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Sample records for pinus densiflora needles

  1. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.

  2. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine.

  3. Inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds from needles of Pinus densiflora on nitric oxide and PGE2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joo Hee; Kim, Jee Hun; Choi, Sun Eun; Park, Kwan Hee; Lee, Min Won

    2010-12-01

    The needles of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini, a representative Pinus species that grows in Korea, have been used in oriental traditional medicine as remedies for rheumatitis, hemorrhage, cancer, etc. Phytochemical examination of the needles of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini led to the isolation of four lignans, one flavan-3-ol, two flavonols and one organic acid. They were identified as icariside E(4) (1), cupressoside A (2), schizandriside (3), (+)-isolariciresinol (4), (+)-catechin (5), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7) and (-)-shikimic acid (8). In order to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds, their inhibitory activities against nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) production in IFN-γ- and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were examined.

  4. A new abietic acid-type diterpene glucoside from the needles of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mee Jung; Jung, Hyun Ah; Kang, Sam Sik; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Choi, Jae Sue

    2009-12-01

    From the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of the needles of Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae), a new diterpenoid glucoside [9alpha,13alpha-epoxy-8beta,14beta-dihydroxy-abietic acid-18-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside] (1), two flavonoid glucosides [kaempferol 3-O-beta-D: -glucoside (2) and 6-C-methyl kaempferol 3-O-beta-D: -glucoside (3)], and two monoterpenoid glucosides [bornyl 6-O-alpha-Larabinofuranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (4) and bornyl 6-O-beta-D: -apiofuranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (5)] were isolated and characterized on the basis of spectral analysis. Of all the compounds, 2 and 3 showed peroxynitrite scavenging activity.

  5. Seasonal changes in needle water content and needle ABA concentration of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, in declining forests on Mt. Gokurakuji, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Atsushi; Hanba, Yuko T; Nakane, Kaneyuki; Sakurai, Naoki; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of air pollution on the decline of Pinus densiflora forests, various research has been conducted around Mt. Gokurakuji (34 degrees 23'N, 132 degrees 19'E, 693 m a.s.l.) north of the Seto Inland Sea, west Japan. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for decreases in photosynthesis (Pn) and stomatal conductance (gl), delta13C of needles and seasonal changes in the water content (WC) and abscisic acid concentration (ABA) of needles were measured in various stands. The delta13C values were less negative in declining stands and younger needles. ABA and WC were not correlated with each other. WC decreased consistently with needle age while the ABA showed a minimum in August and a smaller content in older needles. Monthly precipitation and the daily maximum vapor pressure were not correlated with ABA and WC. In declining stands, WC and ABA tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than in nondeclining stands. These results suggest that the trees in declining stands received less water stress than those in nondeclining stands and the differences in gl and delta13C are not caused by the difference in water stress. The possibilities of the effects of air pollution and the infection of pine-wood nematode on the physiological decline on the pine needles are discussed.

  6. [Individual biomass of natural Pinus densiflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Jin, Y; Jin, C; Liu, J; Jin, Y

    2000-02-01

    The aboveground biomass of individuals with different growth potentials in natural Pinus densiflora forest with different stand densities was measured in Yanbian, Jilin Province. The variation of individual biomass affected by densities was in order of dominant tree branch > needle > bark. The biomass components of P. densifliora with different growth potentials varied markedly with the approaching of density class III, and the change of intermediate trees was similar to the whole stand. The vertical distributions of biomass of different trees were different from each other, but all showed that the biomass of trunks and barks was mainly distributed below 6 m high from ground, that of branches was within 6-10 m high, that of needles was uniform in the upper, middle and lower layers, and that of branches and needles in upper layer was least affected by density.

  7. Phytotoxicities of fluoranthene and phenanthrene deposited on needle surfaces of the evergreen conifer, Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Nakatani, Nobutake; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been widely studied with respect to their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on animals and human cells. Phenanthrene (PHE) and fluoranthene (FLU) effects on the needle photosynthetic traits of 2-year-old Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc.) seedlings were investigated. Three months after fumigation of foliage with solutions containing these PAHs (10 microM each), FLU had negative effects on net photosynthesis at near-saturating irradiance, stomatal conductance, initial chlorophyll fluorescence, and the contents of total chlorophyll, magnesium, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) of current-year needles. PHE had similar negative effects to FLU but in lesser magnitude. The effects of the PAHs were mitigated by the addition of an OH-radical scavenger (mannitol) into the PAH solutions. PAHs deposited on the surface of pine needles may induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the photosynthetic apparatus, a manner closely resembling the action of the herbicide paraquat.

  8. A new C-methylated flavonoid glycoside from Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M J; Choi, J H; Chung, H Y; Jung, J H; Choi, J S

    2001-12-01

    A new C-methyl flavonol glycoside, 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from the needles of Pinus densiflora, together with kaempferol 3-O-beta-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside.

  9. Antioxidant activity and analysis of proanthocyanidins from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Soo; Jeon, Min Hee; Hwang, Hyun Jung; Park, Mi Ra; Lee, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung Gu; Kim, Mihyang

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts prepared with hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE), using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical method. The hot water extract possessed superior antioxidant activity than the other extracts. We also compared the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts through ROS inhibition activity in a cellular system using MC3T3 E-1 cells. The hot water extract exhibited the lowest ROS production. The pattern of HPLC analysis of each extract indicated that the hot water extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin level. The pine needle hot-water extract was then isolated and fractionated with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to determine the major contributor to its antioxidant activity. The No.7 and 12 fractions had high antioxidant activities, that is, the highest contents of proanthocyanidins and catechins, respectively. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity of procyanidins from the hot water extract of pine needles is positively related to not only polymeric proanthocyanidins but also to monomeric catechins. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the pine needle hot water extract was similar to well-known antioxidants, such as vitamin C. This suggests that pine needle proanthocyanidins and catechins might be of interest for use as alternative antioxidants.

  10. Antithrombosis activity of protocatechuic and shikimic acids from functional plant Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeyoung; Lee, Beomgi; Choi, Hakjoon; Kim, Woong; Kim, Ho-Joong; Cheong, Hyeonsook

    2016-07-01

    Pine needle extract (PE) and fermented pine needle extract (FPE) have been reported to show various biological and pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-cholesterol, gastrointestinal motility control, and fibrinolytic effect. The aims of our research were to isolate fibrinolytic compounds from PE and FPE and evaluate their antithrombotic activity in vitro and in vivo. Protocatechuic (1) and shikimic (2) acids were isolated and identified from FPE. 1 and 2 not only have fibrinolysis activity but also inhibit fibrin formation similar to aspirin. Lysis of fibrin clots by 1 and 2 occurred completely at pH 2-4. Results of SDS-PAGE showed that fibrin polypeptide chains (Aα, Bβ, γ) lysed by 1 and 2 were intact. The antithrombotic effects of 1 and 2 were confirmed by models of carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis, collagen and epinephrine-induced pulmonary thromboembolism in mice, and FeCl3-induced carotid arterial thrombus. Moreover, 1 and 2 did not induce hemorrhage in the tail veins of mice, unlike common antithrombotic compounds. We also measured changes in the quantities of 1 and 2 obtained from FPE. As fermentation progressed, we demonstrated that the quantity of 1 steadily increased, while the quantity of 2 did not significantly change. We therefore demonstrated that FPE is an excellent resource for 1 and 2 and can be produced inexpensively in sufficient quantities for industrial-scale extraction.

  11. Phytotoxicities of fluoranthene and phenanthrene deposited on needle surfaces of the evergreen conifer, Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Nakatani, Nobutake [Department of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Sakugawa, Hiroshi [Department of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: hsakuga@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2008-07-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been widely studied with respect to their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on animals and human cells. Phenanthrene (PHE) and fluoranthene (FLU) effects on the needle photosynthetic traits of 2-year-old Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc.) seedlings were investigated. Three months after fumigation of foliage with solutions containing these PAHs (10 {mu}M each), FLU had negative effects on net photosynthesis at near-saturating irradiance, stomatal conductance, initial chlorophyll fluorescence, and the contents of total chlorophyll, magnesium, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) of current-year needles. PHE had similar negative effects to FLU but in lesser magnitude. The effects of the PAHs were mitigated by the addition of an OH-radical scavenger (mannitol) into the PAH solutions. PAHs deposited on the surface of pine needles may induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the photosynthetic apparatus, a manner closely resembling the action of the herbicide paraquat. - Fluoranthene and phenanthrene caused negative effects on the needles of Japanese red pine.

  12. Comparison of methods for proanthocyanidin extraction from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles and biological activities of the extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Young; Jang, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Geun; Yu, Ki Hwan; Jang, Hyeji; Kim, Mihyang; Kim, Sung Gu; Yoo, Byung Hong; Lee, Sang-Hyeon

    2010-02-01

    Flavonoids are known to be effective scavengers of free radicals. In particular, proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that possess cardiovascular protection, antioxidative activities, and immunomodulatory activities. Here, we evaluated proanthocyanidin contents in the total polyphenolic compounds of pine needle extracts prepared by hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE). Analysis of each extract indicated that the ethanol extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. The HWH and hexane extracts also contained relatively high concentrations of proanthocyanidin. On the other hand, proanthocyanidin content analyses out of the total polyphenolic compounds indicated that the HWH extract contained the highest content. These results suggest that HWH extraction is a suitable method to obtain an extract with a high level of pure proanthocyanidins and a relatively high yield. The HWH extract possessed superior activity in diverse antioxidative analyses such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating (FIC), and ferric-ion reducing power (FRAP) assays. In addition, upon assessing the effects of the pine needle extracts on macrophages (Raw 264.7 cell), the HWH extract exhibited the highest activity. In this study, we discerned an efficient extraction method to achieve relatively pure proanthocyanidins from pine needles and evaluated the biological functions of the resulting extract, which could potentially be used for its efficacious components in functional food products.

  13. GC- MS analysis of volatile oil from the pine needles of Pinus densiflora and Pinus sylvestris var.sylvtriforms%赤松与长白赤松松针挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕坤; 张海丰; 徐敏; 朱俊义

    2011-01-01

    Objective;To analyze volatile oil from the pine needles of Pinus densiflora Sieb. Et Zucc. And Pinus syl-vestris L. Var. Sylvtriforms Cheng et C. D. Chu by GC - MS. Methods; The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation from the pine needles of P. Densiflora and P. Sylvestris var. Sylvtriforms, respectively, and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry( GC - MS) technology, injector temperature was 230 ℃. The GC - MS analysis with a HP -5 fused silica capillary column(0. 25 mm ×30 m,0. 25 μm). Flow rate was 1 mL · Min-1. The split ratio was 40: 1. The injection volume was 0. 5 μL. The temperature programming was begun at 50 ℃, then programmed from 50 to 120 ℃ at 5 ℃ · Min-1 ,then programmed from 120 to 180 ℃ at 8 ℃ · Min-1 and finally,programmed from 180 to 200 ℃ at 5 ℃ · Min-1. Mass spectrometer conditions were;ionization mode,El; electron energy 70 eV; interface temperature 280 °C; ion source temperature 230℃. The mass selective detector was operated in the TIC mode,mass scan range,20 -500 amu. Results; From volatile oil of the pine needles of P. Densiflora, 36 compounds were separated,30 of them were identified; These 30 compounds amounted totally to about 98. 37% of the total peak area; The major components in the volatile oil were β - phellandrene (20. 96% ) , α - pinene (16. 081 % ) , camphene ( 11. 529 % ) , and santolina triene ( 16. 471 % ). From volatile oil of the pine needles of P. Sylvestris var. Sylvtriforms, 34 compounds were separated, 31 of them were identified; These 31 compounds amounted totally to about 99. 24% of the total peak area; The major components of the volatile oil were 1 -R-α- pinene (17. 592% ) ,caryophyllene( 15. 398% ) ,β - phellandrene ( 14. 813% ),[ S -(E,E)]- 1 - methyl - 5 - methyl-ene - 8 - ( 1 - methylethyl) -1,6- cyclodecadiene ( 7. 573% ) ,β - pinene ( 5. 929% ) , 1 - methyl - 4 - ( 1 -methylethylidene) - cyclohexene (4. 663% ). Conclusions: Components of volatile oil of the

  14. A hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora x P. sylvestris hybrids inferred from sequence analysis of chloroplast DNA and morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    To confirm a hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora × P. sylvestris in Jilin, China and to study whether shoot apex morphology of 4-year old seedlings can be correlated with the sequence of a chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat marker (cpDNA SSR), needles and seeds from P. densiflora, P. syl...

  15. Two new triterpenoids from the roots of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaka, Junnosuke; Komatsu, Masabumi; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Futamura, Yushi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Chemical investigation of the roots of Pinus densiflora led to the isolation of two new triterpenoids, (24S)-3β-methoxy-24,25-epoxy-lanost-9(11)-ene (1) and 29-acetoxy-3α-methoxyserrat-14-en-21α-ol (2), together with three known serratene-type triterpenoids (3-5) and four known diterpenoids (6-9). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses.

  16. A hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora × P. sylvestris inferred from sequence analysis of chloroplast DNA and morphological characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Hee Joung; Jerry L.Hill; Jung Oh Hyun; Ding Mu; Juchun Luo; Do Hyung Lee; Takayuki Kawahara; Jeung Keun Suh; Mark S.Roh

    2013-01-01

    To confirm a hybrid swarm population ofPinus densiflora × P.sylvestris in Jilin,China,we used needles and seeds from P.densiflora,P.sylvestris,and P.densiflora × P.sylvestris collected from natural stands or experimental stations to study whether shoot apex morphology of 4-year old seedlings can be correlated with the sequence of a chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat marker (cpDNA SSRs).Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to sequence analysis of the pine cpDNA SSR marker Pt15169.Results show that morphological characters from 4-year old seedlings did not correlate with sequence variants of this marker.Marker haplotypes from all P.sylvestris trees had a CTAT element that was absent from all sampled P.densiflora trees.However,both haplotype classes involving this insertion/deletion element were found in a P.densiflora × P.sylvestris population and its seedling progeny.It was concluded that the P.densiflora × P.sylvestris accessions sampled from Jilin,China resulted from bi-directional crosses,as evidenced by both species' cpDNA haplotypes within the hybrid swarm population.

  17. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  18. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, A; Tsuboi, N; Nakatani, N; Nakane, K; Sakurai, N; Nakagawa, N; Sakugawa, H

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20 degrees C. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NOx or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed.

  19. Growth response of Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in combination

    OpenAIRE

    Dalong,M; Luhe,W; Guoting,Y; M Liqiang; Chun,L

    2011-01-01

    Pinus densiflora seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon roseolus and Russula densifolia) in single-, two-, and three-species treatments. After 8 months, the colonization rates of each ectomycorrhizal species, seedling growth and the nutrition were assessed in each treatment. P. densiflora seedlings inoculated with different ECM species composition showed an increase in height and basal diameter and improved seedling root and sho...

  20. Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of pine (Pinus densiflora) pollen extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Mi

    2007-05-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity of pine (Pinus densiflora) pollen in mice. The antinociceptive activity was determined using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-induced licking, and the hot plate test. Antiinflammatory effects were evaluated using carrageenan- and formalin-induced paw edema, and arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice. The ethanol extract of pine pollen (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin pain test in mice, a reduction in mouse writhing induced by acetic acid and an elevation of the pain threshold in the hot plate test in mice. The pine pollen extract also produced a significant inhibition of carrageenan- and formalin-induced paw edema as well as arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice. The inhibitions were similar to those produced by aminopyrine and indomethacin, p.o. The different polyphenols found in pine pollen could account for the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory actions. The results obtained indicate that the extract possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory effects.

  1. Cold hardiness estimation of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis based on changes in ionic leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence and other physiological activities under cold stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Meng; Xuefeng Bai; Hongdan Li; Xiaodong Song; Xueli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis grows fast, and its drought and salinity resistance are better than Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. We compared cold hardiness and mechanisms of cold hardiness between the two species, to provide a theoretical basis for promoting and applying P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis in cold regions. A cold stress experiment was carried out on 3-year-old plantlets of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mon-golica after hardening at five temperature regimes, 5,-10,-20, -40, and -60 ?C, respectively. Some indices of needle samples for both species were measured, such as relative conductivity (REL), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), proline (Pro), soluble sugar (SS), and stomata density. REL and MDA values of both species after hard-ening had the same trend of increasing, but the trend was opposite in Fv/Fm value with increasing cold stress. Com-pared with P. sylvestris var. mongolica, the P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis had smaller increases in REL and MDA, and a smaller decline in Fv/Fm during cold stress. Com-pared to the control, REL growth of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica at -60 ?C were 0.41 and 0.60, and MDA growth was 29.94 mol g-1 FW and 47.80 mol g-1 FW, and Fv/Fm declines were 0.08 and 0.27. Half-lethal temperatures (LT50) calculated by logistic equation for P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica were -58.23 and -50.34 ?C, respectively. These data suggest that cold resistance of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis is stronger than that of P. sylvestris var. mongolica. Cold-resistance mechanisms of the two species differed. In response to cold stress, P. sylvestris var. mongolica had strong osmotic adjustment ability because of higher Pro and SS content, while P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis had strong antioxidant ability due to stronger CAT activity. Stomata density and diameter of P. densiflora var

  2. Spatial and seasonal variability of temperature responses of biochemical photosynthesis parameters and leaf nitrogen content within a Pinus densiflora crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Nakano, Takashi; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2004-07-01

    We measured seasonal variation in area-based nitrogen concentration (N), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) in 1-year-old needles along four first-order branches within a Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. crown, and analyzed their relationships to growth irradiance and temperature. Each leaf light environment was expressed as a ratio of the monthly mean of daily integrated photosynthetically active irradiance (Iint) for the particular needle to Iint above the canopy (Irel). Needle N decreased in the upper crown during the development of new needles, whereas it remained fairly constant in the lower crown, reflecting differences between upper and lower crown needles in their contribution to the nitrogen of new needles. Gradients of N within the crown were correlated with Irel in all seasons (r2 = 0.40-0.78). Seasonal variation in N was weakly correlated with mean daily air minimum temperatures. Both Vcmax and Jmax showed seasonal variation in all first-order branches, and decreased to their lowest values in winter. The gradients of Vcmax and Jmax within the crown were not correlated with Irel in some seasons, but were correlated with changes in N in most months (r2 = 0.33-0.75), except in the winter. Furthermore, the regression slope of the relationship between N and Vcmax and the temperature response of Vcmax and Jmax exhibited seasonal variation.

  3. Growth response of Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dalong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinus densiflora seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon roseolus and Russula densifolia in single-, two-, and three-species treatments. After 8 months, the colonization rates of each ectomycorrhizal species, seedling growth and the nutrition were assessed in each treatment. P. densiflora seedlings inoculated with different ECM species composition showed an increase in height and basal diameter and improved seedling root and shoot nutrition concentrations compared to control treatment. Generally, combined inoculation had a more positive influence on the seedlings than the single inoculation. The three-species inoculation presented the highest growth and basal diameter and concentration of most nutrients except potassium. In conclusion, the results provided strong evidence for benefits of combined inoculation with the indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi on P. densiflora seedlings under controlled conditions.

  4. Seasonal variations of monoterpene emissions from Pinus densiflora in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, Ki-Joon; Son, Youn-Suk; Sunwoo, Young; Han, Jin-Seok

    2008-09-01

    The emission rates and compositions of monoterpene from Pinus densiflora were investigated in the Gumsung (GM) and Worak (WM) mountains. The standard emission rates (ERs: ERs is the monoterpene emission rate at standard temperature, 30 degrees C) from P. densiflora ranged from 0.817 to 1.704 (microgC/gdw-h). The ERs and beta-values of total monoterpene were measured at the two study sites (GM and WM). In the spring and summer, the ERs were the highest, while relatively low values (densiflora were alpha-pinene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, d-limonene and alpha-terpinene. The fractional compositions of individual monoterpene compounds were significantly different between the two test sites in the summer and winter. The ERs of the older group (31-40 years) were higher than those in the younger group (21-30 years). However, the monoterpene compositions were similar between the two age groups.

  5. Growth response of Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalong, M; Luhe, W; Guoting, Y; Liqiang, M; Chun, L

    2011-07-01

    Pinus densiflora seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon roseolus and Russula densifolia) in single-, two-, and three-species treatments. After 8 months, the colonization rates of each ectomycorrhizal species, seedling growth and the nutrition were assessed in each treatment. P. densiflora seedlings inoculated with different ECM species composition showed an increase in height and basal diameter and improved seedling root and shoot nutrition concentrations compared to control treatment. Generally, combined inoculation had a more positive influence on the seedlings than the single inoculation. The three-species inoculation presented the highest growth and basal diameter and concentration of most nutrients except potassium. In conclusion, the results provided strong evidence for benefits of combined inoculation with the indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi on P. densiflora seedlings under controlled conditions.

  6. Successional development from stands of Miscanthus sinensis to stands of Pinus densiflora and elements of microclimates: The seed germination and seedling establishment conditions of P. densiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Y.

    1991-09-01

    The succession mechanism from stands of Miscanthus sinensis to stands of Pinus densiflora was studied in relation to elements of microclimates within those plant communities. Laboratory experiments indicated that the seed germination of P. densiflora occurred at cumulative soil temperature between 75 °C ṡ day and 200 °C ṡ day. It is assumed from field research that establishment of P. densiflora seedlings is impossible if the effective cumulative air temperature at a height of 6 cm is less than 2,000 °C day, and the cumulative solar radiation figure totals less than 633 MJ/m2. The seedlings thrived in a M. sinensis stand growing on gently convex topography, which fulfills the requisites mentioned above. The seedlings in a M. sinensis stand growing on gently concave topography and in a P. densiflora stand died completely by October.

  7. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NO{sub x}-polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, A.; Nakatani, N. [Hiroshima Univ., Center for Forest Decline Studies, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Tsuboi, N.; Nakane, K. [Hiroshima Univ., Dept. of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Hiroshima (Japan); Sakurai, N.; Nakagawa, N.; Sakugawa, H. [Hiroshima Univ., Dept. of Environmental Studies, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20degC. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (Clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO{sub 2} concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NO{sub x} or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed. (Author)

  8. Labdane-type diterpenes active against acne from pine cones (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Md Zakir; Jeon, Young-Min; Moon, Surk-Sik

    2008-03-01

    Bioassay-guided extraction and fractionation of the aqueous methanolic extract of the cones of Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae) afforded one new labdane-type diterpene aldehyde, 15-nor-14-oxolabda-8(17),12 E-diene-18-oic acid, along with eight known diterpenes. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods as well as by comparison with previously reported data. The isolates showed antibacterial (Propionibacterium acnes) and antifungal activities.

  9. Factors affecting the emission of monoterpenes from red pine (Pinus densiflora)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokouchi, Y.; Ambe, Y.

    1984-08-01

    The mechanism of monoterpene emission from Pinus densiflora was studied using an environmentally controlled gas cabinet. It was found that monoterpene emission rate increases exponentially with temperature and is also influenced by light. These observations were explained reasonably by a mechanism whereby monoterpene emission rate depends on the monoterpene amount in the leaf oil and its saturated vapor pressure. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  10. Laboratory Evaluation of the Anti-stain Efficacy of Crude Wood Vinegar for Pinus densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Salim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, Pinus densiflora is one of the most important indigenous tree species in terms of making high-value wood products. Therefore, Korean sawmills exercise extreme caution to prevent fungal discoloration such as that caused by sapstains and molds on the timber. In this study, the effectiveness of using natural crude wood vinegar to inhibit sapstains and molds, especially on Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine was examined. Pinus densiflora wood samples were dipped in absolute and diluted wood vinegar at different concentrations (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1; deionized water to wood vinegar dilution ratio for 3 minutes and immediately air-dried. In addition, volatile wood vinegar was also used in this study to imitate the condition of wood vinegar when exposed to open air. The degree of discoloration was examined and evaluated every 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks according to the ASTM D4445-91 Standard Method for laboratory test. Crude wood vinegar inhibited sapstains more efficiently than it inhibited molds. Wood vinegar at a 1:1 concentration was found to be the most optimum treatment for inhibiting sapstains for at least 8 weeks.

  11. Experimental study of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini on Hyperlipidemia and lipid in Rats

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    Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of Pinus densiflora on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, we divided the rats into groups(Normal group, Control group and Sample group and perfomed the experimental research. Hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats were induced by high fat diets for 8weeks. The sample group was administerd the extract of Pinus densiflora for 14 days and control group was administerd equal dose of oral. And then we measured the amount of serum triglyceride, Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Free Fatty Acid, phospholipid, Insuline, Laptin, Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell, Cardiac Risk Factor(CRF. The results were as followers : 1. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Total cholesterol, Trigylceride, LDL-cholesterol, and Phospholipid levels in serum and CRF significantly. 2. Sample Group showed increasing effects on HDL-cholesterol level in serum significantly. 3. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Insuline in serum significantly. 4. Sample Group showed increasing effects on Laptin in serum significantly. 5. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell significantly. According to the above results, Pinus densiflora showed significant decreasing effects on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, it is considered that it is appropriate to apply for hyperlipidemia, obesity.

  12. Influence of stand density on soil CO2 efflux for a Pinus densiflora forest in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Nam Jin; Son, Yowhan; Lee, Sue Kyoung; Yoon, Tae Kyung; Seo, Kyung Won; Kim, Choonsig; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Bae, Sang Won; Hwang, Jaehong

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the influence of stand density [938 tree ha(-1) for high stand density (HD), 600 tree ha(-1) for medium stand density (MD), and 375 tree ha(-1) for low stand density (LD)] on soil CO(2) efflux (R (S)) in a 70-year-old natural Pinus densiflora S. et Z. forest in central Korea. Concurrent with R (S) measurements, we measured litterfall, total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA), leaf area index (LAI), soil temperature (ST), soil water content (SWC), and soil nitrogen (N) concentration over a 2-year period. The R (S) (t C ha(-1) year(-1)) and leaf litterfall (t C ha(-1) year(-1)) values varied with stand density: 6.21 and 2.03 for HD, 7.45 and 2.37 for MD, and 6.96 and 2.23 for LD, respectively. In addition, R (S) was correlated with ST (R (2) = 0.77-0.80, P densiflora.

  13. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora seedlings that resembles naturally occurring 'shiro'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maeda, Ken; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Murata, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    We established an in vitro ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora. Mycorrhiza formed in a substrate of Modified Norkrans' C medium and granite-based soil had features similar to those observed previously only in naturally occurring mycorrhizal system called 'shiro,' and promoted the growth of plants with smaller root/shoot ratios. The in vitro formation of 'shiro' is essential for the development of T. matsutake system to produce mushrooms and is useful for the propagation and plantation of the mycorrhizal seedlings.

  14. Outcrossing and paternity analysis of Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine) by microsatellite polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, C; Miwa, M; Hogetsu, T

    2001-07-01

    This study employed microsatellite loci to analyse outcrossing rate and pollen dispersal in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) in an isolated stand. The average offspring outcrossing rate for 29 cones was 0.955. Significant differences in outcrossing rates between offspring groups on individual branches that extended in different directions at different heights were not detected. Male parents of 874 offspring collected from the maternal tree were assessed by exclusion using polymorphisms at three microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis indicated that at least 31% of the offspring were fertilized by pollen from trees outside the stand. The average distance of pollen migration within the study stand was 68 m, with a maximum value of 325 m. There was excess mating with nearby P. densiflora trees, of which only a few were predominant pollen donors. In addition, a weakly directional bias in P. densiflora pollination was also detected in the study stand, suggesting that female strobili on a branch of the maternal tree were more easily fertilized by pollen from trees in that direction.

  15. Estimating basic wood density and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kee Pyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC guidelines, uncertainty assessment is an important aspect of a greenhouse gas inventory, and effort should be made to incorporate it into the reporting. The goal of this study was to estimate basic wood density (BWD and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora (Siebold & Zucc. in Korea. In this study, P. densiflora forests throughout the country were divided into two regional variants, which were the Gangwon region variant, distributed on the northeastern part of the country, and the central region variant. A total of 36 representative sampling plots were selected in both regions to collect sampletrees for destructive sampling. The trees were selected considering the distributions of tree age and diameter at breast height. Hypothesis testing was carried out to test the BWD differences between two age groups, i.e. age ≥ 20 and < 20, and differences between the two regions. The test suggested that there was no statistically significant difference between the two age classes. On the other hand, it is suggested a strong evidence of a statistically significant difference between regions. The BWD and its uncertainty were0.418 g/cm3 and 11.9% for the Gangwon region, whereas they were 0.471g/ cm3 and 3.8% for the central region. As a result, the estimated BWD for P.densiflora was more precise than the value provided by the IPCC guidelines.

  16. Catalytic Conversion of Pinus densiflora Over Mesoporous Catalysts Using Pyrolysis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sung Kyun; Lee, In-Gu; Lee, Hyung Won; Chea, Kwang-Seok; Jo, Tae Su; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Ko, Chang Hyun; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of obtaining valuable chemicals from Pinus densiflora, a native Korean tree species occupying 21.4% of the total area under forests in South Korea. Two representative mesoporous catalysts, Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F, as well as hierarchical mesoporous MFI (Meso-MFI) that has both mesopores and micropores, were used as catalysts. Compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis was shown to reduce the fractions of levoglucosan, phenolics, and acids in bio-oil, while increasing the fractions of aromatics, PAHs, and furans. Meso-MFI with strong acid sites showed a high selectivity toward aromatics and PAHs, whereas Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F with weak acid sites exhibited a high selectivity toward furanic compounds. The results of this study indicate that choosing a catalyst with an adequate quantity of acidic sites with the required strength is critical for enhancing the production of desired chemicals from Pinus densiflora.

  17. Antioxidant Activity and Protection from DNA Damage by Water Extract from Pine (Pinus densiflora) Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunyao; Han, Woong; Shen, Ting; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2012-06-01

    Water extract from Pinus densiflora (WPD) was investigated for its antioxidant activity and its ability to provide protection from DNA damage. A series of antioxidant assays, including a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay, a reducing power assay, a metal-chelating assay, a superoxide radical scavenging assay, and a nitrite scavenging ability, as well as a DNA damage protection assay were performed. Total phenolic content was found to be 211.32 mg Tan/g WPD. The extract scavenged 50% DPPH free radical at a concentration of 21.35 μg/mL. At that same concentration, the reducing power ability of WPD was higher than that of α-tocopherol. The extract chelated 68.9% ferrous ion at the concentration of 4 mg/mL. WPD showed better nitrite scavenging effect at the lower pH. Meanwhile, WPD exhibited a strong capability for DNA damage protection at 1 mg/mL concentration. Taken together, these data suggest water extract from Pinus densiflora could be used as a suitable natural antioxidant.

  18. Grafting Techniques of Pinus densiflora var. Zhangwuensis%彰武松嫁接技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晓梅

    2012-01-01

    通过对樟子松实生苗及其与彰武松的嫁接苗生长对照,研究了樟子松嫁接彰武松的可行性,表明樟子松嫁接彰武松成活率平均为77.3%,嫁接苗在嫁接后1a、2a高度生长分别高于樟子松实生苗36.0%和44.0%,在嫁接后9a,高度和地径生长分别高于樟子松82.0%和47.0%,以樟子松为砧木嫁接彰武松可以在北方推广。%Seeded plant of Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica Litv. were compared with the grafted seed- ling with Pinus densiflora var. Zhangwuensis in terms of their growth. The result showed that the grafted seedlings would reach 77.3%, the height growth at 1 a and 2 a is 36.0% and 44.0% over the seedlings of Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica Litv. After 9 years, the height growth and stem growth were 82.0% and 47.0% over, indicating the seedlings with Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica Litv. as the stock is suitable for north China,

  19. Estimating basic wood density and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kee Pyo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC guidelines, uncertainty assessment is an important aspect of a greenhouse gas inventory, and effort should be made to incorporate it into the reporting. The goal of this study was to estimate basic wood density (BWD and its uncertainty for Pinus densiflora (Siebold & Zucc. in Korea. In this study, P. densiflora forests throughout the country were divided into two regional variants, which were the Gangwon region variant, distributed on the northeastern part of the country, and the central region variant. A total of 36 representative sampling plots were selected in both regions to collect sample trees for destructive sampling. The trees were selected considering the distributions of tree age and diameter at breast height. Hypothesis testing was carried out to test the BWD differences between two age groups, i.e. age over 20 and less than 20, and differences between the two regions. The test suggested that there was no statistically significant difference between the two age classes. On the other hand, it is suggested a strong evidence of a statistically significant difference between regions. The BWD and its uncertainty were 0.418 g/cm3 and 11.9% for the Gangwon region, whereas they were 0.471g/cm3 and 3.8% for the central region. As a result, the estimated BWD for P. densiflora was more precise than the value provided by the IPCC guidelines.

  20. Nucleotide Diversities and Genetic Relationship in the Three Japanese Pine Species; Pinus thunbergii, Pinus densiflora, and Pinus luchuensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Shiraishi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The nucleotide diversities and genetic relationship in the three Japanese pine species, P. thunbergii, P. densiflora, and P. luchuensis, were measured using low-copy anchor loci in Pinaceae. The average nucleotide diversity among these three Japanese pines revealed that P. thunbergii was the highest (6.05 × 10−3, followed by P. densiflora (5.27 × 10−3 and P. luchuensis (5.02 × 10−3. In comparison to other conifer species, it was concluded that the pines possessed an intermediate level of nucleotide diversity. The Heat shock protein (HSP gene in P. thunbergii, Phenylalanine tRNA synthetase, RuBP carboxylase, and Disease resistance response protein 206 genes in P. densiflora were significantly deviated from standard neutral models. Some of these genes were related to stress or pathogen/defense response. As the samples used in this study were collected from natural populations that showed specific characteristics of being resistant to pine wilt nematode, it was hypothesized that the initial selection was an important factor in discriminating the deviation from neutrality models. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that the three Japanese pines were split into two lineages corresponding to P. densiflora and P. thunbergii–P. luchuensis. The latter lineage was differentiated further into two clades; P. thunbergii and P. luchuensis. The result concludes that the three Japanese pines are closely related and P. thunbergii is genetically closer to P. luchuensis, than P. densiflora.

  1. In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions.

  2. Effects of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Growth of Seedlings of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Mi-Yeong; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the different effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal (ECMF) species on the growth of seedlings of Pinus densiflora, and the effects of ECMF diversity on plant productivity. A total of five species of ECMF were isolated from root tips of pine seedlings collected from Mt. Songni and used as inocula. Pots containing pine seedlings were inoculated with either a single ECMF species or a mixture of five ECMF species. All of the seedlings formed ECM on their roots except for the control plants. The pine seedlings' growth responses varied by the different ECMF species. Also, pine seedlings inoculated with a mixture of five ECMF species showed the highest growth response. The results of the study suggest that the colonization of diverse species of ECMF will increase plant productivity, and the selection of suitable ECMF species could be an important factor for plant growth.

  3. The mycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma matsutake stimulates Pinus densiflora seedling growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Shindo, Katsumi; Matsushita, Norihisa; Suzuki, Kazuo; Lapeyrie, Frédéric

    2004-12-01

    While it has been suggested that Matsutake mycorrhizae might not be functional and that Matsutake may behave as a saprobic fungus in soil or even have some pathogenic activity on seedlings, we investigated the consequences of Matsutake inoculation on Pinus densiflora growth. Seventy-five days after inoculation, hyphae were anchored on short roots and well-developed Hartig net palmettis were observed. Compared to both control treatments--seedlings treated with distilled water and seedlings treated with autoclaved mycelium--inoculation significantly stimulated seedling total dry weight by 70.9% and 98.0%, respectively. These findings attest that some type of symbiotic relationship must be functional and favour host growth, ruling out claims of pathogenicity under the sterile conditions used here.

  4. Effects of Open-field Warming and Precipitation Manipulation on the Growth of Pinus densiflora Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M. J.; Yoon, S. J.; Han, S. H.; Yun, H. M.; Chang, H.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of open-field artificial warming and precipitation manipulation on Pinus densiflora seedling growth. The temperature in warming plots have been set to be 3°C higher than control plots using infrared lamps since April, 2013. Precipitation manipulation consisted of precipitation decrease plots (-30%) with deployment of rain-capturing transparent panels, precipitation increase plots (+30%) with pump installation and drip-irrigation, and control plots. Two-year-old P. densiflora seedlings were planted in April, 2013. Seedling height and root collar diameter were measured in April and November, 2013 and April, 2014, and biomass were measured in April, 2013 and April, 2014. During the period of April to November, 2013, increments of seedling height and root collar diameter were not significantly different between control and warming plots. However, in April, 2014 seedling heights, new shoot lengths and weights were higher in warming plots than in control plots, with all precipitation manipulation treatments (pdensiflora. Lower shoot to root ratio in warming plots with precipitation decrease treatment might be resulted from water stress. In previous studies about artificial warming and/or precipitation manipulation, the effects were increase, decrease or no difference in growth. As these results suggest, responses of growth are species-specific and/or are dependent on the stage of growth and the treatment types of climate change experiments. Therefore, to examine the effects of climate changes on plant growth, multi-factor and long-term studies on diverse species are needed.

  5. Carbon and nitrogen storage in an age-sequence of Pinus densiflora stands in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Nam-Jin; Son, Yowhan; Lee, Sue-Kyoung; Seo, Kyung-Won; Heo, Su-Jin; Yi, Myong-Jong; Park, Pil-Sun; Kim, Rae-Hyun; Son, Yeong-Mo; Lee, Kyeong-Hak

    2010-07-01

    The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage capabilities of Pinus densiflora in six different stand ages (10, 27, 30, 32, 44, and 71 years old) were investigated in Korea. Thirty sample trees were destructively harvested and 12 were excavated. Samples from the above and belowground tree components, coarse woody debris (CWD), forest floor, and mineral soil (0-30 cm) were collected. Tree biomass was highest in the 71-year-old stand (202.8 t ha(-1)) and lowest in the 10-year-old stand (18.4 t ha(-1)). C and N storage in the mineral soil was higher in the 71-year-old stand than in the other stands, mainly due to higher soil C and N concentrations. Consequently, the total ecosystem C and N storage (tree+forest floor+CWD+soil) was positively correlated with stand age: increasing from a minimum in the 10 year old stand (18.8 t C ha(-1) and 1.3 t N ha(-1)) to a maximum in the 71-year-old stand (201.4 t C ha(-1) and 8.5 t N ha(-1)). The total ecosystem C storage showed a similar sigmoidal pattern to that of tree C storage as a function of the age-sequence, while N storage in the CWD, forest floor and mineral soil showed no significant temporal trends. Our results provide important insights that will increase our understanding of C and N storage in P. densiflora stands and our ability to predict changes according to stand age in the region.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen storage in an age-sequence of Pinus densiflora stands in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NOH; Nam-Jin; SON; Yowhan; LEE; Sue-Kyoung; SEO; Kyung-Won; HEO; Su-Jin1,; YI; Myong-Jong; PARK; Pil-Sun; KIM; Rae-Hyun; SON; Yeong-Mo; LEE; Kyeong-Hak

    2010-01-01

    The carbon(C) and nitrogen(N) storage capabilities of Pinus densiflora in six different stand ages(10,27,30,32,44,and 71 years old) were investigated in Korea.Thirty sample trees were destructively harvested and 12 were excavated.Samples from the above and belowground tree components,coarse woody debris(CWD),forest floor,and mineral soil(0-30 cm) were collected.Tree biomass was highest in the 71-year-old stand(202.8 t ha-1) and lowest in the 10-year-old stand(18.4 t ha-1).C and N storage in the mineral soil was higher in the 71-year-old stand than in the other stands,mainly due to higher soil C and N concentrations.Consequently,the total ecosystem C and N storage(tree+forest floor+CWD+soil) was positively correlated with stand age:increasing from a minimum in the 10 year old stand(18.8 t C ha-1 and 1.3 t N ha-1) to a maximum in the 71-year-old stand(201.4 t C ha-1 and 8.5 t N ha-1).The total ecosystem C storage showed a similar sigmoidal pattern to that of tree C storage as a function of the age-sequence,while N storage in the CWD,forest floor and mineral soil showed no significant temporal trends.Our results provide important insights that will increase our understanding of C and N storage in P.densiflora stands and our ability to predict changes according to stand age in the region.

  7. Horizontal and vertical variations in photosynthetic capacity in a Pinus densiflora crown in relation to leaf nitrogen allocation and acclimation to irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Katahata, Shinichiro; Mukai, Yuzuru; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2003-08-01

    We measured horizontal and vertical gradients of light (rPPFD) along four first-order branches of a Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. crown, and compared variations in specific leaf area (SLA), needle nitrogen concentration (N), chlorophyll concentration (Chl) and photosynthetic capacity (i.e., maximum rate of carboxylation (V(cmax))) along the two axes. The horizontal gradient of rPPFD along first-order branches was similar in magnitude to the vertical gradient of rPPFD from the upper to the lower crown. None of the measured parameters (i.e., SLA, N, Chl and Vcmax) were strictly proportional to rPPFD, although they were more or less correlated with light when data obtained for all of the crown were pooled (r(2) = 0.31-0.80). The slope of rPPFD against N on an area basis (Narea) for a branch in the middle of the crown orientated northward was significantly greater than the slope for a similar branch orientated southward. Horizontal variations were unrelated to age effects because measurements were all on 1-year-old needles. We conclude that factors other than light (i.e., orientation) may influence N allocation within branches. There was considerably less variation in the relationship of Vcmax to Narea (r2 = 0.58) than in the relationship of Vcmax to rPPFD (r2 = 0.41). Fractional N distribution among components of the photosynthetic machinery was constant within the crown. Together with the relationships between rPPFD and N on a mass basis (r2 = 0.80) and SLA and Vcmax (r2 = 0.60), these findings suggest that most light acclimation in P. densiflora occurs through changes in needle morphology (e.g., SLA) during development.

  8. Effects of elevated CO(2) and Pb on the microbial community in the rhizosphere of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Hong, Sun Hwa; Cho, Kyungsook; Lee, Insook; Yoo, Gayoung; Kang, Hojeong

    2012-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) may stimulate forest productivity in the future, resulting in increased carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems. However, heavy metal contamination may interfere with this, though the response is not yet known. In this study, we investigated the effect of elevated CO(2) and Pb contamination on microorganisms and decomposition in pine tree forest soil. Three-year old pine trees (Pinus densiflora) were planted in Pb contaminated soils (500 mg/kg-soil) and uncontaminated soils and cultivated for three months in a growth chamber where the CO(2) concentration was controlled at 380 or 760 mg/kg. Structures of the microbial community were comparatively analyzed in bulk and in rhizosphere soil samples using community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) and 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). Additionally, microbial activity in rhizospheric soil, growth and the C/N ratio of the pine trees were measured. Elevated CO(2) significantly increased microbial activities and diversity in Pb contaminated soils due to the increase in carbon sources, and this increase was more distinctive in rhizospheric soil than in bulk soils. In addition, increased plant growth and C/N ratios of pine needles at elevated CO(2) resulted in an increase in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the rhizosphere in Pb contaminated soil. Taken together, these findings indicate that elevated CO(2) levels and heavy metals can affect the soil carbon cycle by changing the microbial community and plant metabolism.

  9. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on the roots of P. densiflora. The results suggest that soil ameliorators can have a positive effect on ECM fungi in terms of growth of host plants and show the potential use of soil ameliorator treatment for revegetation with ECM-colonized pine seedlings in the coal mine spoils.

  10. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.H.; Lee, J.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M.H. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  11. Pollen tube reuses intracellular components of nucellar cells undergoing programmed cell death in Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Rie; Terasaka, Osamu

    2011-04-01

    Through the process known as programmed cell death (PCD), nucelli of Pinus densiflora serve as the transmitting tissue for growth of the pollen tube. We sought to clarify the processes of degradation of nucellar cell components and their transport to the pollen tube during PCD in response to pollen tube penetration of such nucelli. Stimulated by pollination, synthesis of large amounts of starch grains occurred in cells in a wide region of the nucellus, but as the pollen tube penetrated the nucellus, starch grains were degraded in amyloplasts of nucellar cells. In cells undergoing PCD, electron-dense vacuoles with high membrane contrast appeared, assumed a variety of autophagic structures, expanded, and ultimately collapsed and disappeared. Vesicles and electron-dense amorphous materials were released inside the thickened walls of cells undergoing PCD, and those vesicles and materials reaching the pollen tube after passing through the extracellular matrix were taken into the tube by endocytosis. These results show that in PCD of nucellar cells, intracellular materials are degraded in amyloplasts and vacuoles, and some of the degraded material is supplied to the pollen tube by vesicular transport to support tube growth.

  12. Spore Dispersion of Tricholoma matsutake at a Pinus densiflora Stand in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun; Ka, Kang-Hyeon

    2010-09-01

    The spore of Tricholoma matsutake is considered to be the starting point of the mushroom growth cycle, but the mechanism of mycelial development from the spore stage is not yet clarified. In this study, we tried to measure how far the spores of T. matsutake disperse from a fruiting body located at a Pinus densiflora stand in Korea. We established 16 slide glasses coated with glycerin near a fruiting body in four directions separated by four different distance intervals within a mushroom productive stand after removing all other fruiting bodies from three plots. The number of dispersed spores increased with time from the first day (475 spores/cm(2)) to the fourth day (836 spores/cm(2)) after the pileus opened. The number of spores dispersed downward was about 1.5 times greater than that dispersed toward the ridge. The number of dispersed spores decreased exponentially as the distance from each fruiting body increased. More than 95% of the spores dropped within a meter from the fruiting body, with 75% dropping within 0.5 m. Even so, the number of spores dispersed over 5 m from the fruiting body was more than 50 million when considering the total number of spores produced by a fruiting body is about 5 billion.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of nanosilver with antibacterial properties using Pinus densiflora young cone extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Jang, Jum-Suk; Lee, Kui-Jae; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-06-01

    This study describes an eco-friendly, rapid method for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) from an aqueous solution of silver nitrate using Pinus densiflora for. multicaulis Uyeki young cone extract in a single-pot process. Color changes, ultraviolet-visible spectra (444.5 nm), X-ray diffraction peaks (2θ=39.68, 46.92, 68.12, and 79.10), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the presence of Ag NPs and phytochemicals. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were mostly oval in shape, with a few triangular-shaped particles. Average particle size was 30-80 nm. Phytochemicals present in the young pine cone extract were likely responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) ions. The synthesized Ag NPs (40 μg) had a 7 mm larger zone of inhibition against the skin pathogen Brevibacterium linens than commercial Ag NPs, Propionibacterium acnes (14 mm), Bacillus cereus (9 mm) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (10mm).

  14. Effects of pollen supply and quality on seed formation and maturation in Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaizumi, Masakazu G; Takahashi, Makoto

    2012-07-01

    To understand the detailed mechanisms underlying variations in seed productivity per cone, it is important to examine simultaneously the effects of two pollination mode components (pollen supply and quality) on two seed production processes (seed formation and maturation). We conducted artificial pollination experiments with four pollination treatments (selfing, polycross, no-pollination and open-pollination treatments) in each of two vertical crown layers (upper and lower) for 19 Pinus densiflora ramets. We measured formed seeds as a proportion of ovules (P(Form)), and filled seeds as a proportion of formed seeds (P(Fill)) per cone in each treatment and layer, and inferred the relative influences of pollination mode and resource availability on seed productivity. In the no-pollination treatment, no seeds were formed in any cones of all five ramets. The Generalized Linear Model showed that there were no significant differences in P(Form) both between selfing and polycross treatments and upper and lower layers. The mean P(Fill) values in the selfing treatment were significantly lower than those in the polycross treatment in both layers. The mean P(Fill)s of the two layers did not differ significantly in the selfing treatment, but did in the open-pollination and polycross treatments. The results show that pollen supply affects mainly seed formation, whereas pollen quality affects mainly seed maturation. Resource availability also affects mainly seed maturation, if pollen quality is higher than a certain threshold.

  15. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C. H.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M. H.; Kim, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  16. Nuclear DNA fragmentation during cell death of short-lived ray tracheids in the conifer Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaba, Satoshi; Kubo, Takafumi; Funada, Ryo

    2011-05-01

    One key event in the programmed cell death is nuclear DNA fragmentation. We investigated the timing of nuclear DNA fragmentation during the cell death of short-lived ray tracheids in Pinus densiflora using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Fluorescence due to TUNEL was detected only in deformed nuclei that lacked obvious chromatin in ray tracheids that were adjacent to ray tracheids that no longer contained nuclei. Our observations revealed that nuclear DNA fragmentation occurred only at the final stage of cell death in ray tracheids in situ.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities of Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Seedlings in Disturbed Sites and Undisturbed Old Forest Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities between disturbed sites and undisturbed old forest sites. ECM root tips of Pinus densiflora were collected from 4 sites disturbed by human activities and 3 undisturbed old forest sites adjacent to the disturbed sites. Results in this study showed that the number of ECM root tips, species diversity, and number of species were significantly higher in the disturbed sites than in the undisturbed sites, suggesting that the ECM fungal community structure was affected by the degree of disturbance.

  18. Development processes and growth pattern of Pinus densiflora stands in central eastern Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pil Sun; Kim, Kyung Yoon; Han, Ahreum; Jang, Woongsoon; Son, Yowhan; Yi, Myong Jong; Park, Byung Bae; Son, Yeongmo

    2010-07-01

    Stand growth and developmental processes were investigated in Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. stands of different ages in the central eastern region of Korea. Stands were inventoried and five trees per stand were sampled for stem analysis, age estimation, and growth analysis. More than 80% of sampled trees in a stand were established within 3-5 years, and most stands had a single cohort structure. The initial growth of pine seedlings was slow, but the height growth accelerated beyond 2-3 m height, 5-10 years after establishment. Linear growth was maintained until 10-12 m height, at which suppressed trees fell behind and might die out. The young stand was composed of pure pines, while few pine seedlings and saplings were found in the understory of older stands. The peak of diameter growth rate occurred around 5-15 years after tree establishment, implying that competition begins during that period. The pine stand development follows four stages: (1) the young stage when the growth rate increases and peaks; (2) the height competition stage when trees focus on height growth for light while maintaining a narrow DBH and height distribution; (3) the differentiation stage when suppressed trees die out, and the DBH distribution becomes wider; and (4) the mature stage when stands have a multi-canopy structure with a wide DBH and height distribution, while the understory is dominated by other tree species. The changes in growth rates and stand structure through forest development would be implemented to predict alterations of above-ground carbon sequestration rates.

  19. Effects of warming treatment and precipitation manipulation on fine root length of Pinus densiflora seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S. H.; Yoon, S. J.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Li, G.; Park, M.; An, J.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Fine roots are important for water and nutrient uptake and storage of carbon and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. In order to examine effects of climate change on fine root of Pinus densiflora seedlings, an open-field experiment with the warming treatment and precipitation manipulation had been conducted at a nursery in Seoul, South Korea. Two-year-old P. seedlings were planted in April, 2013. The air temperature of the warmed plots (W) was set to increase by 3°C compared to the temperature control plots (C) using infrared lamps. The precipitation manipulation consisted of the precipitation decreased using transparent panel (-30%; P-), the precipitation increased using pump and drip-irrigation (+30%; P+), and the precipitation control (0%; P0). The fine root length of the seedlings near the soil surface (0-15 cm depth) was estimated from January, 2014 to January, 2015 trimonthly using minirhizotrons. The mean fine root length (mm mm-2) were 115.0 (WP0), 163.7 (WP-), 90.5 (WP+), 114.4 (CP0), 130.2 (CP-), and 100.6 (CP+) during the study period, respectively. The mean fine root length was significantly affected by the precipitation manipulation (P0.1). There was no interaction between warming and precipitation effects in fine root length. The fine root length in P- plot was higher than those in P0 plot and P+ plot, regardless of the warming treatment, which indicated that water stress caused by P- might stimulate the fine root growth. Meanwhile, the no consistent patterns of fine root length by warming treatment was found under P+ plot and P0 plot, but a positive effect of warming on fine root length was observed under P+ plot only. Estimations of fine root production and mortality are required to determine the interaction between warming and precipitation effects on fine root dynamics more exactly. This study was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (2014001310008).

  20. Thinning intensity influences on soil microbial and inorganic nitrogen in Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Li, G.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S. H.; Lee, J.; Kim, C.; Lee, S. T.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    With growing considerations for sustainable forest management, examining thinning effects on forest ecosystems becomes one of the principal research focuses. Soil microbial biomass and inorganic nitrogen (N) have, particularly, received increasing attentions, as they are the relevant indices for N availability in forests. Here, we investigated the influences of thinning on soil microbial biomass N (MBN) and inorganic N (NH4+ and NO3-) in two Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea. The thinning from below with different intensities based on stand density (site 1: control, 20%, and 30% thinning; site 2: control, 39%, and 74% thinning) was applied in 2008, and MBN, NH4+, and NO3- at 0-10 cm depth were measured seven years after thinning. The MBN, NH4+, and NO3- concentrations (mg kg-1) of the site 1 were 69.8, 9.8, and 6.3 in the control, 94.6, 9.3, and 4.0 in the 20% thinning plot, and 97.2, 8.4, and 5.2 in the 30% thinning plot, respectively. On the other hand, those of the site 2 were 34.5, 5.4, and 6.3 in the control, 37.3, 4.7, and 7.8 in the 39% thinning plot, and 44.4, 4.4, and 9.2 in the 74% thinning plot, respectively. The MBN of the thinning plots tended to be higher compared to those of the controls, although the analysis of variance reported the significant difference only for the MBN in the site 1 (P0.05). The results of the present study show that the application of thinning could differently affect MBN and inorganic N; accordingly, this difference might alter N availability of the study sites. This study was supported by Forest Practice Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute.

  1. Biological pretreatment of softwood Pinus densiflora by three white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Won; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Park, Jun-Yeong; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Don-Ha; Kwon, Mi; Choi, In-Gyu

    2007-12-01

    The effects of biological pretreatment on the Japanese red pine Pinus densiflora, was evaluated after exposure to three white rot fungi Ceriporia lacerata, Stereum hirsutum, and Polyporus brumalis. Change in chemical composition, structural modification, and their susceptibility to enzymatic saccharification in the degraded wood were analyzed. Of the three white rot fungi tested, S. hirsutum selectively degraded the lignin of this sortwood rather than the holocellulose component. After eight weeks of pretreatment with S. hirsutum, total weight loss was 10.7%, while lignin loss was the highest at 14.52% among the tested samples. However, holocellulose loss was lower at 7.81% compared to those of C. lacerata and P. brumalis. Extracelluar enzymes from S. hirsutum showed higher activity of ligninase and lower activity of cellulase than those from other white rot fungi. Thus, total weight loss and changes in chemical composition of the Japanese red pine was well correlated with the enzyme activities related with lignin- and cellulose degradation in these fungi. Based on the data obtained from analysis of physical characterization of degraded wood by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) and pore size distribution, S. hirsutum was considered as an effective potential fungus for biological pretreatment. In particular, the increase of available pore size of over 120 nm in pretreated wood powder with S. hirsutum made enzymes accessible for further enzymatic saccharification. When Japanese red pine chips treated with S. hirsutum were enzymatically saccharified using commercial enzymes (Cellulclast 1.5 L and Novozyme 188), sugar yield was greatly increased (21.01%) compared to non-pretreated control samples, indicating that white rot fungus S. hirsutum provides an effective process in increasing sugar yield from woody biomass.

  2. Spatiotemporal transfer of carbon-14-labelled photosynthate from ectomycorrhizal Pinus densiflora seedlings to extraradical mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bingyun; Nara, Kazuhide; Hogetsu, Taizo

    2002-04-01

    Seedlings of Pinus densiflora colonized by an unidentified ectomycorrhizal fungus (T01) were labelled photosynthetically with 14C. Movement of 14C-labelled photosynthates within the underground part of the seedlings was investigated by temporal autoradiography using an imaging plate. Within 1 day, 14C was transferred from the shoot to the underground part that included roots, mycorrhizae, and the extraradical mycelium; within 3 days, the 14C in the underground part reached its maximum density. Mycorrhizae and actively growing root tips were large C sinks. Three days after 14C labelling, counts of 14C radioactivity in the underground part of the mycorrhizal seedlings were 2.6 times those of nonmycorrhizal seedlings. The mycorrhizae of mycorrhizal plants accumulated 5.2 times the 14C counts in the short-root tips of nonmycorrhizal plants. 14C counts in various areas of the extraradical mycelium demonstrated that all 14C-photosynthate transfer from the host root to the extraradical mycelium occurred within 3 days after 14C labelling, and that there was only a short lag of < 1 day between 14C accumulation in the basal and distal parts of the mycelium. Although more 14C accumulated in the distal than in the basal parts, 14C counts per unit hyphal biomass were similar between the two. These results suggest that 14C spread rapidly throughout the entire mycelium. Thirteen days after 14C labelling, we estimated 14C allocation to extraradical mycelia by taking autoradiographs after removing host roots. About 24% of 14C counts in the underground part of the mycorrhizal seedlings had been allocated to extraradical mycelia in this system, indicating that the fugal mycelium is an important sink for photosynthates.

  3. A national scale estimation of soil carbon stocks of Pinus densiflora forests in Korea: a modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K.; Park, C.; Ryu, S.; Lee, K.; Yi, M.; Kim, C.; Park, G.; Kim, R.; Son, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) stocks of Pinus densiflora forests in Korea were estimated using a generic forest soil C dynamics model based on the process of dead organic matter input and decomposition. Annual input of dead organic matter to the soil was determined by stand biomass and turnover rates of tree components (stem, branch, twig, foliage, coarse root, and fine root). The model was designed to have a simplified structure consisting of three dead organic matter C (DOC) pools (aboveground woody debris (AWD), belowground woody debris (BWD), and litter (LTR) pool) and one soil organic C (SOC) pool. C flows in the model were regulated by six turnover rates of stem, branch, twig, foliage, coarse root, and fine root, and four decay rates of AWD, BWD, LTR, and SOC. To simulate the soil C stocks of P. densiflora forests, statistical data of forest land area (1,339,791 ha) and growing stock (191,896,089 m3) sorted by region (nine provinces and seven metropolitan cities) and stand age class (11 to 20- (II), 21 to 30- (III), 31 to 40- (IV), 41 to 50- (V), and 51 to 60-year-old (VI)) were used. The growing stock of each stand age class was calculated for every region and representable site index was also determined by consulting the yield table. Other model parameters related to the stand biomass, annual input of dead organic matter and decomposition were estimated from previous studies conducted on P. densiflora forests in Korea, which were also applied for model validation. As a result of simulation, total soil C stock of P. densiflora forests were estimated as 53.9 MtC and soil C stocks per unit area ranged from 28.71 to 47.81 tC ha-1 within the soil depth of 30 cm. Also, soil C stocks in the P. densiflora forests of age class II, III, IV, V, and VI were 16,780,818, 21,450,812, 12,677,872, 2,366,939, and 578,623 tC, respectively, and highly related to the distribution of age classes. Soil C stocks per unit area initially decreased with stand age class and started to increase

  4. Plant hormone-assisted early family selection in Pinus densiflora via a retrospective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eung-Jun; Lee, Wi-Young; Kurepin, Leonid V; Zhang, Ruichuan; Janzen, Loeke; Pharis, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    In an even-aged pine forest trees can vary considerably in stem size. We examined the basis for this anomaly using a retrospective approach. Twelve open-pollinated families of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. were deliberately chosen for their variation in stem volumes at age 32 years. Seedlings obtained from these families were grown to age 6 months under optimal nursery conditions. Endogenous levels of growth hormones (auxin [IAA] and gibberellins [GAs]) and expression of the GA biosynthesis gene, PdGA20ox1, all assessed at age 3 months, were significantly correlated, across family, with seedling stem and/or shoot dry biomass at age 6 months. Retrospective comparisons of seedling growth, seedling stem tissue GA(20) and seedling stem expression levels of PdGA20ox1 were then made, across family, with tree stem growth at age 32 years. Age 6 months length and shoot dry biomass at age 6 months showed positive and significant Pearson's correlations with age 32 years tree stem diameters and a tree stem volume index, as did seedling stem tissue GA(20). Even seedling stem PdGA20ox1 expression levels were positively and near significantly (P = 0.088) correlated with age 32 years tree stem diameters. Auxin and GAs control nursery growth of seedlings at the family level, and this control also extends, for GAs at least, to field growth of older trees. We propose that family differences in PdGA20ox1 gene expression, and thus endogenous GA levels, may explain much of the natural variation seen for tree stem size in even-aged pine forests. If our hypothesis is correct, then the heritable components of variation in tree stem growth capacity should be predictable by hormonal and gene expression profiling. Such profiling, combined with the measurement of seedling phenotypic growth characters, could have the potential to accelerate the early selection of those conifer families that possess traits for inherently rapid stem wood growth.

  5. 山西省北部彰武松引种试验初报%Introduction Experiments of Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis in Northern Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁全利

    2012-01-01

    Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis was introduced from Zhangwu county in northern Liaoning to wind sandy area of northern Shanxi. Graft survival rate and growth of Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis were investigated to study its adaptabili- ty. Results showed that its graft survival rate and growth were more than Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus sylvestris and it had excellent stress resistance to show that Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis was suitable in wind sandy area of northern Shanxi.%以辽宁省彰武县的彰武松为接穗,油松和樟子松为砧木,在山西省北部风沙区进行了引种试验。结果表明,彰武松在山西省北部风沙区嫁接成活率平均为77.5%,以樟子松为砧木的嫁接成活率高于以油松为砧木的。嫁接后3年高生长表现优良,以樟子松为砧木的生长量普遍高于以油松为砧木的,抗逆性表现优良。

  6. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND RETRANSLOCATION IN THE Pinus taeda L. NEEDLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating nutrients concentration and retranslocation in the Pinus taeda L. needles, this study was developed in two stands, in native grass area and in second rotation area, with same species and same age (7.5 years old in Cambará do Sul, RS. The needles were collected in plants in four orthogonal points (South, North, East and West, sampled new needles, mature needles and old needles. The material was dried in a stove, milled and chemically analyzed (macro and micronutrients. The concentrations of N, P, K, B, Cu and Zn had decreased, of Ca, Fe and Mn increased, and the Mg and S have remained constant with the age of the needles. The retranslocation rate (old-new needles was more than 50% for most nutrients, except for Mn and Fe, showed that cumulative effect and the Ca reference element.

  7. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Zhang, Shijie; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-12-04

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98%) unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%), Amborella trichopoda (9.83%), and Pinus taeda (4.15%). A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite) software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18%) and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats) primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s) mapping for pine for P. densiflora.

  8. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98% unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%, Amborella trichopoda (9.83%, and Pinus taeda (4.15%. A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18% and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s mapping for pine for P. densiflora.

  9. Cloning of DNA sequences localized on proximal fluorescent chromosome bands by microdissection in Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizume, M; Shibata, F; Maruyama, Y; Kondo, T

    2001-09-01

    Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, has 2n=24 chromosomes, of which most carry chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) bands at their centromere-proximal regions. It was proposed that these regions contain highly repetitive DNA. The DNA localized in the proximal fluorescent bands was isolated and characterized. In P. densiflora, centromeric and neighboring segments of the somatic chromosomes were dissected with a manual micromanipulator. The centromeric DNA was amplified from the DNA contained in dissected centromeric segments by degenerate oligonucleotide primed-polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and a cloned DNA library was constructed. Thirty-one clones carrying highly repetitive DNA were selected by colony hybridization using Cot-1 DNA from this species as a probe, and their chromosomal localization was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Clone PDCD501 was localized to the proximal CMA band of 20 chromosomes. This clone contained tandem repeats, comprising a 27 bp repeat unit, which was sufficient to provide the proximal FISH signal, with a 52.3% GC content. The repetitive sequence was named PCSR (proximal CMA band-specific repeat). Clone PDCD159 was 1700 bp in length, with a 61.7% AT content, and produced FISH signals at the proximal DAPI band of the remaining four chromosomes. Four clones hybridized strongly to the secondary constriction and gave weak signals at the centromeric region of several chromosomes. Clone PDCD537, one of the four clones, was homologous to the 26S rRNA gene. A PCR experiment using microdissected centromeric regions suggested that the centromeric region contains 18S and 26S rDNA. Another 24 clones hybridized to whole chromosome arms, with varying intensities and might represent dispersed repetitive DNA.

  10. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF PINUS DENSIFLORA SIEB.ET ZUCC.IN SHANDONG PROVINCE%山东三个主要赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.)种群遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑萍; 王仁卿; 朱建中; 石竹; 李慧娟

    2000-01-01

    赤松(Pinus densiflora)是山东半岛地带性针叶林的主要建群种,由于虫害严重,导致种群数量下降.对山东3个主要赤松种群的同工酶分析表明,种群内基因多样度(Hs=0.2680)水平较高,而种群间基因多样度(DST=0.0095)水平较低.总群体表现为杂合体过度,纯合体(F=-0.1290)不足.种群间基因分化度(GST=0.0342)较低,这与赤松种群寿命长、分布连续、风媒异交、种群间基因流(Nm=7.06)较强有关.虫害是导致赤松种群急剧减少的主要自然因素,而人为干扰导致生境片断化,也对赤松形成直接威胁,因此保护天然赤松种群及其生境对于赤松的持续发展具有重要意义.

  11. Distribution of elements in needles of Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) was uneven and affected by needle age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang Yuanwen [South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: kuangyw@scbg.ac.cn; Wen Dazhi [South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: dzwen@scbg.ac.cn; Zhou Guoyi [South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: gyzhou@scbg.ac.cn; Liu Shizhong [South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: lsz@scbg.ac.cn

    2007-02-15

    Macronutrients (P, S, K, Na, Mg, Ca), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd,) and Al concentrations as well as values of Ca/Al in the tip, middle and base sections, and sheaths of current year and previous year needles of Pinus massoniana from Xiqiao Mountain were analyzed and the distribution patterns of those elements were compared. The results indicated that many elements were unevenly distributed among the different components of needles. Possible deficiency of P, K, Ca, Mn and Al toxicity occurred in needles under air pollution. Heavy metals may threaten the health of Masson pine. Needle sheaths were good places to look for particulate pollutants, in this case including Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Al. - Pine needle sections as bioindicator for heavy metals and nutrient deficiency particularly needle sheath for particle pollutants.

  12. Distribution of elements in needles of Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) was uneven and affected by needle age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang Yuanwen [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: kuangyw@scbg.ac.cn; Wen Dazhi [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: dzwen@scbg.ac.cn; Zhou Guoyi [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: gyzhou@scbg.ac.cn; Liu Shizhong [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: lsz@scbg.ac.cn

    2007-01-15

    Macronutrients (P, S, K, Na, Mg, Ca), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd) and Al concentrations as well as values of Ca/Al in the tip, middle, base sections and sheaths of current year and previous year needles of Pinus massoniana from Xiqiao Mountain were analyzed and the distribution patterns of those elements were compared. The results indicated that many elements were unevenly distributed among the different components of needles. Possible deficiency of P, K, Ca, Mn and Al toxicity occurred in needles under air pollution. Heavy metals may threaten the health of Masson pine. Needle sheaths were good places to look for particulate pollutants, in this case including Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Al. - Pine needle sections as bioindicator for heavy metals and nutrient deficiency particularly needle sheath for particle pollutants.

  13. The geographical distribution of the potential for seed germination and seedling establishment of Pinus densiflora in Japan as influenced by soil and air temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Y.

    1991-12-01

    The geographical distribution of Pinus densiflora forests in Japan was examined in relation to the seed germination and seedling establishment information obtained from laboratory experiments, field observations and field experiments. The laboratory experiments indicated that seed germination can occur in all areas of Japan because effective cumulative soil temperatures reaches to 75 °C · day everywhere. However, the field observations and field experiments suggested that seedling establishment is impossible in the northern, eastern and central parts of Hokkaido because the effective cumulative air temperature at a height of 6 cm over bare ground is less than 2 000 °C · day. These results agree approximately with the actual geographical distribution of P. densiflora forest, which can not be found under natural circumstances in these areas.

  14. A stilbene synthase from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora): implications for phytoalexin accumulation and down-regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodan, Atsushi; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Fukumi

    2002-03-05

    Stilbene synthase (STS) and chalcone synthase (CHS) are plant-specific polyketide synthases that play key roles in the stilbenoid and flavonoid biosyntheses, respectively. We have recently isolated from Pinus densiflora three STS cDNAs (PDSTS1, PDSTS2, and PDSTS3) and one CHS cDNA (PDCHSX). We then heterologously expressed these cDNAs in Escherichia coli and characterized their properties. An unusual STS isozyme, PDSTS3, lacks the common C-terminal extension of STS because of a frame-shift mutation and shows the highest pinosylvin-forming activity among the STSs tested. Pinosylvin was shown to be a potent inhibitor of PDCHSX (K(i) = 6 microM) as well as PDSTS2 (K(i) = 13 microM), which presumably maintains the balance between the stilbenoid and flavonoid biosyntheses. PDSTS3 was insensitive to product inhibition. We identified PDSTS3 in the pine seedlings as well as full-length STS. The data provide evidence that PDSTS3 is involved in the potential regulation of the stilbenoid and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in pine trees.

  15. 彰武松引种试验初报%Preliminary Report on Introduced Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贯春雨; 王福森; 李树森; 李晶; 王福龙

    2015-01-01

    Experimental points were established in Haiyang Forest Farm of Longjiang County.Pinusdensiflora var. zhangwuensis were grafted by selecting Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica as rootstocks.Silviculture experiments of timber plantation and ecological forest for Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis were conducted.Result shows that:in the relatively poor natural conditions of the western region in Heilongjiang Province,grafted trees can grow nor-mally,and flowering and fruiting;by survey data in september 2014,the tree height,DBH,volume of 11-year-old Pinusdensiflora var.zhangwuensi can reach 4.88 m,8.32 cm and 0.017 5 m3 ,respectively,which is 22.3%,6. 8% and 24.1% respectively higher than that of CK.%通过在龙江县绿色海洋林场设立试验点,选择樟子松作砧木嫁接彰武松,进行彰武松用材兼生态林营林试验研究,结果表明:在黑龙江省西部地区较恶劣的自然条件下,嫁接树木能正常生长,并开花结实;2014年9月调查,树高可达到4.88 m,胸径可达到8.32 cm,材积可达到0.0175 m3,上述指标分别较对照品种高出22.3%、6.8%和24.1%。

  16. Emerging Needle Blight Diseases in Atlantic Pinus Ecosystems of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ortíz de Urbina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Red band needle blight caused by Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini, and brown spot needle blight caused by Lecanosticta acicola provoke severe and premature defoliation in Pinus, and subsequent reduction of photosynthetic surfaces, vitality, and growth in young and adult trees. The recurrent damage results in branch and tree death. Until recently, pine needle blight diseases have had only minor impacts on native and exotic forest trees in the North of Spain, but in the past five years, these pathogen species have spread widely and caused severe defoliation and mortality in exotic and native plantations of Pinus in locations where they were not detected before. In an attempt to understand the main causes of this outbreak and to define the effectiveness of owners’ management strategies, four research actions were implemented: a survey of the management activities implemented by the owners to reduce disease impact, the evaluation of specific symptoms and damage associated with infection, and the identification of the causative pathogenic species and their reproductive capacity. Morphological characteristics of the fungus and molecular identification were consistent with those of Lecanosticta acicola and Dothistroma spp., D. septosporum, D. Pini, and both mating types were present for the three identified pathogens. The local silvicultural management performed, mainly pruning and thinning, was not resulting in the expected improvement. The results of this study can be applied to establish guidelines for monitoring and controlling the spread of needle blight pathogens.

  17. Pinus densiflora leaf essential oil induces apoptosis via ROS generation and activation of caspases in YD-8 human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jeong-Rang; Park, Ju Sung; Park, Yu-Kyoung; Chae, Young Zoo; Lee, Gyu-Hee; Park, Gy-Young; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2012-04-01

    The leaf of Pinus (P.) densiflora, a pine tree widely distributed in Asian countries, has been used as a traditional medicine. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of essential oil, extracted by steam distillation, from the leaf of P. densiflora in YD-8 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Treatment of YD-8 cells with P. densiflora leaf essential oil (PLEO) at 60 µg/ml for 8 h strongly inhibited proliferation and survival and induced apoptosis. Notably, treatment with PLEO led to generation of ROS, activation of caspase-9, PARP cleavage, down-regulation of Bcl-2, and phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and JNK-1/2 in YD-8 cells. Treatment with PLEO, however, did not affect the expression of Bax, XIAP and GRP78. Importantly, pharmaco-logical inhibition studies demonstrated that treatment with vitamin E (an anti-oxidant) or z-VAD-fmk (a pan-caspase inhibitor), but not with PD98059 (an ERK-1/2 inhibitor) or SP600125 (a JNK-1/2 inhibitor), strongly suppressed PLEO-induced apoptosis in YD-8 cells and reduction of their survival. Vitamin E treatment further blocked activation of caspase-9 and Bcl-2 down-regulation induced by PLEO. Thus, these results demonstrate firstly that PLEO has anti-proliferative, anti-survival and pro-apoptotic effects on YD-8 cells and the effects are largely due to the ROS-dependent activation of caspases.

  18. AT-rich sequences containing Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence and their chromosomal distribution in Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Fukashi; Matsusaki, Yukari; Hizume, Masahiro

    2005-05-01

    Japanese red pine Pinus densiflora has 2 n=24 chromosomes and after FISH-detection of Arabidopsis-type (A-type) telomere sequences, many telomere signals were observed on these chromosomes at interstitial and proximal regions in addition to the chromosome ends. These interstitial and proximal signal sites were observed as DAPI-positive bands, suggesting that the interstitial and proximal telomere signal sites are composed of AT-rich highly repetitive sequences. Four DNA clones (PAL810, PAL1114, PAL1539, PAL1742) localized at the interstitial telomere signals were selected from AluI-digested genomic DNA library using colony blot hybridization probed with A-type telomere sequences and characterized using FISH and Southern blot hybridization. The AT-contents of these selected four clones were 60.8-76.3%, and repeat units of the telomere sequence and degenerated telomere sequences were found in their nucleotide sequences. Except for two sites of PAL1114, FISH signals of the four clones co-localized with interstitial and proximal A-type telomere sequence signals. FISH signals a showed similar distribution pattern, but the patterns of signal intensity were different among the four clones. PAL810, PAL1539 and PAL 1742 showed similar FISH signal patterns, and the differences were only with respect to the signal intensity of some signal sites. PAL1114 had unique signals that appeared on chromosomes 7 and 10. Based on results of the Southern blot hybridization these four sequences are not arranged tandemly. Our results suggest that the interstitial A-type telomere sequence signal sites were composed of a mixture of several AT-rich repetitive sequences and that these repetitive sequences contained A-type telomere sequences or degenerated A-type telomere sequence repeats.

  19. 彰武松腋芽诱导研究%Axillary Bud Induction in Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范岳霞; 袁文华; 孔冬梅

    2013-01-01

      为了探讨彰武松组培快繁的可行性,以彰武松封顶芽为外植体进行培养,研究灭菌方法、培养基成分以及植物生长调节物质等对其腋芽诱导的影响。结果表明:外植体用70%的乙醇处理30 s 后用0.1%的 HgCl2灭菌5 min,在添加 BA 2~5 mg/L 和蔗糖30 g/L 的 WPM 培养基上,腋芽诱导率达50%~70%,NAA对腋芽诱导无促进作用。通过在添加和不添加植物生长调节物质(PGR)的WPM培养基中交替继代培养可以实现芽丛伸长与增殖。%In order to explore the feasibility of propagating Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis by tissue culture, the dormant shoot buds of the species were used as explants to investigate the influence of sterilization methods, medium composition and plant growth regulators on axillary bud induction. The results showed that:the most effective sterilization treatment was rinsing the explants in 70% ethanol for 30 s following with 0.1%HgCl2 for 5 min. The optimal medium for axillary bud induction was WPM containing 2-5 mg/L BA and 30 g/L sucrose (shoot induction 50%-70% ). NAA didn’t promote axillary bud induction. The new axillary shoots alternately subcultured in WPM with and without PGR elongated and proliferated well.

  20. Distribution of elements in needles of Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) was uneven and affected by needle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yuan Wen; Wen, Da Zhi; Zhou, Guoyi; Liu, Shi Zhong

    2007-02-01

    Macronutrients (P, S, K, Na, Mg, Ca), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd,) and Al concentrations as well as values of Ca/Al in the tip, middle and base sections, and sheaths of current year and previous year needles of Pinus massoniana from Xiqiao Mountain were analyzed and the distribution patterns of those elements were compared. The results indicated that many elements were unevenly distributed among the different components of needles. Possible deficiency of P, K, Ca, Mn and Al toxicity occurred in needles under air pollution. Heavy metals may threaten the health of Masson pine. Needle sheaths were good places to look for particulate pollutants, in this case including Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Al.

  1. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Galès

    Full Text Available We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  2. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galès, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  3. Leaf-age effects on seasonal variability in photosynthetic parameters and its relationships with leaf mass per area and leaf nitrogen concentration within a Pinus densiflora crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Nakano, Takashi; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2008-04-01

    In the temperate zone of Japan, Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. bears needles of up to three age classes in the upper crown and up to five age classes in the lower crown. To elucidate the effects of leaf age on photosynthetic parameters and its relationships with leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and leaf nitrogen (N(l)) concentration on an area (N(a)) and mass (N(m)) basis, we measured seasonal variations in LMA, N(l), light-saturated photosynthetic rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), maximum rate of carboxylation (V(cmax)) and maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)) in leaves of all age classes in the upper and lower crown. Leaf mass per unit area increased by 27% with increasing leaf age in the lower crown, but LMA did not depend on age in the upper crown. Leaf age had a significant effect on N(m) but not on N(a) in both crown positions, indicating that decreases in N(m) resulted from dilution. Photosynthetic parameters decreased significantly with leaf age in the lower crown (39% for A(max) and 43% for V(cmax)), but the effect of leaf age was not as great in the upper crown, although these parameters exhibited seasonal variation in both crown positions. Regression analysis indicated a close relationship between LMA and N(a), regardless of age class or when each age class was pooled (r(2) = 0.57-0.86). Relationships between LMA and N(a) and among A(max), V(cmax) and J(max) were weak or not significant when all age classes were examined by regression analysis. However, compared with older leaves, relationships among LMA, N(a) and A(max) were stronger in younger leaves. These results indicate that changes in LMA and N(l) mainly reflect light acclimation during leaf development, but they are only slightly affected by irradiance in mature leaves. In conclusion, LMA and N(l) are useful parameters for estimating photosynthetic capacity, but age-related effects need to be taken into account, especially in evergreen conifers.

  4. Paraquat-induced resinosis in Japanese pine. I. The effect of paraquat on Pinus densiflora and P. thunbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, T.; Sogo, M.; Hata, K.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of Japanese pines (P. densiflora and P. thunbergii) with paraquat induced a zone of lightwood. Determinations of turpentine and ether extractives contents in lightwoods showed high levels as compared with those in control woods. (Refs. 5).

  5. Antioxidant principles from the needles of red pine, Pinus densi fl ora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mee Jung; Chung, Hae Young; Choi, Jin Ho; Choi, Jae Sue

    2003-11-01

    Antioxidant activity of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (Pinaceae) was evaluated for potential to inhibit hydroxyl radicals, inhibit total reactive oxygen species generation in kidney homogenates using 2',7'-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate (DCHF-DA) and scavenge authentic peroxynitrites. The methanolic extract of P. densiflora showed strong antioxidant activity in the tested model systems and thus fractionated with several solvents. The antioxidant activity potential of the individual fraction was in the order of ethyl acetate > n-butanol > water > dichloromethane fraction. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibiting strong antioxidant activity was further puri fi ed by repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. An active lignan (+)-isolarisiresinol xylopyranoside, as well as two active flavonoids [kaempferol 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside and its 6"-acetyl derivative], were isolated.

  6. Considerations of correlated fertility between genders on genetic diversity: the Pinus densiflora seed orchard as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K.-S.; El-Kassaby, A.

    2002-12-01

    The correlation between 99 clone female and male fertilities in a first generation seed orchard of Pinus densiflora was studied over 6 years. The effective number of the parent ( N(p)) and the variance effective population number [ N(e)((v))] were used to assess the impact of total (Psi(T)), female (psi(f)) and male (psi(m)) fertility variation. A theoretical framework was developed to account for female and male fertility correlations as well as the impact of possible pollen contamination. Total fertility variation was described by the sibling coefficient (Psi(T): the probability that two genes randomly chosen from the gamete gene pool originate from the same parent), which was further subdivided into psi(f) and psi(m). These parameters were compared under various conditions including the total seed harvest, imposing on equal seed harvest among the orchard's clones and two contamination scenarios ( M = 0 and 20%). Fertility variations among females, males and clones were observed within and among years. Sibling coefficients (Psi(T)) were lower, but the effective number of parent ( N(p)) and variance effective population number ( N(e)((v))) were higher in years with moderate female and good male strobilus production. N(p) for female and male reproductive outputs varied from 49 to 82 and from 57 to 93, respectively. N(p) was higher for males than females. When the crop of the 6 years was pooled, N(p) for female, male and the clone were 73, 87 and 85, respectively. The impact of female-male fertility correlation for conditions with no-, positive- and negative-correlations were assessed and their impact on Psi(T), N(p) and N(e)((v)) was also evaluated. It was demonstrated that the practice of equal seed harvesting from every clone, or the mixing of seeds from several years, would substantially improve the genetic diversity and the genetic representation of the seed orchard population when a positive correlation between gender fertilities was observed. The relevance of

  7. Height-related decreases in mesophyll conductance, leaf photosynthesis and compensating adjustments associated with leaf nitrogen concentrations in Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin

    2011-09-01

    Hydraulic limitations associated with increasing tree height result in reduced foliar stomatal conductance (g(s)) and light-saturated photosynthesis (A(max)). However, it is unclear whether the decline in A(max) is attributable to height-related modifications in foliar nitrogen concentration (N), to mesophyll conductance (g(m)) or to biochemical capacity for photosynthesis (maximum rate of carboxylation, V(cmax)). Simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were made to determine g(m) and V(cmax) in four height classes of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. trees. As the average height of growing trees increased from 3.1 to 13.7 m, g(m) decreased from 0.250 to 0.107 mol m(-2) s(-1), and the CO(2) concentration from the intercellular space (C(i)) to the site of carboxylation (C(c)) decreased by an average of 74 µmol mol(-1). Furthermore, V(cmax) estimated from C(c) increased from 68.4 to 112.0 µmol m(-2) s(-1) with the increase in height, but did not change when it was calculated based on C(i). In contrast, A(max) decreased from 14.17 to 10.73 µmol m(-2) s(-1). Leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA) increased significantly with tree height as well as N on both a dry mass and an area basis. All of these parameters were significantly correlated with tree height. In addition, g(m) was closely correlated with LMA and g(s), indicating that increased diffusive resistance for CO(2) may be the inevitable consequence of morphological adaptation. Foliar N per unit area was positively correlated with V(cmax) based on C(c) but negatively with A(max), suggesting that enhancement of photosynthetic capacity is achieved by allocating more N to foliage in order to minimize the declines in A(max). Increases in the N cost associated with carbon gain because of the limited water available to taller trees lead to a trade-off between water use efficiency and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. In conclusion, the height-related decrease in photosynthetic

  8. 彰武松主要特性的研究%Major Characters of Pinus densiflora Var. zhangwuensis Clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷泽勇; 孟鹏; 周凤艳

    2003-01-01

    对中国新发现的树种-彰武松(Pinus densiflora var zhanguensis)的主要物理特性进行了初步的研究.结果表明:①形态特征,彰武松为高大常绿乔木,两针一束,也有三针一束的,种子黑色,千粒重21.4g.②生态学特性,彰武松是属于春季生长类型的树种,其苗高累计生长呈S型曲线,全年最大生长量出现在5月上中旬;地径开始生长比高生长晚10d左右,全年出现两次生长,其中以春季生长为主;主根的生长和地径的生长交错进行,和苗高生长基本同步.③生理生态特性,彰武松的嫩叶组织含水量介于53.3%~73.3%之间,自由水在37.5%~67.7%,束缚水在5.6%~15.8%之间.其自由水/束缚水为12.09~2.37.彰武松每个季节的蒸腾速率日变化明显地不同,6月份呈现双峰型,8月份的蒸腾速率呈现双峰型,10月份呈现单峰型,彰武松的年蒸腾速率的走势呈现单峰型,全年蒸腾速率的最高值出现在7月份.与樟子松进行比较研究发现,在同样的生态条件下,平均每克彰武松针叶的叶绿素含量是樟子松的1.53倍;同时,彰武松比樟子松有较小的蒸腾强度、较低的失水速度以及更多的干物质储备.

  9. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration alters the effect of phosphate supply on growth of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawara, Satoshi; Norisada, Mariko; Tange, Takeshi; Yagi, Hisayoshi; Kojima, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated that the inorganic phosphate (P(i)) requirement for growth of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc.) seedlings is increased by elevated CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) and that responses of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch to P(i) supply are also altered. To investigate the growth response of non-mycorrhizal seedlings to P(i) supply in elevated [CO(2)], non-mycorrhizal seedlings were grown for 73 days in ambient or elevated [CO(2)] (350 or 700 micromol mol(-1)) with nutrient solutions containing one of seven phosphate concentrations (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.20 mM). In ambient [CO(2)], the growth response to P(i) was saturated at about 0.1 mM P(i), whereas in elevated [CO(2)], the growth response to P(i) supply did not saturate, even at the highest P(i) supply (0.2 mM), indicating that the P(i) requirement is higher in elevated [CO(2)] than in ambient [CO(2)]. The increased requirement was due mainly to an altered shoot growth response to P(i) supply. The enhanced P(i) requirement in elevated [CO(2)] was not associated with a change in photosynthetic response to P(i) or a change in leaf phosphorus (P) status. We investigated the effect of P(i) supply (0.04, 0.08 and 0.20 mM) on the ectomycorrhizal fungus P. tinctorius in mycorrhizal seedlings grown in ambient or elevated [CO(2)]. Root ergosterol concentration (an indicator of fungal biomass) decreased with increasing P(i) supply in ambient [CO(2)], but the decrease was far less in elevated [CO(2)]. In ambient [CO(2)] the ratio of extramatrical mycelium to root biomass decreased with increasing P(i) supply but did not change in elevated [CO(2)]. We conclude that, because elevated [CO(2)] increased the P(i) requirement for shoot growth, the significance of the ectomycorrhizal association was also increased in elevated [CO(2)].

  10. Comparison of chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from three conifer trees; Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2009-04-01

    The chemical compositions, and antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from three coniferous species, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, were investigated. Gas chromatography mass analysis of the essential oils revealed that the major components and the percentage of each essential oil were 16.66% beta-phellandrene and 14.85% alpha-pinene in P. densiflora; 31.45% kaur-16-ene and 11.06% sabinene in C. japonica; and 18.75% bicyclo [2, 2, 1] heptan-2-ol and 17.41% 2-carene in Ch. obtusa. The antimicrobial assay by agar disc diffusion method showed that 2.2 microg of Ch. obtusa oil inhibited most effectively the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 33312 and Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 10031, whereas the C. japonica oil gave weak antimicrobial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for bacterial strains were in the range of 5.45-21.8 mg/ml depending on essential oils, but most Gram-negative bacteria were resistant even at 21.8 mg oil/ml. P. densiflora oil showed the most effective antifungal activity and the MIC values for Cryptococcus neoformans B42419 and Candida glabrata YFCC 062CCM 11658 were as low as 0.545 and 2.18 mg/ml, respectively. Cryp. neoformans B42419 was the most sensitive to all essential oils in the range of 0.545-2.18 mg/ml. Our data clearly showed that the essential oils from the three conifers had effective antimicrobial activity, especially against fungi.

  11. In vitro ectomycorrhizal specificity between the Asian red pine Pinus densiflora and Tricholoma matsutake and allied species from worldwide Pinaceae and Fagaceae forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Murata, Hitoshi; Kalmiş, Erbil; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Fukuda, Masaki

    2010-06-01

    Tricholoma matsutake produces commercially valuable, yet uncultivable, mushrooms (matsutake) in association with pines in the Far East and Scandinavia and with both pines and oaks in the foothills of Tibet. Other matsutake mushrooms, such as Tricholoma anatolicum from the Mediterranean regions and Tricholoma magnivelare and Tricholoma sp. from the North Pacific Coast area of Canada and North America as well as Mexico, respectively, are associated with pines or oaks in their natural habitats. Tricholoma bakamatsutake and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum from Asia produce moderately valuable matsutake mushrooms and are solely associated with Fagaceae in nature. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that matsutake mushrooms from Scandinavia, Mediterranean regions, North America, and Tibet form ectomycorrhizae with Pinus densiflora similar to the Far East T. matsutake. In general, worldwide T. matsutake and the symbionts of Pinaceae colonize the rhizospheres of P. densiflora as well as T. matsutake isolated from the host plant. However, T. fulvocastaneum and T. bakamatsutake formed a discontinuous Hartig net and no Hartig net, respectively, and colonized to a lesser extent as compared to T. matsutake. The data suggest that conifer-associated matsutake mushrooms in their native habitat will associate symbiotically with the Asian red pine.

  12. Enzymatic degradation of finely divided wood meal. II. Rollmilling and the subsequent enzymic degradation of Pinus densiflora wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraki, E.; Yaku, F.; Tanaka, R.; Koshijima, T.

    1982-01-01

    The roll-milling of wood (P. densiflora) gave products with particle size less than 10 mu and high rate of saccharification under enzymic hydrolysis. About 90% of the available polysaccharides in wood could be converted into reducing sugars when roll-milled wood was subjected to enzymic hydrolysis using cellulase.

  13. Quantitative dynamics of Pinus densiflora population in Shandong Province%山东赤松种群的数量动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 赵善伦

    2000-01-01

    通过静态生命表分析赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.)种群的生命结构与数量动态.结果表明,赤松种群具有不同年龄等级结构,死亡高峰出现在5~15年,此时正是幼龄期向成年期的过渡阶段,度过此阶段的赤松个体大多能达到生理寿命.由此看出,赤松种群静态生命表能较精确地反映赤松种群的数量动态规律.

  14. 论保护兴凯赤松资源的必要性及其建议%Necessity And Suggestions Of Protecting Xingkai Pinus Densiflora Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏光

    2011-01-01

    Xingkai-lake pine is a natural hybrid tree species between pinus densiflora and mongolian pine after long-term evolution.It is a kind of national secondary protection plant and it is scarce.So the author suggested that it should be protected with intensify efforts.%兴凯湖松是介于赤松与樟子松之间在兴凯湖地区长期演化的自然杂交树种,属于国家二级保护植物,同时从分布来看又非常稀少,所以笔者建议应该对兴凯赤松加大力度进行保护。

  15. 彰武松采穗圃的营建与管理技术%Building and management techniques of cutting orchard of Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼; 安宇宁; 孟鹏; 尤国春

    2008-01-01

    彰武松(Pinus densiflora var.Zhangwuensis)是在辽宁省彰武县章古台区域内的一片樟子松人工林中发现的;现已推广到黑龙江、内蒙古、山西、陕西等省(自治区),1999年辽宁省固沙造林研究所为了扩大彰武松的繁育数量,建立了一个面积2 hm2的采穗圃.目的是加快彰武松的扩繁地区,让彰武松更快地适宜三北地区,它也是我国唯一的一个彰武松采穗圃.

  16. Needle morphological evidence of the homoploid hybrid origin of Pinus densata based on analysis of artificial hybrids and the putative parents, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangqian; Mao, Jian-Feng; Meng, Jingxiang; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Hao; Xing, Zhen; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Yue

    2014-05-01

    Genetic analyses indicate that Pinus densata is a natural homoploid hybrid originating from Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Needle morphological and anatomical features show relative species stability and can be used to identify coniferous species. Comparative analyses of these needle characteristics and phenotypic differences between the artificial hybrids, P. densata, and parental species can be used to determine the genetic and phenotypic evolutionary consequences of natural hybridization. Twelve artificial hybrid families, the two parental species, and P. densata were seeded in a high-altitude habitat in Linzhi, Tibet. The needles of artificial hybrids and the three pine species were collected, and 24 needle morphological and anatomical traits were analyzed. Based on these results, variations in 10 needle traits among artificial hybrid families and 22 traits among species and artificial hybrids were predicted and found to be under moderate genetic control. Nineteen needle traits in artificial hybrids were similar to those in P. densata and between the two parental species, P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. The ratio of plants with three needle clusters in artificial hybrids was 22.92%, which was very similar to P. densata. The eight needle traits (needle length, the mean number of stomata in sections 2 mm in length of the convex and flat sides of the needle, mean stomatal density, mesophyll/vascular bundle area ratio, mesophyll/resin canal area ratio, mesophyll/(resin canals and vascular bundles) area ratio, vascular bundle/resin canal area ratio) relative to physiological adaptability were similar to the artificial hybrids and P. densata. The similar needle features between the artificial hybrids and P. densata could be used to verify the homoploid hybrid origin of P. densata and helps to better understand of the hybridization roles in adaptation and speciation in plants.

  17. Laboratory and Simulated Field Bioassays to Evaluate Larvicidal Activity of Pinus densiflora Hydrodistillate, Its Constituents and Structurally Related Compounds against Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens in Relation to Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Ahn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens was examined using direct-contact bioassays. The efficacy of active compounds was further evaluated in semi-field bioassays using field-collected larval Cx. p. pallens. Results were compared with those of two synthetic larvicides, temephos and fenthion. In laboratory bioassays, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate was found to have 24 h LC50 values of 20.33, 21.01 and 22.36 mg/L against larval Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. p. pallens respectively. Among the identified compounds, thymol, δ-3-carene and (+-limonene exhibited the highest toxicity against all three mosquito species. These active compounds were found to be nearly equally effective in field trials as well. In vitro bioassays were conducted to examine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory activity of 10 selected compounds. Results showed that there is a noticeable correlation between larvicidal activity and AChE inhibitory activity. In light of global efforts to find alternatives for currently used insecticides against disease vector mosquitoes, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate and its constituents merit further research as potential mosquito larvicides.

  18. Laboratory and Simulated Field Bioassays to Evaluate Larvicidal Activity of Pinus densiflora Hydrodistillate, Its Constituents and Structurally Related Compounds against Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens in Relation to Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Chan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2013-05-30

    The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine) hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens) was examined using direct-contact bioassays. The efficacy of active compounds was further evaluated in semi-field bioassays using field-collected larval Cx. p. pallens. Results were compared with those of two synthetic larvicides, temephos and fenthion. In laboratory bioassays, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate was found to have 24 h LC50 values of 20.33, 21.01 and 22.36 mg/L against larval Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. p. pallens respectively. Among the identified compounds, thymol, δ-3-carene and (+)-limonene exhibited the highest toxicity against all three mosquito species. These active compounds were found to be nearly equally effective in field trials as well. In vitro bioassays were conducted to examine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of 10 selected compounds. Results showed that there is a noticeable correlation between larvicidal activity and AChE inhibitory activity. In light of global efforts to find alternatives for currently used insecticides against disease vector mosquitoes, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate and its constituents merit further research as potential mosquito larvicides.

  19. Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses%盐碱胁迫下沙地彰武松和樟子松苗木生理特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟鹏; 李玉灵; 张柏习

    2013-01-01

    为了在北方沙漠化、盐碱化土地上推广应用沙地彰武松这一新的造林树种,客观评价彰武松的耐盐碱性及其耐盐碱机理,本文以4年生的彰武松和樟子松为试材,采用盆栽试验方法,研究NaCl、Na2CO3和NaHCO33种单盐胁迫及NaOH碱胁迫对苗木生长和叶片生理生化特性的影响.结果表明:盐碱胁迫下,彰武松苗木的受害级别较小,根系忍耐指数较大,叶片的过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性显著提高,最高为对照的22.6倍,丙二醛(MDA)含量没有显著提高,叶绿素(Chl)含量降幅较小,其叶片含水量(LWC)有所提高.樟子松则表现出与彰武松不同的变化规律,各处理MDA含量显著提高,CAT活性没有显著变化,Chl含量显著下降,LWC有所下降.说明彰武松的耐盐碱性高于樟子松.彰武松针叶内较高的Fe含量使其CAT活性和Chl含量较高,而Zn、Cu含量较高与其抗性强有关.%For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses-, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase ( CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde ( MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt

  20. Overexpression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 from Pinus densiflora results in enhanced wood formation with gelatinous fiber development in a transgenic hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eung-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Choi, Young-Im; Lee, Chanhui; Nguyen, Van Phap; Jeon, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Jin-Seong; Funada, Ryo; Pharis, Richard P; Kurepin, Leonid V; Ko, Jae-Heung

    2015-11-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are important regulators of plant shoot biomass growth, and GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox) is one of the major regulatory enzymes in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Previously, we showed that the expression levels of a putative GA20ox1 (i.e., PdGA20ox1) in stem tissue of 3-month-old seedlings of 12 families of Pinus densiflora were positively correlated with stem diameter growth across those same families growing in an even-aged 32-year-old pine forest (Park EJ, Lee WY, Kurepin LV, Zhang R, Janzen L, Pharis RP (2015) Plant hormone-assisted early family selection in Pinus densiflora via a retrospective approach. Tree Physiol 35:86-94). To further investigate the molecular function of this gene in the stem wood growth of forest trees, we produced transgenic poplar lines expressing PdGA20ox1 under the control of the 35S promoter (designated as 35S::PdGA20ox1). By age 3 months, most of the 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplar trees were showing an exceptional enhancement of stem wood growth, i.e., up to fourfold increases in stem dry weight, compared with the nontransformed control poplar plants. Significant increases in endogenous GA1, its immediate precursor (GA20) and its catabolite (GA8) in elongating internode tissue accompanied the increased stem growth in the transgenic lines. Additionally, the development of gelatinous fibers occurred in vertically grown stems of the 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplars. An analysis of the cell wall monosaccharide composition of the 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplars showed significant increases in xylose and glucose contents, indicating a qualitative increase in secondary wall depositions. Microarray analyses led us to find a total of 276 probe sets that were upregulated (using threefold as a threshold) in the stem tissues of 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplars relative to the controls. 'Cell organization or biogenesis'- and 'cell wall'-related genes were overrepresented, including many of genes that are involved in cell wall modification. Several transcriptional

  1. The hydraulic conductivity of the xylem in conifer needles (Picea abies and Pinus mugo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Mayr, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Main resistances of the plant water transport system are situated in leaves. In contrast to angiosperm leaves, knowledge of conifer needle hydraulics and of the partitioning of resistances within needles is poor. A new technique was developed which enabled flow-meter measurements through needles embedded in paraffin and thus quantification of the specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) of the needle xylem. In Picea abies, xylem K(s) of needle and axes as well as in needles of different age were compared. In Pinus mugo, resistance partitioning within needles was estimated by measurements of xylem K(s) and leaf conductance (K(leaf), measured via 'rehydration kinetics'). Mean K(s) in P. abies needles was 3.5×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) with a decrease in older needles, and over all similar to K(s) of corresponding axes xylem. In needles of P. mugo, K(s) was 0.9×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1), and 24% of total needle resistance was situated in the xylem. The results indicate species-specific differences in the hydraulic efficiency of conifer needle xylem. The vascular section of the water transport system is a minor but relevant resistance in needles.

  2. Studies on planting trees in a smoke-polluted area. On the actual state of damage of trees due to air pollution in Iwaki area. [Quercus serrata; Pinus densiflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-01

    Damage to trees in the Iwaki area, ranging from slight growth suppression to changes in leaf color, leaf-fall, and withering, was examined in relation to industrial sulfur oxide emissions. A survey of local conditions, amount of tree growth, index of damage, and the sulfur content of leaves from each of 20 pine trees (Pinus densiflora) 10 to 20 yr old was performed. There was a positive logarithmic relationship between the elongation of new twigs and the distance from the smoke source. Generally, the vigor of trees was higher, the greater the distance from the smoke source, with some exceptions suggesting the effect of topography. Sulfur content showed the same inverse tendency with some exceptions, and it was lower than that determined previously. The sulfur content of leaves of Quercus serrata was one and a half to two times greater than that of P. densiflora.

  3. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  4. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  5. Herbal composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra prevents atherosclerosis by upregulating p27 (Kip1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Han, Joo-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-07-28

    Kiom-18 is a novel composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra, which are traditional medicines in Asia, have been reported to demonstrate preventive effects against atherosclerosis; however, they have not yet been developed into functional atherosclerosis treatments. We therefore studied the anti-atherosclerotic effects and possible molecular mechanisms of Kiom-18 using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess the anti-proliferative effect of Kiom-18 in vitro, we performed thymidine incorporation, cell cycle progression, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays in VSMCs stimulated by platelet derived-growth factor (PDGF)-BB. In addition, we used LDLr knockout mice to identify the effects of Kiom-18 as a preliminary result in an atherosclerosis animal model. Kiom-18 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated-VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis. Additionally, Kiom-18 arrested the cell cycle transition of G0/G1 stimulated by PDGF-BB and its cell cycle-related proteins. Correspondingly, the level of p27(kip1) expression was upregulated in the presence of the Kiom-18 extract. Moreover, in an atherosclerosis animal model of LDLr knockout mice, Kiom-18 extract showed a preventive effect for the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and suppressed body weight, fat weight, food treatment efficiency, neutrophil count, and triglyceride level. These results indicate that Kiom-18 exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting VSMC proliferation via G0/G1 arrest, which upregulates p27(Kip1) expression.

  6. Influence of long-distance seed dispersal on the genetic diversity of seed rain in fragmented Pinus densiflora populations relative to pollen-mediated gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hajime; Watanabe, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) of seeds has a critical impact on species survival in patchy landscapes. However, relative to pollen dispersal, empirical data on how seed LDD affects genetic diversity in fragmented populations have been poorly reported. Thus, we attempted to indirectly evaluate the influence of seed LDD by estimating maternal and paternal inbreeding in the seed rain of fragmented 8 Pinus densiflora populations. In total, the sample size was 458 seeds and 306 adult trees. Inbreeding was estimated by common parentage analysis to evaluate gene flow within populations and by sibship reconstruction analysis to estimate gene flow within and among populations. In the parentage analysis, the observed probability that sampled seeds had the same parents within populations was significantly larger than the expected probability in many populations. This result suggested that gene dispersal was limited to within populations. In the sibship reconstruction, many donors both within and among populations appeared to contribute to sampled seeds. Significant differences in sibling ratios were not detected between paternity and maternity. These results suggested that seed-mediated gene flow and pollen-mediated gene flow from outside population contributed some extent to high genetic diversity of the seed rain (H E > 0.854). We emphasize that pine seeds may have excellent potential for gene exchange within and among populations.

  7. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. Alleviates Lipogenesis and Oxidative Stress during Oleic Acid-Induced Steatosis in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jin Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNFα mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations.

  8. Volatile compounds and antioxidant capacity of the bio-oil obtained by pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (pinus densiflora siebold and zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Kim, Sung Hong; Hwang, Hyewon; Choi, Joon Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-03-02

    In the present study, sawdust bio-oil (SBO) manufactured by fast pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc.) sawdust was analyzed for its volatile chemical compound composition and evaluated for its free radical scavenging potential, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed 29 volatile compounds, comprising 97.6% of the total volatile compounds in SBO. The antioxidant potential of SBO in terms of IC50 values was 48.44 µg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging, 89.52 µg/mL for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, 94.23 µg/mL for 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] radical scavenging, and 136.06 µg/mL for superoxide radical scavenging activity. The total phenol content in SBO was 5.7% gallic acid equivalent. Based on the composition of its volatile compounds, high free radical scavenging potential and antioxidant properties, SBO could be used as a source of antioxidant compounds, flavoring agents and nutraceuticals in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  9. Simultaneous evaluation of paternal and maternal immigrant gene flow and the implications for the overall genetic composition of Pinus densiflora dispersed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaizumi, Masakazu G; Takahashi, Makoto; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ubukata, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    When considering the genetic implications of immigrant gene flow, it is important to evaluate both the proportions of immigrant gametes and their genetic composition. We simultaneously investigated paternal and maternal gene flow in dispersed seeds in a natural population of Pinus densiflora located along a ridge. The paternity and maternity of a total of 454 dispersed seeds (in 2004 and 2005) were accurately and separately assigned to 454 candidate adult trees, by analyzing the nuclear DNA of both diploid biparentally derived embryos and haploid maternally derived megagametophytes of the seeds. The relative genetic diversities and differences between within-population and immigrant groups of both paternally and maternally derived gametes (4 groups) that formed the genotypes of the seeds were evaluated. Using 8 microsatellite markers, we found that 64.0-72.6% of paternally derived gametes, and 17.8-20.2% of maternally derived gametes, were from other populations. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the 4 gamete groups tended to be plotted at different locations on the scattergram, indicating that they each have different genetic compositions. Substantial paternal and maternal immigrant gene flow occurred in this population, and therefore, the overall genetic variation of dispersed seeds is enhanced by both paternally and maternally derived immigrant gametes.

  10. Physiological and morphological properties of the Japanese black and red pine trees (Pinus thundergii Parl. and P. densiflora sieb. et zucc. ) on the resistance to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaki, A.; Hasegawa, M.

    1974-01-01

    The physiological effects of SO/sub 2/ to Japanese black and red pines (Pinus Thunbergii Parl. and P. densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) have been studied. After exposure to 3 ppm of SO/sub 2/ gas, photosynthesis by the 1-0 year old seedlings of black pine was conducted for 3 hours with 200..mu..C /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ under 20,000 lux. Hot water soluble materials from the seedlings were analyzed. The results indicated that photosynthetic ability of seedlings exposed to SO/sub 2/ decreased 19% of that of the control seedlings. The rate of the photosynthesis decreased 22% when the seedlings were cultivated under nutrient defficient condition. The radioactivity of fixed amino acids, organic acids and sugar components in the seedlings exposed to SO/sub 2/ decreased 28%, 58% and 8% respectively, of the control plants. The organic acid components were analyzed by paper chromatography and gas chromatography. The results showed a quantitative decrease of critic and succinic acids and especially remarkable decrease of malic acid. Japanese red pine seedlings which are more sensitive to SO/sub 2/ than black pine seedlings were analyzed under similar conditions. The differences of sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ between these two plants were compared and discussed. Concerning the decrease of photosynthetic ability, changes of morphological structures in chloroplast were observed by an electron microscopy. The deformation of lamellar structures of chloroplast exposed to SO/sub 2/ was found.

  11. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. alleviates lipogenesis and oxidative stress during oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Wi, Hae-Ri; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Park, Kye Won; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2014-07-23

    Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ) can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNFα mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations.

  12. Morphological abnormalities in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) at the territories contaminated as a result of the accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Nanba, Kenji; Yoshida, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Takase, Tsugiko; Sato, Natsumi; Keitoku, Koji

    2016-12-01

    Our research, carried out in 2014-2016 at eight sites in the radioactive contaminated territories of Fukushima Prefecture, showed that the young trees of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) are sensitive to radiation. Irradiation induced cancellation of the apical dominance in this species. The effect is similar to that observed in young trees of Scots pine growing in the Chernobyl zone. At the same time, we did not observed any morphological abnormalities in mature trees of Japanese red pine. The probability of cancelling the apical dominance in Japanese red pine increased to 0.11 and 0.14 in the two less irradiated populations, and to 0.5 and 0.9 at sites were the absorbed dose rates were approximately 14 and 25 μGy h(-1), respectively. Most of the observed abnormalities appeared in the second whorl after the beginning of exposure. No new abnormalities were observed in the fifth whorl. This temporal pattern is similar to those reported for Scots pine in Chernobyl and for Japanese fir in Fukushima. Additional detailed studies are necessary for interpretation of the observed temporal pattern and, in general, for explanation of the mechanism of formation of the morphological abnormalities.

  13. Estimation of carbon storage based on individual tree detection in Pinus densiflora stands using a fusion of aerial photography and LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Ra; Kwak, Doo-Ahn; Lee, Woo-Kyun; oLee, Woo-Kyun; Son, Yowhan; Bae, Sang-Won; Kim, Choonsig; Yoo, Seongjin

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the carbon storage capacity of Pinus densiflora stands using remotely sensed data by combining digital aerial photography with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. A digital canopy model (DCM), generated from the LiDAR data, was combined with aerial photography for segmenting crowns of individual trees. To eliminate errors in over and under-segmentation, the combined image was smoothed using a Gaussian filtering method. The processed image was then segmented into individual trees using a marker-controlled watershed segmentation method. After measuring the crown area from the segmented individual trees, the individual tree diameter at breast height (DBH) was estimated using a regression function developed from the relationship observed between the field-measured DBH and crown area. The above ground biomass of individual trees could be calculated by an image-derived DBH using a regression function developed by the Korea Forest Research Institute. The carbon storage, based on individual trees, was estimated by simple multiplication using the carbon conversion index (0.5), as suggested in guidelines from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The mean carbon storage per individual tree was estimated and then compared with the field-measured value. This study suggested that the biomass and carbon storage in a large forest area can be effectively estimated using aerial photographs and LiDAR data.

  14. An AFLP-based linkage map of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) using haploid DNA samples of megagametophytes from a single maternal tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Yul; Choi, Hyung-Soon; Kang, Bum-Yong

    2005-10-31

    We have constructed an AFLP-based linkage map of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc.) using haploid DNA samples of 96 megagametophytes from a single maternal tree, selection clone Kyungbuk 4. Twenty-eight primer pairs generated a total of 5,780 AFLP fragments. Five hundreds and thirteen fragments were verified as genetic markers with two alleles by their Mendelian segregation. At the linkage criteria LOD 4.0 and maximum recombination fraction 0.25(theta), a total of 152 markers constituted 25 framework maps for 19 major linkage groups. The maps spanned a total length of 2,341 cM with an average framework marker spacing of 18.4 cM. The estimated genome size was 2,662 cM. With an assumption of equal marker density, 82.2% of the estimated genome would be within 10 cM of one of the 230 linked markers, and 68.1% would be within 10 cM of one of the 152 framework markers. We evaluated map completeness in terms of LOD value, marker density, genome length, and map coverage. The resulting map will provide crucial information for future genomic studies of the Japanese red pine, in particular for QTL mapping of economically important breeding target traits.

  15. Tricholoma matsutake in a natural Pinus densiflora forest: correspondence between above- and below-ground genets, association with multiple host trees and alteration of existing ectomycorrhizal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Chunlan; Narimatsu, Maki; Nara, Kazuhide; Hogetsu, Taizo

    2006-01-01

    Tricholoma matsutake (matsutake) is an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus that produces economically important mushrooms in Japan. Here, we use microsatellite markers to identify genets of matsutake sporocarps and below-ground ECM tips, as well as associated host genotypes of Pinus densiflora. We also studied ECM fungal community structure inside, beneath and outside the matsutake fairy rings, using morphological and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) polymorphism analysis. Based on sporocarp samples, one to four genets were found within each fairy ring, and no genetic differentiation among six sites was detected. Matsutake ECM tips were only found beneath fairy rings and corresponded with the genotypes of the above-ground sporocarps. We detected nine below-ground matsutake genets, all of which colonized multiple pine trees (three to seven trees per genet). The ECM fungal community beneath fairy rings was species-poor and significantly differed from those inside and outside the fairy rings. We conclude that matsutake genets occasionally establish from basidiospores and expand on the root systems of multiple host trees. Although matsutake mycelia suppress other ECM fungi during expansion, most of them may recover after the passage of the fairy rings.

  16. Newly Discovered Transmission Pathway of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from Males of the Beetle Monochamus alternatus to Pinus densiflora Trees via Oviposition Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Yoh; Togashi, Katsumi

    2002-12-01

    The transmission of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from Monochamus alternatus males to Pinus densiflora trees via oviposition wounds has been determined. Nematode-infested males, with mandibles fixed experimentally to prevent feeding, were placed for 48 hours with pine bolts containing oviposition wounds that had been made by nematode-free females. After removal of the nematode-infested males, the pine bolts were held for 1 month and then examined for the presence of nematodes. Reproducing nematode populations were recovered from pine bolts that were exposed to male beetles carrying a high number of nematodes. No reproducing nematode population could be recovered from pine bolts exposed to beetles with a small number of nematodes. Nematode reproduction in the pine bolts was not related to the number of oviposition wounds per bolt. Fourth-stage dispersal B. xylophilus juveniles, collected from beetle body surfaces, were inoculated on pine bolt bark 0, 5, 10, and 15 cm away from a single artificial, small hole. These dauer juveniles successfully entered some bolts. The probability of successful nematode reproduction decreased with increased distance between inoculation point and artificial hole. The results indicated that B. xylophilus can move a significant distance to oviposition wounds along the bark surface and enter a tree via the wounds. The new transmission pathway is considered important for the nematode to persist in pine forests such as in North America where pine wilt disease does not occur.

  17. Estimation of carbon storage based on individual tree detection in Pinus densiflora stands using a fusion of aerial photography and LiDAR data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM; So-Ra; KWAK; Doo-Ahn; LEE; Woo-Kyun; SON; Yowhan; BAE; Sang-Won; KIM; Choonsig; YOO; Seongjin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the carbon storage capacity of Pinus densiflora stands using remotely sensed data by combining digital aerial photography with light detection and ranging(LiDAR) data.A digital canopy model(DCM),generated from the LiDAR data,was combined with aerial photography for segmenting crowns of individual trees.To eliminate errors in over and under-segmentation,the combined image was smoothed using a Gaussian filtering method.The processed image was then segmented into individual trees using a marker-controlled watershed segmentation method.After measuring the crown area from the segmented individual trees,the individual tree diameter at breast height(DBH) was estimated using a regression function developed from the relationship observed between the field-measured DBH and crown area.The above ground biomass of individual trees could be calculated by an image-derived DBH using a regression function developed by the Korea Forest Research Institute.The carbon storage,based on individual trees,was estimated by simple multiplication using the carbon conversion index(0.5),as suggested in guidelines from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.The mean carbon storage per individual tree was estimated and then compared with the field-measured value.This study suggested that the biomass and carbon storage in a large forest area can be effectively estimated using aerial photographs and LiDAR data.

  18. Bactericidal Mechanism of Bio-oil Obtained from Fast Pyrolysis of Pinus densiflora Against Two Foodborne Pathogens, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Hwang, Hyewon; Choi, Joon Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne bacteria are the leading cause of food spoilage and other related diseases. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of bio-oil (BO) manufactured by fast pyrolysis of pinewood sawdust (Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc.) against two disease-causing foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes) was evaluated. BO at a concentration of 1000 μg/disc was highly active against both B. cereus (10.0-10.6 mm-inhibition zone) and L. monocytogenes (10.6-12.0-mm inhibition zone). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration values of BO were 500 and 1000 μg/mL, respectively, for both pathogens. At the MIC concentration, BO exhibited an inhibitory effect on the viability of the bacterial pathogens. The mechanism of action of BO revealed its strong impairing effect on the membrane integrity of bacterial cells, which was confirmed by a marked release of 260-nm absorbing material, leakage of electrolytes and K(+) ions, and reduced capacity for osmoregulation under high salt concentration. Scanning electron microscopy clearly showed morphological alteration of the cell membrane due to the effect of BO. Overall, the results of this study suggest that BO exerts effective antibacterial potential against foodborne pathogens and can therefore potentially be used in food processing and preservation.

  19. Consecutive five-year analysis of paternal and maternal gene flow and contributions of gametic heterogeneities to overall genetic composition of dispersed seeds of Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaizumi, Masakazu G; Takahashi, Makoto; Isoda, Keiya; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-09-01

    Genetic variability in monoecious woody plant populations results from the assemblage of individuals issued from asymmetrical male and female reproductive functions, produced during spatially and temporarily heterogeneous reproductive and dispersal events. Here we investigated the dispersal patterns and levels of genetic diversity and differentiation of both paternal and maternal gametes in a natural population of Pinus densiflora at the multiple-year scale as long as five consecutive years. • We analyzed the paternity and maternity for 1576 seeds and 454 candidate adult trees using nuclear DNA polymorphisms of diploid biparental embryos and haploid maternal megagametophytes at eight microsatellite loci. • Despite the low levels of genetic differentiation among gamete groups, a two-way AMOVA analysis showed that the parental origin (paternal vs. maternal gametes), the year of gamete production and their interaction had significant effects on the genetic composition of the seeds. While maternal gamete groups showed a significant FST value across the 5 years, this was not true for their paternal counterparts. Within the population, we found that the relative reproductive contributions of the paternal vs. the maternal parent differed among adult trees, the maternal contributions showing a larger year-to-year fluctuation. • The overall genetic variability of dispersed seeds appeared to result from two sources of heterogeneity: the difference between paternal and maternal patterns of reproduction and gamete dispersal and year-to-year heterogeneity of reproduction of adult trees, especially in their maternal reproduction.

  20. Volatile Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of the Bio-Oil Obtained by Pyrolysis of Japanese Red Pine (Pinus Densiflora Siebold and Zucc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar Patra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, sawdust bio-oil (SBO manufactured by fast pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc. sawdust was analyzed for its volatile chemical compound composition and evaluated for its free radical scavenging potential, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed 29 volatile compounds, comprising 97.6% of the total volatile compounds in SBO. The antioxidant potential of SBO in terms of IC50 values was 48.44 µg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging, 89.52 µg/mL for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, 94.23 µg/mL for 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] radical scavenging, and 136.06 µg/mL for superoxide radical scavenging activity. The total phenol content in SBO was 5.7% gallic acid equivalent. Based on the composition of its volatile compounds, high free radical scavenging potential and antioxidant properties, SBO could be used as a source of antioxidant compounds, flavoring agents and nutraceuticals in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  1. Variation in CO2 assimilation rate induced by simulated dew waters with different sources of hydroxyl radical (*OH) on the needle surfaces of Japanese red pine (Pinus densifora Sieb. et Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Natanani, N; Hirakawa, T; Suzuki, M; Miyake, T; Chiwa, M; Yuhara, T; Hashimoto, N; Inoue, K; Yamamura, K; Agus, N; Sinogaya, J R; Nakane, K; Kume, A; Arakaki, T; Sakugawa, H

    2002-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical (*OH) is generated in polluted dew on the needle surfaces of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.). This free radical, which is a potent oxidant, is assumed to be a cause of ecophysiological disorders of declining trees on the urban-facing side of Mt. Gokurakuji, western Japan. Mists of *OH-generating N(III) (HNO2 and NO2-) and HOOH + Fe + oxalate solutions (50 and 100 microM, pH 5.1-5.4) simulating the dew water were applied to the foliage of pine seedlings grown in open-top chambers in the early morning. Needles treated with 100 microM N(III) tended to have a greater maximum CO2 assimilation rate (Amax), a greater stomatal conductance (g(s)) and a greater needle nitrogen content (Nneedle), suggesting that N(III) mist acts as a fertilizer rather than as a phytotoxin. On the other hand, needles treated with 100 microM HOOH + Fe + oxalate solution showed the smallest Amax, g(s), and Nneedle, suggesting that the combination of HOOH + Fe + oxalate caused a decrease in needle productivity. The effects of HOOH + Fe + oxalate mist on pine needles were very similar to the symptoms of declining trees at Mt. Gokurakuji.

  2. Effects of open-field experimental warming on the growth of two-year-old Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S.; Son, Y.; Lee, S.; Jo, W.; Yoon, T.; Park, C.; Ko, S.; Kim, J.; Han, S.; Jung, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Temperature increase due to climate change is expected to affect tree growth and distribution [Way and Oren, 2010]. The responses of trees to warming vary with tree species, ontogenic stages, tree life forms, and biomes. Especially, seedling stage is a vulnerable period for tree survival and competition [Saxe et al., 2007] and thus research on effects of temperature increase on seedling stage is needed. We aimed to examine the responses of coniferous seedlings to future temperature increase by conducting an open-field warming experiment. An experimental warming set-up using infra-red heater was built in 2011 and the temperature in warming plots has been regulated to 3°C higher than that of control plots constantly. The seeds of Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla were planted in each 1 m × 1 m plot (n=3) in April, 2012. Seedling growth, root collar diameter (RCD) and height of 45 individuals of each plot were measured in June and July, 2012. The survival rate of seedlings was also measured. Survival rate of P. densiflora was lower in warming plots (93.3%) than in control plots (100.0%, pdensiflora seedlings were not significantly different between control and warming plots, however, height of A. holophylla was significantly higher in warming plots in June and July (p<0.01). Comparatively, RCD of A. holophylla was only higher in control plots in June. While there is still a lack of case studies on the growth of seedlings under experimental warming, a few studies reported increased seedling growth [Yin et al., 2008] or and no difference [Han et al., 2009] in warming plots. Different responses of seedling growth between two species of the current study might be derived from species-specific acclimation to temperature increase and/or other limiting factors [Way and Oren, 2010]. This result is, to our knowledge, unprecedented and will contribute to the knowledge of species-specific growth response of tree species and to development of model predicting species

  3. Two new sesquiterpene glycosides isolated from the fresh needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yun-Chuan; Ye, Liang; Zhao, Man-Xi; Yan, Cui-Qi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Quan-Shu; Liang, Kai; Meng, Bao-Hua; Ke, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Two new sesquiterpene glycosides, namely massonside A (1) and massonside B (2), were isolated from the n-Bu extract of the fresh needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb. Their structures were established by 1D, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Their biological activities were profiled by the anti-HBV and anti-HCV assays.

  4. Multi-Season Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Analysis of Pinus taeda Needle Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) is one of the worlds most important timber crop and accounts for a significant portion of the southeastern U.S. landcover. Biogenic voltile organic compound (BVOC) content was extracted from the tissue material of P. taeda needles and analyzed over a m...

  5. 抗松材线虫病赤松组培苗的抗病性测定1)%Resistance Determination of Wilt-resistant Pinus densiflora Tissue Culture Seedling to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the resistance of wilt-resistant Pinus densiflora to Bursaphelenchus xylophi-lus from Japan.Six months old tissue culture seedlings of Pinus densiflora were inoculated with middle virulence aseptic pine wood nematode under aseptic conditions.There are obvious differences of resistance in Pinus densiflora families.No.1 and 10 families have better resistant effects, followed by No.2, 13, 19, 22 and 23 families.The resistance difference of clones mainly originates from the families.Meanwhile, the relationship between pine wood nematode breeding rates and disease incidence was discussed.There is a low correlation between the disease incidence of wilt-resistant Pinus densiflora and pine wood nematode propagation coefficient.In addition, the susceptible tissue culture seedlings were isolated.The pine wood nematode remains aseptic.%  为了评价从日本引进的抗性赤松对松材线虫的抗病性,在无菌条件下,用中强毒力无菌松材线虫对6个月生的无菌赤松组培苗进行接种。结果表明:抗性赤松不同家系间抗病性差异明显,1号和10号家系抗病性表现较好,2、13、19、22和23号家系抗病性表现次之,3、14和16号家系未表现出抗病性;抗性赤松不同无性系间的抗病性存在极显著差异,无性系间的抗病性差异主要来源于家系间的抗病性差异。发病率与松材线虫繁殖倍数相关性极低。从发病组培苗上分离的松材线虫仍然无菌。

  6. In vitro plantlet regeneration from seedling explants of Pinus densiflora%赤松离体培养植株再生体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽华; 吴小芹; 戴培培; 张红岩

    2010-01-01

    以无菌条件下萌发21~28 d的赤松(Pinus densiflora)幼苗子叶-胚轴材料为起始外植体建立了植株再生体系.结果表明:在添加4 mg/L 6-BA和0.05 mg/L NAA的GD培养基上培养5周可诱导丛生芽形成,无6-BA但添加0.1 mg/L NAA的DCR培养基促进了芽的进一步生长,DCR培养基中添加0.5~1.0 g/L活性炭促进了芽的伸长,在添加2 mg/L 6-BA和0.1~0.2 mg/L NAA的GD培养基上丛生芽大量增殖.伸长的丛生芽接种在附加0.2 mg/L NAA的1/2 GD培养基中培养4周后,不定根发生率达68.4%,转移至无激素但添加0.5 g/L活性炭的1/2 GD中不定根迅速伸长.将完整的再生植株移栽于蛭石-珍珠岩-河沙等比混合的基质中,12周后成活率约为60%.

  7. Developing xylem-preferential expression of PdGA20ox1, a gibberellin 20-oxidase 1 from Pinus densiflora, improves woody biomass production in a hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Jin-Seong; Park, Eung-Jun; Han, Kyung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Im; Ko, Jae-Heung

    2016-04-01

    Woody biomass has gained popularity as an environmentally friendly, renewable and sustainable resource for liquid fuel production. Here, we demonstrate biotechnological improvement of the quantity and quality of woody biomass by employing developing xylem (DX)-preferential production of gibberellin (GA), a phytohormone that positively regulates stem growth. First, for the proof of concept experiment, we produced transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing GA20-oxidase, a key enzyme in the production of bioactive GAs, from Pinus densiflora (PdGA20ox1) under the control of either a constitutive 35S promoter, designated 35S::PdGA20ox1, or a DX-specific promoter (originated from poplar), designated DX15::PdGA20ox1. As we hypothesized, both transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S::PdGA20ox1 and DX15::PdGA20ox1) exhibited an accelerated stem growth that resulted in a large increase of biomass, up to 300% compared to wild-type control plants, together with increased secondary wall thickening and elongation of fibre cells. Next, we applied our concept to the production of transgenic poplar trees. Both transgenic poplar trees (35S::PdGA20ox1 and DX15::PdGA20ox1) showed dramatic increases in biomass, up to 300%, with accelerated stem growth and xylem differentiation. Cell wall monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that in both Arabidopsis and poplar, glucose and xylose contents were significantly increased. However, undesirable phenotypes of 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplar, including poor root growth and leaf development, were found. Interestingly, DX15::PdGA20ox1 poplar resulted in a reduction of undesirable phenotypes. Our results indicate that the controlled production of GAs through a tissue-specific promoter can be utilized as an efficient biotechnological tool for producing enhanced plant biomass, minimizing unwanted effects.

  8. Pinus densiflora extract protects human skin fibroblasts against UVB-induced photoaging by inhibiting the expression of MMPs and increasing type I procollagen expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoe-Yune Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ultraviolet (UV light can cause skin photoaging, which is associated with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and downregulation of collagen synthesis. It has been reported that MMPs, especially MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9, decrease the elasticity of the dermis by degrading collagen. In this study, we assessed the effects of Pinus densiflora extract (PDE on photoaging and investigated its mechanism of action in human skin fibroblast (Hs68 cells after UVB exposure using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and enzymatic activity assays. PDE exhibited an antioxidant activity and inhibited elastase activities in vitro. We also found that PDE inhibited UVB-induced cytotoxicity, MMP-1 production and expression of MMP-1, -3 and -9 mRNA in Hs68 cells. In addition, PDE decreased UVB-induced MMP-2 activity and MMP-2 mRNA expression. Moreover, PDE prevented the decrease of type I procollagen mediated by exposure to UVB irradiation, an effect that is linked to the upregulation and downregulation of Smad3 and Smad7, respectively. Another effect of UV irradiation is to stimulate activator protein 1 (AP-1 activity via overexpression of c-Jun/c-Fos, which, in turn, upregulates MMP-1, -3, and -9. In this study, we found that PDE suppressed UV-induced c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PDE regulates UVB-induced expression of MMPs and type I procollagen synthesis by inhibiting AP-1 activity and restoring impaired Smad signaling, suggesting that PDE may be useful as an effective anti-photoaging agent.

  9. Anomalous needle numbers on dwarf shoots of Pinus mugo and P. uncinata (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Boratyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of occurrence of abnormal, three- (or more needle dwarf shoots of most southern and central European two-needle pine (Pinus species were studied. No specimens with more than two-needle dwarf shoots were found in a population of P. nigra Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal Franco from the Iberian Peninsula and in two populations of P. uliginosa Neumann from the Sudeten Mountains in Central Europe. Single specimens were found within one population of P. pinaster Aiton from the Iberian Peninsula and among six populations of P. sylvestris L. from the Iberian Peninsula and Central Europe. Abnormal dwarf shoots mostly with three, but also four, five or six needles were found among 24 of 25 surveyed populations of P. mugo Turra and P. uncinata Ramond. The average frequency of specimens with at least one three-needle dwarf shoot was 24% for P. mugo and 20% for P. uncinata. The frequencies of occurrence varied significantly among studied populations and were highest in samples collected from the upper elevational range limits of the species in the mountains and near the northern limits of their ranges. The frequency of abnormal dwarf shoots in the same populations was significantly high in 2-3 consecutive years. Needles from three-needle dwarf shoots were not significantly shorter than those of two-needle shoots.

  10. On the specific pattern of long chain polyprenols in green needles of Pinus mugo Turra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, B; Hertel, J; Swiezewska, E; Chojnacki, T; Marczewski, A

    1997-01-01

    In green needles of Pinus mugo the most abundant polyprenols occur as a mixture of prenologues in which the dominant alcohol is built of 16 isoprene units. The characteristic spectrum of polyprenols (prenol-15, -16 and -17) was the same irrespective of the location of plant and of distinct morphological differences observed in the various selected forms of this species. The constant pattern of the polyprenols spectrum was preserved throughout the 2-year life span of needles, although the level of polyprenols was increased 2-3-fold. The polyprenol pattern in Pinaceae family differs from species to species, thus it may serve as chemotaxonomic criterion within this systematic group.

  11. Chemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Investigations of Pinus cembra L. Bark and Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Miron

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical constituents and biological activity of Pinus cembra L. (Pinaceae, native to the Central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are not well known. The aim of the present work was to examine the phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of hydromethanolic extracts of Pinus cembra L. bark and needles. Bark extract had higher concentrations of total phenolics (299.3 vs. 78.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract, flavonoids (125.3 vs. 19.84 mg catechin equivalents/g extract and proanthocyanidins (74.3 vs. 12.7 mg cyanidin equivalents/g extract than needle extract and was more active as a free radical scavenger, reducing agent and antimicrobial agent. The EC50 values in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS and reducing power assays were 71.1, 6.3 and 26 mg/mL for bark extract and 186.1, 24 and 104 mg/mL for needle extract, respectively. In addition, needle extract showed ferrous ions chelating effects (EC50 = 1,755 μg/mL. The antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were assessed by the agar diffusion method. Both extracts (4 mg/well were active against all the microorganisms tested; bark extract showed higher inhibition on all strains. These results indicate that Pinus cembra L. bark and needles are good sources of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  12. Chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations of Pinus cembra L. bark and needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Cristina Lungu; Tuchilus, Cristina; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Oprea, Adrian; Malterud, Karl Egil; Miron, Anca

    2011-09-13

    The chemical constituents and biological activity of Pinus cembra L. (Pinaceae), native to the Central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are not well known. The aim of the present work was to examine the phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of hydromethanolic extracts of Pinus cembra L. bark and needles. Bark extract had higher concentrations of total phenolics (299.3 vs. 78.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract), flavonoids (125.3 vs. 19.84 mg catechin equivalents/g extract) and proanthocyanidins (74.3 vs. 12.7 mg cyanidin equivalents/g extract) than needle extract and was more active as a free radical scavenger, reducing agent and antimicrobial agent. The EC₅₀ values in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and reducing power assays were 71.1, 6.3 and 26 mg/mL for bark extract and 186.1, 24 and 104 mg/mL for needle extract, respectively. In addition, needle extract showed ferrous ions chelating effects (EC₅₀ = 1,755 μg/mL). The antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were assessed by the agar diffusion method. Both extracts (4 mg/well) were active against all the microorganisms tested; bark extract showed higher inhibition on all strains. These results indicate that Pinus cembra L. bark and needles are good sources of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  13. 抗松材线虫赤松组培繁殖优良家系的筛选%Selection of wilt-resistant Pinus densiflora superior families for tissue culture propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清清; 叶建仁; 吴小芹

    2013-01-01

    Using the embryo seedlings with cotyledons of 27 wilt-resistant Pinus densiflora families as explants, superior families which were good growth vigor, high multiplication rate and strong rooting ability were selected. The average e-longation percentages of No. 1, 8, 10, 13, 22 and 25 families were up to above 100% ; With the increase of proliferation generations, the multiplication coefficient of clustered shoots in each family was variable, but the overall trend was that multiplication coefficient of clustered shoots from generation 1 to generation 2 increased with generation increase, and multiplication coefficient from generation 2 to generation 3 decreased; Adventitious root induction rate of wilt-resistant P. densiflora clones was different, 19-B clone of wilt-resistant P. densiflora was the highest,up to 95. 8% .%以抗松材线虫赤松(简称抗病赤松)27个家系带子叶顶芽的胚苗为外植体,筛选生长势好、增殖系数高和生根能力强的组培繁殖优良家系.结果表明:1、8、10、13、22和25家系的平均伸长率都达到了100%以上;随着增殖代数的增加,各家系丛生芽增殖系数表现不一致,但总体趋势是l至2代丛生芽增殖系数随代数增加而增加,2至3代增殖系数随代数增加而下降;抗病赤松不同无性系不定根诱导率不同,19-B无性系的不定根诱导率最高为95.8%.

  14. Dissipation of excess excitation energy of the needle leaves in Pinus trees during cold winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, AO; Cui, Zhen-Hai; Yu, Jia-Lin; Hu, Zi-Ling; Ding, Rui; Ren, Da-Ming; Zhang, Li-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Photooxidative damage to the needle leaves of evergreen trees results from the absorption of excess excitation energy. Efficient dissipation of this energy is essential to prevent photodamage. In this study, we determined the fluorescence transients, absorption spectra, chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll a/ b ratios, and relative membrane permeabilities of needle leaves of Pinus koraiensis, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Pinus armandi in both cold winter and summer. We observed a dramatic decrease in the maximum fluorescence ( F m) and substantial absorption of light energy in winter leaves of all three species. The F m decline was not correlated with a decrease in light absorption or with changes in chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/ b ratio. The results suggested that the winter leaves dissipated a large amount of excess energy as heat. Because the cold winter leaves had lost normal physiological function, the heat dissipation depended solely on changes in the photosystem II supercomplex rather than the xanthophyll cycle. These findings imply that more attention should be paid to heat dissipation via changes in the photosystem complex structure during the growing season.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of needle essential oil of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae from Macedonian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karapandzova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of needle essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation from wild Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae, growing on three different locations in R. Macedonia were investigated in period 2008/2009. Carried out GC/FID/MS analysis, one hundred and three constituents were identified belonging to the six different classes of components: monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and other non-terpene components, representing 88.61/94.04% of the entire oil. The most abundant constituents were α-pinene (12.89/27.34%, β-pinene (6.16/13.13%, limonene + β-phellandrene (2.09/6.64% and bornyl acetate (2.92/11.67% as well as trans-(E-caryophyllene (4.63/7.13% and germacrene D (8.75/20.14%. Antimicrobial screening of Pinus peuce needle essential oil was made by hole-plate diffusion and broth dilution method against 13 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The most sensitive bacteria against tested Pinus peuce essential oils were Streptococcus pneumonia encompassing Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter spp. and Streptococcus pyogenes. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the oils ranged from 7.5- 62.5 µl/ml.

  16. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Welch, K D

    2008-12-01

    We determined whether cows in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cows (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed a maintenance basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Exp. 1 and 2; during Exp. 3 and 4, cows were fed high-protein and high-energy diets, respectively. Experiment 5 was a grazing study on rangeland during winter in South Dakota; diets were determined by using bite counts. Mean BCS (1 = emaciated, 9 = obese) was 7.5 for HBC cows and pine needles than did HBC cows (5.5 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.14 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). During Exp. 2, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC cows consumed variable, but greater, amounts of pine needles than did HBC cows (3.7 +/- 0.19 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.12 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). When fed a high-protein/low-energy diet, LBC cows ate more (P = 0.04) pine needles than did HBC cows. When fed a low-protein/high-energy diet, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) because LBC cows consumed more pine needles than did HBC cows for the first 3 d of the study, and then consumption by LBC animals decreased during the last 4 d. These experiments suggest that the protein:energy ratio may be an important factor in the ability of cows to tolerate terpenes, and that cows were not able to sustain an increased quantity of needle consumption on a low-protein diet. During the 25-d grazing study, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC animals selected more pine needles (up to 25% of daily bites) on some days compared with HBC cows. Weather influenced pine needle consumption because pine needle bites by LBC cows were related (r(2) = 0.60; P = 0.001) to days of greater snow depth and lower minimum daily temperatures. Both LBC and HBC cows increased selection of pine needles from trees during cold, snowy weather, but the magnitude of the increase was greater for LBC cows. The LBC cows consumed more pine

  17. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from heated needles and twigs of Pinus pumila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Feng-jun; SHU Li-fu; WANG Qiu-hua; WANG Ming-yu; TIAN Xiao-rui

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the mechanism that emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from heated needles and twigs (200℃, within 15 min) of Pinus purnila affect fire behaviours using the technology of Thermal Desorption - Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The results indicated that the main components of VOC from heated needles and twigs are terpenoids. Most of these terpenoids are monoterpenes. Terpenoids account for 72.93% for the needles and 92.40% for the twigs of the total VOC, and their emis sion ratios are 61.200 μg·g-1 and 217.060 μtg·g-1 respectively. Heated twigs can emit more terpenoids than heated needles because twigs had more volatile oils than needles. In actual fires, these large amounts of terpenoid emissions, especially the monoterpene emissions, have strong effects on fire behaviors that are not only in the initial stage but also in the fast propagation stage of fires. These flammable gases are capable of causing violent combustion and creating crown fires. In addition, if these gases accumulate in an uneven geographical area, there will be a possible for eruptive fires and/or fires fiashover to occur.

  18. 山东赤松种群的个体生长规律%On the individual growth disciplinarian of Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.population in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 赵善伦

    2002-01-01

    利用Logistic增长模型对山东赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.)种群个体生长规律进行了初步研究.结果表明,赤松个体生长密切符合Logistic方程;人工林个体生长好于天然次生林;人工林与次生林个体生长规律一致;树高成熟龄和连年生长量最大时年龄出现最早,胸径成熟龄和连年生长量最大时年龄出现较晚,材积成熟龄和连年生长量最大时年龄出现最迟.

  19. 影响沙区赤松造林成活率的主要因素分析%Main Factors Affecting the Afforestation Survival Rate of Pinus densiflora in Sandy Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云波; 宋佩东

    2015-01-01

    通过试验分析沙区赤松造林中采取不同整地方式、不同质量苗木及不同管护措施对造林成活率及生长量的影响,结果表明:伏前全面整地的赤松造林成活率、当年高生长最大,分别为93%和12.8 cm,玉米茬地好于现整现造地;不同等级、不同类型苗木中以容器苗造林成活率最高,为94.4%;不同立地条件以沙壤土的条件下造林苗木成活率最高,为95%。%The effects of different land preparation methods,quality of different seedlings and different management measures on survival rate and growth of Pinus densiflora were analyzed.Result shows that survival rate and height growth in the very year of Pinus densiflora with full preparation before the hot summer days are the highest,being 93% & 12.8 cm,respectively.Stub land of Zeamays is optimal than extempore soil preparation and extempore af-forestation.Survival rate of container seedlings among different grade and types of seedlings is the highest,being 94.4%;the survival rate under sandy loam is the highest,being 95%.

  20. Characteristics and Grafting and Breeding Technology of Pinus.densiflora var.Zhanguensis---A Case in Jiuliangwa Forest Farm in Datong%彰武松的特性及嫁接繁育技术--以大同九梁洼林场为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雁春

    2015-01-01

    彰武松是山西省杨树丰产林实验局于2005年从辽宁省引进的针叶树种。笔者从彰武松的起源、形态特征、生物学特性3个方面介绍了彰武松的特性,并在山西省大同市九梁洼林场以樟子松为砧木、彰武松为接穗进行了嫁接试验,总结了彰武松嫁接繁育的关键技术,为山西省北部地区丘陵风沙区、龙岗火山厚土区彰武松的繁育提供技术指导。%Pinus densiflora var.Zhanguensis was a new variety introduced from Liaoning Province in Shanxi Poplar planta -tion Experiment Bureau.The author introduced characteristics of Pinus densiflora var.Zhanguensis from origin, morpholog-ical characteristics and biological characteristics , studied the experiment of grafting the Pinus densiflora var.Zhanguensis on Pinus sylvestris as stock in Jiuliangwa forest farm in Datong in Shanxi Province , summaried the key technology of grafting and breeding to provide technology guide of grafting and breeding in hilly sandy and Longgang volcano thick soil area in northern region in Shanxi Province .

  1. Structural profiling of wax biopolymer from Pinus roxburghii Sarg. needles using spectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Pallavi; Sharma, Pradeep; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-11-01

    Pinus roxburghii Sarg. is the most abundant species in Himalayan region. The needles of the species largely contribute to the forest biomass and remain the major cause of forest fires leading to climate change, biodiversity loss, etc. Intriguingly, the layer of needles contains wax, a biomacromolecule with potential chemical functionalities for value addition. In the present study, a distinctive approach towards complete structural analysis of the isolated wax in its native state has been done using (1)H, (13)C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY, TOCSY along with GC-MS of the methyl esters of constituent fatty acids. The wax was isolated in a quantitative yield of 1.64% and analyses suggest that it is a polymer of linearly attached fatty acid esters which on hydrolysis yielded three types of ω-hydroxy fatty acids viz. 12-hydroxydodecanoic acid, 14-hydroxytetradecanoic acid and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid in a ratio of 1:1:2 respectively. Complete assignments for a carbonyl group, α-, β- and other methylenes present in wax were achieved; corroborating the presence of polyester. In particular, identification of wax structure was accomplished through NMR; thereby providing a lead towards future structural analysis of waxes in their native form. The study would also be helpful to generate commercially important compounds derived from pine needle wax. This will offer an opportunity for utilisation of pine needle biomass: a root cause of Himalayan forest fires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of photosynthetic productivity and water-consumption for transpiration in Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica%彰武松、樟子松光合生产与蒸腾耗水特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟鹏; 李玉灵; 尤国春; 王曼

    2012-01-01

    采用Li-6400光合测定系统对性成熟(18 a)阶段彰武松(Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis)和樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica)光合及蒸腾指标不同季节日变化进行了测定,并采用切枝蒸腾法对两个树种叶片气孔蒸腾和角质层蒸腾进行对比测定,评价了气孔开闭敏感性,探讨了两个树种光合生产与蒸腾耗水特性.结果表明:在同样生境条件下,彰武松比樟子松有较大的光合速率(Pn)和较小的蒸腾速率(Tr).在5月和7月,彰武松的Pn和Tr日变化呈现明显双峰型,其Pn和Tr“午休”现象均主要受气孔限制;在10月呈单峰型.樟子松的Pn和Tr日变化在整个生长季均呈单峰型,而且,彰武松日光合量(DAP)均高于樟子松,是樟子松的163.4%(5月)、211.1%(7月)和183.6%(10月).光响应曲线参数表明:在不同月份,彰武松最大光合速率(Pmax)均大于樟子松,且光饱和点(LSP)较高,光补偿点(LCP)较低.在任意被测时刻,彰武松气孔导度(Ga)和Tr都小于樟子松.彰武松具有较小气孔和角质层蒸腾速度,并且在同样干旱条件下,彰武松气孔下陷,其气孔的开闭反应更加敏感.彰武松水分利用效率(WUE)较高,约是樟子松的2.29倍.这些结果暗示,彰武松以其高的光合速率和低的蒸腾耗水特性,提高水分利用效率,以其敏感的气孔开闭机制和旱生叶片结构进而实现在干旱半干旱地区的速生特性.

  3. Response of needle dark respiration of Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations for four growing seasons' exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU YuMei; HAN ShiJie; ZHANG HaiSen; XIN LiHua; ZHENG JunQiang

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on needle dark respiration of two coniferous species-Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis on the Changbai Mountain was investigated using open-top chambers. P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis were exposed to 700,500μmol·mol-1 CO2 and ambient CO2(approx.350 μmol·mol-1)for four growing seasons. Needle dark respiration was measurd during the second, third and fourth growing seasons' exposure to elevated CO2.The results showed that needle dark respiration rate increased for P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis grown at elevated CO2 concentrations during the second growing season, could be attributed to the change of carbohydrate and/or nitrogen content of needles. Needle dark respiration of P. Koraiensis was stimulated and that of P. Sylvestriformis was inhibited by elevated CO2 concentrations during the third growing season. Different response of the two tree species to elevated CO2 mainly resulted from the difference in the growth rate. Elevated CO2 concentrations inhibited needle dark respiration of both P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis during the fourth growing season. There was consistent trend between the short-term effect and the long-term effect of elevated CO2 on needle dark respiration in P. Sylvestriformis during the third growing season by changing measurement CO2 concentrations. However, the short-term effect was different from the long-term effect for P. Koraiensis. Response of dark respiration of P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations was related to the treatment time of CO2 and the stage of growth and development of plant. The change of dark respiration for the two tree species was determined by the direct effect of CO2 and long-term acclimation. The prediction of the long-term response of needle dark respiration to elevated CO2 concentration based on the short-term response is in dispute.

  4. SOME NEEDLE CONTENTS AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS EMITTED BY PINUS BRUTIA IN RELATION TO HERBIVORE ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. SEMİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores can cause many types of damage to plants. Caterpillars ingest small sections of the leaves, while others feed on specific parts of the leaf material. In this point, essential oils from coniferous trees contain secondary metabolites that act as feeding deterrent for a great number of herbivore insect species. Attacks by herbivores elicit changes in the bouquet of volatiles released by plants. Terpenoid chemicals exist both as constitutive and massively induced defenses in conifers. Hereby we studied the factors contributing to the specificity of induced defensive responses in economically important pine species of Turkey, Pinus brutia Ten., against most famous pest, pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams. We quantified volatile organic compounds (VOCs emissions of needle and some other needle contents. Needle feeding by the caterpillar increased emissions of VOCs. We discuss the possible mechanisms responsible for reducing the tree's signalling capacity triggered by Th. wilkinsoni oviposition and how enhancement/suppression of VOCs can influence the interaction between the tree, the pest and other biotic/abiotic factors in environment.

  5. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Novak, Johannes

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6-34.9%; twigs: 11.0-24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1-27.7; twigs: 29.0-49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0-16.1; twigs: 6.9-20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.

  6. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avni Hajdari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%, β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%, and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%. HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and PCA (Principal Component Analyses were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.

  7. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Novak, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:27579344

  8. Growth performance on regenerated plantlets of Pinus densiflora resistance to pine wilt disease%抗松材线虫病赤松组培再生植株田间生长表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦莉; 吴小芹; 朱丽华; 叶建仁; 张红岩

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate the performance of regenerated plantlets of Pinus densiflora resistance to pine wilt disease,research has advanced to the field testing stage. The results showed that 0.5 year-old plantlets survival rate was apparently lower than that of 2.5,2,1.5,1 year-old. There were obvious growth difference among different clones. Mycorrhizal foresting test indicated that ectomycorrhizal fungi Rhizopogen luteous and Boletus edulis facilitated the growth of disease-resistant P. densiflora 1 # -A 5 and 8 generation. This research provided reference for breeding and afforestation of regenerated plantlets of P. densiflora resistance to pine wilt disease.%为了评价从日本引进的抗松材线虫病赤松通过无性快繁获得的再生植株在我国的生长状况.本研究对田间试种的抗病赤松6个家系12个无性系共688株再生植株进行跟踪监测.结果表明,抗病赤松0.5年生再生植株试种成活率明显低于2.5年、2年、1.5年及1年生再生植株;不同无性系间抗病赤松再生植株生长状况存在明显差异.其中,1#-A和5#-5无性系再生植株生长较好.菌根化造林试验表明,两种外生菌根菌美味牛肝菌(Be)和黄色须腹菌(R1)对抗病赤松1#-A5代、8代再生植株具有明显促生效果.此研究为今后抗病赤松再生植株造林育种提供了参考依据.

  9. Homogeneity of delta{sup 15}N in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) was altered by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang Yuanwen, E-mail: kuangyw@scbg.ac.c [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Pearl River Delta Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Control, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Wen Dazhi; Li Jiong [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Pearl River Delta Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Control, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Sun Fangfang; Hou Enqing [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Guoyi; Zhang Deqiang [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Huang Longbin [Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Sustainable Minerals Institute, the University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    The present study investigated the changes of delta{sup 15}N values in the tip, middle and base section (divided by the proportion to needle length) of current- and previous-year needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) from two declining forest stands suffering from air pollution, in comparison with one healthy stand. At the healthy stand, delta{sup 15}N in the three sections of both current- and previous-year needles were found evenly distributed, while at the polluted stands, delta{sup 15}N values in the needles were revealed significantly different from the tip to the base sections. The results implied that the distribution of delta{sup 15}N among different parts or sections in foliages was not always homogeneous and could be affected by air pollution. We suggested that the difference of delta{sup 15}N values among pine needle sections should be reconsidered and should not be primarily ignored when the needle delta{sup 15}N values were used to assess plant responses to air pollution. - Values of delta{sup 15}N in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) were uneven and affected by air pollution.

  10. The Characteristics of Soil Seed Bank and Natural Regeneration of Pinus densiflora Plantation in Zhanggutai Sandyland%章古台沙地赤松人工林土壤种子库及天然更新特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑玲; 宋鸽; 刘敏; 陈江燕; 肖巍

    2014-01-01

    研究了章古台沙地赤松人工林土壤种子库及天然更新特征。结果表明:在赤松人工林土壤种子库中,47.47%的种子分布在枯枝落叶层中,种子平均密度可达253粒ûm -2;52.53%的种子分布在0~5 cm 深的土层中,种子平均密度为280粒ûm -2。从种子品质来看,空粒种子占种子总数的40.90%,腐烂种子占39.96%,完整种子占19.14%。赤松天然更新主要为林下更新,更新幼树呈不规则分布,密度为20348~71798株ûhm -2;其次为林隙更新,更新幼树以群团状分布为主,带状分布为辅,密度为7659~14836株ûhm -2;赤松林缘更新的主要条件是有林缘扩展带,林缘更新密度为856~10810株ûhm -2。%This paper studied the characteristics of soil seed bank and natural regeneration of Pinus densiflora planta-tion in Zhanggutai .The result showed that in the seed bank of Pinus densiflora plantation ,47 .47% of the seeds was distributed in the litter layer ,with the average density up to 253 grain ûm - 2 ;52 .53% of the seeds was distributed in soil layer of 0 to 5cm depth ,with average density 280 grain ûm - 2 .From the point of seed quality ,empty seeds ,rot-ten seeds and complete seeds accounted for 40 .90% ,39 .96% and 19 .14% of the total number of seeds separately . The leading natural regeneration of Pinus densiflora was under forest canopy that regenerated saplings were distrib-uted irregularly with the density from 20 348 to 71 798 plant ûhm - 2 .The secondly natural regeneration was in the gap which the distribution of the regenerate saplings was principal in shape of cluster and supplementary in shape of zone ,with the density from 7 659 to 14 836 plant ûhm - 2 .The main condition of natural regeneration in plantation edge was with forest edge extension zone ,with the density from 856 to 10 810 plant ûhm - 2 .

  11. Characterization of glutathione S-transferase from dwarf pine needles (Pinus mugo Turra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, P; Rennenberg, H

    1992-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity conjugating xenobiotics with glutathione (GSH) was found in extracts from needles of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra). In vivo incubation of needle segments with the herbicide fluorodifen at 25 degrees C resulted in conversion of the xenobiotic to water-soluble products at initial rates of 0.7 nmol h(-1) g(fw) (-1). At 15 degrees C, the initial rate of product formation was decreased to 0.1 nmol h(-1) g(fw) (-1). In vitro conjugation studies with chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) as model substrates gave apparent K(m) values of 0.5 mM GSH and 1.14 mM CDNB in the GSH/CDNB system and 0.3 mM GSH and 0.44 mM DCNB in the GSH/DCNB system. The pH optimum was between 7.7 and 7.9 for both the GSH/CDNB and the GSH/DCNB systems. The temperature optimum for these model substrates was between 30 and 35 degrees C, and only minute amounts of enzyme activity were detected at 15 degrees C. The activation energy in the temperature range of 15 to 30 degrees C was 46 kJ mol(-1). Dwarf pine glutathione S-transferase exhibited an approximate molecular weight of 52 kD.

  12. 昆嵛山天然赤松种群的数量特征及更新动态%The Natural Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc.Population in the Mount Kunyu:Quantitative Characteristics and Regenerative Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁卿; 张淑萍; 张治国; 朱建中; 吕以璞

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1 前言 赤松(Pinus densiflora Sieb. Et Zucc.)天然分布于朝鲜、日本和中国,它在我国的天然分布从黑龙江东南部(宁安、东宁)、吉林东部(长白山)、辽东半岛经山东半岛(昆嵛山、崂山、沂山东部)到江苏东北部云台山区,是我国暖温带沿海地区温性针叶林的主要建群种之一[1].昆嵛山地处山东半岛东端,位于N37°16′,E121°43′附近,是赤松在山东半岛的最集中分布地.赤松林在该地区从山麓一直到海拔800m左右都有分布,并与落叶栎林共同组成该地区的地带性天然次生森林植被[2],在调节生态系统结构与功能方面起到重要作用.

  13. Effect of air pollution on annual ring width of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don, in Kitakyushu city. Kitakyushu shi deno Sugi, Akamatsu no nenrinhaba ni oyobosu taiki osen no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Y.; Yamashita, T.; Kido, K. (The Kitakyushu Municipal Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1993-05-10

    There is a little of examples to have numerically evaluated an influence of the air pollution in the field for the long period. By using the conifer species growing in the Kitakyushu city and its periphery, in this report, a relation between the annual ring width and the air pollution has been investigated. Two tree species of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and Cryptomeria japonica D.Don were selected as the tree species. The individuals, with a breast height diameter of about 50cm, more than 10 pieces for each were selected, and then the annual ring specimens for about 50 years upto 1990 were obtained by using the increment borer. The annual ring width was normalized by converting to the annual ring indices. It was found that there is a significant relation between the annual ring indices obtained from the trees in the city and the air pollution, and that the annual ring growth in the 1990's has recovered to a same degree of the growth in the 1940's. As a result of comparing the multiple regression in 3 cases using the air pollution statistics, meteorological statistics and both of them, in addition, it was found that, while both of the air pollution and climatic factors influence on the growth of annual ring, the influence of air pollution is greater than the climate at the stand in the city. 23 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. 不同坡位人工林赤松物理力学性质的比较%Physico-mechanical Properties of Pinus densiflora Plantations on Different Slope Positions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春德; 崔京日

    2009-01-01

    对延吉市帽儿山坡下和坡中的人工林赤松(Pinus densiflora)的物理力学性质差异进行研究.结果表明:坡下人工林赤松的弦向、径向和体积干缩率比坡中小;抗弯强度、抗弯弹性模量、顺纹抗拉和抗压强度、横纹弦向和径向抗压强度,坡中材高于坡下材;气干密度、弦向和径向抗剪强度、弦向和径向抗劈力,均坡下材高于坡中材;坡下和坡中人工林赤松的气干密度、径向和体积干缩率、顺纹抗压强度、横纹弦向和径向抗压强度、弦向和径向抗剪强度差异达0.01显著水平,抗弯强度、抗弯弹性模量、弦向抗劈力差异达0.05显著水平,弦向干缩率、顺纹抗拉强度、径向抗劈力无显著差异.

  15. Composition and Bioactivity of Lipophilic Metabolites from Needles and Twigs of Korean and Siberian Pines (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. and Pinus sibirica Du Tour).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpatov, Alexander V; Popov, Sergey A; Salnikova, Olga I; Kukina, Tatyana P; Shmidt, Emma N; Um, Byung Hun

    2017-02-01

    Lipophilic extractive metabolites in different parts of the shoot system (needles and defoliated twigs) of Korean pine, Pinus koraiensis, and Siberian pine, Pinus sibirica, were studied by GC/MS. Korean pine needles comprised mainly bornyl p-coumarate, heterocyclic 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids (lambertianic acid), 10-nonacosanol, sterols and their esters. While Siberian pine needles contained less bornyl p-coumarate, lambertianic acid, sterols and their esters, but were richer in other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids. The major components of the twig extract of P. koraiensis were lambertianic acid, abietane and isopimarane type acids, cembrane type alcohols, 8-O-functionalized labdanoids, sterols, sterol esters, and acylglycerols. The same extract of P. sibirica differed in larger amounts of other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids and pinolenic acid glycerides, but in less quantities of cembranoids and 8-O-functionalized labdanoids. The labdane type pinusolic acid was detected for the first time in Korean pine. P. koraiensis was found to be unique in the genus for an ability to synthesize phyllocladane diterpenoids. The content of bound Δ(5) -unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids in the twig extracts of the both pines was similar or superior to that in their seed oil. Among the pines' metabolites tested isocembrol was strongest in inhibition of both α-glucosidase (IC50 2.9 μg/ml) and NO production in activated macrophages (IC50 3.6 μg/ml).

  16. Variability of photosynthetic parameters of Pinus sibirica Du Tour needles under changing climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The air temperature and relative humidity and the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation are the basic ecological factors determining geographical distribution of a species. Wood plant adaptation depends on the intensity of physiological and biochemicalprocesses of plants as a response to changing environmental factors. Investigations to reveal (detect the variability of modification andgenetic components of the photosynthetic parameters in needles of the Siberian cedar (Pinus sibirica Du Tour mountain ecotypes, distributed in central part of the Altai Mountains, were carried out. Also, the survey was extended to some experiments with these ecotypes introduced to mild climate and flat regions from south-western of Siberia. The length and thickness of needles, the size of chloroplasts, content of the photosynthetic pigments, and the functional activity of chloroplastsat the level of photo system II were the evaluated traits. Growing under mountainous conditions (at about 2000m elevation, the two-year-old needles were shorter and thicker and contained very large in size chloroplasts while the content of chlorophylls and carotinoids was twice lower than that in the local ecotype growing in the lowlands. On the other hand, more green and yellow pigments were found in needles of mountain ecotypes planted in the lowlands compared to the local lowland ectype trees. A decrease in pool of the photosynthetic pigments in the highlands ecotypes is probably due to decreased biosynthesis andincreased photo-destruction caused by severe light and temperature conditions. These parameters are likely to be associated withmodifications due to intense insolation, low temperature, ozone concentration, UV radiation, and other negative factors that are morepronounced at high elevation. Despite the large pool of accumulated photosynthetic pigments, the functional activity of chloroplasts in themountain ecotype at the level

  17. Variability of photosynthetic parameters of Pinus sibirica Du Tour needles under changing climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The air temperature and relative humidity and the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation are the basic ecological factors determining geographical distribution of a species. Wood plant adaptation depends on the intensity of physiological and biochemicalprocesses of plants as a response to changing environmental factors. Investigations to reveal (detect the variability of modification andgenetic components of the photosynthetic parameters in needles of the Siberian cedar (Pinus sibirica Du Tour mountain ecotypes, distributed in central part of the Altai Mountains, were carried out. Also, the survey was extended to some experiments with these ecotypes introduced to mild climate and flat regions from south-western of Siberia. The length and thickness of needles, the size of chloroplasts, content of the photosynthetic pigments, and the functional activity of chloroplastsat the level of photo system II were the evaluated traits. Growing under mountainous conditions (at about 2000m elevation, the two-year-old needles were shorter and thicker and contained very large in size chloroplasts while the content of chlorophylls and carotinoids was twice lower than that in the local ecotype growing in the lowlands. On the other hand, more green and yellow pigments were found in needles of mountain ecotypes planted in the lowlands compared to the local lowland ectype trees. A decrease in pool of the photosynthetic pigments in the highlands ecotypes is probably due to decreased biosynthesis andincreased photo-destruction caused by severe light and temperature conditions. These parameters are likely to be associated withmodifications due to intense insolation, low temperature, ozone concentration, UV radiation, and other negative factors that are morepronounced at high elevation. Despite the large pool of accumulated photosynthetic pigments, the functional activity of chloroplasts in themountain ecotype at the level

  18. Response of needle dark respiration of Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentra-tions for four growing seasons’ exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on needle dark respiration of two coniferous spe- cies—Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis on the Changbai Mountain was investigated using open-top chambers. P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis were exposed to 700, 500 μmol·mol-1 CO2 and ambient CO2 (approx. 350 μmol·mol-1) for four growing seasons. Needle dark respiration was meas- ured during the second, third and fourth growing seasons’ exposure to elevated CO2. The results showed that needle dark respiration rate increased for P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis grown at elevated CO2 concentrations during the second growing season, could be attributed to the change of carbohydrate and/or nitrogen content of needles. Needle dark respiration of P. koraiensis was stimu- lated and that of P. sylvestriformis was inhibited by elevated CO2 concentrations during the third growing season. Different response of the two tree species to elevated CO2 mainly resulted from the difference in the growth rate. Elevated CO2 concentrations inhibited needle dark respiration of both P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis during the fourth growing season. There was consistent trend be- tween the short-term effect and the long-term effect of elevated CO2 on needle dark respiration in P. sylvestriformis during the third growing season by changing measurement CO2 concentrations. How- ever, the short-term effect was different from the long-term effect for P. koraiensis. Response of dark respiration of P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations was related to the treatment time of CO2 and the stage of growth and development of plant. The change of dark respiration for the two tree species was determined by the direct effect of CO2 and long-term acclimation. The prediction of the long-term response of needle dark respiration to elevated CO2 concentration based on the short-term response is in dispute.

  19. The essential oil qualitative and quantitative composition in the needles of Pinus sylvestris L. growing along industrial transects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija [Department of Biology, Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos 8, LT-44404 Kaunas (Lithuania)], E-mail: e.kupcinskiene@gmail.com; Stikliene, Aida [Department of Ecology, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11, LT-53361 Kaunas, Akademija (Lithuania); Judzentiene, Asta [Institute of Chemistry, A. Gostauto 9, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the areas affected by a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Volatile components of the needles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The most heavily polluted CF stand had significantly higher concentration of {gamma}-Terpinene, Caryophyllene oxide in the current-year needles, while higher concentration of {delta}-3-Carene, {alpha}-Terpinene, {gamma}-Terpinene and Terpinolene was documented for 1-year-old needles. The most heavily polluted OR stand had a significantly higher concentration of Sabinene + {beta}-Pinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the current-year needles and a significantly higher concentration of Camphene, Sabinene + {beta}-Pinene, Myrcene, {alpha}-Cadinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the 1-year-old needles than the least polluted site. Along transects an increase in the amount of some diterpenes and a decrease in the components of the shorter chain essential oils was observed. These effects could be at least partially attributed to SO{sub 2}. - Quantities of components of essential oil in the needles of Scots pine growing around two factories are described in relation to pollution.

  20. Pinus Monophylla (Single Needled Pinyon Pine) show morphological changes in needle cell size and stomata over the past 100 years of rising CO2 in Western Arid Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Water, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    The size, frequency, and morphology of leaf surface stomata is used to reconstruct past levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide over geologic time. This technique relies on measuring cell and cell-clusters to correlate with changes of known carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Unfortunately, not all plants are suitable because the occurrence and placement of stomatal cell-complexes differ significantly between plant families. Monocot and dicot angiosperms exhibit different types of stomata and stomatal complexes that lack order and thus are unsuitable. But, in gymnosperms, the number and distribution of stomata and pavement cells is formalized and can be used to reconstruct past atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. However, characteristic of each plant species must still be considered. For example, conifers are useful but are divided into two-needle to five-needle pines, or have irregular surface morphology (Pseudotsuga sp. and Tsuga sp. needles). This study uses Pinus monophylla an undivided needle morphology, that being a cylinder has no interior surface cells. Pinus monophylla (single needle pinyon) needles were collected along Geiger Grade (Nevada State Highway 341, Reno) in 2005 and 2013 from 1500m to 2195m. Herbarium samples were also collected from 13 historic collections made between 1911 and 1994. The study determined changes with elevation and/or over time using in these populations. Using Pinus monophylla, insured needles represented a single surface with stomata, stomatal complex cells, and co-occurring pavement cell types. Results show decreased stomatal densities (stomata/area), stomatal index (stomata/stomata + epidermal cells) and stable stomata per row (stomata/row) . Epidermal cell density (Epidermal Cells /Area), and Pavement cell density (Pavement cell/area) track stomatal density similarly. Data comparison, using elevation in the 2005 and 2013 collections showed no-significant trends. Individual stomatal complexes show no differences in the size

  1. Physiological responses of needles of Pinus massoniana elite families to phosphorus stress in acid soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE You-lan; LIU Ai-qin; Mulualem Tigabu; WUPeng-fei; MA Xiang-qing; WANG Chen; Per Christer Oden

    2013-01-01

    Pinus massoniana Lamb.is a major timber species widely planted in the South China,where the soil is acidic and deficient in phosphorus (P) due to fixation by aluminum and iron.Understanding the physiological responses to rhizospheric insoluble P is essential for enhancing plantation productivity.Thus,a sand culture experiment was conducted with four levels of P treatment (0,5,20 g insoluble P and 10 g soluble P),and 11 P.massoniana elite families.Physiological responses were measured after two months of stress.Compared to the normal soluble P treatment,the insoluble P treatment significantly reduced the proline content and the APase activity in the needles,while it significantly increased the catalase activity by 1.3-fold and malondialdehyde content by 1.2-fold.Soluble protein content was unaffected by the treatments,but chlorophyll content was significantly lower in P-deprived treatment compared with soluble and insoluble P treatments.These physiological responses also exhibited highly significant variation among families (p < 0.01).The findings suggest that increased catalase activities in the presence of insoluble P might be involved in the activation of an anti-oxidation defense mechanism that scavenges the reactive oxygen species elicited by the stress.And this response has a strong genetic control that can be exploited to identify desirable genotypes.

  2. The role of endophytic fungal individuals and communities in the decomposition of Pinus massoniana needle litter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Yuan

    Full Text Available The role of fungal endophytes (FEs as "pioneer" decomposers has recently been recognized; however, the extent to which FEs contribute to litter loss is less well understood. The genetic and enzymatic bases of FE-mediated decomposition have also rarely been addressed. The effects of populations and individuals (with an emphasis on two dominant Lophodermium taxa of FEs on needle-litter decomposition were assessed for Pinus massoniana, a ubiquitous pine in southern China. Data from in vivo (microcosm experiments indicated that the percentage of litter-mass loss triggered by FEs was linearly correlated with incubation time and approached 60% after seven months. In vitro decomposition tests also confirmed that endophytic Lophodermium isolates caused 14-22% mass loss within two months. Qualitative analysis of exoenzymes (cellulase and laccase, important for lignocellulose degradation revealed that almost all of the Lophodermium isolates showed moderate or strong positive reactions. Furthermore, partial sequences of β-glucosidase (glycoside hydrolase family 3, GH3, laccase, and cellobiohydrolase (GH7 genes were amplified from Lophodermium isolates as "functional markers" to evaluate their potential for lignocellulolytic activity. Three different genes were detected, suggesting a flexible and delicate decomposition system rich in FEs. Our work highlights the possibility that the saprophytism and endophytism of FEs may be prerequisites to initiating rapid decomposition and thus may be key in Fes' contribution to litter decomposition, at least in the early stage. Potential indicators of the presence of core fungal decomposers are also briefly discussed.

  3. Changes in the Essential Oil Composition in the Needles of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Under Anthropogenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Judzentiene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF, a cement factory (CF, and an oil refinery (OR. Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005. Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles.

  4. Needle-Age Related Variability in Nitrogen, Mobile Carbohydrates, and δ13C within Pinus koraiensis Tree Crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cai-Feng; Han, Shi-Jie; Zhou, Yu-Mei; Wang, Cun-Guo; Dai, Guan-Hua; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    For both ecologists and physiologists, foliar physioecology as a function of spatially and temporally variable environmental factors such as sunlight exposure within a tree crown is important for understanding whole tree physiology and for predicting ecosystem carbon balance and productivity. Hence, we studied concentrations of nitrogen (N), non-structural carbohydrates (NSC = soluble sugars + starch), and δ13C in different-aged needles within Pinus koraiensis tree crowns, to understand the needle age- and crown position-related physiology, in order to test the hypothesis that concentrations of N, NSC, and δ13C are needle-age and crown position dependent (more light, more photosynthesis affecting N, NSC, and δ13C), and to develop an accurate sampling strategy. The present study indicated that the 1-yr-old needles had significantly higher concentration levels of mobile carbohydrates (both on a mass and an area basis) and Narea (on an area basis), as well as NSC-N ratios, but significantly lower levels of Nmass (on a mass basis) concentration and specific leaf area (SLA), compared to the current-year needles. Azimuthal (south-facing vs. north-facing crown side) effects were found to be significant on starch [both on a mass (STmass) and an area basis (STarea)], δ13C values, and Narea, with higher levels in needles on the S-facing crown side than the N-facing crown side. Needle Nmass concentrations significantly decreased but needle STmass, STarea, and δ13C values significantly increased with increasing vertical crown levels. Our results suggest that the sun-exposed crown position related to photosynthetic activity and water availability affects starch accumulation and carbon isotope discrimination. Needle age associated with physiological activity plays an important role in determining carbon and nitrogen physiology. The present study indicates that across-scale sampling needs to carefully select tissue samples with equal age from a comparable crown position

  5. Atmospheric carbon dioxide, irrigation, and fertilization effects on phenolic and nitrogen concentrations in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, F L; Maier, C A

    2001-06-01

    Concentrations of total soluble phenolics, catechin, proanthocyanidins (PA), lignin and nitrogen (N) were measured in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles exposed to either ambient CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]), ambient plus 175 or ambient plus 350 micromol CO(2) mol(-1) in branch chambers for 2 years. The CO(2) treatments were superimposed on a 2 x 2 factorial combination of irrigation and fertilization treatments. In addition, we compared the effects of branch chambers and open-top chambers on needle chemistry. Proanthocyanidin and N concentrations were measured in needles from branch chambers and from trees in open-top chambers exposed concurrently for two years to either ambient [CO(2)] or ambient plus 200 micromol CO(2) mol(-1) in combination with a fertilization treatment. In the branch chambers, concentrations of total soluble phenolics in needles generally increased with needle age. Concentrations of total soluble phenolics, catechin and PA in needle extracts increased about 11% in response to the elevated [CO(2)] treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on foliar lignin concentrations. Nitrogen concentrations were about 10% lower in needles from the elevated [CO(2)] treatments than in needles from the ambient [CO(2)] treatments. Soluble phenolic and PA concentrations were higher in the control and irrigated soil treatments in about half of the comparisons; otherwise, differences were not statistically significant. Needle N concentrations increased 23% in response to fertilization. Treatment effects on PA and N concentrations were similar between branch and open-top chambers, although in this part of the study N concentrations were not significantly affected by the CO(2) treatments in either the branch or open-top chambers. We conclude that elevated [CO(2)] and low N availability affected foliar chemical composition, which could in turn affect plant-pathogen interactions, decomposition rates and mineral nutrient cycling.

  6. Changes in the essential oil composition in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under anthropogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzentiene, Asta; Stikliene, Aida; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija

    2007-03-21

    Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005). Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles. Along the CF transect for current-year needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the pine bark (r = -0.582; p us to distinguish the most contrasting stands according to the concentration of air pollutants. Current-year needles were more effective as indicators of the effects of pollution than 1-year-old needles in the case of the NFF and the OR transects, and both-aged needles were equally valuable in the case of the CF transect. The changes detected in the proportions of components of the essential oils in the needles of the trees affected by the industrial emissions may play a significant role in modifying the susceptibility of the pine stands to the biotic factors, and also may alter emissions of terpenes from the stands to the atmosphere.

  7. Relationship between parameters of electrical impedance spectroscopy and frost hardiness in stems and needles of Pinus bun(g)eana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqing LI; Gang ZHANG; Shupeng QUE; Liang ZHU; Bao DI; Xiumei JIN

    2009-01-01

    We studied the frost hardiness (FH) in stems and needles of different Pinus bungeana provenances during frost hardening by means of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and conventional electrolytic leakage (EL) and compared the regression equations of the two methods in order to optimize the EIS method for studying FH on plants. During frost hardening, EIS and EL were applied to one-year old stems and needles of P. bungeana in an 8-year provenance field trial at the Thirteen Tombs Nursery in Beijing within the provenances of Mangshan of Beijing, Liangdang of Gansu and Xiaoyi of Shanxi provinces, China. A double-DCE model and Model-A were used, respectively, for the EIS analysis of stems and needles that were not exposed to a controlled freezing treatment. After controlled freezing tests, the FH of stems and needles were assessed by EIS and EL. Without controlled freezing tests, the relaxation time (τ1) of stems and the specific intracellular resistance (ri) of stems and needles displayed a statistically significant correlation with FH (R2 =0.79-0.86); after controlled freezing tests, specific extracellular resistance (re) of the stems and needles, the cell membrane time constant (τm) of needles displayed an even higher correlation with FH (R2 = 0.92-0.94). There were significant relationship between EIS and EL in assessing the FH of stems and needles of P, bungeana, but EIS underestimated FH more than EL did. EIS is one of the more promising methods for assessing FH, especially without employing a controlled freezing test.

  8. 赤松不定根和愈伤组织与松口蘑外生菌根菌的相互作用%INTERACTION BETWEEN ROOT AND CALLUS OF PINUS DENSIFLORA AND AN ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGUS, TRICHOLOMA MA TSUTAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅禄敏; 铃木和夫

    2003-01-01

    A simple in vitro system is described for interaction between tissues ofPinus densiflora andan ectomycorrhiza fungus, Tricholoma matustake. The callus and roots, which were initiated fromhypocotyl segments, were inoculated with T. matsutake in artificial condition. After two-week incubation,fungal hyphae had colonized the root surface. Fungal hyphae occurred within the root cortex, and Hartignet was formed after three-week. A few fungal hyphae and Hartig net-like structures were also visiblewithin the callus after three-week, while they were rather less abundant in callus as compared with roots.%本实验报道了以简单的离体培养方式来诱导赤松不定根和愈伤组织与松口蘑的菌根反应.不定根和愈伤组织均起源于无菌苗的下胚轴,接种2周后,菌丝体开始包围不定根.接种3周后,菌丝体出现在不定根皮层细胞间,哈蒂氏网型的形成也同时被确认.在愈伤组织培养物中,细胞间也能观察到菌丝体及拟-哈蒂氏网结构.这是第一个离体条件下成功地诱导赤松培养组织与松口蘑形成外生菌根的报道.

  9. 不同林分密度人工林赤松物理力学性质的比较%Physico-mechanical Properties of Pinus densiflora Plantations of Different Stand Densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔京日; 金春德

    2009-01-01

    对延吉市帽儿山不同林分密度的人工林赤松(Pinus densiflora)的物理力学性质差异进行研究.结果表明:2个不同林分密度材绝干密度平均值相同;弦向、径向和纵向干缩率,林分密度相对低的林分人工林赤松大于林分密度相对高的林分人工林赤松;抗弯强度、抗弯弹性模量、顺纹抗拉和抗压强度、横纹弦向和径向抗压强度,林分密度相对低的林分人工林赤松要高于林分密度相对高的林分人工林赤松;弦面和径面抗剪强度,林分密度相对低的林分人工林赤松低于林分密度相对高的林分人工林赤松;2个不同林分密度人工林赤松的径向干缩率、抗弯弹性模量、顺纹抗压强度、横纹弦向和径向抗压强度差异达0.01显著水平,抗弯强度差异达0.05显著水平,绝干密度、弦向干缩率、纵向干缩率、顺纹抗拉强度无显著差异.

  10. 抗松材线虫病赤松家系的抗性测定及组织病理学观察%Resistance Determination and Histopathological Observation of Induced Pinus densiflora Families from Japan to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艺; 吴小芹; 王钰; 叶建仁

    2007-01-01

    对自日本引进的赤松(Pinus densiflora)27个抗病家系进行人工抗病性测定,结果发现抗病各家系对3个不同来源的松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)虫株都表现出不同程度的抗病性,且差异明显.综合3次接种试验结果发现,引进赤松中有13个家系(1、4、5、6、7、8、13、14、15、17、20、23和25 号)抗病表现较好.对5号抗病家系接种松材线虫后,分别按时间进程(4、8、12、24、36、48、72、96、120 h)进行茎段取样,组织病理学观察发现松材线虫在引进的抗病赤松体内的迁移速度较普通赤松慢,且松树茎内木射线细胞和树脂道泌脂细胞周围的薄壁细胞出现病变较普通赤松晚,病变程度也比普通赤松轻.

  11. Variability of the needle essential oils of Pinus heldreichii from different populations in Montenegro and Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2007-05-01

    The essential-oil compositions of Pinus heldreichii Christ. from Montenegro and Serbia are reported at the population level. Whitebark pine is a sub-endemic high-mountain Balkan pine relict of an anthropogenically reduced area, with large morphological diversity and insufficiently clear taxonomic position. In the pine-needle terpene profile from three populations from Montenegro, and one from Serbia, 101 compounds were detected, 72 of which could be identified (Table 3). The dominant constituents are limonene (26.3%), alpha-pinene (17.5%), germacrene D (13.5%), and beta-caryophyllene (10.4%), comprising ca. 67.7% of the essential oil. Medium-to-high contents (0.5-10%) of the following 16 additional components were found: beta-pinene, beta-myrcene, alpha-humulene, delta-cadinene, alpha-muurolene, (E)-hex-2-enal, beta-gurjunene, gamma-muurolene, isopimarol, camphene, gamma-cadinene, aromadendrene, beta-bisabolene, trans-beta-farnesene, alpha-cadinene, and (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol. The similarity of the populations and the within-population variability was visualized by principle-component analysis (PCA) of eleven selected terpenes in 97 tree samples. Cluster and genetic analyses suggest closest connection between the two spatially most-distant populations I (Montenegro) and IV (Serbia). Based on the profile of the main sesquiterpene components, the studied populations from Montenegro and Serbia are more similar to the populations from Greece and the Central Balkan peninsula (Bosnia and Serbia-Kosovo) than to those on the furthest eastern margin of their natural range (Bulgaria).

  12. Essential Oils from Wood, Bark, and Needles of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. from Alexandria, Egypt: Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils extracted by hydro-distillation of Pinus roxburghii wood, bark, and needles were analyzed by GC/MS, and their antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Twenty-two, thirty-one, and twenty-eight compounds were identified in the essential oils of wood, bark, and needles, respectively. The major chemical constituents of wood’s essential oil were caryophyllene (16.75%, thunbergol (16.29%, 3-carene (14.95%, cembrene (12.08%, α-thujene (10.81%, and terpinolen (7.17%. In bark, they were α-pinene (31.29% and 3-carene (28.05%, and in needles, they were α-pinene (39% and 3-carene (33.37%. Almost all of the essential oils were active against human pathogen bacteria, and the essential oils from bark and needles were active against the plant pathogen bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum and Pectobacterium carotovorum. Alternatively, Erwinia amylovora was resistant to all tested oils. The total antioxidant activities (TAA% of the essential oils from wood (82 ± 2.12%, and bark (85 ± 1.24% were higher than that of tannic acid (81 ± 1.02%, and the TAA% from the essential oil of needles (50 ± 2.24% was lower than that of tannic acid.

  13. Accommodation experiment in fields of smoke-resistant trees. Part VII. (A) experiment of field planting of trees of Pinus genus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimoto, K.; Hirayama, S.

    1974-12-01

    In an experimental planting field in Kurashiki City, the following pine trees were planted in February 1968, in fertilized and non-fertilized plots: 38 Pinus densiflora, 39 P. thumbergii, 33 P. teda, 38 P. liquida, 38 P. slash and 27 P. densiflora formosana. The growth state, damage due to pests and the effects of air pollution of these trees were investigated by evaluating the sulfur content, the color and number of needles, as well as the monthly concentration of sulfur oxides in the atmosphere. In 1973 the growth of trees was best in P. slash followed by P. teda and P. thumbergii, P. densiflora, and P. liquida. P. densiflora formosana did not grow normally. The sulfur content of dry leaves of the trees listed in the above order in 1973 in the fertilized plot was 0.244, 0.198, 0.259, 0.262, 0.182, and 0.242%. In P. densiflora, the content of sulfur was greater in trees of abnormal appearance. The atmospheric sulfur oxides content was, on the average, 0.48 and 0.50 ppM respectively in 1972 and 1973.

  14. Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles and bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià; Alves, Arminda

    2009-01-15

    Two different extraction strategies (microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic extraction (USE)) were tested in the extraction of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from pine trees. Extraction of needles and bark from two pine species common in the Iberian Peninsula (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) was optimized using two amounts of sample (1g and 5 g) and two PAHs spiking levels (20 ng/g and 100 ng/g). In all cases, the clean-up procedure following extraction consisted in solid-phase extraction (SPE) with alumina cartridges. Quantification was done by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS), using five deuterated PAH surrogate standards as internal standards. Limits of detection were globally below 0.2 ng/g. The method was robust for the matrices studied regardless of the extraction procedures. Recovery values between 70 and 130% were reached in most cases, except for high molecular weight PAHs (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene). A field study with naturally contaminated samples from eight sites (four in Portugal and four in Catalonia, Spain) showed that needles are more suitable biomonitors for PAHs, yielding concentrations from 2 to 17 times higher than those found in bark. The levels varied according to the sampling site, with the sum of the individual PAH concentrations between 213 and 1773 ng/g (dry weight). Phenanthrene was the most abundant PAH, followed by fluoranthene, naphthalene and pyrene.

  15. Regulation of resin acid synthesis in Pinus densiflora by differential transcription of genes encoding multiple 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase and 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Bok; Kim, Sang-Min; Kang, Min-Kyoung; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Lee, Jong Kyu; Park, Seung-Chan; Shin, Sang-Chul; Kim, Soo-Un

    2009-05-01

    Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. is the major green canopy species in the mountainous area of Korea. To assess the response of resin acid biosynthetic genes to mechanical and chemical stimuli, we cloned cDNAs of genes encoding enzymes involved in the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway (1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (PdDXS), 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PdDXR) and 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase (PdHDR)) by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. In addition, we cloned the gene encoding abietadiene synthase (PdABS) as a marker for the site of pine resin biosynthesis. PdHDR and PdDXS occurred as two gene families. In the phylogenetic trees, PdDXSs, PdDXR and PdHDRs each formed a separate clade from their respective angiosperm homologs. PdDXS2, PdHDR2 and PdDXR were most actively transcribed in stem wood, whereas PdABS was specifically transcribed. The abundance of PdDXS2 transcripts in wood in the resting state was generally 50-fold higher than the abundance of PdDXS1 transcripts, and PdHDR2 transcripts were more abundant by an order of magnitude in wood than in other tissues, with the ratio of PdHDR2 to PdHDR1 transcripts in wood being about 1. Application of 1 mM methyl jasmonate (MeJA) selectively enhanced the transcript levels of PdDXS2 and PdHDR2 in wood. The ratios of PdDXS2 to PdDXS1 and PdHDR2 to PdHDR1 reached 900 and 20, respectively, on the second day after MeJA treatment, whereas the transcript level of PdABS increased twofold by 3 days after MeJA treatment. Wounding of the stem differentially enhanced the transcript ratios of PdDXS2 to PdDXS1 and PdHDR2 to PdHDR1 to 300 and 70, respectively. The increase in the transcript levels of the MEP pathway genes in response to wounding was accompanied by two orders of magnitude increase in PdABS transcripts. These observations indicated that resin acid biosynthesis activity, represented by PdABS transcription, was correlated

  16. Interpopulational variability of Pinus sylvestris L. in eight Polish localities expressed in morphological and anatomical traits of needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-year old needles were collected from 272 standing trees of Pinus sylvestris L., representing 8 Polish populations. The needles were studied in respect to IS morphological and anatomical traits. The obtained data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis in an attempt to delineate interpopulational variability. Multivariate analysis of variance with testing of statistical hypotheses and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mahalanobis distances were calculated between each of population in pairs and their significance was estimated using Hotelling T2 statistics. On the basis of the shortest Mahalanobis distances a minimum spanning tree was constructed and on the basis of Euklidean distances hierarchy grouping was performed. A large majority of the populations was found to differ significantly from the remaining populations. The population from Bolewice proved to be most divergent. The principal variables which proved capable of discriminating between populations were found to include: needle length, the number of stomata on the flat side of the needle and the number of resin canals. Using Bryant's test, the studied populations were found to belong to two geographic groups: the North-Polish one or the South-Polish one.

  17. Variability in needle traits of Pinus mugo Turra in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Boratyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-year-old needles were collected from 131 trees in 4 localities in the Eastern Carpathians in Ukraine. The needles were analysed in respect to 15 morphological and anatomical traits. The most stable appear to be needle width and thickness, and the ratio of needle thickness to width, while the distance between vascular bundles, Marcet's coefficient and number of resin canals were the most variable. Some of the analysed populations differ significantly from each other in the thickness of epidermal cells, number of resin canals and numbers of stomata on adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the needle.

  18. Cold hardiness of interspecific hybrids between Pinus strobus and P. wallichiana measured by post-freezing needle electrolyte leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pengxin; Colombo, Stephen J; Sinclair, Robert W

    2007-02-01

    Interspecific hybrids between eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and Himalayan blue pine (P. wallichiana A. B. Jacks.) were developed in Ontario, Canada, to introduce blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fisch.) resistance genes to P. strobus. There is concern that introducing blister rust resistance has resulted in reduced cold hardiness of the progeny compared with non-hybridized eastern white pine. To test the efficacy of backcrossing with P. strobus to improve cold hardiness, 1-year-old seedlings from hybrid crosses differing in P. strobus genome composition were artificially freeze-tested. In Experiment 1, unhardened seedlings were allowed to acclimate to progressively lower temperatures in a growth room, whereas in Experiment 2, seedlings were hardened outdoors under natural weather conditions in Sault Ste Marie, Ontario. Needle cold injury was determined by calculating relative electrical conductivity based on post-freezing electrolyte leakage. Results indicated that needle fascicles from unhardened seedlings of all genotypes in the greenhouse tolerated -5 degrees C for 3 hours with little or no injury. Cold hardiness increased in parallel with declining growth room minimum temperature over the 7-week period of hardening. Cold hardiness was improved for hybrid crosses with increased Pinus strobus genome composition in Experiment 2, but the results were less conclusive in Experiment 1.

  19. Interactive effects of simultaneous ozone and fluoranthene fumigation on the eco-physiological status of the evergreen conifer, Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb et. Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Forest decline has long been attributed to air pollution and acid rain/fog, with ozone having a record for damaging trees. This study investigated eco-physiological changes on Japanese red pine caused by simultaneous fumigation of O(3) (O) and fluoranthene (F) over a 90 day period. Seedlings were exposed individually or in combinations to 10 muM fluoranthene and O(3) (3 ppm and 6 ppm in 60 days and 90 days, respectively) inside growth chambers. Eco-physiological parameters monitored included gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, needle chlorophyll content, and visual appearance. After 90 days, O + F treatment showed deleterious effects on visual needle appearance and the net photosynthesis rate near saturated irradiance. In addition, decreased levels in stomatal conductance, photochemical efficiency of PS II in the dark, and total chlorophyll and Chl a: Chl b were observed. F only treatment showed similar results but in lesser magnitude compared with F + O treatment. O treatment alone showed no significant negative effect, probably due to its low concentration in the 60 day treatment. The addition of mannitol (OH radical scavenger) mitigated O + F and F negative effects. Fluoranthene deposited on Japanese red pine presents great eco-physiological damage risk, even at low O(3) concentration. Furthermore, the effects of O(3) assisted phyto-toxicity of fluoranthene on red pine may have relevance to other plant species.

  20. Fluoranthene fumigation and exogenous scavenging of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in evergreen Japanese red pine seedlings (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) such as O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), and *OH is known to be a major mechanism of damage in biological systems. This study investigated and compared effectiveness of scavenging ROI generated in fluoranthene (FLU) pre-fumigated Japanese red pine seedlings. Three kinds of eco-physiological assessments were used to express the impact of the different fumigants used inside the green house. Gas exchange measurements showed negative changes induced by 10 microM FLU on Japanese pine seedlings during a 10 d exposure period whilst no negative change was found during a 5 d exposure period. Moreover, during a 14 d FLU exposure incorporating ROI scavengers, results revealed that chlorophyll fluorescence, needle chemical contents and needle dry mass per unit area of the seedlings were affected. The negative effects of FLU on the conifer were dependent on both the dose and period of FLU fumigation. Peroxidase (PERO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and mannitol (MANN) were all effective scavengers of ROI. MANN scavenged *OH, the most lethal of the ROI. For practicable use, MANN is more economical, and may be the best ROI scavenger among the three considered. It can be concluded that efficient scavenging of ROI in biological systems is important to mitigate the negative effects of FLU on Japanese red pine trees.

  1. [Photosynthetic functions and chlorophyll fast fluorescence characteristics of five Pinus species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Nian-Wei; Zhou, Feng; Gu, Zhu-Jun; Jia, Shu-Qin; Wang, Xing-An

    2012-05-01

    A comparative study was made on the needle morphological characteristics, photosynthetic rate, and chlorophyll fast fluorescence induction curves of five representative Pinus species P. parvifiora, P. armandii, P. bungeana, P. tabuliformis, and P. densiflora. Significant differences were observed in the needle morphological characteristics among the five species. P. tabuliformis had the longest needle length and highest needle density, whereas P. bungeana had the highest chlorophyll content. P. densiflora and P. parvifiora had the maximum and minimum photosynthetic rate, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance across the five species. The differences in the chlorophyll fast fluorescence induction curves of the five species were mainly manifested in J-step and I-step. Although the five species had similar values of Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo and Tfm, P. parviflora had significantly higher values of dV/dt(o), dVG/d(o), V and Vi, but lower energy flux ratio psi(o), phiEo and phiRo, compared with the other four species. The low PSII activity and efficiency of P. parviflora might relate to its smallest Sm, Sm/Tfm and N. P. densiflora and P. parvifiora had the maximum and minimum vitality indices PI(ABS/CSo/CSm) and DF, respectively, and there existed significant positive correlations between the PI(CSo) and PI(CSm) and the net photosynthetic rate of the five species, suggesting that PI(CSo) and PI(CSm) could be used to estimate the photosynthetic activity of Pinus trees.

  2. 赤松、侧柏两树种含碳量方程的构建%Construction of Carbon Content Equations of Pinus densiflora and Platycladus orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宁; 李建华; 崔传洋; 周才平; 冯燕; 刘新; 侯化洋

    2016-01-01

    To get the carbon content of tissues and whole trees from Pinus densiflora and Platycladus orientalis, this paper took the live data by way of excavating whole trees and weighing dividually in combination with sampling in the wild and determining carbon rate in door to construct the regression equations at diameters and heights as independent variables, carbon content as dependent variables. The results showed there were significant difference in the single-variable carbon content equation with DBH as the independent variable and the binary carbon content equation with DBH and height as the independent variables. This method saved time, labor and had a specific target compared with traditional methods. Therefore, the equations not only could be used to measure the carbon storage of the two species, but also provide technology way to measure other species for reference.%本文采用整株挖掘、分割称重法野外获得15株赤松和16株侧柏的单木及器官生物量实测数据,结合野外取样和室内含碳率测定求算出树木各器官及整株含碳量。以含碳量为因变量,树木胸径和树高为自变量建立含碳量回归方程。结果表明:以胸径为自变量的一元含碳量方程与以胸径、树高同时为自变量的二元含碳量方程均达到极显著水平。该方法与传统的方法相比,具有省时、省力、针对性强的特点,因此,所建方程不仅可用于两树种的碳储量计测研究,同时也为今后其他树种的碳储量计测提供了可供借鉴的技术方法。

  3. Gas/solid particulate phthalic esters (PAEs) in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wen-xin, E-mail: wenxin973@foxmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Fan, Chinbay Q. [Gas Technology Institute, 1700 S. Mt. Prospect Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60018 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The pine needle/rhizosphere soil distribution of PAEs was related to P{sub L} and K{sub P}. • The P{sub L} and K{sub P} determined the PAE deposition to surface soils and to needles. • High regression parameters of log Rs/n − log P{sub L} and log K{sub P} − log P{sub L} were achieved. • Log Rs/n carried the information of K{sub P} and lineally correlated with log P{sub L}. - Abstract: Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are used in many branches of industry and are produced in huge amounts throughout the world. An investigation on particulate- and gas-phase distribution of PAEs has been conducted between January 2011 and December 2012 in Nanjing (China). Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils were sampled from urban to suburban/remote sites, to investigate the pine needle/soil distribution of PAEs. The results showed that the average total PAE concentration (gas + particle) was 97.0 ng m{sup −3}. The six PAE congeners considered predominantly existed in the gas phase and the average contribution of gas phase to total PAEs ranged from 75.0% to 89.1%. The PAE concentrations in rhizosphere soils and pine needles were positively correlated with their particulate- and gas-phase concentrations, respectively, which suggested that surface soils accumulated PAEs mainly through gravity deposition of particles and pine needle stomata absorbed PAEs mainly from the gas phase. The gas/particle partitioning (K{sub P}) and soil-pine needle ratio (Rs/n) were determined. Experimentally determined K{sub P} values correlated well with the subcooled liquid vapor pressures (P{sub L}). A set of interesting relationships of log Rs/n − log K{sub P} − log P{sub L} was employed to explain the experimental findings of PAEs deposition to surface soils and to needles. This data set offered a unique perspective into the influence that Rs/n played in K{sub P} and correlated with P{sub L}.

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals in needles and bark of Pinus species

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    Parzych Agnieszka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the research, cumulative properties of conifer needles P. armandii, P. banksiana, P. mugo, P. nigra, P. sylvestris and P. wallichiana in reference to Cu, Ni, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cd were analysed, and the factors which have an impact on the chemical composition of the bark of those species were identified. During the study, the age of needles and the content of the examined components in soil was taken into consideration. The content of metals in the needles varied, depending on a species and the age of the coniferous needles. In most cases, a higher level of content of those metals was determined in 2 years old needles, except for Cu and Zn (P. banksiana as well as Zn (P. nigra, in which case, higher concentration of metals in 1 year old needles was determined. The obtained results indicate that the heavy metals’ concentration in the samples of needles was relatively low, except for Ni (P. armandii, P. sylvestris, P. wallchiana and Cd (P. armandii, P. banksiana, which showed higher levels. Among the examined elements, Mn was accumulated in the largest volume in the needles of P. banksiana, Fe and Cu in the needles of P. wallchiana, Ni in the needles of P. sylvestris, Zn in the needles of P. nigra and Cd in the needles of P. armandii. The bark samples represented a clearly acidic reaction, with pH levels from 3.7 (P. sylvestris to 4.9 (P. armandii. The highest quantities of Mn, Fe, Cu and Cd were accumulated by the bark of P. armandii, Ni in the bark of P. sylvestris and Cu in the bark of P. mugo.

  5. Accumulating pollutants in conifer needles on an Atlantic island - A case study with Pinus canariensis on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, Michael [School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, University of Melbourne, Water Street, Creswick, Victoria 3363 (Australia); Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria)]. E-mail: michael.tausz@uni-graz.at; Trummer, Walter [Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Goessler, Walter [Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Chemie, Analytische Chemie, Universitaetsplatz 1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Wonisch, Astrid [Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Grill, Dieter [Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Naumann, Simone [Universitaet Karlsruhe (TH), Institut fuer Geographie und Geooekologie, Kaiserstrasse 12, Geb. 10.50, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jimenez, Maria Soledad [Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Fisiologia Vegetal, E-38207 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Morales, Domingo [Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Fisiologia Vegetal, E-38207 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2005-08-15

    Concentrations of potential pollutant elements Na, Cl, and S were investigated in needles of Pinus canariensis grown at 55 field plots in Tenerife. Microelement concentrations (including heavy metals) were measured at a subset of 18 plots. Na and Cl concentrations were high at low elevations (up to 8 mg g{sup -1} Cl and 5.5 mg g{sup -1} Na). Na/Cl ratio close to standard seawater indicated sea spray influence up to 1200 m a.s.l. Only at few plots, sulphur concentrations indicated possible pollutant impact. Cluster and correlation analyses identified a related group of V, As, Cr, Fe, Mo, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Al, possibly related to traffic exhaust aggregated with soil particles. Mainly north-eastern, lower elevated plots were exposed to those immissions, but metal concentrations were generally low compared to data from other studies. In conclusion, seawater and soil particles explained most of the element distribution pattern in pine needles in Tenerife, but strong indications for some effect of local sources of air pollutants were detected. - Pollutant concentrations in pine needles indicate moderate local impact of sulphur, particulate matter, and sea sprays at lower elevation plots in Tenerife.

  6. Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) growing nearby different industrial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fangfang; Wen, Dazhi; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Jiong; Li, Jianli; Zuo, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Emissions from industrial activities pose a serious threat to human health and impose the need for monitoring both inorganic and organic pollutants in industrial areas. We selected Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) as potential biomonitor and collected the current (C) and previous year (C+1) needles from three industrial sites dominated by petrochemical, ceramics manufacturing, and iron and steel smelting plants and one remote site to determine heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni and Co) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in unwashed and water-washed needles. Both unwashed and washed C+1 needles showed generally higher concentrations of heavy metals and PAHs than C needles, although the washed needles more clearly spotlighted the accumulation effect of PAHs over exposure time. Water-washing resulted in a significant decrease in needle PAH concentrations with more significant effects shown in C needles. By contrast, needle heavy metal concentrations were much less affected by washing. Although heavy metals and PAHs might differ in adsorption and uptake strategies, their higher concentrations in the needles at the industrial sites indicated conspicuous contamination due to industrial emissions there. The PAH distribution patterns in pine needles accorded with the real types of energy consumption in the study sites and were efficiently used for pinpointing local pollutant sources.

  7. EFFECT OF ATMOSPHERIC AMMONIA ON THE NITROGEN-METABOLISM OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS-SYLVESTRIS) NEEDLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PEREZSOBA, M; STULEN, [No Value; VANDEREERDEN, LJM

    1994-01-01

    Four-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were exposed to filtered air (FA), and to FA supplemented with NH3 (60 and 240 mu g m(-3)) in controlled-environment chambers for 14 weeks. Exposure to the higher NH, concentration resulted in an increased activity of glutamine synthetase (

  8. Dynamics of Pinus sylvestris L. needles activity in Predbaikal’ye forests

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    I.M. Romanova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to analyse changes in peroxidase activity of common pine needles throughout the year. The needles of the 1-st, 2-nd and 3-d years were collected. Total activity of guaiacol-dependent peroxidase was determined. Minimum peroxidase activity is observed in January and February. In March intense overall activation of peroxidase is observed in the needles of all ages, which might be related to spring enhancement of physiological processes and activation of metabolism. Autumn period is characterized by more or less high activities of guaiacol peroxidase from September till November, which is related to its participation in stress-adaptation to low temperatures in winter. Peroxidase activity changes depending on the season of the year. Needles of different age are characterized by their own peroxidase activity level in various time periods.

  9. Antibacterial potential of essential oils of the needles of Pinus halepensis against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalem Bachir Raho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of essential oil of the needles of Pinus halepensis (P. halepensis. Methods: The antibacterial activity of essential oil of the needles of P. halepensis was determined using the agar well diffusion technique and disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Results: The diameter of zones of inhibition exhibited by the essential oil was between 6 and 17 mm. The essential oils was compared favorably with gentamycin used as a standard control. The minimum inhibitory concentration determined by the agar well diffusion method was 0.52 mg/ mL for Staphylococcus aureus and 2.15 mg/mL for Escherichia coli. The minimum bactericidal concentration of the oils against the two microorganisms was 4.17 mg/mL. Conclusions: The results obtained from this study reveal that P. halepensis essential oils possess antibacterial activities and can be used as antimicrobial agents in the search for new drugs.

  10. The atmospheric potential of biogenic volatile organic compounds from needles of white pine (Pinus strobus) in Northern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, S.; Bertman, S.

    2012-02-01

    The key role that biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) play in atmospheric chemistry requires a detailed understanding of how BVOC concentrations will be affected by environmental change. Large-scale screening of BVOC emissions from whole forest ecosystems is difficult with enclosure methods. Leaf composition of BVOC, as a surrogate for direct emissions, can more easily reflect the distribution of BVOC compounds in a forest. In this study, BVOC composition in needles of 92 white pine trees (Pinus strobus), which are becoming a large part of Midwest forests, are tracked for three summers at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). α-Pinene, the dominant terpene in all samples, accounts for 30-50% of all terpenes on a mole basis. The most abundant sesquiterpenoid was a C15 alcohol identified as germacrene D-4-ol. The relationship between limonene and total other monoterpenes shows two distinct trends in the population of these forests. About 14% (n = 13) of the trees showed high levels of limonene (up to 36% of the total BVOC) in the same trees every year. Assuming that needle concentrations scale with emission rate, we estimate that hydroxyl radical reactivity due to reaction with monoterpenes from white pine increases approximately 6% at UMBS when these elevated concentrations are included. We suggest that chemotypic variation within forests has the potential to affect atmospheric chemistry and that large-scale screening of BVOC can be used to study the importance of BVOC variation.

  11. Antibacterial potential of essential oils of the needles of Pinus halepensis against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghalem Bachir Raho

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To examine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of essential oil of the needles of Pinus halepensis (P. halepensis). Methods:The antibacterial activity of essential oil of the needles of P. halepensis was determined using the agar well diffusion technique and disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Results:The diameter of zones of inhibition exhibited by the essential oil was between 6 and 17 mm. The essential oils was compared favorably with gentamycin used as a standard control. The minimum inhibitory concentration determined by the agar well diffusion method was 0.52 mg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus and 2.15 mg/mL for Escherichia coli. The minimum bactericidal concentration of the oils against the two microorganisms was 4.17 mg/mL. Conclusions:The results obtained from this study reveal that P. halepensis essential oils possess antibacterial activities and can be used as antimicrobial agents in the search for new drugs.

  12. Accumulating pollutants in conifer needles on an Atlantic island - a case study with Pinus canariensis on Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausz, Michael; Trummer, Walter; Goessler, Walter; Wonisch, Astrid; Grill, Dieter; Naumann, Simone; Jiménez, Maria Soledad; Morales, Domingo

    2005-08-01

    Concentrations of potential pollutant elements Na, Cl, and S were investigated in needles of Pinus canariensis grown at 55 field plots in Tenerife. Microelement concentrations (including heavy metals) were measured at a subset of 18 plots. Na and Cl concentrations were high at low elevations (up to 8 mg g(-1) Cl and 5.5 mg g(-1) Na). Na/Cl ratio close to standard seawater indicated sea spray influence up to 1200 m a.s.l. Only at few plots, sulphur concentrations indicated possible pollutant impact. Cluster and correlation analyses identified a related group of V, As, Cr, Fe, Mo, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Al, possibly related to traffic exhaust aggregated with soil particles. Mainly north-eastern, lower elevated plots were exposed to those immissions, but metal concentrations were generally low compared to data from other studies. In conclusion, seawater and soil particles explained most of the element distribution pattern in pine needles in Tenerife, but strong indications for some effect of local sources of air pollutants were detected.

  13. Contrasting patterns of spatial genetic differentiation in two east asian five-needle pine species, Pinus koraiensis and P. armandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokon M.-M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species of East Asian five-needle pines of the section Strobus, Korean pine, Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. and Armand's pine, Pinus armandii Franch are traditionally placed in two different subsections, Cembrae and Strobi, respectively.However, data on similarity of these pines in needle anatomy and pollen structure are reported. By means of starch gel electrophoresis we studied allozyme variation within populations of these species and between the two species. Among 30 studied loci we selected 17 polymorphic loci with reliable interpretation of allele correspondencebetween species. Allozyme patterns were similar in both species with respect to number of loci and predominant alleles at most loci. Intra-specific differentiation among 12 populations of Pinus koraiensis from Russia, Northeast China and South Korea was low, FST (proportion of among population variation in total variation was as low as 0.019, DN (Nei's genetic distance varied between 0.001 and 0.006. This genetic uniformity can be explained by a common gene pool of this species within virtually continuous range under similar ecological conditions. Common vectors of selection, natural gene flow through pollen and seed dispersal as well as mixing of genetic material between regions by humans (at least in Russian forestry practice are putative factors responsible for low differentiation in Korean stone pine. We estimated the same parameters in Pinus armandii from continental China (Guizhou, Shaanxi, Shenyan where its range is highly fragmented, and found differentiation in this species to be much more pronounced (FST = 0.067, DN = 0.011-0.029. By adding a sample from Taiwan both FST (0.338 and DN (up to 0.232 were substantially higher indicating high level of differences between continental and Taiwanese P. armandii, putatively due to longer isolation time. Maximal contribution was fromloci Adh-1, Got-3, Mdh-1, 6-Pgd-3, Pgm-2 and Skdh-2. Differences were mainly caused by allelic

  14. Contrasting patterns of spatial genetic differentiation in two east asian five-needle pine species, Pinus koraiensis and P. armandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Belokon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species of East Asian five-needle pines of the section Strobus, Korean pine, Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. and Armand's pine, Pinus armandii Franch are traditionally placed in two different subsections, Cembrae and Strobi, respectively. However, data on similarity of these pines in needle anatomy and pollen structure are reported. By means of starch gel electrophoresis we studied allozyme variation within populations of these species and between the two species. Among 30 studied loci we selected 17 polymorphic loci with reliable interpretation of allele correspondence between species. Allozyme patterns were similar in both species with respect to number of loci and predominant alleles at most loci. Intra-specific differentiation among 12 populations of Pinus koraiensis from Russia, Northeast China and South Korea was low, FST (proportion of among population variation in total variation was as low as 0.019, DN (Nei's genetic distance varied between 0.001 and 0.006. This genetic uniformity can be explained by a common gene pool of this species within virtually continuous range under similar ecological conditions. Common vectors of selection, natural gene flow through pollen and seed dispersal as well as mixing of genetic material between regions by humans (at least in Russian forestry practice are putative factors responsible for low differentiation in Korean stone pine. We estimated the same parameters in Pinus armandii from continental China (Guizhou, Shaanxi, Shenyan where its range is highly fragmented, and found differentiation in this species to be much more pronounced (FST = 0.067, DN = 0.011-0.029. By adding a sample from Taiwan both FST (0.338 and DN (up to 0.232 were substantially higher indicating high level of differences between continental and Taiwanese P. armandii, putatively due to longer isolation time. Maximal contribution was from loci Adh-1, Got-3, Mdh-1, 6-Pgd-3, Pgm-2 and Skdh-2. Differences were mainly caused by

  15. Flavonoids and Other Phenolic Compounds in Needles of Pinus peuce and Other Pine Species from the Macedonian Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapandzova, Marija; Stefkov, Gjose; Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stanoeva, Jasmina Petreska; Stefova, Marina; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2015-06-01

    Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in young needles of four pine species, Pinus peuce, P. nigra, P. mugo and P. sylvestris from the Macedonian flora were investigated. The amount of total phenols and total flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride assay, respectively. The obtained results revealed that the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC) varied among different pine species ranging from 9.8 to 14.0 mg GAE/g and from 3.3 to 7.2 mg CE/g of dried plant material, respectively. Qualitative analysis of flavonoids and other phenolic components was made by a LC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) optimized chromatographic method. A total of 17 phenolic components were identified and classified as: acids (2), procyanidins (2) and flavonoid glycosides (13). The most prevalent components were flavonoid glycosides, especially flavonols and methylated flavonols (9). Additionally, 3 components were found as acylated flavonol glycosides with ferulic and p-coumaric acid. The last one was found not only in esterified form but also in the free form. Only one flavone-apigenin glycoside was detected. Procyanidins were identified as catechin derivatives, both dimers and trimers.

  16. The atmospheric potential of biogenic volatile organic compounds from needles of White Pine (Pinus strobus in Northern Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bertman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The key role biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC play in atmospheric chemistry requires a detailed understanding of how BVOC concentrations will be affected by environmental change. Large-scale screening of ecosystems is difficult with enclosure methods. In this study, BVOC in needles of 71 white pine trees (Pinus strobus, which are becoming a large part of Midwest forests, are tracked for three summers at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS. α-pinene, the dominant terpene in all samples, accounts for 30–50% of all terpenes on a mole basis. The most abundant sesquiterpenoid was a C15 alcohol identified as germacrene-D-4-ol. The abundance of this material and its atmospheric relevance has not been considered previously. The relationship between limonene and α-pinene clearly shows two distinct trends in the population of these forests. About 15% of the trees showed high levels of limonene (up to 36% of the total BVOC in the same trees every year. With this mixture, limonene contributes 11% of the α-pinene contribution to total gas-phase OH loss at UMBS compared to less than 2% considering the composition of the majority trees. Hence we show that chemotypic variation within forests can affect atmospheric chemistry and that large-scale screening of BVOC can be used effectively to study the importance of BVOC variation for predicting atmospheric chemistry in future forests.

  17. Effects of ethanolic extract of pine needles (Pinus eldarica Medw. on reserpine-induced depression-like behavior in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Bolandghamat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, the antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of Pinus eldarica Medw needles was assessed using forced swimming test (FST in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six Groups and treated as follows: first group was received only reserpine (6 mg/kg, i.p., second group was received reserpine (6 mg/kg, i.p. and imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p., three experimental groups received reserpine (6 mg/kg, i.p. and three doses of pine needle extract (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. respectively and the final group (control group received only vehicle (5% DMSO, i.p.. Results: Acute oral administration of ethanolic extract of P. eldarica Medw needles at a dosage of 300 mg/kg reduced reserpine-induced increase in immobility time in the FST, demonstrating an antidepressant effect in the FST. Additionally, extract treatment did not modify the ambulation and rearing evaluated in open field test, indicating that antidepressant effect found in the forced swimming test was not based on the stimulation of locomotor activity. Conclusion: These results indicate that ethanolic extract of Pinus eldarica needles possesses an antidepressant activity.

  18. Pine (Pinus morrisonicola Hayata) needle extracts sensitize GBM8901 human glioblastoma cells to temozolomide by downregulating autophagy and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chia-Leng; Chen, Chien-Min; Chang, Yan-Zin; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Lin, Chih-Li

    2014-10-29

    Pine needle extracts of Pinus morrisonicola (Hayata) are commonly used as a functional health beverage. However, it remains unclear what the mechanism is underlying the antitumor activity of pine needle extract. The aims of present study were to investigate the anti-glioblastoma effects of pine needle extracts as well as its bioactive compounds. From three different solvent extracts of pine needles, the water extract displayed the strongest cytotoxicity effects on GBM8901 glioblastoma cells. The isolated compounds were identified as pinocembrin, chrysin, and tiliroside. Chrysin was the most active ingredient of pine needle extract for the induction of apoptosis and suppression of migration and invasion. It also markedly inhibited temozolomide (TMZ)-induced autophagy and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression. Because both autophagy and MGMT overexpression have been implicated to TMZ-induced drug resistance in glioblastoma, our results showed that pine needle extract and chrysin may serve as a potential anticancer agent against glioblastoma, especially with regard to sensitizing glioblastoma cells resistant to TMZ.

  19. Physiological response of Pinus halepensis needles under ozone and water stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manes, F.; Donato, E. [Univ. of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Dept. of Plant Biology, Rome (Italy); Vitale, M. [Univ. of Molise, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Isernia (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how physiological processes of potted Pinus halepensis plants, grown under controlled conditions, were affected by ozone (O{sub 3}) and/or water stress, integrating the gas exchange and biochemical data with fluorescence OJIP polyphasic transient data. Plants submitted to only water stress (T{sub 1}) and with ozone (T{sub 3}) showed a strong decrease in stomatal conductance and gas exchange, coinciding with a reduction of maximum yield of photochemistry ({rho}{sub po}) and very negative values of leaf water potential. Simultaneously, a great increase of both PSII antenna size, indicated by absorption per reaction centre, and electron transport per reaction centre were found. The reduction of photosynthesis in the O{sub 3}-treated plants (T{sub 2}) by a slowing down of the Calvin cycle was supported by the increase of related fluorescence parameters such as relative variable fluorescence, heat de-excitation constant, energy de-excitation by spillover, and the decrease of {rho}{sub po}. We suggest an antagonistic effect between the two stresses to explain the delayed ozone-induced decrease of stomatal conductance values for T{sub 3} with respect to T{sub 1} plants, by an alteration of the physiological mechanisms of stomatal opening, which involve the increase of intra-cellular free-calcium induced by ABA under co-occurring water shortage. We emphasise the importance of considering the intensity of the individual stress factor in studies concerning the interaction of stresses. (au)

  20. Genetic effects on total phenolics, condensed tannins and non-structural carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Michael J; King, John S; Booker, Fitzgerald L; McKeand, Steven E

    2011-08-01

    Carbon allocation to soluble phenolics (total phenolics, proanthocyanidins (PA)) and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; starch and soluble sugars) in needles of widely planted, highly productive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact stand resistance to herbivory, and biogeochemical cycling in the southeastern USA. However, genetic and growth-related effects on loblolly pine needle chemistry are not well characterized. Therefore, we investigated genetic and growth-related effects on foliar concentrations of total phenolics, PA and TNC in two different field studies. The first study contained nine different genotypes representing a range of genetic homogeneity, growing in a 2-year-old plantation on the coastal plain of North Carolina (NC), USA. The second study contained eight clones with different growth potentials planted in a 9-year-old clonal trial replicated at two sites (Georgia (GA) and South Carolina (SC), USA). In the first study (NC), we found no genetic effects on total phenolics, PA and TNC, and there was no relationship between genotype size and foliar biochemistry. In the second study, there were no differences in height growth between sites, but the SC site showed greater diameter (diameter at breast height (DBH)) and volume, most likely due to greater tree mortality (lower stocking) which reduced competition for resources and increased growth of remaining trees. We found a significant site × clone effect for total phenolics with lower productivity clones showing 27-30% higher total phenolic concentrations at the GA site where DBH and volume were lower. In contrast to the predictions of growth-defense theory, clone volume was positively associated with total phenolic concentrations at the higher volume SC site, and PA concentrations at the lower volume GA site. Overall, we found no evidence of a trade-off between genotype size and defense, and genetic potential for improved growth may include increased allocation to some

  1. Concentrations and nitrogen isotope compositions of free amino acids in Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) needles of different ages as indicators of atmospheric nitrogen pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Xiao, Huayun

    2017-09-01

    Free amino acid δ15N values and concentrations of current-year new (new), current-year mature (middle-age) and previous-year (old) Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) needles were determined for five sites with different distances from a highway in a forest in Guiyang (SW China). Needle free amino acid concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the highway, and only the free amino acid concentrations (total free amino acid, arginine, γ-aminobutyric acid, valine, alanine and proline) in the middle-aged needles demonstrated a strong correlation with distance from the highway, indicating that free amino acid concentrations in middle-aged needles may be a more suitable indicator of nitrogen (N) deposition compared to new and old needles. Needle free amino acid δ15N values were more positive near the highway compared to the more distant sites and increased with increasing needle age, indicating that N deposition in this site may be dominated by isotopically heavy NOx-N from traffic emissions. In sites beyond 400 m from the highway, the δ15N values of total free amino acids, histidine, glutamine, proline, alanine, aspartate, isoleucine, lysine, arginine and serine in each age of needle were noticeably negative compared to their respective δ15N values near the highway. This suggested that needle free amino acid δ15N values from these sites were more affected by 15N-depleted atmospheric NHx-N from soil emissions. This result was further supported by the similarity in the negative moss δ15N values at these sites to the δ15N values of soil-derived NHx-N. Needle free amino acid δ15N values therefore have the potential to provide information about atmospheric N sources. We conclude that needle free amino acid concentrations are sensitive indicators of N deposition and that the age-related free amino acid δ15N values in needles can efficiently reflect atmospheric N sources. This would probably promote the application of the combined plant tissue amino acid

  2. 昆嵛山赤松林不同林型结构特征与生产力的研究%Community structure characteristics and productivity of varied Pinus densiflora forest types in Kunyu Mountain,Shandong Province of eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜华

    2012-01-01

    It held the largest area of nature Pinus densiflora forests in the world in Kunyu Mountain National Nature Reserve,Shandong Province of eastern China.According to the slope aspect,slope position,soil thickness of the sites and dominant tree species,we classified P.densiflora forests in this reserve into 4 groups,and then investigated the structure and productivity of the forest community in relation to different forest types.The results showed that the pure P.densiflora forests occupied the largest area in this reserve,and it was predominately characterized by even-aged stands and half-mature forests of 30-50 years old mixed with Quercus spp.The shrub and herb layers of undergrowth developed well,and we recorded about 20 species of shrub and 40 species of herb in the sample plots.The stand productivity,however,was rather lower.The middle-aged forest located at suitable sites held 30-50 m3/hm2 of the stand volume and 1-2 m3/hm2 of the annual average increment.In addition,the stand volume of the mixed forest of P.densiflora and broadleaved tree species was more than 90 m3/hm2 and the annual increment was 2-3 m3/hm2.%根据立地主导因子(坡向、坡位、土层厚度)与混交状况,对山东昆嵛山赤松林划分林型,将其归纳为4个林型组(山脊阳坡薄土赤松林,阳坡中土厚土赤松林,阴坡中土厚土赤松林,阴坡阳坡中厚土松阔混交林)。并对不同林型的群落结构与林分生产力进行了研究。结果表明:赤松纯林面积较大,林龄多为30~50年生的中龄林、同龄林,混交树种多为栎类(麻栎、栓皮栎等)。林下灌木层与草本层发育较好,样地中常见约20个灌木种,近40种草本。林木与林分生产力较低,立地较好的中龄林林分蓄积量约30~50m3/hm2,平均材积生长量1~2m3/hm2;松阔混交林蓄积量超过90m3/hm2,年均材积生长量达2~3m3/hm2。

  3. Pinus flexilis and Piceae engelmannii share a simple and consistent needle endophyte microbiota with a potential role in nitrogen fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Ann Carrell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conifers predominantly occur on soils or in climates that are suboptimal for plant growth. This is generally attributed to symbioses with mycorrhizal fungi and to conifer adaptations, but recent experiments suggest that aboveground endophytic bacteria in conifers fix nitrogen (N and affect host shoot tissue growth. Because most bacteria cannot be grown in the laboratory very little is known about conifer-endophyte associations in the wild. Pinus flexilis (limber pine and Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce growing in a subalpine, nutrient-limited environment are potential candidates for hosting endophytes with roles in N2 fixation and abiotic stress tolerance. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to ask whether these conifers host a core of bacterial species that are consistently associated with conifer individuals and therefore potential mutualists. We found that while overall the endophyte communities clustered according to host species, both conifers were consistently dominated by the same phylotype, which made up 19-53% and 14-39% of the sequences in P. flexilis and P. engelmannii respectively. This phylotype is related to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and other N2 fixing acetic acid bacterial endophytes. The pattern observed for the P. flexilis and P. engelmannii needle microbiota—a small number of major species that are consistently associated with the host across individuals and species—is unprecedented for an endophyte community, and suggests a specialized beneficial endophyte function. One possibility is endophytic N fixation, which could help explain how conifers can grow in severely nitrogen-limited soil, and why some forest ecosystems accumulate more N than can be accounted for by known nitrogen input pathways.

  4. Pinus flexilis and Picea engelmannii share a simple and consistent needle endophyte microbiota with a potential role in nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Alyssa A; Frank, Anna C

    2014-01-01

    Conifers predominantly occur on soils or in climates that are suboptimal for plant growth. This is generally attributed to symbioses with mycorrhizal fungi and to conifer adaptations, but recent experiments suggest that aboveground endophytic bacteria in conifers fix nitrogen (N) and affect host shoot tissue growth. Because most bacteria cannot be grown in the laboratory very little is known about conifer-endophyte associations in the wild. Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce) growing in a subalpine, nutrient-limited environment are potential candidates for hosting endophytes with roles in N2 fixation and abiotic stress tolerance. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to ask whether these conifers host a core of bacterial species that are consistently associated with conifer individuals and therefore potential mutualists. We found that while overall the endophyte communities clustered according to host species, both conifers were consistently dominated by the same phylotype, which made up 19-53% and 14-39% of the sequences in P. flexilis and P. engelmannii, respectively. This phylotype is related to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and other N2 fixing acetic acid bacterial endophytes. The pattern observed for the P. flexilis and P. engelmannii needle microbiota-a small number of major species that are consistently associated with the host across individuals and species-is unprecedented for an endophyte community, and suggests a specialized beneficial endophyte function. One possibility is endophytic N fixation, which could help explain how conifers can grow in severely nitrogen-limited soil, and why some forest ecosystems accumulate more N than can be accounted for by known nitrogen input pathways.

  5. Alelopatia de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de Avena strigosa Allelopathic of Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of Avena strigosa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Ricardo Sartor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de aveia preta comum (Avena strigosa. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Bioquímica e Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR, Campus de Pato Branco, utilizando o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com tratamento fatorial (bifatorial com parcela subdividida no tempo, com três repetições, sob condições de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade controladas. Os tratamentos foram compostos por cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de extrato bruto de acículas de pínus em estágio vegetativo (acícula verde, moderadamente decomposto (acícula seca e em decomposição avançada (acícula decomposta. As avaliações foram realizadas a cada 24 horas. Foram avaliados os parâmetros porcentagem de germinação, velocidade média de germinação e comprimento de radículas e epicótilos das plântulas de Avena strigosa. O estágio de acícula verde afetou significativamente as variáveis avaliadas e esse problema aumentou com a concentração do extrato.The purpose of this study was to verify the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract from the Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of black oat (Avena strigosa seedlings. The work was carried out at the Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory at the Federal Technological University of Paraná (UTFPR, Campus Pato Branco, using a completely randomized design with factorial distribution in three replicates, under temperature, humidity and light controlled conditions. The extract from the pine needles was composed of five percentages (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the crude extract (EB dilution, composed of distilled water + pine needles in vegetative stage (green needles, moderately decomposed (dry needles and in advanced decomposition (decomposed needles. The

  6. Salicylic acid up-regulates the expression of chloroplastic Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase in needles of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.)

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Herlânder; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Tavares, Rui

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Several studies have supported a major role of salicylic acid in modulating plant response against abiotic and biotic stresses, by induction antioxidant capacity. In this work, a full-length cDNA encoding a Cu,Zn - superoxide dismutase was isolated by screening a Pinus pinaster needle cDNA library. The predicted protein of 215 amino acid residues has a molecular mass of 22.1 kDa and exhibits a N-terminal transit peptide, which putatively targets the protein to the chlo...

  7. 利用I&和*m指标法对山东赤松种群空间分布格局纹理的研究%A Study with I& and *m Index on the Vein of Spatial Patterns of Pinus densiflora Population in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 赵善伦

    2002-01-01

    With the methods of I& and *m index,the vein of spatial patterns of P. Densiflora population in Shandong province has been preliminarily studied.The results show that the clump is bigger and the vein is rougher for P.densiflora forest with high administrative age levels than that with low age levels.The clump of artificial forest doesn't show evident patches,and the vein is trifling.The individual distribution pattern of P.densiflora forest with light artificial influence is always random,while that of P.densiflora forest with heavy artificial influence is always even.

  8. Response ofPinus koraiensisseedling growth to different light condi-tions based on the assessment of photosynthesis in current and one-year-old needles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaojun Zhu; Kai Wang; Yirong Sun; Qiaoling Yan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the three major five-leaved pines in the northern hemisphere,Pinus koraiensis is the most important dominant tree species in the natural mixed-broadleaved Korean pine forests. However, the regeneration ofP. koraiensisunder the canopy of secondary forest stands is poor because of the light limitation. This study was conducted to understand howP. koraiensisseedlings adapt to different light intensities and what would be the optimum light level for their establishment and growth. Three repetition plots with four light intensities (15%, 30%, 60% and 100% of the natural incident irradiances, achieved by suspending layers of black nylon net above and surrounding the plots) were set up under natural climate conditions in a montane region in eastern Liaoning Province, Northeast China. A total of 80P. koraiensis seedlings with similar height and root collar diameter were transplanted into four plots. After one year of acclimation to the specific light conditions, the seasonal variations of the photosynthetic variables and needle traits of the current and one-year-old needles, and the growth parameters were observed under four light intensities. The results indicated that: (1) The seedling at 60% treatment exhibited the greatest growth, which agreed with the response of the light-saturated photosynthetic rates (Amax) and the dark respiration rate (Rd) in the current and one-year-old needles, i.e.,Rd at 60% treatment was significantly lower than that at 100% treatment, but Amax did not differ between the seedlings at 100% and 60% treatments. (2) TheP. koraiensis seedlings have a certain photosynthetic plasticity to adapt the light conditions by adjusting their needle traits and regulating the physiological processes, becauseAmax,Rd, light saturation point and compensation point, the needle mass area, needle nitrogen and chlorophyll contents were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the light intensities. Especially,Amax at 100% and 60% treatments was

  9. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in Pinus mugo needles growing at elevated stands in the mountains, and their photochemical efficiency of PSII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszalski, Zbigniew; Libik, Marta; Surówka, Ewa; Niewiadomska, Ewa

    2005-08-01

    Pinus mugo needles were sampled at different altitudes (1420, 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l.) to analyse levels of oxidative stress and changes in maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that almost all superoxide dismutase activity represented Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and only 4-6% represents Mn superoxide dismutase. In extracts from plants sampled at 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l., lower activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase was found. Comparing these data with immunoblots, it can be concluded that the differences in superoxide dismutase activity was related to protein amount. In needles from higher altitudes, a decrease in catalase activity was detected, as opposed to the protein amount, which was higher in needles from the higher stands. Considering the decrease in catalase and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activities in needles collected at 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l., we suggest that higher levels of oxidative stress may induce changes in photochemical efficiency of PSII.

  10. Concentrations of sulphur and heavy metals in needles and rooting soils of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) trees growing along an urban-rural gradient in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fang Fang; Wen, Da Zhi; Kuang, Yuan Wen; Li, Jiong; Zhang, Ji Guang

    2009-07-01

    Current (C) and previous year (C + 1) needles and soils (organic horizon, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm mineral depth) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) trees were sampled at four forested sites (Huang Pu industrial district, HP; South China Botanical Garden, BG; Mao Feng Mt., MF; and Nan Kun Mt., NK) in Guangzhou along a urban-rural gradient and analyzed for sulfur (S) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb) concentrations. Needle concentrations of all the elements were significantly higher at industrial HP than at other three sites, except for Cu and Pb which were highest at the traffic site (BG). The C + 1 needles generally had higher Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr than the C needles while the opposite was for Ni and S. Total and available Cd, Pb, Zn in soils peaked at the urban sites (HP and BG) and decreased at suburban MF and rural NK. Heavy metals were generally higher in the organic soils than in the mineral soils at all sites. Zinc and Pb at all sites, and Cd, S and Cu at the urban sites (HP and BG) in soils or pine needles were above or near their respective natural background levels, implying that threats resulted from these toxic elements occurred on local particularly urban forests, but did not for Cr and Ni due to their presence below their background values. Our results demonstrated that elements concentrations in needles and soils had reflected the variability of pollutants and the environmental quality change along the urban-rural transect, and were efficient as biomonitors to assess the influence of anthropogenic activities along the urbanization course on forest health.

  11. The new family Septorioideaceae, within the Botryosphaeriales and Septorioides strobi as a new species associated with needle defoliation of Pinus strobus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, Stephen A; Broders, Kirk D

    2016-08-01

    Recent sampling of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) affected by white pine needle defoliation (WPND) within the northeastern U.S. has found that a putative new species, closely related to Septorioides pini-thunbergii, was the most frequently isolated species. Septorioides pini-thunbergii is currently the only known species of its genus in the family Botryosphaeriaceae and is associated with needle cast of Pinus thunbergii in Japan. This study aims to complete a morphological description of the putative new species and use DNA sequence data of six gene loci (SSU, LSU, ITS, β-tubulin, EF1, and RPB2) to accurately place the putative new species within the Botryosphaeriales. Morphological comparisons have shown that this putative new species is distinct from S. pini-thunbergii. Comparison of DNA sequence data has further confirmed our morphological findings, indicating the classification of a new species which we describe as Septorioides strobi sp. nov., marking the first report of the genus Septorioides within the U.S. Subsequently, our phylogenetic analysis has further revealed that S. pini-thunbergii and S. strobi do not reside within the Botryosphaereace, but comprise a new family within the order Botryosphaeriales we recognize as Septorioideaceae fam. nov. Taxonomic novelties: New family - Septorioideaceae S. Wyka & K. Broders fam. nov. New species - Septorioides strobi S. Wyka & K. Broders sp. nov.

  12. Influence of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub 2] exposure on antioxidants and photosynthesis in needles of Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingsle, G.; Strand, M.; Karpinski, S.; Hallgren, J.E. (Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umea (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology)

    1992-01-01

    Scots pine [ital Pinus sylvestris L.] trees were exposed from June to October in an open air exposure system to SO[sub 2] and NO[sub 2] for four years in northern Sweden. Low concentrations of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub 2] did not change the levels of Vitamin E or pigments in the needles. The reduced glutathione level in the exposed needles was not significantly different from the controls. Although, there was a slight increase in mRNA for superoxide dismutase, enzyme activity did not show any concomitant increase. The observed increased in CuZn SOD mRNA, both in chloroplasts and in cytosol, was not due to a general increase in mRNA of the cells. There were several after-effects even of low concentrations of air SO[sub 2] and NO[sub 2] under natural conditions. This was evident from a lower light- and CO[sub 2]-saturated rate of oxygen evolution, a lower photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and a reduced activity of glutathione reductase in needles of exposed trees. The results suggest that the winter might be a critical period for trees exposed to SO[sub 2] and NO[sub 2].

  13. 抗松材线虫病赤松组培苗的生根与移栽研究%Study on rooting and transplanting of the tissue-cultured plantlets from Pinus densiflora with good resistance to pine wilt disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦莉; 吴小芹; 王张丽

    2011-01-01

    Factors influencing rooting and transplanting of tissue-cultured plantlets from Pinus densiflora with excellent resistance to pine wilt disease but poor ability of rooting were investigated. The results showed that the induction rate of the adventitious root reached 93% after treating the shoots at 17 ℃ for 5 days, and it was beneficial for adventitious root induction as adding 30-50 mg/L banana juice into the rooting medium with a controlled temperature of 25 ℃. To sterilize the transplant matrix at high temperature or with 0.2% KMnO4 for two times would be helpful for improving the survival ratio of the tissue-cultured plantlets. Spraying nutrition solution could stimulate the plantlets growth. This research contributed to improve the root induction and transplanting survival rate, which provided factory style breeding system and practice evidences.%以抗病性较好但不易生根的抗松材线虫病赤松无性系为试验材料,对影响组培苗生根移栽的因素进行了研究.结果表明:将待生根的丛生芽置于17 ℃条件下处理5 d后,不定根诱导率最高达93%;在生根培养基中添加30~50 mg/L香蕉汁有利于不定根诱导;对移栽基质进行高温灭菌或0.2%高锰酸钾消毒2次的处理均可有效提高组培苗移栽成活率;喷施营养液对组培苗的长势具有促进作用.

  14. Anatomical differences between Pinus mugs Truro populations from the Tarts Mts.. expressed in needle traits and in needle and cone traits together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-year-old needles were collected from 429 individuals of dwarf mountain pine (Pius mugn Turra from 10 populations of this species growing in the Tatra Mts. (5 populations from calcareous and 5 from calcium-free undersoil. Thirteen anatomical traits of the needles were studied. For obtaining a full picture of the variability of the dwarf mountain pine, the differences were investigated in ten populations (385 plants as regards 27 traits of needles and cones. The data obtained by measurements served as basis for performing multivariate analysis of variance and testing the statistical hypotheses, for discriminant analysis, calculation of the Mahalanobis distances and construction of a minimum spanning tree of the shortest Mahalanobis distances and agglumerative clustering by the method of' nearest neighbourhood. The results of these analyses indicated that the dwarf mountain pine populations differ ,statistically significantly as regards the whole complex of needle traits and form three groups not correlated with the type of undersoil on which they grow. Most closely similar are the populations from Kominy Tylkowe, Morskie Oko and Wyżni Toporowy Staw. The population from Kobylarz is the most diverse. Investigation of' the differences in the complex of' needle and cone traits proved that the traits of cones are decisive for the variability picture.

  15. Macronutrientes no sistema solo-Pinus caribaea Morelet em palntios apresentando amarelecimento das acículas e morte de plantas Macronutrients in the soil- Pinus caribaea Morelet system with yellowing of the needles followed by senescence and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselene de Queiroz Chaves

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido em áreas de Cerrado, no oeste de Minas Gerais, visando contribuir para o diagnóstico de causas que têm levado à morte precoce de pinheiros, verificada após amarelecimento e necrose progressiva das acículas. Foram comparadas árvores de Pinus caribaea Morelet das variedades caribaea e hondurensis, plantadas entre 1977-82. Em cada local de amostragem, coletou-se material de 20 árvores, sendo 10 com amarelecimento das acículas e 10 normais. Foram coletadas acículas e tecidos do xilema e floema de raízes nos quais foram analisados os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. A classe de solo dos sítios de estudo é Latossolo Amarelo ácrico típico. As amostras foram coletadas nas profundidades: 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-150, 150-200, 200-250 e 250-300 cm, nas quais se analisaram os teores trocáveis de Ca, Mg, P e K, bem como o pH em água e em KCl, a acidez extraível (H+Al e o teor de matéria orgânica. Os teores de N, P, K e S não diferiram significativamente entre acículas verdes e amarelecidas, enquanto os teores de Ca e Mg foram significativamente inferiores nelas. Os sintomas visuais, confirmados pelos resultados analíticos, revelaram um quadro complexo de deficiências no sistema solo-planta estudado, envolvendo principalmente os macronutrientes Ca e Mg.This study was carried out to diagnose senescence and pine trees death (Pinus caribaea Morelet, observed after yellowing and progressive necrosis of the needles in the Brazilian Cerrado in western Minas Gerais. The varieties caribaea and hondurensis, planted between 1977-82 were compared. In the three sites studied samples from twenty trees were collected; ten with yellowing of the needles and ten without symptoms. From each tree, phloem and xylem tissue from root segments and needles were collected and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S were analyzed. The considered sites is formed by a Yellow Latosol (Typic Acrustox with high

  16. Regional variation of selected polyaromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons over the South Island of New Zealand, as indicated by their content in Pinus radiata needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, R; Baumgartner, I

    1987-01-01

    We analysed needles of Pinus radiata along three transects through the South Island of New Zealand for chlorinated hydrocarbons ( alpha- and gamma-HCH, HCB and PCB) and PAH (fluoranthene, 3,4-benzopyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene and indenopyrene). At rural sites we also collected samples of moss (Wijkia extenuata) and lichens (Usnea sp.) in order to compare the pollutant concentrations within these plants. A principal component analysis confirmed findings from moss and snow studies in Europe that the PAH concentrations vary regionally in the same way. The pattern of the principal component loadings of the chlorinated hydrocarbons reflects their heterogeneous immission and their different chemodynamics. The regional pattern indicates an increase of gamma-HCH from remote areas to those used intensively for agriculture and gardening, followed by a decrease towards the inner city of Christchurch. In contrast, PCB and PAH show their highest levels of contamination in the city. The regional distribution of PAH in Christchurch correlates well with traffic density, and particularly with the pattern of smoke from domestic fires. Our study demonstrates that needles of P. radiata can be better monitors of atmospheric pollution in New Zealand than mosses or lichens.

  17. Ozone causes needle injury and tree decline in Pinus hartwegii at high altitudes in the mountains around Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la l. Bauere, M.deL.; Tejeda, T.H.; Manning, W.J.

    1985-08-01

    Needles of P. hartwegii were examined for a two-year period at 22 plots at Ajusco, D.F., south of Mexico City, at 3000 m. Ozone injury symptoms, consisting of extensive yellow banding and mottling, were observed on mature needles. These also became evident on new needles as they matured. This resulted in premature needle loss, reduction in cone and seed production, loss of tree vigor, bark beetle infestations, and tree decline and death. P. montezumae var. lindleyi and a few P. hartwegii trees in the same area were less susceptible. The most severe ozone injury to P. hartwegii occurs west to southwest of Mexico City in the mountain forest reserve of Desierto de los Leones, at 3500 m. Based on observations, the authors feel that needle injury and decline of P. hartwegii at high elevations in the mountains around Mexico City is caused primarily by ozone and not acid rain. It resembles the ozone-caused decline of ponderosa pine in the San Bernardino Mountains in California.

  18. Needle anatomy suggests hybridization between the relict turfosa form of Pinus sylvestris L. from the Gązwa peat bóg and typical Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelia Polok

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the turfosa form of Pinus sylvestris from the Gazwa peat bog reserve in terms of 16 anatomical needle traits and to determine whether pines with a typical morphotype inhabiting the peat bog have been so successful thanks to hybridization with the unique tufosa ecotype. Investigations were conducted on three phenotypic groups of Scots pine growing in the peat bog. The first two groups consisted of 30 tufosa trees at the age of 117-217 years and 20 trees at the age of 30-85 years. The third group consisted of typical pines represented by 10 trees at the age of 20-55 years. In total 30 trees of typical pine, surrounding the peat bog, at the age of 100-150 years served as outgroup. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance with the F test, Tukey's test, and a number of multivariate analyses were used to estimate differences between the studied groups of trees based on 16 anatomical needle characteristics. The old turfosa form from the Gazwa reserve proved to be a unique and relict peat bog pine, as it was shown by the differences in 10 analyzed needle traits in comparison to pine with a typical morphotype growing in the areas surrounding the peat bog. The young typical pines have adapted to conditions found in the peat bog owing to hybridization with the turfosa forms. The young turfosa trees differed from the old turfosa trees and also they have probably been of a hybrid origin. The old turfosa form from the Gazwa reserve is a threatened ecotype due to its hybridization with pines from the population surrounding the peat bog.

  19. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  20. 人工林赤松幼龄材与成熟材力学性质的比较%Mechanical properties of juvenile and mature wood of Pinus densiflora from plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春德; 张美淑; 文桂峰; 汤燕平; 徐策

    2006-01-01

    根据人工林赤松Pinus densiflora木材的管胞长度、微纤丝角、管胞长宽比、基本密度、晚材率及生长轮宽度等材性指标的测试数据,采用最优分割法划分出人工林赤松的幼龄材与成熟材的界限,分析了人工林赤松幼龄材与成熟材力学性质差异的表现.结果表明:赤松的幼龄期为小于12 a,抗弯强度、抗弯弹性模量、顺纹抗拉强度、顺纹抗压强度和弦向横纹抗压强度等指标成熟材高于幼龄材,径向横纹抗压强度、弦面抗剪强度、径面抗剪强度、弦向抗劈强度和径向抗劈强度等项指标幼龄材高于成熟材.其中,抗弯强度、抗弯弹性模量、径向横纹抗压强度和弦面抗剪强度差异达0.01显著水平,顺纹抗拉强度差异达0.05显著水平.图1表6参6

  1. Hydroalcoholic extract of needles of Pinus eldarica enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep: possible involvement of GABAergic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Forouzanfar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Insomnia is accompanied by several health complications and the currently used soporific drugs can induce several side effects such as psychomotor impairment, amnesia, and tolerance. The present study was planned to investigate the sleep prolonging effect of Pinus eldarica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (HAE of P. eldarica, its water fraction (WF, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF and n-butanol fraction (NBF were injected (intraperitoneally to mice 30 min before administration of pentobarbital. Then, the latent period and continuous sleeping time were recorded. Also, LD50 of P. eldarica extract was determined and the possible neurotoxicity of the extract was tested on neural PC12 cells. Results: The HAE and NBF decreased the latency of sleep (p

  2. Dataset of UV induced changes in nuclear proteome obtained by GeLC-Orbitrap/MS in Pinus radiata needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesús; Nagler, Matthias; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Cañal, María Jesús; Valledor, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Although responses to UV stress have been characterised at system and cellular levels, the dynamics of the nuclear proteome triggered in this situation are still unknown, despite its essential role in regulating gene expression and in last term plant physiology. To fill this gap, we characterised the variations in the nuclear proteome after 2 h and 16 h (8 h/day) of UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows that were employed in the manuscript entitled "The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata" (Pascual et al., 2016) [1]. We employed in-gel digestion followed by a 120 min gradient prior to MS analysis. Data was processed following two approaches: a database dependent employing the SEQUEST algorithm and custom databases, and a database independent by mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). 388 proteins were identified by SEQUEST search and 9094 m/z were quantified by MAPA. Significant m/z were de novo sequenced using the Novor algorithm. We present here the complete datasets and the analysis workflow.

  3. Fungos Presentes em Acículas de Pinus taeda em Estágios Iniciais de Decomposição no Campo Fungi Present on Pinus taeda Needles in Early Stages of Decomposition in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Michelato Ghizelini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A atividade da micobiota na decomposição e mineralização da matéria orgânica é importante na ciclagem de nutrientes em florestas, garantindo sua produtividade e sustentabilidade. Este estudo determinou a diversidade de fungos durante a decomposição de acículas de Pinus taeda, em um plantio experimental com quatro anos de idade, em Três Barras, SC, Brasil. Acículas senescentes foram coletadas em árvores em novembro de 2003 e colocadas em sacolas seletivas para  microrganismos e deixadas sobre a serapilheira da floresta. O isolamento de fungos foi feito das acículas da primeira coleta (novembro de 2003 e das mantidas em sacolas, nos meses de fevereiro, maio e agosto de 2004. Fragmentos de acículas foram submetidos a 20 lavagens sucessivas em água destilada estéril e implantados em placas de petri contendo meio extrato de malte 2 %. As colônias encontradas foram purificadas, identificadas e preservadas, perfazendo um total de 1.055, pertencentes a 13 fungos: Acremonium sp., lternaria sp., Cladosporium sp., Colletotrichum p., picoccum sp., Fusarium sp., liocladium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp., Pestalotia sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Trichoderma sp. e Verticillium sp. Os fungos Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp. e Verticillium sp. foram significativamente mais freqüentes. Considerou-se que a diversidade fúngica existente é suficiente para o início da decomposição das acículas, pela presença de fungos celulolíticos.
    Knowing of the dependence between local area productivity, nutrient cycling and litter decomposition process, the knowledge of the mycobiota responsible for decomposition is the right way to obtain answers about forest’s productivity and nutrient’s demand. This study determined the fungal diversity during litter decomposition of needle

  4. 拉雅松和细叶云南松松针挥发油的化学成分%Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Pine Needle of Pinus crassicorticea and Pinus yunnanensis Franch.var tenuifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉红; 李梓; 梁才

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the chemical constituents from pine needle of Pinus crassicorticea and P. Yunnanensis Franch. Var tenuifolia. Method: The essential oils from Pinus crassicorticea and P. Yunnanensis Franch. Var tenuifolia were extracted by steam distillation. The volatile components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. The relative contents of these constituents were calculated by peak area normalization. Result: Sixty two compounds in the essential oil from P. Crassicorticea were identified, counting for 95. 565% of the total area of the peaks. The principal constituents were α-pinene (24. 659% ) ,β-pinene (11. 471% ) ,β-caryophyllene (9.932%) and terpinolene (5. 167% ). 55 compounds in the essential oil from P. Yunnanensis Franch. Var tenuifolia were identified, counting for 90. 794% of the total area of the peaks. The principal constituents were a-pinene ( 22. 542% ) 、 β-caryophyllene (16.636%) and 1, 2 , 4a, 5 , 8 , 8a-hexahydro-4,7-dimethyl-l-( 1-methylethyl)- naphthalene (5.085%). Conclusion: The essential oils from pine needle of P. Crassicorticea · and P. Yunnanensis Franch. Var tenuifolia were investigated for the first time. It had provided scientific foundation for exploitation and utilization of P. Crassicorticea and P. Yunnanensis Franch. Var tenuifolia.%目的:研究拉雅松和细叶云南松松针挥发油的化学成分.方法:采用水蒸汽蒸馏法从拉雅松和细叶云南松松针中提取挥发油,利用气相色谱-质谱联用技术分析挥发油的化学成分.结果:从拉雅松松针挥发油中鉴定出62个化合物,占挥发油总量的95.565%,主要成分为α-蒎烯(24.659%)、β-蒎烯(11.471%)、β-石竹烯(9.932%)和异松油烯(5.167%);从细叶云南松松针挥发油中鉴定出55个化合物,占挥发油总量的90.794%,主要成分为α-蒎烯(22.542%)、β-石竹烯(16.636%)和1,2,4a,5,8,8a-六氢化-4,7-二甲基-1-(1-甲基乙基)-萘(5.085%).结论:首

  5. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible.

  6. Associations between ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacterial needle endophytes in Pinus radiata: implications for biotic selection of microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Arlene Rúa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata, and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors — biotic or abiotic — in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest

  7. Fossil records of subsection Pinus (genus Pinus, Pinaceae) from the Cenozoic in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2014-03-01

    Extant pines of subsection Pinus (section Pinus, genus Pinus, Pinaceae) are predominantly distributed in Eastern Asia. However, the extent of diversification in the section has yet to be fully clarified. We reviewed fossil records of subsection Pinus from Japan and collected permineralized materials, in which anatomical details are preserved for better understanding of the diversification. Our results suggest that this subsection appeared in Japan no earlier than the Middle Eocene, with extant species (i.e., Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii) appearing around the beginning of the Pleistocene. Pinus fujiii (Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene) is inferred to have a close affinity to P. thunbergii based on the medial arrangement of its leaf resin canals. Additionally, P. fujiii has a similar cone morphology to those of extant species living in China, bridging the morphological gap between P. thunbergii and Chinese relatives of P. thunbergii as inferred by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Our results also suggest that taxonomic revisions of Pinus miocenica and Pinus oligolepis are required among the Japanese fossil species reported to date.

  8. 柴松与油松针叶和木材解剖结构的差异%Anatomy of Pinus tabulaeformis f.shekanensis and Pinus tabulaeformis in Needle and Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙; 解庆; 李周岐; 刘志红

    2013-01-01

    Anatomic structures of needles of Pinus tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis and P.tabulaeformis were studied by free-hand section method and their wood structures were studied by xylotomy.The thickness and width of needles of P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis are much shorter than that of P.tabulaeformis.The average of resin canal area and quantity of needles of P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis are 1 394.40μm2 and 4.87, respectively, and 1 651.81μm2 and 6.70 for P.tabulaefor-mis, respectively .The width values of early wood and late wood of P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis are wider than that of P.tabulaeformis.The average of the width of early wood to late wood ratio for P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis is 1.97, and 1.94 for P.tabula eformsi .The average of tracheid walls to lumen ratio of early wood of P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanen-sis and P.tabulaeform is are 0.188 and 01.93 , respectively, and the average of tracheids’ walls to lumen ratio ofthe late wood of P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis and P.tabulaeformis are 0.550 and 0.617, respectively.The average area of lengthways resin ducts and amphitropous resin ducts of P.tabulaeformis f. Shekanensis are 3 620.69μm2 and 2 727.62μm2, respectively, 5 113.65μm2 and 3 571.54μm2 for P.tabulaeformis, respectively.There is significant difference in the anatomical characters of tissues from P.tabulaeformis f.Shekanensis and P.tabulaeformis such as size, area and den-sity, but there is no significant difference in composition of anatomy structures between two kinds of pines.%对柴松、油松的针叶(徒手切片法)和木材(木材切片法)解剖结构比较研究发现:柴松针叶的厚度、宽度均小于油松。柴松和油松针叶的单个纵生树脂道平均面积分别为1394.40、1651.81μm2,单个针叶横截面的平均树脂道分别为4.87个和6.70个。柴松的早材宽度、晚材宽度均小于油松,早晚材宽度比柴松为1.97,油松为1.94。柴松和油松的早

  9. Sulphur content of Red pine (Pinus brutia) needles and barkas indicator of atmospheric pollution in Southwest Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, M.; Gemici, Y.; Tan, Kit

    2006-01-01

    of SO2 emission. The highest increase was observed in two-year-old needles. We thus conclude that the sulphur content of two-year-old needles can be a bioindicator of some importance if the cause of tree death is known to be SO2. The sulphur content of bark samples was found to be lower in less polluted...

  10. Sulphur content of Red pine (Pinus brutia) needles and barkas indicator of atmospheric pollution in Southwest Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, M.; Gemici, Y.; Tan, Kit

    2006-01-01

    of SO2 emission. The highest increase was observed in two-year-old needles. We thus conclude that the sulphur content of two-year-old needles can be a bioindicator of some importance if the cause of tree death is known to be SO2. The sulphur content of bark samples was found to be lower in less polluted...

  11. Studies on antigenic differences in needle proteins of Pinus sylvestris L., P. mugo Turra, P. uliginosa Neumann and P. nigra Arnold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Prus-Głowaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of serological methods (double immunodiffusion, immunoabsortion and quantitative immunoprecipitation, using three kinds of antisera: antisylvestris, antimugo and antiuliginosa authors performed a comparison of antigenic properties of proteins from needles of P. sylvestris, P. mugo, P. uliginosa and P. nigra. Proteins characteristic for the species P. sylvesiris, and P. uliginosa were found. On the basis of the results obtained it was established, that the most distinct species are P. mugo and P. sylvestris, P. uliginosa is antigenically different from the two taxa but is showing greater similarity to P. mugo than to P. sylvestris. P. nigra proteins are different from proteins P. sylvestris, P. mugo, and P. uliginosa. They show however, some antigenic similarity to P. sylvestris proteins.

  12. Evaluation of the Effects of Pinus koraiensis Needle Extracts on Serum Lipid and Oxidative Stress in Adults with Borderline Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansongyi Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dyslipidemia has been well-known as a common metabolic disorder contributing to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Pinus koraiensis needle extracts (PKE on the blood cholesterol and oxidative stress. Method. We conducted a 12-week randomized, double-blinded controlled trial to examine the effect of PKE on blood lipid profiles in adults with borderline dyslipidemia. Thirty-three eligible persons were recruited and randomly assigned into PKE (n=20 and placebo groups (n=13. Serum lipids including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein- (LDL- cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein- (HDL- cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein- (VLDL- cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured before and after trial. Serum insulin, glucose, and antioxidant indicators were also analyzed before and after trial and anthropometry and blood pressure were measured every 4 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, PKE statically significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (p<0.05 and waist circumference (p<0.05 were observed. Also, VLDL-cholesterol significantly decreased (from 24.4±10.0 mg/dL at baseline to 18.4±4.1 mg/dL after 12 weeks (p<0.05 and superoxide dismutase (SOD increased (6.12±0.41 U/mL to 9.06±0.62 U/mL (p<0.01 in PKE group. However, after adjustment with WC, VLDL-cholesterol was not significant between groups (p=0.095 and while SOD remained significant between groups (p=0.013. Conclusion. The results show that PKE was effective in improving the superoxide dismutase in the individuals with borderline dyslipidemia.

  13. Isolation and identification of flavonoids from pine needle of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.%油松松针中黄酮类成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟胜佳; 高岩; 袁久志; 孙启时

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the flavonoids of pine needles of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. Methods Compounds were isolated by the silica gel, polyamide, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 columns, and their structures were identified by the physicochemical characters and ~1H-NMR,~(13)C-NMR,MS. Results Four compounds were as kaempferol 3-O-(3"-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-(6"-O-E-feruloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside(1),kaempferol 3-O-(3",6"-di-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside(2),kaempferol 3-O-(3"-O-E-p-coumaioyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside(3),isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(4). Conclusions Compounds 1 and 3 are isolated from Pinus for the first time,Compounds 2 and 4 are isolated from this species for the first time.%目的 研究油松松针中的黄酮类成分,为松属植物的化学分类学研究提供科学依据.方法 采用反复硅胶、聚酰胺、ODS、Sephadex LH一20柱色谱等方法进行分离纯化,根据理化性质和~1H-NMR、~(13)C-NMR、质谱等技术对分离得到的化合物进行结构鉴定.结果 从油松松针中分离得到4个化合物,分别鉴定为山柰酚-3-O-(3"-O-反式-对-肉桂酰基)-(6"-O-反式-阿魏酰基)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷[kaempferol 3-O-(3"-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-(6"-O-E-feruloy1)-β-D-glueopyranoside,1]、山柰酚-3-O-(3",6"-二-反式-对-肉桂酰基)-β-D吡喃葡萄糖苷[kaempferol 3-O-(3",6"-di-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside,2]、山柰酚-3-O-(3"-反式-对-肉桂酰基)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷[kaempferol 3-O-(3"-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside,3]、异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷[isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,4].结论 化合物1、3为首次从松属植物中分离得到,化合物2.4为首次从该种植物中分离得到.

  14. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K.L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S.T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  15. Needle Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a day or two During the needle biopsy Your health care team will position you in ... if you're feeling uncomfortable. After the needle biopsy Once your doctor has collected enough cells or ...

  16. Two new antitumor diterpenes from Pinus sylvestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wang; Zhang Rong; Jie Teng; Yoshihisa Takaishi; Hong Quan Duan

    2008-01-01

    Two new diterpenes,15-ethyl- 18-methyl pinifolate (1)and 18-hydroxy-labda-8(17),13E-dien-15-acetate (2),were isolated fromthe needles of Pinus sylvestris.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods,including 2D-NMR spectra.Compound1 exhibited the significant eytotoxic activity against the human carcinoma cell lines Hela,SK-N-SH and BEL-7402 in vitro.

  17. Enzymatic saccharification of biologically pretreated Pinus densiflora using enzymes from brown rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Ho-Yong; Koo, Bon-Wook; Choi, Don-Ha; Kwon, Mi; Choi, In-Gyu

    2008-08-01

    Enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass was performed using culture filtrates of brown rot fungi including Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Fomitopsis pinicola, and Laetiporus sulphureus. Biological treatment with white rot fungi was used as pretreatment prior to enzymatic saccharification. Endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase and cellobiohydrolase activities were determined from concentrated culture filtrates of the brown rot fungi. L. sulphureus has the highest endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase activities, and F. pinicola has the highest cellobiohydrolase activity. When enzymes from L. sulphureus were used along with the lignocellulosic biomass pretreated with Stereum hirsutum as the carbon source, the total sugar yield was 11.36 mg/0.25 g of dry weight biomass, with the highest activities of cellulase and hemicellulase. In order to increase the sugar yield, the enzymes from L. sulphureus were mixed with those from F. pinicola, which showed high cellobiohydrolase activity. This caused an increase in the sugar yield from 11.36 mg to 15.22 mg. When temperature was increased to 50 degrees C, the total sugar yield increased to 17.74 mg for the same reaction time. The crystallinity of lignocellulosic biomass decreased from 68.4% to 60.2%, when lignocellulosic biomass pretreated with S. hirsutum was hydrolyzed using enzymes from L. sulphureus.

  18. Grafting Experiments of Pinus densiflora%东宁赤松嫁接育苗试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡丽; 郑兴伟; 王亚利

    2013-01-01

    通过以樟子松容器苗为砧木进行东宁赤松嫁接试验,结果表明:在砧木和接穗径长生旺盛期(7月)和径生长末期(8月)2个时期进行东宁赤松嫁接,其成活率都很高,分别达到98.0%和98.7%,且接穗没有伸长生长,可安全越冬.利用嫁接方法繁殖东宁赤松是可行的.

  19. Paenibacillus pinihumi sp. nov., a cellulolytic bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Chun; Lee, Kang Hyun; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Eun-Mi; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Kwon, O-Yu; Shin, Kee-Sun

    2009-10-01

    A novel cellulolytic bacterium, strain S23(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere of the pine trees in Daejeon, Republic of Korea. This isolate was Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, catalase-negative, oxidase-positive, motile by means of peritrichous flagella, and tested positive for alkaline phosphatase, esterase lipase, leucine arylamidase, alpha-galactosidase, and beta-galactosidase activities. The DNA G+C content was 49.5 mol%. The main cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) (51.9%), iso-C(16:0) (14.7%), and iso-C(15:0) (13.2%). The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). Diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall pepti-doglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that this strain clustered with Paenibacillus species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between S23(T) and other Paenibacillus species were between 89.9% and 95.9%, and S23(T) was most closely related to Paenibacillus tarimensis SA-7-6(T). On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic properties of strain S23(T), the isolate is considered as a novel species belonging to the genus Paenibacillus. Therefore, the name, Paenibacillus pinihumi sp. nov., is proposed for the rhizosphere isolate; the type strain is S23(T) (=KCTC 13695(T) =KACC 14199(T) =JCM 16419(T)).

  20. Conversion of Japanese red pine wood (Pinus densiflora) into valuable chemicals under subcritical water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Feridoun Salak; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-11

    A comparative study on the decomposition of Japanese red pine wood under subcritical water conditions in the presence and absence of phosphate buffer was investigated in a batch-type reaction vessel. Since cellulose makes up more than 40-45% of the components found in most wood species, a series of experiments were also carried out using pure cellulose as a model for woody biomass. Several parameters such as temperature and residence time, as well as pH effects, were investigated in detail. The best temperature for decomposition and hydrolysis of pure cellulose was found around 270 degrees C. The effects of the initial pH of the solution which ranged from 1.5 to 6.5 were studied. It was found that the pH has a considerable effect on the hydrolysis and decomposition of the cellulose. Several products in the aqueous phase were identified and quantified. The conditions obtained from the subcritical water treatment of pure cellulose were applied for the Japanese red pine wood chips. As a result, even in the absence of acid catalyst, a large amount of wood sample was hydrolyzed in water; however, by using phosphate buffer at pH 2, there was an increase in the hydrolysis and dissolution of the wood chips. In addition to the water-soluble phase, acetone-soluble and water-acetone-insoluble phases were also isolated after subcritical water treatment (which can be attributed mainly to the degraded lignin, tar, and unreacted wood chips, respectively). The initial wood:acid ratio in the case of reactions catalyzed by phosphate buffer was also investigated. The results showed that this weight ratio can be as high as 3:1 without changing the catalytic activity. The size of the wood chips as one of the most important experimental parameters was also investigated.

  1. Control Effects of Ten Agents on Pinus densiflora Needle Cast in Eastern Area of Liaoning Province%10种化学药剂对辽宁东部地区赤松落针病药剂的防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成杰

    2015-01-01

    [目的]筛选控制赤松落针病的有效药剂.[方法]采用室内孢子萌发法筛选抑制赤松落针病病原菌(Lophodermium conigenium)的无公害化学药剂,在此基础上室外采用喷雾法开展林间小区防治试验.[结果]室内10种化学药剂中抑制效果达到100%的药剂有4种,分别是40%多菌灵可湿性粉剂、75%百菌清可湿性粉剂、45%代森铵水剂和45%石硫合剂.林间防治试验效果最好的是40%多菌灵可湿性粉剂300倍稀释液和45%代森铵水剂100倍稀释液,平均防治效果均达到80%以上.[结论]试验结果为辽宁地区赤松落针病的防治提供了理论依据.

  2. Competition from native hydrophytes reduces establishment and growth of invasive dense-flowered cordgrass (Spartina densiflora

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    Ahmed M. Abbas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies to determine the nature of ecological interactions between invasive and native species are necessary for conserving and restoring native species in impacted habitats. Theory predicts that species boundaries along environmental gradients are determined by physical factors in stressful environments and by competitive ability in benign environments, but little is known about the mechanisms by which hydrophytes exclude halophytes and the life history stage at which these mechanisms are able to operate. The ongoing invasion of the South American Spartina densiflora in European marshes is causing concern about potential impacts to native plants along the marsh salinity gradient, offering an opportunity to evaluate the mechanisms by which native hydrophytes may limit, or even prevent, the expansion of invasive halophytes. Our study compared S. densiflora seedling establishment with and without competition with Phragmites australis and Typha domingensis, two hydrophytes differing in clonal architecture. We hypothesized that seedlings of the stress tolerant S. densiflora would be out-competed by stands of P. australis and T. domingensis. Growth, survivorship, biomass patterns and foliar nutrient content were recorded in a common garden experiment to determine the effect of mature P. australis and T. domingensis on the growth and colonization of S. densiflora under fresh water conditions where invasion events are likely to occur. Mature P. australis stands prevented establishment of S. densiflora seedlings and T. domingensis reduced S. densiflora establishment by 38%. Seedlings grown with P. australis produced fewer than five short shoots and all plants died after ca. 2 yrs. Our results showed that direct competition, most likely for subterranean resources, was responsible for decreased growth rate and survivorship of S. densiflora. The presence of healthy stands of P. australis, and to some extent T. domingensis, along river channels

  3. Needles stable carbon isotope composition and traits of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica in sparse wood grassland in south edge of Keerqin Sandy Land under the conditions of different precipitation%不同降水条件下科尔沁沙地南缘疏林草地樟子松针叶δ13C和叶性状特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立宁; 朱教君; 李明财; 闫涛; 张金鑫

    2012-01-01

    通过比较不同自然降水年份(极端干旱和极端湿润)19年生疏林草地樟子松的针叶δ13C、比叶面积和干物质含量,结合土壤含水量和地下水埋深,探讨了极端降水对樟子松水分利用的影响.结果表明:干旱年份(2009)樟子松林土壤含水量显著低于湿润年份(2010),但樟子松当年生针叶的δ13C在两年间没有显著差异,且两年相同月份间亦无显著差异;干旱年份当年生针叶的比叶面积显著低于湿润年份,而不同年份间干物质含量的差异不显著.在两种极端降水条件下,樟子松的水分利用效率没有明显变化,主要通过改变当年生针叶的比叶面积来适应降水量的变化.对于地下水埋深高于3.0m的疏林草地樟子松人工林生态系统,极端干旱不会严重影响樟子松的存活和生长.%A comparative study was conducted on the needles stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) , specific leaf area (SLA) , and dry matter content (DMC) of 19-year-old Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica trees in a sparse wood grassland in the south edge of Keerqin Sandy Land under the conditions of extreme drought and extreme wetness, aimed to understand the water use of Pinus sylvestris under the conditions of extreme precipitation. The soil water content and groundwater level were also measured. In the dry year (2009 ) , the soil water content in the grassland was significantly lower than that in the wet year (2010) , but the δ13C values of the current year-old needles had no significant difference between the two years and between the same months of the two years. The SLA of the current year-old needles was significantly lower in the dry year than in the wet year, but the DMC had no significant difference between the two years. Under the conditions of the two extreme precipitations, the water use efficiency of the trees did not vary remarkably, and the trees could change their needles SLA to adapt the variations of precipitation. For

  4. Crab-mediated phenotypic changes in Spartina densiflora Brong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolus, Alejandro; Laterra, Pedro; Iribarne, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Although plant phenotypic plasticity has been historically studied as an important adaptive strategy to overcome herbivory and environmental heterogeneity, there are several aspects of its ecological importance that remain controversial. The burrowing crab Chasmagnathus granulata eats Spartina densiflora, and also causes several geomorphologic changes that indirectly affect Spartina growth. Here we evaluate if this crab affects the sexual reproductive effort of S. densiflora by mediating changes in plant phenotypic plasticity (i.e., shape of leaves and spikes) while affecting aboveground production, and if these effects interact with disturbance intensity. We conducted local and regional surveys and two-year field experiments manipulating the density of crabs in a mature Spartina marsh where we clipped at ground level different 1×1 m marsh areas to create and compare crab's effect on young (plants growing after the clipping) and mature (unclipped) Spartina stands. Our results suggest that crabs mediate the phenotypic plasticity of sexual reproductive structures of Spartina. Crabs induced an increase in seed production (up to 721%) and seed viability, potentially favoring Spartina dispersal and colonization of distant sites. This effect appears to be maximal when combined with the experimental clipping disturbance. Crabs also exerted a strong effect on clipped plants by increasing the number of standing dead stems and decreasing the photosynthetic area and leaf production. These effects disappear in about two years if no other disturbance occurs. An a posteriori regional field survey agreed with our experimental results corroborating the prediction that plants in old undisturbed marshes have lower sexual reproductive effort than plants in highly disturbed marshes populated by burrowing-herbivore crabs. All these phenotypic changes have important taxonomic and macro-ecological implications that should not be ignored in discussions of applied ecology and

  5. Studies on phenolic acids variation in Central European Pinus species 1. Five Polish populations of Pinus mugo Turra and some related forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids were investigated in the needles of eight different pine populations, five of which were Pinus mugo, two -- P. silvestris and one a critical form described by Neumann as P. uliginosa. Twenty different phenolic acids were detected. Six were discovered in pine needles for the first time (salicylic acid, gentisic acid, γ-resorcylic acid, o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, β-resorcylic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. Each of the investigated taxons was shown to exhibit a characteristic spectrum of phenolic acids. The critical form from the locus classicus of Pinus uliginosa is of intermediate character.

  6. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal

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    Prabodh Satyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. Objective: To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Results: GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5% and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3% as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1% and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%. The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL. The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL. Conclusion: The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  7. Differential response of two Pinus spp. to avian nitrogen input as revealed by nitrogen isotope analysis for tree rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Lopez Caceres, Maximo Larry; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Nobori, Yoshihiro

    2011-03-01

    Temporal variations in N concentration and δ(15)N value of annual tree rings (1 year of time resolution) of two Japanese Black Pine (Pinus thunbergii) and three Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) trees under current breeding activity of the Great Cormorant (Pharacrocorax carbo) and the Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris), respectively, in central and northeastern Japan were studied. Both species from control sites where no avian input occurs show negative values (δ(15)N = around -4 ‰ to -2 ‰) which are common among higher plants growing under high rainfall regimes. The δ(15)N values of P. densiflora show uniformly positive values several years before and after the breeding event, indicating N translocation that moved the absorbed N of a given growth year to tree rings of the previous year while a clear historical value of soil N dynamics was kept intact in the annual rings of P. thunbergii. Long-term N trends inferred from tree rings must take into account tree species with limited translocation rates that can retain actual N annual acquisition.

  8. 马尾松土贡种源松针挥发油化学成分 GC/MS 分析%GC/MS Analysis of Chemical Composition of Pine Needle Oil from Pinus massoniana Tugong Provenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军集; 周丽珠; 聂永雄; 舒文波; 梁忠云; 谷瑶

    2014-01-01

    用挥发油提取器提取马尾松土贡种源松针中挥发油,利用气相色谱-质谱( GC-MS)分析其中的化学成分,采用GC峰面积归一化法定量,并与马尾松普通种源松针油做对比。结果表明,土贡种源和普通种源挥发油得油率分别为0.52%、0.60%,各分出69、75个成分,鉴定其中23个,分别占挥发油总量的92.65%、94.56%,其挥发油主要成分为α-蒎烯(37.673%、46.715%)、莰烯(3.724%、3.015%)、β-蒎烯(14.969%、12.978%)、石竹烯(8.242%、10.212%),除α-蒎烯含量相差9.042%以外,其他成分含量相差不大。%The essential oil of Tugong Provenance and ordinary type Pinus massoniana was extracted by the volatile oil extractor , and the chemical composition of essential oil was analyzed and compared by gas chromatography -mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) by using the peak area normalization method .The results showed that the yield of essential oil of these two provenances were 0.52 % and 0.60 % respectively .23 constituents were identified from 69 and 75 chromatographic peaks respectively , and the relative content up to 92.65%, 94.56% respectively .The ma-jor constituents were α-pinene ( 37.673 %, 46.715 %) , camphene ( 3.724 %, 3.015 %) , β-pinene (14.969 %, 12.978 %), caryophyllene (8.242 %, 10.212 %).The major constituents were similar except theα-pinene content difference with 9.042 %.

  9. 5种松属树种光合功能及叶绿素快相荧光动力学特征比较%Photosynthetic functions and chlorophyll fast fluorescence characteristics of five Pinus species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱念伟; 周峰; 顾祝军; 贾树芹; 王兴安

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the needle morphological characteristics, photosynthetic rate, and chlorophyll fast fluorescence induction curves of five representative Pinus species P. parvifiora, P. armandii, P. bungeana, P. tabuliformis, and P. densiflora. Significant differences were observed in the needle morphological characteristics among the five species. P. tabuliformis had the longest needle length and highest needle density, whereas P. bungeana had the highest chlorophyll content. P. densiflora and P. parvifiora had the maximum and minimum photosynthetic rate, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance across the five species. The differences in the chlorophyll fast fluorescence induction curves of the five species were mainly manifested in J-step and I-step. Although the five species had similar values of Fv/Fm,Fy/Fo and Tfm, P. parvifiora had significantly higher values of dV/dt0, dVG/dt0, Vj and Vi, but lower energy flux ratio Ψ0,φEo and φRo, compared with the other four species. The low PSII activity and efficiency of P. parvifiora might relate to its smallest Sm, Sm/Tfm and N. P. densiflora and P. parvifiora had the maximum and minimum vitality indices PI(ABS/CSo/CSm) and DF, respectively, and there existed significant positive correlations between the P/(CSo) and P/(CSm) and the net photosynthetic rate of the five species, suggesting that P/(CSo)and P/(CSm) could be used to estimate the photosynthetic activity of Pinus trees.%以松属5种代表树种日本五针松、华山松、白皮松、油松和赤松为研究对象,比较了它们针叶的形态特征、光合速率和叶绿素快相荧光动力学方面的异同.结果表明:5种松树的针叶形态特征存在显著差异,油松的针叶长度和密度最大;白皮松的叶绿素含量最高;但赤松的光合速率最大,日本五针松的光合速率最小.5种松树针叶的光合速率与气孔导度呈正相关.5种

  10. Uptake of trifluoroacetate by Pinus ponderosa via atmospheric pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesch, J. A.; Gustin, M. S.

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA, CF 3COO -), a break down product of hydro(chloro)-fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs), has been suggested to contribute to forest decline syndrome. To investigate the possible effects, Pinus ponderosa was exposed to TFA applied as mist (150 and 10,000 ng l -1) to foliar surfaces. Needles accumulated TFA as a function of concentration and time. However, no adverse physiological responses, as plant morphology, photosynthetic and conductance rates, were observed at the TFA concentrations used in this study.

  11. Changes in tussock architecture of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is important to link functional trait-based responses of invaders to environmental changes to improve our understanding of mechanisms that promote invasiveness. The invasion of alien Spartina densiflora Brongn. along the Pacific coast of North America provides a natural model system for studying ...

  12. Needle autopsy

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    Philip Davis Marsden

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Often in tropical practice there is not time or conditions to do a proper autopsy on a patient who has died. A needle biopsy technique is described for limited closed autopsy examination to clariffy organ histology. In this way the clinician may resolve puzzling fatal disease.Muitas vezes, em clínicas de países tropicais, não há tempo nem condições para se realizar uma necropsia adequada em um paciente que foi a óbito. Um técnica de biópsia por punção é descrita para fins de exame em necropsia limitadamente fechada, para esclarecimento da histologia do órgão. Dessa maneira, o clínico pode resolver enigmas de doenças fatais.

  13. Essential oils composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae growing on Pelister Mtn., Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karapandzova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from needles, from branches without needles and from branches with needles of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae from Pelister Mtn. (R. Macedonia was analyzed by GC/FID/MS. One hundred and seven components (40 monoterpenes, 37 sesquiterpenes, 9 diterpenes and 21 other components - aliphatic and cyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, and acids; phenols and other oxygenated benzene derivates were identified. The most abundant constituents were terpene hydrocarbons, encompassing the monoterpenes: α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene + β-phellandrene and bornyl acetate and the sesquiterpenes: trans (E-caryophyllene and germacrene D.

  14. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration Affected by Compound Fertilizer Types in Red Pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z. Stands of Korea

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    Jaeyeob Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on heterotrophic soil respiration (Rh in soil respiration (Rs components in red pine stands. Two types of fertilizer (N3P4K1 = 113:150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1; P4K1 = 150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1 were applied manually on the forest floor for two years. Rs and Rh rates were monitored from April 2011 to March 2013. Mean Rs and Rh rates were not significantly affected by fertilizer applications. However, Rh in the second year following fertilizer application fell to 27% for N3P4K1 and 17% in P4K1 treatments, while there was an increase of 5% in the control treatments compared with the first fertilization year. The exponential relationships between Rs or Rh rates and the corresponding soil temperature were significant (Rh: R2 = 0.86–0.90; p < 0.05; Rs: R2 = 0.86–0.91; p < 0.05 in the fertilizer and control treatments. Q10 values (Rs increase per 10 °C increase in temperature in Rs rates were lowest for the N3P4K1 treatment (3.47, followed by 3.62 for the P4K1 treatment and 3.60 in the control treatments, while Rh rates were similar among the treatments (3.59–3.64. The results demonstrate the importance of separating Rh rates from Rs rates following a compound fertilizer application.

  15. Injury to Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. ) forest in the vicinity of the smelting works at Hitachi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okanoue, M.

    1958-03-01

    In the summer of 1965, smoke from a smelter at Hitachi caused injury to a national forest approximately one to three km distant. The smelter had been equipped with control devices and no previous injuries had been reported. An investigation of meteorological conditions at the time of the emission revealed the presence of a temperature inversion between Mt. Kamimine (594 m) and Sukegawa (52 m). However, these inversions are not uncommon in the area. Presumably, poisonous gas was emitted from the smelter chimney as a result of equipment malfunction just at the time of unfavorable meteorological conditions.

  16. Rainfall, Stemflow and Throughfall Chemistry at Declined and Non-Declined Areas of Japanese Red Pine (Pinus Densiflora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwa, M.; Sakugawa, H.

    2001-12-01

    Rainfall, stemflow and throgufhall were collected from 1996 to 1999 at seaward side, pine declined area, and mountain summit and inland side, non-declined area at Mt. Gokurakuji, western Japan. Rainfall deposition showed small differences among seaward side, mountain summit and inland side. Inorganic N (NO3-+NH4+) and S deposition of rainfall were estimated to be 5.6 kgNha-1yr-1 and 6.3 kg Sha-1yr-1, respectively at the seaward side and 5.8 kg Nha-1yr-1 and 5.9 kg Sha-1yr-1, respectively at non-declined area (mountain summit and inland side). NO3- and SO42- concentrations in stemflow were significantly higher at seaward side (34.4 and 25.0 EM, respectively) than at inland side (4.8 and 14.4 EM, respectively) and were several times higher compared to those of rainfall collected simultaneously. Throughfall deposition of NO3- and SO42- also significantly higher at seaward side, whereas bulk depostion showed small differences between study sites. Net throughfall (NTF) deposotion of NO3- and SO42- accounted for 80 and 53 % of total deposition at seaward side, respectively, while 47 and 33 % at inland side, respectively. From these results it can be concluded that there are small spatial changes for fluxes of wet deposition, while dry deposition is significantly higher at seaward side compared to at inland side at Mt. Gokurakuji. Inorganic N (NO3-+NH4+) deposition was estimated to be more than 20 kgNha-1yr-1 at seaward side, which was greater than the literature threshold of nitrogen deposition that could cause nitrogen saturation in Europe and United States.

  17. 赤松木材材质早期预测%Early Prediction of Wood Quality for Pinus densiflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春德; 吴义强; 张美淑; 张鹏

    2005-01-01

    根据人工林赤松的管胞长度、微纤丝角、管胞长宽比、基本密度、晚材率及生长轮宽度等材性指标的测试数据,采用有序聚类分割法划分出赤松的幼龄期为12a;根据幼龄材的构造特征和材性指标,运用回归分析方法,推导出成熟材的理论预测值,经误差分析,该值与实测值比较接近,平均相对误差最小为5.2%,最大为25.7%.

  18. Salt tolerance is related to a specific antioxidant response in the halophyte cordgrass, Spartina densiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalejo, Antonio; Martínez-Domínguez, David; Córdoba, Francisco; Torronteras, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Halophytes usually have a robust antioxidative defense system to alleviate oxidative damage during salt stress. Spartina densiflora is a colonizing halophyte cordgrass, native of South America, which has become a common species in salt marshes of northern hemisphere, where it is ousting indigenous species. This study addressed salinity stress in S. densiflora; the occurrence of oxidative stress and the possible involvement of the antioxidative system in its high salt tolerance were studied. Plants were evaluated at in situ conditions, in the laboratory during a 28 day-acclimation period (AP) in clean substrate irrigated with a control salt content of 4 g L-1 (68 mM) and during a subsequent 28 day-treatment period (TP) exposed to different NaCl concentrations: control (68 mM), 428 mM or 680 mM. In the in situ setting, the high leave Na+ content was accompanied by high levels of hydroperoxides and reduced levels of total chlorophyll and carotenes, which correlated with enhanced activation of antioxidant defense biomarkers as total ascorbic acid (AA) content and guaiacol peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7)), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11) activities. Throughout the AP, leave Na+ and oxidative stress markers decreased concomitantly and reached stable low levels. During the TP, dose and time-dependent accumulation of Na+ in high NaCl-treated plants was concurrent with a decrease in content of total chlorophyll and carotenes and with an increase in the levels of total AA and CAT and APX activities. In conclusion, as hypothesized, high salinity induces conditions of oxidative stress in S. densiflora, so that its salt tolerance appears to be related to the implementation of a specific antioxidant response. This may account for Spartina densiflora's successful adaptation to habitats with fluctuating salinity and favour its phytoremediation potential.

  19. Volatiles as Chemosystematic Markers for Distinguishing Closely Related Species within the Pinus mugo Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiński, Konrad; Bonikowski, Radosław; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Chudzińska, Ewa; Maliński, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS analysis was used to identify the constituents of pine-needle volatiles differentiating three closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex, i.e., P. uncinata Ramond ex DC., P. uliginosa G.E.Neumann ex Wimm., and P. mugo Turra. Moreover, chemosystematic markers were proposed for the three analyzed pine species. The major constituents of the pine-needle volatiles were α-pinene (28.4%) and bornyl acetate (10.8%) for P. uncinata, δ-car-3-ene (21.5%) and α-pinene (16.1%) for P. uliginosa, and α-pinene (20%) and δ-car-3-ene (18.1%) for P. mugo. This study is the first report on the application of the composition of pine-needle volatiles for the reliable identification of closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex.

  20. Geochemical factors promoting die-back gap formation in colonizing patches of Spartina densiflora in an irregularly flooded marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Costa, Cesar S. B.

    2017-04-01

    Circular (RP) and ring-shape (RP) patches of vegetation in intertidal flats have been associated with the radial expansion of tussock growth forms and die-back gap in older central stands, respectively. RP formation has not yet been sufficiently explained. We accomplished a comparative geochemical study of CP and RP structures of Spartina densiflora within a single saltmarsh in a microtidal estuary (toxic environment for S. densiflora and die-back central gap formation in RP. CP structure was 5 cm higher in the intertidal than RP but shows frequent presence of a water layer, less severe oxidation of sulfides and limited building-up of toxic condition to plants. Development of S. densiflora RP probably indicates the uplift of sediment by this bioengineer grass and/or periodic lowering of the water surface below a certain critical level.

  1. Needle Biopsy of the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Needle Biopsy of the Lung Needle biopsy of the lung ... Needle Biopsy of Lung Nodules? What is Needle Biopsy of the Lung? A lung nodule is relatively ...

  2. Fine Needle Aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FNA), also called fine needle biopsy, is a type of biopsy that can be used to diagnose many types ... in which case another FNA or a different type of biopsy procedure may needed. Because the needle is so ...

  3. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Danusevičius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  4. Spontaneous hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian seaside: a morphological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Petrokas, Raimundas; Christensen, Knud Ib

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  5. Physiological and biochemical contributions to the problems of smoke damage research. III. The influence of strong spasmodic doses of SO/sub 2/ on the CO/sub 2/ absorption and on certain constituents of the needles of Picea abies and Pinus mugo under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, M.; Boertitz, S.; Polster, H.

    1964-01-01

    Potted young plants show assimilation depressions of various degrees before smoke damage becomes visible. Needles or parts of needles without any outward injuries can recover within a few weeks. Individual differences in outward appearance as well as in physiological behavior were found with the species investigated. Contrary to assimilation, the variations of pH-values as well as those of the sugar-, and amino-acid balances of saps pressed from needles are measurable within the lethal region only. 18 references, 9 figures.

  6. Characterization and distribution of mating type genes in the Dothistroma needle blight pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, M.; Barnes, I.; Bradshaw, R.E.; Brown, A.V.; Dale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Lewis, K.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini are the two causal agents of Dothistroma needle blight of Pinus spp. in natural forests and plantations. Degenerate primers amplified portions of mating type genes (MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2) and chromosome walking was applied to obtain the full-length genes in both

  7. Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along a broad latitudinal gradient on the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined morphological and physiological leaf traits of Spartina densiflora plants in populations from invaded estuarine sites across broad latitudinal and climate gradients along the Pacific west coast of North America, and in favourable conditions in a common garden experiment. We hypothesized ...

  8. Improved transvenous liver biopsy needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Matzen, P; Christoffersen, P

    1979-01-01

    A modified type of the standard transvenous cholangiography biopsy needle is described. The modified tranvenous liver biopsy needle caused only minimal artefactual changes of the liver biopsy specimens. The new type of biopsy needle is a modified Menghini needle. The conventional Menghini needle...... should be avoided for transvenous catheter biopsies because of risk of leaving catheter fragments in the liver....

  9. 欧洲赤松引种试验初报%Primary Report of the introduction Experiment on Pinus densifiora Sieb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪杰; 张召军; 倪柏春

    2006-01-01

    树木引种驯化在林业发展中,始终具有较强的魅力.这是由于一个优良的树种,理性地引入一个地区后,所带来的良性变化决定的.欧洲赤松生长快、抗性强、耐干旱瘠薄、耐高寒.我们从80代即开始了国内外松属植物的引种工作,其中欧洲赤松(pinus densiflora sieb.et zucc)是较为成功的一例.本文实录了20余年赤松引种驯化情况,以供同行们参考.

  10. Needle biopsy of histoplasmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N.

    1980-12-01

    A case of histoplasmosis, simulating a bronchogenic carcinoma, was needle biopsied. Histoplasma capsulatum organisms were found in great numbers. Needle biopsy established an accurate diagnosis making an exploratory thoracotomy unnecessary and preventing the patient from an already planned lobectomy. Specific treatment with Amphotericin B healed the lesion.

  11. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F; Sushkov, Alexander O; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-13

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, Nℏ≫IΩ (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.

  12. Investigation on Effect of Forestation by Mixing Pinus massoniana with Schima superba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGWenchao; HUANGLili

    2004-01-01

    Since forestation of pure forest of Pinus massoniana is liable to suffer from pest calamity, soil erosion, decrease of soil fertility, and difficulty in wood production in the hilly areas of southern China, we conducted an investigation on the three types of forests in Gao'an County of Jiangxi Province, namely, the pure forest of Pinus massoniana, the pure forest of Schima superba, and the mixed forest consisting of the two species, setting up standard stand, measuring and studying the growing stock, biomass, leaf area, roots,soil, vegetation, pests, litters, soil erosion, microclimate, etc., with the following results. ① The average height, diameter at chest height, and volume of the mixed forest are higher than those of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana by 30.9%, 31.7% and 10.6%, respectively. ② The biomass of the mixed forest is 2.24 times as much as that of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana. ③ The litters of the mixed forest is 3.37 times and 1.96 times as much as the litters of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana and the pure forest of Schima superba respectively. ③ The occurrence of pest calamity per tree is lower and the conditions of soil erosion and microclimate are better than those of the pure forest ofPinus massoniana. ④ The mixed forest of the two species is an excellent mixed type of needle-leaf and deciduous forest worth being popularized in China's subtropical areas, especially in the low hilly areas. It is recommended in plantation that the mixed patterns be between trees, lines, small blocks, or scattered-dots, the ratio of mixture of Pinus massoniana and Schima superba be 5 to 1, or 3 to 1, and the initial space between trees be 1.2, 1.5, or 2.0 m while the initial density be 6 944 to 4 440 trees per square hectare.

  13. Liming and fertilisation in Pinus taeda plantations with severe nutrient deficiency in savanna soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils with high acidity and low exchangeable bases may be responsible for low yields of Pinus taeda in a forest plantation at Jaguariaíva, Paraná State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liming and fertilisation, applied over litter, on two selected areas with Pinus taeda plantations. Soil, litter and pine needles were evaluated for K, Ca and Mg concentrations and soil acidity parameters. Seven treatments were applied: (i complete (N, P, K, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and lime; (ii without N, P, and K; (iii without Zn, Cu, B, and Mo; (iv without K; (v without Zn; (vi without lime; and (vii control (without nutrients and lime. Soil samples were collected at five soil depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm simultaneously with litter samples. Needles were also collected from the first and second pine flushes. Liming induced soil pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increases, and the opposite was observed for Al3+ and Al saturation. Fertilisation increased soil exchangeable K+ concentrations and needle and litter K concentrations. The low Ca and Mg concentrations found in the plant needles might be attributable to their low mobility.

  14. Bioactivity of extracts and isolated compounds from Vitex polygama (Verbenaceae) and Siphoneugena densiflora (Myrtaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Margareth B C; Rocha, Waldireny C; da Cunha, Uemerson S; Diogo, Fernanda A; da Silva, Fernando C; Vieira, Paulo C; Vendramim, José D; Fernandes, João B; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G

    2006-11-01

    The effects of crude extracts, fractions and isolated compounds from Vitex polygama Cham. and Siphoneugena densiflora Berg were evaluated on the development of Spodoptera frugiperda JE Smith, a destructive insect pest of corn and several other crops. The extracts and fractions were incorporated into an artificial diet at 1 mg g(-1) and offered to the insect during its larval stage. Length and viability of larval and pupal stages as well as pupal weight were assessed. Isolated compounds were tested through superficial contamination of the diet at 0.1 mg g(-1). Weight and viability of ten-day-old larvae were determined. Methanolic and hydroalcoholic S. densiflora extracts caused 100% larval mortality, while leaf and fruit hydroalcoholic extracts from V. polygama were the most active. Among the isolated compounds, flavonoids presented the best insecticidal results, and tannins the best larval growth inhibition.

  15. Ecophysiology of tidal and non-tidal populations of the invading cordgrass Spartina densiflora: seasonal and diurnal patterns in a Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, F. J. J.; Castillo, J. M.; Luque, C. J.; Figueroa, M. E.

    2003-08-01

    The invasion of salt marshes by alien species poses interesting questions concerning the mechanisms that determine their distribution. Spartina densiflora is one of the species that is invading the Atlantic marshes of SW Iberian Peninsula, where it tolerates a broad range of environmental conditions and it competes with the indigenous vegetation. The high ecological versatility of S. densiflora provides a good tool to study the ecophysiological responses of marsh plants. This article aims to compare the ecophysiological responses of S. densiflora in populations from two contrasting habitats: tidal (middle marsh) and non-tidal (drainage intercepted marsh). The higher values in A (net photosynthesis rate), A/ Ci (apparent carboxylation efficiency), water use efficiency (intrinsic WUE) and FV/ FP (potential photochemical efficiency) recorded at the non-tidal population, except in summertime, agree with previous studies that found better physiological state at lower salinity and higher redox potential. A clear reduction of A at higher irradiance was recorded in spring and summer in the tidal population, coinciding with the lowest ψ (leaf water potential) values. These results help to explain the high primary productivity recorded in S. densiflora populations at brackish marshes in Mediterranean areas. Different responses in gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence during summer were recorded for each population. The tidal population showed the maximum values of A in summer. In contrast, the non-tidal population suffered reductions in A, A/ Ci and FV/ FP during summer, when salinity was higher. Thus, salinity limits carbon fixation in S. densiflora non-tidal populations during Mediterranean summer drought. In tidal populations, photosynthesis seems to be more influenced by anoxic conditions. High levels of photoinhibition and low A were recorded on the coldest and less cloudy day, which provoked permanent damages to the photosynthetic apparatus of S. densiflora. This

  16. Synergic effect of salinity and zinc stress on growth and photosynthetic responses of the cordgrass, Spartina densiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Andrades-Moreno, Luis; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Parra, Raquel; Valera-Burgos, Javier; Aroca, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Spartina densiflora is a C4 halophytic species that has proved to have a high invasive potential which derives from its physiological plasticity to environmental factors, such as salinity. It is found in coastal marshes of south-west Spain, growing over sediments with between 1 mmol l−1 and 70 mmol l−1 zinc. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the synergic effect of zinc from 0 mmol l−1 to 60 mmol l−1 at 0, 1, and 3% NaCl on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of S. densiflora by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and gas exchange, and its recovery after removing zinc. Antioxidant enzyme activities and total zinc, sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen concentrations were also determined. Spartina densiflora showed the highest growth at 1 mmol l−1 zinc and 1% NaCl after 90 d of treatment; this enhanced growth was supported by the measurements of net photosynthetic rate (A). Furthermore, there was a stimulatory effect of salinity on accumulation of zinc in tillers of this species. Zinc concentrations >1 mmol l−1 reduced growth of S. densiflora, regardless of salinity treatments. This declining growth may be attributed to a decrease in A caused by diffusional limitation of photosynthesis, owing to the modification of the potassium/calcium ratio. Also, zinc and salinity had a marked overall effect on the photochemical (photosystem II) apparatus, partially mediated by the accumulation of H2O2 and subsequent oxidative damage. However, salinity favoured the recovery of the photosynthetic apparatus to the toxic action of zinc, and enhanced the nutrient uptake. PMID:21841175

  17. Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko & Sutton - agents of pinus species decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage is caused on the introduced Pinus species and on those cultivated in artificial plantations, shelterbelts and in urban environments. In Yugoslavia S. sapinea is widely distributed both in the continental and in the Mediterranean parts. It was identified from ten pine species and six hosts from other coniferous genera. By the study in our country, the new hosts of this fungus were detected - Pinus jeffrey, P. peuce and P. heldreichii. The most endangered species in our country is Austrian pine, both in urban environments, and in plantations The symptoms of the disease are bud wilt, curling, stunting and necrosis of current year shoots and needles, dieback of top shoots, parts of crown or tree tops, branch and stem bark canker, root collar rot on the young plants in nurseries and their dying. This fungus also prevents seed germination of Pinus species and causes blue sap stain of the freshly cut wood, although sap stain was also observed on standing trees. More rarely it causes root rot and crown wilt of Pinus species. The main symptoms of infection, both of young plants and older trees, are the dieback of current year shoots S. sapinea can penetrate through buds, bark of young shoots and needles. The critical time of infection is the period from mid April to mid May. Then infection mainly penetrates through the bark of young shoots, which results in their dying. Infection through the needles occurs mainly at the time of their sudden growth or during summer

  18. Relationships between foliar phosphorus fractions of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and soil available phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong ZHAO; Xingyu LIU; Dehui ZENG; Jinhuan LIU; Yalin HU

    2009-01-01

    In order to find out the best foliar diagnostic index of phosphorus (P) nutrition in Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) in the southeastern Keerqin Sandy Lands, the concentrations of total nitrogen (N), inorganic P, organic P and total P in needles of different ages and soil available P were examined. The results show that in the study area, soil available P was rather low (0.12-0.63mg/kg) and was significantly correlated with inorganic P (cPi) and total P (cPt) concentrations in current year needles of Mongolian pine. The significant correlation between soil available P and needle cPt derived from the significant correlation between cPi and cPt. Compared with cPt, cPi did reflect the level of soil P supply more accurately and more directly.

  19. Pine needle abortion in cattle update: Metabolite detection in sera and fetal fluids from abortion case samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle abortions associated with consumption of pine needles during late gestation are a serious poisonous plant problem in the Western US. Most cases of abortion have been associated with consumption of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the causative agent was identified as the labdane diterpen...

  20. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Pinus flexilis on Pine Mountain, Humboldt National Forest, Elko County, northeastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Patricia E. Maloney; Tom Burt; Jacob W. Snelling

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, while surveying for five-needle white pine cone crops in northeastern Nevada, we observed white pine blister rust, caused by the rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola Fisch., infecting branches and stems of limber pines (Pinus flexilis James) on Pine Mountain (41.76975°N, 115.61622°W), Humboldt National Forest,...

  1. Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory Effects on the Amino Acid and Nitrogen Content in the Needles of Scots Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenija Kupsinskiene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the content of amino acids in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the area affected by a nitrogen fertilizer factory and to compare them with other parameters of needles, trees, and sites. Three young-age stands of Scots pine were selected at a distance of 0.5 km, 5 km, and 17 km from the factory. Examination of the current-year needles in winter of the year 2000 revealed significant (p

  2. Handling sharps and needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000444.htm Handling sharps and needles To use the sharing features ... Health Administration. OSHA fact sheet: protecting yourself when handling contaminated sharps. Updated January 2011. Available at: www. ...

  3. Field Variability of Invading Populations of Spartina densiflora Brong. in Different Habitats of the Odiel Marshes (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, F. J. J.; Díaz-Espejo, A.; Castellanos, E. M.; Figueroa, M. E.

    2001-04-01

    Spartina densiflora is a species of South American origin that has invaded the marshes of the Gulf of Cádiz, in many of which it has become the most abundant plant. This work studies six populations of S. densiflora representative of the physiographic positions most commonly occupied by the species. The aspects considered are redox potential, conductivity and pH of the sediment, below- and above-ground biomass, stem density, rates of flowering and production of vegetative propagules. Eh and conductivity values vary greatly, responding to differences in tidal effect. The below-ground biomass (in particular, live rhizomes) is accumulated mostly in the first centimetres of the soil; mean values of total below-ground biomass are between 6961 and 30 696 g DW m -2. Above-ground biomass levels for the populations ranges between 419 and 15 251 g DW m -2. The stem density within the tussocks is high, between 3985 and 10 513 stems m -2, with higher percentages of live stems on low and brackish marshes compared with those on higher topographic levels. This accumulation of dead and live intratussock biomass is important for the ability to exclude competitors. The flowering rates vary depending on topographic position, with maximum values being recorded in the low marsh (37·6%) and minima in the high marsh (0·1 to 0·3%). Besides the production of ramets from below-ground rhizomes (common to all species of the genus), S. densiflora presents another mode of asexual reproduction, in which extravaginal tillers are originated from the nodes of senescent ramets; populations on the higher levels of the marshes present higher densities of these propagules, with a negative correlation between rate of flowering and rate of propagule production. Nevertheless, the contribution of these propagules to the total stem population is very small. Our results show a high tolerance of S. densiflora to different environmental factors, an intense occupation of the available below-ground and above

  4. Endophytic fungi in Scots pine needles: Spatial variation and consequences of simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helander, M.L.; Neuvonen, S. (Turku Univ., Turku (F)); Sieber, T.N.; Petrini, O. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1994-01-01

    Within- and among-tree variation in assemblages of endophytic fungi in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles were studied in a subarctic area where background pollution values are low; the effects of tree density and prolonged simulated acid rain on the occurrence of endophytic fungi were investigated. The needle endophyte most frequently isolated was Cenangium ferruginosum, accounting for 64% of all fungal individuals, followed by Cyclaneusma minus (12% of all individuals). Old needles were colonized more frequently by endophytes than young ones. In young needles the colonization by endophytes increased during the summer, whereas in old ones no seasonal variation was detected. Endophyte colonization was positively correlated with stand density and was reduced on pines treated with spring water acidified with either sulphuric acid alone or in combination with nitric acid. In contrast, nitric acid alone did not affect endophyte colonization. 37 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki; Ewa Bajus; Halina Ratyńska

    2014-01-01

    Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the result...

  6. Variability of needle structure in Siberian stone pine in provenance plantations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the most common trees in Siberia. Its natural range is from the Ural Mountains to the Aldan river and from the Arctic Circle to northern Mongolia. The climate in natural Siberian stone pine sites influences the whole plant organism, particularly its needle structure, and the response to thisoccurs at specific morphological and anatomical levels. The genotypical and environmental effects on needle structure in different Siberianstone pine ...

  7. Scaling relationships of twig biomass allocation in Pinus hwangshanensis along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Zheng, Yuan; Fan, RuiRui; Zhong, QuanLin; Cheng, DongLiang

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the response of biomass allocation in twigs (the terminal branches of current-year shoots) to environmental change is crucial for elucidating forest ecosystem carbon storage, carbon cycling, and plant life history strategies under a changing climate. On the basis of interspecies investigations of broad-leaved plants, previous studies have demonstrated that plants respond to environmental factors by allocating biomass in an allometric manner between support tissues (i.e., stems) and the leaf biomass of twigs, where the scaling exponent (i.e., slope of a log-log linear relationship, α) is constant, and the scaling constant (i.e., intercept of a log-log linear relationship, log β) varies with respect to environmental factors. However, little is known about whether the isometric scaling exponents of such biomass allocations remain invariant for single species, particularly conifers, at different altitudes and in different growing periods. In this study, we investigated how twig biomass allocation varies with elevation and period among Pinus hwangshanensis Hsia trees growing in the mountains of Southeast China. Specifically, we explored how twig stem mass, needle mass, and needle area varied throughout the growing period (early, mid-, late) and at three elevations in the Wuyi Mountains. Standardized major axis analysis was used to compare the scaling exponents and scaling constants between the biomass allocations of within-twig components. Scaling relationships between these traits differed with growing period and altitude gradient. During the different growing periods, there was an isometric scaling relationship, with a common slope of 1.0 (i.e., α ≈ 1.0), between needle mass and twig mass (the sum of the total needle mass and the stem mass), whereas there were allometric scaling relationships between the stem mass and twig mass and between the needle mass and stem mass of P. hwangshanensis. The scaling constants (log β) for needle mass vs. twig

  8. Trigger Point Dry Needling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Increasingly, physical therapists in the United States and throughout the world are using dry needling to treat musculoskeletal pain, even though this treatment has been a controversial addition to practice. To better generalize to physical therapy practice the findings about dry needling thus far, the authors of a study published in the March 2017 issue of JOSPT identified the need for a systematic review examining the effectiveness of dry needling performed by physical therapists on people with musculoskeletal pain. Their review offers a meta-analysis of data from several included studies and assesses the evidence for risks of bias. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):150. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0502.

  9. New natural products from Siphoneugena densiflora Berg (Myrtaceae) and their chemotaxonomic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Margareth B.C.; Silva, Fernando C. da; Vieira, Paulo C.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Silva, Maria Fatima das G.F. da [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: marejor@uol.com.br

    2006-03-15

    Siphoneugena Berg (Myrtaceae) is a small eugenioid genus segregated from Eugenia by Berg. The phytochemical survey of Siphoneugena densiflora was carried out in order to find secondary metabolites which may be considered as chemotaxonomic characters and help to distinguish between the two genera. Five novel hydrolyzable tannins were isolated from the methanolic extract of root bark and were characterized as ellagic acid 4-O-{alpha}-L-2-O- and its isomer 4-O-{alpha}-L-3-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside, siphoneugenin, that supports a new aglycone with a dibenzo-1,4-dioxin structure, 3,4'-di-O-methylellagic acid 4-O-{beta}-D-6-O- and 4-O-{beta}- D-3,6-diacetyl glucopyranoside, accompanied by ellagic acid 4-O-{alpha}-L-4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside, eschweilenol C, sitosterol, daucosterol, rhamnose, casuarinin, castalagin, ellagic, gallic and syringic acids. From methanolic extract of leaves, in addition to the well known compounds quercetin, quercitrin, guiajaverin, reynoutrin, chebuloside II, terminolic, madecassic and asiatic acids, lupeol, {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin, a new pentacyclic triterpene was isolated and named as {beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-2{alpha},3{beta},6{beta}-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-ate. Structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence, along with the comparison of the data reported in the literature. (author)

  10. Study on Anatomical Structure of Plants Leaves from 9 Pinus Species and Their Drought Resistance%松属9种植物叶的解剖结构及抗旱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白重炎; 王娜

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨陕西省引种的松属9种植物叶片的解剖结构及其抗旱性.[方法]对采自延安大学植物园引种栽培的9种松属植物针叶用石蜡切片法进行解剖学观察与测定,并选取表皮厚度、角质层厚度、下皮层层数、气孔距离及叶肉厚度5项指标,作为9种植物叶片的抗旱性指标,对所测数据进行方差分析和多重比较,最后选取最具代表性的3项叶片抗旱性解剖结构指标进行隶属函数值分析及抗旱性综合评价.[结果]综合隶属函数值评定的抗旱性评价结果可知,9种松属植物抗旱性强弱顺序为:美人松>奥地利黑松>樟子松>班克松>西黄松>白皮松>小粒赤松>欧洲黑松>华山松.[结论]松属9种植物中抗旱性最强的为美人松,最弱的为华山松.%[ Objective ] The study aimed to discuss the anatomical structure of plant leaves from introduced 9 Pinus species in Shaanxi Province and their drought resistance. [ Method] The plant leaves from introduced 9 Pinus species selected from the Botanic Garden of Yanan University were observed micro-anatomically and detected by the paraffin slices method. 5 indexes of epiderm thickness, cuticle thickness, hypoderm layers and pore distance and mesophyll thickness were selected as the drought resistance indexes of 9 Pinus species leaves and their determined data were made for the variance analysis and multiple comparison. At last, 3 anatomical structure indexes of leaf drought resistance with most representativeness were selected to conduct the analysis of the subordinate function values and the comprehensive evaluation of drought resistance. [ Result] The drought resistance evaluation by synthesizing the subordinate function values showed that, the drought-resistance of 9 Pinus species were in order of Pinus slyvesinformis > Pinus austriaca > Pinus sylvestris > Pinus banksiana > Pinus ponderosa > Pinus bungeana > Pinus densifloraPinus nigra > Pinus armandii

  11. Variability of Pinus mugo Turra clones from Ostry Wierch peat bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bączkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed at determining genetic structure of the Pinus mugo Turra population, growing at a peat bog, on Ostry Wierch slopes in the High Tatra mountains, in respect to the number of genotypes present in the population, and at defining variabilities of morphological and anatomical traits. In the examined plants, isoenzymatic analysis demonstrated existence of only two genotypes (A and B, which formed relatively vast clones. Mathematical-statistical analysis of 13 anatomical - morphological traits of the needles proved that the examined clump consisted of two clearly distinguishable groups, corresponding to the two earlier electrophoretically identified clones A and B. The obtained data allowed to conclude that the method based on anatomical-morphological measurements may, at least in some cases, permit identification of Pinus mugo clones

  12. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nouara Ait Mimoune; Djouher Ait Mimoune; Aziza Yataghene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils ofPinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay.Results:Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9%) and β-selinene (13.45%) were predominant compounds. The essential oil exhibited a moderate activity againstStaphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, but did not affect the growth of Erwinia amylovora. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were not inhibited by maritime pine essential oils.Conclusions:The essential oils from Pinus pinaster can be used as an antibacterial agent.

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouara Ait Mimoune

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay. Results: Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9% and β-selinene (13.45% were predominant compounds. The essential oil exhibited a moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, but did not affect the growth of Erwinia amylovora. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were not inhibited by maritime pine essential oils. Conclusions: The essential oils from Pinus pinaster can be used as an antibacterial agent.

  14. Needle breakage: incidence and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, Stanley F; Reed, Kenneth; Poorsattar, Susan

    2010-10-01

    Since the introduction of nonreusable, stainless steel dental local anesthetic needles, needle breakage has become an extremely rare complication of dental local anesthetic injections. But although rare, dental needle breakage can, and does, occur. Review of the literature and personal experience brings into focus several commonalities which, when avoided, can minimize the risk of needle breakage with the fragment being retained from occurring. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Blumea densiflora essential oils against Anopheles anthropophagus: a malarial vector mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Tian, Yingjuan

    2011-11-01

    Blumea densiflora, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from B. densiflora were investigated for their chemical composition and larvicidal activity against Anopheles anthropophagus, the primary vector of malaria in China and other East Asian countries. Totally, 46 compounds were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The major chemical compounds identified were borneol (11.43%), germacrene D (8.66%), β-caryophyllene (6.68%), γ-terpinene (4.35%), sabinene (4.34%), and β-bisabolene (4.24%). A series of concentrations of essential oil (that ranged from 6.25 to 150 ppm) were tested against A. anthropophagus fourth-instar larvae according to WHO recommendation. In general, larval mortality increased as concentration and exposure time increased, indicating a dose-dependent effect, and high insecticidal activity showed that 100% mortality occurred within 6 h at 150 ppm, 10 h at 100 ppm, 30 h at 50 ppm, and 30 h at 25 ppm essential oil concentration. The LC(50) values were 22.32 (after 12 h) and 10.55 ppm (after 24 h), and the LC(90) values were 54.04 (after 12 h) and 33.56 ppm (after 24 h). Pylarvex, the reference standard, had better larvicidal activity, causing 100% mortality within 2 h at 150 ppm and within 6 h at 6.25 ppm. The results clearly reveal that the essential oil of B. densiflora served as a potential, eco-friendly mosquito larvicide against the malarial vector mosquito A. anthropophagus.

  16. Essential oil composition variability among natural populations of Pinus mugo Turra in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Ahmeti, Gresa; Pulaj, Bledar; Lukas, Brigitte; Ibraliu, Alban; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Pinus mugo Turra, is a native pine species in central and southern Europe, growing in high mountains area (altitudes 1.800-2.300 m.a.s.l.). In Kosovo, it is one of the native pines too, distributed in high altitudes in the Sharri Mountains and Albanian Alps Mountains. Its populations represent an important wealth of essential oil resources available, which make this species very important in terms of economic values. The chemical composition and yields of the essential oils of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra) needles, twigs and cones from six wild populations in Kosovo were investigated with the aim to assess their natural variability. The identity of P. mugo was confirmed by morphology and DNA barcoding. Sixty-two compounds were identified representing 69-95 % of the total identified compounds. The yield ranged from 0.3-0.8 % v/w in needles, 1.0-2.4 % v/w in twigs and 0.1-0.5 % v/w in cones, depending on the origin of plant material and plant organs. α-Pinene (needles: 16.9-24.5 %; twigs: 4.5-8.8 %; cones: 3.1-5.6 %), β-pinene (needles: 1.5-5.4 %; twigs: 2.2-15.4 %; cones: 1.3-14.2 %), δ-3-carene (needles: 15.4-27.8 %; twigs: 24.0-51.6 %; cones: 10.5-31.5 %), limonene + β-phellandrene (needles: 1.9-5.9 %; twigs: 12.6-24.2 %; cones: 2.1-9.3 %), (E)-caryophyllene (needles: 4.4-8.9 %; twigs: 4.0-10.8 %; cones: 10.3-26.9 %) and germacrene D (needles: 4.0-8.3 %; twigs: 0.2-6.19 %; cones: 0.1-12.4 %) were the major components of the essential oil. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analyses (HCA) suggests that the population of P. mugo clustering is not related to their geographic location, but rather seemed to be linked to local selective forces acting on chemotype diversity. Low variability related to their geographic location has an economic importance since samples originating from different locations in Kosovo can treated with same standards.

  17. Technique of Pinus koraiensis with Interneneric Graft in Arid & Semiarid Region%干旱、半干旱地区异砧红松嫁接技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤国春; 杨树军; 安宇宁; 曹宇; 赵国军; 张硕

    2011-01-01

    Effect of rootstock selection,grafting time,grafting methods on survival rate growth of Pinus koraiensis were analyzed.Result shows that: Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica,Pinus tabulaeformis,Pinus densiflora all can be used as rootstock;single-bud appear optimal than multiple-bud;appropriate early grafting received favorable on scion lignification improvement;result of orthogonal experiment shows that :the optimal treatment combination is A1B1C1,namely the the combination of stock being Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica+bud-side wedge grafting being in mid-April can obtain survival rate being over 90%.%试验分析了砧木选择、嫁接时间、嫁接方法等因子对干旱、半干旱地区异砧红松嫁接成活率和生长的影响。结果表明:樟子松、油松、赤松均可作为砧木嫁接红松。采用单芽接穗好于多芽接穗;适时早接有利于接穗木质化程度的提高;正交试验结果显示最佳处理组合为A1B1C1,即砧木为樟子松、4月中旬嫁接、芽端楔接法的组合,成活率达到90%以上。

  18. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel; Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ(13)C and δ(18)O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain.

  19. Needle visualization using photoacoustic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Jae; Guo, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Alexis; Choti, Michael A.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    We investigated a novel needle visualization using the PA effect to enhance needle-tip tracking. An optical fiber and laser source are used to generate acoustic waves inside the needle with the PA effect. Acoustic waves are generated along the needle. Some amount of acoustic energy leaks into the surrounding material. The leakage of acoustic waves is captured by a conventional US transducer and US channel data collection system. Then, the collected data are converted to a PA image. The needle-tip can be visualized more clearly in this PA image than a general US brightness mode image.

  20. Structural injury underlying mottling in ponderosa pine needles exposed to ambient ozone concentrations in the San Bernardino Mountains near Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Vollenweider; Mark E. Fenn; Terry Menard; Madeleine Gunthardt-Goerg; Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2013-01-01

    For several decades, southern California experienced the worst ozone pollution ever reported. Peak ozone concentrations have, however, declined steadily since 1980. In this study, the structural injuries underlying ozone symptoms in needles of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) collected in summer 2006 from one of the most polluted sites in the San...

  1. There is no direct relationship between N-status and frost hardiness in needles of NH3-exposed Scots pine seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, JMAM; Venema, JH; Van Hasselt, PR

    2000-01-01

    The effect of short-term atmospheric ammonia deposition on frost hardening of needles of three-month-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied. Plants were frost hardened under short day and moderate temperature conditions in the laboratory during exposure to gaseous NH3 concentr

  2. Establishing the science foundation to sustain high-elevation five-needle pine forests threatened by novel interacting stresses in four western National Parks [Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; Jeff Connor; John Mack; Phyllis Pineda Bovin; Jen Beck; Gretchen Baker; R. A. Sniezko; K. S. Burns

    2014-01-01

    High-elevation five-needle white pines are among the most picturesque trees in many national parks, as well as other federal, state, and private lands in western North America. These trees often live to great ages; the trees' gnarled trunks give testimony to fierce winds that buffet them on exposed rocky sites. Ancient limber pines (Pinus flexilis) in Rocky...

  3. 四种松属植物叶的抗寒抗旱特点研究%Study on Dry Resistance and Cold Resistance of Leaf of Pinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪福太; 李长有; 王占武; 刘强

    2012-01-01

    为了研究松属植物叶片与植物抗寒抗旱特点的关系,以松属(Pinus)两种植物樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Litvin.)和油松(Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.)为主要实验材料,同时,观察黑松(Pinus thunbergii Parl.)和马尾松(Pinus massoniana Lamb.),研究针叶的表皮特征及叶片不同部位的解剖结构.结果表明,松属植物叶表皮外具有发达的角质层,气孔下陷,具有大的孔下室,树脂道发达.这说明松属植物叶具有旱生和寒性植物的形态结构特征.%In order to study the relationship between leaf of Pinus and drought resistance and cold resistance,epidermis characteristic and anatomy construction of needle leaf of two specices plants(Pinus sylvestrisa var.mongolica Litvin.and Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) in Pinus are observed.The results indicated that the leaf of Pinus plants have some construction of drought resistance and cold resistance.For example:the outside on the surface of leaf is covered with a cuticle and epicuticular waxes,its stomata are stand out of the epidermis with big bore bottom room and so on.

  4. Silicon alleviates deleterious effects of high salinity on the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis; Davy, Anthony J

    2013-02-01

    The non-essential element silicon is known to improve plant fitness by alleviating the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly in crops. However, its possible role in the exceptional tolerance of halophytes to salinity has not been investigated. This study reports the effect of Si supply on the salinity tolerance of the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora; plants were treated with NaCl (0-680 mM), with or without silicon addition of 500 μM, in a glasshouse experiment. Plant responses were examined using growth analysis, combined with measurements of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. In addition, tissue concentrations of aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and silicon were determined. Although high salinity decreased growth, this effect was alleviated by treatment with Si. Improved growth was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate (A), and greater water-use efficiency (WUE). Enhanced A at high salinity could be explained by beneficial effects of Si on the photochemical apparatus, and on chlorophyll concentrations. Ameliorative effects of Si were correlated with reduced sodium uptake, which was unrelated to a reduction in the transpiration rate, since Si-supplemented plants had higher stomatal conductances (G(s)). These plants also had higher tissue concentrations of essential nutrients, suggesting that Si had a positive effect on the mineral nutrient balance in salt-stressed plants. Si appears to play a significant role in salinity tolerance even in a halophyte, which has other, specific salt-tolerance mechanisms, through diverse protective effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrient balance.

  5. 不同坡向人工林赤松材性变异%Variations of Wood Property for Pinus densiflora Plantation at Different Slope Directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 张美淑; 吴玉德; 刘继生; 金春德

    2003-01-01

    以延吉市林业局帽儿山林场赤松人工林为例,对北坡和南坡两种坡向赤松人工林木材的管胞形态特征和物理力学特征的径向变异模式及差异进行研究.结果表明,管胞直径和微纤丝角及生长轮宽度等指标表现为差异显著.在相同轮龄范围内,管胞长度、管胞宽度、管胞长宽比、管胞壁腔比、微纤丝角、生长轮基本密度、晚材率、生长轮宽度等指标中,除生长轮基本密度平均值指标北坡的比南坡的大之外,其它指标的平均值均为南坡的大于北坡.

  6. Pinus Densiflora Bark Extract (Pinexol) Decreased Adiposity in Mice by Down-Regulation of Hepatic de novo Lipogenesis and Adipogenesis in White Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyemyoung; Go, Gwang-Woong

    2017-01-12

    PineXol, extracted from Korean red pine bark, has beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti3 inflammatory, and anti-lipogenic activities in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that PineXol supplementation could have anti-obesity effects on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat) or HFD (60% kcal from fat). HFD-fed animals were also subjected to PineXol treatment at a dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) (PX10 or PX50, respectively) body weight. Body weight and body fat mass in the PX50 group were statistically lower than those in the HFD group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). The concentration of hepatic triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were reduced in the PX50 group compared to HFD group (P < 0.01). Acetyl CoA carboxylase (P < 0.01), elongase of very long chain fatty acids 6 (P < 0.01), stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (P < 0.05), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (P < 0.01), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (P < 0.05) were significantly decreased in the PX50 group compared with that in the HFD group. In the white adipose tissue, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (P < 0.05), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (P < 0.001), and perilipin (P < 0.01) were decreased in the PX50 group compared with those in the HFD group. Therefore, the current study implies the potential of PineXol for the prevention and/or amelioration of obesity, in part, by inhibition of both hepatic lipid synthesis and adipogenesis in the white adipose tissue.

  7. Effective measures for enhancing survival percent of transplanting tree of Pinus densiflora%提高赤松大树移栽成活率的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑麟模; 朴青浩; 廉成哲; 朴永济; 朴哲浩; 李正春

    2001-01-01

    图们市园林处在街道两旁于1999年清明前移栽赤松大树220株,由于移栽后实施了促进新吸收根产生、减少叶面蒸腾、减轻营养消耗等枝术措施,其成活保存株数为214株,成活率达到97.3%.这些大树移栽后经过3 a的生长,完全适应了新的环境条件.

  8. The Study of Conservation on Pinus densiflora Forest in Kunyushan,Shandong%山东省昆嵛山赤松林保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜华

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the community in maintaining the ecological balance,regulating ecosystem structure and function,improving forest biological diversity were described,and some suggestions were put forward.%介绍了赤松群落对于维持生态平衡、调节生态系统结构和功能、提高森林生物多样性等方面起到的重要意义,并提出了相应的保护建议。

  9. Growth law of natural Pinus densiflora in Yanbian region%延边地区天然赤松生长规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗广军; 王庆茹; 黄世臣; 张美淑; 刘继生

    2005-01-01

    对延边地区天然赤松进行了全生长季各种生长因子的测定.结果表明,赤松全年出现1次生长高峰,树高生长呈近S型曲线,生长停止后,胸径生长出现2次生长峰,呈双峰型,叶生长率随林龄的增加而减小,侧枝生长与树高生长同时进行.

  10. A Study on Rules of the Transpiration Rates of Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis%彰武松蒸腾速率规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟鹏; 雷泽勇; 韩辉

    2005-01-01

    彰武松和樟子松生长季各月蒸腾速率与当月的平均气温、平均风速和地面温度有关,一般来说,平均气温高、地面温度值高、平均风速大的月份,彰武松和樟子松的月平均蒸腾速率也大.降水量大的月份,彰武松和樟子松的月平均蒸腾速率较小.彰武松每个季节的蒸腾速率日变化明显不同,6月份呈双峰型,8月份的蒸腾速率日变化也呈双峰型,10月份呈现单峰型;彰武松的年蒸腾速率的走势呈现单峰型,全年蒸腾速率的最高值出现在7月份;与樟子松进行比较研究发现,在同样生态条件下,彰武松比樟子松有较小的蒸腾强度.

  11. 赤松人工林生长与立地因子的关系%Relationship between the Growth of Pinus densiflora Plantation and the Site Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗广军

    2006-01-01

    根据延边地区的25块赤松人工林标准地资料,以其平均优势木的解析材料确定20年生优势木树高.按单项立地因子实际分布区间进行3组以上的分组,然后进行方差分析,计算差异显著性,再进行多重比较,分析各因子的变化规律.通过上述研究,明确了赤松人工林生长与立地因子的关系,初步确定了赤松人工林适宜的立地条件为:阳坡、半阳坡,中下坡位,坡度10°以上的缓斜坡,有效土层厚度30cm以上.

  12. Technology on Improving the Grafting Survival Rate of Pinus Densiflora%提高彰武松嫁接成活率的技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼; 孟鹏; 刘建华; 曹红丽

    2008-01-01

    从砧木选择、接穗的采集以及嫁接的时间和速度等方面,对彰武松嫁接技术进行了研究.结果表明:髓心形成层贴接法是最有效的方法,该方法从时间、砧木的生长量、接穗的切口长度以及嫁接速度等方面提高了彰武松的成活率.

  13. Phenolic phytochemicals derived from red pine (Pinus densiflora) inhibit the invasion and migration of SK-Hep-1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Ki Won; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Chun, Ji Young; Kim, Seo Young; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2007-01-01

    Considerable attention has recently been focused on identifying chemopreventive phytochemicals derived from medicinal plants. Here, we analyzed phenolic phytochemicals from red pine (RP) leaves and found epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC), and catechin gallate (CG) as their major phenolic phytochemicals. This article also investigated whether RP leaf extract and its phenolic phytochemicals inhibit the invasion of SK-Hep-1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (SK-Hep-1 cells). RP suppressed the invasion and the migration of SK-Hep-1 cells. EGCG and CG also inhibited the invasion and migration, with EGC exhibiting a lower efficacy. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly gelatinase-A (MMP-2) and gelatinase-B (MMP-9), degrade components of the basement membrane and are strongly implicated in invasion and metastasis formation of malignant tumors. RP suppressed both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. EGCG and CG reduced the activities of MMP-9 and MMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner, with EGC exhibiting a lower efficacy on both MMPs. Our results suggest that RP inhibits tumor invasion and migration, which may be attributed to the effects of EGCG and CG. In particular, EGCG plays a key role in the efficacy of RP against hepatocarcinogenesis.

  14. Radial and vertical distributions of radiocesium in tree stems of Pinus densiflora and Quercus serrata 1.5 y after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Shinta; Okada, Naoki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Nakai, Wataru; Takano, Shigeyoshi

    2014-08-01

    The radial and vertical distributions of radiocesium in tree stems were investigated to understand radiocesium transfer to trees at an early stage of massive contamination from the Fukushima nuclear disaster. A conifer species (Japanese red pine) and a broad-leaved species (Japanese konara oak) were selected to determine whether the radiocesium contamination pattern differs between species. Stem disks were collected at several heights and separated into outer bark, inner bark, and wood. The radiocesium concentration was the highest in the outer bark, followed by that in the inner bark and wood. The vertical distribution of the radiocesium concentration at each stem part differed between the species. The difference between species in radiocesium concentration of the outer bark could be explained by presence or absence of leaves at the time of the disaster. However, the reasons for the differences between species in the radiocesium concentration of the inner bark and wood are unclear. The radial distribution in the wood of the studied species showed a common pattern across stem disk heights and species. However, the radiocesium concentration ratio between sapwood and inner bark was significantly different between species. Although the radial contamination pattern in the wood was similar in the studied species during the early stage of contamination, the radiocesium transport pathway and allocation would be different between the species, and the contamination pattern will likely be different between the species at later stages. Continued investigations are important for understanding the radiocesium cycle and the accumulation of radiocesium in the tree stems of each species.

  15. Study on the Shoot Cutting Techniques of Pinus densiflora var zhangwuensis%彰武松扦插繁殖技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷泽勇; 孟鹏; 周凤艳

    2005-01-01

    系统研究了彰武松扦插基质、扦插时间、扦插过程的生根特点、插穗生根与温度的关系,结果表明:河沙作为扦插基质生根率达到50%,蛭石达到38%,珍珠岩+草炭(1:1)达到35%,细沙作为基质扦插生根率只有11%.用生根促进剂处理插穗,是提高难生根树种扦插成活率的重要措施,彰武松扦插用100μg·g-1生根促进剂L1处理插穗4h最适宜.彰武松属于愈伤组织生根型.生根长达2~4个月之久,扦插时的地表温度过低(低于20℃)不利于生根;彰武松扦插的最好时间为6月上中旬,在北方地区不要进行秋季扦插.

  16. The Technical Research of Cultivate Pinus densiflora's Mycorrhizal Seedling%赤松菌根化育苗技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿东; 潘丽梅; 姜贵全

    2007-01-01

    以赤松外生茵根菌种为试材,对茵根化育苗生产技术进行了研究.结果表明:在常规培养基(PDA中)中以加入20%的麦麸汁培养基效果最好;松茸茵的最佳培养温度是25℃,最适pH值是5.5;经松茸液体茵剂处理的赤松种子的出苗率比对照提高了32%;赤松茵根化育苗技术的实施使赤松接种苗比对照在株高、地径、干重等方面都有极其显著的提高,3项指标分别提高44.85%、31.3%和33.3%.

  17. Accumulation and distribution of trace metals within soils and the austral cordgrass Spartina densiflora in a Patagonian salt marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaszkin, Yanina L; Lancelotti, Julio L; Bouza, Pablo J; Marcovecchio, Jorge E

    2015-12-15

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn were determined in soils and in below- and above-ground structures of Spartina densiflora in a Patagonian salt marsh (San Antonio, Río Negro, Argentina). Also, the relationship between trace metal concentrations in soils and plants was investigated to improve our knowledge regarding the ability of this plant species to take up and accumulate trace metals from the soil. Our results indicate that, within the studied salt marsh, soil trace metal concentrations follow a decreasing concentration gradient toward the sea. They show moderate pollution and a potentially negative biological effect in one site of the salt marsh. While below-ground structures reflect the soil metal concentration pattern, this is not so evident in above-ground concentrations. Also, S. densiflora is able to absorb a limited amount of metals present in the soil, the soil bioaccumulation factor being lower in sites where soil metal concentration is higher. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oils from three Pinus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basholli-Salihu, Mimoza; Schuster, Roswitha; Hajdari, Avni; Mulla, Dafina; Viernstein, Helmut; Mustafa, Behxhet; Mueller, Monika

    2017-12-01

    Inflammation and cell differentiation lead to a number of severe diseases. In the recent years, various studies focused on the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity of essential oils (EOs) of numerous plants, including different Pinus species. The phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of EOs from needles and twigs of Pinus heldreichii Christ (Pinaceae) and P. peuce Griseb., and from needles, twigs and cones of P. mugo Turra were determined. For separation and identification of the EOs, gas chromatography/flame ion detector (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry were performed. The amount of secreted IL-6 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage model was quantified (concentration of oils: 0.0001-0.2%, 3 h incubation). Cytotoxicity on the cancer cell lines HeLa, CaCo-2 and MCF-7 were determined using a MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) assay (concentration of oils: 0.001-0.1%, 24 h incubation). The most prominent members in the oils include: δ-3-carene, α-pinene and linalool-acetate (P. mugo); α-pinene, β-phellandrene and β-pinene (P. peuce); limonene, α-pinene and (E)-caryophyllene (P. heldreichii). EOs showed significant cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines (IC50 0.007 to >0.1%), with a reduction in cell viability with up to 90% at a concentration of 0.1%, and anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 0.0008-0.02%) with a reduction of IL-6 secretion with up to 60% at a concentration of 0.01%. The EOs of needles and twigs from P. peuce and P. heldreichii as well as of needles, twigs and cones of P. mugo can be considered as promising agents for anticancer and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  19. The Terry Biopsy Needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alan F.; Murphy, Fergus A.; Nanson, Eric M.

    1963-01-01

    Six illustrative cases are reported to demonstrate the versatility of the Terry biopsy needle as a useful instrument for obtaining satisfactory biopsy specimens from the liver and from other tissues as well. The apparatus and method of use are described and illustrated. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6aFig. 6bFig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:13968726

  20. Identification of seeds of Pinus species by Microsatellite Markers%利用微卫星标记(SSR)鉴定松属近缘种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洑香香; 施季森

    2005-01-01

    用从松科7个树种中开发出来的276对SSR引物,利用分群法(bulked segregate analysis, BSA)对引物在黑松组的10个近缘种进行了筛选和鉴定.结果表明:276对引物中有23对在10个松树种中获得了扩增产物,其中有5对引物在种间具有多态性,而在种内具有保守性;用单个引物、2个或多个引物组合可以把10个松树种的8个完全区分开来,但目前还没有有效的SSR引物把高山松和思茅松区分开来. 图2表1参21.%The 276 pair-primers (nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite) developed from seven species of Pinaceae were selected and identified for cross-species transferability to ten Pinus species (P. Massoniana, P. Kesiya, P. Tabulaeformis, P. Densiflora, P. Thunbergii, P. Caribaea, P. Taeda, P. Yunnanensis, P. Densata, P. Sylvestris) belonging to Sect. Pinus by BSA (bulked segregate analysis) method. The results showed that 23 of 276 (8.0%) markers were successful to have amplification product in ten species, and 5 of 23 (21.7%) were polymorphic cross species and lack of polymorphic within species. Eight of 10 Pinus species were identified by using single primer, two and more combination of primers, but there were still no effective SSR primers for identifying other 2 species (P. Kesiya and P. Densata).

  1. Chemotaxonomic implications of the n-alkane composition and the nonacosan-10-ol content in Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Tešević, Vele; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2013-04-01

    The n-alkane composition and the nonacosan-10-ol content in the needle cuticular waxes of Serbian spruce (Picea omorika), Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii), and Macedonian pine (Pinus peuce) were compared. The amount of nonacosan-10-ol in the needle waxes of P. omorika was higher than those in P. heldreichii and P. peuce. The range of n-alkanes was also wider in P. omorika (C18 -C35 ) than in P. heldreichii and P. peuce (C18 -C33 ). The dominant n-alkanes were C29 in the needle waxes of P. omorika, C23 , C27 , and C25 in those of P. heldreichii, and C29 , C25 , C27 , and C23 in those of P. peuce. The waxes of P. omorika contained higher amounts of n-alkanes C29 , C31 , and C33 , while those of P. heldreichii and P. peuce had higher contents of n-alkanes C21 , C22 , C23 , C24 , and C26 . The principal component analysis of the contents of nine n-alkanes showed a clear separation of the Serbian spruce populations from those of the two investigated pine species, which partially overlapped. The separation of the species was due to high contents of the n-alkanes C29 and C31 (P. omorika), C19 , C20 , C21 , C22 , C23 , and C24 (P. heldreichii), and C28 (P. peuce). Cluster analysis also showed a clear separation between the P. omorika populations on one side and the P. heldreichii and P. peuce populations on the other side. The n-alkane and terpene compositions are discussed in the light of their usefulness in chemotaxonomy as well as with regard to the biogeography and phylogeny of these rare and endemic conifers.

  2. Biogeographic variation in evergreen conifer needle longevity and impacts on boreal forest carbon cycle projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Peter B; Rich, Roy L; Lu, Xingjie; Wang, Ying-Ping; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2014-09-23

    Leaf life span is an important plant trait associated with interspecific variation in leaf, organismal, and ecosystem processes. We hypothesized that intraspecific variation in gymnosperm needle traits with latitude reflects both selection and acclimation for traits adaptive to the associated temperature and moisture gradient. This hypothesis was supported, because across 127 sites along a 2,160-km gradient in North America individuals of Picea glauca, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, and Abies balsamea had longer needle life span and lower tissue nitrogen concentration with decreasing mean annual temperature. Similar patterns were noted for Pinus sylvestris across a north-south gradient in Europe. These differences highlight needle longevity as an adaptive feature important to ecological success of boreal conifers across broad climatic ranges. Additionally, differences in leaf life span directly affect annual foliage turnover rate, which along with needle physiology partially regulates carbon cycling through effects on gross primary production and net canopy carbon export. However, most, if not all, global land surface models parameterize needle longevity of boreal evergreen forests as if it were a constant. We incorporated temperature-dependent needle longevity and %nitrogen, and biomass allocation, into a land surface model, Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange, to assess their impacts on carbon cycling processes. Incorporating realistic parameterization of these variables improved predictions of canopy leaf area index and gross primary production compared with observations from flux sites. Finally, increasingly low foliage turnover and biomass fraction toward the cold far north indicate that a surprisingly small fraction of new biomass is allocated to foliage under such conditions.

  3. Wind pollination in Pinus roxburghii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod Prasad KHANDURI; Chandra Mohan SHARMA

    2007-01-01

    Stigmatic pollen load and pollen concentration in the air were studied in the natural population of Pinus roxburghii at Ashtavakra (900 m asl), in the Pauri forest division of Garhwal Himalaya, India. The results reflect diurnal pollen occurrence in P. roxburghii, with the strong significant correlations between pollen concentrations in the air and wind speed, air temperature and relative air humidity. A significant correlation was also observed between microsporangium dehiscence and pollen occurrence in the air. The maximum concentration of pollen grains in the air and higher rates of pollen deposition onto the megasporophylls were between 12 pm and 16 pm of the day, which conforms the best time for pollination in a day in P. roxburghii. The receptivity of Ovulate strobili varied from 3 to 5days, however, the bagged strobili remained receptive up to 6 days.

  4. Foliage Chemistry of Pinus baksiana in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette C. Proemse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial emissions in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Alberta, Canada, have caused concerns about the effect of oil sands operations on the surrounding terrestrial environments, including jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. stands. We collected jack pine needles from 19 sites in the AOSR (13–128 km from main operations for foliar chemical analyses to investigate the environmental impact on jack pine. Pine needles from three age classes, the current annual growth (CAG, 2011, one year and two year old pine needles, were collected. Samples were analyzed for total carbon (TC, nitrogen (TN, and sulfur (TS, inorganic S (SO4-S, base cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and other elements (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, P, Zn; CAG needles were also analyzed for their nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions. Only TN, TS, Ca, B, Zn, and Fe contents showed weak but significant increases with proximity to the major oil sands operations. C and N isotopic compositions showed no trend with distance or TC and TN contents. Total S contents in CAG of pine foliage increased significantly with proximity to the main industrial operation while foliar inorganic S to organic S ratios (SO4-S/Sorg ranged consistently between 0.13 and 0.32, indicating low to moderately high S loading. Hence, this study suggests some evidence of uptake of S emissions in close proximity to anthropogenic sources, although the reported values have not reached a level of environmental concern.

  5. Influence of toxic metal ions phenols in needles and roots, and on root respiration of Scots pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Karolewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates of aluminum, cadmium, manganese and lead cause changes in the content of phenolic compounds (o-dPh and TPh in needles and roots, and in the rate of dark respiration (DR of roots of one-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.. The changes depend on the cation, the salt concentration used, and the analyzed plant part. The observed changes in the levels of phenolic compounds in needles and roots, and the rate of respiration in roots, indicate the following rank in toxicity of the studied metal cations: Mn < Al < Pb < Cd.

  6. Evidence for potential impacts of ozone on Pinus cembra L. at mountain sites in Europe: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, G. [Division Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Bundesamt und Forschungszentrum fuer Wald, Rennweg 1, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]. E-mail: gerhard.wieser@uibk.ac.at; Manning, W.J. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amsherst, MA 01003 (United States); Tausz, M. [Institute of Plant Sciences, Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, 8010 Graz (Austria); School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, University of Melbourne, Water Street, Creswick Victoria 3363 (Australia); Bytnerowicz, A. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside (United States)

    2006-01-15

    We summarize what is known about the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on Pinus cembra in the timberline ecotone of the central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains. In the central European Alps exposure to ambient and two-fold ambient O{sub 3} throughout one growing season did neither cause any visible injury nor affect the photosynthetic machinery and biochemical parameters in current to 1-year-old needles. By contrast, in the southern French Alps and in the Carpathians 1-year-old needles of Pinus cembra trees showed visual symptoms similar to those observed in O{sub 3} stressed pine stands in southern California. For the southern French Alps the observed symptoms could clearly be attributed O{sub 3} and differences in O{sub 3} uptake seems to be the likely key factor for explaining the observed decline. For the Carpathians however, other reasons such as drought may not be excluded in eliciting the observed symptoms. Thus, the action of O{sub 3} has always to be evaluated in concert with other environmental impacts, determining the tree's sensitivity to stress. - An overview of ozone effects on Pinus cembra an important European coniferous tree species in the timberline ecotone.

  7. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT MULCH MATERIALS AND SHELTER, IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PLANTS OF Pinus taeda L., BY DIRECT SOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Ricardo Serpa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has had as its objectives to evaluate different covering materials and physical protector's use in the forest population of Pinus taeda L. in direct sowing in the field. Three materials were used: vermiculit, dried and pricked pine needles, peel of rice and reference without covering, with and without physical protector (plastic cup of 300 ml, without botton, with five replications. The sowing was accomplished in the first half of May of 1997, being used three seeds per point. The evaluations done were: emergency at the 60 and 90 days, survival at the 120, 180 and 210 days and population density at the 210 days after sowing. The variance and averages analysis (Duncan 5%, has allowed to conclude that: the vermiculit and pine needles affected beneficially the number of plants emerged in the first 60 days, that is the most critical phase for the future of the forest population of Pinus taeda; the physical protector, provides the formation of a microenvironment, that guarantees larger percentage in the emergence, survival and initial density of plants of Pinus taeda; the direct sowing demonstrated to be a viable technique.

  8. Mosquito inspired medical needles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hesselberg, Thomas; Drakidis, Alexandros Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    The stinging proboscis in mosquitos have diameters of only 40-100 μm which is much less than the thinnest medical needles and the mechanics of these natural stinging mechanisms have therefore attracted attention amongst developers of injection devises. The mosquito use a range of different...... strategies to lower the required penetration force hence allowing a thinner and less stiff proboscis structure. Earlier studies of the mosquito proboscis insertion strategies have shown how each of the single strategies reduces the required penetration force. The present paper gives an overview...

  9. Germinação de Borreria densiflora var. latifolia sob condições controladas de luz e temperatura Germination of Borreria densiflora var. latifolia under controlled conditions of light and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A.B. Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A germinação é um processo fundamental na dinâmica populacional das plantas daninhas. Sendo assim, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar a interação entre temperatura e luz sobre a germinação de uma nova variedade da planta daninha vassourinha-de-botão (Borreria densiflora var. latifolia, sob condições de câmara de germinação. Foi estudada a influência de cinco temperaturas (20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC constantes e alternada 20-30 ºC, em presença de fotoperíodo de 12h e escuro constante sobre a germinação, no delineamento experimental aleatorizado em blocos, com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação acumulada e a velocidade do processo, sendo a última avaliada pelo índice de velocidade de germinação. Os dados foram submetidos à análise da variância pelo teste F, seguido do teste de Tukey a 0,05 de probabilidade. A germinação ocorreu preferencialmente na presença de luz, com interação significativa somente entre presença de luz e temperatura. Constatou-se, portanto, o fotoblastismo positivo desta nova variedade de B. densiflora. A maior porcentagem de germinação ocorreu na alternância de 20-30 ºC, seguida das temperaturas de 25, 30 e 35 ºC, e a velocidade de germinação aumentou com o aumento da temperatura. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciam que a dinâmica populacional desta planta daninha é influenciada principalmente por amplitudes térmicas, temperaturas mais elevadas (acima de 25 ºC e condições de luminosidade, justificando, assim, sua ocorrência nas regiões tropicais do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil.Germination is a fundamental process in weed population dynamics. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the interaction between temperature and light upon the germination of a new variety of the weed vassourinha-de-botão (Borreria densiflora var. latifolia, under germination chamber conditions. The influence of five temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35 ºC constant and

  10. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the results the supposition that Pinus uliginosa from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog is a marginal population of P. uncinata can be excluded, because of their significant difference in genetic structure. The presumable reasons of specificity of P. uliginosa population are disscused.

  11. Smart needles for percutaneous interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henken, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    The development of advanced needles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes such as ablation and brachytherapy in the liver has offered minimally invasive therapies to patients that were previously untreatable. This thesis focuses on accurate placement of such needles guided by magnetic resonance im

  12. A comparison of the metabolism of the abortifacient compounds from Ponderosa pine needles in conditioned versus naive cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, K D; Gardner, D R; Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Zieglar, J; Hall, J O

    2012-12-01

    Isocupressic acid (ICA) is the abortifacient compound in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) needles, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle (Bos taurus). However, cattle rapidly metabolize ICA to agathic acid (AGA) and subsequent metabolites. When pine needles are dosed orally to cattle, no ICA is detected in their serum, whereas AGA is readily detected. Recent research has demonstrated that AGA is also an abortifacient compound in cattle. The observation has been made that when cattle are dosed with labdane acids for an extended time, the concentration of AGA in serum increases for 1 to 2 d but then decreases to baseline after 5 to 6 d even though they are still being dosed twice daily. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether cattle conditioned to pine needles metabolize ICA, and its metabolites, faster than naïve cattle. Agathic acid was readily detected in the serum of naïve cattle fed ponderosa pine needles, whereas very little AGA was detected in the serum of cattle conditioned to pine needles. We also compared the metabolism of ICA in vitro using rumen cultures from pine-needle-conditioned and naïve cattle. In the rumen cultures from conditioned cattle, AGA concentrations were dramatically less than rumen cultures from naïve cattle. Thus, an adaptation occurs to cattle conditioned to pine needles such that the metabolism AGA by the rumen microflora is altered.

  13. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  14. Pine Needles for the Screening of Perfluorinated Alkylated Substances (PFASs) along Ski Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chropeňová, Mária; Karásková, Pavlína; Kallenborn, Roland; Gregušková, Eva Klemmová; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-09-06

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) are today considered persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulative contaminants. Perfluorooctansulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are currently listed as priority substances under the UNEP global convention for the regulation of POPs. A previous study reported higher levels of PFASs in pine needles near ski areas. Their application as stain repellents in modern outdoor clothes and in ski waxes is assumed to be a potential source. Pine trees (Pinus mugo in Slovakia and Pinus sylvestris in Norway) were chosen for sampling in ski resorts. Relative distributions, overall concentrations, trend estimates, elevation patterns, and distance from primary sources were assessed. PFOA was the predominant PFAS constituent in pine needles from Slovakia (8-93%). In Norway, the most-abundant PFAS was perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA: 3-66%). A difference in product composition (particularly in ski waxes) and differences in Norwegian and Slovakian regulations are considered to be the primary reason for these differences. Open application of PFOA in industry and products has been banned in Norway since 2011. The replacement of PFOA with short-chain substitutes is thus considered the reason for the observed pattern differences in the analyzed pine needles. Regular monitoring and screening programs are recommended.

  15. Pinus taeda AND Pinus oocarpa PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING WITH FENOL-FORMALDHEYDE RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the plywood, manufactured from Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa, with 20 and 24 years old respectively, using three differentformulations of the fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of the glue line shearing tests not showed statistical differences between the species and three resin formulations. In the hot water test, all of the boards were classified as “BR” and, the boards of the Pinus oocarpa produced with formulations (1and (3, were classified as “WBP”. The different resin formulations not influenced on the modulus ofelasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR The boards of Pinus taeda with formulations (1 and(2 showed higher values of MOE in comparison of the Pinus oocarpa. The MOR of the Pinus oocarpa withformulation (2 was higher than Pinus taeda. The mechanical properties of the plywood wereprobably influenced by wood variability related to sapwood and hartwood, thickness of growth ringsand, springwood and summerwood.

  16. Changing the needle for lumbar punctures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engedal, Thorbjørn Søndergaard; Ording, H.; Vilholm, O. J.

    2015-01-01

    describes the process of changing the needle in an outpatient clinic of a Danish neurology department. Methods: Prospective interventional trial. Phase 1: 22 G cutting needle. Phase 2: 25 G non-cutting needle. Practical usability of each needle was recorded during the procedure, while the rate of PDPH...

  17. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle....

  18. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

    2014-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Missing needle during episiotomy repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeb Roychowdhury

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakage and missing of the episiotomy needle is not uncommon occurrence at the hands of the junior doctors. Retrieving it from deeper tissue planes following its migration can be a challenging task.

  20. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.parraga@upct.es [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología Agraria Paseo Alfonso XIII, Cartagena 48. 30203 (Spain); Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio [Water and Soil Conservation Department, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura CEBAS-CSIC Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, Espinardo-Murcia ES-30100 (Spain); González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M. [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología Agraria Paseo Alfonso XIII, Cartagena 48. 30203 (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 18}O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain

  1. Tree-like pines on the Mshana peat bog in the Gorgany Mountains: a trace of Pinus uliginosa migration in the East Carpathians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Boratyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic position of the population of tree-like, mostly polycormic individuals of pines from the Mshana peat bog in the Gorgany Mountains (East Carpathians, Ukraine has been studied on the basis of the morphological characteristics of cones and needles, and anatomical characteristics of the needles. These features have been compared with the surrounding Pinus mugo population as well as P. uliginosa, P. mugo, P. sylvestris and P. uncinata from natural populations of the taxa. Tree-like individuals were found to have the most similar needles to P. uliginosa, but most similar cone characteristics to P. mugo. It was concluded, that the tree-like population has a relic character and can present the trace of the early migration of P. uliginosa from the West and its hybridisation with P. mugo.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Throatless Gasifier Using Pine Needles as a Feedstock for Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance evaluation of a throatless gasifier TG-SI-10E. Evaluation of the throatless gasifier was done in three streams, which were the thermal, design and economic aspects. It was tested with pine needles, derived from the Himalayan chir pine (Pinus roxburghii. A non-isokinetic sampling technique was used for measuring the tar and dust contents. The carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emission at the exhaust of engine was in the range of 12.8% and 0.1-0.5% respectively. The maximum temperature of producer gas measured at the outlet of the gasifier was 505 °C. The specific biomass consumption rate of pine needles was calculated to be 1.595 kg/kWh (electrical. Specific gasification rate for the given design was found to be 107 kg/m2h. Economic evaluation was based on direct tax incidence.

  3. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  4. 用改良半叶法测定松树的光合速率%Photosynthetic Rate Measurement of Pinus Trees by Improved Half-leaf Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 周光栋; 彭帅; 龙浩; 林冠英; 邱念伟

    2012-01-01

    论证了用半叶法测定松树光合速率的可行性和可靠性,并总结了该方法测定松树光合速率的优缺点。该方法的操作流程为:环割选定的松枝并在针叶基部涂抹10%的三氯乙酸,中断有机物的运输;然后在该松枝环割处上方选择20束针叶为一个研究对象,每束针叶中的其中1根针叶作为暗保存叶片,另选1根针叶留在松枝上进行光合作用,光舍时间不少于4h;并由此获得两份半叶的干重光合产物总干重及总光合速率。%The feasibility, reliability, merits and demerits of photosynthetic rate measurement of Pinus trees were analyzed by half-leaf method. The operation process was as follows. First, girdling selected Pinus branch and painting 10% trichloroacetie acid (TCA) on the base of needles to interrupt organics transport, then selecting twenty needle bunches on the top of the girdled branch as one study object. One needle of each needle bunch was placed in dark condition, and the other one was kept on the branch to photosynthesize. The photosynthesis time was at least four hours. The twenty needles placed in dark condition were regarded as dark half-leaf, the other twenty photosynthesizing needles as light half- leaf. The two parts of half-leaves were baked to constant dry weight.

  5. Accuracy of Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for Diagnosing Salivary Gland Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In Hye; Song, Joon Seon; Sung, Chang Ohk; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-03-01

    Core needle biopsy is a relatively new technique used to diagnose salivary gland lesions, and its role in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology needs to be refined. We compared the results of 228 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy and 371 fine needle aspiration procedures performed on major salivary gland tumors with their postoperative histological diagnoses. Core needle biopsy resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and more accurate tumor subtyping, especially for malignant tumors, than fine needle aspiration. No patient developed major complications after core needle biopsy. We recommend ultrasoundguided core needle biopsy as the primary diagnostic tool for the preoperative evaluation of patients with salivary gland lesions, especially when malignancy is suspected.

  6. Seasonal variation of the {sup 137}Cs level and its relationship with potassium and carbon levels in conifer needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, Aino, E-mail: aino.rantavaara@stuk.fi [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Research and Environmental Surveillance, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Vetikko, Virve, E-mail: virve.vetikko@stuk.fi [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Research and Environmental Surveillance, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Raitio, Hannu, E-mail: hannu.raitio@metla.fi [Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla), P. O. Box 18 , FI-01301 Vantaa (Finland); Aro, Lasse, E-mail: lasse.aro@metla.fi [Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla), Parkano Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    Seasonal variations in foliar {sup 137}Cs levels were examined in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in western Finland. Our aim was to test the occurrence of seasonal variation in contents and concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, potassium and carbon in needles. The study focused on analysing levels of total {sup 137}Cs in the three youngest needle age classes and comparing them to the levels of potassium and carbon. Spruce and pine needles were collected from 50- and 65-year-old stands on 18 sampling occasions between April 1996 and February 1997. Phases of intensive growth, needle elongation and dormancy were apparent in the time series for the needle contents and activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs, both of which varied according to needle age class and tree species. The sequence of phases with a temporal fluctuation of needle contents, activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and concentrations of K and carbon varied occasionally, and the efficiency of their translocation revealed some differences in the dynamics of {sup 137}Cs, K and carbon in spruce and pine. The data clearly showed that the needles' K contents responded strongly to changes in K demand from other parts of the tree due to seasonal changes and that these responses were stronger than the associated retranslocations of {sup 137}Cs, particularly in Scots pine. During intensive growth, K was less mobile than {sup 137}Cs in the needles. The uptake of {sup 137}Cs by current-year needles is simultaneously affected by uptake from the soil via the roots and retranslocation from other internal sources, and both of these processes affect the observed transfer rates during the growth period. Our results provided information on the transfer rates and revealed differentiation of root uptake and retranslocation of {sup 137}Cs in needles. The study can support dynamic modelling of atmospheric {sup 137}Cs contamination in forests. -- Highlights: Black

  7. Saturated genic SNP mapping identified functional candidates and selection tools for the Pinus monticola Cr2 locus controlling resistance to white pine blister rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Sniezko, Richard A; Zamany, Arezoo; Williams, Holly; Wang, Ning; Kegley, Angelia; Savin, Douglas P; Chen, Hao; Sturrock, Rona N

    2017-02-07

    Molecular breeding incorporates efficient tools to increase rust resistance in five-needle pines. Susceptibility of native five-needle pines to white pine blister rust (WPBR), caused by the non-native invasive fungus Cronartium ribicola (J.C. Fisch.), has significantly reduced wild populations of these conifers in North America. Major resistance (R) genes against specific avirulent pathotypes have been found in several five-needle pine species. In this study, we screened genic SNP markers by comparative transcriptome and genetic association analyses and constructed saturated linkage maps for the western white pine (Pinus monticola) R locus (Cr2). Phenotypic segregation was measured by a hypersensitive reaction (HR)-like response on the needles and disease symptoms of cankered stems post inoculation by the C. ribicola avcr2 race. SNP genotypes were determined by HRM- and TaqMan-based SNP genotyping. Saturated maps of the Cr2-linkage group (LG) were constructed in three seed families using a total of 34 SNP markers within 21 unique genes. Cr2 was consistently flanked by contig_2142 (encoding a ruvb-like protein) and contig_3772 (encoding a delta-fatty acid desaturase) across the three seed families. Cr2 was anchored to the Pinus consensus LG-1, which differs from LGs where other R loci of Pinus species were mapped. GO annotation identified a set of NBS-LRR and other resistance-related genes as R candidates in the Cr2 region. Association of one nonsynonymous SNP locus of an NBS-LRR gene with Cr2-mediated phenotypes provides a valuable tool for marker-assisted selection (MAS), which will shorten the breeding cycle of resistance screening and aid in the restoration of WPBR-disturbed forest ecosystems.

  8. Seed source variation and conservation of Pinus wallichiana in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thapliyal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks is an important component of the middleand high altitude Himalayan forests having large natural distribution ranging between 260 to 360 N latitude and 690 to 750 E longitudes. It is commonly known as Himalayan blue pine or blue pine, being indigenous to Himalayan Mountain regions and because of its bluish or grayish-green leaves. It is a five needle pine which gained world-wide attention for its resistance to blister rust among white pines. This species has been crossed successfully with other white pines and vigorous hybrids have been obtained. Considerable variation in morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles, cones and seeds in natural stands exists across the natural distribution of the species, especially in mesic and xeric habitats. These variationssuggested the differentiation of this species in ecotypes or varieties as reported by various authors. However, the level of genetic diversity was found to be relatively high and the degree of genetic differentiation was low compared to other pines. Thewide range of climatic conditions in the natural distribution of this pine is expected to result in high genetic variation within different populations of the species. The study aims to determine the nature and extent of variation present in the populations of the species in respect to cone and seed characteristics across its natural distribution. Seed of 17 seed sources from the states of Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh was collected and analyzed for cone characters (fresh weight of cones, cone length, cone width, specific gravity and seed characters (seed weight, moisture content, germination percent, cotyledon number. Significant variations have beenobserved in these traits among different seed sources of the species. The cone weight varied from 44.4 to114g and the higher cone weight was recorded at higher altitudes.The germination percent varied from 40 to 85 whereas cotyledon number varied from 7

  9. Seed source variation and conservation of Pinus wallichiana in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Thapliyal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks is an important component of the middle and high altitude Himalayan forests having large natural distribution ranging between 260 to 360 N latitude and 690 to 750 E longitudes. It is commonly known as Himalayan blue pine or blue pine, being indigenous to Himalayan Mountain regions and because of its bluish or grayish-green leaves. It is a five needle pine which gained world-wide attention for its resistance to blister rust among white pines. This species has been crossed successfully with other white pines and vigorous hybrids have been obtained. Considerable variation in morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles, cones and seeds in natural stands exists across the natural distribution of the species, especially in mesic and xeric habitats. These variations suggested the differentiation of this species in ecotypes or varieties as reported by various authors. However, the level of genetic diversity was found to be relatively high and the degree of genetic differentiation was low compared to other pines. The wide range of climatic conditions in the natural distribution of this pine is expected to result in high genetic variation within different populations of the species. The study aims to determine the nature and extent of variation present in the populations of the species in respect to cone and seed characteristics across its natural distribution. Seed of 17 seed sources from the states of Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh was collected and analyzed for cone characters (fresh weight of cones, cone length, cone width, specific gravity and seed characters (seed weight, moisture content, germination percent, cotyledon number. Significant variations have been observed in these traits among different seed sources of the species. The cone weight varied from 44.4 to114g and the higher cone weight was recorded at higher altitudes. The germination percent varied from 40 to 85 whereas cotyledon number varied

  10. Genetic Based Plant Resistance and Susceptibility Traits to Herbivory Influence Needle and Root Litter Nutrient Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; Chapman, Samantha K. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD; Whitham, Thomas G [Northern Arizona University; Hart, Stephen C [Northern Arizona University; Koch, George W [Northern Arizona University

    2007-01-01

    It is generally assumed that leaf and root litter decomposition have similar drivers and that nutrient release from these substrates is synchronized. Few studies have examined these assumptions, and none has examined how plant genetics (i.e., plant susceptibility to herbivory) could affect these relationships. Here we examine the effects of herbivore susceptibility and resistance on needle and fine root litter decomposition of pi on pine, Pinus edulis. The study population consists of individual trees that are either susceptible or resistant to herbivory by the pi on needle scale, Matsucoccus acalyptus, or the stem-boring moth, Dioryctria albovittella. Genetic analyses and experimental removals and additions of these insects have identified trees that are naturally resistant and susceptible to these insects. These herbivores increase the chemical quality of litter inputs and alter soil microclimate, both of which are important decomposition drivers. Our research leads to four major conclusions: Herbivore susceptibility and resistance effects on 1) needle litter mass loss and phosphorus (P) retention in moth susceptible and resistant litter are governed by microclimate, 2) root litter nitrogen (N) and P retention, and needle litter N retention are governed by litter chemical quality, 3) net nutrient release from litter can reverse over time, 4) root and needle litter mass loss and nutrient release are determined by location (above- vs. belowground), suggesting that the regulators of needle and root decomposition differ at the local scale. Understanding of decomposition and nutrient retention in ecosystems requires consideration of herbivore effects on above- and belowground processes and how these effects may be governed by plant genotype. Because an underlying genetic component to herbivory is common to most ecosystems of the world and herbivory may increase in climatic change scenarios, it is important to evaluate the role of plant genetics in affecting carbon and

  11. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute {gamma}-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on

  12. Does needle rotation improve lesion targeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaan, Shadi; Petrisor, Doru; Kim, Chunwoo; Mozer, Pierre; Mazilu, Dumitru; Gruionu, Lucian; Patriciu, Alex; Cleary, Kevin; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-06-01

    Image-guided robots are manipulators that operate based on medical images. Perhaps the most common class of image-guided robots are robots for needle interventions. Typically, these robots actively position and/or orient a needle guide, but needle insertion is still done by the physician. While this arrangement may have safety advantages and keep the physician in control of needle insertion, actuated needle drivers can incorporate other useful features. We first present a new needle driver that can actively insert and rotate a needle. With this device we investigate the use of needle rotation in controlled in-vitro experiments performed with a specially developed revolving needle driver. These experiments show that needle rotation can improve targeting and may reduce errors by as much as 70%. The new needle driver provides a unique kinematic architecture that enables insertion with a compact mechanism. Perhaps the most interesting conclusion of the study is that lesions of soft tissue organs may not be perfectly targeted with a needle without using special techniques, either manually or with a robotic device. The results of this study show that needle rotation may be an effective method of reducing targeting errors. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Does Deqi (needle sensation) exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hijoon; Park, Jongbae; Lee, Hyangsook; Lee, Hyejung

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism, by which acupuncture works is not yet clear, therefore there is no unequivocal consensus about styles and sensations of needling. To enhance the scientific base of acupuncture, needling somehow should be objectified. The term Deqi is understood to represent all or at least the main form of phenomena to acupuncture stimulation. The characteristics of Deqi, however, have always been based on a translation of original Chinese description. Hoping to find a clue to develop sham (placebo) method for subject blinding, we investigated which sensations are frequently expected and experienced, and whether or not these expectations and experiences of sensations are similar in naive subjects. The acupuncture sensation scale developed by Vincent et al. (1989) was translated into Korean. Thirty-eight healthy acupuncture naïve female volunteers (mean age 29.1, range 25-39) were asked to complete the sensation scale of acupuncture according to what they expected needling to feel like before needling. Needling was done on left Hegu (LI4) point in the hand and consisted of insertion, stimulation for 30 seconds, and removal. Directly after needling, the subjects were asked to complete the same sensation scale according to what they experienced. The subjects expected to feel hurting, penetrating, sharp, tingling, pricking and stinging, and actually experienced aching, spreading, radiating, pricking and stinging more than 60% of the time. Comparison between expectation and experience, the subjects expected more penetrating, tingling, pricking and burning than they experienced, and on the contrary experienced more aching, pulling, heavy, dull, electric and throbbing than they expected. Traditionally described sensations of Deqi are something beyond just a general pain dimension in the Korean population. Further study involving acupuncture experienced subjects or subjects from other cultures need to confirm this finding. Moreover, sham acupuncture should be studied.

  14. Photosynthesis, chloroplast pigments, and antioxidants in Pinus canariensis under free-air ozone fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Then, Ch. [Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Unit of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Herbinger, K. [Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Graz, Schubertstr. 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Luis, V.C. [Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo (CEAM) Dpto, Restauracion Forestal, University of Alicante, Department of Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, Ap 99, Ctra. San Vicente del Raspeig s/n, San Vicente del Raspeig 03690, Alicante (Spain); Heerdt, C. [Ecoclimatology, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, R. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wieser, G. [Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Unit of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: gerhard.wieser@uibk.ac.at

    2009-02-15

    High O{sub 3} levels, driving uptake and challenging defense, prevail on the Canary Islands, being associated with the hot and dry summers of the Mediterranean-type climate. Pinus canariensis is an endemic conifer species that forms forests across these islands. We investigated the effects of ozone on photosynthesis and biochemical parameters of P. canariensis seedlings exposed to free-air O{sub 3} fumigation at Kranzberg Forest, Germany, where ambient O{sub 3} levels were similar to those at forest sites in the Canary Islands. The twice-ambient O{sub 3} regime (2xO{sub 3}) neither caused visible injury-like chlorotic or necrotic spots in the needles nor significantly affected violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin levels and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle. In parallel, stomatal conductance for water vapour, net photosynthesis, intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, as well as antioxidant levels were hardly affected. It is concluded that presently prevailing O{sub 3} levels do not impose severe stress on P. canariensis seedlings. - Twice-ambient ozone does not significantly affect the physiological behavior of Pinus canariensis seedlings.

  15. Biomass and carbon stock from Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis under homogenous stands in southwest Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máida Cynthia Duca de Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: There is a large number of studies evaluating methods to quantify biomass for the genus Pinus in different regions of Brazil. However, knowledge about this subject in the Northeast region of Brazil is still incipient. The objective of the present study was to assess the biomass and carbon stocks and select mathematical models to estimate these variables in Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis , which is established in homogenous stands in the Southwest region of the state of Bahia (Brazil. The biomass was quantified using the destructive method. Samples of needles, bole, bark, and branches were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. Ten models were tested, and the best of them were chosen based on the following statistical indicators: adjusted determination coefficient, estimate standard error, maximum likelihood logarithm, and graphical analysis of waste. Values for total biomass and carbon stocks were 69 and 42Mg ha-1, respectively. Curtis and Schumacher-Hall Log models showed to be the most indicated to estimate the total dry biomass and carbon of the species under the conditions studied.

  16. Fire Occurrence Environments in Pinus pumila Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many serious forest fires occurred in precious Pinus pumila forests in Daxing'anling Mountains of Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia. But up to now, there is still a lack of proper understanding of fire occurrence environments in P. pumila forests. In present paper, we investigated and studied the fire occurrence environments. The results showed that fires in P. pumila forests had their own special fire environments. Abundant fuel, drought weather, dry thunder and high altitude terrai...

  17. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects...

  18. Estruturas secretoras em órgãos vegetativos e florais de Secondatia densiflora A.DC. (Apocynaceae - Apocynoideae - Odontadenieae Secretory structures in vegetative and floral organs of Secondatia densiflora A.DC. (Apocynaceae - Apocynoideae - Odontadenieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A família Apocynaceae é caracterizada por possuir grande diversidade de estruturas secretoras como idioblastos, coléteres, laticíferos e nectários florais. Este estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar anatomicamente as estruturas secretoras nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de Secondatia densiflora e identificar as principais classes de compostos químicos nos idioblastos e na secreção dos coléteres vegetativos. Os idioblastos estão distribuídos por todos os órgãos aéreos da planta possuindo conteúdo na maioria das vezes denso e fortemente corado pela safranina. Alguns idioblastos apresentam secreção de aspecto granulado. Os testes histoquímicos evidenciaram apenas compostos fenólicos. Os laticíferos são do tipo anastomosado podendo ser observados em todos os órgãos estudados e identificados pelo conteúdo diferenciado e, em alguns casos, pela presença de paredes celulares mais espessas que as paredes das células parenquimáticas. O látex tem cor branca e aspecto leitoso, sendo extravasado logo que a planta é lesionada. Os coléteres vegetativos são do tipo padrão, formados por uma porção alongada que se afina em direção à extremidade. A epiderme secretora em paliçada delimita uma região parenquimática e o curto pedúnculo é coberto por epiderme não secretora de formato retangular. Todo coléter é recoberto por cutícula fina. A mucilagem é constatada tanto no interior das células secretoras quanto no meio extracelular pelo vermelho de rutênio e pela reação PAS. Os nectários florais têm origem receptacular, possuem uma epiderme que reveste toda estrutura, parênquima nectarífero, e feixes vasculares; são fundidos na base e livres na região apical constituindo cinco unidades distintas.The family Apocynaceae is characterized for showing a wide variety of secretory structures such as idioblasts, colleters, laticiferous glands and floral nectaries. The present study aimed to anatomically

  19. Needle-free influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Huckriede, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is the cornerstone of influenza control in epidemic and pandemic situations. Influenza vaccines are typically given by intramuscular injection. However, needle-free vaccinations could offer several distinct advantages over intramuscular injections: they are pain-free, easier to distribut

  20. Response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lesch, W

    1997-12-15

    Full Text Available ELSEVIER Forest Ecology and Management 99 (1997) 295-307 The response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations W. Lesch, David F. Scott * Jonkershoek Forestry Research Centre....304 1.052(p,) 0.96 2nd ?/-= eP?CbE - 3.456 7.134( /3>) 0.95 Cathedral Total streamflow 1 st T= e6c1Clil - 0.727 1.114(/3,) 0.95 Peak Dry season streamflow 1 St Tz e6?C?? -0.871 I .207( p, ) 0.88 W. Lesch, D.F. Scott...

  1. Primer registro de Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea asociado con Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae en Patagonia First record of Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea associated to Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A. Gómez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes es un gorgojo de rostro corto, distribuido en la Argentina y Chile, que habita en ambientes áridos asociado con vegetación xerofítica y alcanza el rango más austral entre los miembros de la tribu Naupactini. Un relevamiento de insectos y de patógenos como plagas potenciales, realizado durante el 2005 en plantaciones de Pinus spp. en la Patagonia andina argentina, resultó en el hallazgo de adultos de N. ruizi que se alimentaban de acículas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. Este hallazgo es sorprendente dado que las especies de Naupactini, consumen casi exclusivamente angiospermas. Interpretamos que el cambio de huésped, habría ocurrido como consecuencia de una colonización reciente favorecida por la amplia distribución geográfica del gorgojo y su capacidad para sobrevivir en hábitats marginales, donde probablemente las plantas nativas son escasas y el nuevo huésped presenta una gran abundancia local.Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes is a broad-nosed weevil recorded from Argentina and Chile , that inhabits arid environments with xerophitic vegetation and reaches the southern most distribution of the tribe Naupactini. A survey of potential insect pests and pathogens of plantations of Pinus spp. and other forest species, conducted during 2005 in Argentinean Patagonian Andean forestations, allowed to find N. ruizi feeding on pine needles of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. This finding was unexpected, since species of Naupactini consume almost exclusively angiosperms. We interpret that the new host association may represent a recent host shift, probably facilitated by the broad range of the weevil, its capacity to survive in marginal habitats where natural hosts are scarce, and the local abundance of the new host.

  2. Temporal changes in tree-ring nitrogen of Pinus thunbergii trees exposed to Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) breeding colonies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry, Lopez C.M., E-mail: larry@iwate-u.ac.jp [United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan); Chitoshi, Mizota [Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan); Toshiro, Yamanaka [Division of Earth Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 1-1, Naka 3-Chome, Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yoshihiro, Nobori [Faculty of Agriculture, Yamagata University, 1-23 Wakabamachi, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997-8555 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} N concentration and isotope ratio on tree-rings can be an important tool to infer past N soil conditions where trees grow. {yields} Changes in avian population on established or new breeding grounds caused by natural or anthropogenic mechanism could be inferred from the analysis shown in this paper. {yields} The property of trees to retain N concentration and N isotope characteristics is found in Pinus thunbergii. The use of other trees for similar analysis have to be determined because other species (Pinus densiflora, for example) do not have this property. - Abstract: Natural abundances of {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N ratios (commonly designated by {delta}{sup 15}N notation) of annual rings from Pinus thunbergii trees were determined after transplantation from a nursery to breeding colonies of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) in Miyagi and Aomori and a control site in Yamagata, in northeastern Japan. Tree-rings were collected in July/August/September, 2009. Transplanting was conducted in the year 2000 in the Miyagi site, whereas there is no information about transplanting data in the Aomori and Yamagata sites. Soils associated with piscivorous (fish eating) avian colonies receive large seasonal input of organic N in the form of feces. The organic N is microbiologically transformed into inorganic N in soils, from which P. thunbergii derives its N. The resulting NH{sub 4}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}N are characterized by distinctly heavy {delta}{sup 15}N ratios, due to coupled processes of mineralization, volatilization, nitrification and denitrification of feces. In general, total N concentration along with {delta}{sup 15}N values stored in the annual rings of P. thunbergii increased steadily after transplanting from the nursery to locations under continued avian N input. Tree-ring N content and isotopic ratios provided a reliable record of past annual available soil N caused by changes in the Black-tailed Gull population, and thus can

  3. Analyses of Impact of Needle Surface Properties on Estimation of Needle Absorption Spectrum: Case Study with Coniferous Needle and Shoot Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf scattering spectrum is the key optical variable that conveys information about leaf absorbing constituents from remote sensing. It cannot be directly measured from space because the radiation scattered from leaves is affected by the 3D canopy structure. In addition, some radiation is specularly reflected at the surface of leaves. This portion of reflected radiation is partly polarized, does not interact with pigments inside the leaf and therefore contains no information about its interior. Very little empirical data are available on the spectral and angular scattering properties of leaf surfaces. Whereas canopy-structure effects are well understood, the impact of the leaf surface reflectance on estimation of leaf absorption spectra remains uncertain. This paper presents empirical and theoretical analyses of angular, spectral, and polarimetric measurements of light reflected by needles and shoots of Pinus koraiensis and Picea koraiensis species. Our results suggest that ignoring the leaf surface reflected radiation can result in an inaccurate estimation of the leaf absorption spectrum. Polarization measurements may be useful to account for leaf surface effects because radiation reflected from the leaf surface is partly polarized, whereas that from the leaf interior is not.

  4. Analyses of Impact of Needle Surface Properties on Estimation of Needle Absorption Spectrum: Case Study with Coniferous Needle and Shoot Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Lin, Yi; Yan, Kai; Chen, Chi; Park, Taejin; Choi, Sungho; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Myneni, Ranga B; Yan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Leaf scattering spectrum is the key optical variable that conveys information about leaf absorbing constituents from remote sensing. It cannot be directly measured from space because the radiation scattered from leaves is affected by the 3D canopy structure. In addition, some radiation is specularly reflected at the surface of leaves. This portion of reflected radiation is partly polarized, does not interact with pigments inside the leaf and therefore contains no information about its interior. Very little empirical data are available on the spectral and angular scattering properties of leaf surfaces. Whereas canopy-structure effects are well understood, the impact of the leaf surface reflectance on estimation of leaf absorption spectra remains uncertain. This paper presents empirical and theoretical analyses of angular, spectral, and polarimetric measurements of light reflected by needles and shoots of Pinus koraiensis and Picea koraiensis species. Our results suggest that ignoring the leaf surface reflected radiation can result in an inaccurate estimation of the leaf absorption spectrum. Polarization measurements may be useful to account for leaf surface effects because radiation reflected from the leaf surface is partly polarized, whereas that from the leaf interior is not.

  5. Essential-Oil Variability in Natural Populations of Pinus mugo Turra from the Julian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojović, Srdjan; Jurc, Maja; Ristić, Mihailo; Popović, Zorica; Matić, Rada; Vidaković, Vera; Stefanović, Milena; Jurc, Dušan

    2016-02-01

    The composition and variability of the terpenes and their derivatives isolated from the needles of a representative pool of 114 adult trees originating from four natural populations of dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) from the Julian Alps were investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 54 of the 57 detected essential-oil components were identified. Among the different compound classes present in the essential oils, the chief constituents belonged to the monoterpenes, comprising an average content of 79.67% of the total oil composition (74.80% of monoterpene hydrocarbons and 4.87% of oxygenated monoterpenes). Sesquiterpenes were present in smaller amounts (average content of 19.02%), out of which 16.39% were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and 2.62% oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The most abundant components in the needle essential oils were the monoterpenes δ-car-3-ene, β-phellandrene, α-pinene, β-myrcene, and β-pinene and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. From the total data set of 57 detected compounds, 40 were selected for principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA), and cluster analysis (CA). The overlap tendency of the four populations suggested by PCA, was as well observed by DA. CA also demonstrated similarity among the populations, which was the highest between Populations I and II.

  6. Composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of a full grown tree of Pinus cembra L. from the Calimani mountains (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apetrei Lungu Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition, the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the essential oils of Pinus cembra L. needles and twigs. The chemical composition was analyzed using both GC and GC-MS techniques. α-Pinene (69.14% was the major constituent of the needle essential oil while the twig essential oil was characterized by a high content of limonene+ β-phellandrene (40.97% and α-pinene (24.94%. The needle and twig essential oils showed weak DPPH radical scavenging effects (EC50=19.93±0.75 and EC50=18.66±0.70 mg ml-1, respectively. In antimicrobial assays, both essential oils showed high activity against Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus and no activity against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The needle and twig essential oils had similar antimicrobial effects against Sarcina lutea with MIC and MBC values of 0.12 and 0.24 mg ml-1, respectively. The twig essential oil (MIC=1.95 mg ml-1, MBC=3.9 mg ml-1 was more active against Staphylococcus aureus than the needle essential oil (MIC=3.9 mg ml-1, MBC=15.62 mg ml-1 and also exhibited a moderate activity against Candida albicans (MIC=7.81 mg ml-1, MFC=15.62 mg ml-1.

  7. Effects of SO/sub 2/ on the germination of conifer pollen. [Pinus mugo; Pinus nigra; Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T.; Beda, H.

    1984-01-01

    Collections on agar of fresh and stored pollen grains of Pinus mugo, P. nigra and P. sylvestris were fumigated with SO/sub 2/ for 16 or 24 h. The ability of pollen of P. mugo and P. sylvestris to germinate was decreased by storage but sensitivities to SO/sub 2/ were not greatly altered. Germination was inhibited consistently by atmospheres with 0.225 ppm SO/sub 2/. At 0.075 ppm - a typical ambient concentration during temperature inversions - P. nigra and P. sylvestris were more sensitive than P. mugo which responded in the same way as pollen of Abies alba.

  8. Compensating for Torsion Windup in Steerable Needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kyle B.

    2010-01-01

    Long, flexible, bevel-tip needles curve during insertion into tissue, and rotations of the needle base reorient the tip to steer subsequent insertions. Friction between the tissue and the needle shaft, however, can cause a severe discrepancy between the needle base and tip angles. In this paper, I demonstrate an algorithm to properly align the entire length of the needle using torque measured at the base. My algorithm uses several intermediate base rotations to align the orientation of points along the shaft with the desired angle, with minimal remaining torque exerted by the base. I performed an experimental validation with four angle sensors attached to the needle throughout the tissue. My compensation algorithm decreased the lag throughout the needle by up to 88%. PMID:20640198

  9. Effects of acidic fog on seedlings of Pinus ponderosa and Abies concolor: foliar injury, physiological and biochemical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, B K; Bytnerowicz, A

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) and Abies concolor (white fir) were exposed to acidic fog (pH 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0) in open-field plots for six weeks. The two species exhibited dissimilar injury responses; neither current year nor previous year needles of ponderosa pine were injured by pH 2.0 fog, but current year needles exhibited higher membrane permeability responses (i.e. needle extract conductivity, K+ concentration). In comparison, both needle age classes in white fir were significantly injured by pH 2.0 fog, but no significant effects on membrane permeability were observed. For both species, whole-study average rates of net photosynthesis in previous year needles were lower in plants exposed to pH 2.0 fog than in plants treated with pH 4.0 fog. While decreased process rates coincided with leaf necrosis in white fir, stomatal closure appeared to be the mechanism of inhibition in ponderosa pine with pH 2.0 fog (i.e. no visible injury). The findings of the present study provide evidence that frequent applications of highly acidic fog (i.e. pH 2.0-3.0) can cause temporal alterations in membrane permeability and gas exchange rates in western conifer seedlings, in the presence or absence of visible injury. However, because incipient effects on other measures of foliage health were species-specific (i.e. concentrations of starch, photosynthetic pigments, inorganic nutrients), a general mechanism of phytotoxicity could not be identified.

  10. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danusevicius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas;

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the i...

  11. 思茅松HDR基因全长cDNA克隆与序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase gene cDNA from Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 周旭; 毕玮; 杨宇明; 李江; 王娟

    2015-01-01

    1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase(HDR)catalyzes the last step of the 2C-meth-yl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate(MEP)pathway,1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase plays an important role in regulation of terpenes biosynthesis.To explore the function of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase in Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis,and to study the role of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase in regulation of resin biosynthesis,the transcriptome of bark of Pinus kesiya var.langbianen-sis was sequenced by Next-Generation Sequencing.First,a fragment of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphos-phate reductase gene was obtained from Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis transcriptome after gene assemble and gene function annotation.The special primers were designed according to the fragment of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-bute-nyl-4-diphosphate reductase.RNA of inj ured bark was extracted by Trizol method.The full length gene of PkHDR was cloned from Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE).Bioinformation analysis showed that the obtained full cDNA se-quence of PkHDR had 1 876 bp.It was consisted of 1 464 bp open reading frame (ORF)which encoded 487 amino acid.Homology analysis indicated that the deduced PkHDR protein shared 99% identities with the 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase came from Pinus densiflora.Subcellular localization and structural domain analysis showed that the transit peptide sequence (A1-A61)and multiple conserved functional sites (A143, A234,A288,A371)of plant HDR protein were found in the deduced coding sequence of PKHDR.Phylogenetic anal-ysis revealed that the evolutionary relationship of PkHDR protein was the closest to Pinus densiflora HDR protein. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)detection showed that PkHDR gene expression was up-regulated by wounding

  12. Stomatal response of Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations during the four years of exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu-mei; HAN Shi-jie; LIU Ying; JIA Xia

    2005-01-01

    Four-year-old Pinus sylvestriformis were exposed for four growing seasons in open top chambers to ambient CO2 concentration (approx. 350 μmol·mol-1) and high CO2 concentrations (500 and 700 μmol·mol-1) at Research Station of Changbai Mountain Forest Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences at Antu Town, Jilin Province, China (42oN, 128oE). Stomatal response to elevated CO2 concentrations was examined by stomatal conductance (gs), ratio of intercellular to ambient CO2 concentration (ci/ca) and stomatal number. Reciprocal transfer experiments of stomatal conductance showed that stomatal conductance in high-[CO2]-grown plants increased in comparison with ambient-[CO2]-grown plants when measured at their respective growth CO2 concentration and at the same measurement CO2 concentration (except a reduction in 700 μmol·mol-1 CO2 grown plants compared with plants on unchambered field when measured at growth CO2 concentration and 350 μmol·mol-1CO2). High-[CO2]-grown plants exhibited lower ci/ca ratios than ambient-[CO2]-grown plants when measured at their respective growth CO2 concentration. However, ci/ca ratios increased for plants grown in high CO2 concentrations compared with control plants when measured at the same CO2 concentration. There was no significant difference in stomatal number per unit long needle between elevated and ambient CO2. However, elevated CO2 concentrations reduced the total stomatal number of whole needle by the decline of stomatal line and changed the allocation pattern of stomata between upper and lower surface of needle.

  13. Be on Pins and Needles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A:It seems you’re on pins and needles today.Anything troubling you?B:Yeah.I don’t know why bad things keep happening to me .You see,mycar was stolen and the warehouse had been broken into.I can’t keep myfinger on the causes of this damned thing.A:There must be someone who had planned that.Do you have a partieularperson in mind?

  14. Molecular identification and relative abundance of cryptic Lophodermium species in natural populations of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reignoux, Sabrina N A; Green, Sarah; Ennos, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    The multi-locus phylogenetic species recognition approach and population genetic analysis of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to delineate Lophodermium taxa inhabiting needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in native pinewoods within Scotland. These analyses revealed three major lineages corresponding to the morphological species Lophodermium seditiosum and Lophodermium conigenum, fruiting on broken branches, and Lophodermium pinastri, fruiting on naturally fallen needles. Within L. pinastri three well supported sister clades were found representing cryptic taxa designated L. pinastri I, L. pinastri II, and L. pinastri III. Significant differences in mean growth rate in culture were found among the cryptic taxa. Taxon-specific primers based on ITS sequences were designed and used to classify over 500 Lophodermium isolates, derived from fallen needles of P. sylvestris in three Scottish and one French pinewood site, into the three L. pinastri cryptic taxa. Highly significant differences in the relative abundance of the three taxa were found among the Scottish pinewood sites, and between the French and all of the Scottish sites.

  15. A comparison of the community diversity of foliar fungal endophytes between seedling and adult loblolly pines (Pinus taeda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oono, Ryoko; Lefèvre, Emilie; Simha, Anita; Lutzoni, François

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endophytes represent one of the most ubiquitous plant symbionts on Earth and are phylogenetically diverse. The structure and diversity of endophyte communities have been shown to depend on host taxa and climate, but there have been relatively few studies exploring endophyte communities throughout host maturity. We compared foliar fungal endophyte communities between seedlings and adult trees of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) at the same seasons and locations by culturing and culture-independent methods. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer region and adjacent partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (ITS-LSU amplicon) to delimit operational taxonomic units and phylogenetically characterize the communities. Despite the lower infection frequency in seedlings compared to adult trees, seedling needles were receptive to a more diverse community of fungal endophytes. Culture-free method confirmed the presence of commonly cultured OTUs from adult needles but revealed several new OTUs from seedling needles that were not found with culturing methods. The two most commonly cultured OTUs in adults were rarely cultured from seedlings, suggesting that host age is correlated with a selective enrichment for specific endophytes. This shift in endophyte species dominance may be indicative of a functional change between these fungi and their loblolly pine hosts.

  16. Estimation of Model Parameters for Steerable Needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wooram; Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Flexible needles with bevel tips are being developed as useful tools for minimally invasive surgery and percutaneous therapy. When such a needle is inserted into soft tissue, it bends due to the asymmetric geometry of the bevel tip. This insertion with bending is not completely repeatable. We characterize the deviations in needle tip pose (position and orientation) by performing repeated needle insertions into artificial tissue. The base of the needle is pushed at a constant speed without rotating, and the covariance of the distribution of the needle tip pose is computed from experimental data. We develop the closed-form equations to describe how the covariance varies with different model parameters. We estimate the model parameters by matching the closed-form covariance and the experimentally obtained covariance. In this work, we use a needle model modified from a previously developed model with two noise parameters. The modified needle model uses three noise parameters to better capture the stochastic behavior of the needle insertion. The modified needle model provides an improvement of the covariance error from 26.1% to 6.55%. PMID:21643451

  17. Teleoperated master-slave needle insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhassani, Niki; Patel, Rajni V

    2009-12-01

    Accuracy of needle tip placement and needle tracking in soft tissue are of particular importance in many medical procedures. In recent years, developing autonomous and teleoperated systems for needle insertion has become an active area of research. In this study, needle insertion was performed using a master-slave set-up with multi-degrees of freedom. The effect of force feedback on the accuracy of needle insertion was investigated. In addition, this study compared autonomous, teleoperated and semi-autonomous needle insertion. The results of this study show that incorporation of force feedback can improve teleoperated needle insertion. However, autonomous and semi-autonomous needle insertions, which use feedback from a deflection model, provide significantly better performance. Development of a haptic master-slave needle insertion system, which is capable of performing some autonomous tasks based on feedback from tissue deformation and needle deflection models, can improve the performance of autonomous robotics-based insertions as well as non-autonomous teleoperated manual insertions. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Estimation of Model Parameters for Steerable Needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wooram; Reed, Kyle B; Okamura, Allison M; Chirikjian, Gregory S

    2010-01-01

    Flexible needles with bevel tips are being developed as useful tools for minimally invasive surgery and percutaneous therapy. When such a needle is inserted into soft tissue, it bends due to the asymmetric geometry of the bevel tip. This insertion with bending is not completely repeatable. We characterize the deviations in needle tip pose (position and orientation) by performing repeated needle insertions into artificial tissue. The base of the needle is pushed at a constant speed without rotating, and the covariance of the distribution of the needle tip pose is computed from experimental data. We develop the closed-form equations to describe how the covariance varies with different model parameters. We estimate the model parameters by matching the closed-form covariance and the experimentally obtained covariance. In this work, we use a needle model modified from a previously developed model with two noise parameters. The modified needle model uses three noise parameters to better capture the stochastic behavior of the needle insertion. The modified needle model provides an improvement of the covariance error from 26.1% to 6.55%.

  19. Diurnal variation of the delta 13C of pine needle respired CO2 evolved in darkness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, James L; Mortazavi, Behzad; Chanton, Jeffrey P

    2006-02-01

    The delta 13C of pine needle CO2 evolved in darkness (delta 13Cr) for slash pine trees (Pinus elliottii) was determined by placing recently collected pine needles in darkness and collecting respired CO2 over a short time period (13Cr measurements were made over several 24 h periods to test the hypothesis that significant variation in delta 13Cr would be observed during a diurnal cycle. The delta 13Cr measurements from the 24 h time series trials showed a consistent midday 13C-enrichment (5-10 per thousand) relative to bulk biomass. The delta 13Cr values became more 13C-depleted at night and following shading, and approached bulk-biomass delta 13C values by dawn. The effect of night-time respired 13C-enriched CO2 on the delta 13C value of the remaining assimilate is shown to be minimal (13C depleted by 0.22 per thousand) under field conditions for P. elliottii needles.

  20. Role of needle surface waxes in dynamic exchange of mono- and sesquiterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensuu, Johanna; Altimir, Nuria; Hakola, Hannele; Rostás, Michael; Raivonen, Maarit; Vestenius, Mika; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Riederer, Markus; Bäck, Jaana

    2016-06-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) produced by plants have a major role in atmospheric chemistry. The different physicochemical properties of BVOCs affect their transport within and out of the plant as well as their reactions along the way. Some of these compounds may accumulate in or on the waxy surface layer of conifer needles and participate in chemical reactions on or near the foliage surface. The aim of this work was to determine whether terpenes, a key category of BVOCs produced by trees, can be found on the epicuticles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and, if so, how they compare with the terpenes found in shoot emissions of the same tree. We measured shoot-level emissions of pine seedlings at a remote outdoor location in central Finland and subsequently analysed the needle surface waxes for the same compounds. Both emissions and wax extracts were clearly dominated by monoterpenes, but the proportion of sesquiterpenes was higher in the wax extracts. There were also differences in the terpene spectra of the emissions and the wax extracts. The results, therefore, support the existence of BVOC associated to the epicuticular waxes. We briefly discuss the different pathways for terpenes to reach the needle surfaces and the implications for air chemistry.

  1. 乔松Pinus wallichiana与不丹松Pinus bhutanica之初步辨析%A preliminary analysis of the difference between Pinus wallichiana and Pinus bhutanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑维列; 徐阿生

    2003-01-01

    根据最新的文献资料,初步分析了乔松Pinus wallichiana与不丹松Pinus bhutanica在一年生小枝、针叶(主要是树脂道)、球果、种鳞、鳞脐和种子等六个方面的性状区别特征,结合以前对藏东南和藏南地区单维管束松树的调查所掌握的材料,认为不丹松是从乔松中分出来的;它们的分布区存在重叠,但各自构成的群落具有较大的生态学差异;通过性状差异性质的辨析,讨论了不丹松种级地位成立所需的关键特征,初步得出不丹松种级地位难以成立的结论.

  2. Micromorphology of epicuticular waxes and epistomatal chambers of pine species by electron microscopy and white light scanning interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Woo; Lee, In Jung; Kim, Chang Soo; Lee, Don Koo; Park, Eun Woo

    2011-02-01

    High-resolution imaging and quantitative surface analysis of epicuticular waxes and epistomatal chambers of pine species were performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and white light scanning interferometry. Both juvenile and adult needles were collected from the two-year-old seedlings of Pinus rigida and Pinus densiflora and subjected to surface observations. Epicuticular wax structures developed on the cuticle layer as well as in the epistomatal chambers and appeared to occlude the cavities in the two pine species. The stomata of P. densiflora were characterized by more distinctly raised rings around openings than P. rigida. The most common epicuticular wax structures of the two pine species included tubules with terminal openings and coiled rodlets. Wax platelets were deposited on epistomatal chambers. Either rodlets or tubules seemed to be longer and thicker in P. rigida than those in P. densiflora. White light scanning interferometry revealed quantitative surface profiles, demonstrating more ridged (ca. 4 μm high) stomatal apertures and nearly twofold deeper (ca. 20 μm deep) epistomatal chambers of P. densiflora than those of P. rigida. These results suggest that white light scanning interferometry can be applied to unravel the quantitative surface features of epicuticular sculptures on plant leaves.

  3. Dry needling - peripheral and central considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture.

  4. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  5. Dimensions of stabident intraosseous perforators and needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlee, R A; Whitworth, J

    2001-09-01

    Problems can be encountered inserting intraosseous injection needles through perforation sites. This in vitro study examined the variability and size compatibility of Stabident intraosseous injection components. The diameters of 40 needles and perforators from a single Stabident kit were measured in triplicate with a toolmakers microscope. One-way ANOVA revealed that mean needle diameter (0.411 mm) was significantly narrower than mean perforator diameter (0.427 mm) (p < 0.001). A frequency distribution plot revealed that needle diameter followed a normal distribution, indicating tight quality control during manufacture. The diameter of perforators was haphazardly distributed, with a clustering of 15% at the lower limit of the size range. However on no occasion was the diameter of a perforator smaller than that of an injection needle. We conclude that components of the Stabident intraosseous anaesthetic system are size-compatible, but there is greater and more haphazard variability in the diameter of perforators than injection needles.

  6. Accuracy of Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for Diagnosing Salivary Gland Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Hye Song

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Core needle biopsy is a relatively new technique used to diagnose salivary gland lesions, and its role in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology needs to be refined. Methods: We compared the results of 228 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy and 371 fine needle aspiration procedures performed on major salivary gland tumors with their postoperative histological diagnoses. Results: Core needle biopsy resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and more accurate tumor subtyping, especially for malignant tumors, than fine needle aspiration. No patient developed major complications after core needle biopsy. Conclusions: We recommend ultrasoundguided core needle biopsy as the primary diagnostic tool for the preoperative evaluation of patients with salivary gland lesions, especially when malignancy is suspected.

  7. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles

    OpenAIRE

    Rucker, D. Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Swaney, Philip J.; Miga, Michael I.; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little...

  8. Extraordinary Vessels Needling for Vascular Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin; LAI Xin-sheng; HUANG Qiu-tang; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To observe the clinical efficacy of extraordinary vessels needling in treating vascular dementia. Method 39 cases vascular dementia were treated by acupoints selected from the eight extraordinary meridians and the time needling techniques such as eight methods of spiritual turtle, in accordance with time period and pattern identifition. Results 2 cases were cured, 30 cases improved and 7 cases failed; the total effective rate was 82.1%. Conclusion Extraordinary vessels needling has positive effects in treating vascular dementia.

  9. Morphometric traits of Picea abies L. and Pinus sylvestris L. on the copper dump-field Maximilián in Špania Dolina (Starohorské vrchy Mts., Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Štrba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the work was to determine difference in length of needles and annual wood increments of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies L. on the dump-field and for comparison on referential site. We performed 500 measurements of needles for each tree species and for each study area. The annual wood increments were measured on wood bores from five tree individuals from each species and from both study areas – dump-field and referential site. Student t-test and indicators of central values evaluated differences of the measured attributes. The results show statistically significant difference at 99% level of confidence for both attributes – length of needles and annual wood increments. The results support the hypothesis about influence of heavy metals on the plants growing.

  10. Needle-Tissue Interaction Forces for Bevel-Tip Steerable Needles

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B.; Douglas, Andrew S.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. As a first step toward modeling the mechanics of deflection of the needle, we determine the forces at the bevel tip. In order to find the forces acting at the needle tip, we measure rupture toughness and nonlinear material elasticity parameters of several soft tissue simulant gels and chicken tissue. We incorporate these physical parameters into a finite element model that include...

  11. Freehand biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, C; Nielsen, Marie Kristina Rue; Nielsen, M Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking.......To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking....

  12. Freehand biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, C; Nielsen, Marie Kristina Rue; Nielsen, M Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking.......To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking....

  13. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Danusevičius; Vitas Marozas; Gediminas Brazaitis; Raimundas Petrokas; Knud Ib Christensen

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylv...

  14. A subcutaneous Raman needle probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C C; Stone, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the biochemical composition of tissues and cells in the human body. We describe the initial results of a feasibility study to design and build a miniature, fiber optic probe incorporated into a standard hypodermic needle. This probe is intended for use in optical biopsies of solid tissues to provide valuable information of disease type, such as in the lymphatic system, breast, or prostate, or of such tissue types as muscle, fat, or spinal, when identifying a critical injection site. The optical design and fabrication of this probe is described, and example spectra of various ex vivo samples are shown.

  15. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

  16. Levels of damage of Scots pine and Norway spruce caused by needle miners along a SO{sub 2} gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksanen, J. [Univ. of Tromsoe, Dept. of Plant Ecology, IBG, Tromsoe (Norway); Holopainen, J.K.; Nerg, A.; Holopainen, T. [Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-09-01

    Needle damages, caused by mining insects on Scots pine and Norway spruce were studied in the vicinity of a pulp mill. The abundance of needles mined by the pine bud moth Exoteleia dodecella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Scots pine Pinus sylvestris, and the spruce needle miner Epinotia tedella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Norway spruce Picea abies had a significantly peaked response curve on logarithmic distance scale. For pine bud moth, the maximum expected population density was estimated to be at the distance of 1.35 km from the factory. The maximum expected population density for the spruce needle miner was at the distance of 1.53 km from the factory. However, for both species the curves were significantly different among transects. Both species had a peaked and significant response to sulphur level in needles as well. The maximum expected density in pine was at 1270 ppm, and in spruce at 1070 ppm sulphur concentration in pine needles. The results are consistent with earlier reports demonstrating that these mining insects frequently attack trees suffering from air pollution. The nonlinear response of both species to distance from the pulp mill suggests that E. dodecella on pine and E. tedella on spruce are rather indicators of the zone of intermediate air pollution than of strongly polluted or nearly unpolluted sites. This also agrees with the plant stress-insect performance hypothesis indicating that insect response varies with the magnitude of stress, and at very high stress levels a tree no longer provides the insects with relevant food. (au) 49 refs.

  17. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy uses sound waves ... Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the ...

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid ... Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? ...

  19. RHIZOGENIC RESPONSE OF PINUS MAXIMARTINEZII RZEDOWSKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ojeda-Zacaría

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El piñón azul o maxi piñónPinus maximartineziiRzedowski es una especie endémica en peligro de extinción debido a la alteración de sus poblaciones en su hábitat natural y que ha sobrevivido a una restricción genética extrema, además es considerado el más raro de los pinos piñoneros. En este trabajo se evaluó la respuesta rizogénica de brotes dePinus maximartinezii, obtenidos a partir de embriones cigóticos regenerado vía organogénesis, los cuales se sometieron a tratamientos de enraizamientoin vitro. La mayor respuesta de enraizamiento se presentó con pulso de 24 h en presencia de 2.0 mg L-1 de IBA en los medios de cultivo DCR, GD y MS, al 100 y 50% de su concentración original más 0.5% de carbón activado por L-1. Después de ocho semanas se evaluó la variable conforme al número de brotes con raíces, la prueba de X2 mostró que el enraizamiento es independiente de los medios de cultivo así como la concentración de los mismos y dependiente al tiempos de pulso. La formación de raíces obtenidas en los brotes permite proponer esta especie con capacidad para ser propagadain vitro.

  20. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%).

  1. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  2. Processing of pine (Pinus sylvestris and birch (Betula pubescens leaf material in a small river system in the northern Cairngorms, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Collen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing rates, and macroinvertebrate colonisation, of pine needles and birch leaves were studied at eight sites on the river Nethy, a small river system in the Cairngorm region of north-eastern Scotland. Throughout this river system, processing rates were slow for pine (k values 0.0015-0.0034 day-1 and medium to fast for birch (k values 0.0085-0.0331 day-1. Plecopteran shredders dominated both pine and birch leaf packs during the early part of the experiment while chironomids were more important in the latter stages. It is suggested that the slow processing rate of pine needles could adversely affect the productivity of streams, particularly where needles provide the major allochthonous energy source and retentive features are limited. Forest managers should consider this when creating new pinewoods in treeless areas as it will take many years for the trees to reach a size at which they can effectively contribute retentive features, in the form of woody debris, to streams. Keywords: leaf processing, pine needles, shredders, Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens, Scotland.

  3. Contamination of environment in the road surroudings – impact of road salting on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegrová, Jitka; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Tanda, Stefan; Anděl, Petr

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview of the influence of transport on the environment is presented in this study. The complex analysis of soil and needle samples provides an extensive set of data, which presents elemental contamination of the environment near roads. Traffic pollution (including winter road treatment) has a significant negative influence on our environment. Besides sodium and chlorine from winter maintenance many other elements are emitted into the environment. Three possible sources of contamination are assumed for environmental contamination evaluation: car emission, winter maintenance and abrasion from breaks and clutches. The chemical analysis focused on the description of samples from inorganic point of view. The influence of the contamination potential on the sodium and chlorine content in the samples of 1st year-old and 2nd year-old needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is discussed. Additional soil samples were taken from each sampling site and analyzed to get insight in the sodium and chlorine distribution. Statistical evaluation was used for interpretation of complex interaction patterns between element concentrations in different aged needles based on localities character including distance from the road and element concentration in soils. This species of needles were chosen because of its heightened sensitivity towards salinization. The study was conducted in different parts of the Czech Republic. The resulting database is a source of valuable information about the influence of transport on the environment.

  4. Phytochemical analysis of non-volatile fraction of Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) (Asteraceae), an endemic species of La Maddalena Archipelago (Sardinia--Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Donno, Yuri; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora Viv. is a rare endemic species from Corsica and Sardinia. We studied a sample collected from Razzoli, an island of the La Maddalena Archipelago. The polar secondary metabolites content of this species was investigated for the first time in this study showing the presence of sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, caffeoylquinic acids and a coumarin, with the presence of several compounds already recognised in this genus. The metabolites composition was analysed in two different phenological stages, post blooming and flowering. During the blooming stage, the plant showed a molecular pattern mainly represented by sesquiterpenes and sterols with a minor amount of phenolics, while in flowering stage the molecular pattern was more rich in flavonoids and phenylpropanoids.

  5. Estimating needle-tissue interaction forces for hollow needles using fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Shrikanth, V.; Bharadwaj, Amrutur; Asokan, Sundarrajan; Bobji, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Brachytherapy and neurological procedures can benefit from real-time estimation of needle-tissue interaction forces, specifically for robotic or robot-assisted procedures. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors provide advantages of very small size and electromagnetic immunity for use in measurement of the forces directly at the needle tip. This has advantages compared to measurements at the needle shaft which require extensive models of the friction between needle and tissues with varying depth. This paper presents the measurement of tip forces for a hollow needle and compensation for bending when encountering regions of varying stiffness in phantoms with multiple layers prepared using Polydimethylsiloxane.

  6. Comparative Study of Core Needle Biopsy and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Palpable Breast Lumps: Scenario in Developing Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikku, Gargi; Umap, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of core needle biopsy as a diagnostic tool for palpable breast lumps in developing countries as compared to fine needle aspiration cytology. All patients attending the surgery outpatient department with palpable breast lumps were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy by the same operator in a single session. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed by the standard technique. Core needle biopsy was done freehand using a 14G manual core biopsy needle. Reporting categories of the two techniques were taken from the standard National Health Service Breast Screening Programme criteria and were compared with the final histopathology results. A total of 107 patients underwent fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy simultaneously. Histopathology was available for 85 cases. Statistical analysis of fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy showed no significant difference between the diagnoses offered by core needle biopsy and histopathology while there was a significant difference between fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathology diagnoses. Core needle biopsy detected more breast carcinomas as compared to fine needle aspiration cytology with a sensitivity 95.83% as opposed to 64.58%. Though both the techniques were equally specific (100%), Core needle biopsy was able to correctly categorize borderline / inadequate lesions into definitely benign and malignant categories. We suggest that core needle biopsy should be preferred over fine needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of palpable breast lumps with fine needle aspiration cytology being reserved for definitely benign lesions.

  7. Investigating the Effects of Three Needling Parameters (Manipulation, Retention Time, and Insertion Site on Needling Sensation and Pain Profiles: A Study of Eight Deep Needling Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Y. K. Loyeung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In traditional Chinese acupuncture, needle sensation (deqi is purported to contribute to a therapeutic outcome. While researchers have attempted to define deqi qualitatively, few have examined the effects of needling parameters on its intensity. Methods. 24 healthy subjects completed eight interventions scheduled at least one week apart, which involved manual acupuncture to LI4 or a designated nonacupoint (NAP on the hand, with real or simulated manipulation each three minutes and needle retentions of one or 21 minutes. Intensities of needling sensation and pain were reported every three minutes and sensation qualities were reported post-intervention. Results. Immediately after needle insertion, similar levels of mean needle sensation and of pain were reported independent of intervention. At subsequent measurement times, only two interventions (one at LI4 and one at NAP maintained statistically significantly elevated needle sensation and pain scores and reported higher numbers of needle sensation descriptors. For both, the needle was retained for 21 minutes and manipulated every three minutes. Neither intervention differed significantly in terms of levels of pain, and needle sensation or numbers and qualities of needle sensation described. Conclusion. In this group of healthy subjects, the initial needling for all eight interventions elicited similar levels of needle sensation and pain. These levels were only maintained if there was ongoing of needle manipulation and retention of the needle. By contrast, the strength of needle sensation or pain experienced was independent of insertion site.

  8. Investigating the effects of three needling parameters (manipulation, retention time, and insertion site) on needling sensation and pain profiles: a study of eight deep needling interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyeung, Bertrand Y K; Cobbin, Deirdre M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In traditional Chinese acupuncture, needle sensation (deqi) is purported to contribute to a therapeutic outcome. While researchers have attempted to define deqi qualitatively, few have examined the effects of needling parameters on its intensity. Methods. 24 healthy subjects completed eight interventions scheduled at least one week apart, which involved manual acupuncture to LI4 or a designated nonacupoint (NAP) on the hand, with real or simulated manipulation each three minutes and needle retentions of one or 21 minutes. Intensities of needling sensation and pain were reported every three minutes and sensation qualities were reported post-intervention. Results. Immediately after needle insertion, similar levels of mean needle sensation and of pain were reported independent of intervention. At subsequent measurement times, only two interventions (one at LI4 and one at NAP) maintained statistically significantly elevated needle sensation and pain scores and reported higher numbers of needle sensation descriptors. For both, the needle was retained for 21 minutes and manipulated every three minutes. Neither intervention differed significantly in terms of levels of pain, and needle sensation or numbers and qualities of needle sensation described. Conclusion. In this group of healthy subjects, the initial needling for all eight interventions elicited similar levels of needle sensation and pain. These levels were only maintained if there was ongoing of needle manipulation and retention of the needle. By contrast, the strength of needle sensation or pain experienced was independent of insertion site.

  9. Processing and Characterization of Needled Carbon Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ARL-RP-0563 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Processing and Characterization of Needled Carbon Composites by Bradley D...US Army Research Laboratory Processing and Characterization of Needled Carbon Composites by Bradley D Lawrence TKC Global, LLC; Herndon, VA...

  10. HOW TO REDUCE NEEDLE INSERTION INDUCED PAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 董莉

    2001-01-01

    Acupuncture needle insertion always results in pain in the local area due to stimulating the free nerve endings—algesireceptors of the skin. In spite of mildness, this pain may induce many patients' fright, and thus, hinders more extensive application of acupuncture. In the present paper, the author introduces some methods for reducing needle insertion induced pain.

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of rectal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, R; Rajwanshi, A; Wig, J D; Gupta, N M; Kesiezie, V; Bhasin, D K; Malik, A K; Gupta, S K; Mehta, S K

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the results of transproctoscopic fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of rectal lesions. Fifty one consecutive patients referred with a presumptive diagnosis of rectal mass were subjected to proctoscopic examination when fine needle aspiration cytology, brush cytology and biopsy samples were taken. Of the 30 patients of malignancy of rectum in whom all the three sampling techniques were applied, the biopsy was positive in 27 (90%), brush cytology in 25 (83.3%) and fine needle aspiration cytology in 29 (96.6%). A combination of fine needle aspiration cytology with brush cytology gave a positive yield in 96.6% while that fine needle aspiration cytology with brush cytology gave a yield of 100%. Fine needle aspiration cytology was most helpful in infiltrative tumours. All 10 patients with secondaries in the pouch of Douglas or rectovesical pouch, and the single patient with submucosal rectal carcinoma were correctly diagnosed at fine needle aspiration cytology. There were no false positive results with fine needle aspiration cytology and no complications were encountered with the procedure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2323600

  12. Needle exchange programs in prisons in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menoyo, C; Zulaica, D; Parras, F

    2000-01-01

    On 11 July 2000, at the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, yet another country--Spain--presented evidence that needle exchange programs in prisons work. We reproduce here the text of the presentation entitled "Needle Exchange Program at the Bilbao Prison, Spain: Two Years of Experience (1997-1999)."

  13. An Elementary Account of Needle Insertion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文兵; 霍则军

    2004-01-01

    @@ Based on the authors' clinical and personal experiences, several pain-inducing factors easily to be ignored by the operators when quick needle insertion is applied, and the authors' first invented slow painless needle insertion method are introduced in the article.

  14. Diversity, molecular phylogeny, and bioactive potential of fungal endophytes associated with the Himalayan blue pine (Pinus wallichiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Masroor; Rajput, Roopali; Abdin, Malik Z; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the diversity of fungal endophytes associated with Pinus wallichiana from the Western Himalayas, with emphasis on comparison of endophytic communities harbored by the stem and needle tissues of the host and their antimicrobial potential. A total number of 130 isolates, comprising of 38 different genera, were recovered from 210 fragments of the plant. Among the isolated fungi, only a single isolate, Tritirachium oryzae, belonged to the Phylum Basidiomycota whereas the rest belonged to Ascomycota. Dothideomycetes was the dominant class with the highest isolation frequency of 49.2 %. The most frequent colonizers of the host were Alternaria spp., Pestalotiopsis spp., Preussia spp., and Sclerostagonospora spp. The diversity and species richness were higher in needle tissues than in the stems. Antimicrobial activities were displayed by extracts from a total number of 22 endophytes against one or more pathogens. Endophytes designated as P1N13 (Coniothyrium carteri), P2N8 (Thielavia subthermophila), P4S6b (Truncatella betulae), P7N10 (Cochliobolus australiensis), and P8S4 (Tritirachium oryzae) were highly active against Candida albicans. Broad spectrum antimicrobial activities were obtained with the extracts of P8-S4 (Tritirachium oryzae) and P5-N26 (Coniochaeta gigantospora) that were potentially active against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as the fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. The most prominent antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens was shown by P8-S4 (Tritirachium oryzae), P5-N31a (Truncatella spadicea), and P5-N20 (Fusarium larvarum). Our findings indicate that Pinus wallichiana harbors a rich endophytic fungal community with potential antimicrobial activities. Further studies are needed to understand the ecology and evolutionary context of the associations between the Himalayan pine and its endophytes.

  15. Response of Pinus halepensis Mill. seedlings to biosolids enriched with Cu, Ni and Zn in three Mediterranean forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, David [Fundacion CEAM, Universidad de Alicante, Ap 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: david.fuentes@ua.es; Disante, Karen B. [Dept. d' Ecologia, Universitat d' Alacant, Ap 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: kb.disante@ua.es; Valdecantos, Alejandro [Fundacion CEAM, Universidad de Alicante, Ap 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain) and Dept. Ecosistemas Agroforestales (EPS Gandia), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia. Ctra. Nazaret-Oliva s/n. 46730 Gandia, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: a.valdecantos@ua.es; Cortina, Jordi [Dept. d' Ecologia, Universitat d' Alacant, Ap 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: jordi@ua.es; Ramon Vallejo, V. [Fundacion CEAM, Universidad de Alicante, Ap 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: ramonv@ceam.es

    2007-01-15

    We investigated the response of Pinus halepensis seedlings to the application of biosolids enriched with Cu, Ni and Zn on three Mediterranean forest soils under semiarid conditions. One-year-old seedlings were planted in lysimeters on soils developed from marl, limestone and sandstone which were left unamended, amended with biosolids, or amended with biosolids enriched in Cu, Ni and Zn. Enriched biosolids increased plant heavy metal concentration, but always below phytotoxic levels. Seedlings receiving unenriched biosolids showed a weak reduction in Cu and Zn concentration in needles, negatively affecting physiological status during drought. This effect was alleviated by the application of enriched sludge. Sewage sludge with relatively high levels of Cu, Zn and Ni had minor effects on plant performance on our experimental conditions. Results suggest that micronutrient limitations in these soils may be alleviated by the application of biosolids with a higher Cu, Zn and Ni content than those established by current regulations. - Biosolid-borne Cu, Ni and Zn did not show negative effects on Pinus halepensis seedlings performance after application on three Mediterranean forest soils.

  16. Terpenes as Useful Markers in Differentiation of Natural Populations of Relict Pines Pinus heldreichii, P. nigra, and P. peuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Zorica S; Nikolić, Biljana M; Ristić, Mihailo S; Tešević, Vele V; Bojović, Srdjan R; Marin, Petar D

    2017-08-01

    Comparative analysis of terpene diversity and differentiation of relict pines Pinus heldreichii, P. nigra, and P. peuce from the central Balkans was performed at the population level. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that the composition of needle terpenes reflects clear divergence among the pine species from different subgenera: P. peuce (subgenus Strobus) vs. P. nigra and P. heldreichii (subgenus Pinus). In addition, despite the described morphological similarities and the fact that P. nigra and P. heldreichii may spontaneously hybridize, our results indicated differentiation of their populations naturally growing in the same area. In accordance with recently proposed concept of 'flavonic evolution' in the genus Pinus, we assumed that the terpene profile of soft pine P. peuce, defined by high amounts of six monoterpenes, is more basal than those of hard pines P. nigra and P. heldreichii, which were characterized by high content levels of mainly sesquiterpenes. In order to establish precise positions of P. heldreichii, P. nigra and P. peuce within the taxonomic and phylogenetic tree, as well as develop suitable conservation strategies and future breeding efforts, it is necessary to perform additional morphological, biochemical, and genetic studies. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  17. Phenols and flavonoids in Aleppo pine needles as bioindicators of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Christine; Greff, Stéphane; Pasqualini, Vanina; Garzino, Suzanne; Bousquet-Mélou, Anne; Fernandez, Catherine; Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Bonin, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess whether certain ecophysiological responses (contents of total phenols, total proanthocyanidins, and total and simple flavonols), in the needles of Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis Mill.) may be valid bioindicators for the assessment of the air quality. Samples were taken at five natural sites polluted by various pollutants (NO, NO2, other NOx, SO2, and O3). The results show a decrease in total phenol concentrations with levels of nitrogen oxide pollutions (significant negative correlations between the total phenol concentrations and concentrations of NO, NO2, and other NOx). Total flavonoids (total flavonols and proanthocyanidins) are useful bioindicators for ozone pollution (significant negative correlations between total proanthocyanidins and the concentrations of ozone and significant positive correlations between total flavonols and the ozone pollution). Sulfur dioxide pollution is distinguished by low concentrations in quercetin, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol (significant negative correlations between these simple flavonols and the concentrations of SO2). This work confirms the strong interest of using the phenolic compounds of Pinus halepensis as biological indicators of air quality.

  18. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

    OpenAIRE

    Nacide Kizildag; Husniye Aka Sagliker; Ahu Kutlay; Sahin Cenkseven; Cengiz Darici

    2012-01-01

    Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the...

  19. [Effects of gap size on seedling natural regeneration in artificial Pinus tabulaeformis plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Juan; Yuan, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Wen-Hui

    2012-11-01

    To clarify the effects of gap size created by thinning on the seedling natural regeneration in artificial Pinus tabulaeformis plantation, a plot investigation was conducted to study the ecological factors and the age structure, height, diameter, length of needles, and dry biomass of roots, stems, and needles of 1-10 year-old seedlings in different habitats, and a path analysis was made on the environmental factors affecting the seedling regeneration. Obvious differences were observed in the ecological factors in different size gaps and slope aspects. There lacked of above 3 year-old seedlings in understory and of above 7 year-old seedlings in small gap, and the seedlings of 5 and 6 year-old were lesser in big gap. The 1-10 year-old seedlings could be divided into 3 development phases, i. e. , 1-3 year-old, 4-7 year-old, and 8-10 year-old seedlings, among which, 1-3 year-old seedlings were critical for the establishment and growth of the population. The growth situation of the seedlings in different habitats was in order of big gap in shady slope > big gap in sunny slope > small gap in sunny slope > small gap in shady slope > understory in sunny slope > understory in shady slope. Path analysis showed light intensity had decisive positive effects on the seedling number of different development phases, shrub coverage had decisive negative effects on the seedling number of 4-7 year-old and 8-10 year-old phases, whereas humus dry mass had negative effects on the seedling number of 4-7 year-old but positive effects on the seedling number of 8-10 year-old. It was suggested that in the management of artificial P. tabulaeformis plantation, relatively high intensity thinning combined with shrub clearing should be adopted to provide favorable conditions for the sustainable development of P. tabulaeformis population.

  20. The role of genetic and chemical variation of Pinus sylvestris seedlings in influencing slug herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Iason, Glenn R; Thoss, Vera

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated the genetic and chemical basis of resistance of Pinus sylvestris seedlings to herbivory by a generalist mollusc, Arion ater. Using feeding trials with captive animals, we examined selective herbivory by A. ater of young P. sylvestris seedlings of different genotypes and correlated preferences with seedling monoterpene levels. We also investigated the feeding responses of A. ater to artificial diets laced with two monoterpenes, Delta(3)-carene and alpha-pinene. Logistic regression indicated that two factors were the best predictors of whether seedlings in the trial would be consumed. Individual slug variation (replicates) was the most significant factor in the model; however, alpha-pinene concentration (also representing beta-pinene, Delta(3)-carene and total monoterpenes due to multicollinearity) of needles was also a significant factor. While A. ater did not select seedlings on the basis of family, seedlings not eaten were significantly higher in levels of alpha-pinene compared to seedlings that were consumed. We also demonstrated significant genetic variation in alpha-pinene concentration of seedlings between different families of P. sylvestris. Nitrogen and three morphological seedling characteristics (stem length, needle length and stem diameter) also showed significant genetic variation between P. sylvestris families. Artificial diets laced with high (5 mg g(-1) dry matter) quantities of either Delta(3)-carene or alpha-pinene, were eaten significantly less than control diets with no added monoterpenes, supporting the results of the seedling feeding trial. This study demonstrates that A. ater selectively feed on P. sylvestris seedlings and that this selection is based, in part, on the monoterpene concentration of seedlings. These results, coupled with significant genetic variation in alpha-pinene concentration of seedlings and evidence that slug herbivory is detrimental to P. sylvestris fitness, are discussed as possible evidence for A

  1. Extraction and Chromatographic Determination of Shikimic Acid in Chinese Conifer Needles with 1-Benzyl-3-methylimidazolium Bromide Ionic Liquid Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquids-based ultrasound-assisted extraction (ILUAE method was successfully developed for extracting shikimic acid from conifer needles. Eleven 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were investigated and 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide solution was selected as the solvent. The conditions for ILUAE, including the ionic liquid concentration, ultrasound power, ultrasound time, and liquid-solid ratio, were optimized. The proposed method had good recovery (99.37%–100.11% and reproducibility (RSD, n = 6; 3.6%. ILUAE was an efficient, rapid, and simple sample preparation technique that showed high reproducibility. Based on the results, a number of plant species, namely, Picea koraiensis, Picea meyeri, Pinus elliottii, and Pinus banksiana, were identified as among the best resources of shikimic acid.

  2. The Biological Safety of Stainless Steel Needles Used in Warm-Needling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Warm-needling (also called thermo-acupuncture is a combination of acupuncture and moxibustion. Due to the intense heat involved, there have been concerns over the biological safety of the acuneedles used in the treatment. This paper reports two phases of a safety test. For a preliminary test, we compared the temperature change patterns of stainless steel (SS304 needles and traditional gold alloy needles, which have been increasingly replaced by the former. To verify the effects of the presence of coating materials, the main test involved three different kinds of SS304: silicone-coated, salicylic acid-coated and non-coated needles. Each group of needles was tested for pH level, heavy metals and UV absorbance spectrum along with biological tests on the cytotoxicity and hemolysis of the needle. All the tests on the extractants from the needles were negative. In the biological tests, each test result showed a significant difference from the positive control samples, while no significant difference was observed compared with the negative control samples. In the hemolysis tests, all samples satisfied the Korean Government Standards. All the results suggest that SS304 needles are biologically safe to be used in warm-needling, though they can be improved to perform as well as the gold alloy needles in terms of temperature fluctuations.

  3. Pinus monophylla establishment in an expanding Pinus-Juniperus woodland: Environmental conditions, facilitation and interacting factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Jeanne C. [USDA Forest Service, Reno, NV (United States). Rocky Mountain Research Station

    2001-02-01

    The tree species comprising Pinus-Juniperus woodlands are rapidly expanding into shrub-grasslands throughout their range. Observational studies indicate that establishment is facilitated by nurse plants, but little information exists on the mechanisms involved. I examined both abiotic and biotic factors influencing Pinus monophylla establishment in Artemisia tridentata steppe with expanding populations of P. monophylla and Juniperus osteosperma. I also examined the effects of seed burial and predation on seedling establishment. Microhabitats under trees and shrubs had higher extractable P and K, higher organic matter, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity than interspace microhabitats. Soil water contents (0-15 cm) were lower in interspaces than under shrubs or trees due to dry surface (0-5 cm) soils. Soil temperatures (at 1 and 15 cm) were lowest under trees, intermediate under shrubs, and highest in interspaces. Timing and rate of seedling emergence were temperature dependent with the order of emergence paralleling mean growing season temperatures: tree interspace = shrub interspace > under shrub > under Juniperus {>=} under Pinus. Seed burial was required for rooting and the highest emergence occurred from depths of 1 and 3 cm indicating that caching by birds and rodents is essential and that animals bury seeds at adequate if not optimal depths for emergence. Seedlings required micro-environmental modification for survival; all seedlings, including those that emerged from seeds and transplants, died within the first year in interspace microhabitats. Survival in under-tree or under-shrub microhabitats depended on soil water availability and corresponded closely to soil water contents over the 3-yr study. Under-shrub microhabitats had more favourable soil and micro-environmental characteristics than under-tree microhabitats and had the highest seedling life spans for the first-year seedling cohort. Predation of Pinus seedlings by rodents was a significant

  4. Needle muscle biopsy and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-long CHEN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Needle muscle biopsy is a straightforward and reliable minimally-invasive technique. During the past century, the needle biopsy can provide adequate samples and the technique has gradually gained wider acceptance. Compared with open biopsy, needle biopsy is less traumatic, with low rate of complications, and is suitable for the identifications and evaluations of muscular dystrophy, inflammatory myopathies and systemic diseases involving muscles, specially for infants and young children. Domestic insiders should be encouraged to apply this technique. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.06.003 

  5. by Pinus virginiana in Mine Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenise M. Bauman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of planting sites on the establishment and ectomycorrhizal (ECM colonization of American chestnut (Castanea denetata (Marsh. Borkh. on an abandoned coal mine in an Appalachian region of the United States. Root morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region were used to identify the ECM species associated with the chestnut seedlings. Germination, survival, ECM root colonization, and growth were assessed in three habitats: forest edge, center (plots without vegetation, and pine plots (a 10-year-old planting of Pinus virginiana. Seedlings in pine plots had higher survival (38% than the other plot types (center 9% and forest edge 5%; P=0.007. Chestnuts found colonized by ECM within the pine plots were larger (P=0.02, contributed by a larger root system (P=0.03. Forest edge and pine plots had more ECM roots than seedlings in center plots (P=0.04. ITS fungal sequences and morphotypes found among chestnut and pine matched Scleroderma, Thelephora, and Pisolithus suggesting these two plant species shared ECM symbionts. Results indicated that the presence of P. virginiana had a greater facilitative effect on growth and survival of chestnut seedlings.

  6. Needle-Tissue Interaction Forces for Bevel-Tip Steerable Needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B.; Douglas, Andrew S.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. As a first step toward modeling the mechanics of deflection of the needle, we determine the forces at the bevel tip. In order to find the forces acting at the needle tip, we measure rupture toughness and nonlinear material elasticity parameters of several soft tissue simulant gels and chicken tissue. We incorporate these physical parameters into a finite element model that includes both contact and cohesive zone models to simulate tissue cleavage. We investigate the sensitivity of the tip forces to tissue rupture toughness, linear and nonlinear tissue elasticity, and needle tip bevel angle. The model shows that the tip forces are sensitive to the rupture toughness. The results from these studies contribute to a mechanics-based model of bevel-tip needle steering, extending previous work on kinematic models. PMID:22020139

  7. Needle-Tissue Interaction Forces for Bevel-Tip Steerable Needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B; Douglas, Andrew S; Ramesh, K T; Okamura, Allison M

    2008-10-19

    The asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. As a first step toward modeling the mechanics of deflection of the needle, we determine the forces at the bevel tip. In order to find the forces acting at the needle tip, we measure rupture toughness and nonlinear material elasticity parameters of several soft tissue simulant gels and chicken tissue. We incorporate these physical parameters into a finite element model that includes both contact and cohesive zone models to simulate tissue cleavage. We investigate the sensitivity of the tip forces to tissue rupture toughness, linear and nonlinear tissue elasticity, and needle tip bevel angle. The model shows that the tip forces are sensitive to the rupture toughness. The results from these studies contribute to a mechanics-based model of bevel-tip needle steering, extending previous work on kinematic models.

  8. [Discussion on needling sensation, arrival of qi and needling response (Deqi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Hong-Du

    2012-12-01

    The current appointed teaching material of Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion holds that there is no difference among the needling sensation, arrival of qi and needling response. However, the author has a different understanding. Therefore, Neijing (Internal Classic), its annotation, exposition and understandings of ancient and modern famous experts are cited to analyze their meanings. And the result indicates that the needling sensation is subjective feelings and perceived responses of doctors and patients. Arrival of qi is the healing process of the organ through activating the anti-pathogenic qi to expel the pathogens. The needling response is the final aim of acupuncture therapy. Thus, the meaning of needling sensation, arrival of qi, and needling response are different. And an accurate understanding can better guide acupuncture treatment.

  9. [Approach to teaching methods of the needling skill of filiform needle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai-Hong; Xu, Jian-Min; Wang, Yin-Ping; Li, Yi

    2008-08-01

    The present paper is armed at approach to a set of teaching method about the needling skill of filiform needle, so as to increase teaching quality. After review and analysis on present situation of teaching methods about the needling skill of filiform needle, it is raised that traditional teaching methods are unable to objectively and comprehensively reflect characteristics and requirement of manipulation, so try to adopt acupuncture manipulation detection instrument, on the basis of traditional teaching methods about the needling skill of filiform needle. And the parameters and figures of manipulation examine of real-time collection in 131 students and information of 120 copies of questionnaire are analyzed and summarized. It is indicated that combined teaching method of traditional model and the manipulation instrument is more reasonable, and basic manipulation training most he strengthened in manipulation skill training, particularly, pay attention to training of twirling manipulation.

  10. Observations and models for needle-tissue interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B.; Schafer, Benjamin W.; Ramesh, K.T.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. In this study we present a mechanics-based model that calculates the deflection of the needle embedded in an elastic medium. Microscopic observations for several needle- gel interactions

  11. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  12. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  13. Effect of plant growth regulators in the rooting of Pinus cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Andréia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the rooting of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet cuttings under the action of different levels of plant growth regulators. The cuttings consisted of 4-6 cm long shoots of P. caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet with their basal needles removed. The basal part of the cuttings were treated for 2 seconds with the following treatments: 1- NAA 2000mg L-1; 2- NAA 4000mg L-1; 3- NAA 6000mg L-1; 4- NAA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ 100mg L-1; 5- NAA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 6- NAA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; 7- IBA 2000mg L-1; 8- IBA 4000mg L-1; 9- IBA 6000mg L-1; 10-IBA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ; 11- IBA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 12- IBA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; and a control. After receiving the treatment, the cuttings were planted in tubes containing 50% carbonized rice hulls and 50% vermiculite. The evaluations, performed 60 days after planting, showed that P. caribaea var. hondurensis cuttings treated with IBA produced a higher percentage of rooted cuttings than those treated with NAA; the most effective treatment was IBA 4000mg L-1 plus 100mg L-1 paclobutrazol.

  14. Impact of experimentally elevated ozone on seed germination and growth of Russian pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea spp.) provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-12-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies x P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finland, over a span of 2 y. The AOT40 value (accumulated ozone dose over the threshold 40 ppb during daylight hours) was 11 ppm hr per growing season, which was 1.4 times higher than the ambient air concentration. The plants were measured for germination rate; shoot increment; needle length; and dry mass of needles, shoots, and roots. Significant differences between pine and spruce provenance response to ozone were found in all parameters. Ozone stress immediately reduced the germination rate of Northern pine provenances, whereas biomass reductions became evident during the second year of the exposure in all pine provenances. Spruce species were more tolerant to elevated ozone concentrations. Our results indicate that seedling development is vulnerable to increasing ozone concentrations and that attention must be paid to the provenance selection.

  15. Seasonal and Tissue Age Influences on Endophytic Fungi of Pinus tabulaeformis (Pinaceae) in the Dongling Mountains,Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Dong Guo; Guo-Rui Huang; Yu Wang

    2008-01-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.were investigated in the Dongling Mountains of Beijing.A total of 16200 tissue segments of P.tabulaeformis from four sample collections were processed,and 10659 fungal isolates were recovered.The overall colonization and isolation rates of endophytic fungi from high to low were spring>winter>autumn>summer and in different tissues were bark>needle>xylem,irrespective of sampling seasons.The colonization rates of endophytic fungi of needles increased with age in the four sample collections.There were no significant differences of the colonization rates of endophytic fungi among 1-,2-,and 3-year-old bark and xylem,except for significantly lower colonization rates in 1-year-old bark than in 2- and 3-year-old bark in summer.A similar trend of the isolation rates of endophytic fungi occurred.A total of 24 fungal taxa were recorded,of these five taxa Alternaria alternata,Leptostroma sp.,Pestalotiopsis besseyi,Phoma lingam,and Phomopsis archeri,were consistently isolated as the common fungi in each sample collection.Our results suggest that some fungi show a certain degree of tissue recurrence or specificity,and the composition of endophytic assemblages is not conspicuously influenced by the seasonal factor.

  16. Missing Broken Needle During Caesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandana Das

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Breakage of the needle and missing while repairing the uterine wound during cesarean section is an uncommon event. Subsequently it was removed under fluoroscopic guidance on the 7th postoperative day

  17. A Multi-Layered Needle Injection Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Shlomi; Kempton, Steve J; Maciolek, Kimberly; Terry, Aliyya; Ray, Rebeca D; Pugh, Carla M; Afifi, Ahmed M

    2016-01-01

    Insuring correct needle location is crucial in many medical procedures. This can be even more challenging for physicians injecting in a new location for the first time. Since they do not necessarily know how the tissue is supposed to feel, finding the correct location and correct depth can be difficult. In this study we designed a simulator for training needle injection. The simulator was fabricated to give a realistic feeling of injecting Botox® in the temporalis and the semispinalis muscles as part of migraine treatment. In addition the simulator provided real-time feedback of correct needle location. Nine residents and medical students evaluated the simulator. They made several errors that were corrected real time using the real time feedback provided. They found the simulator to be very useful and that the training significantly improved their confidence. The methods described in this study can easily be implemented for developing needle injection simulators for other anatomical locations.

  18. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, D Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B; Swaney, Philip J; Miga, Michael I; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation.

  19. Inverse Kinematics of Concentric Tube Steerable Needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Patrick; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2013-01-01

    Prior papers have introduced steerable needles composed of precurved concentric tubes. The curvature and extent of these needles can be controlled by the relative rotation and translation of the individual tubes. Under certain assumptions on the geometry and design of these needles, the forward kinematics problem can be solved in closed form by means of algebraic equations. The inverse kinematics problem, however, is not as straightforward owing to the nonlinear map between relative tube displacements and needle tip configuration as well as to the multiplicity of solutions as the number of tubes increases. This paper presents a general approach to solving the inverse kinematics problem using a pseudoinverse solution together with gradients of nullspace potential functions to enforce geometric and mechanical constraints. PMID:23685532

  20. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, D. Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Swaney, Philip J.; Miga, Michael I.; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation. PMID:25400527

  1. Biopsy needle detection in transrectal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaci, Alper; Yan, Pingkun; Xu, Sheng; Soatto, Stefano; Kruecker, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Using the fusion of pre-operative MRI and real time intra-procedural transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) to guide prostate biopsy has been shown as a very promising approach to yield better clinical outcome than the routinely performed TRUS only guided biopsy. In several situations of the MRI/TRUS fusion guided biopsy, it is important to know the exact location of the deployed biopsy needle, which is imaged in the TRUS video. In this paper, we present a method to automatically detect and segment the biopsy needle in TRUS. To achieve this goal, we propose to combine information from multiple resources, including ultrasound probe stability, TRUS video background model, and the prior knowledge of needle orientation and position. The proposed algorithm was tested on TRUS video sequences which have in total more than 25,000 frames. The needle deployments were successfully detected and segmented in the sequences with high accuracy and low false-positive detection rate.

  2. Concentrations of foliar and surface soil in nutrients Pinus spp.plantations in relation to species and stand age in Zhanggutai sandy land,northeast China%章古台沙地不同树种年龄和树种的生态系统叶片和土壤养分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广生; 曾德慧; 陈伏生

    2004-01-01

    对辽宁省章古台地区的几种主要针叶树种的针叶养分及其林分表层(0-15cm)土壤养分进行研究.结果表明,不同年龄樟子松(45、29和20年) (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica)林地表层土壤养分并无显著差别,而29年樟子松林分表层土壤全N、全P和N: P比显著高于相近年龄的赤松(P. densiflora) (29年)和油松林(P. tabulaeformis)(31年).随着樟子松年龄的增加,叶片P含量逐渐减少,而叶片N和K含量则未表现出随年龄而变化的趋势;对于年龄相近的三个树种,叶片N和P含量表现为:樟子松>赤松>油松,而叶片K含量在三个树种中并无显著差别.表层土壤的全N和全P,有机质和全P以及叶片N和P含量之间表现出了显著的相关性,但是,林分表层土壤养分和树木针叶养分之间并无显著相关关系,这可能与当地对凋落物的过度收集,过度放牧以及土壤水分含量低有关.最后,根据国外研究结果引入N: P比阈值来分析研究区域的N, P养分状况,基于章古台地区这几种针叶树种针叶N: P比,我们认为研究区域的樟子松随着年龄的增加受N限制的可能性降低,29年的赤松林整体表现出不受N和P养分限制,而31年的油松林则表现为系统N和P都供应不足.图3表3参45.%The concentrations of the foliar and surface soil nutrients and the variation with species and stand age were studied in Pinus spp. plantations in Zhanggutai area, northeast China. The results showed that the total N, total P and C: N ratio of the soil in P. sylvestris var. mongolica stands were significantly higher in comparison with those in P. tabulaeformis and P. densiflora stands. For P. sylvestris var. mongolica, the foliar P concentration appeared to decrease with age, and the foliar N and K concentrations did not show a consistent change with age. As for the different tree species of the similar age, the foliar N and P concentrations were significantly different (p P. densiflora > P

  3. Scaling of phloem structure and optimality of photoassimilate transport in conifer needles

    CERN Document Server

    Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Jensen, Kaare H; Holbrook, N Michele; Schulz, Alexander; Katifori, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    The phloem vascular system facilitates transport of energy-rich sugar and signaling molecules in plants, thus permitting long range communication within the organism and growth of non-photosynthesizing organs such as roots and fruits. The flow is driven by osmotic pressure, generated by differences in sugar concentration between distal parts of the plant. The phloem is an intricate distribution system, and many questions about its regulation and structural diversity remain unanswered. Here, we investigate the phloem structure in the simplest possible geometry: a linear leaf, found, for example, in the needles of conifer trees. We measure the phloem structure in four tree species representing a diverse set of habitats and needle sizes, from 1 cm (\\textit{Picea omorika}) to 35 cm (\\textit{Pinus palustris}). We show that the phloem shares common traits across these four species and find that the size of its conductive elements obeys a power law. We present a minimal model that accounts for these common traits an...

  4. Scaling of phloem structure and optimality of photoassimilate transport in conifer needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Liesche, Johannes; Jensen, Kaare H; Holbrook, N Michele; Schulz, Alexander; Katifori, Eleni

    2015-02-22

    The phloem vascular system facilitates transport of energy-rich sugar and signalling molecules in plants, thus permitting long-range communication within the organism and growth of non-photosynthesizing organs such as roots and fruits. The flow is driven by osmotic pressure, generated by differences in sugar concentration between distal parts of the plant. The phloem is an intricate distribution system, and many questions about its regulation and structural diversity remain unanswered. Here, we investigate the phloem structure in the simplest possible geometry: a linear leaf, found, for example, in the needles of conifer trees. We measure the phloem structure in four tree species representing a diverse set of habitats and needle sizes, from 1 (Picea omorika) to 35 cm (Pinus palustris). We show that the phloem shares common traits across these four species and find that the size of its conductive elements obeys a power law. We present a minimal model that accounts for these common traits and takes into account the transport strategy and natural constraints. This minimal model predicts a power law phloem distribution consistent with transport energy minimization, suggesting that energetics are more important than translocation speed at the leaf level.

  5. Bio-engineering traits of Pinus radiata D.Don

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Marden, Michael; Marrosu, Roberto; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Phillips, Chris John; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Pinus radiata is widely cultivated in New Zealand. Due to steep slopes and intense rainfall, the silviculture of Pinus radiata forests is important to control erosion and slope stability. Bio-engineering traits such as root distribution and root tensile strength are fundamental to understand the effectiveness of Pinus radiata. This information is needed to use the state of the art root reinforcement model (the Root Bundle Model) and the physically-based slope stability model SOSlope. Yet, little is known about root distribution and tensile strength for this specie. We measured soil moisture and carried out 30 field tensile tests on roots of Pinus radiata. We also measured root distribution data from 5 plants, digging arc of circles 0.6 radian around the trees in four opposite directions. We fully excavated the root system of two trees. Using the Root Bundle Model, results of our measurements allow estimation of root reinforcement. With the slope stability model SOSlope, information on the intensity and frequency of harvesting and on the development of weak zones that can be supported by a stand of Pinus radiata in relation to slope stability can be calculated. An added value is that the collected data allow us to make inferences between number and sizes of roots, and growth direction.

  6. Finite element model of needle electrode sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyum, P.; Kalvøy, H.; Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.

    2010-04-01

    We used the Finite Element (FE) Method to estimate the sensitivity of a needle electrode for bioimpedance measurement. This current conducting needle with insulated shaft was inserted in a saline solution and current was measured at the neutral electrode. FE model resistance and reactance were calculated and successfully compared with measurements on a laboratory model. The sensitivity field was described graphically based on these FE simulations.

  7. Matrix Combinations of Container Seedling of Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis on Sand Land%沙地彰武松容器育苗基质配比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟鹏; 李玉灵; 张柏习; 王曼; 张日升

    2007-01-01

    在彰武松容器育苗过程中进行了育苗基质不同配比和不同施肥对比试验,结果表明,最适合彰武松容器苗高生长的基质配比草炭∶沙壤土∶三元素复合肥为1∶1∶0.05,其平均苗高为28.4 cm,方差分析表明各处理间差异极显著.

  8. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS AND INTENSITY OF PINUS DENSIFLORA POPULATION IN SHANDONG PROVINCE%山东赤松种群的空间分布型及强度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 赵善伦

    2001-01-01

    利用分布类型和聚集强度指数对山东主产区赤松种群的空间分布型及强度进行了初步研究.结果表明,鲁东丘陵区的赤松种群次生林一般表现为负二项分布和奈曼分布,鲁中南山地丘陵区的人工林则呈现均匀分布;在赤松种群不同发育阶段,出现了由幼苗→幼树→大中树扩散态势的一般规律,但鲁东丘陵区次生林由于受人为、虫害等因素的影响,其分布类型和聚散态势呈明显的多样化,鲁中南山地丘陵区人工林则表现为聚集→扩散的独特态势. 表5参4

  9. Optimization of PCR-DGGE reaction system on rhizosphere soil microorganism for Pinus densiflora Sieb.et Zucc%赤松根际土壤微生物PCR-DGGE反应体系优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐丽娜; 朴春根; 杭秋瑜; 金东淳

    2013-01-01

    为建立赤松根际土壤微生物的PCR-DGGE反应体系,以赤松根际土壤为材料,利用PCR-DGGE技术,对反应体系中的几个重要因素不同梯度进行优化,包括模板DNA、dNTPs、引物及Mg2+的用量.在25 μLPCR反应体系中,模板DNA浓度为10 ng,dNTPs浓度为0.15 mM,引物浓度为0.32 μM,Mg2+浓度为1.0 mM时,其PCR效果最佳.用该反应体系扩增出来的PCR产物,在DGGE凝胶上能够清晰地分辨出赤松根际土壤细菌和真菌多样性.这为进一步研究赤松根际土壤微生物,特别是研究赤松外生菌根奠定了基础.

  10. 松口蘑与赤松形成的外生菌根形态结构初步研究%Studies on Mycorrhizic Structure Formed Between Pinus densiflora and Tricholoma matsutake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓光; 曾宪录

    2006-01-01

    对松口蘑菌丝与赤松根形成的外生菌根形态特征和解剖结构进行了初步研究.结果表明:感染松口蘑菌丝的赤松根呈不规则的多分支状或扫帚状,表面覆有松口蘑菌丝,但不形成由菌丝构成的菌鞘.赤松幼根感染松口蘑菌丝的部分呈暗褐色至黑色.被菌丝侵染表皮的细胞壁明显增厚,细胞内容物浓缩、变暗,皮层细胞内有明显的、淀粉粒样的大颗粒,细胞质浓缩、变暗.皮层细胞间不形成明显的"哈蒂氏网".以上结果表明,松口蘑与赤松形成的外生菌根与典型的外生菌根明显不同.

  11. 山东赤松种群直径结构及其动态研究%A study on the structure and dynamics of the diameter of Pinus densiflora population in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 赵善伦; 吴志芬

    2001-01-01

    利用维泊尔(Weibull)分布函数对山东赤松种群直径的分布规律及其动态进行了初步研究.结果表明,赤松种群直径分布的概率密度分布曲线,由幼龄阶段到成熟阶段,其峰值由左向右移动,由左偏单峰分布过渡为非偏单峰近似正态分布,最后趋于右偏单峰分布.针对不同林型的直径结构,探讨了赤松林的保护和管理.

  12. The Variation Patterns of Wood Tracheid Morphological Characteristics and Density of Pinus densiflora/%赤松木材管胞形态特征及密度的变异规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春德; 刘继生; 张鹏; 张美淑; 李永德

    2001-01-01

    研究分析了人工林赤松木材管胞形态和密度的变异规律,得出了管胞长度、管胞直径、管胞长宽比和生长轮密度等材性指标的变异规律的数学模型,为实现林木定向培育和速生优质制定科学集约经营措施以及材质的早期预测提供科学的理论依据.

  13. Variability of needle structure in Siberian stone pine in provenance plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour is one of the most common trees in Siberia. Its natural range is from the Ural Mountains to the Aldan river and from the Arctic Circle to northern Mongolia. The climate in natural Siberian stone pine sites influences the whole plant organism, particularly its needle structure, and the response to thisoccurs at specific morphological and anatomical levels. The genotypical and environmental effects on needle structure in different Siberianstone pine ecotypes are very little known. One effective way to examine and to separate genotypical effects from environmental ones is byusing a common garden experiment. The purpose is to analyze morphological and anatomical needle variability in Siberian stone pinemarginal populations that have been grown in provenance plantations in southern West Siberia, Russia. The needle samples were collectedin the provenance plantation located 30 km south of Tomsk (the southeastern West Siberian Plain, southern limit of the taiga zone,optimum site conditions for Siberian stone pine. We investigated the grafts of mother trees taken from natural sites. Four ecotypeswere selected for the study. Three ecotypes originated from northern (Urengoy, western (Neviyansk, and eastern (Severobaikalskmarginal populations. The fourth, the Tomsk ecotype, was a local control. The local Tomsk ecotype grows on a site where natural conditions are worse due to reduction of mean annual temperature and increase of the humid factor northward, humidity reduction eastward and its rise westward. Variability of 10 needle morphologicaland anatomical characteristics was studied. The northern ecotype had smaller needle length (28%, leaf cross-section area (21%, mesophyll area (29%, mesophyll cell size (27%, and conducting bundle area (16% but the number of stomata per unit leaf area increased by 16% over the local Tomsk ecotype. The resin canal area, epidermal andhypodermal

  14. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy.

  15. Trigger point needling: techniques and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfsons, Simon; Ratmansky, Motti; Kalichman, Leonid

    2012-10-01

    In this review we provide the updates on last years' advancements in basic science, imaging methods, efficacy, and safety of dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The latest studies confirmed that dry needling is an effective and safe method for the treatment of MTrPs when provided by adequately trained physicians or physical therapists. Recent basic studies have confirmed that at the site of an active MTrP there are elevated levels of inflammatory mediators, known to be associated with persistent pain states and myofascial tenderness and that this local milieu changes with the occurrence of local twitch response. Two new modalities, sonoelastography and magnetic resonance elastography, were recently introduced allowing noninvasive imaging of MTrPs. MTrP dry needling, at least partially, involves supraspinal pain control via midbrain periaqueductal gray matter activation. A recent study demonstrated that distal muscle needling reduces proximal pain by means of the diffuse noxious inhibitory control. Therefore, in a patient too sensitive to be needled in the area of the primary pain source, the treatment can be initiated with distal needling.

  16. The bi-directional exchange of oxygenated VOCs between a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Rasmussen, R.; Baker, B.; Jardine, K.; Nemitz, E.

    2005-11-01

    Using new in-situ field observations of the most abundant oxygenated VOCs (methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, C3/C4 carbonyls, MVK+MAC and acetic acid) we were able to constrain emission and deposition patterns above and within a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation with a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) understory. During the day canopy scale measurements showed significant emission of methanol and acetone, while methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, acetaldehyde and acetic acid were mainly deposited during the day. All oxygenated compounds exhibited strong losses during the night that could not be explained by conventional dry deposition parameterizations. Accompanying leaf level measurements indicated substantial methanol and acetone emissions from loblolly pine. The exchange of acetaldehyde was more complex. Laboratory measurements made on loblolly pine needles indicated that acetaldehyde may be either emitted or taken up depending on ambient concentrations, with the compensation point increasing exponentially with temperature, and that mature needles tended to emit more acetaldehyde than younger needles. Canopy scale measurements suggested mostly deposition. Short-term (approx. 2 h) ozone fumigation in the laboratory had no detectable impact on post-exposure emissions of methanol and acetone, but decreased the exchange rates of acetaldehyde. The emission of a variety of oxygenated compounds (e.g. carbonyls and alcohols) was triggered or significantly enhanced during laboratory ozone fumigation experiments. These results suggest that higher ambient ozone levels in the future might enhance the biogenic contribution of some oxygenated compounds. Those with sufficiently low vapor pressures may potentially influence secondary organic aerosol growth. Compounds recently hypothesized to be primarily produced in the canopy atmosphere via ozone plus terpenoid-type reactions can also originate from the oxidation reaction of ozone with leaf surfaces and inside the leaf

  17. A nitrogen fertilization field study of carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 transfers in ectomycorrhizas of Pinus sabiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, María Victoria; Six, Johan; Houlton, Benjamin Z; Bledsoe, Caroline S

    2013-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi form relationships with higher plants; plants transfer C to fungi, and fungi transfer nutrients to their host. While evidence indicates that this interaction is largely mutualistic, less is known about how nutrient supply and EM associates may alter C and nutrient exchanges, especially in intact plant-soil-microbe systems in the field. In a dual-labeling experiment with N fertilization, we used C and N stable isotopes to examine in situ transfers in EM pine trees in a Pinus sabiniana woodland in northern California. We added (15)NH4SO2 and (13)CO2 to track (13)C transfer from pine needles to EM roots and (15)N transfer from soil to EM roots and pine needles. Transfers of (13)C and (15)N differed with EM morphotype and with N fertilization. The brown morphotype received the least C per unit of N transferred (5:1); in contrast red and gold morphotypes gained more C and transferred less N (17:1 and 25:1, respectively). N fertilization increased N retention by ectomycorrhizas (EMs) but did not increase N transfer from EMs to pine needles. Therefore N fertilization positively affected both nutrient and C gains by EMs, increasing net C flows and N retention in EMs. Our work on intact and native trees/EM associations thereby extends earlier conclusions based on pot studies with young plants and culturable EM fungi; our results support the concept that EM-host relationships depend on species-level differences as well as responses to soil resources such as N.

  18. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  19. Whole-tree harvesting at clear-felling: Impact on soil chemistry, needle nutrient concentrations and growth of Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarsalmi, Anna; Tamminen, Pekka; Kukkola, Mikko (Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, Vantaa (Finland)); Hautajaervi, Reijo (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Rovaniemi Research Unit, Rovaniemi (Finland))

    2010-04-15

    The effects of logging residue removal on soil chemical properties and the needle nutrient concentrations and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied after clear-felling on two sites of different fertility in eastern Finland. Harvesting was carried out either conventionally, i.e. harvesting only the stems [conventional harvesting (CH)], or totally, i.e. harvesting all of the above-ground tree biomass [whole-tree harvesting (WTH)]. The seedlings were planted in ploughing tilts on 50x50 m sample plots. The number of replications was 24 on the more fertile site and 12 on the less fertile site. Compared with CH, WTH had no effects on either the survival or growth of Scots pine trees during the first 22 years. Apart from the statistically significant increase in needle nitrogen concentration in the WTH treatment on the less fertile site, the needle concentrations were not affected by the harvesting intensity. On the more fertile site, the total amounts of carbon, nitrogen and calcium, as well as exchangeable calcium and extractable phosphorus in the organic layer, were significantly lower on the WTH than on the CH plots. Although the pH remained unchanged, the exchangeable aluminium concentrations increased on the more fertile site, and on both sites the calcium/aluminium ratio was significantly lower on the WTH plots than on the CH plots

  20. Classification of Needle Loss of Individual Scots Pine Trees by Means of Airborne Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Kantola

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest disturbances caused by pest insects are threatening ecosystem stability, sustainable forest management and economic return in boreal forests. Climate change and increased extreme weather patterns can magnify the intensity of forest disturbances, particularly at higher latitudes. Due to rapid responses to elevating temperatures, forest insect pests can flexibly change their survival, dispersal and geographic distributions. The outbreak pattern of forest pests in Finland has evidently changed during the last decade. Projection of shifts in distributions of insect-caused forest damages has become a critical issue in the field of forest research. The Common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L. (Hymenoptera, Diprionidae is regarded as a significant threat to boreal pine forests. Defoliation by D. pini has resulted in severe growth loss and mortality of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae in eastern Finland. In this study, tree-wise defoliation was estimated for five different needle loss category classification schemes and for 10 different simulated airborne laser scanning (ALS pulse densities. The nearest neighbor (NN approach, a nonparametric estimation method, was used for estimating needle loss of 701 Scots pines, using the means of individual tree features derived from ALS data. The Random Forest (RF method was applied in NN-search. For the full dense data (~20 pulses/m2, the overall estimation accuracies for tree-wise defoliation level varied between 71.0% and 86.5% (kappa-values of 0.56 and 0.57, respectively, depending on the classification scheme. The overall classification accuracies for two class estimation with different ALS pulse densities varied between 82.8% and 83.7% (kappa-values of 0.62 and 0.67, respectively. We conclude that ALS-based estimation of needle losses may be of acceptable accuracy for individual trees. Our method did not appear sensitive to the applied pulse densities.

  1. Needle-in-Needle Technique for Percutaneous Retrieval of a Fractured Biopsy Needle during CT-Guided Biopsy of the Thoracic Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Hamza; Thawani, Jayesh; Pukenas, Bryan

    2014-10-31

    Common complications related to CT-guided percutaneous thoracic bone biopsy procedures include pneumothorax and muscular hematoma. Serious, but rare complications include paralysis, nerve injury, CSF leak, and aortic injury. Device failure has not been well documented in the literature. We discuss our experience with biopsy needle breakage during retrieval of a core specimen and the technique used to help retrieve an embedded needle using a CT fluoroscopic-guided, needle-in-needle approach. A 43 year-old man with Stage IIIa NSCLC was found to have a T11 vertebral body lesion as seen on PET, CT, and MR imaging. The patient underwent a CT-guided biopsy in the prone position. The T11 vertebral body was localized and cannulated using the percutaneous Bonopty(®) (Apriomed, Upsala, Sweden) needle device. After fine needle aspiration samples were obtained, a core needle biopsy was attempted with a 16-gauge device. The needle fractured 4 cm deep to the skin during removal of a sclerotic lesion, leaving a retained portion within the pedicle and vertebral body. Using CT-guided fluoroscopy, a large diameter Murphy M2 needle was advanced over the distal portion of the fractured Bonopty needle. The Murphy M2 needle was advanced distal to the tip of the Bonopty needle and removed, capturing the broken Bonopty penetration needle along with a core specimen. Larger-bore biopsy needle systems and/or a coaxial system should be used to perform core biopsies in sclerotic lesions to prevent device fracture. If there is device fracture, a larger-bore needle may be used to help capture the fractured needle and prevent open surgery.

  2. [Storage proteins from seeds of Pinus pinea L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Nizar; Triki, Saïda

    2007-05-01

    The Mediterranean stone pine Pinus pinea L. (gymnosperm, Pinaceae) is much appreciated for its seed production, widely used in food preparation in the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds contain 25% proteins on a dry-weight basis. Pinus pinea accumulate globulins as major storage proteins in seeds (75% of total storage proteins), composed of several subunits of 10 to 150 kDa, revealed by SDS-PAGE. The albumin fraction (15%) represents three subunits of 14, 24 and 46 kDa. Glutelins, the least soluble fraction, represents a small proportion (10%). Their constitutive units have frequent PM of 43 kDa. Prolamins also represent a very small percentage (1 to 2%).

  3. Does a child's fear of needles decrease through a learning event with needles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Natsuki; Maeno, Takami; Maeno, Tetsuhiro

    2014-09-01

    Most children have a fear of needles. Suitable preparation can decrease the pain and fear of needles in hospitals; however, few have examined how such preparation affects healthy children. This study examined whether learning with needles decreases fear of needles and changes motivation to get vaccinations in school-age children and the possible association between fear of needles and motivation toward vaccinations. This study included children participating in the "Let's Be Doctors" event, which was held in 4 child centers in Tsukuba city, Ibaraki, Japan. In this event, children learned about injections and how a vaccine works, and injected a vaccine (water) into skin (sponge) using a real syringe and imitation needle. Data were collected just before and after the event by anonymous self-assessment questionnaires that used a 4-point Likert scale to assess fear of needles, motivation to get vaccinations, recommendation of vaccinations, and fear toward doctors among the children. Answers were divided into two categories for statistical analysis. In total, 194 children participated in the event and 191 children answered the questionnaire (response rate 98.5%). We analyzed 180 subjects, comprising 79 boys (43.9%) and 94 girls (52.2%), mean age of 8.1 ± 1.0 years. The number of children reporting a fear of needles decreased from 69 (38.3%) before the event to 51 (28.3%) after the event, and those unwilling to get vaccinations decreased from 48 (26.7%) to 27 (15.0%). Children who reported fear of needles before the event were more unwilling to get vaccinations than those with no fear of needles (36 [52.2%] vs. 12 [10.8%]), while after the event the number of needle-fearing children unwilling to get vaccinations decreased to 19 (27.5%). Children's fear of needles and unwillingness to get vaccinations were decreased after experiencing a learning event with needles. The fear of needles is associated with a negative motivation to get vaccinations in children.

  4. Methods for segmenting curved needles in ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazawa, Stephen H; Ebrahimi, Richelle; Chuang, Jason; Rohling, Robert N; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2006-06-01

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle insertions are widely used techniques in current clinical practice. Some of these procedures have a high degree of difficulty because of poor observability of the needle in the ultrasound image. There have been recent efforts to improve guidance by computer assisted needle detection. These software techniques are often limited by not representing needle curvature. We present two methods to detect the needle in 2D ultrasound that specifically address needle curvature. Firstly, we demonstrate a real-time needle segmentation algorithm based on the Hough transform which detects the needle and represents its curved shape. Secondly, we demonstrate how a new coordinate transformation can transform detection of a curved needle to a linear fit. These methods are demonstrated on ultrasound and photographic images.

  5. Suficiência amostral para coletas de serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo em Pinus elliottii Engelm, Eucalyptus sp. E floresta estacional decidual Adequate sampling for collection of litter accumulated on the soil in Pinus elliottii engelm, Eucalyptus sp. And seasonal deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Sandra Kleinpaul

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou determinar a suficiência amostral para coletas de serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo em povoamentos de Pinus elliottii, Eucalyptus sp., ambos plantados no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e em uma área de Floresta Estacional Decidual (FED localizada no Morro do Elefante, Santa Maria, RS. Para a realização do estudo, foram coletadas 100 amostras de serapilheira por floresta, com o auxílio de uma moldura quadrada de 25 cm de lado, totalizando 300 amostras, as quais foram separadas nas seguintes frações: acículas ou folhas, galhos, estruturas reprodutivas, cascas e resíduos. Com base nos pesos de matéria seca de cada fração, realizou-se a análise estatística dos dados, visando à estabilização dos valores do coeficiente de variação (CV%. Para Pinus elliottii, a maior contribuição na formação da serapilheira foi dada pelas acículas, com 57,2%; em Eucalyptus sp., isso ocorreu com os galhos (38,8% e na FED, novamente com as folhas, que representaram 49,6% da serapilheira. No Pinus elliottii, o maior CV% se deu nos resíduos, seguido de estruturas reprodutivas. Em Eucalyptus sp., o maior CV% foi encontrado em cascas, seguido de galhos. Na FED, as cascas tiveram o maior CV%. A suficiência amostral necessária para Pinus elliottii foi de 40, sendo esse o povoamento que necessitou de menos amostras para estabilizar o CV%. Em Eucalyptus sp., a suficiência amostral foi de 70, enquanto na FED foram necessárias 80 amostras.This study determined the sample sufficiency for the collection of litter accumulated on the soil, in Pinus elliottii and Eucalyptus sp. stands, planted in the Campus of the Federal University of Santa Maria and a Seasonal Deciduous Forest, located at the "Morro do Elefante", Santa Maria - RS. To carry out this study, 100 samples were collected per site, using a square frame (25 cm², totaling 300 samples. The samples were separated in the following fractions: needles or

  6. Needle deflection estimation using fusion of electromagnetic trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, H; Hashtrudi-Zaad, K; Fichtinger, G

    2012-01-01

    We present a needle deflection estimation method to compensate for needle bending during insertion into deformable tissue. We combine a kinematic needle deflection estimation model, electromagnetic (EM) trackers, and a Kalman filter (KF). We reduce the impact of error from the needle deflection estimation model by using the fusion of two EM trackers to report the approximate needle tip position in real-time. One reliable EM tracker is installed on the needle base, and estimates the needle tip position using the kinematic needle deflection model. A smaller but much less reliable EM tracker is installed on the needle tip, and estimates the needle tip position through direct noisy measurements. Using a KF, the sensory information from both EM trackers is fused to provide a reliable estimate of the needle tip position with much reduced variance in the estimation error. We then implement this method to compensate for needle deflection during simulated prostate cancer brachytherapy needle insertion. At a typical maximum insertion depth of 15 cm, needle tip mean estimation error was reduced from 2.39 mm to 0.31 mm, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method, offering a clinically practical solution.

  7. The cellularity yield of three different 22-gauge endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Mohamed O; Abdelfatah, Mohamed M; Padilla, Osvaldo; Hussinat, Maha; Elhanafi, Sherif; Eloliby, Mohamed; Torabi, Alireza; Hakim, Nawar; Boman, Darius A

    2017-05-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an integral part in the diagnosis of pancreatic, intestinal and extra-intestinal masses or lesions. There is no clear data on the superiority of the core biopsy needle over standard 22-gauge needles. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare the cellularity yield of three commonly used 22-gauge FNA needles available in the US market. This is a prospective, randomized study comparing the cellularity yield of three commercially available EUS needles (two standard FNA needles and core biopsy needle). Two blinded pathologists evaluated the cytology specimens based on an already agreed upon cytology score. We included adult patients (18-80 years old) who presented to our endoscopy unit for FNA of pancreatic or extrapancreatic masses. 109 patients (57 F, 52 M) were recruited to the study, 88 lesions were pancreatic lesions. 39 patients were recruited in the EZ Shot 2™ group, 36 in the Procore(®) group and 34 in the Expect™ group. The average cellularity score and the mean number of passes (SD) were not different between the three needles; P = 0.91 and P = 0.16, respectively. There was no difference between the three needles in obtaining an onsite diagnosis (P = 0.627) and no difference in reported adverse events between the three groups. The cellularity yields, the mean number of passes and reported adverse events were similar in the three compared 22-gauge needles. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:426-432. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Estudio de potenciales alelopáticos originados por Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D.

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester, A.; Arias, A. M.; Cobián, B.; López Calvo, E.; Vieitez, E.

    2011-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el potencial alelopático de Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D. sobre el crecimiento y la germinación de diferentes especies herbáceas. Extractos acuosos de hojas y acículas recogidas en los meses de enero y abril inhiben fundamentalmente la germinación de las semillas de festuca, siendo la acción más importante en el mes de abril que en el de enero. El contacto directo entre hojas y acículas y las semillas a ensayar produce una inhibición muy f...

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography in a Needle Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.

    In this chapter, we review the technology and applications of needle probes for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Needle probes are miniaturized fiber-optic probes that can be mounted inside hypodermic needles, allowing them to be inserted deep into the body during OCT imaging. This overcomes the very limited imaging depth of OCT of only 2-3 mm in biological tissue, enabling access to deep-tissue locations that are beyond the reach of free-space optical scan heads or catheters. This chapter provides an in-depth review of the current state-of-the art in needle probe technology, including optical design and fabrication, scan mechanisms (including three-dimensional scanning), and integration into OCT systems. It also provides an overview of emerging applications of this fascinating new imaging tool in areas such as cancer diagnosis, pulmonary imaging, imaging of the eye and imaging of the brain. Finally, two case studies are presented, illustrating needle-based OCT imaging in breast cancer and lungs.

  10. Dry needling for myofascial pain: prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Ting; Lin, Shun-Yuan; Neoh, Choo-Aun; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2011-08-01

    The study objectives were to evaluate outcomes in patients who have received dry needling treatments and to identify predictors of pain and disability. The study was a prospective cohort follow-up design. The study was conducted at the Pain Clinic at Pingtung Christian Hospital, Taiwan. Ninety-two (92) patients sick-listed for 3 months or longer for myofascial pain syndrome. From February to October 2008, participants were treated at the pain clinic with dry needling of trigger points and muscle stretches of the involved muscles. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires to assess changes in pain intensity and pain interference. Data collection was performed at baseline and after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Sociodemographic variables, symptom characteristics, and baseline outcome measures were analyzed using generalized estimating equation methodology. The proposed dry-needling protocol reduced pain intensity and pain interference. Long duration of pain symptoms, high pain intensity, poor quality of sleep, and repetitive stress were associated with poor outcomes. Dry needling is an effective treatment for reducing pain and pain interference. However, long pain duration, high pain intensity, poor quality of sleep, and repetitive stress are associated with poor outcomes. Treatment outcome depends not only on the dry needling protocol, but also on disease characteristics and patient demographic profile.

  11. Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2008-11-01

    ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

  12. Sugar export limits size of conifer needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Hanna; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Bohr, Tomas; Jensen, Kaare H.

    2017-04-01

    Plant leaf size varies by more than three orders of magnitude, from a few millimeters to over one meter. Conifer leaves, however, are relatively short and the majority of needles are no longer than 6 cm. The reason for the strong confinement of the trait-space is unknown. We show that sugars produced near the tip of long needles cannot be exported efficiently, because the pressure required to drive vascular flow would exceed the greatest available pressure (the osmotic pressure). This basic constraint leads to the formation of an inactive region of stagnant fluid near the needle tip, which does not contribute to sugar flow. Remarkably, we find that the size of the active part does not scale with needle length. We predict a single maximum needle size of 5 cm, in accord with data from 519 conifer species. This could help rationalize the recent observation that conifers have significantly smaller leaves than angiosperms, and provide a biophysical explanation for this intriguing difference between the two largest groups of plants.

  13. Identification and Characterization of a 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate Synthase Gene From Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis%思茅松1-脱氧-D-木酮糖-5-磷酸合酶(DXS)基因的克隆及功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 周旭; 毕玮; 杨宇明; 李江; 王娟

    2015-01-01

    1-脱氧-D-木酮糖-5-磷酸合酶(DXS)是甲基-D-赤藓醇-4-磷酸(MEP)途径中的第一个酶,也是限速酶.本文根据思茅松(Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis (A.Chev.)Gaussen)树皮转录组数据分析结果,获得思茅松DXS基因片段,然后根据获得的基因片段设计特异引物,运用RT-PCR和RACE技术从思茅松树皮中克隆得到完整的DXS基因(PkDXS1).PkDXS1基因的cDNA全长序列2 888 bp,含有1个2 223 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),编码740个氨基酸,该基因推断的蛋白与赤松(Pinus densiflora Siebold&Zucc)DXS蛋白的相似性为99%,与欧洲云杉(Piceaabies (L.)H.Karst.)DXS的相似性为97%;经氨基酸序列比对,推断思茅松DXS具有高等植物DXS酶特有的叶绿体转运肽,二磷酸硫胺结合位点和转酮醇酶结构域.半定量RT-PCR检测表明树皮的创伤促进DXS基因的表达.

  14. Evolution of genome size and complexity in Pinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Morse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome evolution in the gymnosperm lineage of seed plants has given rise to many of the most complex and largest plant genomes, however the elements involved are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gymny is a previously undescribed retrotransposon family in Pinus that is related to Athila elements in Arabidopsis. Gymny elements are dispersed throughout the modern Pinus genome and occupy a physical space at least the size of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In contrast to previously described retroelements in Pinus, the Gymny family was amplified or introduced after the divergence of pine and spruce (Picea. If retrotransposon expansions are responsible for genome size differences within the Pinaceae, as they are in angiosperms, then they have yet to be identified. In contrast, molecular divergence of Gymny retrotransposons together with other families of retrotransposons can account for the large genome complexity of pines along with protein-coding genic DNA, as revealed by massively parallel DNA sequence analysis of Cot fractionated genomic DNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the enormous genome complexity of pines can be explained by divergence of retrotransposons, however the elements responsible for genome size variation are yet to be identified. Genomic resources for Pinus including those reported here should assist in further defining whether and how the roles of retrotransposons differ in the evolution of angiosperm and gymnosperm genomes.

  15. Pathways of stand development in ageing Pinus sylvestris forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, Vincent; Mohren, G.M.J.; Geudens, Guy; Wulf, de R.; Lust, Noel

    2004-01-01

    Question: What are the main pathways of long-term stand development in forest ecosystems on oligotrophic and acidic sandy soils? Location: Nine forest reserves at different locations in The Netherlands: all ageing Pinus sylvestris forests that are no longer managed and where massive regeneration of

  16. Rainfall interception and partitioning by pinus monophylla and juniperus osteosperma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated canopy interception of simulated rainfall by singleleaf piñon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) in central Nevada. Research has shown that although piñon and juniper occurred historically throughout the western United States, the infilling of woodlan...

  17. Understory plant biomass dynamics of prescribed burned Pinus palustris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; L.J. Samuelson; T.A. Stokes; W.P. Cropper Jr; T.A. Martin; K.H. Johnsen

    2015-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are characterized by unusually high understory plant species diversity, but models describing understory ground cover biomass, and hence fuel load dynamics, are scarce for this fire-dependent ecosystem. Only coarse scale estimates, being restricted on accuracy and geographical extrapolation,...

  18. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  19. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  20. Needle-free insulin drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patni Preeti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For most patients with type 1 diabetes, the worst part of the disease is to tolerate needle after needle, both for glucose measurement and to deliver insulin. In the last two decades, concept of insulin therapy by multiple-dose injection has undergone a miraculous change. Needle-free insulin delivery appeared to be a wonderful approach, and its allure rested in being comfortable and safe. In today′s era, insulin delivery by alternative route is a topic of current interest in the design of drug delivery system. Major global pharmaceutical companies are showing encouraging progress in their attempts to develop alternative insulin delivery technologies. Many such drug delivery systems have been developed for oral, buccal and nasal route. This review article discusses, in brief, the novel and emerging technologies that are in pipeline, including insulin inhalers, insulin spray, insulin pill, insulin analogues, insulin complement, islet cell transplant, implantable insulin pumps and guardian continuous glucose monitoring system.

  1. TREATMENT OF EPIGASTRIC PAIN WITH SUBCUTANEOUS NEEDLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jia-tu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Subcutaneous needling is a new therapeutic method which is based on the features of the meridian-collateral theory of cutaneous regions in traditional Chinese medicine and the neurohumeral theory and skin anatomy of modern medicine and is of the features of "fixed meridian but not fixed acupoints", "micro stimulation", and "subcutaneous needling with filiform needles" to achieve the goal of treating diseases. This method is indicated clinically to the analgesia and relaxation of spasm especially the pain caused by the disorders of the internal organs and marked therapeutic effect has been obtained. With method, 150 cases of epigastric pain were treated by our department and the total effective rate was over 90%. It is presented herein below.

  2. Perception and Action in Teleoperated Needle Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisky, I; Pressman, A; Pugh, C M; Mussa-Ivaldi, F A; Karniel, A

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of delay on perception and action in contact with a force field that emulates elastic soft tissue with a rigid nonlinear boundary. Such a field is similar to forces exerted on a needle during teleoperated needle insertion. We found that delay causes motor underestimation of the stiffness of this nonlinear soft tissue, without perceptual change. These experimental results are supported by simulation of a simplified mechanical model of the arm and neural controller, and a model for perception of stiffness, which is based on regression in the force-position space. In addition, we show that changing the gain of the teleoperation channel cancels the motor effect of delay without adding perceptual distortion. We conclude that it is possible to achieve perceptual and motor transparency in virtual one-dimensional remote needle insertion task.

  3. Quantificação da biomassa em plantios de Pinus elliottii Engelm. em Clevelândia – PR. Measurement of biomass in plantations of Pinus elliottii Engelm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson dos Santos LISBOA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo quantificar e modelar a biomassa em plantações de Pinus elliottii Engelm., com diferentes idades, no município de Clevelândia, Estado do Paraná. Os dados para a realização deste estudo foram provenientes de 25 povoamentos com idades de 1 a 25 anos, totalizando 125 árvores, sendo 5 para cada idade. As árvores foram derrubadas e seccionadas nos compartimentos: acículas, galhos vivos, galhos mortos, raízes, estruturas reprodutivas, madeira do fuste e casca do fuste. Em seguida, uma amostra de cada componente foi tomada para a obtenção de matéria seca. A ordenação da biomassa nos distintos componentes se distribuiu na ordem: madeira do fuste > raiz > casca > galhos vivos > acículas (estrutura fotossintética > galhos mortos e estruturas reprodutivas. Visando à obtenção de estimativas do peso de biomassa nos diferentes compartimentos da árvore por meio de variáveis dendrométricas, foram ajustados vários modelos matemáticos, entre eles, modelos tradicionalmente encontrados na literatura florestal. De uma maneira geral, a quantidade de biomassa da maioria dos componentes, apresentou alta relação com as variáveis dendrométricas, resultando em equações adequadas, exceto para os componentes galhos mortos e estruturas reprodutivas. As equações geradas para estimativa de peso total e dos componentes arbóreos da biomassa nas árvores de Pinus elliottii Engelm. são importantes ferramentas para análises técnicas, planejamento de projetos e estudos de viabilidade para uso da madeira. This study aimed to quantify and model the biomass in Pinus elliottii Engelm. plantations, with different ages, in the city of Clevelândia, state of Paraná. The data for this study came from 25 forest stands aged 1-25 years totaling 125 trees, 5 for each age. Trees were felled and sectioned in the compartments: needles, live branches, dead branches, roots, reproductive structures, wood stem and bark stem. Then

  4. Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseler, Luke J.; Sibbitt, Randy R.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Michael, Adrian A.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device (RPD), were studied. 20 operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: 1) vacuum (Torr), 2) time to vacuum (seconds), 3) hand force to generate vacuum (Torr-cm2), 4) operator difficulty during aspiration, 5) biopsy yield (mg), and 6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (p aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (pneedle control (pneedle and maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered. PMID:21057795

  5. Seed source variation and conservation of Pinus wallichiana in India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manisha Thapliyal; Ombir Singh; Babita Sah; Nawa Bahar

    2013-01-01

    .... Considerable variation in morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles, cones and seeds in natural stands exists across the natural distribution of the species, especially in mesic and xeric habitats...

  6. Analysis of the NovoTwist pen needle in comparison with conventional screw-thread needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Tandy

    2011-11-01

    Administration of insulin via a pen device may be advantageous over a vial and syringe system. Hofman and colleagues introduce a new insulin pen needle, the NovoTwist, to simplify injections to a small group of children and adolescents. Their overall preferences and evaluation of the handling of the needle are reported in the study. This new needle has the potential to ease administration of insulin via a pen device that may increase both the use of a pen device and adherence to insulin therapy.

  7. Variations in electrical impedance and phase angle among seedlings of Pinus densata and parental species in Pinus tabuliformis habitat environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyu Chen; Huwei Yuan; Xiange Hu; Jingxiang Meng; Xianqing Zhou; Xiao-Ru Wang; Yue Li

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance (EI) and phase angle (PHI) parameters in AC impedance spectroscopy are important electrical parameters in the study of medical pathology. However, little is known about their application in variation and genetic relationship studies of forest trees. In order to test whether impedance parameters could be used in genetic relationship analysis among conifer species, EI and PHI were measured in a seedling experiment test composed of Pinus tabuliformis, Pinus yunnanensis, and Pinus densata in a habitat of Pinus tabuliformis. The results showed that variations in both EI and PHI among species were sig-nificant in different electric frequencies, and the EI and PHI values measured in the two populations of P. densata were between the two parental species, P. yunnanensis and P. tabuliformis. These results show that these two impedance parameters could reflect the genetic relationship among pine species. This was the first time using the two AC impedance spectroscopy parameters to test the genetic relationship analysis between tree species, and would be a hopeful novel reference methodology for future studies in evolution and genetic variation of tree species.

  8. Preparation of (non-)aqueous dispersins of colloidal boehmite needles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buining, P.A.; Pathmamanoharan, C.; Philipse, A.P.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    1993-01-01

    A novel hydrothermal alkoxide method is presented for the preparation of stable, aqueousdispersions of fairly monodisperse, charged colloidal boehmite needles. A polymer coating procedure for the needles is described which leads to sterically stabilized dispersions in organic solvents.

  9. Winging of the scapula: An unusual complication of needle thoracocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, S; Raychaudhuri, C; Thirumaran, M; Blaxill, P

    2008-07-01

    Needle thoracocentesis is a common interventional procedure and is generally considered to be safe. Major complications associated with this procedure are uncommon. Here we describe a rare instance of winging of the scapula following needle thoracocentesis.

  10. The Needling Technique and Clinical Application of Point Zhibian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远东

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Needling Technique The patient is asked to lie in a lateral or prone position. A No. 28 filiform needle of 3 cun is inserted perpendicularly into the point Zhibian (BL 54), with the direction of the needle tip varying according to the different conditions of the diseases. The needle can be directed in three directions, the first along the sciatic nerve; the second pointing to the genitals; and the third pointing to the anus. The reinforcing,reducing, or even needling manipulation can be used,and the needling depth can be deep or superficial.The needling can also be applied in combination with the warm-needle, cupping, and point-injection.

  11. A double-blind placebo needle for acupuncture research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takakura Nobuari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placebo needles that can mask acupuncture practitioners to the type of needle used have been considered almost impossible to develop until now. Methods We designed a double-blind non-penetrating placebo needle, the needle tip of which simply presses against the skin, and a matched penetrating needle. The needles are encased inside an opaque guide tube and the appearance and feel of the pair are designed to be indistinguishable. To validate the masking effect for the practitioner, 10 acupuncturists each applied 23 non-penetrating needles and 17 penetrating needles to the Large Intestine-4 point. After removing each needle, they judged whether the needle was 'penetrating', 'non-penetrating' or 'unidentifiable'. For the validation of patient masking, an acupuncturist randomly applied a non-penetrating/penetrating needle pair to the bilateral Sanjiao-5 points in 60 volunteers. When both applications were completed, we asked them to write down anything that they noticed regarding the needle application and associated sensations. Results The mean ± SD of correct/unidentifiable/incorrect answers given by the 10 acupuncturists were 17.0 ± 4.1/6.4 ± 3.6/16.6 ± 3.0, respectively. Regarding patient masking, none of the subjects commented in the questionnaire that they had received a non-penetrating needle. Of 60 penetrating and 60 non-penetrating needle applications, 48 (80.0% and 25 (41.7% applications elicited skin penetration sensation and 48 (80.0% and 20 (33.3% applications elicited de qi, respectively. Conclusion These needles have the potential to mask both practitioners and patients from the type of needle used in acupuncture research.

  12. EUS needle identification comparison and evaluation (NICE) study (with videos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shou-jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S.; Saftoiu, Adrian; Wang, Wanmei; Streba, Costin; Fink, Peter P.; Griswold, Michael; Wu, Ruonan; Dietrich, Christoph F.; Jenssen, Christian; Hocke, Michael; Kantowski, Marcus; Pohl, Jürgen; Fockens, Paul; Annema, Jouke T.; van der Heijden, Erik H.F.M.; Havre, Roald Flesland; Pham, Khanh Do-Cong; Kunda, Rastislav; Deprez, Pierre H.; Mariana, Jinga; Vazquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Larghi, Alberto; Buscarini, Elisabetta; Fusaroli, Pietro; Lahav, Maor; Puri, Rajesh; Garg, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Malay; Maluf-Filho, Fauze; Sahai, Anand; Brugge, William R.; Lee, Linda S.; Aslanian, Harry R.; Wang, Andrew Y.; Shami, Vanessa M.; Markowitz, Arnold; Siddiqui, Ali A.; Mishra, Girish; Scheiman, James M.; Isenberg, Gerard; Siddiqui, Uzma D.; Shah, Raj J.; Buxbaum, James; Watson, Rabindra R.; Willingham, Field F.; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Levy, Michael J.; Harris, Cynthia; Wallace, Michael B.; Nolsøe, Christian Pállson; Lorentzen, Torben; Bang, Niels; Sørensen, Sten Mellerup; Gilja, Odd Helge; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Piscaglia, Fabio; Gritzmann, Norbert; Radzina, Maija; Sparchez, Zeno Adrian; Sidhu, Paul S.; Freeman, Simon; McCowan, Timothy C.; de Araujo, Cyrillo Rodrigues; Patel, Akash; del Ali, Mohammad A; Campbell, Garth; Chen, Edward; Vilmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or biopsy is widely practiced. Optimal sonographic visualization of the needle is critical for image guided interventions. There are several commercially available needles but no bench-top testing and direct comparison of these needles to reveal their inherent echogenicity. The aims are to provide bench-top data that can be used to guide clinical applications and to promote future device research and development. Methods Descriptive bench-top testing and comparison. Bench-top testing of 8 commonly used EUS-FNA needles (all of 22 gauge in size): SonoTip Pro Control (Medi-Globe); Expect Slimline (Boston Scientific); EchoTip, EchoTip Ultra, EchoTip ProCore High Definition, (Cook Medical); ClearView (Conmed); EZ Shot2 (Olympus); BNX (Beacon Endoscopic); and 2 new prototype needles that are coated by echogenic polymers by Medi-Globe. Blinded evaluation of standardized and unedited videos by 43 EUS endoscopists and 17 radiologists specialized in gastrointestinal ultrasound examination that is unfamiliar with EUS needle devices. Results There was no significant difference in the ratings and rankings of these needles between endosonographers and radiologists. Overall, one prototype needle was rated as the best, ranking 10% to 40% higher than all other needles (pneedles, the EchoTip Ultra needle and the ClearView needle were top choices. The EZ Shot 2 needle was ranked statistically lower than other needles (30%–75% worse, pneedles have their inherent and different echogenicity, and these differences are similarly recognized by EUS endoscopists and radiologists. Needles with polymeric coating from the entire shaft to the needle tip may offer better echogenicity. PMID:26873530

  13. Needle Path Planning for Autonomous Robotic Surgical Suturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Russell C; Cavuşoğlu, M Cenk

    2013-12-31

    This paper develops a path plan for suture needles used with solid tissue volumes in endoscopic surgery. The path trajectory is based on the best practices that are used by surgeons. The path attempts to minimize the interaction forces between the tissue and the needle. Using surgical guides as a basis, two different techniques for driving a suture needle are developed. The two techniques are compared in hardware experiments by robotically driving the suture needle using both of the motion plans.

  14. Protetores físicos para semeadura direta de Pinus elliottii Engelm Shelters for direct seeding of Pinus elliottii Engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Luciano Matteiq

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de protetores físicos tem se revelado uma eficiente técnica para o sucesso da semeadura direta de pinus. O presente trabalho avaliou diferentes tipos e tamanhos de protetores físicos de pontos de semeadura para a implantação de povoamentos de Pinus elliottii por semeadura direta. Como protetores, foram utilizados copos plástico, copos de papel e laminado de madeira. Esses protetores foram colocados sobre os pontos semeados com três sementes cada. Foi avaliada a emergência, sobrevivência, perdas por pássaros, perdas por tombamento e número de pontos com, pelo menos, uma planta viva, seis meses após a semeadura. Os protetores utilizados influenciaram positivamente, nos resultados, para todas as variáveis analisadas, por evitar perdas de sementes causadas por arraste ou soterramento e, principalmente por diminuíram os danos causados por pássaros que juntamente com as formigas, foram os principais problemas encontrados na implantação do povoamento de pinus por semeadura direta.The use of individual shelters has become an efficient method for direct seeding of pine. This work investigated the use of different kinds and sizes of shelters placed at sowing sites to establish new populations of directly seeded Pinus elliottii. Plastic and paper cups with open bottoms, or wood slats were used as protective shields. These were placed at sowing sites, each one containing 3 seeds. Emergencies, survival, losses due to birds or lodging, and number of sites with at least one live plant were analyzed six months after sowing. Shelters had positive effects on all variables analyzed both for avoiding losses resulted from dragging or burying of seeds, and for diminidhing the harm caused by birds which along with ants were the main problems found during the establishment of directly seeded pinus population.

  15. Robotic needle steering: design, modeling, planning, and image guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowan, Noah J.; Goldberg, Ken; Chirikjian, Gregory S.; Fichtinger, Gabor; Alterovitz, Ron; Reed, Kyle B.; Kallem, Vinutha; Park, Wooram; Misra, Sarthak; Okamura, Allison M.; Rosen, Jacob; Hannaford, Blake; Satava, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes how advances in needle design, modeling, planning, and image guidance make it possible to steer flexible needles from outside the body to reach specified anatomical targets not accessible using traditional needle insertion methods. Steering can be achieved using a variety of m

  16. Modeling and Control of Needles with Torsional Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Cowan, Noah J.

    2010-01-01

    A flexible needle can be accurately steered by robotically controlling the bevel tip orientation as the needle is inserted into tissue. Friction between the long, flexible needle shaft and the tissue can cause a significant discrepancy between the orientation of the needle tip and the orientation of the base where the needle angle is controlled. Our experiments show that several common phantom tissues used in needle steering experiments impart substantial friction forces to the needle shaft, resulting in a lag of over 45° for a 10 cm insertion depth in some phantoms; clinical studies report torques large enough to cause similar errors during needle insertions. Such angle discrepancies will result in poor performance or failure of path planners and image-guided controllers, since the needles used in percutaneous procedures are too small for state-of-the-art imaging to accurately measure the tip angle. To compensate for the angle discrepancy, we develop an estimator using a mechanics-based model of the rotational dynamics of a needle being inserted into tissue. Compared to controllers that assume a rigid needle in a frictionless environment, our estimator-based controller improves the tip angle convergence time by nearly 50% and reduces the path deviation of the needle by 70%. PMID:19695979

  17. Comparative Study of Wear Resistance of Sewing Needles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Dong-ye; ZHU Shi-gen

    2002-01-01

    Poor wearability is the most serious problem of domestic sewing needle, which is the main reason for their short service lives. The influences of needle materials,microstructures and manufacturing technologies on the wear resistance are analyzed in comparison with foreign sewing needles. A series of suitable measures are proposed to improve the wear resistance.

  18. Mechanics of Flexible Needles Robotically Steered through Soft Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misra, S.; Reed, K.B.; Schafer, B.W.; Ramesh, K.T.; Okamura, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The tip asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. This enables robotic needle steering, which can be used in medical procedures to reach subsurface targets inaccessible by straight-line trajectories. However, accurate path planning

  19. Percutaneous needle fasciotomy in dupuytren's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssen, A L; Werker, P M N

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine our results of 74 percutaneous needle fasciotomies for Dupuytren's contracture. Pre-operative and postoperative total passive extension deficit was measured. Patients were seen at the outpatient clinic at 32 months for final follow-up. Extension deficit and