8-45 years). One pediatric patient was observed. This study is the first in Italy that, in recent years, has observed an important growth of the migration. The classic female predominance, family predisposition, and photodistribution of the lesion were found. DPN is frequently associated with patient discomfort, therefore the education of patients to reduce self-treatment is important.

  13. Novelty-Sensitive Dopaminergic Neurons in the Human Substantia Nigra Predict Success of Declarative Memory Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Jan; Mamelak, Adam N; Birch, Kurtis; Mosher, Clayton P; Tagliati, Michele; Rutishauser, Ueli

    2018-04-12

    The encoding of information into long-term declarative memory is facilitated by dopamine. This process depends on hippocampal novelty signals, but it remains unknown how midbrain dopaminergic neurons are modulated by declarative-memory-based information. We recorded individual substantia nigra (SN) neurons and cortical field potentials in human patients performing a recognition memory task. We found that 25% of SN neurons were modulated by stimulus novelty. Extracellular waveform shape and anatomical location indicated that these memory-selective neurons were putatively dopaminergic. The responses of memory-selective neurons appeared 527 ms after stimulus onset, changed after a single trial, and were indicative of recognition accuracy. SN neurons phase locked to frontal cortical theta-frequency oscillations, and the extent of this coordination predicted successful memory formation. These data reveal that dopaminergic neurons in the human SN are modulated by memory signals and demonstrate a progression of information flow in the hippocampal-basal ganglia-frontal cortex loop for memory encoding. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The inhibitory microcircuit of the substantia nigra provides feedback gain control of the basal ganglia output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Xing; Dudman, Joshua Tate

    2014-05-21

    Dysfunction of the basal ganglia produces severe deficits in the timing, initiation, and vigor of movement. These diverse impairments suggest a control system gone awry. In engineered systems, feedback is critical for control. By contrast, models of the basal ganglia highlight feedforward circuitry and ignore intrinsic feedback circuits. In this study, we show that feedback via axon collaterals of substantia nigra projection neurons control the gain of the basal ganglia output. Through a combination of physiology, optogenetics, anatomy, and circuit mapping, we elaborate a general circuit mechanism for gain control in a microcircuit lacking interneurons. Our data suggest that diverse tonic firing rates, weak unitary connections and a spatially diffuse collateral circuit with distinct topography and kinetics from feedforward input is sufficient to implement divisive feedback inhibition. The importance of feedback for engineered systems implies that the intranigral microcircuit, despite its absence from canonical models, could be essential to basal ganglia function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02397.001. Copyright © 2014, Brown et al.

  15. Phytochemical Content of Some Black (Morus nigra L. and Purple (Morus rubra L. Mulberry Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tosun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright black (Morus nigra and purple mulberry (Morus rubra are particularly desirable fruits in Turkey. More recently, the interest in these bright black and purple mulberry fruits has also increased because of the popularization of healthy properties of these fruits. The study was carried out in 2008 aiming to determine the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP, total phenolic, total anthocyanin, mineral, soluble solid, vitamin C, and total acid content of four black and four purple mulberry genotypes grown in Turkey. The results show that black mulberry genotypes have a higher bioactive content than purple mulberry genotypes. The average total phenolic content and total anthocyanins of black mulberry genotypes were 2149 μg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g and 719 μg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-glu per g of fresh mass. In purple mulberry, these values were for GAE 1690 μg/g and for Cy 3-glu 109 μg/g on fresh mass basis. The average antioxidant activity of black mulberry genotypes was also found to be higher than that of the purple ones according to FRAP assay (Trolox equivalent (TE per fresh mass of black and purple mulberries was 13.35 and 6.87 μmol/g, respectively.

  16. Optimization of the pretreatment of Prosopis nigra sawdust for the production of fermentable sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana P. Dagnino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The black carob tree (Prosopis nigra is a particularly valued species in Chaco, Argentina on account of its hard wood. Finding a use for the sawdust, the main industrial residue of wood, could be useful within the furniture industry of any country in the tropics seeking to apply the biorefinery concept. For the conversion of wood carbohydrates to bioethanol, a pretreatment stage is necessary. The objective of this work was to find the acid pretreatment conditions that maximize the extraction of xylose with minimum degradation, while maximizing the concentration of glucans in the pretreated solid to obtain better enzymatic accessibility, using black carob tree sawdust as the raw material. The optimization was carried out by use of a central composite design (CCD with two independent variables: the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution and the heating time. Optimal enzymatic hydrolysis occurred at the mean values of the tested acid solution concentration (1.2% and after shorter heating times (10.2 min. The concentration of sugars after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated solid over a time period of 72 h was three times higher than the untreated solid.

  17. Edaravone protects neurons in the rat substantia nigra against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiqi; Shao, Rushing; Li, Meng; Yang, Guofeng

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of edaravone in substantia nigra (SN) of the 6-OHDA-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease. Animal model of Parkinson's disease was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 6-OHDA into the left medial forebrain bundle. Subsequently, rats were intraperitoneally injected with 0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg of edaravone for 14 days or with 3 mg/kg edaravone for 14 days followed by 14 days of no treatment. We evaluated the effect of edaravone on the rotational and normal behavior of the rats, and on the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells, the amount of Nissl bodies, and the levels of glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the SN. Edaravone treatment at 3 mg/kg significantly reduced apomorphine-induced rotational behavior (P Edaravone exerted a long-term neuroprotective effects in 6-OHDA-induced PD animal model by attenuating changes in the levels of GSH and MDA in SN, caused by oxidative stress. Edaravone prevented 6-OHDA-induced behavioral changes and de-pigmentation of SN that results from the loss of dopaminergic neurons.

  18. Immunohistochemical and morphological features of a small bowel leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristizabal-Arbelaez Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous gastrointestinal neoplasms in non-human primates are commonly seen in aged individuals. Due to genetic similarities between human and non-human primates, scientists have shown increasing interest in terms of comparative oncology studies. Case presentation The present study is related to a case of an intestinal leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra, kept on captivity by Matecaña Zoo, Pereira City, Colombia. The animal had abdominal distension, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea and behavioral changes. Clinical examination showed an increased volume in the upper right abdominal quadrant caused by a neoplastic mass. The patient died during the surgical procedure. Necropsy revealed several small nodules in the peritoneum with adhesion to different portions of the small and large intestines, liver, stomach and diaphragm. Tissue samples were collected, routinely processed and stained by H&E. Microscopic examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor limited to tunica muscularis, resembling normal smooth muscle cells. Neoplastic cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, and negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 by immunohistochemistry. Those morphological and immunohistochemical findings allowed to diagnose the intestinal leiomyoma referred above. Conclusion Neoplastic diseases in primates have multifaceted causes. Their manifestations are understudied, leading to a greater difficulty in detection and measurement of the real impact provides by this disease.

  19. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in the substantia nigra in idiopathic Parkinson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamagata, Koji; Suzuki, Michimasa; Hori, Masaaki; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; Aoki, Shigeki; Hatano, Taku; Okuzumi, Ayami; Motoi, Yumiko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Abe, Osamu; Shimoji, Keigo; Kamiya, Kouhei

    2016-01-01

    We used neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to quantify changes in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and striatum in Parkinson disease (PD). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 58 PD patients and 36 age- and sex-matched controls. The intracellular volume fraction (Vic), orientation dispersion index (OD), and isotropic volume fraction (Viso) of the basal ganglia were compared between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined which diffusion parameters were independent predictors of PD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis compared the diagnostic accuracies of the evaluated indices. Pearson coefficient analysis correlated each diffusional parameter with disease severity. Vic in the contralateral SNpc and putamen were significantly lower in PD patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.00058). Vic and OD in the SNpc and putamen showed significant negative correlations (P < 0.05) with disease severity. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that Vic (P = 0.0000046) and mean diffusivity (P = 0.019) in the contralateral SNpc were the independent predictors of PD. In the ROC analysis, Vic in the contralateral SNpc showed the best diagnostic performance (mean cutoff, 0.62; sensitivity, 0.88; specificity, 0.83). NODDI is likely to be useful for diagnosing PD and assessing its progression. (orig.)

  20. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in the substantia nigra in idiopathic Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagata, Koji; Hatano, Taku; Okuzumi, Ayami; Motoi, Yumiko; Abe, Osamu; Shimoji, Keigo; Kamiya, Kouhei; Suzuki, Michimasa; Hori, Masaaki; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Hattori, Nobutaka; Aoki, Shigeki

    2016-08-01

    We used neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to quantify changes in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and striatum in Parkinson disease (PD). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 58 PD patients and 36 age- and sex-matched controls. The intracellular volume fraction (Vic), orientation dispersion index (OD), and isotropic volume fraction (Viso) of the basal ganglia were compared between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined which diffusion parameters were independent predictors of PD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis compared the diagnostic accuracies of the evaluated indices. Pearson coefficient analysis correlated each diffusional parameter with disease severity. Vic in the contralateral SNpc and putamen were significantly lower in PD patients than in healthy controls (P disease severity. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that Vic (P = 0.0000046) and mean diffusivity (P = 0.019) in the contralateral SNpc were the independent predictors of PD. In the ROC analysis, Vic in the contralateral SNpc showed the best diagnostic performance (mean cutoff, 0.62; sensitivity, 0.88; specificity, 0.83). NODDI is likely to be useful for diagnosing PD and assessing its progression. • Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) is a new diffusion MRI technique • NODDI estimates neurite microstructure more specifically than diffusion tensor imaging • By using NODDI, nigrostriatal alterations in PD can be evaluated in vivo • NOODI is useful for diagnosing PD and assessing its disease progression.

  1. ENRAIZAMENTO IN VITRO DE BROTOS DE JACARANDÁ-DA-BAHIA (DALBERGIA NIGRA VELLOZO

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    Aline Tintori Mantovani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A espécie Dalbergia nigra é conhecida popularmente como jacarandá-da-bahia. Devido ao seu destaque e importância econômica, a exploração para uso madeireiro e a pecuária acarretou devastação no seu ambiente natural o que a incluiu na lista de espécies da flora brasileira ameaçadas de extinção e apesar disso, pouco tem sido feito para a multiplicação desta espécie devido ao seu crescimento lento. A micropropagação é uma alternativa para obtenção de grande quantidade de mudas sadias em curto espaço de tempo. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar as condições mais favoráveis ao enraizamento de brotos in vitro, possibilitando a produção de plântulas viáveis. Foram utilizados meristemas apicais e cotiledonares de plântulas de jacarandá-da-bahia, cultivadas em condições assépticas nos tratamentos compostos por meio de cultura MS e concentrações de ANA (0 e 1 µM. O meio de cultura contendo 1 μM ANA após 30 dias de cultivo induziu a formação de raízes, apresentando melhores resultados.

  2. First Report of Korean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera koreana, Parasitic on Bamboo, Phyllostachys nigra, from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Taheri, Zahra Majd

    2015-09-01

    Bamboo is grown sporadically in the north of Iran and is confined to very limited areas. The history of growing bamboo was to some extent simultaneous with the entrance, commencement, and growth of the tea industry in the north about a century ago. The bamboo was used for making baskets to transfer the harvested tea foliage from farm to the factory and other linked functions. A main area allocated for bamboo growing is located in Lahidjan Agricultural Research Station (LARS) in the north of Iran, where several species of bamboo were cultivated in an area of 5 ha. The species include five species of Phyllostachys (viz., P. aurea, P. bambusoides, P. decora, P. nigra, P. vivax) and one species of Arundinaria gigantean, Pleioblastus fortune, and Semiarundinaria fastuosa; however, only P. aurea and P. nigra have been precisely identified. A survey on plant parasitic nematodes associated with bamboo mainly on P. nigra in LARS revealed second-stage juveniles of cyst forming nematode in soil samples. Further analysis of root and soil samples led to recovery of a cyst nematode belonging to the genus Heterodera and the Afenestrata group. Cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles were studied for morphological and morphometric features. The classical identification was followed by amplification of the ribosomal RNA-ITS region and the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S large-subunit rRNA gene; the amplified fragments were sequenced, edited, and compared with those of the corresponding published gene sequences. New D2-D3 and rRNA-ITS gene sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under the accession numbers KR818910 and KR818911, respectively. Based on the morphological and molecular data, the species of the cyst-forming nematode was identified as H. koreana (Vovlas et al., 1992; Mundo-Ocampo et al., 2008). The body contour of cysts was mainly subspherical, vey often with irregular shape (Fig. 1A), yellowish to light brown, thin cuticle with fine zigzag pattern

  3. Chronic intrastriatal dopamine infusions in rats with unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargraves, R.; Freed, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of continuously supplied dopamine delivered directly into the dopamine-deficient striatum. Rats received unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra by stereotaxic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine and were tested for apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and general activity. Osmotic mini-pumps were filled with dopamine in various concentrations, implanted subcutaneously and connected to a cannula implanted directly into the striatum. The system delivered solution at a rate of .5 μl/hr for two weeks. Dopamine in a dosage of 0.5 μg/per hour reduced apomorphine-induced rotational behavior by a mean of 52 +/- 5.8% (mean +/- SEM n=20) with a maximal individual decrease of 99%. There was no change in general activity or increase in stereotype behavior. Infusions of vehicle solutions did not decrease rotational behavior. Spread of the infused dopamine and its metabolites was estimated by adding 3 H-dopamine to the pumps in tracer quantities. Radioactivity was highly concentrated at the infusion site and decreased rapidly within a few mm from the infusion site. Continuous infusion methods may eventually prove to be effective in the treatment of nigro-striatal degenerative disease. 12 references, 4 figures

  4. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is related to decline in verbal memory in healthy elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, R; Behnke, S; Liepelt-Scarfone, I; Roeben, B; Pausch, C; Runkel, A; Heinzel, S; Niebler, R; Suenkel, U; Eschweiler, G W; Maetzler, W; Berg, D

    2016-05-01

    Deficits in cognition have been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) already in the early and even in the pre-motor stages. Whilst substantia nigra hyperechogenicity measured by transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) represents a strong PD marker and is associated with an increased risk for PD in still healthy individuals, its association with cognitive performance in prodromal PD stages is not well established. Two different cohorts of healthy elderly individuals were assessed by TCS and two different neuropsychological test batteries covering executive functions, verbal memory, language, visuo-constructional function and attention. Cognitive performance was compared between individuals with hyperechogenicity (SN+) and without hyperechogenicity (SN-). In both cohorts, SN+ individuals performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing verbal memory (word list delayed recall P = 0.05, logical memory II P Color-Word Reading, P = 0.004) could only be shown in one of the two cohorts. No between-group effects were found in other cognitive tests and domains. These results indicate that individuals with the PD risk marker SN+ perform worse in verbal memory compared to SN- independent of the assessment battery. Memory performance should be assessed in detail in individuals at risk for PD. © 2016 EAN.

  5. Controlling absence seizures by deep brain stimulus applied on substantia nigra pars reticulata and cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bing; Wang, Qingyun

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a typical neural disease in nervous system, and the control of seizures is very important for treating the epilepsy. It is well known that the drug treatment is the main strategy for controlling the epilepsy. However, there are about 10–15 percent of patients, whose seizures cannot be effectively controlled by means of the drug. Alternatively, the deep brain stimulus (DBS) technology is a feasible method to control the serious seizures. However, theoretical explorations of DBS are still absent, and need to be further made. Presently, we will explore to control the absence seizures by introducing the DBS to a basal ganglia thalamocortical network model. In particular, we apply DBS onto substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the cortex to explore its effects on controlling absence seizures, respectively. We can find that the absence seizure can be well controlled within suitable parameter ranges by tuning the period and duration of current stimulation as DBS is implemented in the SNr. And also, as the DBS is applied onto the cortex, it is shown that for the ranges of present parameters, only adjusting the duration of current stimulation is an effective control method for the absence seizures. The obtained results can have better understanding for the mechanism of DBS in the medical treatment.

  6. Antimicrobial activity, phyto chemical profile and trace minerals of black mulberry (morus nigra l.) fresh juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Fawad, S.A.; Ahmed, I.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the fresh juice of black mulberry (Morus nigra) was tested for antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic microorganisms. Total antioxidant contents, total phenolic contents, total anthocyanins, trace minerals, total acid contents, total solids and ascorbic acid content were also evaluated. The results showed good antimicrobial activity both for Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with highest zones of inhibition for Bacillus spizizenii (19.68 mm, Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.87 mm, Gram-negative). The black mulberry juice was rich in ascorbic acid (23.45 mg/100 g), had low overall acid content (1.60 %) and had 19% total soluble solids. The average total anthocyanins and total phenolic contents of black mulberry juice were 769 mu g/g of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-gly) per gram and 2050 mu g of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of fresh juice. The average antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalent, TE) of fresh juice was 14.00 mu mol/g according to a FRAP assay and 20.10 mu mol/g according to a DPPH assay. The fresh juice was also rich in a variety of trace minerals. (author)

  7. FERTILIZACIÓN CON NITRÓGENO, FÓSFORO Y POTASIO EN UN LATIZAL DE Pinus patula Schl. et Cham.

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    Martha O. Lázaro-Dzul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las masas forestales enfrentan el problema de productividad, la cual demanda que se incremente en cantidad y calidad. El crecimiento forestal depende de varios factores, entre ellos, el edáfico, que actúa sobre el árbol mediante el agua y los elementos minerales. Se incrementa la productividad forestal al mejorar la disponibilidad nutrimental mediante la fertilización. Consecuentemente, la finalidad de este trabajo fue estudiar la fertilización con nitrógeno (0, 138,185, fósforo (0, 15, 21 y potasio (0, 123,164 kg·ha-1 con relación al crecimiento de follaje nuevo, mediante un experimento factorial 33 en una plantación de Pinus patula Schl. et Cham. de 10 años de edad, en Aquixtla, Puebla, durante 2009-2010. La tasa relativa de crecimiento instantáneo (TCRI en volumen de follaje nuevo fue mejor (0.0255 mL·mL-1·día-1 con la dosis 185-0-0 kg·ha-1 de NPK, y la TCRI de peso seco fue mejor (0.0254 y 0.0249 g·g-1·día-1, respectivamente con las dosis 138-0-123 y 138-0-0. Se determinó deficiencia de nitrógeno, que se atribuyó a la acidez edáfica y a la lenta mineralización de la materia orgánica. La dosis recomendada para las condiciones edáficas y climáticas del sitio experimental fue 185-0-0 kg·ha-1 NPK para volumen de follaje nuevo y 138-0-0 kg·ha-1 de NPK para peso seco.

  8. The cannabinoid-1 receptor is abundantly expressed in striatal striosomes and striosome-dendron bouquets of the substantia nigra.

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    Margaret I Davis

    Full Text Available Presynaptic cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1-R bind endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids to modulate neurotransmitter release. CB1-Rs are expressed throughout the basal ganglia, including striatum and substantia nigra, where they play a role in learning and control of motivated actions. However, the pattern of CB1-R expression across different striatal compartments, microcircuits and efferent targets, and the contribution of different CB1-R-expressing neurons to this pattern, are unclear. We use a combination of conventional techniques and novel genetic models to evaluate CB1-R expression in striosome (patch and matrix compartments of the striatum, and in nigral targets of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs. CB1-R protein and mRNA follow a descending dorsolateral-to-ventromedial intensity gradient in the caudal striatum, with elevated expression in striosomes relative to the surrounding matrix. The lateral predominance of striosome CB1-Rs contrasts with that of the classical striosomal marker, the mu opioid receptor (MOR, which is expressed most prominently in rostromedial striosomes. The dorsolateral-to-ventromedial CB1-R gradient is similar to Drd2 dopamine receptor immunoreactivity and opposite to Substance P. This topology of CB1-R expression is maintained downstream in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Dense CB1-R-expressing striatonigral fibers extend dorsally within the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and colocalize with bundles of ventrally extending, striosome-targeted, dendrites of dopamine-containing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (striosome-dendron bouquets. Within striatum, CB1-Rs colocalize with fluorescently labeled MSN collaterals within the striosomes. Cre recombinase-mediated deletion of CB1-Rs from cortical projection neurons or MSNs, and MSN-selective reintroduction of CB1-Rs in knockout mice, demonstrate that the principal source of CB1-Rs in dorsolateral striosomes is local MSN collaterals

  9. Influence of gap-scale disturbance on developmental and successional pathways in Quercus-Pinus stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Weber; J.L. Hart; C. Schweitzer; D.C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Quercus-Pinus forests of the eastern USA cover millions of hectares and span a variety of ecoregions. Understanding the influence of natural disturbance on developmental and successional pathways is important for managers that wish to sustain Pinus spp. in these mixtures. Quantifying developmental and successional patterns in this...

  10. Development of site index curves for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of site index curves for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines. RIC Lumbres, YJ Lee, YO Seo, FG Calora JR. Abstract. This study was conducted to develop a height–age growth model and site index curves for site quality evaluation of old secondary-growth stands of Pinus kesiya in the northern Philippines.

  11. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  12. CONTINUIDADE ESPACIAL DE CARACTERÍSTICAS DENDROMÉTRICAS DE PINUS (Pinus pinaster Aiton E DE ATRIBUTOS DO SOLO / SPATIAL CONTINUITY OF DENDROMETRICS CHARACTERISTICS OF PINUS (Pinus pinaster Aiton AND SOIL ATTRIBUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLÉCIO M. SIQUEIRA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação e a continuidade espacial de características dendrométricas de pinus (Pinus pinaster Aiton e de atributos do solo. As amostragens foram realizadas em uma área de 0,25 ha cultivada com Pinus pinaster em Muras (Província de Lugo, Galícia, Espanha. Os atributos amostrados foram: o diâmetro da base das árvores (DB; o diâmetro a 0,30 m acima da base (D30; o diâmetro a altura do peito (a 1,3 m de altura, DAP, altura das árvores (ALT, profundidade do perfil do solo (PROF e a condutividade elétrica aparente do solo a 0,3 m de profundidade (CEa-H e a 1,5 m de profundidade (CEa-V. O uso da geoestatística permitiu caracterizar a variabilidade espacial de todos os atributos em estudo, com exceção da profundidade da rocha que apresentou efeito pepita puro. Os dados apresentaram moderada razão de dependência espacial entre amostras. Os mapas de variabilidade espacial não demonstram uma relação entre os mapas dos atributos de solo e planta estudados.Palavras-Chave: geoestatística; silvicultura de precisão; condutividade elétrica aparente do solo.

  13. Morphological, biochemical and sensory characteristics of black mulberry fruits (Morus nigra L.

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    Beáta Stehlíková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at the morphological, biochemical, technological and sensorial determination of black mulberry (Morus nigra L. – MN  fruitage and their utilization in the food production branches. For the experimental purposes were selected 50 genotypes of this population grown in the Pukanec surroundings. The medium fruitage weight determined in the selected collection ranged from 7.26 g (MN-1 to 1.42 g (MN-14, fruitage length in a range of 13.51 mm (MN-14 to 29.20 mm (MN-12 and the medium fruitage width  11.88 mm (MN-14 – 21.12 mm (MN-2. The variability of the evaluated traits varried from low to high degree. Juice yield from matured fruitage achieved 62.40 %. From black mulberry fruitages 16 food products were prepared – juice mixed with cream, yoghurt and/or curd (in several proportions and 3 confectionery products. Sensorial analyses showed significant differences among tested products. In the group of confectionery products was generally preferred the cream-mulberry cake. High values of antioxidative activity has been measured in the chocolate cake with a mulberry jam (36.90 – 28.43 %, followed by the cream-mulberry cake (29.78 – 12.71 % and the fresh mulberry juice (30.97 – 20.17 %. The antioxidation activities exerted generally higher values with the samples tested in water, when compared with those prepared in ethanol extract. Based on the gained results 4 genotypes were selected and recommended for the use in practice, as these provided relative high values of tested traits.doi:10.5219/234

  14. Calpain inhibition reduces NMDA receptor rundown in rat substantia nigra dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jerry; Baudry, Michel; Jones, Susan

    2018-05-04

    Repeated activation of N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) causes a Ca 2+ -dependent reduction in NMDAR-mediated current in dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in one week old rats; however, a Ca 2+ -dependent regulatory protein has not been identified. The role of the Ca 2+ -dependent cysteine protease, calpain, in mediating NMDAR current rundown was investigated. In brain slices from rats aged postnatal day 7-9 ('P7'), bath application of either of the membrane permeable calpain inhibitors, N-Acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norleucinal (ALLN, 20 μM) or MDL-28170 (30 μM) significantly reduced whole-cell NMDAR current rundown. To investigate the role of the calpain-2 isoform, the membrane permeable calpain-2 inhibitor, Z-Leu-Abu-CONH-CH2-C6H3 (3, 5-(OMe)2 (C2I, 200 nM), was applied; C2I application significantly reduced whole cell NMDAR current rundown. Interestingly, ALLN but not C2I significantly reduced rundown of NMDA-EPSCs. These results suggest the calpain-2 isoform mediates Ca 2+ -dependent regulation of extrasynaptic NMDAR current in the first postnatal week, while calpain-1 might mediate rundown of synaptic NMDAR currents. One week later in postnatal development, at P12-P16 ('P14'), there was significantly less rundown in SNc-DA neurons, and no significant effect on rundown of either Ca 2+ chelation or treatment with the calpain inhibitor, ALLN, suggesting that the rundown observed in SNc-DA neurons from two week-old rats might be Ca 2+ -independent. In conclusion, Ca 2+ -dependent rundown of extrasynaptic NMDAR currents in SNc DA neurons involves calpain-2 activation, but Ca 2+ - and calpain-2-dependent NMDAR current rundown is developmentally regulated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Context-dependent effects of substantia nigra stimulation on eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Michele A; Liu, Ping

    2007-06-01

    In a series of now classic experiments, an output structure of the basal ganglia (BG)--the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)--was shown to be involved in the generation of saccades made in particular behavioral contexts, such as when memory was required for guidance. Recent electrophysiological experiments, however, call this original hypothesis into question. Here we test the hypothesis that the SNr is involved preferentially in nonvisually guided saccades using electrical stimulation. Monkeys performed visually guided and memory-guided saccades to locations throughout the visual field. On 50% of the trials, electrical stimulation of the SNr occurred. Stimulation of the SNr altered the direction, amplitude, latency, and probability of saccades. Visually guided saccades tended to be rotated toward the field contralateral to the side of stimulation, whereas memory-guided saccades tended to be rotated toward the hemifield ipsilateral to the side of stimulation. Overall, the changes in saccade vector direction were larger for memory-guided than for visually guided saccades. Both memory- and visually guided saccades were hypometric during stimulation trials, but the stimulation preferentially affected the length of memory-guided saccades. Electrical stimulation of the SNr produced decreases in visually guided saccades bilaterally. In contrast, memory-guided saccades often had increases in saccade latency bilaterally. Finally, we found approximately 10% reduction in the probability of memory-guided saccades bilaterally. Visually guided saccade probability was unaltered. Taken together the results are consistent with the hypothesis that SNr primarily influences nonvisually guided saccades. The pattern of stimulation effects suggests that SNr influence is widespread, altering the pattern of activity bilaterally across the superior colliculus map of saccades.

  16. Mesencephalic substantia nigra and Parkinson's disease: spin-echo and inversion-recovery MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaux, Ruben P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively assess the images of the mesencephalic substantia nigra (mSN) obtained with FSE (PD and T2) and IR (STIR; T1; WMS and GMS) sequences in patients with Parkinson's disease (PKD) and normal volunteers. Methods: We studied 8 normal volunteers (N group) and 8 patients (PKD groups) of similar age, both men and women, with a clinical diagnosis of PKD. We obtained axial oblique images of the mesencephalon with FSE PD and T2 sequences; Inversion-Recovery (IR) with a short inversion time (STIR); T1 weighted (IR-T1 phase reconstruction) with white matter signal suppression (IR-WMS) and gray matter signal suppression (IR-GMS). Average values were measured for: a) normalized signal intensity; b) thickness; and c) area of the mSN in each sequence and group. A statistical analysis of the values obtained for each of the variables was performed for both groups (Student and Welch correlation tests), comparing the results of the intra an inter-group sequences. A p value 0.05). Images obtained with IR-WMS and GMS sequences showed significant differences between the three variables assessed, particularly thickness and area (p<0.01), and also showed a posterolateral-anteromedial gradient in the mSN alteration in patients with PKD or recent onset and chronic evolution. Conclusions: The T2 weighted FSE sequences are not useful for the assessment of mSN, whereas PD, STIR and IR-T1 sequences allow to delineate it more accurately, without morphological differences (thickness and area), or signal intensity differences among the groups assessed. The WMS and GMS sequences showed statistically significant differences in the assessment of thickness, area and the signal intensity of the mSN, and may hence be useful for diagnosis. (author)

  17. The effect of Sambucus nigra L. extract and phytosinthesized gold nanoparticles on diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opris, Razvan; Tatomir, Corina; Olteanu, Diana; Moldovan, Remus; Moldovan, Bianca; David, Luminita; Nagy, Andras; Decea, Nicoleta; Kiss, Mihai Ludovic; Filip, Gabriela Adriana

    2017-02-01

    Nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles (NPs) conjugated with natural products have shown good results in lowering the glycated hemoglobin and have an anti-inflamatory effect. The aim of our study is to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of NPs functionalized with Sambucus nigra L. (SN) extract on experimental model of diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced to 18 Wistar male rats (n=6) by a single intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (30mg/kg body weight - b.w.). SN extract (15mg/kg b.w.), NPs (0.3mg/kg b.w.) and vehicle (normal saline) were administered by gavage once a day, every morning, for 2 weeks. Other 18 animals were used as control groups and were treated with the same compounds, at the same time. Afterwards, blood, liver and muscle samples were taken to assess the oxidant/antioxidant status and the liver for the evaluation of metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and 9 activities, COX-2 and NFKB expressions and for immunohistochemistry. Serum glycemia, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) were also measured. The administration of NPs extract increased the muscle and systemic GSH/GSSG ratio in the diabetic group vs. diabetic (p<0.03) or non-diabetic groups treated with vehicle (p<0.05) and decreased MDA levels compared to non-diabetic group (p<0.05). COX-2 expression (p<0.0001) and proMMP-2 activity (p<0.05) decreased after pretreatment with NPs in parallel with the reduction of Kupffer cells percent (<0.001). No morphological abnormalities were detected in histopathology. NPs present a great potential for further usage as adjuvants in the diabetic therapy due to the increase of antioxidant defence and reduction of MMPs activity and inflammation in liver tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. GABAB-receptor activation alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons in the rat substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, G; Kling-Petersen, T; Nissbrandt, H

    1993-11-01

    Previous electrophysiological experiments have emphasized the importance of the firing pattern for the functioning of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. In this regard, excitatory amino acid receptors appear to constitute an important modulatory control mechanism. In the present study, extracellular recording techniques were used to investigate the significance of GABAB-receptor activation for the firing properties of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in the rat. Intravenous administration of the GABAB-receptor agonist baclofen (1-16 mg/kg) was associated with a dose-dependent regularization of the firing pattern, concomitant with a reduction in burst firing. At higher doses (16-32 mg/kg), the firing rate of the DA neurons was dose-dependently decreased. Also, microiontophoretic application of baclofen regularized the firing pattern of nigral DA neurons, including a reduction of burst firing. Both the regularization of the firing pattern and inhibition of firing rate produced by systemic baclofen administration was antagonized by the GABAB-receptor antagonist CGP 35348 (200 mg/kg, i.v.). The GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol produced effects on the firing properties of DA neurons that were opposite to those observed following baclofen, i.e., an increase in firing rate accompanied by a decreased regularity. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK 801 (0.4-3.2 mg/kg, i.v.) produced a moderate, dose-dependent increase in the firing rate of the nigral DA neurons as well as a slightly regularized firing pattern. Pretreatment with MK 801 (3.2 mg/kg, i.v., 3-10 min) did neither promote nor prevent the regularization of the firing pattern or inhibition of firing rate on the nigral DA neurons produced by baclofen. The present results clearly show that GABAB-receptors can alter the firing pattern of nigral DA neurons, hereby counterbalancing the previously described ability of glutamate to induce burst firing activity on these neurons.

  19. Effect-directed analysis of fresh and dried elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) via hyphenated planar chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, S; Mirgos, M; Morlock, G E

    2015-12-24

    A healthy diet is an important factor in a healthy lifestyle that is becoming increasingly important in today's society. The fruits of European elder (Sambucus nigra L.) are a rich source of bioactive compounds like anthocyanins. In this study, dried and fresh fruits of four cultivated and six wild growing plants were investigated for their anthocyanin pattern and content as well as their bioactive compounds. After separation on HPTLC plates silica gel 60 F254 with a mixture of ethyl acetate, 2-butanone, formic acid and water, the plates were quantitatively evaluated by densitometry and also subjected to various (bio)assays to investigate the samples for compounds acting as radical-scavengers, antimicrobials, estrogens, and acetylcholinesterase or tyrosinase inhibitors. The mean contents for the two most abundant anthocyanins in European elderberries, confirmed by HPTLC-ESI-MS, ranged from 159 to 647mg/100g in fresh and from 166 to 2764mg/100g in dried fruits for cyanidin-3-sambubioside, and from 112 to 521mg/100g in fresh and 95 to 226mg/100g in dried fruits for cyanidin-3-glucoside. Additionally, the anthocyanin content was higher in berries of cultivars than of wild growing plants. The anthocyanins' radical scavenging activity and antimicrobial effect against Aliivibrio fischeri were confirmed. Further, a radical scavenging compound affecting A. fischeri and acting as acetylcholinesterase inhibitor was tentatively assigned by its protonated molecule at m/z 456 as either ursolic or oleanolic acid by HPTLC-ESI-MS. HPTLC hyphenated with bioassays and mass spectrometry was selected as method of choice for fingerprinting, pattern recognition, and bioprofiling of elderberry samples as well as quantitation and confirmation of bioactive compounds therein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Protein Markers of Neurotransmitter Synthesis and Release in Postmortem Schizophrenia Substantia Nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Kirsten E; McCollum, Lesley A; Roberts, Rosalinda C

    2017-01-01

    The substantia nigra (SN) provides the largest dopaminergic input to the brain, projects to the striatum (the primary locus of action for antipsychotic medication), and receives GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs. This study used western blot analysis to compare protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and vesicular glutamate transporters (vGLUT1 and vGLUT2) in postmortem human SN in schizophrenia subjects (n=13) and matched controls (n=12). As a preliminary analysis, the schizophrenia group was subdivided by (1) treatment status: off medication (n=4) or on medication (n=9); or (2) treatment response: treatment resistant (n=5) or treatment responsive (n=4). The combined schizophrenia group had higher TH and GAD67 protein levels than controls (an increase of 69.6%, P=0.01 and 19.5%, P=0.004, respectively). When subdivided by medication status, these increases were found in the on-medication subjects (TH 88.3%, P=0.008; GAD67 40.6%, P=0.003). In contrast, unmedicated schizophrenia subjects had higher vGLUT2 levels than controls (an increase of 28.7%, P=0.041), but vGLUT2 levels were similar between medicated schizophrenia subjects and controls. Treatment-resistant subjects had significantly higher TH and GAD67 levels than controls (an increase of 121.0%, P=0.0003 and 58.7%, P=0.004, respectively). These data suggest increases in dopamine and GABA transmission in the SN in schizophrenia, with a potential relation to treatment and response.

  1. Assessment of cytochrome C oxidase dysfunction in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area in schizophrenia.

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    Matthew W Rice

    Full Text Available Perturbations in metabolism are a well-documented but complex facet of schizophrenia pathology. Optimal cellular performance requires the proper functioning of the electron transport chain, which is constituted by four enzymes located within the inner membrane of mitochondria. These enzymes create a proton gradient that is used to power the enzyme ATP synthase, producing ATP, which is crucial for the maintenance of cellular functioning. Anomalies in a single enzyme of the electron transport chain are sufficient to cause disruption of cellular metabolism. The last of these complexes is the cytochrome c oxidase (COX enzyme, which is composed of thirteen different subunits. COX is a major site for oxidative phosphorylation, and anomalies in this enzyme are one of the most frequent causes of mitochondrial pathology. The objective of the present report was to assess if metabolic anomalies linked to COX dysfunction may contribute to substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA pathology in schizophrenia. We tested COX activity in postmortem SN/VTA from schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. We also tested the protein expression of key subunits for the assembly and activity of the enzyme, and the effect of antipsychotic medication on subunit expression. COX activity was not significantly different between schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. However, we found significant decreases in the expression of subunits II and IV-I of COX in schizophrenia. Interestingly, these decreases were observed in samples containing the entire rostro-caudal extent of the SN/VTA, while no significant differences were observed for samples containing only mid-caudal regions of the SN/VTA. Finally, rats chronically treated with antipsychotic drugs did not show significant changes in COX subunit expression. These findings suggest that COX subunit expression may be compromised in specific sub-regions of the SN/VTA (i.e. rostral regions, which may lead to a faulty

  2. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B

    2001-11-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  3. Pinus pinaster Knot: A Source of Polyphenols against Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaston, Julien; Richard, Tristan; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Palos Pinto, Antonio; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-10-11

    Pine knot extract from Pinus pinaster byproducts was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Fourteen polyphenols divided into four classes were identified as follows: lignans (nortrachelogenin, pinoresinol, matairesinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol), flavonoids (pinocembrin, pinobanksin, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin), stilbenes (pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, pterostilbene), and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid). The antifungal potential of pine knot extract, as well as the main compounds, was tested in vitro against Plasmopara viticola. The ethanolic extract showed a strong antimildew activity. In addition, pinosylvins and pinocembrin demonstrated significant inhibition of zoospore mobility and mildew development. These findings strongly suggest that pine knot is a potential biomass that could be used as a natural antifungal product.

  4. Genetic diversity and gene exchange in Pinus oocarpa, a Mesoamerican pine with resistance to the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.S. Dvorak; K.M. Potter

    2009-01-01

    Eleven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic structure and levels of diversity in 51 natural populations of Pinus oocarpa across its geographic range of 3000 km in Mesoamerica. The study also included 17 populations of Pinus patula and Pinus tecunumanii chosen for their resistance or susceptibility to the pitch canker fungus based...

  5. Composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest respond to spatial climatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Guangsheng; Xiao, Chunwang

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have indicated that climate changes can affect Pinus koraiensis mixed forest, the responses of composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forests to climatic changes are unknown and the key climatic factors controlling the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest are uncertain. Field survey was conducted in the natural Pinus koraiensis mixed forests along a latitudinal gradient and an elevational gradient in Northeast China. In order to build the mathematical models for simulating the relationships of compositional and structural attributes of the Pinus koraiensis mixed forest with climatic and non-climatic factors, stepwise linear regression analyses were performed, incorporating 14 dependent variables and the linear and quadratic components of 9 factors. All the selected new models were computed under the +2°C and +10% precipitation and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenarios. The Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month were observed to be key climatic factors controlling the stand densities and total basal areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Increased summer temperatures and precipitations strongly enhanced the stand densities and total basal areas of broadleaf trees but had little effect on Pinus koraiensis under the +2°C and +10% precipitation scenario and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenario. These results show that the Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month are key climatic factors which shape the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Although the Pinus koraiensis would persist, the current forests dominated by Pinus koraiensis in the region would all shift and become broadleaf-dominated forests due to the dramatic increase of broadleaf trees under the future global warming and increased precipitation.

  6. Root architecture and wind-firmness of mature Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjon, Frédéric; Fourcaud, Thierry; Bert, Didier

    2005-11-01

    This study aims to link three-dimensional coarse root architecture to tree stability in mature timber trees with an average of 1-m rooting depth. Undamaged and uprooted trees were sampled in a stand damaged by a storm. Root architecture was measured by three-dimensional (3-D) digitizing. The distribution of root volume by root type and in wind-oriented sectors was analysed. Mature Pinus pinaster root systems were organized in a rigid 'cage' composed of a taproot, the zone of rapid taper of horizontal surface roots and numerous sinkers and deep roots, imprisoning a large mass of soil and guyed by long horizontal surface roots. Key compartments for stability exhibited strong selective leeward or windward reinforcement. Uprooted trees showed a lower cage volume, a larger proportion of oblique and intermediate depth horizontal roots and less wind-oriented root reinforcement. Pinus pinaster stability on moderately deep soils is optimized through a typical rooting pattern and a considerable structural adaptation to the prevailing wind and soil profile.

  7. Modelagem do crescimento e de biomassa individual de Pinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Schikowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo testar modelos matemáticos para estimativas de biomassa de diferentes compartimentos de Pinus spp., a partir de variáveis de fácil mensuração. Os dados utilizados são provenientes de plantios localizados no centro sul do estado do Paraná. Foram utilizados dados de peso seco total e parcial de 35 árvores de Pinus spp., obtidos por meio do método destrutivo direto. De cada árvore amostrada foram medidos também o CAP (circunferência à altura do peito e a altura total. Os modelos para estimativa de biomassa de folhagem não apresentaram bom desempenho, verificado pelos indicadores de ajuste. Entretanto, para os compartimentos: galhos, raízes, casca, fuste e para biomassa total, os ajustes apresentaram elevados valores de R² e baixos valores de Syx%. O modelo de crescimento de Richards obteve melhor desempenho que os demais testados para a estimativa da biomassa total.

  8. The complete plastid genome of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhu, Juan; Yang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Jie; He, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. chloroplast genome (cp DNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117 861 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), which were separated by large and small single copy regions (LSC and SSC) of 65 373 and 51 538 bp, respectively. The cpDNA contained 111 genes, including 71 protein-coding genes (71 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (4 rRNA species) and 36 tRNA genes (32 tRNA species). In these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 1 (ycf3) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of Bunge's pine cpDNA is 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 61.9%, 60.2% and 62.5%, respectively. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the maximum parsimony analysis suggested that all the sampled Pinus species clustered a monophyletic clade and have a high bootstrap support, and the cpDNA of P. bungeana is closely related to that of congeneric P. gerardiana.

  9. Comparison of 3T and 7T susceptibility-weighted angiography of the substantia nigra in diagnosing Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosottini, M; Frosini, D; Pesaresi, I; Donatelli, G; Cecchi, P; Costagli, M; Biagi, L; Ceravolo, R; Bonuccelli, U; Tosetti, M

    2015-03-01

    Standard neuroimaging fails in defining the anatomy of the substantia nigra and has a marginal role in the diagnosis of Parkinson disease. Recently 7T MR target imaging of the substantia nigra has been useful in diagnosing Parkinson disease. We performed a comparative study to evaluate whether susceptibility-weighted angiography can diagnose Parkinson disease with a 3T scanner. Fourteen patients with Parkinson disease and 13 healthy subjects underwent MR imaging examination at 3T and 7T by using susceptibility-weighted angiography. Two expert blinded observers and 1 neuroradiology fellow evaluated the 3T and 7T images of the sample to identify substantia nigra abnormalities indicative of Parkinson disease. Diagnostic accuracy and intra- and interobserver agreement were calculated separately for 3T and 7T acquisitions. Susceptibility-weighted angiography 7T MR imaging can diagnose Parkinson disease with a mean sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 100%, and diagnostic accuracy of 96%. 3T MR imaging diagnosed Parkinson disease with a mean sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 94%, and diagnostic accuracy of 86%. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement was excellent at 7T. At 3T, intraobserver agreement was excellent for experts, and interobserver agreement ranged between good and excellent. The less expert reader obtained a diagnostic accuracy of 89% at 3T. Susceptibility-weighted angiography images obtained at 3T and 7T differentiate controls from patients with Parkinson disease with a higher diagnostic accuracy at 7T. The capability of 3T in diagnosing Parkinson disease might encourage its use in clinical practice. The use of the more accurate 7T should be supported by a dedicated cost-effectiveness study. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Geochemical peculiarities of black poplar leaves (Populus nigra L.) in the sites with heavy metals intensive fallouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalaltdinova, Albina; Baranovskaya, Natalya; Rikhvanov, Leonid; Matveenko, Irina

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with the content of 28 chemical elements in the leaves ash of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) growing in Ust-Kamenogorsk city area. It is the major industrial center of Kazakhstan Republic on the territory where the industrial giants of non-ferrous metallurgy and nuclear energy are situated. Comparative analysis with the similar data obtained from leaves ash of Populus nigra L. in Tomsk, Ekibastuz, and Pavlodar cities has revealed that in comparison with other urban areas, leaves ash of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) from Ust-Kamenogorsk city is characterized by elevated concentration rates of Ta, U, Zn, Ag, As, Sb, Br, Sr and Na. Within the city, the sites and areas with abnormal contents of typomorphic pollutants have been revealed. In the central part of the city, in the vicinity of lead-zinc plant and Ulba metallurgical plant, the highest concentrations of Ta, U, Zn, Ag, Au, As, Sb, Cr and Fe were marked. In the northeast, where the titanium-magnesium plant is located, elevated concentrations of Br and Sr were stated. Thus, the impact of major city enterprises which are the main sources of heavy metals is reflected in the element composition. Zn, As, Sb, Ag and Au comes from lead-zinc plant and its refinery plants, while Ulba metallurgical plant can be considered source of Ta and U in the environment, producing tantalum and fuel pellets for nuclear power plants. These companies, due to the current objective circumstances, are located in the central part of the city, have a significant negative effect on the environment and form the risk factors for human health.

  11. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity.

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    Marcela Medeiros de Freitas

    Full Text Available Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL. The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65. High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source

  12. Fruit of Morus nigra and Morus alba as environmental biomonitor. An elemental analysis by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Wasim; Sajid Iqbal; Sohaila Rahman

    2016-01-01

    In this study, potential of fruit of Morus nigra and Morus alba was evaluated as short-term biomonitor. Each variety of the fruits was collected from 13 different locations of Islamabad with different level of pollution. Both fruits were quantified by k 0 -instrumental neutron activation analysis. Pollution level was assessed by the application of enrichment factor (EF) and principal component analysis (PCA). EF revealed a source of (As, Hg, I and Se) and PCA showed the areas of high dust level. The overall analysis suggested that both fruits could be used as short-term biomonitor. (author)

  13. Cognitive performance patterns in healthy individuals with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and early Parkinson’s disease

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    Rezzak Yilmaz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+ is a risk marker for Parkinson’s disease (PD which can be detected before the diagnosis. In healthy individuals, SN+ has been associated with slight deficits in specific cognitive functions, suggesting cognitive impairment as a possible pre-diagnostic marker for PD. However, the pattern of cognitive deficits associated with SN+ has not yet been compared with those present in PD.Methods: Data of 262 healthy individuals with normal echogenicity (SN- and 48 healthy individuals with SN+ were compared with 82 early stage PD patients using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease test battery. First, the test clusters (factors were identified using a principal component analysis (PCA. Mean group performance of cognitive tests belonging to distinct factors, according to the PCA, and single subtest performances were compared using analyses of variance. Second, the number of individuals with abnormal cognitive performances (z-score <-1.0 were compared between groups. Results: Verbal memory, semantic and executive function, and praxis were identified as components of cognitive performances. The SN+ group performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing semantic and executive function, with a non-significant decrease in verbal memory. On the subtest level, individuals of the SN+ group scored significantly lower than the SN- group on the Boston Naming Test (BNT (p=0.008. In all subtests, the percentages of PD patients with values below the cut-off for abnormal performance were higher than in the SN- group. Moreover, more individuals from the SN+ group scored below the cut-off in the BNT (SN-=8.4%, SN+=20.8%, p=0.01 and TMT-B (SN-=6.9%, SN+=16.7%, p=0.02, compared to the SN- group. Conclusion: This study confirms poorer performance of healthy individuals with SN+ compared to SN- in specific cognitive domains. However, against the SN- group, the cognitive

  14. Polyphenolic content, antiradical activity, stability and microbiological quality of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliszka, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The pharmaceutical and food industries expect detailed knowledge on the physicochemical properties of elderberry fruit extracts, their stability and microbiological quality, as well as the polyphenol content in elderberry cultivars. The characteristics of the extracts might be additionally modified by citric acid, which improves the stability of anthocyanins and protects processed fruits and syrups from pathogenic microorganisms. The choice of the method with citric acid was a consequence of the physicochemical charac teristics of elderberry pigments, which are not stable under the effect of light in alcoholic solutions. The aim of study was to analyze the properties of elderberry fruit extracts regarding polyphenol content and antiradical activity, as well as their stability and microbiological quality. The plant material consisted of fruit from four cultivars (Alleso, Korsor, Sampo, Samyl) of black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.). The following were determined in fruit extracts: polyphe- nolic content (HPLC), antiradical activity (ABTS and DPPH) and stability and microbiological quality. The HPLC analysis of polyphenols demonstrated that the extracts from fruits collected from cv. Samyl had the highest 3-sambubioside cyanidin content and those from cv. Korsor contained the highest quantity of 3-glucoside cyanidin. The extracts from cv. Sampo fruit had a dominant 3-sambubioside-5-gluco- side cyanidin and 3,5-diglucoside cyanidin content. The highest quercetin (5.92 mg 100 mg-1 of extract) and caffeic acid (1.21 mg 100 mg-1 of extract) content was found in fruit extracts from cv. Alleso. The cultivars Samyl and Korsor had a higher level of anthocyanins and higher antiradical activity (ABTS) in fruit extracts than cv. Alleso and Sampo. The antiradical activity (DPPH) of fruit extracts from elderberry cultivars as- sessed in this research was similar. The degradation index for all fruit extracts was similar (DI = 1.035). The microbiological species detected in

  15. Iron concentrations and distributions in the parkinsonian substantia nigra of aged and young primate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.Q.; Xie, J.P.; Wang, X.S.; Ong, W.Y.; Leong, S.K.; Watt, F.

    2001-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neuronal degenerative brain disease of the elderly, and is caused by the selective degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain, resulting in a reduced production of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Iron has been linked to dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson's disease because of its potential to promote free radicals, leading to oxidative stress. The present study is aimed at using the techniques of nuclear microscopy to elucidate the iron concentrations and distributions in the SN of both young and old monkeys following unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioning. A group of three old monkeys (older than 7 years) and a group of three young monkeys (younger than 7 years) were unilaterally MPTP-lesioned (right side) to induce parkinsonism and sacrificed after 35 days. The left side SN was used as a control. This time interval was chosen to correspond to an average 50% loss of dopamine producing cells in the lesioned right side SN. We have observed a significant difference in iron concentrations between the SNs of the young and old monkeys (increasing from an average of 233 to 1092 parts per million dry weight). When comparing the lesioned and non-lesioned SNs of the same animal, we found no significant difference in iron levels for each young monkey. However we have found a slight increase in iron (approximately 10%) between the lesioned SN and control SN for old monkeys. We have also observed that in the SN of younger primates, there is a weak anti-correlation in the SN iron levels with the neuron distribution. In the older monkeys, however, we have observed a proliferation of iron-rich granules, which appear to be more strongly anti-correlated with the distribution of neurons. The iron-cell anti-correlation occurs both in the control as well as the lesioned SN. Our results suggest that iron, particularly in the form of iron-rich deposits, accumulates in specific sites

  16. Expression and molecular evolution of two DREB1 genes in black poplar (Populus nigra.

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    Yanguang Chu

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses such as low temperature, drought, and high salinity significantly affect plant growth and yield. As selective forces, these adverse factors play essential roles in shaping phenotypic variation in plant populations. Black poplar (Populus nigra is an economically and ecologically important forest tree species with widely distributed populations and is thus suitable for experiments detecting evolutionary footprints left by stress. Here, we performed expression and evolutionary analysis of two duplicated DREB A1-subgroup (DREB1 genes, PnDREB68 and PnDREB69, encoding transcription factors that are involved in stress responses. The two genes showed partially overlapping but distinct expression patterns in response to stresses. These genes were strongly and rapidly induced by cold stress in leaves, stems, and roots. In leaf tissue, dehydration stress induced the expression of PnDREB68 but not PnDREB69. PnDREB69 displayed more rapid responses and longer expression durations than PnDREB68 under salt and ABA stress, respectively. Based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis, we found significant population genetic differentiation, with a greater FST value (0.09189 for PnDREB69 than for PnDREB68 (0.07743. Nucleotide diversity analysis revealed a two-fold higher πT for PnDREB68 than for PnDREB69 (0.00563 vs. 0.00243, reflecting strong purifying selection acting on the former. The results suggest that positive selection acted on PnDREB69, as evidenced by neutral testing using Tajima's D statistic. The distinct selective forces to which each of the genes was subjected may be associated with expression divergence. Linkage disequilibrium (LD was low for the sequenced region, with a higher level for PnDREB68 than for PnDREB69. Additionally, analysis of the relationship among carbon isotope ratios, SNP classes and gene expression, together with motif and domain analysis, suggested that 14 polymorphisms within the two genes may be

  17. Caracterización fármaco-toxicológica de la planta medicinal Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L. R. Bolli Pharmaceutical-toxicological characterization of medicinal plant Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L. R. Bolli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oneyda Clapé Laffita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la monografía consistió en la caracterización fármaco-toxicológica de Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L. R. Bolli, planta tradicional cubana con actividad antiinflamatoria, entre otras. Se presentan aspectos farmacológicos como composición fitoquímica, propiedades atribuidas popularmente y comprobadas científicamente, posología, reacciones adversas, advertencias, interacciones, toxicidad, precauciones y contraindicaciones. Se concluye que con la monografía fármaco-toxicológica de esta planta medicinal, se dispone de una completa información, como documentación indispensable para actualizar las bases de datos nacionales e internacionales al respecto, con vistas a desarrollar nuevos fitofármacos, en especial antiinflamatorios con bajo potencial de efectos adversos.The objective of the monograph was the pharmacological and toxicological characterization of Sambucus nigra subspecies canadensis(L. R. Bolli, a Cuban traditional plant with anti-inflammatory action, among others. Several pharmacological aspects such as phytochemical composition; scientifically tested properties attributed by the population; posology; adverse reactions; warnings; interactions; toxicity; precautions and counterindications were presented. It was concluded that the pharmaceutical and toxicological monograph of this plant provides full information as indispensable documentation to update national and international databases, with a view to developing new pharmaceuticals, particularly anti-inflammatory drugs with low adverse effect potential.

  18. Impact mortality of black storks (Ciconia nigra) on medium-voltage overhead power lines in Rheinland-Pfalz; Anflugverluste von Schwarzstoerchen (Ciconia nigra) an Mittelspannungsfreileitungen in Rheinland-Pfalz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hormann, M.; Richarz, K. [Staatliche Vogelschutzwarte fuer Hessen, Rheinland-Pfalz und Saarland, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The small breeding population of black storks (Ciconia nigra), which had been growing steadily since first nesting in Rhineland-Palantinate in 1982, has been observably decreasing again since 1993, particularly in its main territories. The high mortality of, for the most part, juvenile black storks resulting from collision with a overhead power line (OHL) is described (30 collision victims since the mid-1980s). The energy utilities are called upon to install underground cables on the relevant sections of the power lines in addition to modifying hazardous types of towers in order to reduce the high bird mortality rate. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer den seit einer Erstbrut 1982 in Rheinland-Pfalz stetig angestiegenen kleinen Brutbestand des Schwarzstorchs (Ciconia nigra) sind vor allem in seinen Kerngebieten seit 1993 wieder Bestandsrueckgaenge zu verzeichnen. Die hohen Verluste ueberwiegend junger Schwarzstoerche durch Anflug an Mittel- und Niederspannungsfreileitungen (seit Mitte der 80er Jahre 30 Schwarzstoerche als Anflugopfer) werden beschrieben. Neben der Entschaerfung gefaehrlicher Masttypen wird zur Vermeidung der hohen Anflugverluste eine Erdverkabelung der kritischen Leitungsabschnitte gefordert. (orig.)

  19. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Ates, Burhan; Erdogan, Selim; Cenet, Menderes; Karaaslan, Merve Göksin

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils of the resins of Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea were evaluated for their biological potential. Essential oils were characterized using GC-MS and GC/FID. in vitro antimicrobial, phytotoxic, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities were carried out using the direct contact and the fumigant assays, respectively. The chemical profile of the essential oils of the resins of P. pinea and P. brutia included mainly α-pinene (21.39% and 25.40%), β-pinene (9.68% and 9.69%), and caryophyllene (9.12% and 4.81%). The essential oils of P. pinea and P. brutia exerted notable antimicrobial activities on Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, insecticidal activities on Ephestia kuehniella eggs, phytotoxic activities on Lactuca sativa, Lepidium sativum, and Portulaca oleracea, as well as antioxidant potential. Indications of the biological activities of the essential oils suggest their use in the formulation of ecofriendly and biocompatible pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular response to water stress in two contrasting Mediterranean pines (Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdiguero, Pedro; Barbero, María Del Carmen; Cervera, María Teresa; Collada, Carmen; Soto, Alvaro

    2013-06-01

    Adaptation to water stress has determined the evolution and diversification of vascular plants. Water stress is forecasted to increase drastically in the next decades in certain regions, such as in the Mediterranean basin. Consequently, a proper knowledge of the response and adaptations to drought stress is essential for the correct management of plant genetic resources. However, most of the advances in the understanding of the molecular response to water stress have been attained in angiosperms, and are not always applicable to gymnosperms. In this work we analyse the transcriptional response of two emblematic Mediterranean pines, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea, which show noticeable differences in their performance under water stress. Using microarray analysis, up to 113 genes have been detected as significantly induced by drought in both species. Reliability of expression patterns has been confirmed by RT-PCR. While induced genes with similar profiles in both species can be considered as general candidate genes for the study of drought response in conifers, genes with diverging expression patterns can underpin the differences displayed by these species under water stress. Most promising candidate genes for drought stress response include genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, such as glycosyltransferases or galactosidases, sugar transporters, dehydrins and transcription factors. Additionally, differences in the molecular response to drought and polyethylene-glycol-induced water stress are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Levels and sources of PAHs in selected sites from Portugal: biomonitoring with Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Amigo, José Manuel; Alves, Arminda

    2010-04-01

    Pine needle samples from two pine species (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) were collected at 29 sites scattered throughout Portugal, in order to biomonitor the levels and trends of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The values obtained for the sum of all PAHs ranged from 76 to 1944 ng/g [dry weight (dw)]. Despite the apparent matrix similarities between both pine species, P. pinaster needles revealed higher mean entrapment levels than P. pinea (748 and 399 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively). The urban and industrial sites have the highest average of PAH incidence [for P. pinea, 465 and 433 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively, and for P. pinaster, 1147 and 915 ng/g (dw)], followed by the rural sites [233 ng/g and 711 ng/g (dw) per site, for P. pinea and P. pinaster, respectively]. The remote sites, both from P. pinaster needles, show the least contamination, with 77 ng/g (dw) per site. A predominance of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs was observed in most samples, with phenanthrene having 30.1% of the total. Naphthalene prevailed in remote sites. Rainfall had no influence on the PAHs levels, but there was a relationship between higher wind speeds and lower concentrations. PAH molecular ratios revealed the influence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources.

  2. Impact of solar activity on growth of pine trees (Pinus cembra: 1610 - 1970; Pinus pinaster: 1910 -1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surový, P.; Dorotovič, I.; Karlovský, V.; Rodrigues, J. C.; Rybanský, M.; Fleischer, P.

    2010-12-01

    In this work we have focused on the analysis of the data on the annual growth of cembra pine (Pinus cembra) grown in the Kôprová dolina Valley in the High Tatra Mountains. The database covers the period of 1406 - 1970, however, the sunspot data (minima and maxima) at the NGDC web site are only available since 1610. Moreover, reliable sunspot data are only available since 1749. The results of this analysis agree with the observation made in our previous work, i.e. there is a negative impact of high SA on the pine tree growth. However, it should be noted that statistical significance of the results is low. We also applied wavelet analysis to the data on the tree growth evolution, with the results indicating growth variations' period of about 20 years (duration of approximately two solar cycles or one magnetic cycle, respectively). A negative impact of the SA was also observed in growth of a 90 year-old maritime pine tree (Pinus pinaster) grown in northern Portugal. The width of the annual rings was smaller in the years of maximum SA; furthermore, it was found that it is the latewood growth that it is affected while the earlywood growth is not, and consequently the latewood additions also show a significative negative correlation with SA.

  3. Germinação de sementes de dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae no armazenamento Germination of Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (jacarandá-da-bahia, espécie de alto valor econômico pela qualidade da madeira e potencial ornamental em razão da copa bem formada e à delicadeza da folhagem, está na lista de espécies ameaçadas de extinção. Em função disso, conduziu-se este trabalho, visando à avaliação da qualidade de suas sementes, submetidas a períodos crescentes de armazenamento. Os frutos foram coletados em outubro de 2003, e as sementes armazenadas em geladeira a 6º C ± 2, em sacos de plástico transparente fechados. Mensalmente, durante 690 dias, foram retiradas 200 sementes, sendo que 100 foram utilizadas nos ensaios de germinação (quatro repetições de 25 sementes e 100 para a determinação do teor de água. Os ensaios germinativos foram conduzidos em estufa tipo B.O.D., a 25º C e com fotoperíodo de 12 horas. As variáveis analisadas foram a porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e massa seca das plântulas originadas. Os resultados indicaram que, até 360 dias de armazenamento, as sementes apresentaram porcentagem de germinação próxima de 50%, com redução de cerca da metade do índice de velocidade de germinação, porém, com maior comprometimento do acúmulo da massa seca das plântulas. A porcentagem de germinação inicial e final foram de 87% e 36%, respectivamente. As sementes de D. nigra têm comportamento ortodoxo e podem ser armazenadas por um período de até dois anos em sacos de plástico a baixa temperatura, com redução em cerca de 50% de sua capacidadeDalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Brazilian rosewood is a highly economically valuable species because of its wood quality and ornamental potential, mainly due to its well formed canopy and the delicacy of its foliage. Unfortunately, these features contributed to list it as an endangered Brazilian species (IBAMA Regulation number 06/92. This work had as its objective to study the quality of Dalbergia

  4. Contenido del aceite esencial en el follaje de Pinus caribaea Morelet según la época del Año. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Quert Álvarez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de determinar el contenido de aceite esencial en el follaje verde de la especie Pinus caribaea Morelet y cómo varía éste según los diferentes meses del año. Se determinaron el tiempo de destilación del aceite esencial a escala de laboratorio, el tamaño de muestra en nuestras condiciones de trabajo y el contenido de aceite esencial durante 2 años, mediante el análisis del contenido de aceite esencial de enero a diciembre. El tiempo de destilación obtenido fue de 3 h y el tamaño de muestra de 3 árboles. Los más altos rendimientos de aceite esencial se obtuvieron en los meses de marzo y abril y los más bajos entre noviembre y diciembre.A study was conducted aimed at determining the content of essential oil in the green foliage of the Pinus caribea Morelet species and at knowing how it varies according to the month of the year. The time of distillation of the essential oil at laboratory scale, the size of the sample under our working conditions, and the content of essential oil during two years were determined by analyzing the content of essential oil from January to December. The distillation time obtained was of 3 hours and the size of the sample was of 3 trees. The highest yields of essential oil were obtained in March and April, where as the lowest ones were attained between November and December.

  5. Influencia de la competencia en el crecimiento diamétrico de Pinus durangensis Martínez en Durango, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Colín

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se analizó la influencia de la competencia sobre el crecimiento en diámetro normal en árboles de Pinus durangensis en bosques mixtos e irregulares del estado de Durango. Se utilizaron datos de dos inventarios realizados en 2009 y 2014, en 16 Sitios Permanentes de Investigación Forestal y de Suelos (SPIFyS de 2 500 m2, dentro de los cuales, Pinus durangensis fue la especie dominante del estrato arbóreo, con 39.44 % del valor de importancia, y crece de manera mezclada con otras 18 especies arbóreas. El efecto de la competencia fue analizado mediante 14 índices de competencia independientes de la distancia y 11 dependientes de la distancia; para ello, se evaluaron 11 criterios de selección de árboles competidores. Los índices independientes de la distancia explicaron ligeramente mejor que los índices dependientes de la distancia el crecimiento en diámetro normal de la especie estudiada. El índice de competencia independiente de la distancia que se deriva de la razón entre el área basal del árbol objetivo y el área basal por hectárea describió mejor el efecto deseado, por lo que se recomienda para su posible inclusión en futuros modelos de crecimiento en diámetro normal desarrollados para P. durangensis.

  6. Laboratory-scale measurements of N2O and CH4 emissions from hybrid poplars (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, M C; Warland, J S; McBride, R A; Wagner-Riddle, C

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not young hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) could transport landfill biogas internally from the root zone to the atmosphere, thereby acting as conduits for landfill gas release. Fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the seedlings to the atmosphere were measured under controlled conditions using dynamic flux chambers and a tunable diode laser trace gas analyser (TDLTGA). Nitrous oxide was emitted from the seedlings, but only when extremely high soil N2O concentrations were applied to the root zone. In contrast, no detectable emissions of CH4 were measured in a similar experimental trial. Visible plant morphological responses, characteristic of flood-tolerant trees attempting to cope with the negative effects of soil hypoxia, were observed during the CH4 experiments. Leaf chlorosis, leaf abscission and adventitious roots were all visible plant responses. In addition, seedling survival was observed to be highest in the biogas 'hot spot' areas of a local municipal solid waste landfill involved in this study. Based on the available literature, these observations suggest that CH4 can be transported internally by Populus deltoides x Populus nigra seedlings in trace amounts, although future research is required to fully test this hypothesis.

  7. Changes in photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance to CO2, and isoprenoid emissions in Populus nigra plants exposed to excess nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikova, Violeta; Tsonev, Tsonko; Loreto, Francesco; Centritto, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Poplar (Populus nigra) plants were grown hydroponically with 30 and 200 μM Ni (Ni 30 and Ni 200 ). Photosynthesis limitations and isoprenoid emissions were investigated in two leaf types (mature and developing). Ni stress significantly decreased photosynthesis, and this effect depended on the leaf Ni content, which was lower in mature than in developing leaves. The main limitations to photosynthesis were attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. In Ni-stressed developing leaves, isoprene emission was significantly stimulated. We attribute such stimulation to the lower chloroplastic [CO 2 ] than in control leaves. However chloroplastic [CO 2 ] did not control isoprene emission in mature leaves. Ni stress induced the emission of cis-β-ocimene in mature leaves, and of linalool in both leaf types. Induced biosynthesis and emission of isoprenoids reveal the onset of antioxidant processes that may also contribute to reduce Ni stress, especially in mature poplar leaves. - Graphical abstract: Visible damage caused by Ni treatment. 1 - Ni 0 (control plants); 2 - Ni 200 ; M = mature and D = developing Populus nigra leaves. Display Omitted Highlights: → We study the effect of Ni pollution on photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions. → Ni stress significantly decreases photosynthesis. The main limitations are attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. → Constitutive isoprene emission was significantly stimulated in Ni-stressed leaves. Exposure to enhanced Ni concentration induces cis-beta-ocimene and linalool emissions. - The study reveals consequences of Ni stress on plant physiology, namely increasing diffusional limitation to photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions.

  8. Effect of ZnO nanoparticles on Brassica nigra seedlings and stem explants: growth dynamics and antioxidative response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira eZafar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have diverse properties in comparison to respective chemicals due to structure, surface area ratio, morphology, and reactivity. Toxicological effects of metallic NPs to organisms including plants have been reported. However, to the authors’ knowledge there is no report on the effect of NPs on in vitro culture of plant explants. In this study, ZnO NPs at 500-1500 mg/L badly affected Brassica nigra seed germination and seedling growth and raised antioxidative activities and antioxidants concentrations. On the other hand, culturing the stem explants of B. nigra on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium in presence of low concentration of ZnO NPs (1-20 mg/L produced white thin roots with thick root hairs. At 10 mg/L ZnO NPs shoots emergence was also observed. The developed calli/roots showed 79% DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity at 10 mg/L. While total antioxidant and reducing power potential were also significantly different in presence of ZnO NPs. Non enzymatic antioxidative molecules, phenolics (up to 0.15 µg GAE/mg FW and flavonoids (up to 0.22 µg QE/mg FW, also raised and found NPs concentration dependent. We state that ZnO NPs may induce roots from explants cultured on appropriate medium and can be cultured for production of valuable secondary metabolites.

  9. Antimalarial activity of 80 % methanolic extract of Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. (Brassicaceae) seeds against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluye, Abrham Belachew; Melese, Eshetie; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint

    2015-10-15

    Resistances to currently available drugs and insecticides, significant drug toxicities and costs and lack of vaccines currently complicated the treatment of malaria. A continued search for safe, effective and affordable plant-based antimalarial agents thus becomes crucial and vital in the face of these difficulties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of 80 % methanolic extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain) was used to test the antimalarial activity of the extract. In suppressive and prophylactic models, Swiss albino male mice were randomly grouped into five groups of five mice each. Group I mice were treated with the vehicle, group II, III and IV were treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively and the last group (V) mice were treated with chloroquine (10 mg/kg). The level of parasitemia, survival time and variation in weight of mice were used to determine the antimalarial activity of the extract. Chemosuppressive activities produced by the extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra were 21.88, 50.00 (P activities were 17.42, 21.21 and 53.79 % (P activities and the plant may contain biologically active principles which are relevant in the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria, thus supporting further studies of the plant for its active components.

  10. How specialized volatiles respond to chronic and short-term physiological and shock heat stress in Brassica nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kask, Kaia; Kännaste, Astrid; Talts, Eero; Copolovici, Lucian; Niinemets, Ülo

    2016-09-01

    Brassicales release volatile glucosinolate breakdown products upon tissue mechanical damage, but it is unclear how the release of glucosinolate volatiles responds to abiotic stresses such as heat stress. We used three different heat treatments, simulating different dynamic temperature conditions in the field to gain insight into stress-dependent changes in volatile blends and photosynthetic characteristics in the annual herb Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. Heat stress was applied by either heating leaves through temperature response curve measurements from 20 to 40 °C (mild stress), exposing plants for 4 h to temperatures 25-44 °C (long-term stress) or shock-heating leaves to 45-50 °C. Photosynthetic reduction through temperature response curves was associated with decreased stomatal conductance, while the reduction due to long-term stress and collapse of photosynthetic activity after heat shock stress were associated with non-stomatal processes. Mild stress decreased constitutive monoterpene emissions, while long-term stress and shock stress resulted in emissions of the lipoxygenase pathway and glucosinolate volatiles. Glucosinolate volatile release was more strongly elicited by long-term stress and lipoxygenase product released by heat shock. These results demonstrate that glucosinolate volatiles constitute a major part of emission blend in heat-stressed B. nigra plants, especially upon chronic stress that leads to induction responses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Productivity and adaptation of Pinus in the north litoral of Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Ferraz, E.S. de; Rezende, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The productivity and climatic adaptation of two species of Pinus in the north litoral of Bahia State has been studied through the variability of wood density in a comercial plantation. The gamma-ray attenuation method of the 100 mCi 241-Am source, 59,6 KeV, was used for density variability analysis. The results show that Pinus caribaea hondurensis is better adapted to the region than Pinus caribaea caribaea, with a superior mean productivity of 26% at 8 years. (Author) [pt

  12. [Effect of activation and blockade of the GABA-ergic system of the substantia nigra in the midbrain on the realization of conditioned food reflexes in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimovskiĭ, A F

    1988-01-01

    Bilateral injection of 45 mcg of GABA into substantia nigra pars compacta produced in dogs a manifested improvement of parameters of the conditioned differentiation inhibition but failed to influence the positive Pavlovian alimentary conditioned reflex. Injection of GABA synaptic antagonist--picrotoxin impaired conditioned alimentary behaviour. Numerous injections of the GABAergic pharmacological agents resulted in motor disturbance--rotatory movements--and skin trophic deviations. The data obtained and literature references give ground for discussion of the role of striato-nigral and internal GABAergic substantia nigra systems in the positive modulation of adaptive alimentary behaviour and conditioned stimuli differentiation.

  13. Quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber from tapped forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber extracted from tapped forests and processed in a sawmill in São José do Norte (RS. Four butt logs and four upper logs for each of the three existing diameter grades were selected and sawed. The wood pieces were analyzed after sawing and after kiln drying. The presence of knots, which occurred due to the absence of forest management and influenced the qualitative classification of the wood pieces, was observed mainly in the samples from upper logs. The process of resin tapping contributed to a higher incidence of resin pockets in the samples from butt logs, also influencing the qualitative classification of the samples. The appearance of drying defects did not modify the classification of the wood samples from butt and upper logs.

  14. Protein synthesis in the embryo of Pinus thunbergii seed, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Naoaki; Sasaki, Satohiko.

    1977-01-01

    14 C-Amino acid incorporating activity in the absence of exogenous mRNA was found in a cell-free system from embryos of light-germinated Pinus thunbergii seeds, but not in that from dark-imbibed seed embryos. Template activity in the cell-free system from the light-germinated seed embryos was observed in the ribosome fraction, especially the polyribosome fraction, but not in the 100,000 x g supernatant fraction (s100). These facts suggest that the nature of the block in protein synthesis during the imbibition of seeds in the dark is due to the lack or inactivity of mRNA. The s100 from light-germinated seed embryos was found to be less active in amino acid incorporation than that from dark-imbibed seed embryos. (auth.)

  15. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  16. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND RETRANSLOCATION IN THE Pinus taeda L. NEEDLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating nutrients concentration and retranslocation in the Pinus taeda L. needles, this study was developed in two stands, in native grass area and in second rotation area, with same species and same age (7.5 years old in Cambará do Sul, RS. The needles were collected in plants in four orthogonal points (South, North, East and West, sampled new needles, mature needles and old needles. The material was dried in a stove, milled and chemically analyzed (macro and micronutrients. The concentrations of N, P, K, B, Cu and Zn had decreased, of Ca, Fe and Mn increased, and the Mg and S have remained constant with the age of the needles. The retranslocation rate (old-new needles was more than 50% for most nutrients, except for Mn and Fe, showed that cumulative effect and the Ca reference element.

  17. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Iravani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods.

  18. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia

    2003-01-01

    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  19. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Galès

    Full Text Available We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  20. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  1. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  2. First discovery of fossil winged seeds of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahasin Ali Khan

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... review the historical phytogeography and highlight the phytogeographic implication of this genus. Keywords. ... In the present paper, winged seeds of Pinus are described ..... the Himalayas and the onset and development of.

  3. Seguimiento de trayectorias tridimensionales de un quadrotor mediante control PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Estellés Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo presenta el modelado de un quadrotor como un sistema multicuerpo llevado a cabo mediante el software Vehicle- Sim, en el que los diferentes componentes del sistema son descritos mediante una estructura paterno-filial señalando las restricciones físicas entre ellos. Los modelos estructural y aerodinámico han sido desarrollados mediante este software, ampliamente utilizado en la simulación del comportamiento dinámico de vehículos.Sobre el modelo resultante se he desarrollado un algoritmo de control basado en la metodologia PVA con la finalidad de obtener un seguimiento de trayectoria mediante acciones de control suaves. Empleando la metodología convencional de control PVA no es posible estabilizar el vehículo en todos los rangos de posicionamiento lateral (y y longitudinal (x. En este artículo los autores muestran como esta limitación en el diseño de una estrategia de control PVA convencional es solventada con una modificación consistente en sustituir los parámetros constantes del PVA clásico por funciones dependientes del desplazamiento.El sistema de control es implementado para adecuarse a los requerimientos de las actuaciones y se diseña sobre la plataforma de simulación multidominio Simulink. Con la finalidad de obtener una importante mejora en la respuesta de posicionamiento, se im- plementa un generador de trayectorias continuas.Una vez que el modelo es desarrollado y el sistema de control implementado, los autores presentan el modelo matemático y los resultados de las simulaciones realizadas. Éstas validan el empleo tanto de la metodología de control PVA aplicada, como de la alimentación de trayectorias predefinidas, no sólo para la posición, sino también para la velocidad y aceleración. Abstract: In this work the authors present the modelling of a quadrotor as a multibody system carried out with the software VehicleSim, in which the different

  4. Lqr Robusto Mediante Incertidumbre Acotada En Los Datos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se presenta el sintonizado del Regulador Lineal Cuadrático (LQR mediante la técnica de incertidumbre acotada en los datos o Bounded Data Uncertainties (BDU con el fin de mejorar la robustez del sistema, planteándose como un Min-Max donde se busca la mejor solución en el peor escenario posible. Así se ofrece un nuevo método guiado de ajuste del LQR, considerando los límites de la incertidumbre. La aplicación a sistemas multidimensionales no es trivial, pues presenta la forma de un Two-Point Boundary Value Problem (TPBVP, el cual se resuelve iterativamente. : Técnicas Minimax, Regularización, Método de Control LQR, Robustez, Incertidumbre, Ecuaciones Matriciales de Riccati, Problema de Valor Límite, Sistemas Multidimensionales

  5. Caracterización a impacto de caucho reciclado mediante elementos finitos

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano Castro, Ane

    2015-01-01

    Análisis de caucho reciclado de manera hiperelástica mediante métodos de ajuste de Mínimos Cuadrados con programa MATLAB y Curve fitting mediante ANSYS. Para la parte viscoelástica se usa Algoritmo de Optimicación con MATLAB. Comprobación de resultados y fiabilidad.

  6. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Ian A; St John, Mark G; Yeates, Gregor W; Morse, Chris W; Bonner, Karen I; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A

    2014-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  7. Pressurized hot water extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of polyphenols in Sambucus nigra L. branches in dependence on vegetative period of the plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hohnová, Barbora; Šalplachta, Jiří; Karásek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2017), s. 299-303 ISSN 1336-8672 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : PHWE * polyphenols * Sambucus nigra L. branches Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.950, year: 2016

  8. Overstory treatment and planting season affect survival of replacement tree species in emerald ash borer threatened Fraxinus nigra forests in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Looney; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Robert A. Slesak

    2015-01-01

    Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash) wetland forests in northern Minnesota, USA, are threatened by the invasive insect, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB)). A potential management option is promoting regeneration of tree species that are not EAB hosts to maintain ecosystem functions. Using an operational-scale...

  9. The ethylene-inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine restores normal nodulation by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. viciae on Vicia sativa subsp. nigra by suppressing the 'Thick and short roots' phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaat, S. A.; van Brussel, A. A.; Tak, T.; Lugtenberg, B. J.; KIJNE, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra L. by Rhizobium bacteria is coupled to the development of thick and short roots (Tsr). This root phenotype as well as root-hair induction (Hai) and root-hair deformation (Had) are caused by a factor(s) produced by the bacteria in response to plant flavonoids.

  10. Species delimitation in asexual insects of economic importance: The case of black scale (Parasaissetia nigra, a cosmopolitan parthenogenetic pest scale insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Po Lin

    Full Text Available Asexual lineages provide a challenge to species delimitation because species concepts either have little biological meaning for them or are arbitrary, since every individual is monophyletic and reproductively isolated from all other individuals. However, recognition and naming of asexual species is important to conservation and economic applications. Some scale insects are widespread and polyphagous pests of plants, and several species have been found to comprise cryptic species complexes. Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner, 1861 (Hemiptera: Coccidae is a parthenogenetic, cosmopolitan and polyphagous pest that feeds on plant species from more than 80 families. Here, we implement multiple approaches to assess the species status of P. nigra, including coalescence-based analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and ecological niche modelling. Our results indicate that the sampled specimens of P. nigra should be considered to comprise at least two ecotypes (or "species" that are ecologically differentiated, particularly in relation to temperature and moisture. The presence of more than one ecotype under the current concept of P. nigra has implications for biosecurity because the geographic extent of each type is not fully known: some countries may currently have only one of the biotypes. Introduction of additional lineages could expand the geographic extent of damage by the pest in some countries.

  11. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the substantia nigra of healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeger, Adriane; Godau, Jana; Berg, Daniela [University of Tuebingen, Department of Neurodegeneration, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and German Center for Neurodegenerative Disease (DZNE), Tuebingen (Germany); Chadzynski, Grzegorz; Klose, Uwe [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    To investigate the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with high spatial resolution at 3 Tesla was performed. Regional variations of spectroscopic data between the rostral and caudal regions of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were evaluated in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Data were acquired by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging measurements. The ratios between rostral and caudal voxels of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were calculated for the main-metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol. Additionally, the metabolite/creatine ratios were calculated. In all subjects spectra of acceptable quality could be obtained with a nominal voxel size of 0.252 ml. The calculated rostral-to-caudal ratios of the metabolites as well as of the metabolite/creatine ratios showed with exception of choline/creatine ratio significant differences between healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The findings from this study indicate that regional variations in N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios in the regions of the substantia nigra may differentiate patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. (orig.)

  12. Unravelling the importance of forest age stand and forest structure driving microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and soil nutrients content in Mediterranean Spanish black pine(Pinus nigra Ar. ssp. salzmannii) Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Borja, M E; Hedo, J; Cerdá, A; Candel-Pérez, D; Viñegla, B

    2016-08-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure have on microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and nutrient content. Thirty forest compartments were randomly selected at the Palancares y Agregados managed forest area (Spain), supporting forest stands of five ages; from 100 to 80years old to compartments with trees that were 19-1years old. Forest area ranging from 80 to 120years old and without forest intervention was selected as the control. We measured different soil enzymatic activities, soil respiration and nutrient content (P, K, Na, Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ca) in the top cm of 10 mineral soils in each compartment. Results showed that the lowest forest stand age and the forest structure created by management presented lower values of organic matter, soil moisture, water holding capacity and litterfall and higher values of C/N ratio in comparison with the highest forest stand age and the related forest structure, which generated differences in soil respiration and soil enzyme activities. The forest structure created by no forest management (control plot) presented the highest enzymatic activities, soil respiration, NH4(+) and NO3(-). Results did not show a clear trend in nutrient content comparing all the experimental areas. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differentiated groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40years old and from 39 to 1year old. Our results suggest that the control plot has better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil parameters but not in soil nutrient content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Deposition velocities to Sorbus aria, Acer campestre, Populus deltoides x trichocarpa 'Beaupre', Pinus nigra and x Cupressocyparis leylandii for coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freer-Smith, P.H.; Beckett, K.P.; Taylor, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Trees are effective in the capture of particles from urban air to the extent that they can significantly improve urban air quality. As a result of their aerodynamic properties conifers, with their smaller leaves and more complex shoot structures, have been shown to capture larger amounts of particle matter than broadleaved trees. This study focuses on the effects of particle size on the deposition velocity of particles (Vg) to five urban tree species (coniferous and broadleaved) measured at two field sites, one urban and polluted and a second more rural. The larger uptake to conifers is confirmed, and for broadleaves and conifers Vg values are shown to be greater for ultra-fine particles (Dp<1.0 μm) than for fine and coarse particles. This is important since finer particles are more likely to be deposited deep in the alveoli of the human lung causing adverse health effects. The finer particle fraction is also shown to be transported further from the emission source; in this study a busy urban road. In further sets of data the aqueous soluble and insoluble fractions of the ultra-fines were separated, indicating that aqueous insoluble particles made up only a small proportion of the ultra-fines. Much of the ultra-fine fraction is present as aerosol. Chemical analysis of the aqueous soluble fractions of coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles showed the importance of nitrates, chloride and phosphates in all three size categories at the polluted and more rural location

  14. Neuromelanin imaging of the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus among patients with Parkinson's disease using 3Tesla MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Kanako; Ohtsuka, Chigumi; Kato, Kanako; Terayama, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which loss of dopaminergic neurons from the pars compacta of substantia nigra (SNc) and locus ceruleus (LC) in the major pathologic substrate. To investigate the relationships between the loss of SNc and LC neurons, and the stage of illness, we compared the signal intensity of SNc and LC between PD patients and normal controls by using a neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla. We examined 41 PD patients in early stage, 10 in progressive stage, and 22 healthy controls. In PD, we observed a significant loss of neuromelanin in LC (p<0.0001) and lateral area of SNc (p=0.0011) while no significant difference between neuromelanin imaging and severity of PD was observed. The present study suggests that neuromelanin imaging using 3T MRI is a useful tool for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. (author)

  15. Does the cerebral cortex exacerbate dopaminergic cell death in the substantia nigra of 6OHDA-lesioned rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquin, Natasha; Mitrofanis, John

    2008-01-01

    We have explored the survival of dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in 6 hydroxydopamine (6OHDA)-lesioned rats with prior cortical removal. There were approximately 35% more dopaminergic cells in the ventral sector of SNc (vSNc) of 6OHDA-lesioned rats that had prior cortical removal compared to those that did not. By contrast, there were no differences in dopaminergic cell number between these experimental groups in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the dorsal sector of SNc (dSNc). Hence, prior cortical removal in 6OHDA-lesioned rats neuroprotected vSNc--but not VTA or dSNc--dopaminergic cells from death.

  16. Black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as an alternative indicator of urban air pollution by chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Malyuk, I.A.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    Capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric air pollution by chemical elements were tested against epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) and Physcia adscendens (Fr.). Concentrations of 40 macro and trace elements were determined using epicadmium and instrumental NAA. The data obtained were processed using non-parametric tests. A good correlation was found between concentrations of majority of elements in bark and lichens. On the accumulation capability bark turned out to be competitive with both lichens examined. The main inorganic components of black poplar-tree bark were revealed. A substrate influence on the concentrations of some elements in epiphytic lichens was established. An optimized procedure of bark pre-irradiation treatment was suggested. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves� propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves� propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves� propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves� propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  18. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  19. Ketogenic diet prevents neuronal firing increase within the substantia nigra during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Andrea; Stoddard, Madison; Pisano, Simone; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Iovane, Valentina; Monda, Marcellino; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2016-07-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets is poorly understood. Because the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a "gate" center for seizures, the aim of the present experiment was to evaluate if a ketogenic diet modifies the neuronal response of this nucleus when a seizure-inducing drug is administered in rats. Two groups of rats were given a standard diet (group 1) or a ketogenic diet (group 2) for four weeks, then the threshold for seizure induction and the firing rate of putative GABAergic neurons within the SNr were evaluated with progressive infusion of pentylenetetrazole under general anesthesia. The results demonstrated that the ketogenic diet abolished the correlation between the firing rate response of SNr-neurons and the seizure-threshold. This result suggests that the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets can be due to a decrease in reactivity of GABAergic SNr-neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer MR Imaging Is Superior to Diffusion Tensor Imaging in the Diagnosis and Severity Evaluation of Parkinson's Disease: a Study on Substantia Nigra and Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by nigrostriatal cell loss. To date the diagnosis of PD is still based primarily on the clinical manifestations which may be typical and obvious only in advanced-stage PD. Thus, it is crucial to find a reliable marker for the diagnosis of PD. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic efficiency of chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer (CEST imaging and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI in PD at 3 Tesla by evaluating changes on substantia nigra and striatum. Twenty-three PD patients and twenty-three age-matched normal controls were recruited. All patients and controls were imaged on a 3 Tesla MR system, using an 8-channel head coil. CEST imaging was acquired in two transverse slices of the head, including substantia nigra and striatum. The magnetization-transfer-ratio asymmetry at 3.5 ppm, MTRasym(3.5ppm, and the total CEST signal intensity between 0 and 4 ppm were calculated. Multi-slice DTI was acquired for all the patients and normal controls. Quantitative analysis was performed on the substantia nigra, globus pallidus, putamen and caudate. The MTRasym(3.5ppm value, the total CEST signal intensity and fractional anisotropy (FA value of the substantia nigra were all significantly lower in PD patients than in normal controls (P = 0.003, P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively. The MTRasym(3.5ppm values of the putamen and the caudate were significantly higher in PD patients than in normal controls (P = 0.010 and P = 0.009, respectively. There were no significant differences for the mean diffusivity (MD in these four regions between PD patients and normal controls. In conclusion, CEST MR imaging provided multiple CEST image contrasts in the substantia nigra and the striatum in PD and may be superior to DTI in the diagnosis of PD.

  1. Extraction of cellulose nanofibers from Pinus oocarpa residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrich, Anny; Martins, Maria Alice, E-mail: anny@daad-alumni.de [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moraes, Jheyce Cristina; Pasquoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Pinus oocarpa, which wood is moderately hard and tough, is planted in Brazil for reforestation and employed for timber production used in constructions. The wood residues, such as shavings, bark and sawdust represent 30% to 50% of the total volume of wood production, of which the sawdust is 10%{sup 1}. Cellulose nanofibers is nanomaterials having a diameter between 5 nm and 20 nm and a length of up to hundreds of nm. To obtain nanofibers from cellulose sources, such as sisal and sugarcane bagasse, is used chemical processes, in which the lignocellulosic material initially undergoes pre-treatments to promote partial separation of the cellulose, such as mercerisation and bleaching thus disposing lignin and hemicellulose components. Sequentially, by controlled acid hydrolysis, amorphous regions of the cellulose are removed, and crystalline cellulose is isolated in the form of cellulose nanofibers. In this work, nanofibers from sawdust of Pinnus oocarpa, containing 44.8 wt% of cellulose 20.6 wt% hemicellulose and 30.0 wt% insoluble lignin were isolated by mercerisation (NaOH 5%, 80°C, 120 min), followed by bleaching (NaOH + acetic acid + NaClO{sub 2}, 80 deg C, 240min) and acid hydrolysis (60 wt% sulfuric acid, 45 °C, 40min). Nanofibers obtained were characterized by DRX and SEM-FEG. Results showed that, for used conditions, fiber acid hydrolysis was not complete, therefore a biphasic suspension was formed. Crystallinity index achieved was not much higher than that from pinus fiber itself, increasing from 62% to 65% and signs of cellulose type II were observed. SEM images showed elongated fibers, which have diameter of 15 ± 5 nm and length of hundreds of nm, what means that they have a large L/D aspect ratio. Nanofiber extraction yield was very low (1.3 wt% of initial residue). All steps of the process are being reviewed aiming at better results. 1) Morais, S. A. L.; Nascimento E. A. e D. C. Melo, 2005, R. Árvore, 29, 3, 461-470. (author)

  2. Genetic diversity and the mating system of a rare Mexican Piñon, Pinus pinceana, and a comparison with Pinus maximartinezii (Pinaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Miguel A. Capó-Arteaga; Paul D. Hodgskiss; Hassan Sbay; Celestino Flores-López; M. Thompson Conkle; Basilio Bermejo-Velázquez

    2001-01-01

    Weeping piñon (Pinus pinceana) has a restricted and fragmented range, trees are widely scattered within populations, and reproduction is limited. Nevertheless, genetic diversity was high; based on 27 isozyme loci in 18 enzyme systems, unbiased expected heterozygosity averaged 0.174. Differentiation also was high (FST = 0.152),...

  3. Changes in whole-tree water relations during ontogeny of Pinus flexilis and Pinus ponderosa in a high-elevation meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dylan G; Kolb, Thomas E; DeWald, Laura E

    2002-07-01

    We measured sap flux in Pinus ponderosa Laws. and Pinus flexilis James trees in a high-elevation meadow in northern Arizona that has been invaded by conifers over the last 150 years. Sap flux and environmental data were collected from July 1 to September 1, 2000, and used to estimate leaf specific transpiration rate (El), canopy conductance (Gc) and whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kh). Leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA/SA) increased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, but decreased with increasing tree size in P. ponderosa. Both Gc and Kh decreased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, and showed no clear trends with tree size in P. ponderosa. For both species, Gc was lower in the summer dry season than in the summer rainy season, but El did not change between wet and dry summer seasons. Midday water potential (Psi(mid)) did not change across seasons for either species, whereas predawn water potential (Psi(pre)) tracked variation in soil water content across seasons. Pinus flexilis showed greater stomatal response to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and maintained higher Psi(mid) than P. ponderosa. Both species showed greater sensitivity to VPD at high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; > 2500 micromol m-2 s-1) than at low PAR (Pinus species, and was influenced by changes in LA/SA. Whole-tree water use and El were similar between wet and dry summer seasons, possibly because of tight stomatal control over water loss. 2002 Heron Publishing--Victoria, Canada

  4. Composition and chemical variability of Corsican Pinus halepensis cone oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2014-09-01

    The composition of the essential oil isolated from cones of Pinus halepensis grown in Corsica has been investigated by a combination of chromatographic (CC, GC) and spectroscopic (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 48 compounds that accounted for 95.5% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene (47.5%) was the major component followed by myrcene (11.0%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (8.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.9%). Various diterpenes have been identified by 13C NMR in the fractions of CC. Fifteen oil samples isolated from cones harvested in three forests have been analyzed and two groups of similar importance have been differentiated within the 15 compositions. Oil samples of the first group contained α-pinene (mean 45.0 g/100 g, SD = 5.5) as the major component. The composition of samples of the second group was dominated by myrcene (mean 30.3 g/100g, SD = 9.0) and α-pinene (mean 24.6 g/100 g, SD = 3.1).

  5. Antioxidative properties of the essential oil from Pinus mugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Johanna; Hippeli, Susanne; Vollmann, Renate; Elstner, Erich F

    2003-12-17

    The essential oil from Pinus mugo (PMEO) was tested on its antioxidative capacity. For this purpose, several biochemical test systems were chosen (e.g., the Fenton System, the xanthine oxidase assay, or the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)). The results show that there is moderate or weak antioxidative activity when tested in aqueous environments, like in the Fenton system, xanthine oxidase induced superoxide radical formation, or in the HOCl driven fragmentation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In contrast, when tested in more lipophilic environments (e.g., the ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood) the PMEO exhibits good antioxidative activity. PMEO does also show good antioxidative capacity in another lipophilic test system (i.e., the copper induced oxidation of LDL). Some components of PMEO (i.e., Delta(3)-carene, camphene, alpha-pinene, (+)-limonene and terpinolene) were also tested. As the PMEO, they showed weak or no antioxidant activity in aqueous environments, but some of them were effective antioxidants regarding ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood or copper-induced LDL-oxidation. Terpinolene, a minor component of PMEO, exhibited remarkable protection against LDL-oxidation.

  6. Biocontrol of Fusarium circinatum Infection of Young Pinus radiata Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iturritxa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitch canker, caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum, is a major disease of Pinus radiata currently controlled to some extent in nurseries by good hygiene and application of synthetic fungicides. The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative strategies to control fungal infections in nurseries and young pine plantations. The antagonistic effects of biocontrol bacteria and essential oils against F. circinatum in vitro and in young P. radiata trees were assessed. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia billingiae, and Bacillus simplex reduced the growth of the fungus in vitro by 17%–29%, and decreased the density of the mycelial mat. In young P. radiata trees, the length of F. circinatum lesions was reduced by 22%–25% by the same bacterial strains. Direct application of cinnamon and/or clove essential oils to wounds in stems of two-year-old P. radiata trees also limited the damage caused by F. circinatum. Lesion length was reduced by 51% following treatment with cinnamon oil (10% v/v, and by 45% following treatment with clove oil (15% v/v or a combination of both oils. However, the oils were toxic to younger trees. The biocontrol bacteria and essential oils show promise as prophylactic treatments to reduce the devastating effects of F. circinatum on P. radiata.

  7. A single ectomycorrhizal fungal species can enable a Pinus invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñnez, Martin A

    2015-05-01

    Like all obligately ectomycorrhizal plants, pines require ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts to complete their life cycle. Pines introduced into regions far from their native range are typically incompatible with local ectomycorrhizal fungi, and, when they invade, coinvade with fungi from their native range. While the identities and distributions of coinvasive fungal symbionts of pine invasions are poorly known, communities that have been studied are notably depauperate. However, it is not yet clear whether any number of fungal coinvaders is able to support a Pinaceae invasion, or whether very depauperate communities are unable to invade. Here, we ask whether there is evidence for a minimum species richness of fungal symbionts necessary to support a pine/ectomycorrhizal fungus coinvasion. We sampled a Pinus contorta invasion front near Coyhaique, Chile, using molecular barcoding to identify ectomycorrhizal fungi. We report that the site has a total richness of four species, and that many invasive trees appear to be supported by only a single ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus luteus. We conclude that a single ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus can suffice to enable a pine invasion.

  8. Hydraulic adjustments underlying drought resistance of Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tamir; Cohen, Shabtai; Yakir, Dan

    2011-06-01

    Drought-induced tree mortality has increased over the last decades in forests around the globe. Our objective was to investigate under controlled conditions the hydraulic adjustments underlying the observed ability of Pinus halepensis to survive seasonal drought under semi-arid conditions. One hundred 18-month saplings were exposed in the greenhouse to 10 different drought treatments, simulating combinations of intensities (fraction of water supply relative to control) and durations (period with no water supply) for 30 weeks. Stomata closed at a leaf water potential (Ψ(l)) of -2.8 MPa, suggesting isohydric stomatal regulation. In trees under extreme drought treatments, stomatal closure reduced CO(2) uptake to -1 µmol m(-2) s(-1), indicating the development of carbon starvation. A narrow hydraulic safety margin of 0.3 MPa (from stomatal closure to 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) was observed, indicating a strategy of maximization of CO2 uptake in trees otherwise adapted to water stress. A differential effect of drought intensity and duration was observed, and was explained by a strong dependence of the water stress effect on the ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration T/ET and the larger partitioning to transpiration associated with larger irrigation doses. Under intense or prolonged drought, the root system became the main target for biomass accumulation, taking up to 100% of the added biomass, while the stem tissue biomass decreased, associated with up to 60% reduction in xylem volume.

  9. The Transcriptomic Responses of Pinus massoniana to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Du

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Masson pine (Pinus massoniana is a major fast-growing timber species planted in southern China, a region of seasonal drought. Using a drought-tolerance genotype of Masson pine, we conducted large-scale transcriptome sequencing using Illumina technology. This work aimed to evaluate the transcriptomic responses of Masson pine to different levels of drought stress. First, 3397, 1695 and 1550 unigenes with differential expression were identified by comparing plants subjected to light, moderate or severe drought with control plants. Second, several gene ontology (GO categories (oxidation-reduction and metabolism and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways (plant hormone signal transduction and metabolic pathways were enriched, indicating that the expression levels of some genes in these enriched GO terms and pathways were altered under drought stress. Third, several transcription factors (TFs associated with circadian rhythms (HY5 and LHY, signal transduction (ERF, and defense responses (WRKY were identified, and these TFs may play key roles in adapting to drought stress. Drought also caused significant changes in the expression of certain functional genes linked to osmotic adjustment (P5CS, abscisic acid (ABA responses (NCED, PYL, PP2C and SnRK, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging (GPX, GST and GSR. These transcriptomic results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of drought stress adaptation in Masson pine.

  10. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  11. Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with declined Pinus pinaster stands in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Álvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We studied the presence of fungi and distribution patterns in relation to the health status of declining Pinus pinaster trees. Area of study: Trees in two declining stands in Central Spain were allotted to three declining classes. Material and Methods: Trees in two declining stands in Central Spain were allotted to three declining classes (healthy, declining and recently dead and 3 trees of each class were felled in each stand. Wood slides (phloem and xylem were taken at six positions along the trees and samples collected from fungal identification. Main results: A total of 21 fungal taxa were isolated and identified; eleven of these species belonged to the Ophiostomatoid group. Ophiostoma minus was the most frequently isolated fungus and was identified in 22% of the samples, mainly associated to dead and diseased trees. Research highlights: Together these results suggest a putative association of O. minor with the decline in this area, and thus we suggest paying more attention to this fungus as a potential agent of decline in P. pinaster stands.

  12. Flow cytometric and morphological analyses of Pinus pinaster somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Loureiro, João; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Santos, Conceição; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-09-25

    An approach combining morphological profiling and flow cytometric analysis was used to assess genetic stability during the several steps of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus pinaster. Embryogenic cell lines of P. pinaster were established from immature zygotic embryos excised from seeds obtained from open-pollinated trees. During the maturation stage, phenotype of somatic embryos was characterized as being either normal or abnormal. Based upon the prevalent morphological traits, different types of abnormal embryos underwent further classification and quantification. Nuclear DNA content of maritime pine using the zygotic embryos was estimated to be 57.04 pg/2C, using propidium iodide flow cytometry. According to the same methodology, no significant differences (P< or =0.01) in DNA ploidy were detected among the most frequently observed abnormal phenotypes, embryogenic cell lines, zygotic and normal somatic embryos, and somatic embryogenesis-derived plantlets. Although the differences in DNA ploidy level do not exclude the occurrence of a low level of aneuploidy, the results obtained point to the absence of major changes in ploidy level during the somatic embryogenesis process of this economically important species. Therefore, our primary goal of true-to-typeness was assured at this level.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of Pinus massoniana Lamb. microstrobili during sexual reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The normal megastrobilli and microstrobilli before and after the sexual reversal in Pinus massoniana Lamb. were studied and classified using a transcriptomic approach. In the analysis, a total of 190,023 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 595 bp. The annotated unigenes were divided into 56 functional groups and 130 metabolic pathways involved in the physiological and biochemical processes related to ribosome biogenesis, carbon metabolism, and amino acid biosynthesis. Analysis revealed 4,758 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the mega- and microstrobili from the polycone twig. The DEGs between the mega- and microstrobili from the normal twig were 5,550. In the polycone twig, 1,188 DEGs were identified between the microstrobili and the sexually reversed megastrobili. Concerning plant hormone signal transduction pathways, the DEGs from both the normal and polycone twigs displayed distinct male or female associated expression patterns. There were 36 common hormone-related DEGs from the two types of twigs of P. massoniana. Interestingly, expression of these DEGs was up-regulated in the bisexual strobili, which underwent the sexual reversal. A portion of MADS-box genes in the bisexual strobili were up-regulated relative to expression in microstrobili.

  14. Pinus Roxburghii essential oil anticancer activity and chemical composition evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Arfaa; Manzoor, Qaisar; Iqbal, Munawar; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Sajid, Anam

    2018-01-01

    The present study was conducted to appraise the anticancer activity of Pinus roxburghii essential oil along with chemical composition evaluation. MTT assay revealed cytotoxicity induction in colon, leukemia, multiple myeloma, pancreatic, head and neck and lung cancer cells exposed to essential oil. Cancer cell death was also observed through live/dead cell viability assay and FACS analysis. Apoptosis induced by essential oil was confirmed by cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 that suppressed the colony-forming ability of tumor cells and 50 % inhibition occurred at a dose of 25 μg/mL. Moreover, essential oil inhibited the activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and inhibited expression of NF-κB regulated gene products linked to cell survival (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, c-Myc, c-IAP2), proliferation (Cyclin D1) and metastasis (MMP-9). P. roxburghii essential oil has considerable anticancer activity and could be used as anticancer agent, which needs further investigation to identify and purify the bioactive compounds followed by in vivo studies.

  15. [Cold hardiness of Pinus ponderosa, P. banksian and P. tabulaeformis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuehua; Zhou, Yongxue; Fan, Junfeng; Liu, Yingzhou; Pang, Kejia

    2006-08-01

    By the method of artificial freezing, this paper made a comparative study on the cold hardiness of Pinus ponderosa, P. banksiana and P. tabulaeformis, with their inherent mechanisms approached. The results showed that the cold hardiness of these three species was in the sequence of P. banksiana > P. tabulaeformis > P. ponderosa. P. banksiana had high bound water/free water ratio (7.0) and ABA content (164.3 microg x g(-1) FW) but low K+ (2450 microg x g(-1) DW) and soluble sugar (12.0%) , P. tabulaeformis had higher contents of ABA (95.8 microg x g(-1) FW), K+ (4538 microg x g(-1) DW) and soluble sugar (18.68%) but low bound water/free water ratio (2.58), while P. ponderosa had high soluble sugar content (18.05%) but low bound water/free water ratio (2.18) and K+ (2275 microg x g(-1) DW) and ABA (63.3 microg x g(-1) FW) contents. These differences might be the reasons resulting in the different cold hardiness of these three species. Low chlorophyll content and high carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio might also contribute to the cold hardiness of P. banksiana. Therefore, though the test species are all of cold hardiness, their inherent mechanisms may be different.

  16. Aboveground Tree Biomass for Pinus ponderosa in Northeastern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for spatial or temporal variability. Individual-tree aboveground biomass allometric equations are presented from an analysis of 79 felled trees from four separate management units at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: one unthinned and three separate thinned units. A simultaneous set of allometric equations for foliage, branch and bole biomass were developed as well as branch-level equations for wood and foliage. Foliage biomass relationships varied substantially between units while branch and bole biomass estimates were more stable across a range of stand conditions. Trees of a given breast height diameter and crown ratio in thinned stands had more foliage biomass, but slightly less branch biomass than those in an unthinned stand. The observed variability in biomass relationships within Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest suggests that users should consider how well the data used to develop a selected model relate to the conditions in any given application.

  17. Response of Pinus ponderosa Seedlings to Stylet-Bearing Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglierchio, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Of 12 stylet-bearing nematodes used for inoculations, Pratylenchus penetrans, P. brachyurus, P. vulnus, Ditylenchus destructor, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla reproduced on Pinus ponderosa, while Xiphinema index, Aphelenchus avenae, Paratylenehus neoamblycephalus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Macroposthonia xenoplax did not. P. vulnus, P. brachyurus, P. penetrans, A. avenae, D. destructor, T. semipenetrans, and P. neoamblycephalus significantly suppressed both the shoot and root wet weights of ponderosa pine seedlings obtained from stands in five different locations. X. index significantly suppressed root wet weights, M. xenoplax siguificantly suppressed shoot wet weight, and M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla suppressed neither at the inoculation levels used. Injurious nematodes tended to suppress root growth more than shoot growth. Seedlings from two locations produced greater shoot growth wet weight than did seedlings from the other three locations. The more injurious nematodes tended to cause an increase in the water content of shoots. Frequency analyses of seedling population shoot-root ratios indicated that ponderosa pine seedlings could be selected for better shoot-root ratios as well as for resistance to several pathogenic nematodes. PMID:19300659

  18. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacology of Pinus roxburghii Sargent: a plant review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Pawan; Kaushik, Dhirender; Khokra, Sukhbir Lal

    2013-11-01

    Traditional medicine is a blend of information gathered over generations from various communities and cultures. Pinus roxburghii Sargent (Pinaceae) commonly known as "chir pine" is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. The all parts of the plant are believed to possess medicinal qualities in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. In these traditional systems of medicine, the plant is used to heal many diseases, including afflictions of the eyes, ears, throat, blood, and skin. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds such as α-pinene, abietic acid, quercetin and xanthone. Resin acids and flavanoid form a major portion of these bioactive compounds. This review presents examples of traditional medicinal uses for P. roxburghii, and subsequently explores the current understanding of the chemical, pharmacological, and biochemical properties of the extracts and the main active constituents found in each tissue of the plant. Clinical trial information is also included where available. Careful evaluation of these data may be helpful for scientists and researchers to discover and evaluate the specific chemical entities responsible for the traditional medicinal uses of P. roxburghii.

  19. Procedimiento de estabilizacion de mercurio liquido mediante cemento polimerico de azufre,via sulfuro de mercurio

    OpenAIRE

    López Gómez, Félix Antonio; López-Delgado, Aurora; Alguacil, Francisco José; Alonso Gámez, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Procedimiento para la estabilización de mercurio líquido mediante la obtención de cementos poliméricos de azufre que comprende: (a) transformación del mercurio líquido en sulfuro de mercurio (metacinabrio) mediante reacción química, en condiciones estequiométricas, entre el mercurio y el azufre elemental; y (b) obtención de cemento polimérico de azufre mediante la incorporación el sulfuro de mercurio obtenido en la etapa anterior, en una mezcla estable constituida por áridos, azufre elemental...

  20. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-10-01

    So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment.

  1. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  2. Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Elena; Poetschke, Christina; Duda, Johanna; Schlaudraff, Falk; Lammel, Stephan; Schiemann, Julia; Fauler, Michael; Hetzel, Andrea; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lujan, Rafael; Malenka, Robert C.; Striessnig, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra are particularly prone to degeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Their selective loss causes the major motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, but the causes for the high vulnerability of SN DA neurons, compared to neighbouring, more resistant ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, are still unclear. Consequently, there is still no cure available for Parkinson’s disease. Current therapies compensate the progressive loss of dopamine by administering its precursor l-DOPA and/or dopamine D2-receptor agonists. D2-autoreceptors and Cav1.3-containing L-type Ca2+ channels both contribute to Parkinson’s disease pathology. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers protect SN DA neurons from degeneration in Parkinson’s disease and its mouse models, and they are in clinical trials for neuroprotective Parkinson’s disease therapy. However, their physiological functions in SN DA neurons remain unclear. D2-autoreceptors tune firing rates and dopamine release of SN DA neurons in a negative feedback loop through activation of G-protein coupled potassium channels (GIRK2, or KCNJ6). Mature SN DA neurons display prominent, non-desensitizing somatodendritic D2-autoreceptor responses that show pronounced desensitization in PARK-gene Parkinson’s disease mouse models. We analysed surviving human SN DA neurons from patients with Parkinson’s disease and from controls, and detected elevated messenger RNA levels of D2-autoreceptors and GIRK2 in Parkinson’s disease. By electrophysiological analysis of postnatal juvenile and adult mouse SN DA neurons in in vitro brain-slices, we observed that D2-autoreceptor desensitization is reduced with postnatal maturation. Furthermore, a transient high-dopamine state in vivo, caused by one injection of either l-DOPA or cocaine, induced adult-like, non-desensitizing D2-autoreceptor responses, selectively in juvenile SN DA neurons, but not ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. With pharmacological

  3. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras'kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V.

    2004-01-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute γ-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on time and techno

  4. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute {gamma}-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on

  5. Pinus ponderosa: A checkered past obscured four species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willyard, Ann; Gernandt, David S; Potter, Kevin; Hipkins, Valerie; Marquardt, Paula; Mahalovich, Mary Frances; Langer, Stephen K; Telewski, Frank W; Cooper, Blake; Douglas, Connor; Finch, Kristen; Karemera, Hassani H; Lefler, Julia; Lea, Payton; Wofford, Austin

    2017-01-01

    Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at least four subdivisions of P. ponderosa. These patterns have not been examined in the context of other Ponderosae species. We hypothesized that putative intraspecific subdivisions might each represent a separate taxon. We genotyped six highly variable plastid simple sequence repeats in 1903 individuals from 88 populations of P. ponderosa and related Ponderosae (P. arizonica, P. engelmannii, and P. jeffreyi). We used multilocus haplotype networks and discriminant analysis of principal components to test clustering of individuals into genetically and geographically meaningful taxonomic units. There are at least four distinct plastid clusters within P. ponderosa that roughly correspond to the geographic distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes. Some geographic regions have intermixed plastid lineages, and some mitochondrial and plastid boundaries do not coincide. Based on relative distances to other species of Ponderosae, these clusters diagnose four distinct taxa. Newly revealed geographic boundaries of four distinct taxa (P. benthamiana, P. brachyptera, P. scopulorum, and a narrowed concept of P. ponderosa) do not correspond completely with taxonomies. Further research is needed to understand their morphological and nuclear genetic makeup, but we suggest that resurrecting originally published species names would more appropriately reflect the taxonomy of this checkered classification than their current treatment as varieties of P. ponderosa. © 2017 Willyard et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  6. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... essential oil of Pinus caribaea from Nigeria. O. Oluwadayo ... Key words: Pinus caribbea, Pinaceae, essential oil, β-phellandrene, β-caryophyllene, antibacterial. .... cones of Pinus. Pinea, P. halepensis, P. pinaster and P. nigra.

  7. Examination of correlation between histidine and nickel absorption by Morus L., Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Populus nigra L. using HPLC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Sukran Akkus; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-08-02

    In this study, HPLC-MS and ICP-MS methods were used for the determination of histidine and nickel in Morus L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Populus nigra L. leaves taken from industrial areas including Gaziantep and Bursa cities. In the determination of histidine by HPLC-MS, all of the system parameters such as flow rate of mobile phase, fragmentor potential, injection volume and column temperature were optimized and found to be 0.2 mL min(-1), 70 V, 15 µL, and 20°C, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, histidine was extracted from plant sample by distilled water at 90°C for 30 min. Concentrations of histidine as mg kg(-1) were found to be between 2-9 for Morus L., 6-13 for Robinia pseudoacacia L., and 2-10 for Populus nigra L. Concentrations of nickel were in the ranges of 5-10 mg kg(-1) for Morus L., 3-10 mg kg(-1) for Robinia pseudoacacia L., and 0.6-4 mg kg(-1) for Populus nigra L. A significant linear correlation (r = 0.78) between histidine and Ni was observed for Populus nigra L., whereas insignificant linear correlation for Robinia pseudoacacia L. (r = 0.22) were seen. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.025 mg Ni L(-1) and 0.075 mg Ni L(-1), respectively.

  8. Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.): Local ecological knowledge of site characteristics and morphology associated with basket-grade specimens in New England (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire K. Diamond; Marla R. Emery

    2011-01-01

    Fraxinus nigra Marsh. is a small, relatively uncommon tree with large social significance. Known as black ash or brown ash, it rarely exceeds 18 meters (60 feet) in height or 30-50 centimeters (12-20 inches) in diameter. In the U.S. states where the species occurs, its percentage of forest composition ranges from 0.01% in Kentucky to 6.00% in...

  9. Antraquinona e surfactante para otimizaçao do processo Kraft com Pinus Spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Mocelin, Ezequiel Zatoni

    2013-01-01

    A madeira de Pinus é atualmente a matéria-prima mais utilizada na obtenção de fibras longas para papel, juntamente com o processo Kraft pela sua versatilidade e por produzir fibras com boa resistência. As atuais perspectivas florestais apontam para uma escassez da madeira de Pinus para os diversos fins, seja para madeira processada, seja para celulose e papel. O processo Kraft tem como desvantagem o baixo rendimento em celulose, devido à solubilização não somente da lignina como também parte ...

  10. Dendroclimatic analysis of Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana in the municipalities of Áporo and Zitácuaro (Michoacán, Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Marlès Magre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first study on dendroclimatology of Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana in the state of Michoacán (Mexico, specifically in the municipalities of Áporo and Zitácuaro, both municipalities within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR. The sampling in Áporo, northwest of the MBBR, was held in Los Ejidos del Rincón del Soto and Arroyo Seco, in Sierra Chincúa (May 2011. In Zitácuaro, southwest of the reserve, a sampling was performed in the Ejido de San Juan de Zitácuaro, in the area of Ocotal and Palma, and Meso Sedano (June 2011. There were a total of 38 Pinus pseudostrobus and 12 Pinus devoniana sampled in both areas of the study and distributed in 28 trees in the municipality of Áporo and 22 in Zitácuaro. Two samples per tree were taken at 1.3 m height, resulting in a total of 100 tree cores. The dendrochronological series in Áporo for the species Pinus pseudostrobus were extended to 62 years (1949-2010 and for Pinus devoniana 86 years (1925-2010; and the series in Zitácuaro for Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana were extended to 47 years (1964-2010 and 44 years (1967-2010, respectively. The ring chronologies were validated using the program COFECHA, which calculates the cross correlations between individual series of the tree-growth, five series were eliminated due to very low or negative correlations. The climate data from Zitácuaro were obtained from two weather stations located in the same municipality. And, in the case of Áporo, the data was obtained from stations located in Senguio. The growth rates related to the climate were obtained by removing the growth trend of each tree due to the age, size and other factors such as the competition, using the program ARSTAN. The following statistics were used to evaluate the quality of the residual chronologies and to determine the potential dendrochronology of species for the different populations: the average correlation between series (Rbar

  11. Conserved microstructure of the Brassica B Genome of Brassica nigra in relation to homologous regions of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. rapa and B. oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Brassica B genome is known to carry several important traits, yet there has been limited analyses of its underlying genome structure, especially in comparison to the closely related A and C genomes. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Brassica nigra was developed and screened with 17 genes from a 222 kb region of A. thaliana that had been well characterised in both the Brassica A and C genomes. Results Fingerprinting of 483 apparently non-redundant clones defined physical contigs for the corresponding regions in B. nigra. The target region is duplicated in A. thaliana and six homologous contigs were found in B. nigra resulting from the whole genome triplication event shared by the Brassiceae tribe. BACs representative of each region were sequenced to elucidate the level of microscale rearrangements across the Brassica species divide. Conclusions Although the B genome species separated from the A/C lineage some 6 Mya, comparisons between the three paleopolyploid Brassica genomes revealed extensive conservation of gene content and sequence identity. The level of fractionation or gene loss varied across genomes and genomic regions; however, the greatest loss of genes was observed to be common to all three genomes. One large-scale chromosomal rearrangement differentiated the B genome suggesting such events could contribute to the lack of recombination observed between B genome species and those of the closely related A/C lineage. PMID:23586706

  12. Biochemical evidence for. gamma. -aminobutyrate containing fibres from the nucleus accumbens to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I; Fonnum, F

    1980-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase activity, a specific marker for ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing neurons, has been analysed in microdissected samples from rat mesencephalon following unilateral electrocoagulations of the nucleus accumbens. This lesion resulted in a consistent decrease of 50% in the enzyme activity in the rostromedial substantia nigra, and a slight, but insignificant decrease (- 15%) in the medial parts of the caudal pars compacta of the substantia nigra. No change was found in the lateral pars compacta or the central pars reticulata. In the ventral tegmental area, the highest activity was found in the rostromedial part, adjacent to the mammillary body. At this level, a significant decrease of 20% was found in the ventral tegmental area on the lesioned side. In contrast, the activities in the medial accessory optic nucleus and the caudal ventral tegmental area adjacent to the interpenduncular nucleus were unchanged. The results indicate that the nucleus accumbens sends ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing fibres to the rostromedial substantia nigra and to the rostral ventral tegmental area. The caudal ventral tegmental area, the lateral pars compacta and the central pars reticulata do not receive measurable amounts of such fibres.

  13. Motor stimulant effects of ethanol injected into the substantia nigra pars reticulata: importance of catalase-mediated metabolism and the role of acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizzi-LaFrance, Maria N; Correa, Mercè; Aragon, Carlos M G; Salamone, John D

    2006-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the locomotor effects of local injections of ethanol and the ethanol metabolite, acetaldehyde, into substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Infusions of ethanol into SNr resulted in a dose-related increase in locomotor activity, with maximal effects at a dose of 1.4 micromol. Ethanol injected into a control site dorsal to substantia nigra failed to stimulate locomotion, and another inactive site was identified in brainstem areas posterior to substantia nigra. The locomotor effects of intranigral ethanol (1.4 micromol) were reduced by coadministration of 10 mg/kg sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor that acts to reduce the metabolism of ethanol into acetaldehyde in the brain. SNr infusions of acetaldehyde, which is the first metabolite of ethanol, also increased locomotion. Taken together, these results indicate that SNr is one of the sites at which ethanol and acetaldehyde may be acting to induce locomotor activity. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that acetaldehyde is a centrally active metabolite of ethanol, and provide further support for the idea that catalase activity is a critical step in the regulation of ethanol-induced motor activity. These studies have implications for understanding the brain mechanisms involved in mediating the ascending limb of the biphasic dose-response curve for the effect of ethanol on locomotor activity.

  14. Dense genetic linkage maps of three Populus species (Populus deltoides, P. nigra and P. trichocarpa) based on AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M T; Storme, V; Ivens, B; Gusmão, J; Liu, B H; Hostyn, V; Van Slycken, J; Van Montagu, M; Boerjan, W

    2001-06-01

    Populus deltoides, P. nigra, and P. trichocarpa are the most important species for poplar breeding programs worldwide. In addition, Populus has become a model for fundamental research on trees. Linkage maps were constructed for these three species by analyzing progeny of two controlled crosses sharing the same female parent, Populus deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. nigra cv. Ghoy and P. deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. trichocarpa cv. V24. The two-way pseudotestcross mapping strategy was used to construct the maps. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers that segregated 1:1 were used to form the four parental maps. Microsatellites and sequence-tagged sites were used to align homoeologous groups between the maps and to merge linkage groups within the individual maps. Linkage analysis and alignment of the homoeologous groups resulted in 566 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. deltoides covering 86% of the genome, 339 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. trichocarpa covering 73%, and 369 markers distributed over 28 groups for P. nigra covering 61%. Several tests for randomness showed that the AFLP markers were randomly distributed over the genome.

  15. Chemical Composition of Ballota macedonica Vandas and Ballota nigra L. ssp. foetida (Vis.) Hayek Essential Oils - The Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Aleksandra S; Jovanović, Olga P; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2016-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from fresh aerial parts of Ballota macedonica (two populations) and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty five components were identified in total; 60 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 34 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Republic of Serbia), and 33 components in the oil of B. nigra ssp. foetida accounting for 93.9%, 98.4%, and 95.8% of the total oils, respectively. The most abundant components in B. macedonica oils were carotol (13.7 - 52.1%), germacrene D (8.6 - 24.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (6.5 - 16.5%), while B. nigra ssp. foetida oil was dominated by (E)-phytol (56.9%), germacrene D (10.0%), and (E)-caryophyllene (4.7%). Multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used to compare and discuss relationships among Ballota species examined so far based on their volatile profiles. The chemical compositions of B. macedonica essential oils are reported for the first time. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Metabolic Disturbances in the Striatum and Substantia Nigra in the Onset and Progression of MPTP-Induced Parkinsonism Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic confusion has been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD, while the dynamic changes associated with the onset and progression of PD remain unclear. Herein, dynamic changes in metabolites were detected from the initiation to the development of 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP -induced Parkinsonism model to elucidate its potential metabolic mechanism. Ex vivo1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was used to measure metabolite changes in the striatum and substantia nigra (SN of mice at 1, 7, and 21 days after injection of MPTP. Metabolomic analysis revealed a clear separation of the overall metabolites between PD and control mice at different time points. Glutamate (Glu in the striatum was significantly elevated at induction PD day 1 mice, which persisted to day 21. N-acetylaspartate (NAA increased in the striatum of induction PD mice on days 1 and 7, but no significant difference was found in striatum on day 21. Myo-Inositol (mI and taurine (Tau were also disturbed in the striatum in induction PD day 1 mice. Additionally, key enzymes in the glutamate-glutamine cycle were significantly increased in PD mice. These findings suggest that neuron loss and motor function impairment in induction PD mice may be linked to overactive glutamate-glutamine cycle and altered membrane metabolism.

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of a TaLEA-Introduced Transgenic Populus simonii × Populus nigra Dwarf Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A dwarf mutant (dwf1 was obtained among 15 transgenic lines, when TaLEA (Tamarix androssowii late embryogenesis abundant gene was introduced into Populus simonii × Populus nigra by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Under the same growth conditions, dwf1 height was significantly reduced compared with the wild type and the other transgenic lines. Because only one transgenic line (dwf1 displayed the dwarf phenotype, we considered that T-DNA insertion sites may play a role in the mutant formation. The mechanisms underlying this effect were investigated using TAIL-PCR (thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR and microarrays methods. According to the TAIL-PCR results, two flanking sequences located on chromosome IV and VIII respectively, were cloned. The results indicated the integration of two independent T-DNA copies. We searched for the potential genes near to the T-DNA insertions. The nearest gene was a putative poplar AP2 transcription factor (GI: 224073210. Expression analysis showed that AP2 was up-regulated in dwf1 compared with the wild type and the other transgenic lines. According to the microarrays results, a total of 537 genes involved in hydrolase, kinase and transcription factor activities, as well as protein and nucleotide binding, showed significant alterations in gene expression. These genes were expressed in more than 60 metabolic pathways, including starch, sucrose, galactose and glycerolipid metabolism and phenylpropanoids and flavonoid biosyntheses. Our transcriptome and T-DNA insertion sites analyses might provide some useful insights into the dwarf mutant formation.

  18. Expression Patterns of ERF Genes Underlying Abiotic Stresses in Di-Haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengji Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 176 ERF genes from Populus were identified by bioinformatics analysis, 13 of these in di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra were investigate by real-time RT-PCR, the results demonstrated that 13 ERF genes were highly responsive to salt stress, drought stress and ABA treatment, and all were expressed in root, stem, and leaf tissues, whereas their expression levels were markedly different in the various tissues. In roots, PthERF99, 110, 119, and 168 were primarily downregulated under drought and ABA treatment but were specifically upregulated under high salt condition. Interestingly, in poplar stems, all ERF genes showed the similar trends in expression in response to NaCl stress, drought stress, and ABA treatment, indicating that they may not play either specific or unique roles in stems in abiotic stress responses. In poplar leaves, PthERF168 was highly induced by ABA treatment, but was suppressed by high salinity and drought stresses, implying that PthERF168 participated in the ABA signaling pathway. The results of this study indicated that ERF genes could play essential but distinct roles in various plant tissues in response to different environment cues and hormonal treatment.

  19. RUPTURA DE LA DORMICIÓN Y EXIGENCIAS DE LUZ PARA LA GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE Juglans nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. FLORES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron métodos para superar la dormición y determinar las necesidades de luz en la germinación de Juglans nigra. Para superar la latencia y dureza del endocarpio se realizó Estratificación en caliente (T1, Inmersión en ácido giberélico (T2 y Estratifi cación en frío húmedo (T3. Para la necesidad de luz se evaluó alternancia de oscuridad/luz y oscuridad permanente. Se analizó el Porcentaje Germinación (% de G, Índice Velocidad de Germinación (IVG, Tiempo Medio Germinación Máxima (TMG, % Plántulas Normales, % Semillas sin germinar, Peso Seco Medio de plántulas (PSM y el Índice de Germinación Relativo a la luz (GRL. En T1 no hubo germinación y en T2 irrelevante. T3 produjo diferencias altamente significativas en todas las variables analizadas, siendo el período de 4 meses de estratifi cación el mejor para romper la dormición. Al no ser la luz un factor determinante en la germinación, esta especie se clasifi caría como fotoblástica neutra.

  20. Discovery of Walnut Twig Beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, Associated with Forested Black Walnut, Juglans nigra, in the Eastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Wiggins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thousand cankers disease (TCD is an insect-mediated disease of walnut trees (Juglans spp. involving walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis and a fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida. Although first documented on walnut species in the western U.S., TCD is now found on black walnut (J. nigra in five states in the eastern U.S. Most collections of P. juglandis or G. morbida are from trees in agriculturally- or residentially-developed landscapes. In 2013, 16 pheromone-baited funnel traps were deployed in or near black walnuts in forested conditions to assess the risk of infestation of forested trees by P. juglandis. Four of the 16 funnel traps collected adult P. juglandis from three forested areas (one in North Carolina and two in Tennessee. These collections, while in forested settings, may still be strongly influenced by human activities. The greatest number of P. juglandis (n = 338 was collected from a forested location in an urbanized area near a known TCD-positive tree. The other two forested locations where P. juglandis (n = 3 was collected were in areas where camping is common, and infested firewood may have introduced P. juglandis unintentionally into the area. Future studies to assess P. juglandis on more isolated forested walnuts are planned.

  1. Altered Tracer Distribution and Clearance in the Extracellular Space of the Substantia Nigra in a Rodent Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Fang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between extracellular space (ECS diffusion parameters and brain drug clearance is not well-studied, especially in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD. Therefore, we used a rodent model of PD to explore the distribution and clearance of a magnetic resonance tracer. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into four different groups: a PD group, a Madopar group (PD + Madopar treatment, a sham group, and a control group. All rats received an injection of the extracellular tracer gadolinium-diethylene triaminepentacetic acid (Gd-DTPA directly into the substantia nigra (SN. ECS diffusion parameters including the effective diffusion coefficient (D*, clearance coefficient (k', ratio of the maximum distribution volume of the tracer (Vd-max%, and half-life (t1/2 were measured. We found that all parameters were significantly increased in the PD group compared to the other three groups (D*: F = 5.774, p = 0.0025; k': F = 20.00, P < 0.0001; Vd-max%: F = 12.81, P < 0.0001; and t1/2: F = 23.35, P < 0.0001. In conclusion, the PD group exhibited a wider distribution and lower clearance of the tracer compared to the other groups. Moreover, k' was more sensitive than D* for monitoring morphological and functional changes in the ECS in a rodent model of PD.

  2. Seizure-induced damage to substantia nigra and globus pallidus is accompanied by pronounced intra- and extracellular acidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, K.; Smith, M.L.; Hansen, A.J.; Siesjoe, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    Status epilepticus of greater than 30-min duration in rats gives rise to a conspicuous lesion in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNPR) and globus pallidus (GP). The objective of the present study was to explore whether the lesion, which encompasses necrosis of both neurons and glial cells, is related to intra- and extracellular acidosis. Using the flurothyl model previously described to produce seizures, we assessed regional pH values with the autoradiographic 5,5-dimethyl[2-14C]oxazolidine-2,4-dione technique. Regional pH values were assessed in animals with continuous seizures for 20 and 60 min, as well as in those allowed to recover for 30 and 120 min after seizure periods of 20 or 60 min. In additional animals, changes in extracellular fluid pH (pHe) were measured with ion-selective microelectrodes, and extracellular fluid (ECF) volume was calculated from the diffusion profile for electrophoretically administered tetramethylammonium. In structures such as the neocortex and the hippocampus, which show intense metabolic activation during seizures, status epilepticus of 20- and 60-min duration was accompanied by a reduction of the composite tissue pH (pHt) of 0.2-0.3 unit. Recovery of pHt was observed upon termination of seizures. In SNPR and in GP, the acidosis was marked to excessive after 20 and 60 min of seizures (delta pHt approximately 0.6 after 60 min)

  3. Performance of Salix viminalis and Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii in short rotation intensive culture under high irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillion, Maud; Brisson, Jacques [Departement de Sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, 4101 Sherbrooke East, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Teodorescu, Traian I.; Labrecque, Michel [Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, 4101 Sherbrooke East, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sauve, Sebastien [Departement de chimie, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    On a plantation established in 2004 from stem cuttings at a density of 20,000 trees per hectare, we investigated growth and nutritional plant response to a high hydraulic regime for two species (Salix viminalis and Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii), using a comparative approach with measurements from irrigated and control plots. The plantation was irrigated from June to September 2005 with about 140 mm per day. The equivalent of 120 Kg NO{sub 3}-N, 40 Kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-P and 85 Kg K{sub 2}O-K per hectare per year was applied by means of irrigation with wastewater. No mortality occurred and stem biomass production of both poplar and willow species were not statistically different on irrigated and control areas. However, S. viminalis revealed to be more tolerant to flooded conditions since these corresponded more closely to its nutritional requirements (foliar concentration of 20 mgN g{sup -1}). The capacity of S. viminalis to withstand waterlogged conditions could play an important role in the sustainability of a plantation for the filtration of effluent at low pollutant concentration. (author)

  4. Crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em solos arenizados degradados no oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Paulo Renato; Elesbão, Luiz Ernesto Grilo; Schneider, Paulo Sérgio Pigato; Longhi, Régis Villanova

    2013-01-01

    A introdução de espécies florestais de rápido crescimento em áreas com solos arenizados e degradados pode ser uma alternativa tanto para a prevenção como para a minimização desse problema. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em relação aos solos arenizados e degradados por ação antrópica, no oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Para isso, foram selecionadas árvores dominantes em povoamentos com 29 anos de idade, em á...

  5. Crescimento em diâmetro do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em áreas arenizadas e degradadas no Oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Paulo Renato; Elesbão, Luiz Ernesto Grilo; Schneider, Paulo Sérgio Pigato; Longhi, Régis Villanova

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em áreas arenizadas e degradadas por ação antrópica, na região da fronteira oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Em povoamentos, foram selecionadas árvores médias, que foram abatidas e seccionadas pelo método de Smalian, a fim de obter discos de madeira para a análise dendrocronológica, para a obtenção do diâmetro por idade. O crescimento em diâmetro, quando comparado entre espécies...

  6. Aprendizaje temprano de arquitectura sustentable mediante vistas interiores graduadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Edith Granero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lograr una arquitectura sustentable requiere, entre otros aspectos, incorporar consideraciones energéticas en etapas tempranas de los diseños arquitectónicos. Las definiciones ambientales involucran principalmente análisis numéricos y temporales, con un detalle de variables normalmente definidas en etapas avanzadas del trabajo proyectual, distantes de las resoluciones espaciales de la gestación inicial del diseño, especialmente durante el comienzo de la formación profesional. Se puede aplicar estos conocimientos técnicos en los alumnos, en etapas tempranas del proyecto, según las teorías de aprendizaje significativo y percepción, que sugieren capacidades de vinculación cognitiva, mediante tecnologías de información y simulaciones gráficas. Este artículo propone una secuencia de experiencias pedagógicas de integración, a partir de modelos para la resolución conjunta del diseño arquitectónico, que se enfoca en la elaboración de vistas espaciales graduadas según valores energéticos. Ello se ejemplifica con el dimensionamiento de vanos para iluminación natural en un recinto doméstico de trabajo, lo cual se relaciona con la privacidad y la visión exterior, como también con la comodidad y el consumo energético. El proceso se ensaya con grupos de estudiantes de arquitectura y a través de consultas con docentes y especialistas del área que reconocen una motivación significativa y de relación ambiental. Esta experiencia de integración gráfica implica una vinculación temprana de condiciones energéticas y espaciales, utilizable para la enseñanza y posterior desempeño profesional, que busca una arquitectura expresiva y ambientalmente responsable.

  7. Desarrollo de la lectura mediante estratégias integradoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solé, Maira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La lectura y la escritura son procesos que cada día ameritan nuevos cambios y transformaciones. La propuesta de un Proyecto Pedagógico Integrador, (Fraca 2003 desarrollado con éxito en algunas instituciones venezolanas, se perfila como una alternativa significativa para el desarrollo de estos elementos. La idea o núcleo central es la integración de las diferentes asignaturas curriculares y lograr una globalización partiendo de sus objetivos y contenidos programáticos. El eje pedagógico integrador le permite al docente, evidenciar con mayor prontitud los resultados mediante actividades prácticas de lectura y escritura. Así mismo combina elementos claves del aprendizaje ausbeliano: información previa, información nueva y construcción de la información definitiva o integrada. La puesta en ejecución de las estrategias integradoras, en esta ocasión por maestros en formación (UNEG, a diferentes niños de escuelas del Estado Bolívar (Venezuela, certificando cómo la lectura y la escritura pueden tener un espacio ideal y significativo en la instrucción actual. Solo se necesita la intención, creatividad, dinamismo e ingenio. The reading and the writing plows processes that every day they require new changes and transformations. The proposal of an Integrative Pedagogic Project, (Fraca 2003 developed with success in some Venezuelan institutions; it is profiled like a significant alternative for the development of these elements. The idea or central nucleus is the integration of the different curricular subjects and to achieve a globalization leaving of its objectives and programmatic contents. The integrative pedagogic axis allows to the educational one, to evidence with more readiness the results by means of practical activities of reading and it notarizes. Likewise it combines key elements of the learning ausbeliano: previous information, new information and construction of the definitive or integrated information. The operation of

  8. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  9. Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purves-Tyson Tertia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting

  10. Callus induction of leaf explant Piper betle L. Var Nigra with combination of plant growth regulators indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), benzyl amino purin (BAP) and kinetin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junairiah, Zuraidassanaaz, Nabilah Istighfari; Izdihar, Fairuz Nabil; Manuhara, Yosephine Sri Wulan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the combination of plant growth regulators IAA, BAP and kinetin towards callus induction and growth of leaf explants Piper betle L. VarNigra. Explants from leaf of Piper betle L. VarNigra was cultured on MS medium with 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and BAP and 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and kinetin with 0.0;0.5;1.0;1.5;2.0 mg/L concentration respectively, the observed variable were the length of time the formation of callus, callus morphology, fresh and dry weight of callus. The results of this research showed that the combination of growth regulators IAA with BAP and kinetin had effects on leaf growth of Piper betle L. VarNigra. During 8 weeks observation, it indicated that the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 2.0 mg/L showed fastest callus formation at 8.5 days. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and BAP 1.5 mg/L showed the highest of fresh weight at 0.6596 grams, and the highest dry weight was obtained from the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 0.5 mg/L at 0.0727 grams. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and kinetin 1.5 mg/L had the highest of fresh weight at 0.2972 grams and the highest dry weight at 0.1660 grams. Callus of Piper betle L. VarNigra had two textures, that were compact and friable, and also showed various kind of colors, like white, greenish white, yellowish white, tanned white, brown and black. Based on this research, that concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L kinetin was the best combination for induction of callus from leaf of Piper betle L. Var Nigra.

  11. Genetic conservation and management of the Californian endemic, Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana Parry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Hamilton; Jessica W. Wright; F. Thomas. Ledig

    2017-01-01

    Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana) is one of the rarest pine species in the world. Restricted to one mainland and one island population in California, Torrey pine is a species of conservation concern under threat due to low population sizes, lack of genetic variation, and environmental stochasticity. Previous research points to a lack of within population variation that is...

  12. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Betsy A. Goodrich; Valerie Hipkins; Christopher Richards; Julie Kray

    2012-01-01

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations, and is threatened by rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and population structure will help guide gene conservation strategies for this species. Sixteen sites...

  13. Alkanes and terpenes in wood and leaves of Pinus jeffreyi and P. sabiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Adams; Jessica W. Wright

    2012-01-01

    The wood oils of Pinus jeffreyi and P. sabiniana contain considerable amounts of heptane (76.6%, 92%), on a monoterpene basis. However, when entire wood extractables is considered, the amounts drop considerably (3.4%, 36.8%) with the major portion of the wood oils being diterpene acids. The leaf oil of P. jeffreyi...

  14. Pinus ponderosa: a taxonomic review with five subspecies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    2013-01-01

    Various forms of Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson are found from British Columbia southward and eastward through 16 states and, perhaps, into Mexico. The status of many names previously associated with this species, but excluded here, has been clarified. Accumulated evidence based on variation in morphology and xylem monoterpenes,...

  15. The variation of microfibril angle in South African grown Pinus patula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been shown for some species that the microfibril angle (MFA) of the S2 layer of tracheids is strongly related to the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of wood, even more so than wood density, especially in wood formed during juvenile growth. The objectives of this study were to describe the variation in MFA in young Pinus ...

  16. DNA analysis for section identification of individual Pinus pollen grains from Belukha glacier, Altai Mountains, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Fumio; Uetake, Jun; Motoyama, Hideaki; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kaneko, Ryo; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Fujita, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Pollen taxon in sediment samples can be identified by analyzing pollen morphology. Identification of related species based on pollen morphology is difficult and is limited primarily to genus or family. Because pollen grains of various ages are preserved at below 0 °C in glaciers and thus are more likely to remain intact or to suffer little DNA fragmentation, genetic information from such pollen grains should enable identification of plant taxa below the genus level. However, no published studies have attempted detailed identification using DNA sequences obtained from pollen found in glaciers. As a preliminary step, this study attempted to analyze the DNA of Pinus pollen grains extracted from surface snow collected from the Belukha glacier in the Altai Mountains of Russia in the summer of 2003. A 150-bp rpoB fragment from the chloroplast genome in each Pinus pollen grain was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and DNA products were sequenced to identify them at the section level. A total of 105 pollen grains were used for the test, and sequences were obtained from eight grains. From the sequences obtained, the pollen grains were identified as belonging to the section Quinquefoliae. Trees of the extant species Pinus sibirica in the section Quinquefoliae are currently found surrounding the glacier. The consistency of results for this section suggests that the pollen in the glacier originated from the same Pinus trees as those found in the immediate surroundings. (letter)

  17. Mortalidade em florestas de Pinus palustris causada por tempestade de raios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Jorge Paladino Corrêa de Lima; Jose Américo de Mello Filho

    2002-01-01

    The importance of lightning as an ignition source for the fire driven Pinus palustris ecosystem is widely recognized. Lightning also impacts this system on a smaller scale by causing individual tree mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the level of mortality due to lightning activity at the Department of Energy's Savannah...

  18. The wood quality of Pinus chiapensis (Mart.) Andresen grown in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wood quality of Pinus chiapensis (Mart.) Andresen grown in the Mpumalanga forest region: scientific paper. ... When present, the amounts of included resin, pieces of bark and other debris at the occluded pruning cuts, were small and of little practical significance. The wood machined without any difficulty in the wet and ...

  19. Chloroplast microsatellites reveal population genetic diversity in red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; L.L. DeVerno; M. Anzidei; G.G. Vendramin

    1998-01-01

    Variation in paternally inherited chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) DNA was used to study population genetic structure in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), a species characterized by morphological uniformity, no allozyme variation, and limited RAPD variation. Using nine cpSSR loci, a total of 23 chloroplast haplotypes and 25 cpSSR alleles were were...

  20. Climate-related genetic variation in a threatened tree species, Pinus albicaulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Ruth G. Shaw

    2017-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: With ongoing climate change, understanding of intraspecific adaptive variation is critical for conservation and restoration of plant species. Such information is especially scarce for threatened and endangered tree species, such as Pinus albicaulis Engelm. Therefore, our principal aims were to assess adaptive variation and characterize its...

  1. Inheritance of the bark reaction resistance mechanism in Pinus monticola infected by Cronartium ribicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray J. Hoff

    1986-01-01

    Necrotic reactions in branch or main stems of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) caused by infection by the blister rust fungus (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch. ex Rabenh.) are a major mechanism of resistance. Overall, 26 percent of the seedlings eliminated the fungus via this defense system. Heritability based upon crossing family groups averaged 33 percent...

  2. Inheritance of allozyme variants in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D.Don)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1985-01-01

    Isozyme phenotypes are described for 45 structural loci and I modifier locus in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don,) and segregation data are presented for a subset of 31 polymorphic loci from 19 enzyme systems. All polymorphic loci had alleles that segregated within single-focus Mendelian expectations, although one pair of alleles at each of three...

  3. Influence of ammonia and ozone on growth and drought sensitivity of Pinus sylvestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dueck, Th.A.; Zuin, A.; Elderson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Four-year-old Pinus sylvestris trees were exposed to ammonia (16, 55, 110 ppb for 24 h d-1)and ozone (0, 45 and 68 ppb, 9 h d-1) in a factorial design in open-top chambers for 15 months. Treatment effects on tree growth and architecture were assessed during two growing seasons; effects on

  4. CO2 AND O3 ALTER PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER VAPOR EXCHANGE FOR PINUS PONDEROSA NEEDLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Effects of CO2 and O3 were determined for a key component of ecosystem carbon and water cycling: needle gas exchange (photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency). The measurements were made on Pinus ponderosa seedlings grown in outdoor, sunlit, mesoc...

  5. Soil enzyme activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriere) plantations in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn)...

  6. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  7. Patterns of resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; K. S. Burns

    2012-01-01

    The core distribution of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., extends from central Colorado into northern New Mexico, with a disjunct population on the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona. Populations are primarily at high elevations and often define the alpine treeline; however, the species can also be found in open mixed conifer stands with...

  8. WATER-USE ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA: A TALE OF TWO PINUS SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although central Florida is relatively flat, the distribution of species on the landscape is controlled by subtle changes in elevation. Along a four-meter elevation gradient, xeric sandhill vegetation dominated by Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) gives way to mesic pine flatwoods...

  9. Biomass production in an age series of Pinus patula plantation in Tamil Nadu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S C; Srivastava, V K

    1984-09-01

    Distribution of organic matter in different tree components of 3, 5, 9, 11 and 13 years old plantations of Pinus patula has been discussed. The total biomass ranged from 7 tonnes (3 years) to 194 tonnes (9 years) per ha with 82 to 87% being contributed by the above ground parts and 13 to 18% by root.

  10. Nuclear genetic variation across the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa): Phylogeographic, taxonomic and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Mary F. Mahalovich; Robert E. Means

    2015-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is among the most broadly distributed conifer species of western North America, where it possesses considerable ecological, esthetic, and commercial value. It exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation, suggesting that it may be in the process of differentiating into distinct regional...

  11. Forest floor depth mediates understory vigor in xeric Pinus palustris ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Kevin Hiers; Joseph J. O' Brien; Rodney E. Will; Robert J. Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woodlands and savannas are among the most frequently burned ecosystems in the world with fire return intervals of 1–10 years. This fire regime has maintained high levels of biodiversity in terms of both species richness and endemism. Land use changes have reduced the area of this ecosystem by .95%, and inadequate fire...

  12. Polyamine levels during the development of zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Dale R. Smith; Cathie Reeves; Kevin D. Steele; Subhash C. Minocha

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the cellular content of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were compared at different stages of development in zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata D. Don. During embryo development, both the zygotic and the somatic embryos showed a steady increase in spermidine content, with either a small decrease or no...

  13. Interrelationships among light, photosynthesis and nitrogen in the crown of mature Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; W. K. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Scaling leaf-level measurements to estimate carbon gain of entire leaf crowns or canopies requires an understanding of the distribution of photosynthetic capacity and corresponding light microenvironments within a crown. We have compared changes in the photosynthetic light response and nitrogen (N) content (per unit leaf area) of Pinus contorta Dougl. ssp. latifolia...

  14. Effects of air pollution on morphological and anatomical characteristics of Pinus Eldarica Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidreza Safdari; Moinuddin Ahmed; Margaret S. Devall; Vilma Bayramzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution, including automobile exhaust pollution, can affect anatomical and morphological characteristics of wood. In order to evaluate this subject, the Pinus eldarica trees of Chitgar Park in Tehran, which extends from a crowded highway in the south (polluted site) to the semi polluted midsection and to Alborz Mountain in the north (unpolluted...

  15. Fusarium spp. and Pinus strobus seedlings: root disease pathogens and taxa associated with seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Ocamb; J. Juzwik; F. B. Martin

    2002-01-01

    Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L .) seeds were sown in soil infested wlth Fusarium proliferatum, root necrosis developed on seedling roots, and F. proliferatum as reisolated from symptomatic roots; thus, demonstrating that F. proliferatum is pathogenic to eastern white pine seedling. Soils...

  16. Simulatd Nitrogen Cycling Response to Elevated CO2 in Pinus taeda and Mixed Dediduous Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Interactions between elevated CO2 and N cycling were explored with a nutrient cycling model (NuCM, Johnson et al. 1993, 1995) for a Pinus tuedu L. site at Duke University North Carolina, and a mixed deciduous site at Walker Branch, Tennessee. The simulations tested whether N limitation would prevent growth increases in response to elevated CO...

  17. A Comparison of Fire Intensity levels for stand replacement of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Patrick H. Brose

    1999-01-01

    Stand-replacement prescribed fire has been recommended to regenerate stands of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains because the species has serotinous cones and is shade intolerant. A 350 ha prescribed fire in northeast Georgia provided an opportunity to observe overstory mortality and regeneration of table...

  18. Effects of temperature on Pinus patula seedlings growing in pots in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The re-establishment of Pinus patula seedlings into sites with high harvesting residue (slash) loads can negatively affect the survival of these plants. Field trials have examined the role that insect pests and fungal diseases play in causing this phenomenon. Research has also indicated that temperatures at ground level tend ...

  19. Results from four Pinus patula water planting trials in the summer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planting with water is used by some forestry companies in South Africa to reduce post-planting water stress. Four trials were implemented to test the response in survival of Pinus patula to water applied at planting. Two trials each were situated in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands and Mpumalanga escarpment. The first trial at ...

  20. Growth and physiological responses to varied environments among populations of Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Bert M. Cregg

    2005-01-01

    We investigated population responses in physiology, morphology, and growth of mature Pinus ponderosa trees to an environmental gradient across Nebraska, USA. Ten populations from western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming were grown in three 26-year-old provenance tests from the warmest and wettest site in the east (Plattsmouth) to the intermediate site in...

  1. Adaptation des semis de Pin pignon ( Pinus pinea L.) au stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptation des semis de Pin pignon ( Pinus pinea L.) au stress combiné hydrique et thermique par des marqueurs biochimiques. ... Objectif: L'objectif de ce travail consiste à analyser les effets d'un stress hydrique et ... from 32 Countries:.

  2. Comparative genetic responses to climate in the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: reforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Dennis G. Joyce; Laura P. Leites; J. Bradley St Clair; Javier Lopez-Upton

    2014-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on the climatic niche of the sub-specific varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii and on the adaptedness of their populations are considered from the viewpoint of reforestation. In using climate projections from an ensemble of 17 general circulation models targeting the decade surrounding 2060, our analyses suggest that a...

  3. EFFECTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON GROWTH AND BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN PINUS PONDEROSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The future productivity of forests will be affected by combinations of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3. Because productivity of forests will, in part, be determined by growth of young trees, we evaluated shoot growth and biomass responses of Pinus ponderosa seedlings exposed to ...

  4. CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF OLD PINUS PONDEROSA TREES TO STAND DENSITY REDUCTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stand density reductions have been proposed as a method by which old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of North America can be converted back to pre-1900 conditions, thereby reducing the danger of catastrophic forest fires and insect attacks while increasing product...

  5. Reproduction ecology of Pinus halepensis : a monoecious, wind-pollinated and partially serotinous Mediterranean pine tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goubitz, Shirrinka

    2001-01-01

    Fire is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of Mediterranean plant species. The fire frequency has increased in the 20st century. Pines are the most important tree species in the area. Pinus halepensis is the only natural pine in parts of the east Mediterranean basin, such as Israel and

  6. The genetics of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata mill.) with implications for restoration and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Barbara S. Crane; C. Dana Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is an important commercial timber resource and forest ecosystem component in the southeastern USA. The species occurs in mainly drier sites as an early- to mid-successional species, is fireadapted, and it plays an important role in the fire ecology of the region. However, shortleaf pine genetics are not well-studied, especially in...

  7. Water availability and genetic effects on wood properties of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Gonzalez-Benecke; T. A. Martin; Alexander Clark; G. F. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of water availability on basal area growth and wood properties of 11-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees from contrasting Florida (FL) (a mix of half-sib families) and South Carolina coastal plain (SC) (a single, half-sib family) genetic material. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased average wholecore specific...

  8. Effects of intermediate-severity disturbance on composition and structure in mixed Pinus-hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Trammell; Justin Hart; Callie Schweitzer; Daniel C. Dey; Michael Steinberg

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, forest managers intend to create or maintain mixed Pinus-hardwood stands. This stand assemblage may be driven by a variety of objectives but is often motivated by the desire to enhance native forest diversity and promote resilience to perturbations. Documenting the effects of natural disturbances on species composition and stand...

  9. Assessing the gene content of the megagenome: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; Randi A. Famula; Annette Deflino-Mix; Kristian A. Stevens; Carol A. Loopstra; Charles H. Landley; David B. Neale; Jill L. Wegryzn

    2016-01-01

    Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Douglas) is within the subgenus Strobus with an estimated genome size of 31 Gbp. Transcriptomic resources are of particular interest in conifers due to the challenges presented in their megagenomes for gene identification. In this study, we present the first comprehensive survey of the P. lambertiana...

  10. Cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica ) affects above- and belowground processes in commercial loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda ) stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam N. Trautwig; Lori G. Eckhardt; Nancy J. Loewenstein; Jason D. Hoeksema; Emily A. Carter; Ryan L. Nadel

    2017-01-01

    Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), an invasive grass species native to Asia, has been shown to reduce tree vigor in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations, which comprise more than 50% of growing stock in commercial forests of the United States. I. cylindrica produces exudates with possible allelopathic effects that may influence abundance of P. taeda symbionts, such...

  11. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  12. Prospects for the biological control of invasive Pinus species (Pinaceae) in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hoffmann, JH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra) not attacked by the specialized pine cone weevil, Pissodes validirostris? A case of host selection vs. host suitability. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 99: 157?163. DWAF. 2004. Key issue paper for a policy...

  13. Classification of Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. oocarpa, P. caribaea var. hondurensis, and Related Taxonomic Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Squillace; Jesse P. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Stem xylem terpenes of 75 pine populations were studied to determine relationships among taxonomic entities. Typical Pinus patula populations occurring in areas north and west of Oaxaca, Mexico, had very high proportions of 3-phellandrene and low proportions of other constituents. Terpene compositions of populations of variety longipeduncalatain...

  14. Nursery response of container Pinus palustris seedlings to nitrogen supply and subsequent effects on outplanting performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Paul Jackson; R. Kasten Dumroese; James P. Barnett

    2012-01-01

    Container longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings often survive and grow better after outplanting than bareroot seedlings. Because of this, most longleaf pine are now produced in containers. Little is known about nursery fertilization effects on the quality of container longleaf pine seedlings and how that influences outplanting performance. We compared various...

  15. Biomass and nutrients of Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China: simulations for different management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huixia Yang; Silong Wang; Jianwei Zhang; Bing Fan; Weidong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We measured the dynamics of both biomass and nutrient pools on 7-, 17-, 31- and 51-year-old Pinus massoniana plantations in southern China. Using a chronosequence approach, we found that biomass of each component increased with aging while its proportion decreased except stem-wood. Nutrient pools varied with biomass pools except for foliage. For all harvest intensities...

  16. Composición y diversidad de la regeneración natural en comunidades de Pinus-Quercus sometidas a una alta recurrencia de incendios en el noreste de México Composition and diversity of natural regeneration in Pinus-Quercus communities under high fire recurrence in northeastern México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alanís-Rodríguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la regeneración natural a medio plazo de especies leñosas en un bosque mixto de Pinus-Quercus sometido a alta recurrencia de incendios (1972, 1984 y 1998 de mediana-alta intensidad en el noreste de México. El objetivo fue determinar la capacidad de recuperación de la vegetación frente a incendios recurrentes, y si ésta se puede ver modificada por una variable fisiográfica como es la exposición de la ladera (NE vs. NO. Los resultados mostraron que el 93% de las especies arbóreas son rebrotadoras obligadas que ya estaban antes del fuego. Esta capacidad de rebrote permite la reconstitución de la parte aérea de individuos ya existentes. El género clave por su abundancia es Quercus, siendo Q. rysophylla la especie más abundante después del fuego. Si bien la especie Pinus pseudostrobus está adaptada al fuego mediante una corteza gruesa y la longevidad de su banco de semillas, los incendios de mediana-alta intensidad de manera frecuente implican la pérdida local de la especie. Las exposiciones evaluadas no presentan diferencias significativas en su densidad (N/ha y dominancia (m²/ha pero sí en su diversidad y composición, siendo la exposición NO la más diversa. Estos resultados proporcionan una herramienta a considerar en la elaboración de planes de gestión de áreas protegidas del NE de México.We evaluated the natural regeneration of woody species at the mid-term in a Pinus-Quercus mixed forest affected by frequent medium-to-high intensity wildfires (1972, 1984 and 1998 in northeastern Mexico. The objective was to determine the recovery of vegetation from recurrent fires, and whether it depends on slope exposure (NE vs. NW. The results indicated that 93% of the species are obligated resprouters already present in the site before the fires. This capability enables the reconstitution of aerial part of existing individuals. According to abundance records, the key genus was Quercus, and Q. rysophylla was the most

  17. Impact of Combined Subthalamic Nucleus and Substantia Nigra Stimulation on Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Hidding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to compare the tolerability and the effects of conventional subthalamic nucleus (STN and combined subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra (STN+SNr high-frequency stimulation in regard to neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease patients. In this single center, randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial, twelve patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (1 female; age: 61.3±7.3 years; disease duration: 12.3±5.4 years; Hoehn and Yahr stage: 2.2±0.39 were included. Apathy, fatigue, depression, and impulse control disorder were assessed using a comprehensive set of standardized rating scales and questionnaires such as the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS, Becks Depression Inventory (BDI-I, Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (QUIP-RS, and Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39. Three patients that were initially assigned to the STN+SNr stimulation mode withdrew from the study within the first week due to discomfort. Statistical comparison of data retrieved from patients who completed the study revealed no significant differences between both stimulation conditions in terms of mean scores of scales measuring apathy, fatigue, depression, impulse control disorder, and quality of life. Individual cases showed an improvement of apathy under combined STN+SNr stimulation. In general, combined STN+SNr stimulation seems to be safe in terms of neuropsychiatric side effects, although careful patient selection and monitoring in the short-term period after changing stimulation settings are recommended.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers to Assess Substantia Nigra Damage in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatigorskaya, Nadya; Gaurav, Rahul; Arnaldi, Dario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Yahia-Cherif, Lydia; Valabregue, Romain; Vidailhet, Marie; Arnulf, Isabelle; Lehéricy, Stephane

    2017-11-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered to be a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). At PD onset, 40 to 70% of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) are already lost. Thus, milder SN damage is expected in participants with iRBD. We aimed to quantify SN damage in participants with iRBD using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine biomarker efficacy in preclinical Parkinsonism. Nineteen participants with iRBD and 18 controls underwent 3-Tesla MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging, neuromelanin (NM)-sensitive imaging, and T2* mapping. Regions of interest in the SN area were drawn in NM-sensitive and T2-weighted images. The volume and normalized signal intensity in NM-sensitive images, R2*, and diffusion tensor measures were quantified in the SN. Additionally, two raters performed visual analysis of the SN using the NM-sensitive images. Participants with iRBD showed a reduction in the NM-sensitive volume and signal intensity and a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) versus controls, but showed no differences in axial, radial, or mean diffusivity or in R2*. For NM-sensitive volume and signal intensity, the receiver operating characteristic analysis discriminated between participants with iRBD and controls with a diagnostic accuracy of 0.86 and 0.79, respectively, whereas the accuracy was 0.77 for FA. The three biomarkers had a combined accuracy of 0.92. The fraction of participants correctly characterized by visual assessment was 0.81. NM-sensitive imaging and FA allowed for the detection of SN damage in participants with iRBD with good diagnostic accuracy. These measures may represent valuable biomarkers for prodromal Parkinsonism. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Abnormal chloride homeostasis in the substancia nigra pars reticulata contributes to locomotor deficiency in a model of acute liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice. METHODS: Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE. The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed. RESULTS: In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure.

  20. The Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Determines Synaptic Excitability, Calcium Activity and Specific Viability of Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons

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    Carmen Carbone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Differential vulnerability between Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNpc and Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA dopaminergic (DAergic neurons is a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Understanding the molecular bases of this key histopathological aspect would foster the development of much-needed disease-modifying therapies. Non-heterogeneous DAergic degeneration is present in both toxin-based and genetic animal models, suggesting that cellular specificity, rather than causing factors, constitutes the background for differential vulnerability. In this regard, we previously demonstrated that MPP+, a neurotoxin able to cause selective nigrostriatal degeneration in animal rodents and primates, inhibits the Hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih in SNpc DAergic neurons and that pharmacological Ih antagonism causes potentiation of evoked Excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs. Of note, the magnitude of such potentiation is greater in the SNpc subfield, consistent with higher Ih density. In the present work, we show that Ih block-induced synaptic potentiation leads to the amplification of somatic calcium responses (SCRs in vitro. This effect is specific for the SNpc subfield and largely mediated by L-Type calcium channels, as indicated by sensitivity to the CaV 1 blocker isradipine. Furthermore, Ih is downregulated by low intracellular ATP and determines the efficacy of GABAergic inhibition in SNpc DAergic neurons. Finally, we show that stereotaxic administration of Ih blockers causes SNpc-specific neurodegeneration and hemiparkinsonian motor phenotype in rats. During PD progression, Ih downregulation may result from mitochondrial dysfunction and, in concert with PD-related disinhibition of excitatory inputs, determine a SNpc-specific disease pathway.

  1. Reduced Number of Pigmented Neurons in the Substantia Nigra of Dystonia Patients? Findings from Extensive Neuropathologic, Immunohistochemistry, and Quantitative Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Iacono

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dystonias (Dys represent the third most common movement disorder after essential tremor (ET and Parkinson's disease (PD. While some pathogenetic mechanisms and genetic causes of Dys have been identified, little is known about their neuropathologic features. Previous neuropathologic studies have reported generically defined neuronal loss in various cerebral regions of Dys brains, mostly in the basal ganglia (BG, and specifically in the substantia nigra (SN. Enlarged pigmented neurons in the SN of Dys patients with and without specific genetic mutations (e.g., GAG deletions in DYT1 dystonia have also been described. Whether or not Dys brains are associated with decreased numbers or other morphometric changes of specific neuronal types is unknown and has never been addressed with quantitative methodologies. Methods: Quantitative immunohistochemistry protocols were used to estimate neuronal counts and volumes of nigral pigmented neurons in 13 SN of Dys patients and 13 SN of age‐matched control subjects (C. Results: We observed a significant reduction (∼20% of pigmented neurons in the SN of Dys compared to C (p<0.01. Neither significant volumetric changes nor evident neurodegenerative signs were observed in the remaining pool of nigral pigmented neurons in Dys brains. These novel quantitative findings were confirmed after exclusion of possible co‐occurring SN pathologies including Lewy pathology, tau‐neurofibrillary tangles, β‐amyloid deposits, ubiquitin (ubiq, and phosphorylated‐TAR DNA‐binding protein 43 (pTDP43‐positive inclusions. Discussion: A reduced number of nigral pigmented neurons in the absence of evident neurodegenerative signs in Dys brains could indicate previously unconsidered pathogenetic mechanisms of Dys such as neurodevelopmental defects in the SN.

  2. Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation promotes GABA release in the substantia nigra and improves locomotion in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazaleh Samoudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vestibular system is connected to spinal, cerebellar and cerebral motor control structures and can be selectively activated with external electrodes. The resulting sensation of disturbed balance can be avoided by using stochastic stimulation patterns. Adding noise to the nervous system sometimes improves function. Small clinical trials suggest that stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS may improve symptoms in Parkinson's disease. We have investigated this claim and possible mechanisms using the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA hemilesion model of Parkinson's disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Animals were tested in the accelerating rod test and the Montoya staircase test of skilled forelimb use. In 6-OHDA hemilesioned animals, SVS improved rod performance by 56±11 s. At group level L-DOPA treatment had no effect, but positive responders improved time on rod by 60±19 s. Skilled forelimb use was not altered by SVS. To investigate how SVS may influence basal ganglia network activity, intracerebral microdialysis was employed in four regions of interest during and after SVS. In presence of the γ-amino buturic acid (GABA transporter inhibitor NNC 711, SVS induced an increase in GABA to 150±15% of baseline in the substantia nigra (SN of unlesioned animals, but had no effect in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, the striatum or the ventromedial thalamus (VM. Dopamine release remained stable in all areas, as did GABA and amine concentrations in the SN of unstimulated controls. Following SVS, a sustained increase in GABA concentrations was observed in the ipsilesional, but not in the contralesional SN of 6-OHDA hemilesioned rats. In contrast, L-DOPA treatment produced a similar increase of GABA in the ipsi- and contra-lesional SN. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SVS improves rod performance in a rat model of Parkinson's disease, possibly by increasing nigral GABA release in a dopamine independent way. We propose that SVS could be useful for

  3. The effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) leaf extract on ultraviolet B-induced skin damages in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Se Lim; Lee, Hae June; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Sung Ho; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

    2007-01-01

    The effects of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) Leaf Extract (BLE) on the changes of UltraViolet (UV) light B radiation-induced apoptotic SunBurn Cell (SBC) and epidermal ATPase-positive Dendritic Cell (DC) in SKHI-hr or ICR mouse were investigated. The mice were treated with UVB (200 mJ/cm 2 ) and were sacrificed 24 hours later. BLE (50 mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle (saline) was given i.p. at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation, and 30 minutes after irradiation. BLE cream (0.2%) or cream base (vehicle) was also topically treated at 24 hours and 15 minutes before irradiation, and immediately after irradiation. The skin of SKH1-hr mouse prepared from the back of untreated mice exhibited about 0.3 SBC/cm length of epidermis, and 24 hours after UV irradiation, the applied areas show an increased number of SBCs. But the frequency of UVB-induced SBC formation was significantly reduced by intraperitoneal injection (59.0%) and topical application (31.8%) of BLE extract. The numbers of DC in normal ICR mouse were 628.00±51.56 or 663.20±62.58 per mm 2 of ear epidermis. By 1 day after UVB treatment, the number of ATPase-positive cells/mm 2 were decreased by 39.0% or 27.1% in i.p. or topical application group with vehicle. The frequency of UVB(200 mJ/cm 2 )-induced DC decrease was reduced by treatment of BLE as 25.7% in i.p. group and 3.2% in topical application group compared with the irradiation control group. The results presented herein that BLE administration could reduce the extent of skin damages produced by UVB

  4. The effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) leaf extract on ultraviolet B-induced skin damages in mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Se Lim; Lee, Hae June; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Sangju National Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    The effects of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) Leaf Extract (BLE) on the changes of UltraViolet (UV) light B radiation-induced apoptotic SunBurn Cell (SBC) and epidermal ATPase-positive Dendritic Cell (DC) in SKHI-hr or ICR mouse were investigated. The mice were treated with UVB (200 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and were sacrificed 24 hours later. BLE (50 mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle (saline) was given i.p. at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation, and 30 minutes after irradiation. BLE cream (0.2%) or cream base (vehicle) was also topically treated at 24 hours and 15 minutes before irradiation, and immediately after irradiation. The skin of SKH1-hr mouse prepared from the back of untreated mice exhibited about 0.3 SBC/cm length of epidermis, and 24 hours after UV irradiation, the applied areas show an increased number of SBCs. But the frequency of UVB-induced SBC formation was significantly reduced by intraperitoneal injection (59.0%) and topical application (31.8%) of BLE extract. The numbers of DC in normal ICR mouse were 628.00{+-}51.56 or 663.20{+-}62.58 per mm{sup 2} of ear epidermis. By 1 day after UVB treatment, the number of ATPase-positive cells/mm{sup 2} were decreased by 39.0% or 27.1% in i.p. or topical application group with vehicle. The frequency of UVB(200 mJ/cm{sup 2})-induced DC decrease was reduced by treatment of BLE as 25.7% in i.p. group and 3.2% in topical application group compared with the irradiation control group. The results presented herein that BLE administration could reduce the extent of skin damages produced by UVB.

  5. Iptakalim inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated currents in dopamine neurons acutely dissociated from rat substantia nigra pars compacta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; DeChon, J; Yan, K C; Liu, Q; Hu, G; Wu, J

    2006-07-31

    Iptakalim hydrochloride, a novel cardiovascular ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel opener, has shown remarkable antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects in a variety of studies using in vivo and in vitro preparations. We recently found that iptakalim blocked human alpha4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) heterologously expressed in the human SH-EP1 cell line. In the present study, we examined the effects of iptakalim on several neurotransmitter-induced current responses in single DA neurons freshly dissociated from rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), using perforated patch-clamp recordings combined with a U-tube rapid drug application. In identified DA neurons under voltage-clamp configuration, glutamate-, NMDA-, and GABA-induced currents were insensitive to co-application with iptakalim (100 microM), while whole-cell currents induced by ACh (1 mM+1 microM atropine) or an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors relatively selective agonist, RJR-2403 (300 microM), were eliminated by iptakalim. Iptakalim inhibited RJR-2403-induced current in a concentration-dependent manner, and reduced maximal RJR-2403-induced currents at the highest agonist concentration, suggesting a non-competitive block. In current-clamp mode, iptakalim failed to affect resting membrane potential and spontaneous action potential firing, but abolished RJR-2403-induced neuronal firing acceleration. Together, these results indicate that in dissociated SNc DA neurons, alpha4-containing nAChRs, rather than ionotropic glutamate receptors, GABA(A) receptors or perhaps K-ATP channels are the sensitive targets to mediate iptakalim's pharmacological roles.

  6. Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Blum, O.B.; Filby, R.H.; Malyuk, I.A.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species

  7. Seasonal N changes in alnus orientalis and populus nigra and N2 fixation by exotic alder species in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted.The first was to study nodulation and N 2 fixation of several introduced alder species (Alnus glutinosa, A. incana, A. rubra and A. viridis) grown in soil from beneath Alnus orientalis. The second was to determine pattern of N changes in leaves and bark of Alnus orientalis and populus nigra natural stands during two successive years. Results showed that frankia in soil from underneath Alnus orientalis nodulated and fixed nitrogen on roots of local alder as well as on roots of introduced alder species from distant and ecologically diverse localities. However, differences were found among species in the number of nodules formed and amount of nitrogen fixed. Percentages of nitrogen derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa) ranged from 5% in A.viridis to 66% in A. orientalis. Microscopic study of Alnus orientalis nodules showed the presence of vesicles, and frankia belonging to Sp-type. Foliar N concentration was higher in alder than in poplar. Total N concentration in alder leaves remained relatively constant at about 3% during summer, whereas N concentration in poplar decreased sharply in leaves and increased in bark. No substantial increase in N concentration was found in alder bark, and the fallen leaves were rich in nitrogen. During autumn, leaf N concentration in poplar decreased by 43% and 51% for the first and the second year, respectively, whereas N concentrations in bark increased by 71% and 100%. Total N concentrations in alder leaves decreased only by 8-16% while, values in the adjacent bark remained stable. In contrast to poplar, it seems that Alnus orientalis does not exhibit net leaf retranslocation to bark tissues.(author)

  8. Control of the subthalamic innervation of substantia nigra pars reticulata by D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Hernández, Adán; Florán, Benjamin; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Valdiosera, Rene; Erlij, David; Aceves, Jorge; Bargas, José

    2006-03-01

    The effects of activating dopaminergic D1 and D2 class receptors of the subthalamic projections that innervate the pars reticulata of the subtantia nigra (SNr) were explored in slices of the rat brain using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that could be blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalene-2,3-dione and D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid were evoked onto reticulata GABAergic projection neurons by local field stimulation inside the subthalamic nucleus in the presence of bicuculline. Bath application of (RS)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SKF-38393), a dopaminergic D1-class receptor agonist, increased evoked EPSCs by approximately 30% whereas the D2-class receptor agonist, trans-(-)-4aR-4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo(3,4-g)quinoline (quinpirole), reduced EPSCs by approximately 25%. These apparently opposing actions were blocked by the specific D1- and D2-class receptor antagonists: R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepinehydrochloride (SCH 23390) and S-(-)-5-amino-sulfonyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl]-2-methoxybenzamide (sulpiride), respectively. Both effects were accompanied by changes in the paired-pulse ratio, indicative of a presynaptic site of action. The presynaptic location of dopamine receptors at the subthalamonigral projections was confirmed by mean-variance analysis. The effects of both SKF-38393 and quinpirole could be observed on terminals contacting the same postsynaptic neuron. Sulpiride and SCH 23390 enhanced and reduced the evoked EPSC, respectively, suggesting a constitutive receptor activation probably arising from endogenous dopamine. These data suggest that dopamine presynaptically modulates the subthalamic projection that targets GABAergic neurons of the SNr. Implications of this modulation for basal ganglia function are discussed.

  9. Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations of Brassica nigra Introgression Lines from Somatic Hybridization: A Resource for Cauliflower Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Xiang; Lv, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Han, Shuo; Zong, Mei; Guo, Ning; Zeng, Xing-Ying; Zhang, Yue-Yun; Wang, You-Ping; Liu, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower "Korso" (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome) and black mustard "G1/1" (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome). However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs) were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits) and physiological (black rot/club root resistance) characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from "Korso." Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms) analysis identified the presence of "G1/1" DNA segments (average 7.5%). Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1%) was higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%), and the presence of fragments specific to Brassica carinata (BBCC 2n = 34) were common (average 15.5%). Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4%) was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%). Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.

  10. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of Brassica nigra introgression lines from somatic hybridization: a resource for cauliflower improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixiang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower ‘Korso’ (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome and black mustard ‘G1/1’ (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome. However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits and physiological (black rot/club root resistance characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from ‘Korso’. Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms analysis identified the presence of ‘G1/1’ DNA segments (average 7.5%. Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1% was significantly higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%, and the presence of fragments specific to B. carinata (BBCC 2n = 34 were common (average 15.5%. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4% was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%. Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.

  11. Metabolism regulates the spontaneous firing of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons via KATP and nonselective cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutas, Andrew; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Yellen, Gary

    2014-12-03

    Neurons use glucose to fuel glycolysis and provide substrates for mitochondrial respiration, but neurons can also use alternative fuels that bypass glycolysis and feed directly into mitochondria. To determine whether neuronal pacemaking depends on active glucose metabolism, we switched the metabolic fuel from glucose to alternative fuels, lactate or β-hydroxybutyrate, while monitoring the spontaneous firing of GABAergic neurons in mouse substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) brain slices. We found that alternative fuels, in the absence of glucose, sustained SNr spontaneous firing at basal rates, but glycolysis may still be supported by glycogen in the absence of glucose. To prevent any glycogen-fueled glycolysis, we directly inhibited glycolysis using either 2-deoxyglucose or iodoacetic acid. Inhibiting glycolysis in the presence of alternative fuels lowered SNr firing to a slower sustained firing rate. Surprisingly, we found that the decrease in SNr firing was not mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel activity, but if we lowered the perfusion flow rate or omitted the alternative fuel, KATP channels were activated and could silence SNr firing. The KATP-independent slowing of SNr firing that occurred with glycolytic inhibition in the presence of alternative fuels was consistent with a decrease in a nonselective cationic conductance. Although mitochondrial metabolism alone can prevent severe energy deprivation and KATP channel activation in SNr neurons, active glucose metabolism appears important for keeping open a class of ion channels that is crucial for the high spontaneous firing rate of SNr neurons. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416336-12$15.00/0.

  12. State-dependent spike and local field synchronization between motor cortex and substantia nigra in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnik, Elena; Cruz, Ana V; Avila, Irene; Wahba, Marian I; Novikov, Nikolay; Ilieva, Neda M; McCoy, Alex J; Gerber, Colin; Walters, Judith R

    2012-06-06

    Excessive beta frequency oscillatory and synchronized activity has been reported in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian patients and animal models of the disease. To gain insight into processes underlying this activity, this study explores relationships between oscillatory activity in motor cortex and basal ganglia output in behaving rats after dopamine cell lesion. During inattentive rest, 7 d after lesion, increases in motor cortex-substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) coherence emerged in the 8-25 Hz range, with significant increases in local field potential (LFP) power in SNpr but not motor cortex. In contrast, during treadmill walking, marked increases in both motor cortex and SNpr LFP power, as well as coherence, emerged in the 25-40 Hz band with a peak frequency at 30-35 Hz. Spike-triggered waveform averages showed that 77% of SNpr neurons, 77% of putative cortical interneurons, and 44% of putative pyramidal neurons were significantly phase-locked to the increased cortical LFP activity in the 25-40 Hz range. Although the mean lag between cortical and SNpr LFPs fluctuated around zero, SNpr neurons phase-locked to cortical LFP oscillations fired, on average, 17 ms after synchronized spiking in motor cortex. High coherence between LFP oscillations in cortex and SNpr supports the view that cortical activity facilitates entrainment and synchronization of activity in basal ganglia after loss of dopamine. However, the dramatic increases in cortical power and relative timing of phase-locked spiking in these areas suggest that additional processes help shape the frequency-specific tuning of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network during ongoing motor activity.

  13. Análisis financiero de una plantación de Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham. de pequeña escala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel López López

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Existen cientos de pequeñas plantaciones de Pinus patula en los estados mexicanos de Veracruz, Puebla, Tlaxcala e Hidalgo, entre otros; sin embargo, a la fecha se desconoce su factibilidad financiera. Mediante los conceptos de Valor Presente Neto (VPN, Relación Beneficio/Costo (B/C y Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR, se evaluó esta condición de una plantación de P. patula de 3 000 m2 con 17 años de edad, cuya producción se canalizaría a la elaboración de pulpa para papel y de madera aserrada. Tanto los costos como los beneficios y los datos dasométricos se registraron a lo largo del periodo de vida del proyecto, excepto para los primeros cinco y los últimos tres años. Los costos de los cinco años iniciales se derivaron de entrevistas con el dueño de la plantación. Los costos y beneficios durante los tres últimos años se estimaron a partir de los datos dasométricos de la plantación e información regional de los precios de los productos proyectados. Los valores de VPN, relación B/C y TIR fueron MX$ 37 959.00, 2.32 % y 26.61 %, respectivamente. Los beneficios y costos que más impactaron el balance financiero del proyecto fueron aquellos que ocurrieron al inicio del mismo. Consecuentemente, se recomienda la implementación de estrategias para disminuir costos e incrementar beneficios durante la etapa inicial. Los sistemas agroforestales, entre otros, pueden proveer esquemas adecuados para tal fin.

  14. Ensayo no destructivo de soldaduras en pernos conectores mediante inspección acústica

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar, A.; Cervera, J.; Ortiz, J.; Hernando, J. I.

    2012-01-01

    Los pernos conectores aportan múltiples ventajas de uso, entre las que se encuentra el elevado margen de seguridad que ofrecen sus soldaduras ejecutadas mediante arco eléctrico. Estas soldaduras, aunque ampliamente fiables, son difícilmente comprobadas mediante ensayos no destructivos. Aparte de la inspección visual, que aporta gran información sobre la calidad de ejecución de la soldadura, el resto de ensayos no destructivos (líquidos penetrantes, partículas magnéticas, ultrasonidos, radiogr...

  15. Modulación del crecimiento vertebral mediante electrocoagulación hemicircunferencial vertebral asistida

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero García, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Nuestro trabajo está basado en la posibilidad de controlar el desarrollo asimétrico de los cartílagos de crecimiento vertebral, mediante la realización de una fisiodesis hemivertebral, con electrocoagulación, videoasistida por toracoscópica. Se realizará en cinco niveles torácicos, con un abordaje anterior mínimamente invasivo. Por lo tanto, planteamos como hipótesis de trabajo que La destrucción de las fisis de crecimiento vertebral mediante electrocoagulación, videoasistida por vía toracosc...

  16. Modelado de un amortiguador magneto-reológico mediante EcosimPro

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Cadenas, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es la creación de una librería en la herramienta de modelado y simulación EcosimPro enfocada a amortiguadores magneto‐reológicos. El modelado y simulación mediante cualquier herramienta informática permite la obtención de datos y el desarrollo de componentes con un coste inferior al que habría que invertir mediante una experimentación real. Además, permite llevar el componente hasta el límite sin el riesgo de romperlo o dejarlo inutilizable. Por tanto, se puede de...

  17. Distribuição espacial de compostos orgânicos de estanho em sedimentos costeiros e em Phallusia nigra da Baía de Todos os Santos e litoral norte da Bahia - Brasil Spatial distribution of organic tin compounds in coastal sediment and Phallusia nigra of the Todos os Santos Bay and northern coast of Bahia - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo Lowe Pletsch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic tin compounds were investigated in the sediment of twenty-four stations located in the Todos os Santos Bay and the north coast of Bahia - Brazil. The concentration of these organic tin was also determined in a ascidium species of Phallusia nigra. The speciation and quantification was performed by GC-MS/MS. The highest concentrations were: tributyltin (TBT 438 ng g-1, dibutyltin (DBT 207 ng g-1, monobutyltin (MBT 423 ng g-1, diphenyltin (DPT 25.8 ng g-1 and monophenyltin (MPT 55.0 ng g-1. DBT and MBT were found in Phallusia nigra, with highest concentrations of 294.1 and 148.5 ng g-1, respectively.

  18. Protocol of a prospective study on the diagnostic value of transcranial duplex scanning of the substantia nigra in patients with parkinsonian symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuisman Piet GWM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. As there is no definitive diagnostic test, its diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. Recently transcranial duplex scanning (TCD of the substantia nigra in the brainstem has been proposed as an instrument to diagnose PD. We and others have found that TCD scanning of substantia nigra duplex is a relatively accurate diagnostic instrument in patients with parkinsonian symptoms. However, all studies on TCD so far have involved well-defined, later-stage PD patients, which will obviously lead to an overestimate of the diagnostic accuracy of TCD. We have therefore set out to conduct a prospective study testing the diagnostic accuracy of TCD in patients with a parkinsonism of unclear origin. Methods/Design We will enrol 250 consecutive patients, who are referred to neurology outpatient clinics of two teaching hospitals, for analysis of clinically unclear parkinsonism. Patients, whose parkinsonism is clearly diagnosable at the first visit, will be excluded from the study. All patients will undergo a TCD of the substantia nigra. As a surrogate gold standard we will use the consensus clinical diagnosis reached by two independent, blinded, movement disorder specialist neurologists after 2 years follow-up. At the time of TCD, patients will also undergo a SPECT scan of the brain. Discussion As this prospective trial enrols only patients with an early-stage parkinsonism, it will yield data on the diagnostic accuracy of TCD that is relevant to daily clinical practice: The neurologist needs a diagnostic tool that provides additional information in patients with a clinically indefinable parkinsonian syndrome. The above described observational longitudinal study was designed to explicitly study this aspect in the diagnostic process. Trial registration (ITRSCC NCT00368199

  19. Volume de madeira de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento. Wood volume of Pinus taeda L. at different growing spacings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo LIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus taeda L. é uma das espécies do gênero Pinus mais plantadas na região Sul do Brasil por apresentar excelente crescimento e ótima adaptação às condições climáticas e de solo. Essa espécie é utilizada em larga escala, principalmente para a produção de celulose, construção civil, laminação, produção de móveis, particulados e serraria. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção volumétrica de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento (entre 1 m2 e 16 m2 por planta propiciados por nove diferentes espaçamentos entre árvores de um ensaio em cinco blocos ao acaso. O trabalho baseou-se nas medidas de altura e DAP em 25 árvores internas da parcela, aos sete anos após plantio das mudas oriundas de pomar de sementes clonal. Valores estimados de volume por hectare foram inversamente proporcionais ao aumento do espaço vital, alcançando entre 74,2 e 274,8 m3 /ha. Os incrementos médios em volume atingiram entre 10,60 e 39,25 m3 /ha/ano. Concluiu-se que, se o objetivo é a produção volumétrica mesmo com diâmetros pequenos, deve-se optar por espaços vitais menores. Quando se deseja maiores diâmetros, a opção é por espaços maiores. No presente caso, o melhor compromisso entre produção volumétrica e diâmetros grandes pode estar nos espaços vitais intermediários, entre 5 e 8 m2 para cada árvore. Pinus taeda L. is one of the most Pinus species planted in southern Brazil, because it presents excellent growth and optimum adaptation to climatic and soil condition. The species is used in large scale, mainly for cellulose production, construction, laminating, production of furniture, particulates and sawmill. It was aimed to evaluate the Pinus taeda L. volumetric production at different growth vital spaces (ranging 1 m² and 16 m² per plant provided by nine different spacings between plants, the trial was installed in a randomized blocks with five replications. The study was based on height and DBH measurements

  20. Cytoprotective effects of essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouaziz, Mouhamed; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène

    2017-12-01

    Essential oils from Pinus species have been reported to have various therapeutic properties. This study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition and cytoprotective effects of the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced damage in cells in vitro. The cytoprotection of the oil against toxicity of aspirin on the small intestine epithelial cells IEC-6 was tested. The obtained results have shown that 35 different compounds were identified. Aspirin induced a decrease in cell viability, and exhibited significant damage to their morphology and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. However, the co-treatment of aspirin with the essential oil of Pinus induced a significant increase in cell viability and a decrease in SOD and CAT activities. Overall, these finding suggest that the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. has potent cytoprotective effect against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

  1. Association of Pinus banksiana Lamb. and Populus tremuloides Michx. seedling fine roots with Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette R. Potvin; Dana L. Richter; Martin F. Jurgensen; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina, Hydanaceae), commonly regarded as a wood decay fungus, was consistently isolated from bareroot nursery Pinus banksiana Lamb. seedlings. S. brinkmannii was found in ectomycorrhizae formed by Thelephora terrestris Ehrh., ...

  2. Temperature as an ecological factor in the distribution of two closely related freshwater Triclads: an experimental study. [Polycelis tenuis, polycelis nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascombe, C.; Pattee, E.; Bornard, C.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the ecophysiology of two closely related limnophilic Triclads, Polycelis tenuis and P. nigra, in the Lyons region was investigated. Both species have the same physiological rate in the middle zone of the temperature range, but P. tenuis prevails at both ends of the range. It tolerates higher temperatures and its reproduction rate is greater in the cold. Also, because of the existence of physiological races, it seems adapted to a greater diversity of situations. It appears as a real eurytherm. These different points contribute to the explanation of the habitat of both species in the region.

  3. The allelopathic effect of the black nut leaves (Juglans nigra L. over the species of moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina CORBU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment is a research on the effect of the allelopathic substances in the leaves of the black nut (Juglans nigra L. over the species of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and the moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L.. We have prepared a watery extract of a concentration of 5, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the leaves in different seasons (spring, autumn and winter. The watery extract presents an inhibitory effect over the germination and growth of the plants subdued to experiments, especialy over the leaves collected in spring.

  4. Vitamin B12-impaired metabolism produces apoptosis and Parkinson phenotype in rats expressing the transcobalamin-oleosin chimera in substantia nigra.

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    Carlos Enrique Orozco-Barrios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 is indispensable for proper brain functioning and cytosolic synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine. Whether its deficiency produces effects on viability and apoptosis of neurons remains unknown. There is a particular interest in investigating these effects in Parkinson disease where Levodopa treatment is known to increase the consumption of S-adenosylmethionine. To cause deprivation of vitamin B12, we have recently developed a cell model that produces decreased synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine by anchoring transcobalamin (TCII to the reticulum through its fusion with Oleosin (OLEO. METHODOLOGY: Gene constructs including transcobalamin-oleosin (TCII-OLEO and control constructs, green fluorescent protein-transcobalamin-oleosin (GFP-TCII-OLEO, oleosin-transcobalamin (OLEO-TCII, TCII and OLEO were used for expression in N1E-115 cells (mouse neuroblastoma and in substantia nigra of adult rats, using a targeted transfection with a Neurotensin polyplex system. We studied the viability and the apoptosis in the transfected cells and targeted tissue. The turning behavior was evaluated in the rats transfected with the different plasmids. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The transfection of N1E-115 cells by the TCII-OLEO-expressing plasmid significantly affected cell viability and increased immunoreactivity of cleaved Caspase-3. No change in propidium iodide uptake (used as a necrosis marker was observed. The transfected rats lost neurons immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase. The expression of TCII-OLEO was observed in cells immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase of the substantia nigra, with a superimposed expression of cleaved Caspase-3. These cellular and tissular effects were not observed with the control plasmids. Rats transfected with TCII-OLEO expressing plasmid presented with a significantly higher number of turns, compared with those transfected with the other plasmids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the TCII-OLEO transfection

  5. HIDROFOBICIDAD EN ANDISOLES BAJO ROBLEDAL (Quercus humboldtii Y PLANTACIONES FORESTALES (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica EN LA CUENCA DE LA QUEBRADA PIEDRAS BLANCAS (MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA HYDROPHOBICITY OF ANDISOLS OF OAK GROVES (Quercus humboldtii AND TREE PLANTATIONS (Pinus patula and Cupressus lusitanica IN THE PIEDRAS BLANCAS WATERSHED ( MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

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    Juan Raúl Duque Zapata

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas se evaluó la persistencia de la repelencia al agua en el horizonte A de Andisoles bajo tres coberturas vegetales: Pinus patula, Cupressus lusitanica y Quercus humboldtii y en tres posiciones topográficas diferentes a lo largo de la vertiente de colinas bajas, mediante el método de WDPT, en muestras con la humedad de campo y secas al aire. En todas las coberturas se encontró repelencia al agua en los suelos. Además, cuando las muestras fueron secadas al aire, la persistencia de la repelencia al agua se incrementó. Se encontró diferencia significativa en la distribución de la persistencia de la repelencia al agua entre las coberturas y entre las posiciones en la vertiente de las colinas, sin que se presentara un comportamiento similar para las tres coberturas. Los suelos bajo cobertura de ciprés fueron los que presentaron los mayores valores de WDPT en todas las condiciones de medida, siendo este el primer reporte que se hace en la literatura, con un amplio respaldo muestral, de repelencia al agua en suelos bajo dicha cobertura vegetal. En ninguno de los casos, la humedad de las muestras fue el parámetro que explicara el comportamiento observado en la repelencia al agua de los suelos estudiados.The persistence of water repellency in the A horizon of Andisols was evaluated in the Piedras Blancas watershed under three vegetative covers: Pinus patula, Cupressus lusitanica, and Quercus humboldtii, and in three different topographic conditions across the slope of a low hill, using the WDPT method with samples containing field humidities and airdried samples. In all vegetative covers, water repellency of the soils was documented. Also, when the samples were air-dried, the persistency of the water repellency increased. A significant difference in the distribution of water repellency was documented among the different vegetative covers and topographic conditions, without a consistent pattern for the

  6. First report of shoot blight and dieback caused by Diplodia pinea on Pinus pinaster and P. radiata trees in Tunisia

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    B.T. Linaldeddu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by Diplodia pinea on Pinus pinaster and P. radiata forests are reported for the fi rst time in Tunisia. The affected plants show shoot blight, canker and branch dieback. On decaying and dead branches pycnidia of D. pinea are observed. The fungus was repeatedly isolated from the bark of symptomatic branches. The results of pathogenicity tests confirm the virulence of D. pinea and the susceptibility of both Pinus species to infection.

  7. Usage of the pruned log index for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Aplicação do Índice de Tora Podada para Pinus taeda e Pinus elliottii

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    Denise Jeton Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The assessment of the quality of clearwood produced in pruned plantations of pine is necessary, especially to set price and know the utilization potential. The pruned log index (PLI, index used in Chile and New Zealand to characterize the quality of the logs, is a function of measurable variables of each log as diameter with defects, diameter 1.3 m from the largest end and the ratio between the cylinder volume common to the entire length of the log and the scaling volume through the method Smalian. This study aims at evaluating the ITP usage for slash pine (Pinus elliottii logs at the age 24 years and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda at 19, harvested
    in the regions of Ibaiti, Paraná, and Itapeva, São Paulo. The PLI values did not exceed 2.3, which  indicates that there is little clearwood on the logs. This has been proven through the veneering results, in which the potentially clear volume in relation to the log volume ranged between 52% and 55%, but 10.3% at the maximum, was turned into clearwood veneer. The slicing procedure in the lathe proved to be suitable, since it allowed the diameter of the knotty core to be measured as soon as the knot came out. The PLI showed itself as applicable for the Brazilian conditions.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.62.119

  1. USE OF RESIDUES OF FORESTRY EXPLORATION OF Pinus taeda FOR PARTICLEBOARD MANUFACTURE

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the quality of particleboards manufactured with forest exploitation waste from Pinus taeda. The material in the form of branches, tree tops, stumps and roots, was obtained from a forest plantation located in the Municipality of Mafra -SC. All the material was processed into wood chips for biomass and transported to the place of studies. The Pinus industrial particles were used as control and mixed with the waste in different proportions. The experimental plan consisted of the panels manufacture with 100% of each type of material and mixture of these com proportions of 75/25%, 50/50% and 25/75% with Pinus industrial particles, in addition to the mixture in equal parts, of the three types of materials. Experimental panels were manufactured with nominal density of 0.75 g/cm3, using the urea-formaldehyde resin, in the proportion of 8% of solids -dry weight basis of the particles. The panels were pressed with specific pressure of 4.0 MPa, temperature of 160ºC and pressing time of 8 minutes. The results of the internal bond tests met the requirements of the standard EN 312, is indicative that there has been a proper bonding of these particles originating forest exploitation wastes. General evaluations of the physical and mechanical properties results of the experimental panels indicate the possibility of use of particles obtained from branches, tree tops, stumps and roots, mixed com the industrial Pinus particles, in proportion of, up to, 50%, for particleboard manufacture.

  2. Biological characterization of young and aged embryogenic cultures of Pinus pinaster (Ait.)

    OpenAIRE

    Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Noceda, Carlos; Pelletier, Gervais; Label, Philippe; Rodriguez, Roberto; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2009-01-01

    Pinus pinaster (Ait.) somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been developed during the last decade, and its application in tree improvement programs is underway. Nevertheless, a few more or less important problems still exist, which have an impact on the efficiency of specific SE stages. One phenomenon, which had been observed in embryogenic tissue (embryonal mass, EM) initiated from immature seed, has been the loss of the ability to produce mature somatic embryos after the tissue had been cultured f...

  3. Dehydrins in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and their expression related to drought stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Conde, Tania; Yakovlev, Igor; Majada, J.P. (Juan); Johnsen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) is an important commercial species throughout its Atlantic distribution. With the anticipated increase in desiccation of its habitat as a result of climate change, the selection of genotypes with increased survival and growth capability under these conditions for breeding programs is of great interest for this species. We aimed to study the response to a realistic drought stress under controlled conditions, looked for a method to measure dehydration resistance, ...

  4. Drought Tolerance in Pinus halepensis Seed Sources As Identified by Distinctive Physiological and Molecular Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Taïbi, Khaled; Campo, Antonio D. del; Vilagrosa Carmona, Alberto; Bellés, José M.; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Pla, Davinia; Calvete, Juan J.; López-Nicolás, José M.; Mulet, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Drought is one of the main constraints determining forest species growth, survival and productivity, and therefore one of the main limitations for reforestation or afforestation. The aim of this study is to characterize the drought response at the physiological and molecular level of different Pinus halepensis (common name Aleppo pine) seed sources, previously characterized in field trials as drought-sensitive or drought-tolerant. This approach aims to identify different traits capable of pre...

  5. Drought resistance of Pinus sylvestris seedlings conferred by plastic root architecture rather than ectomycorrhizal colonisation

    OpenAIRE

    Moser , Barbara; Kipfer , Tabea; Richter , Sarah; Egli , Simon; Wohlgemuth , Thomas

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Abstract ContextIncreased summer drought is considered as a threat to the regeneration of Pinus sylvestris in the Central Alps. To a certain degree, seedlings are able to mitigate negative effects of drought by altering root/shoot ratios. But, seedlings may also enhance access to water and nutrients by cooperation with ectomycorrhizal fungi. AimsWe tested the importance of both mechanisms for drought resistance of P. sylvestris seedlings during early establishment and ...

  6. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments 1

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less sh...

  7. Genetic diversity of Pinus halepensis Mill. populations detected by RAPD loci

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez , Aránzazu; Alía , Ricardo; Bueno , María

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Genetic diversity of Pinus halepensis Mill. was analysed in nine populations (six Spanish populations and one each from Tunisia, France and Greece). Twenty four RAPD loci were amplified with 60 megagametophyte DNA samples from each population. Populations' contribution to Nei gene diversity and to allelic richness were calculated. Results showed higher within population genetic variation but also a $G_{{\\rm ST}} = 13.6\\%$ higher than those detected in previous studies ...

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils from roots of Pinus growing in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia FEKIH; Hocine ALLALI; Abdeslem Nacer AREZKI AIT; Salima MERGHACHE; Djamila MAGHNIA; Jean COSTA

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils of three roots of genus Pinus (P. halepensis, P. pinea and P. pinaster) growing in Algeria for the first time. The essential oils used in the present study were isolated by hydrodistillation using a Cleavenger-type apparatus according the European Pharmacopoeia, and identified by GC and GC-MS. 14, 12, 11 constituents were identified, representing an average of 98.8 %, 9...

  9. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Nouara Ait Mimoune; Djouher Ait Mimoune; Aziza Yataghene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay. Results: Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9%) and β-seli...

  10. Application of gamma radiation to the nodes detection in Pinus Radiata (D.Don) wood pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.R.; Dinator, Maria I; Karsulovic C, Jose T.; Leon G, Adolfo

    1996-01-01

    Attenuation of 59.5 KeV photons provided by an Am-241 source, has been used to detect knots in lumber pieces from Pinus Radiata (D.Don). It is shown that the linear attenuation coefficient is a sensitive parameter to detect singularities in the structure of this material. The scanning of the piece provides profiles which define the position and extension of the singularity. (author)

  11. Produção de compensados de Pinus taeda L. E Pinus oocarpa Schiede com diferentes formulações de adesivo uréia formaldeído Plywood manufacturing from Pinus elliottii L. and Pinus oocarpa Schiede with different formulations of the urea-formaldheyde resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis compensados de Pinus taeda e de Pinus oocarpa, com 20 e 24 anos de idade, respectivamente, utilizando três diferentes formulações de adesivo uréia-formaldeído. Foram produzidos 18 painéis, com três repetições por tratamento. As formulações com maior proporção relativa de resina não influenciaram de forma conclusiva as propriedades físico-mecânicas dos painéis.Os painéis de P. oocarpa apresentaram valores médios de resistência da linha de cola, módulos de elasticidade e de ruptura superiores àqueles dos painéis de P. taeda. Os resultados das propriedades físico-mecânicas dos painéis indicaram grande potencial de utilização de lâminas de P. oocarpa para produção de compensados.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of both Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa plywood, 20 and 24-years-old, respectively, using three different formulations of urea formaldheyde resin. A total of 18 boards were produced, using three repetitions per treatment. The formulations containing a high relative proportion of the resin did not show a conclusive influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the boards. The boards made from P. oocarpa showed higher average values of the glue line strength, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in comparison to boards of P. taeda. The results showed that the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of the board, indicate that the veneers of P. oocarpa have a high potentiality for plywood production.

  12. Late Holocene expansion of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jodi R; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    "Aim: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) experienced one of the most extensive and rapid post-glacial plant migrations in western North America. We used plant macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens to reconstruct its spread in the Central Rocky Mountains, identify other vegetation changes coinciding with P. ponderosa expansion at the same sites, and relate P. ponderosa migrational history to both its modern phylogeography and to a parallel expansion by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).

  13. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Ruben Manso

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  14. Site index models for calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos Island, Greece

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    Kyriaki Kitikidou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A site index model for Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos island (North Aegean sea, Greece is presented. The model was fitted and validated from 150 stem analyses, obtained from 75 fixed-area plots from five experimental sites. Four height growth equations of difference form were tested and the BAILEY and CLUTTER (1974 function was considered appropriate due to its good performance with both fitting and validation data. The results show errors lower than 5% and little bias.

  15. Reproductive Success and Inbreeding Differ in Fragmented Populations of Pinus rzedowskii and Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii, Two Endemic Mexican Pines under Threat

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    Paty Castilleja Sánchez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed production, quality, germination and seedling establishment are indicators of reproductive success in conifers. Monitoring of these parameters is essential to determine the viability of populations for the purposes of conservation. We analyze cone and seed traits as indicators of reproductive success in the endangered Rzedowski´s pine (Pinus rzedowskii (Madrigal et Caballero and near-threatened veitchii pine (Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii (Shaw in west-central Michoacán, Mexico. These traits were systematically quantified and their variation assessed using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs. We found that the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine seems to be critical, presenting low seed efficiency (17.10%, germination (5.0% and seedling establishment (27.7%, with high levels of inbreeding (0.79. In contrast, veitchii pine presents moderate seed efficiency (54.9%, high germination (71.5% and seedling establishment (84%–97% and low inbreeding (0.33. Reproductive indicators differed significantly among zones and populations for each species, where fragment sizes mainly affected seed production and efficiency. This result indicates that fragmentation has played a more important role in the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine than in veitchii pine, perhaps by limiting pollen flow among zones and populations and producing higher levels of inbreeding and lower seed efficiency in the former species. We propose a conservation strategy for these important pine species in order to increase their long-term genetic viability.

  16. Crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em solos arenizados degradados no oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de espécies florestais de rápido crescimento em áreas com solos arenizados e degradados pode ser uma alternativa tanto para a prevenção como para a minimização desse problema. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em relação aos solos arenizados e degradados por ação antrópica, no oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Para isso, foram selecionadas árvores dominantes em povoamentos com 29 anos de idade, em áreas com dois níveis de degradação, as quais foram abatidas e seccionadas pelo método de Smalian para a obtenção de discos de madeira para a análise dendrocronológica e determinação da altura dominante por idade, no período de 1982 a 2010. Os crescimentos em altura dominante dessas espécies, quando comparados entre si e por nível de degradação do solo, apresentaram tendências diferentes de desenvolvimento no tempo, indicando a presença de polimorfismo das curvas.

  17. Crescimento em diâmetro do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em áreas arenizadas e degradadas no Oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em áreas arenizadas e degradadas por ação antrópica, na região da fronteira oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Em povoamentos, foram selecionadas árvores médias, que foram abatidas e seccionadas pelo método de Smalian, a fim de obter discos de madeira para a análise dendrocronológica, para a obtenção do diâmetro por idade. O crescimento em diâmetro, quando comparado entre espécies, apresentou tendências diferentes de níveis de desenvolvimento no tempo. O uso de variáveis dummy no modelo de crescimento permitiu definir uma equação única para estimar o diâmetro em função da idade para ambas as espécies, considerando os níveis de degradação do solo médio e baixo, como variáveis necessárias para estimar o crescimento destas espécies nestes tipos de solos arenizados e degradados.

  18. Soil water balance in different densities of Pinus taeda in Southern Brazil

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    Jorge Luiz Moretti Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify and compare water balance components over the course of a year for different Pinus taeda planting densities in an oxisol in southern Brazil. This experiment was conducted on 6-year-old trees in a clay oxisol at the Monte Alegre Farm, a property of the Klabin Company. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates and five treatments with different amounts of soil coverage: T100 (100% coverage - standard planting coverage; (T75, 75; T50, 50; and T25, 25%, and; T0 (without cover - clearcutting. The soil water storage and actual evapotranspiration under non-standard conditions were determined in a weekly estimated soil water balance (SWB with measured components. By the end of the year, the treatments had not reached field capacity or wilting point storage. The average value of total downward drainage was 100.2 mm, and the highest values occurred in the T75 and T100 treatments. The lowest population density (T25 had the highest actual evapotranspiration (ETr, due to the growth of the remaining Pinus taeda trees. The highest evapotranspiration occurred in September, due to the resumption of Pinus taeda growth.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of needle essential oil of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae from Macedonian flora

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    Marija Karapandzova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of needle essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation from wild Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae, growing on three different locations in R. Macedonia were investigated in period 2008/2009. Carried out GC/FID/MS analysis, one hundred and three constituents were identified belonging to the six different classes of components: monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and other non-terpene components, representing 88.61/94.04% of the entire oil. The most abundant constituents were α-pinene (12.89/27.34%, β-pinene (6.16/13.13%, limonene + β-phellandrene (2.09/6.64% and bornyl acetate (2.92/11.67% as well as trans-(E-caryophyllene (4.63/7.13% and germacrene D (8.75/20.14%. Antimicrobial screening of Pinus peuce needle essential oil was made by hole-plate diffusion and broth dilution method against 13 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The most sensitive bacteria against tested Pinus peuce essential oils were Streptococcus pneumonia encompassing Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter spp. and Streptococcus pyogenes. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the oils ranged from 7.5- 62.5 µl/ml.

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of the Anti-stain Efficacy of Crude Wood Vinegar for Pinus densiflora

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    Sabiha Salim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, Pinus densiflora is one of the most important indigenous tree species in terms of making high-value wood products. Therefore, Korean sawmills exercise extreme caution to prevent fungal discoloration such as that caused by sapstains and molds on the timber. In this study, the effectiveness of using natural crude wood vinegar to inhibit sapstains and molds, especially on Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine was examined. Pinus densiflora wood samples were dipped in absolute and diluted wood vinegar at different concentrations (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1; deionized water to wood vinegar dilution ratio for 3 minutes and immediately air-dried. In addition, volatile wood vinegar was also used in this study to imitate the condition of wood vinegar when exposed to open air. The degree of discoloration was examined and evaluated every 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks according to the ASTM D4445-91 Standard Method for laboratory test. Crude wood vinegar inhibited sapstains more efficiently than it inhibited molds. Wood vinegar at a 1:1 concentration was found to be the most optimum treatment for inhibiting sapstains for at least 8 weeks.