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Sample records for pinnatifida production areas

  1. Production of the blood pressure lowing peptides from brown alga ( Undaria pinnatifida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoru, Sato; Takashi, Oba; Takao, Hosokawa; Toshiyasu, Yamaguchi; Toshiki, Nakano; Tadao, Saito; Koji, Muramoto; Takashi, Kahara; Katsura, Funayama; Akio, Kobayashi; Takahisa, Nakano

    2005-07-01

    Brown alga ( Undaria pinnatifida) was treated with alginate lyase and hydrolyzed using 17 kinds of proteases and the inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates for the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) was measured. Four hydrolysates with potent ACE-inhibitory activity were administered singly and orally to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The systolic blood pressure of SHRs decreases significantly after single oral administration of the brown alga hydrolysates by protease S ‘Amano’ (from Bacillus stearothermophilus) at the concentration of 10 (mg protein) (kg body weight)-1. In the 17 weeks of feeding experiment, 7-week-old SHRs were fed standard diet supplemented with the brown alga hydrolysates for 10 weeks. In SHRs fed 1.0 and 0.1% brown alga hydrolysates, elevating of systolic bloodpressure was significantly suppressed for 7 weeks. To elucidate the active components, the brown alga hydrolysates were fractionated by 1-butanol extraction and HPLC on a reverse-phase column. Seven kinds of ACE-inhibitory peptides were isolated and identified by amino acid composition analysis, sequence analysis, and LC-MS with the results Val-Tyr, Ile-Tyr, Ala-Trp, Phe-Tyr, Val-Trp, Ile-Trp, and Leu-Trp. Each peptide was determined to have an antihypertensive effect after a single oral administration in SHRs. The brown alga hydrolysates were also confirmed to decrease the blood pressure in humans.

  2. Extracts from New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida Containing Fucoxanthin as Potential Functional Biomaterials against Cancer in Vitro

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    Sheng Kelvin Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested extracts from New Zealand seaweed Undaria pinnatifida containing fucoxanthin, in parallel with pure fucoxanthin, in nine human cancer cell lines, for anticancer activity. Growth inhibition effects of extracts from Undaria pinnatifida were found in all types of cancer cell lines in dose- and time- dependent manners. Cytotoxicity of fucoxanthin in three human non-cancer cell lines was also tested. Compared with pure fucoxanthin, our extracts containing low level of fucoxanthin were found to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of lung carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. Our results suggest that fucoxanthin is a functional biomaterial that may be used as a chemopreventive phytochemical or in combination chemotherapy. Furthermore, we show for the first time that some unknown compounds with potential selective anti-cancer effects may exist in extracts of New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida, and New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida could be used as a source for either functional biomaterial extraction or production of functional food.

  3. Adsorption of copper onto char derived macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hye Jung; Ko, Jeong Huy; Heo, Hyeon Su; Park, Hye Jin; BAe, Yoon Ju; Kim, Jung Hwan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A release of heavy metals into the environment by industrial activities raises much environmental problems because they tend to remain indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain. Copper is essential to human life and health but, like all heavy metals, is potentially toxic as well. The excessive intakes of copper result in its accumulation in the liver and produce gastrointestinal problems, kidney damage, anemia, and continued inhalation of copper-containing sprays is linked with an increase in lung cancer among exposed people. Consequently, we need to eliminate the copper in drinking water. Also, growth rates of marine macro algae far exceed those of terrestrial biomass, without water limitations, so annual primary production rates are higher for the major marine macro algae than for most terrestrial biomass. According to these reasons, we try to use the macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida. Adsorption of heavy metals is one of the possible technologies involved in the removal of toxic metals from industrial waste streams and mining waste water using low-cost adsorbents. In recent years, many low-cost adsorbents such as seaweeds, activated carbon, etc. have been investigated, but the char by macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida, have not proven to be the most effective and promising substrates. The aim of this study is to remove copper from its aqueous solution by Undaria pinnatifida char for various parameters like pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) by Undaria pinnatifida char was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration at room temperature. And it was verified using equilibrium studies. (author)

  4. Potential Use of Polysaccharides from the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida as Anticoagulants

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    Caterina Faggio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida is a highly invasive species and has caused concern all over the world because it has invaded coastal environments, has the potential to displace native species, significantly alters habitat for associated fauna, and disturbs navigation. Any attempt to eradicate it would be futile, owing to the elusive, microscopic gametophyte, and because the alga thrives in sites rich in anthropic activities. Venice Lagoon is the largest Mediterranean transitional environment and the spot of the highest introduction of non-indigenous species, including U. pinnatifida, which is removed as a waste. We demonstrated that polysaccharide extracts from U. pinnatifida have an anticoagulant effect on human blood in vitro and are not cytotoxic. The results obtained by PT (normal values 70-120% and APTT (normal values 28-40s assays were significantly prolonged by the polysaccharide extracts of U. pinnatifida, therefore algal extracts are ideal candidates as antithrombotic agents.

  5. Seasonal changes in lipid, fatty acid, α-tocopherol and phytosterol contents of seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulom, Sayvisene; Robertson, John; Hamid, Nazimah; Ma, Qianli; Lu, Jun

    2014-10-15

    Monthly changes of lipids, fatty acids, phytosterol and α-tocopherol in New Zealand brown macroalgae, Undaria pinnatifida, were investigated. U. pinnatifida lipid content ranged from 17 to 45mg/g in the blade and between 21 and 63mg/g in the sporophyll. It was a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with n-6 PUFAs reaching a maximum in December. The unsaponifiable lipid was comprised of α-tocopherol, fucosterol and 24-methylenecholesterol, that were found in higher concentrations in the winter. The content of fucosterol ranged from 146 to 338μg/g, and that of 24-methylenecholesterol between 8.4 and 48μg/g. The contents of α-tocopherol were 13, 14 and 9.6μg/g in winter, spring and summer, respectively. New Zealand U. pinnatifida sporophyll had a high level of beneficial lipids and could potentially be further processed as a source of functional food lipids instead of being discarded as a waste product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro multiplication and somatic embryogenesis of Perezia pinnatifida (Asteraceae medicinal Andean plant

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    Percy Olivera-Gonzales

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work inform on in vitro propagation of the "valeriana" Perezia pinnatifida (Humb. & Bonpl. Wedd. Shoot multiplication and indirect somatic embryogenesis methodologies were performed. The basal culture medium for all stages was Murashige and Skoog, middle of salts supplemented with 2.0% sucrose, 0.3% phytagel and pH 5.67; the treatments were prepared with or without phytohormones. The hormonal supplements for the shoot multiplication were: BAP 1.0 mg.L-1 + ANA 0.01 mg.L-1, and BAP 1.0 mg.L-1; for embryogenic callus induction were: ANA or 2,4-D (1.0 mg.L-1 and 2.0 mg.L-1; and for the embryo germination were: BAP (0.5 and 1.0 mg.L-1 or BAP 0.5mg.L-1 + ANA 0.05mg.L-1. BAP 1.0 mg.L-1 produced the higher number buds. For somatic embryogenesis, ANA 1.0 mg.L-1 induced a greater area of embryogenic callus, and BAP 0.5 mg.L-1 allowed major germination of the somatic embryos.

  7. Abundance and recruitment data for Undaria pinnatifida in Brest harbour, France: Model versus field results

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    James T. Murphy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A modelling approach to explore the critical environmental parameters influencing the growth and establishment of the invasive seaweed Undaria pinnatifida in Europe” [1]. This article describes raw simulation data output from a novel individual-based model of the invasive kelp species Undaria pinnatifida. It also includes field data of monthly abundance and recruitment values for a population of invasive U. pinnatifida (in Brest harbour, France that were used to validate the model. The raw model output and field data are made publicly available in order to enable critical analysis of the model predictions and to inform future modelling efforts of the study species.

  8. Polyphenolic Profile and Biological Activity of Chinese Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE Fruits

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    Tunde Jurikova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. fruits are rich in polyphenols (e.g., epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B5, procyanidin C1, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and chlorogenic acid—active compounds that exert beneficial effects. This review summarizes all information available on polyphenolic content and methods for their quantification in Chinese hawthorn berries and the relationships between individual polyphenolic compounds as well. The influence of species or cultivars, the locality of cultivation, the stage of maturity, and extract preparation conditions on the polyphenolic content were discussed as well. Currently, only fruits of C. pinnatifida and C. pinnatifida var. major are included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Recent trials have demonstrated the efficacy of Chinese hawthorn fruit in lowering blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The fruit has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities. This review deals mainly with the biological activity of the fruit related to its antioxidant properties.

  9. An extract of Crataegus pinnatifida fruit attenuates airway inflammation by modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in ovalbumin induced asthma.

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    In Sik Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn has long been used as a herbal medicine in Asia and Europe. It has been used for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial weakness, tachycardia, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Crataegus pinnatifida ethanolic extracts (CPEE on Th2-type cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, and other factors, using an ovalbumin (OVA-induced murine asthma model. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Airways of OVA-sensitized mice exposed to OVA challenge developed eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion and increased cytokine levels. CPEE was applied 1 h prior to OVA challenge. Mice were administered CPEE orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once daily on days 18-23. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge. Levels of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA assays. Lung tissue sections 4 µm in thickness were stained with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin for assessment of cell infiltration and mucus production with PAS staining, in conjunction with ELISA, and Western blot analyses for the expression of MMP-9, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 protein expression. CPEE significantly decreased the Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 levels, reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and airway hyperresponsiveness, suppressed the infiltration of eosinophil-rich inflammatory cells and mucus hypersecretion and reduced the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MMP-9 and the activity of MMP-9 in lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that CPEE can protect against allergic airway inflammation and can act as an MMP-9 modulator to induce a reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. In conclusion, we strongly suggest the feasibility

  10. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val Verde...

  11. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.4 Production area. Production area...

  12. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.4 Production area. Production area means that part of the State of Georgia enclosed by the...

  13. Do native grazers from Patagonia, Argentina, consume the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida? ¿Pueden los pastoreadores nativos de Patagonia, Argentina, consumir al alga invasora Undaria pinnatifida?

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    S. Valeria Teso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales was first reported in Golfo Nuevo in 1992 and since then it has spread widely over more than 170 km, all along the northern Patagonian coast, Argentina. Field observations in the region have indicated the potential role of invertebrate grazers, like the sea urchins Arbacia dufresnii and Pseudechinus magellanicus and the gastropod Tegula patagonica, in controlling algal density. Laboratory experiments were conducted to ascertain whether, and if so, to what extent these grazers actually feed on the algae. The studied sea urchins fed on the alga, whereas the snail scraped off biofouling adhered to its surface. Higher densities of grazers were observed on the kelp during summer and might be attributed to increasing in metabolism with increasing temperature, and degradation of blades and sporophylls, which possibly increase their palatability.El alga invasora Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales fue reportada por primera vez en Golfo Nuevo en 1992, dispersándose ampliamente a lo largo de 170 km de costa en el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina. Observaciones de campo hechas en los erizos de mar Arbacia dufresnii y Pseudechinus magellanicus y en el gasterópodo Tegula patagonica evidenciaron que son posibles consumidores de Undaria pinnatifida en la población local. Se realizaron experimentos de laboratorio con el objetivo de probar si estos pastoreadores eran capaces de consumir el alga. Los erizos de mar estudiados consumen el alga, mientras que el gasterópodo ramonea los epibiontes presentes sobre su superficie. Altas densidades de ramoneadores fueron encontradas sobre el alga durante el verano y podrían ser atribuidas a un aumento del su metabolismo con el aumento de la temperatura y a la degradación de las láminas y esporofilos, lo cual posiblemente aumente la palatabilidad del alga.

  14. Anticancer potential and content of fucoidan extracted from sporophyll of New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida

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    Wilfred eMak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Undaria pinnatifida is a species of brown seaweed known to contain rich amounts of fucoidan, a sulphated polysaccharide known to possess various biological activities. We isolated crude fucoidan (F0 from the sporophylls of U. pinnatifida grown in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. Sulphate content, uronic acid content and molecular weight of F0 were 15.02%, 1.24% and >150 kDa, respectively. F0 was fractionated to yield three further fractions: F1, F2 and F3. Cytotoxicity of two major fractions was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The algal fucoidans specifically suppressed the proliferation of three cancer cell lines with less cytotoxicity against the normal cells. Selective cytotoxicity could relate to the distinctive structures of each fucoidan fraction. Results from this study provide evidence that fucoidan, especially from U. pinnatifida grown in New Zealand, possesses great potential to be used as a functional food to reduce cancer risk or supplement cancer treatment.

  15. Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) leave flavonoids attenuate atherosclerosis development in apoE knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Pengzhi; Pan, Lanlan; Zhang, Xiting; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Xue; Jiang, Meixiu; Chen, Yuanli; Duan, Yajun; Wu, Honghua; Xu, Yantong; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Yan

    2017-02-23

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) leave have been used to treat cardiovascular diseases in China and Europe. Hawthorn leave flavonoids (HLF) are the main part of extraction. Whether hawthorn leave flavonoids could attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and the possible mechanism remain unknown. High-fat diet (HFD) mixed with HLF at concentrations of 5mg/kg and 20mg/kg were administered to apolipoprotein E (apoE) knock out mice. 16 weeks later, mouse serum was collected to determine the lipid profile while the mouse aorta dissected was prepared to measure the lesion area. Hepatic mRNA of genes involved in lipid metabolism were determined. Peritoneal macrophages were collected to study the impact of HLF on cholesterol efflux, formation of foam cell and the expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). Besides, in vivo reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) was conducted. HLF attenuated the development of atherosclerosis that the mean atherosclerotic lesion area in en face aortas was reduced by 23.1% (Pflavonoids can slow down the development of atherosclerosis in apoE knockout mice via induced expression of genes involved in antioxidant activities, inhibition of the foam cell formation and promotion of RCT in vivo, which implies the potential use in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Undaria pinnatifida, Himanthalia elongata and Porphyra umbilicalis extracts on in vitro α-glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion.

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    Schultz Moreira, Adriana R; Garcimartín, Alba; Bastida, Sara; Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Rupérez, Pilar; Green, Brian D; Rafferty, Eamon; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Benedí, Juana

    2014-06-01

    Seaweeds are good sources of dietary fibre, which can influence glucose uptake and glycemic control. To investigate and compare the in vitro inhibitory activity of different extracts from Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame), Himanthalia elongata (Sea spaghetti) and Porphyra umbilicalis (Nori) on α-glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion. The in vitro effects Chloroform-, ethanol- and water-soluble extracts of the three algae were assayed on α- glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion through membrane. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify patterns in the data and to discriminate which extract will show the most proper effect. Only water extracts of Sea spaghetti possessed significant in vitro inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase activity (26.2% less mmol/L glucose production than control, p < 0.05) at 75 min. PCA distinguished Sea spaghetti effects, supporting that soluble fibre and polyphenols were involved. After 6 h, Ethanol-Sea spaghetti and water-Wakame extracts exerted the highest inhibitory effects on glucose diffusion (65.0% and 60.2% vs control, respectively). This extracts displayed the lowest slopes for glucose diffusion-time lineal adjustments (68.2% and 62.8% vs control, respectively). The seaweed hypoglycemic effects appear multi-faceted and not necessarily concatenated. According to present results, ethanol and water extracts of Sea spaghetti, and water extracts of Wakame could be useful for the development of functional foods with specific hypoglycemic properties. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. The dose-area product in DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gfirtner, H.

    1995-01-01

    In DSA, the dose-area product shows a very good correlation with the maximum incidence dose. It may therefore serve as a reliable basis for the assessment of radiation doses to patients. The dose-area product is also a useful tool for the detection pf peak shifts in the radiation curves for certain investigations. In view of the considerable scatter of the values for the dose-area product these must, however, be subjected to an additional statistical analysis. Provided that this rule is observed, the dose-area product will considerably gain in importance for the monitoring of radiation exposures of patients. A very noteworthy learning effect could be achieved, if it would be made mandatory for those statistical analyses to be carried out not only on an investigation-specific but also an investigator-specific basis. The latter is particularly true of teaching hospitals. (orig./VHE) [de

  18. Annual cropped area expansion and agricultural production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... considerable annual increase of varying extent over time and space for both annual output and area ... The study suggests improving productivity through sustainable agricultural ...

  19. Nutritive and xenobiotic compounds in the alien algae Undaria pinnatifida from Argentine Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M N; Torres, A I; Commendatore, M G; Marinho, C; Arias, A; Giarratano, E; Casas, G N

    2015-04-01

    Seaweeds have been used as food since ancient times. The edible brown algae Undaria pinnatifida is native to northeast Asia; however, in 1992, the first specimens in Patagonian environments were found and, since then, have rapidly expanded. The main object of this study was to determine, for the first time in Argentina, the nutritive composition and concentrations of trace elements and hydrocarbons in these alien algae and evaluate their usefulness as food. Sexually mature U. pinnatifida samples were collected at 10-m depth in the Nuevo and San José gulfs. The first site is influenced by activities from Puerto Madryn city, and the latter place was considered as the control. Protein, dietary fiber, and mineral concentrations were similar in both gulfs and in the same order as in eastern countries. Crude protein, indigestible fiber, and calcium and magnesium concentrations were greatest in blade; lipid concentration was greatest in sporophyll; and sodium and potassium concentrations were greatest in midrib. Amino acids showed the greatest concentrations in blades, and these were greater than those reported in kelp from Japan. Cadmium (Cd), arsenic, mercury, and hydrocarbons were detected, but only Cd showed concentrations that could be a risk for consumption. In Argentina, maximum acceptable levels of these contaminants in seaweeds are not established.

  20. Technical Report for a Study on the Improvement of Extraction Process and Physiological Activities of Polysaccharides from Undaria pinnatifida by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Min Chul; Sung, Nak Yun; Lee, Hak Jyung

    2010-06-01

    By reason of Undaria pinnatifida growth is temperature dependent, U. pinnatifida produced in April and May are obtained as the main byproducts and it is normally wasted. The objective of the this study was investigated to the improvement of extraction process and physiological activities of polysaccharides from U. pinnatifida by gamma irradiation. The extraction yield of fucoidan and laminarrin was increased by gamma irradiation, and the molecular weight of extracted polysaccharides was decreased by irradiation. The effect of gamma irradiation on storage of U. pinnatifida was investigated. No viable cells were observed in samples irradiated at 3 and 5 kGy. Finally, fucoidan and laminarin were applied in the pork patty, and it was shown that lower lipid oxidation and positive effect on microbial stability and quality of the pork patty. These results will suggest that radiation technology can be applied for the extraction of functional materials and storages safe of the seaweeds

  1. Evaluation of Marine Algae Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica as Food Supplements

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    Luciana Vallorani

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude proteins and their amino acid composition, -carotene, vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and minerals were determined in two edible brown marine algae (Phaeophyceae, Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica. The amino acid scores for five key essential amino acids, frequently deficient in mixed human diet, and essential amino acid index were calculated. The results have shown the presence of all essential amino acids. The values of essential amino acid ratios of analysed algae exceed the ratios of reference proteins suggested by FAO/WHO/UNU, except for tryptophan, the first limiting amino acid in both analysed algae. Iodine, the most important component of sea vegetables is present in high amounts as well as the vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and β-carotene. The content of minerals was found high, while the presence of heavy metals was negligible.

  2. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

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    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  3. Ocean acidification and kelp development: Reduced pH has no negative effects on meiospore germination and gametophyte development of Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Pablo P; Hurd, Catriona L; Fernández, Pamela A; Roleda, Michael Y

    2017-06-01

    The absorption of anthropogenic CO 2 by the oceans is causing a reduction in the pH of the surface waters termed ocean acidification (OA). This could have substantial effects on marine coastal environments where fleshy (non-calcareous) macroalgae are dominant primary producers and ecosystem engineers. Few OA studies have focused on the early life stages of large macroalgae such as kelps. This study evaluated the effects of seawater pH on the ontogenic development of meiospores of the native kelp Macrocystis pyrifera and the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida, in south-eastern New Zealand. Meiospores of both kelps were released into four seawater pH treatments (pH T 7.20, extreme OA predicted for 2300; pH T 7.65, OA predicted for 2100; pH T 8.01, ambient pH; and pH T 8.40, pre-industrial pH) and cultured for 15 d. Meiospore germination, germling growth rate, and gametophyte size and sex ratio were monitored and measured. Exposure to reduced pH T (7.20 and 7.65) had positive effects on germling growth rate and gametophyte size in both M. pyrifera and U. pinnatifida, whereas, higher pH T (8.01 and 8.40) reduced the gametophyte size in both kelps. Sex ratio of gametophytes of both kelps was biased toward females under all pH T treatments, except for U. pinnatifida at pH T 7.65. Germling growth rate under OA was significantly higher in M. pyrifera compared to U. pinnatifida but gametophyte development was equal for both kelps under all seawater pH T treatments, indicating that the microscopic stages of the native M. pyrifera and the invasive U. pinnatifida will respond similarly to OA. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Development of innovation infrastructure of agricultural production Lviv area

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    Vasyl Chemerys

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovative infrastructure of agrarian production in Lviv Area and basic problems of its development are investigated. On the basis of the conducted cluster analysis in the article six optimum areas are offered clusterizations of agricultural production, which are certain after the criterion of balanced cluster educations. The first area of clusterization is most suitable for development of plant-grower. In particular, in four its districts, almost fourth part of plant-grower products is concentrated in the permanent costs of 2010 year. The second area of clusterization can be identified as mainly stock-raising, as its localization in the districts of foot-hill of area creates favourable terms for the production of meat and milk goods. The third area can be attributed to balanced stock-raising-plant-grower straight, with development of agriculture, oriented to the sale of products to the cities, above all things in Lviv. The fourth area of clusterization can be considered mainly plant-grower-oriented with simultaneous development of the suckling cattle breeding. The fifth area of clusterization, as marked already, can be identified as innovative oriented with predominance of stock-raising and production of goods on an export. A sixth (mountain area of clusterization is the least suitable for development of agriculture (except for the milk and meat cattle breeding. The applied approach is based on the account of ten key indexes which characterize potential of agricultural production development in each districts of Lviv Area: products of plant-grower are in all categories of economic agents; products of stock-raising are in all categories of economic agents; area of agricultural lands which are engaged in an agricultural production area of plough-land of economic agents which are engaged in an agricultural production; sowing areas are in all categories of economic agents; a quantity of cattle is in all categories of economic agents; a quantity of

  5. Agricultural production data for the Sizewell area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The proposed site for the Sizewell B nuclear power station is located at the centre of the East Suffolk coastline. The county itself is predominantly agricultural, producing a very wide range of foodstuffs which in the case of one or two particular foodstuffs contribute a significant proportion of the total national production. A general view of the agricultural setting within which the development would be sited and a compendium of more detailed agricultural data relating to the immediate vicinity of the site, which has been drawn on in the Ministry's assessment of the radiological impact of routine atmospheric waste emission, are given. (U.K.)

  6. Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. OO Alabi, AAA Coker, ME Idegbesor. Abstract. This study examined net farm income of maize production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The specific objectives are to: identify the ...

  7. Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... The need to obtain baseline information on rural poultry with respect to their population and the production potentials of the indigenous chicken under the village conditions in Ondo Area formed ...

  8. Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus Extracts Effectively Inhibit BK Virus and JC Virus Infection of Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Yuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV and JC (JCPyV are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV. We screened extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit hemagglutination by BKPyV and JCPyV virus-like particles (VLPs and the ability to inhibit BKPyV and JCPyV binding and infection of host cells. Two of the 40 herbal extracts screened, Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus, had hemagglutination inhibition activity on BKPyV and JCPyV VLPs and further inhibited infection of the cells by BKPyV and JCPyV, as evidenced by reduced expression of viral proteins in BKPyV-infected and JCPyV-infected cells after treatment with Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma or Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus extract. The results in this work show that both Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus may be sources of potential antiviral compounds for treating BKPyV and JCPyV infections.

  9. Groundwater and quaternary geological studies of potential peat production areas - useful tool for sustainable peat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valpola, S.E.; Paalijaervi, M. (Geological Survey of Finland, Kokkola (Finland)), Email: samu.valpola@gtk.fi, Email: miikka.paalijarvi@gtk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Potential peat production areas in Finland are often situated in vicinity of eskers or other quaternary (glaciofluvial) formations. Frequently these formations are also important groundwater resources and it is essential for sustainable peat production to assure that these resources will not be endangered. The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has concluded several quaternary geological studies on potential peat production areas, which are connected to locally important groundwater areas. These studies have been made using mainly ground penetrating radar (GPR) and light drilling equipment. The main objective of these studies has been to establish the local groundwater flow directions and the quality and extent of quaternary deposits. The increasing need of peat production areas has created an evident demand of cost-effective and fast research methods which can be used for providing reliable information for planning of new production areas. (orig.)

  10. New Products and Technologies, Based on Calculations Developed Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Vertan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Following statistics, currently prosperous and have high GDP / capita, only countries that have and fructify intensively large natural resources and/or produce and export products massive based on patented inventions accordingly. Without great natural wealth and the lowest GDP / capita in the EU, Romania will prosper only with such products. Starting from the top experience in the country, some patented, can develop new and competitive technologies and patentable and exportable products, based on exact calculations of developed areas, such as that double shells welded assemblies and plating of ships' propellers and blade pump and hydraulic turbines.

  11. Ridge Regression: A tool to forecast wheat area and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Jamal

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This research study is designed to develop forecasting models for acreage and production of wheat crop for Chakwal district of Rawalpindi region keeping in view the assumptions of OLS estimation. The forecasting models are developed on the basis of 15 years data from 1984-85 to 1998-99 then wheat area and production for next five years from 1999-2000 to 2003-04 is forecasted through the models and compared with the actual figures. After evaluating the accuracy of the models, final models are developed on the basis of 20 years data for the period 1984-85 to 2003-04. These linear models can be used to forecast wheat area and production of next five years. The Urea fertilizer, DAP fertilizer and manures plays a significant role to enhance the production of wheat crop. Number of ploughs in the wheat fields is significant factor to increase the production of wheat crop. Good rains in the month of October and November significantly contributes to increase the production of wheat crop and mean maximum temperature in the month of March is a significant factor to reduce the production of wheat crop.

  12. Swamp Rice Production in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economics of swamp rice production among peasant farmers in the Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State for 2001 cropping year. A total of 50 swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from 5 villages using multistage sampling technique. The data collected, with the aid of ...

  13. Effect of confinement area on production, physiological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cows in the small camp stood for longer periods (P < 0.01) to avoid lying down in wet areas. Cows in the large camp spent more time (P < 0.01) lying down. Although no difference in production parameters was observed in both trials, an earthen mound and camps of at least 100 m2/cow may be necessaryin high rainfall ...

  14. Update on Area Production in Mixing of Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okongo, Nora; Bellan, Josette

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this research is on supercritical C7H16/N2 and O2/H2 mixing layers undergoing transitions to turbulence. The C7H16/N2 system serves as a simplified model of hydrocarbon/air systems in gas-turbine and diesel engines; the O2/H2 system is representative of liquid rocket engines. One goal of this research is to identify ways of controlling area production to increase disintegration of fluids and enhance combustion in such engines. As used in this research, "area production" signifies the fractional rate of change of surface area oriented perpendicular to the mass-fraction gradient of a mixing layer. In the study, a database of transitional states obtained from direct numerical simulations of the aforementioned mixing layers was analyzed to investigate global layer characteristics, phenomena in regions of high density-gradient magnitude (HDGM), irreversible entropy production and its relationship to the HDGM regions, and mechanisms leading to area production.

  15. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Abstract. This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from ...

  16. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional ...

  17. Cone and seed yields in white spruce seed production areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Pitcher

    1966-01-01

    The source of seed is an important consideration in the reforestation program on the National Forests in the North Central Region. Thirty-five seed production areas have been set up in the Region, along the lines proposed by the North Central Forest Experiment Station, to provide control of seed source. Red pine, white pine, shortleaf and loblolly pine, and white...

  18. Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers at production area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Yang, Congqiao; Hu, Jicheng; Liu, Weizhi; Cui, Jian

    2010-05-01

    The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in air and aquatic products in PBDEs production areas which are located at the south coast area of Laizhou Bay, Shandong province, China in this study. Concentrations of SigmaPBDEs in the air ranged from 0.47 ng/m3 to 161 ng/m3. In aquatic products, concentrations of SigmaPBDEs ranged from 2.7 ng/g wet weight to 42 ng/g wet weight. The mean dietary intake of SigmaPBDEs via aquatic products consumption in this study was 218 ng/day. Daily intake of SigmaPBDEs via inhalation in this study was 612 ng for men and 455 ng for women. With a contribution of 80%, BDE-209 was predominant in the total intake. Dietary intake and breathing inhalation contributed 29 and 71%, respectively, to the total PBDEs intake. The results indicate that breathing inhalation also plays a very significant pathway for the population of the PBDEs production area. Compared with similar studies in other countries, human exposure to PBDEs via diet and inhalation in this study was the highest in the world. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  19. Mycobiota in the processing areas of two different meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Jacobsen, Tomas; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2008-01-01

    processing plants and was in addition found on moulded meat products. Sixteen Penicillium species were identified. The most frequently isolated were P. brevicompactum and the closely related P. bialowiezense, P. solitum, P. palitans, P. fagi and a new, not described species named P. “milanense” (ined......Mould growth is not accepted on most types of North European meat products and is considered as both an economic and aesthetic problem for the producers. In order to determine the mycobiota in processing areas of fermented sausage and liver pâté, filamentous fungi were isolated from air, equipment.......; Frisvad, 2007 personal com.). Isolation of a new species illustrates that the mycobiota in the processing areas of North European meat products has not yet been intensively investigated. Several mycotoxin producing species were isolated; the most prevalent were P. brevicompactum/P. bialowiezense and P...

  20. ERP IN THE PRODUCTION AREA: USER’S OPINIONS ABOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Luiz Pestana de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study verified the production area’s key user opinions about needs being met by ERPthrough a survey conducted within industries from the State of São Paulo. The survey instrumentis composed of 28 activities related to the production area, using the literature review onproduction management and ERP as a basis. Also, four dimensions for production activities weredefined: Inventory Management Policies, Forecasts, MRP and MRP II. Activities were evaluatedaccording to five different criteria: Needs Being Met, Ease of Use, Parameterization,Customization and Training. The questionnaire was answered by managers from 46 industries,composing a non-probabilistic sample with an accessibility criterion. The research isexploratory. The analysis of the obtained data broadly showed that ERPs meet the expectationsof production managers. However, its most noteworthy aspect is the high number of activitiesthat are not used by companies. It was noted that the higher the number of used activities, thehigher the level of perception of needs being met.

  1. Electromagnetic surface waves for large-area RF plasma productions between large-area planar electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, large-area plasma production has been tested by means of a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (RF) discharge between a pair of large-area planar electrodes, approximately 0.5 m x 1.4 m, as one of the semiconductor technologies for fabrication of large-area amorphous silicon solar cells in the ''Sunshine Project'' of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology in Japan. We also confirmed long plasma production between a pair of long electrodes. In this paper, normal electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating in a region between a planar waveguide with one plasma and two dielectric layers are analyzed in order to study the feasibility of large-area plasma productions by EM wave-discharges between a pair of large-area RF electrodes larger than the half-wavelength of RF wave. In conclusion, plasmas higher than an electron plasma frequency will be produced by an odd TMoo surface mode. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  2. Effect of confinement area on production, physiological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cows in the small camp stood for longer periods (P < 0.01) to avoid lying down in wet areas. Cows in the large camp spent more time (P < 0.01) lying down. Although no diff-erence in production para-. ;::.r^. *^ observed in both trials, an earthen mound and camps of at least 100 m2lcow may be necessary in high rainlall.

  3. Forced decontamination of fission products deposited on urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warming, L.

    1984-12-01

    Long-lived fission products may be deposited in the environment following a serious reactor accident. Areas of special concern are cities where the collective dose might be high because of the population. An extensive literature list is presented here. Only a few of the references deal with the problem as a whole. Some references deal with non-radiaoctive materials but give us useful information about the behaviour of particles on outdoor surfaces. (author)

  4. Sustainable rice production in the Muda area of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Nai Kin; Foong Kam Chong; Kamarudin Dahuli

    2002-01-01

    The Green Revolution has generated both positive as well as negative effects on the rice agroecosystem in the Muda area. The major obstacles to sustainable rice production are water shortage, natural hazards, disease epidemics, pest outbreaks, urban and industrial development, as well as structural changes in the farming community. The Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA) has adopted a proactive approach in addressing these problems. The improvement in management in the Muda area comprises the following strategies: i) Improvement in water use efficiency through intensification of tertiary irrigation systems, ii) Optimisation of drainage water utilisation through recycling, iii) Establishment of a Management Information System to support operational decisions, iv) Conservation of catchment vegetation for sustainable water resources, v) Implementation of Integrated Pest Management programmes, vi) Mobilisation of farmers in dynamic group activities, vii) Integration of farmers participatory experiments in the extension programmes. The above mentioned approaches have contributed to the attainment of high cropping intensity yield enhancement, and sustainability of rice production in the Muda area. (Author)

  5. Anti-metastasis effect of fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls in mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peisheng Wang

    Full Text Available Metastasis is one of the major causes of cancer-related death. It is a complex biological process involving multiple genes, steps, and phases. It is also closely connected to many biological activities of cancer cells, such as growth, invasion, adhesion, hematogenous metastasis, and lymphatic metastasis. Fucoidan derived from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls (Ups-fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide with more biological activities than other fucoidans. However, there is no information on the effects of Ups-fucoidan on tumor invasion and metastasis. We used the mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line, which has high invasive and lymphatic metastasis potential in vitro and in vivo, to examine the effect of Ups-fucoidan on cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Ups-fucoidan exerted a concentration- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on tumor metastasis in vivo and inhibited Hca-F cell growth, migration, invasion, and adhesion capabilities in vitro. Ups-fucoidan inhibited growth and metastasis by downregulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF C/VEGF receptor 3, hepatocyte growth factor/c-MET, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, phosphorylated (p phosphoinositide 3-kinase, p-Akt, p-extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK 1/2, and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB, and suppressed adhesion and invasion by downregulating L-Selectin, and upregulating protein levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs. The results suggest that Ups-fucoidan suppresses Hca-F cell growth, adhesion, invasion, and metastasis capabilities and that these functions are mediated through the mechanism involving inactivation of the NF-κB pathway mediated by PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways.

  6. Smoke production from multiple nuclear explosions in nonurban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, R.D.; Bush, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The amount of smoke that may be produced by wildland or rural fires as a consequence of a large-scale nuclear exchange is estimated. The calculation is based on a compilation of rural military facilities, identified from a wide variety of unclassified sources, together with data on their geographic positions, surrounding vegetation (fuel), and weather conditions. The ignition area (corrected for fuel moisture) and the amount of fire spread are used to calculate the smoke production. The results show a substantially lower estimated smoke production (from wildland fires) than in earlier nuclear winter studies. The amount varies seasonally and at its peak is less by an order of magnitude than the estimated threshold level necessary for a major attenuation of solar radiation. 32 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  7. Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO 2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

  8. Strategy For A/M Area Production Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.G.; Looney, B.B.; Bergren, C.L.; Wells, D.G.; Beavers, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Savannah River Site personnel are planning a two phase program in order to significantly reduce the amount of dissolved chlorinated solvents that are being transported to the McQueen branch Aquifer via the wellbore and gravel pack zones of the A/M Area production well system. In Phase I of the program a commercially available inflatable packer and check valve assembly will be installed inside the casing at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Unit. This immediate, short term solution will eliminate the majority of the contaminant mass that is moving downward through the wellbore of the A/M Area production wells. During the packer installation process several pre- and post- testing activities are planned to aid SRS investigators in understanding the dynamics of the flow conditions and effectiveness of the installed assembly.The second phase of the program will address the small amount of contaminant mass that is moving downward through the continuous gravel pack of the production wells. The investigative data obtained during Phase I of this program will be beneficial for developing plans and appropriate actions for the Phase II activities.In addressing potential remediation actions for the dissolved solvents in the Cretaceous sediments, due to the limited vertical extent of the plume and the size, any remediation program should incorporate carefully located wells screened vertically within the plume trajectory.This optimizing approach will minimize water treatment and pumping costs and maximize the amount of contaminant removal. Flow and contaminant transport modeling scenarios are currently being developed to address the Cretaceous sediments. These efforts involve incorporating the available characterization data and the results of previous modeling work to more precisely define the extent and magnitude of this plume. SRS proposes incorporating depth discrete sampling during any future characterization effort to optimize any proposed remediation system

  9. Problems of finding production losses in smoke areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vins, B

    1971-01-01

    The world-wide research results obtained up to now give evidence that the injurious effects of emissions in forest stands occur in the form of the decrease of diameter increment leading to premature die-back of trees. The effects of emissions are different both in individual tree species and in stand components. The occurrence and size of increment losses are also influenced by the interaction of climate conditions and concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere. Combining original methodical procedures and laboratory equipment for production ecology with computer processing techniques bring about favorable conditions for the solution of problems concerning the emission effects on the production of forest stands. No solution has been found as yet for the problem of diameter increment decrease differentiation based on age and social position of trees. Research work should provide data necessary for the economic evaluation of losses in the main smoke areas and for the choice of suitable economic measures aimed at the mitigation of injuries. This study indicates that it is the modified increment boring method which becomes an efficient method for the control of production processes and for the evaluation of increment changes both in research work and in practice.

  10. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD

  11. Productivity of Premodern Agriculture in the Cucuteni-Trypillia Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme; Videiko, Mykhailo; Henderson, Kate; Shiel, Robert; Dolukhanov, Pavel; Pashkevich, Galina

    2015-07-01

    We present paleoeconomy reconstructions for premodern agriculture, selecting, wherever required, features and parameter values specific for the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural unity (CTU; 5,400-2,700 BC, mostly the territory of modern Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania). We verify the self-consistency and viability of the archaeological evidence related to all major elements of the agricultural production cycle within the constraints provided by environmental and technological considerations. The starting point of our analysis is the paleodiet structure suggested by archaeological data, stable isotope analyses of human remains, and palynology studies in the CTU area. We allow for the archeologically attested contributions of domesticated and wild animal products to the diet, develop plausible estimates of the yield of ancient cereal varieties cultivated with ancient techniques, and quantify the yield dependence on the time after initial planting and on rainfall (as a climate proxy). Our conclusions involve analysis of the labor costs of various seasonal parts of the agricultural cycle of both an individual and a family with a majority of members that do not engage in productive activities that require physical fitness, such as tillage. Finally, we put our results into the context of the exploitation territory and catchment analysis, to project various subsistence strategies into the exploitation territory of a farming settlement. The simplest economic complex based on cereals and domestic and wild animal products, with fallow cropping, appears to be capable of supporting an isolated, relatively small farming settlement of 50-300 people (2-10 ha in area) even without recourse to technological improvements such as the use of manure fertilizer. Our results strongly suggest that dairy products played a significant role in the dietary and labor balance. The smaller settlements are typical of the earliest Trypillia A stage but remain predominant at the later stages. A larger

  12. Chemicalization in water treatment in peat production areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madekivi, O.; Marja-Aho, J.; Selin, P.; Jokinen, S.

    1995-01-01

    Chemicalization of runoff waters of peat production has been studied since 1989, first in laboratory and since 1990 in practice. The methods have been developed as cooperation between Vapo Oy and Kemira Chemicals Oy. In chemicalization the dissolved substances are coagulated and they settle after that into sedimentation basins. Good purification results require rapid and effective mixing, so the formed particles are combined to larger particles, and they form settleable flock. The coagulation efficiency depends on the properties of the water to be purified, such as alkalinity and pH, the quality and the quantity of humic substances, and the quality and the quantity of the flocking chemicals. Chemicalization is at present the most effective, but also the most expensive method for purification of drying waters of peat production areas. The chemicalized water is on the basis of most quality factors cleaner than water running off a virgin bog. The most visible change is the clarification of the water which is due to the coagulation of the colouring humic substances and iron. The colorimetric value is decreased by over 70 %, the best results being over 90 %. The colorimetric value of the purified water (30-100 mg Pt/l) is below the values of the runoff water of a virgin bog (100-200 mg Pt/l). The chemicalization process and the results of the researches are presented in the article. (3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.)

  13. Dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 1--securing of the production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roland; Varbelow, Hans Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, and γ-HCH (lindane) were recently included as new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Therefore, the chemicals need to be globally addressed, including the disposal of historic wastes. At most sites, the approximately 85% of HCH waste isomers were dumped. At a former lindane factory in Hamburg and some other factories the HCH, waste was recycled producing residues with high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) levels. The soil and ground water under the former pesticide factory was/is highly contaminated with HCH (260 tons), chlorobenzenes (550 tons), and PCDD/PCDF (6 kg toxic equivalents (TEQ)). This contamination did not result from disposal operations but from spillages and leakages during the 30 years of the factory's production history. A containment wall has been constructed around the production area to prevent the dispersal of the pollutants. The ground water is managed by a pump and treat system. Over the last 15 years, approximately 10-30 tons of this pollution reservoir has been pumped and incinerated. For the contaminated production buildings, specific assessment and demolition technologies have been applied. In addition to their HCH waste isomer deposition, former lindane/HCH productions need to be assessed for possible recycling practice of HCH and related PCDD/PCDF contamination of the production area and buildings. Since such recycling activities have taken place at several factories in different countries, the experience of assessment and management of the described production area and contaminated buildings could be valuable. Such assessment could be addressed within the frame of the Stockholm Convention.

  14. Dose-area product measurement for patients in diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhawad, Safaa Ibrahim Awad Elkarim

    2001-09-01

    There is a wide spread of the utilization of medical diagnostic x-ray in Sudan upon the last years, in private clinics as well as in public hospitals. The aim of this study was to measure the doses to patients from x-ray in radiography departments in Khartoum State. Use was made of ionization chamber that measures the product of dose times the exposed area of the patient in units of Gy cm 2 . The work was performed in 7 hospitals over 250 patients. 71.2% of the patients were males and 28.8% females. From this work, it appears that the chest radiography represent 42% of the total exposure of human body organs to radiography, there was also a clear variation in doses resulting from this exposure for different x-ray machines. The results of this study were compared with similar from Germany, Finland, New Zealand and Norway; which are recently available studies. The comparison showed those investigation of abdomen, spine and pelvis result in higher radiation doses. No data for limb exposure were obtained from these countries, in Sudan exposure of the limb carry radiation doses compared to the rest of the human body.(Author)

  15. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada... § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada. Stone and quarry products from areas in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United States...

  16. Lage-area planar RF plasma productions by surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1994-01-01

    Large-area rf plasmas are confirmed to be produced by means of RF discharges inside a large-area dielectric tube. The plasma space is 73 cm x 176 cm and 2.5 cm. The plasma is thought to be produced by an odd plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of using large-area electrodes and by an even plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of without the electrodes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  17. The Cloud Area Padovana: from pilot to production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreetto, P.; Costa, F.; Crescente, A.; Dorigo, A.; Fantinel, S.; Fanzago, F.; Sgaravatto, M.; Traldi, S.; Verlato, M.; Zangrando, L.

    2017-10-01

    The Cloud Area Padovana has been running for almost two years. This is an OpenStack-based scientific cloud, spread across two different sites: the INFN Padova Unit and the INFN Legnaro National Labs. The hardware resources have been scaled horizontally and vertically, by upgrading some hypervisors and by adding new ones: currently it provides about 1100 cores. Some in-house developments were also integrated in the OpenStack dashboard, such as a tool for user and project registrations with direct support for the INFN-AAI Identity Provider as a new option for the user authentication. In collaboration with the EU-funded Indigo DataCloud project, the integration with Docker-based containers has been experimented with and will be available in production soon. This computing facility now satisfies the computational and storage demands of more than 70 users affiliated with about 20 research projects. We present here the architecture of this Cloud infrastructure, the tools and procedures used to operate it. We also focus on the lessons learnt in these two years, describing the problems that were found and the corrective actions that had to be applied. We also discuss about the chosen strategy for upgrades, which combines the need to promptly integrate the OpenStack new developments, the demand to reduce the downtimes of the infrastructure, and the need to limit the effort requested for such updates. We also discuss how this Cloud infrastructure is being used. In particular we focus on two big physics experiments which are intensively exploiting this computing facility: CMS and SPES. CMS deployed on the cloud a complex computational infrastructure, composed of several user interfaces for job submission in the Grid environment/local batch queues or for interactive processes; this is fully integrated with the local Tier-2 facility. To avoid a static allocation of the resources, an elastic cluster, based on cernVM, has been configured: it allows to automatically create and

  18. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: tsbaptista@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  19. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  20. Hydropower production from bridges in urban or suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarelli, Tullio; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Sinagra, Marco; Morreale, Gabriele; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    A new technology for hydropower production from rivers crossing urban or suburban areas is proposed, based on the use of Cross-Flow turbines having its axis horizontal and normal to the flow direction. A large part of the river cross-section could be covered by the turbine cross-section and this would generate a small, but consistent jump between the water levels of the inlet and the outlet sections. The turbine should be anchored to a pre-existing bridge and the total length of its axis should be of the same order of the bridge length. Due to the large axis extension, it should be possible to easily attain a gross power similar to the power produced with a more traditional installation, based on weirs or barrages, if single jumps of few tens of centimeters were added over a large number of bridges. If the bridges were set in urbanized areas, the production of electricity would be located close to its consumption, according to the smart grid requirements, and the hydrological basin at the bridge section (along with the corresponding discharge) would be greater than the basin of traditional plants located in more upstream locations. The maximum water level to be attained in the upstream section of the bridge should be the minimum among the following ones: 1) the level corresponding to the maximum flood allowed by the surrounding infra-structures, 2) the level corresponding to the maximum force allowed by the bridge structures. The resulting upstream water level hydrographs should be compatible with the river suspended and bed load equilibrium and with the requirement of the aquatic living population. The system should include a mechanism able to raise the turbine completely out of the water level, if required, for maintenance or other purposes. The complete lifting of the turbine could be used to: a) reconstruct the natural river bed profile during floods, b) allow the navigation or fish movements during some periods of the year, or even some hours of the day. A

  1. Sustainability of agricultural production in communal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to financial support was limited due to lack of collateral and high production risk where farmers' production is solely based on natural and unreliable rainfall patterns and therefore unsustainable. Strategies to improve food security should receive priority to support sustainable resource management, increase access ...

  2. Livestock Production - Future Directions and Priority Research Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H., E-mail: phrobinson@ucdavis.edu [Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    While specific issues facing ruminant production differ in detail between developed and developing countries, the general constraints and challenges suggest that common research interests will continue to exist. The need to increase outputs of ruminant meat and milk products differ sharply between the developed and developing world, although a need to increase animal productivity is evident in both, albeit primarily to increase product output in the developing world but to decrease environmental impacts of food producing ruminants in the developed world. The largest single limitation to increasing productivity of ruminants in the low digestibility of the structural carbohydrates which comprise a large proportion of their diets. Research on actions of secondary compounds in ruminal metabolism is required to avoid their negative effects and harvest the benefits of their positive effects. Domesticated ruminants have historically provided a substantial portion of the world's supplies. However if that is to continue, ways must be found to increase digestibility of their primary feedstocks, increase the 'healthfulness' of their products to humans, and decrease the environmental impact of their production systems.

  3. Livestock Production - Future Directions and Priority Research Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    While specific issues facing ruminant production differ in detail between developed and developing countries, the general constraints and challenges suggest that common research interests will continue to exist. The need to increase outputs of ruminant meat and milk products differ sharply between the developed and developing world, although a need to increase animal productivity is evident in both, albeit primarily to increase product output in the developing world but to decrease environmental impacts of food producing ruminants in the developed world. The largest single limitation to increasing productivity of ruminants in the low digestibility of the structural carbohydrates which comprise a large proportion of their diets. Research on actions of secondary compounds in ruminal metabolism is required to avoid their negative effects and harvest the benefits of their positive effects. Domesticated ruminants have historically provided a substantial portion of the world's supplies. However if that is to continue, ways must be found to increase digestibility of their primary feedstocks, increase the 'healthfulness' of their products to humans, and decrease the environmental impact of their production systems

  4. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (<1 nm) pore volumes, and supra-nm (1-5 nm) pore volumes may be achieved by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  5. Large area, low cost solar cell development and production readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, D.

    1982-01-01

    A process sequence for a large area ( or = 25 sq. cm) silicon solar cell was investigated. Generic cell choice was guided by the expected electron fluence, by the packing factors of various cell envelope designs onto each panel to provide needed voltage as well as current, by the weight constraints on the system, and by the cost goals of the contract.

  6. Digital development of products with NX9 for academical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    International competitiveness forced the manufacturing enterprises to look for new ways to accelerate the development of digital products through innovation, global alliances and strategic partnerships. In an environment of global research and development of distributed geographically, all members of the joint teams made up of companies and universities need to access updated and accurate information about products created by any of the type employed, student, teacher. Current design processes involve more complex products consisting of elements of design created by multiple teams, disciplines and suppliers using independent CAD systems. Even when using a 3D CAD mature technology, many companies fail to significantly reduce losses in the process, improve product quality or product type to ensure successful innovations to market arouse interest. These challenges require a radical rethinking of the business model, which belongs to the field of design, which must be based on digital development of products based on integrated files. Through this work, the author has proposed to provide both synthesis and transformations brought news of the integrated NX [1, 2, 3] from Siemens PLM Software 9, following a news results detailed documentary study, and personal results obtained by applying the same version, the digital and integrated development of a product type device test beams. Based on educational license received for NX 9 was made a detailed study of the innovations made by this release, and the application of some of them went to graphical modelling and getting all the documentation of a test device bearing beams. Also, were synthesized in terms of methodology, the steps to take to obtain graphical documentation. The results consist of: 3D models of all parts and assembly 3D model of the three-dimensional constraints of all component parts and not least respectively all drawings and assembly drawing. The most important consequence of the paper is the obtaining of

  7. Technological development in the nuclear area: nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Jose Mendonca de.

    1991-01-01

    The factors and obstacles that influence the progress and regress of nuclear power presently are evaluated. The international policies of the industrial conglomerates and the hegemonic countries in the nuclear area are described. In the particular case of Brazil, it was tried to identify the obstacles which must be removed so that the country can reach development in this field. 35 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  8. CO2 and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO 2 influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38 degree, but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28 degree. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18 degree due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO 2 concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28 degree, resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28 degree, and was increased by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree but decreased at 38 degree. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO 2 , butt was greater at 38 degree. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38 degree relative to 28 degree, and elevated CO 2 levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28 degree but decreased leaf area at 38 degree

  9. Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth's most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability

  10. Geo-products of urban areas: Silesian Metropolis, Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybiorz, Ryszard; Abramowicz, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Silesian Metropolis is located in the Silesian Voivodeship, in the most important industrial region in Poland. It consist of 14 cities with powiat rights, which create the largest urban center in Poland and one of the largest in Central and Eastern Europe. Almost 2 million people live in its territory. A large concentration of the population is associated with industrialization and especially with the development of the mining industry (Upper Silesian Coal Basin) and the processing industry (steelworks, textile industry) at the end of 19th century. One hundred years later, during the creation of the modern sectors of the economy, processes of metallurgy and mining restructuring have been started. Created mechanisms and conditions for development of post-industrial areas were consistent with the principles of sustainable development and had many new features, including cultural and touristic features. The Industrial Monuments Route was opened for the inhabitants and visitors in October 2006. The route joined the European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) in 2010. Its most interesting mining attractions are located in Silesian Metropolis, and the most frequently visited object on the route is the Guido Historical Coal Mine in Zabrze and the Historical Silver Mine in Tarnowskie Góry. The project, which is realized in Zabrze, will provide for tourists a system of underground corridors, which were used for coal transportation in the 19th century. Visitors will be able to actively explore the work of miners, moving by underground boats, railway and suspension railway. Surface mines are also available for geotourists. The Ecological and Geological Education Center GEOsfera was created in a former Triassic quarry in Jaworzno. Although the area of the Silesian Metropolis is characterized by a very large devastation of the environment, the following objects were created (and are still created) on the basis of inanimate nature and they have a touristic value for the region

  11. 14C specific activity of farm products and marine products collected from the Rokkasho area in Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, Takeshi; Honda, Kazuya

    1996-01-01

    We investigated 14 C specific activity of farm products and marine products which were collected from the Rokkasho area in Aomori prefecture from 1988 to 1990. The measured 14 C specific activity of farm products was almost equal to one another with the averaged 14 C specific activity of 0.261 [Bq/g·C]. On the other hand, 14 C specific activity of marine products was slightly lower than those of farm products. Especially that of squid was the lowest among studied marine products. This may be due to the low 14 C specific activity of the sea water surrounding squid. (author)

  12. An Efficient Method for the Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoids from Leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida by HSCCC and Pre-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lei; Lin, Yunliang; Lv, Ruimin; Yan, Huijiao; Yu, Jinqian; Zhao, Hengqiang; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Daijie

    2017-05-09

    In this work, flavonoid fraction from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida was separated into its seven main constituents using a combination of HSCCC coupled with pre-HPLC. In the first step, the total flavonoid extract was subjected to HSCCC with a two-solvent system of chloroform/methanol/water/ n -butanol (4:3:2:1.5, v/v ), yielding four pure compounds, namely (-)-epicatechin ( 1 ), quercetin-3- O -(2,6-di-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside ( 2 ), 4''- O -glucosylvitexin ( 3 ) and 2''- O -rhamnosylvitexin ( 4 ) as well as a mixture of three further flavonoids. An extrusion mode was used to rapidly separate quercetin-3- O -(2,6-di-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside with a big K D -value. In the second step, the mixture that resulted from HSCCC was separated by pre-HPLC, resulting in three pure compounds including: vitexin ( 5 ), hyperoside ( 6 ) and isoquercitrin ( 7 ). The purities of the isolated compounds were established to be over 98%, as determined by HPLC. The structures of these seven flavonoids were elucidated by ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses.

  13. Environmental risk of oil production in sensitive areas[Pollution abatement in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, Salve; Larsen, Lars-Henrik

    2006-07-01

    The presentation discusses sensitive areas in the Arctic regions with focus on the north of Norway and the Barents Sea. Various ecosystem problems related to oil and gas production are pointed out. Characteristics of particularly sensitive areas are mentioned and some examples of vulnerable areas are discussed (tk)

  14. Factors affecting dairy production in peri-urban areas of Kampala

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demand for dairy products by the increasing urban population and the need to provide ... was therefore recommended that if milk production in the peri-urban areas of Kampala is to .... approximately 80% of the total labour use in dairy farming.

  15. Surface area and chemical reactivity characteristics of uranium metal corrosion products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-02-17

    The results of an initial characterization of hydride-containing corrosion products from uranium metal Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates are presented. Sorption analyses using the BET method with a Kr adsorbate were performed to measure the specific areas of corrosion product samples. The specific surface areas of the corrosion products varied from 0.66 to 1.01 m{sup 2}/g. The reactivity of the products in Ar-9%O{sub 2} and Ar-20%O{sub 2} were measured at temperatures between 35 C and 150 C using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Ignition of the products occurred at temperatures of 150 C and above. The oxidation rates below ignition were comparable to rates observed for uranium metal.

  16. Surface area and chemical reactivity characteristics of uranium metal corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an initial characterization of hydride-containing corrosion products from uranium metal Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates are presented. Sorption analyses using the BET method with a Kr adsorbate were performed to measure the specific areas of corrosion product samples. The specific surface areas of the corrosion products varied from 0.66 to 1.01 m 2 /g. The reactivity of the products in Ar-9%O 2 and Ar-20%O 2 were measured at temperatures between 35 C and 150 C using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Ignition of the products occurred at temperatures of 150 C and above. The oxidation rates below ignition were comparable to rates observed for uranium metal

  17. Reference dosimetry of proton pencil beams based on dose-area product: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomà, Carles; Safai, Sairos; Vörös, Sándor

    2017-06-21

    This paper describes a novel approach to the reference dosimetry of proton pencil beams based on dose-area product ([Formula: see text]). It depicts the calibration of a large-diameter plane-parallel ionization chamber in terms of dose-area product in a 60 Co beam, the Monte Carlo calculation of beam quality correction factors-in terms of dose-area product-in proton beams, the Monte Carlo calculation of nuclear halo correction factors, and the experimental determination of [Formula: see text] of a single proton pencil beam. This new approach to reference dosimetry proves to be feasible, as it yields [Formula: see text] values in agreement with the standard and well-established approach of determining the absorbed dose to water at the centre of a broad homogeneous field generated by the superposition of regularly-spaced proton pencil beams.

  18. Socio-economic impacts of charcoal production in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasimbo Olarinde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many households in developing countries experience low energy consumption and this make them depend upon wood fuels for their energy. This study examined socio-economic impacts of charcoal production in Oke-Ogun, Oyo State, Nigeria. Two Local Government Areas were selected based on the accessibility and the availability of charcoal farmers among ten Local Government Areas. Results show that 74% of the respondents were male while 26% were female that are into production of charcoal in the study area. 37.5% of the age range (41–50 of respondent produces more charcoal than other age range. The respondent did not go beyond primary school educationally and they are all married. However, respondents with over 11–20 years of experience in the production of charcoal have higher percentage of frequency. Some of the problem faced by the producers of charcoal in Oke Ogun area are scarcity of trees, wildfire, government disturbance and transportation. Trees commonly used for production are from inherited farms and most of the trees used are Butyrosopermum paradoxium, Dialium guineense, Terminalia glaucencens, Khaya ivorensis. Production is once in a month and later exported. Energy provision is a basic human need and consumption is closely related to the level of a country’s development.

  19. Validation of the MODIS Collection 6 MCD64 Global Burned Area Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Giglio, L.; Stehman, S. V.; Humber, M. L.; Sathyachandran, S. K.; Zubkova, M.; Melchiorre, A.; Huang, H.; Huo, L. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on rigorously assessing their accuracy. A number of NASA, ESA and EU funded global and continental burned area products have been developed using coarse spatial resolution satellite data, and have the potential to become part of a long-term fire Essential Climate Variable. These products have usually been validated by comparison with reference burned area maps derived by visual interpretation of Landsat or similar spatial resolution data selected on an ad hoc basis. More optimally, a design-based validation method should be adopted, characterized by the selection of reference data via probability sampling. Design based techniques have been used for annual land cover and land cover change product validation, but have not been widely used for burned area products, or for other products that are highly variable in time and space (e.g. snow, floods, other non-permanent phenomena). This has been due to the challenge of designing an appropriate sampling strategy, and to the cost and limited availability of independent reference data. This paper describes the validation procedure adopted for the latest Collection 6 version of the MODIS Global Burned Area product (MCD64, Giglio et al, 2009). We used a tri-dimensional sampling grid that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in time and in space (Boschetti et al, 2016). To sample the globe in the spatial domain with non-overlapping sampling units, the Thiessen Scene Area (TSA) tessellation of the Landsat WRS path/rows is used. The TSA grid is then combined with the 16-day Landsat acquisition calendar to provide tri-dimensonal elements (voxels). This allows the implementation of a sampling design where not only the location but also the time interval of the reference data is explicitly drawn through stratified random sampling. The novel sampling approach was used for the selection of a reference dataset consisting of 700

  20. Decision aiding handbooks for managing contaminated food production systems, drinking water and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Brown, J.; Howard, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three handbooks have been developed, in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders to assist in the management of contaminated food production systems, inhabited areas and drinking water following a radiological incident. The handbooks are aimed at national and local authorities, central...... government departments and agencies, emergency services, radiation protection experts, the agriculture and food production sectors, industry and others who may be affected. The handbooks include management options for application in the different phases of an incident. Sources of contamination considered...

  1. Status of compost usage and its performance on vegetable production in Monga areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    G.K.M.M. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the existing status of compost usage on vegetable production and determine the overall effect of household waste compost (HWC) on growth and yield of vegetables and enhancement of soil fertility in the monga areas of Bangladesh. A field survey was conducted on 152 sampled farmers during 2010 to 2011. Questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions were used to assess existing production practices of vegetables using compost in both hom...

  2. Prospective areas in the production technology of scientific equipment for space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslavets, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.

  3. Development and Implementation of Production Area of Agricultural Product Data Collection System Based on Embedded System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lei; Guo, Wei; Che, Yinchao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xinming

    To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal, applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting of data acquisition interface layer, controlling information layer and data exchange layer, completing the data reading of different front-end acquisition equipments, and packing the data TCP to realize the data exchange between data center nodes according to the physical link (GPRS / CDMA / Ethernet). Data center node consists of the data exchange layer, the data persistence layer, and the business interface layer, which make the data collecting durable, and provide standardized data for business systems based on mapping relationship of collected data and business data. Relying on public communications networks, application of the system could establish the road of flow of information between the scene of origin certification and management center, and could realize the real-time collection, storage and processing between data of origin certification scene and databases of certification organization, and could achieve needs of long-range detection of agricultural origin.

  4. Estimating the Fractional Vegetation Cover from GLASS Leaf Area Index Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fractional vegetation cover (FCover is an essential biophysical variable and plays a critical role in the carbon cycle studies. Existing FCover products from satellite observations are spatially incomplete and temporally discontinuous, and also inaccurate for some vegetation types to meet the requirements of various applications. In this study, an operational method is proposed to calculate high-quality, accurate FCover from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS leaf area index (LAI product to ensure physical consistency between LAI and FCover retrievals. As a result, a global FCover product (denoted by TRAGL were generated from the GLASS LAI product from 2000 to present. With no missing values, the TRAGL FCover product is spatially complete. A comparison of the TRAGL FCover product with the Geoland2/BioPar version 1 (GEOV1 FCover product indicates that these FCover products exhibit similar spatial distribution pattern. However, there were relatively large discrepancies between these FCover products over equatorial rainforests, broadleaf crops in East-central United States, and needleleaf forests in Europe and Siberia. Temporal consistency analysis indicates that TRAGL FCover product has continuous trajectories. Direct validation with ground-based FCover estimates demonstrated that TRAGL FCover values were more accurate (RMSE = 0.0865, and R2 = 0.8848 than GEOV1 (RMSE = 0.1541, and R2 = 0.7621.

  5. LITTER PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT ADDITION IN ATLANTIC FOREST AREAS IN SANTA MARIA DE JETIBÁ, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geângelo Petene Calvi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was accomplished on Espíndula Farm, Santa Maria de Jetibá (ES, with the objective of evaluating the litter and nutrients deposition in areas with different succession stadiums. Two areas were selected with different vegetable coverings, defined as: (SF Secondary Forest, with about 25 ha of area, corresponding to an old area of cassava cultivation with about 50 years in process of ecological succession and where today there is a secondary forest and an Old Secondary Forest (OSF corresponding to a forest area that has just been submitted to a selective wood extraction for use of the farm itself. In each one of vegetal areas, approximately 0.1 ha was delimited and in these ten conical collectors were randomized distributed. The litter collections were accomplished monthly from November 2003 to October 2005. After drying, the material was stratified and the total contributed and the contribution of the different fractions, and the nutritious addition were evaluated. It was not verified significant differences among the total of litter deposited among the areas, being the highest production values observed in the summer, 5.70 Mg ha-1 (SF and 5.73 Mg ha-1(OSF, possibly due to the winds and rain mechanical action. The fraction of higher contribution was the foliar, corresponding to 74.62% for the SF area and 69.46% for the OSF area

  6. Supply Selection and Supply Chain Maturity - important areas of the quality production assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Koblen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper pays attention to selected information focused on the key requirements and criteria used in both the conventional supplier selection and sustainable supplier selection processes. The authors introduce the supply chain maturity levels, which, together with the supplier selection and assessment issue, is the essential area for the assurance of the high quality, safety and dependability of the products.

  7. Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from the burning of forest products near large urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean A. Hegg; Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs; Charles A. Brock; Phillip J. Riggan

    1987-01-01

    Airborne measuremens of trace gases and particles in the smoke from a prescribed burn of forest products in the Los Angeles basin show significantly higher emissions of NOx, SO2, and particulate NO3 than do measurements in smokes from the burning of biomass in rural areas. It is postulated that the...

  8. Production and use of the pastures of the Colombia high Andean areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotero Cadavid, J.

    1993-01-01

    A relationship of the most common pastures is made in the Andean high area between the 2000 and 3000 m.s.n.m. and of their native vegetable associations, as well as of the invaders plants and overgrowths. The gramineae germoplasm and leguminous is indicated that has been proven lower those conditions. Data of yield average of dry matter are presented for native and introduced grasses of cold climate in Colombia. Equally it is indicated the daily earnings by animal, the load capacity and the animal production with different fertilization systems and some parameters of productivity are shown of gramineous and leguminous introduced in the high areas of Colombia. The nutritious value of gramineous and leguminous of cold climate and its chemical composition are made. A description is made of the ecological areas of the Andean high area and the pastures types that prevail in them. The factors are described that they impact in the degree of deterioration of the pastures like the environment, the same grass, the handling, the livestock, the type of exploitation, the holding of the earth and the administration. The agricultural production systems are mentioned that are associate the Andean pastures, as well as the main obstacles to increase the production of the systems and pastures and their possible solutions

  9. Analysis, improvement and application of the MODIS leaf area index products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenze

    Green leaf area governs the exchanges of energy, mass and momentum between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. Therefore, leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation (0.4-0.7 mum) absorbed by the vegetation canopy (FPAR) are widely used in vegetation monitoring and modeling. The launch of Terra and Aqua satellites with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard provided the first global products of LAI and FPAR, derived mainly from an algorithm based on radiative transfer. The objective of this research is to comprehensively evaluate the Terra and Aqua MODIS LAI/FPAR products. Large volumes of these products have been analyzed with the goal of understanding product quality with respect to version (Collection 3 versus 4), algorithm (main versus back-up), snow (snow-free versus snow on the ground) and cloud (cloud-free versus cloudy) conditions. Field validation efforts identified several key factors that influence the accuracy of algorithm retrievals. The strategy of validation efforts guiding algorithm refinements has led to progressively more accurate LAI/FPAR products. The combination of products derived from the Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors increases the success rate of the main radiative transfer algorithm by 10-20 percent over woody vegetation. The Terra Collection 4 LAI data reveal seasonal swings in green leaf area of about 25 percent in a majority of the Amazon rainforests caused by variability in cloud cover and light. The timing and the influence of this seasonal cycle are critical to understanding tropical plant adaptation patterns and ecological processes. The results presented in this dissertation suggest how the product quality has gradually improved largely through the efforts of validation activities. The Amazon case study highlights the utility of these data sets for monitoring global vegetation dynamics. Thus, these results can be seen as a benchmark for evaluation of

  10. The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features

  11. Alternative agriculture as a substitute for environmental remediation. Production of poultry in radiologically contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.L.; Brisbin, I.L.; Kennamer, R.A. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Exploiting the physiological and ecological characteristics of domesticated species has seldom been considered as a means of returning radiologically contaminated areas to safe agricultural production. However, the proper choice of cultivated and domesticated species, together with appropriate husbandry practices, may allow safe production of foods, fibre and energy. As an example, factors that could permit safe production of food products for human consumption from poultry raised in contaminated areas are considered. These factors include radionuclide transfer from the environment into poultry and methods for reducing radionuclide uptake and/or decontaminating chickens to yield acceptable food products. Studies of growth and feed intake rates of chickens under intensive management and free-ranging husbandries, 137 Cs uptake by chickens exposed to contaminated sediments, potential effects of husbandry on 137 Cs concentrations and 137 Cs elimination by chickens after removal of contaminated feed are described. Data from these and other studies are combined in simulation models of the 13 '7Cs kinetics of chickens. Chicken product 137 Cs concentrations ([ 137 Cs]s) decrease with increases in body mass, apparently as a result of decreasing mass specific intake rates. Husbandries that increase contaminant intake (e.g. free-ranging rearing conditions versus brooder house production) or access to contaminated soils (e.g. scattering feed directly onto contaminated solid versus the use of feeders) increase total body [ 137 Cs]s. However, model simulations indicate that it is possible to produce safe poultry products (especially eggs) at all but unrealistically high feed contamination levels. Even when dietary 137 Cs levels produce [ 137 Cs]s in poultry products that exceed acceptable limits, the high metabolism of poultry leads to a rapid decrease in [ 137 Cs]s once the chickens are placed on uncontaminated rations. This permits the use of contaminated feed or forage for

  12. New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H.K.; Duebbert, H.F.

    1974-01-01

    Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum

  13. Evaluation of the external costs of energy production in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterstroem, T.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the research is to evaluate the external costs of energy production at Helsinki metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa). The previously developed valorization method for effects on population centres is adjusted. All the main health, material and environmental effects will be taken into account in the research. The effects of emissions of the energy production of the Helsinki metropolitan area on concentrations of the impurities in the air and through them on human and environment will be evaluated. The estimates will be based on the relativistic fuels consumption and the emission data of Helsinki metropolitan area. Life-cycle reasoning will be applied so that the emissions of the main components of the fuels used in the metropolitan area will be included in the estimation. The cost-effectiveness of the investments will be estimated by comparing the environmental investments of energy boards with the external costs. The methods of this work can be applied to estimation of the profitability of energy production plants from the point of view of national economy also elsewhere in the country

  14. Household use of insecticide consumer products in a dengue endemic area in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Chan-Dzul, Yamili N.; Zapata-Gil, Rocio; Carrillo-Solís, Claudia; Uitz-Mena, Ana; García-Rejón, Julián E.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate household use of insecticide consumer products to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests, as well as the expenditures for using these products, in a dengue endemic area in México. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 441 households in Mérida City or other communities in Yucatán State to assess household use of insecticide consumer products. Results Most (86.6%) households took action to kill insect pests with consumer products. Among those households, the most commonly used product types were insecticide aerosol spray cans (73.6%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (37.4%), and mosquito coils (28.3%). Mosquitoes were targeted by 89.7% of households using insecticide aerosol spray cans and >99% of households using electric plug-in insecticide emitters or mosquito coils. During the part of the year when a given product type was used, the frequency of use was daily or every 2 days in most of the households for insecticide aerosol spray cans (61.4%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (76.2%), and mosquito coils (82.1%). For all products used to kill insect pests, the median annual estimated expenditure per household that took action was 408 Mexican pesos ($MXN), which corresponded to ∼31 $U.S. These numbers are suggestive of an annual market in excess of 75 million $MXN (>5.7 million $U.S.) for Mérida City alone. Conclusion Mosquitoes threaten human health and are major nuisances in homes in the study area in México. Households were found to have taken vigorous action to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests and spent substantial amounts of money on insecticide consumer products. PMID:25040259

  15. Household use of insecticide consumer products in a dengue-endemic area in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Chan-Dzul, Yamili N; Zapata-Gil, Rocio; Carrillo-Solís, Claudia; Uitz-Mena, Ana; García-Rejón, Julián E; Keefe, Thomas J; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the household use of insecticide consumer products to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests, as well as the expenditures for using these products, in a dengue-endemic area of México. A questionnaire was administered to 441 households in Mérida City and other communities in Yucatán to assess household use of insecticide consumer products. A total of 86.6% of surveyed households took action to kill insect pests with consumer products. The most commonly used product types were insecticide aerosol spray cans (73.6%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (37.4%) and mosquito coils (28.3%). Mosquitoes were targeted by 89.7% of households using insecticide aerosol spray cans and >99% of households using electric plug-in insecticide emitters or mosquito coils. Products were used daily or every 2 days in most of the households for insecticide aerosol spray cans (61.4%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (76.2%) and mosquito coils (82.1%). For all products used to kill insect pests, the median annual estimated expenditure per household that took action was 408 Mexican pesos ($MXN), which corresponded to approximately 31 $US. These numbers are suggestive of an annual market in excess of 75 million $MXN (>5.7 million $US) for Mérida City alone. Mosquitoes threaten human health and are major nuisances in homes in the study area in México. Households were found to have taken vigorous action to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests and spent substantial amounts of money on insecticide consumer products. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

    2012-12-01

    The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established

  17. AQUAPEAT 95. New methods for purifying the run-offs of peat production areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selin, P.; Marja-aho, J.; Madekivi, O.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of Aqua Peat 95-project was to develop new methods for purifying the runoff coming from the peat production areas. The national water protection program for the year 1995 (Ympaeristoeministerioe 1988) as well as the level of the requirements and instructions from the authorities will obligate the peat producers to find new and practical methods for water purification. The chemical treatment reduced the load of peat production areas and the quality of treated water was almost equal to the runoffs coming from the natural bog area. The chemicals were the same as used in purifying drinking water. This purifying method is quite expensive and for this reason applicable only in special cases. The transpiration and evaporation and the soil filtering capacity of the forest area was also observed. The purifying capacity was very good, especially for the total nutrients and suspended solids. The changes of the ground water quality were insignificant but the level of the ground water in the field areas was higher than before. The long term changes of the vegetation and the trees could not be seen, yet. The most important water management practice is the detention of the discharge. The capacity of the sedimentation will increase by using the flow regulation in the sedimentation ponds and ditches. The changes in the water biology downstreams the Laeynioensuo peat production area were clearly seen near the main ditch. Because of the suspended solids the bottom sediment changed which lead to impacts to the bottom fauna. The colour of the runoffs as well as the changes in the sediment influenced on the macrophytes

  18. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giglio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001–2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees developed over periods when burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data were available to indirectly estimate burned area. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated that the global annual area burned for the years 1997–2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 13 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  19. SUSTAINABLE TILAPIA PRODUCTION IN A BACKYARD SYSTEM FOR RURAL AREAS USING FISH BY-PRODUCTS IN FORMULATED DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servando Rueda Lopez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the feasibility of producing Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticuss, L. with formulated diets containing acid fish silage made with Hancock (Pterigoplichthys multiradiatus by-products in substitution of fishmeal. Thus four treatments containing increasing levels (0, 5, 10 and 15% of acid fish silage to substitute fishmeal were used to feed tilapia juveniles in triplicate groups (average 1.5±0.7 g and 4.3±1.0 cm.  Fish silage was prepared by adding citric and phosphoric acids at 2.6% each resulting in a liquefaction of the chop by-product mixture. After two weeks, the diets were prepared to contain 32-35% protein content. After 50 days of experimental period a total growth increase up to 827% was observed without significant differences among treatments. A specific growth rate from 3.70 to 4.10 and a survival rate from 96 to 99% was observed.  The cost analysis shows a saving on production cost up to 23.87% using the highest incorporation level of fish silage. The use of Aquaculture Recirculation System made with components normally found in a hardware store in rural or semi urban areas is discussed. It is concluded that fish offal shows a promising activity that favors the increase in fish protein production to resolve the demand of cheap protein.

  20. Development of distinction method of production area of ginsengs by using a neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chung, Yongsam; Sim, Chulmuu; Sun, Gwangmin; Lee, Yuna; Yoo, Sangho

    2011-01-15

    During the last 2 years of the project, we have tried to develop the technology to make a distinction of the production areas for Korean ginsengs cultivated in the various provinces in Korea and foreign countries. It will contribute to secure the health food safety for public and stability of its market. In this year, we collected ginseng samples cultivated in the northeastern province in Chinese mainland such as Liaoning province, Jilin province and Baekdu mountain within Jilin province. 10 ginseng samples were collected at each province. The elemental concentrations in the ginseng were analyzed by using a neutron activation analysis technique at the HANARO research reactor. The distinction of production area was made by using a statistical software. As a result, the Chinese Korean ginsengs were certainly differentiated from those cultivated in the famous province in Korea though there was a limitation that the number of our sample we analyzed is very small.

  1. Development of distinction method of production area of ginsengs by using a neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chung, Yongsam; Sim, Chulmuu; Sun, Gwangmin; Lee, Yuna; Yoo, Sangho

    2011-01-01

    During the last 2 years of the project, we have tried to develop the technology to make a distinction of the production areas for Korean ginsengs cultivated in the various provinces in Korea and foreign countries. It will contribute to secure the health food safety for public and stability of its market. In this year, we collected ginseng samples cultivated in the northeastern province in Chinese mainland such as Liaoning province, Jilin province and Baekdu mountain within Jilin province. 10 ginseng samples were collected at each province. The elemental concentrations in the ginseng were analyzed by using a neutron activation analysis technique at the HANARO research reactor. The distinction of production area was made by using a statistical software. As a result, the Chinese Korean ginsengs were certainly differentiated from those cultivated in the famous province in Korea though there was a limitation that the number of our sample we analyzed is very small

  2. Exposure and roentgen-area-product in xeromammography and conventional mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxt, J H; Bushong, S C; Glaze, S; Kothari, S [Baylor Univ., Houston, Tex. (USA). Coll. of Medicine

    1976-01-01

    X-ray mammography is assuming increasing importance in the early detection of breast cancer. The principal disadvantage to conventional mammography is high patient dose. Xeromammography offers three advantages over conventional mammography: (a) lower patient dose, (b) better image quality and (c) no special mammography tube required. A transmission ionization chamber and thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure the roentgen-area-product and the exposure for three view examination. Average roentgen-area-product values of 6500 and 4200 R-cm/sup 2/ were observed for conventional mammography and xeromammography respectively. The medial surface of the breast received the highest radiation exposure for both types of examinations and this was shown to be 11.5 and 5.1 R respectively. Omission of the axillary view from the examination reduces the patient dose in both types by approximately 60 %.

  3. Petrophysical studies in heavy oil sands with early water production - Hamaca area, Orinoco Oil Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisch, H.A.

    1982-07-01

    This study describes the main lines of petrophysical research in the Hamaca-Pao region of the Orinoco Oil Belt. The techniques and parameters most appropriate for petrophysical studies in the area of interest are discussed. Field tests have confirmed the conclusions of this study on early water production and low oil recovery. Steam injection was shown to be a means for increasing oil mobility to such a degree that significant amounts of additional oil can be produced.

  4. Effects of Climate and Social Change on Pasture Productivity and Area in the Alay Valley, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Smithwick, E. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    The high elevation Alay Valley, located in the central Asian country of Kyrgyzstan, has experienced substantial socio-political and environmental changes in recent decades, resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and an increase in average annual temperature from 1.8 C to 2.7 C between 1990 and 2014. However, the consequences of these changes on pastureland productivity and area has not been previously assessed, despite the critical cultural and economic importance of pasturelands for sustaining livelihoods in this region. We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture, pasture productivity and pasture area in the Alay Valley. Supervised classification was performed on Landsat imagery over the study region to distinguish pastures and agricultural land in order to relate changes in soil moisture to specific land classes. Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) was estimated between May 2015 and June 2017 from Soil Moisture Active Passive L4 RZSM product. Average monthly NDVI for 2016 was calculated to obtain seasonal patterns in productivity of the pasturelands in the region. Results show that annual RZSM trends closely matched those of precipitation, as RZSM peaks during May (the wettest month) and decreases during the dry summer. The NDVI trend is also notable as it peaks very early in June before declining due to limited precipitation and grazing practices. There has been a sharp increase in pasturelands encompassing the bank of the Kyzyl Suu river from 1993 to 2016. Likely due to turmoil from collapse of the USSR, the area of pasturelands decreased slightly from 59.98 to 55.99 km^2 from 1993-1994, corresponding with a decline in livestock count and GDP per capita. The area of pasturelands has since recovered and is hovering around 104.47 - 107.95 km^2 between 2009-2016. Overall results highlight both sensitivity and resilience of high elevation pasture to coupled socio-environmental drivers.

  5. Geochemical Characteristics of Shallow Groundwater in Jiaoshiba Shale Gas Production Area: Implications for Environmental Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiman Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater are essential for environmental impact studies in the shale gas production area. Jiaoshiba in the Sichuan basin is the first commercial-scale shale gas production area in China. This paper studied the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the shallow groundwater of the area for future environmental concerns. Results show that the average pH of the shallow groundwater is 7.5 and the total dissolved solids (TDS vary from 150 mg/L to 350 mg/L. The main water types are HCO3-Ca and HCO3-Ca·Mg due to the carbonates dissolution equilibrium in karst aquifers. The concentrations of major ions and typical toxic elements including Mn, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ba, and Pb are below the drinking water standard of China and are safe for use as drinking water. The high nitrate content is inferred to be caused by agricultural pollution. The shallow groundwater is recharged by local precipitation and flows in the vertical circulation zone. Evidences from low TDS, water isotopes, and high 3H and 14C indicate that the circulation rate of shallow groundwater is rapid, and the lateral groundwater has strong renewability. Once groundwater pollution from deep shale gas production occurs, it will be recovered soon by enough precipitation.

  6. AGROECOSYSTEMS SUSTAINABILITY OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION OF PARAÍBA RURAL AREA FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF BIOGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenildo Pedro da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture modernization resulting from green revolution occurred through means of diverse technological innovations as soluble fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural machinery and genetically modified seeds, aimed at increasing food production. However, the indiscriminate use of these innovations by farmers has been highlighted numerous environmental problems, affecting the productive agricultural system. This technological innovations reality and environmental obstacles, is also been experienced by cassava production in Paraíba rural area. Therefore, this study tried to assess the agroecosystems sustainability of cassava production (Manihot esculenta Crantz of Paraíba Rural Mesoregion, using Sustainable Development Index (S³ method, and its graphical representation, the Biogram. The results showed sustainability differences between the agroecosystems of investigated municipalities, of which Araçagi showed stable levels of sustainability, Araruna and Bananeiras demonstrated unstable levels, and Puxinanã showed the most critical sustainably level. It was concluded that, even the agroecosystems of Araçagi municipality showing better levels of sustainability, when compared with other municipalities assessed, cassava production showed unsustainability situations regarding its technological innovation levels, average yield of cassava production, land in erosion process, water scarcity and lack of social participation.

  7. Phytoremediative urban design: transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

    2013-12-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Creation and clinical application of real-time dose monitor using dose area product meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Uoyama, Yoshinori; Iida, Hiroji; Mizushima, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    The management of patient dose has become more of an issue in recent years. Dose can be determined non-invasively and in real time through the use of a dose area product meter, but it is the area dose value that is obtained. Therefore, we created a program that estimates entrance skin dose (ESD) in real time from area dose values obtained during procedures. We used Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 (Standard Edition) for the programming language and C language for the programming environment. The value was a maximum 285.4 mGy at ileus tube insertion when measuring ESD for radiography of the digestive organ and non-vascular type interventional radiology (IVR) using the created program and seeking the average according to the procedures. The program that we created can be considered valid for monitoring ESD correctly and in real time. (author)

  9. Baseline vegetation inventory and productivity assessment for the Syncrude Aurora Mine EIA local study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report presented an inventory and assessment of vegetation communities and forest covers within the proposed Aurora Mine local study area. A field inventory was conducted in the summer of 1995 to ground-truth air photo interpretations and to collect data. The inventory includes a classification of vegetation, forest covers and wetlands. It also includes the documentation of uncommon plants and the vegetation productivity estimates of tree, shrub and herbaceous plants. The study area is located east of the Athabasca River about 35 km northeast of Mildred Lake Oil Sands Plant. The area includes portions of Oil Sands Leases 10, 12, 13, 31, and 34 which includes much of the Muskeg River drainage and all of Kearl Lake. 24 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Modeling the dynamics of radionuclide concentration in animal derived products after an accident in tropical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhas, Denise M.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Conti, Luiz F.C.

    2005-01-01

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere with the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed to estimate radiological consequences and optimize decisions to the protection of the public. The German model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM - Integrated Emergency System, developed by IRD/CNEN to assess the doses to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The use the model demands a considerable effort in adapting scenarios to fit the specific conditions of a location, considering the differences related to climate, environmental characteristics, agricultural calendar and practices, along with population diet. The area selected to start this adaptation considers the characteristics of the 50 km radius area surrounding the nuclear power plants at Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. At a first stage, the concentration on vegetal food products has been studied. This work describes the methodology used to select scenarios and presents results of the dynamics of the predicted concentration of radionuclides in different kinds of animal derived food products. The work provides guidance to the need of radioecological research needed to improve the adequacy of the estimates to actual Brazilian scenarios. (author)

  11. Stable carbon isotopes in high-productive littoral areas of Lake Constance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chondrogianni, C.

    1992-01-01

    The investigation attempted to extend understanding of C fractionation in aquatic systems and to facilitate the interpretation of palaeolimnological isotope data. Particular interest was taken in the aspect of bicarbonate assimilation at high productivity and in the exchange processes between water and atmosphere. Littoral areas of lakes were chosen as areas of investigation as they offer a high-productivity environment with large populations of submersed macrophytes and periphytes. To get a better picture of the factors influencing C fractionation, litteral and pellagial regions were compared on the one hand and a mesotrophic (Ueberlingersee) and a eutrophic (Gnadensee) lake section on the other hand. Further factors of differentiation between the two lake parts were: Volume, the proportional share of the litteral area, and water exchange. Two main fields of interest were investigated: - Determination of the C isotope ratio (δ 13 C) in the dissolved bicarbonate of water in the sediments of a single year for the purpose of calibrating its fractionation in the basis of the present chemical and physical status of the lake water (water programme). - Determination of δ 13 C in selected carbonate components from sedimentary cores in order to find out about palaeolimnological events in the areas of investigation (sediment programme). (orig.) [de

  12. Satellite remote sensing for estimating leaf area index, FPAR and primary production. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boresjoe Bronge, Laine [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Land vegetation is a critical component of several biogeochemical cycles that have become the focus of concerted international research effort. Most ecosystem productivity models, carbon budget models, and global models of climate, hydrology and biogeochemistry require vegetation parameters to calculate land surface photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production. Therefore, accurate estimates of vegetation parameters are increasingly important in the carbon cycle, the energy balance and in environmental impact assessment studies. The possibility of quantitatively estimating vegetation parameters of importance in this context using satellite data has been explored by numerous papers dealing with the subject. This report gives a summary of the present status and applicability of satellite remote sensing for estimating vegetation productivity by using vegetation index for calculating leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). Some possible approaches for use of satellite data for estimating LAI, FPAR and net primary production (NPP) on a local scale are suggested. Recommendations for continued work in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn investigation areas, where vegetation data and NDVI-images based on satellite data have been produced, are also given.

  13. Satellite remote sensing for estimating leaf area index, FPAR and primary production. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boresjoe Bronge, Laine

    2004-03-01

    Land vegetation is a critical component of several biogeochemical cycles that have become the focus of concerted international research effort. Most ecosystem productivity models, carbon budget models, and global models of climate, hydrology and biogeochemistry require vegetation parameters to calculate land surface photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production. Therefore, accurate estimates of vegetation parameters are increasingly important in the carbon cycle, the energy balance and in environmental impact assessment studies. The possibility of quantitatively estimating vegetation parameters of importance in this context using satellite data has been explored by numerous papers dealing with the subject. This report gives a summary of the present status and applicability of satellite remote sensing for estimating vegetation productivity by using vegetation index for calculating leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). Some possible approaches for use of satellite data for estimating LAI, FPAR and net primary production (NPP) on a local scale are suggested. Recommendations for continued work in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn investigation areas, where vegetation data and NDVI-images based on satellite data have been produced, are also given

  14. Estimating Major Crop Water Productivity at Neyshabour Basin and Optimize Crop Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavar Pourmohamad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introductionin current situation when world is facing massive population, producing enough food and adequate income for people is a big challenge specifically for governors. This challenge gets even harder in recent decades, due to global population growth which was projected to increase to 7.8 billion in 2025. Agriculture as the only industry that has ability to produce food is consuming 90 percent of fresh water globally. Despite of increasing for food demand, appropriate agricultural land and fresh water resources are restricted. To solve this problem, one is to increase water productivity which can be obtain by irrigation. Iran is not only exempted from this situation but also has more critical situation due to its dry climate and inappropriate precipitation distribution spatially and temporally, also uneven distribution of population which is concentrate in small area. The only reasonable solution by considering water resources limitation and also restricted crop area is changing crop pattern to reach maximum or at least same amount of income by using same or less amount of water. The purpose of this study is to assess financial water productivity and optimize farmer’s income by changing in each crop acreage at basin and sub-basin level with no extra groundwater withdrawals, also in order to repair the damages which has enforce to groundwater resources during last decades a scenario of using only 80percent of renewable water were applied and crop area were optimize to provide maximum or same income for farmers. Materials and methodsThe Neyshabour basin is located in northeast of Iran, the total geographical area of basin is 73,000 km2 consisting of 41,000 km2 plain and the rest of basin is mountains. This Basin is a part of Kalshoor catchment that is located in southern part of Binaloud heights and northeast of KavirMarkazi. In this study whole Neyshabour basin were divided into 199 sub-basins based on pervious study.Based on official

  15. Potential areas for the expansion of the sugar cane production; Areas potenciais para a expansao da producao de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    The evaluation of the potential areas for the expansion of the sugar cane cultivation was based on the estimation of the agricultural productivity aptitude as function of the soil and climate characteristics using maps with geo referred in scales of 1/5,000,000. Areas had been discarded which integrate of three large biomass of the country: Amazonia, Pantanal and Mata Atlantica, and all the areas with some type of restriction, such as environmental reservations, national parks, indigenous, military and urban areas. Were not considered areas with crop mechanization essential for the environmental and social sustainability with declivity more than 12%.

  16. Flower colour variation and chromosome numbers in the north western distributional area of Turners sidoides (Turneraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana G. Solís Neffa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the evolutionary studies that are being carried out in Turners sidoides autopolyploid complex (x= 7, a systematic survey was made in the northwestern area (Bolivia of its distribution. Six populations with salmon flowers and thirty five with yellow ones of the subsp. pinnatifida were found. The distribution of these populations is associated with climatic and spatial variables. The populations with salmon flowers live in the dry forests (Chaco Boreal Biogeographical Province, while yellow flowered populations occur in the inter-andean valleys (Boliviano-Tucumana Biogeographical Province. All the population studied are diploid. The results obtained support the allopatric diversification model of populations with yellow and salmon flowers at the diploid level, probably favoured by the orographic barriers and climatic changes that have arisen during the Andes development and Quaternary glaciations. Moreover, our analysis evidences that the north western area of T. sidoides constitutes an important centre of variation of the subsp. pinnatifida and the major centre of diploids hitherto detected

  17. Agronomic performance for biodiesel production potential of Brassica carinata A. Braun in Mediterranean marginal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Montemurro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brassicaceae are promising oil feedstock for cultivation in centralsouthern Italy. Therefore, a two-year investigation on Brassica carinata A. Braun (cv. CT 204 was carried out in three sites of Apulia region [Site 1, Alberobello - Murgia foreland; Site 2, Troia (Foggia - Daunian sub-Apennines; Site 3, Monteroni (Lecce - Area of Salento], and in one site of Basilicata region (Site 4, Hill of Matera. The aim was to identify site-specific management practices [by comparing minimum vs conventional tillage, low sowing density vs high sowing density; different levels of nitrogen (N supply and organic fertilisers] in the four different marginal areas, to achieve optimum yield performance for biodiesel prospective production. The crop showed a good adaptability in the study sites, and the highest N level positively influenced the yield performance in Sites 1, 2 and 3. Moreover, the reduction of mechanical operations (minimum tillage did not negatively influence crop production and seed oil content. The highest density of sowing tested determined the best crop performance in Site 3, particularly showing the maximum seed oil content with the lowest N supply. Finally, in Site 4 the compost mixed with mineral N fertiliser as well as the sewage sludge from urban wastewater determined productive results comparable to those obtained with mineral fertiliser, evidencing that organic fertilisers could (partially or completely substitute the mineral one for this crop in the study site. On the whole, seed yield and oil content showed a potential for biodiesel production of Brassica carinata cultivated with site-specific agronomic techniques in four different marginal areas of Southern Italy, suggesting it can be likely achieved the crop environmental adaptation.

  18. Quantitative determination and sampling of azathioprine residues for cleaning validation in production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Tatiana Tatit; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kedor-Hackmann, Erika Rosa Maria; Santoro, Maria Inês Rocha Miritello

    2007-03-12

    Cleaning validation is an integral part of current good manufacturing practices in any pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, azathioprine and several other pharmacologically potent pharmaceuticals are manufactured in same production area. Carefully designed cleaning validation and its evaluation can ensure that residues of azathioprine will not carry over and cross contaminate the subsequent product. The aim of this study was to validate simple analytical method for verification of residual azathioprine in equipments used in the production area and to confirm efficiency of cleaning procedure. The HPLC method was validated on a LC system using Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 mm x 150 mm, 4 microm) and methanol-water-acetic acid (20:80:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). UV detection was made at 280 nm. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range from 2.0 to 22.0 microg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The detection limit (DL) and quantitation limit (QL) were 0.09 and 0.29 microg mL(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were below 2.0%. The mean recovery of method was 99.19%. The mean extraction-recovery from manufacturing equipments was 83.5%. The developed UV spectrophotometric method could only be used as limit method to qualify or reject cleaning procedure in production area. Nevertheless, the simplicity of spectrophotometric method makes it useful for routine analysis of azathioprine residues on cleaned surface and as an alternative to proposed HPLC method.

  19. Life Cycle Based Evaluation of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Agricultural Productions in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA applied to estimate the cradle-to-grave environmental impact of agricultural products or processes. Furthermore, including in the analysis an economic evaluation, from the perspective of an integrated life cycle approach, appears nowadays as a fundamental improvement. In particular, Life Cycle Costing (LCC, is a method that could integrate financial data and cost information with metrics of life cycle approaches. In this study, LCA in conjunction with LCC methods were used, with the aim to evaluate the main cost drivers—environmental and economic—of five widely diffused and market-valued agricultural productions (organic tomato and pear, integrated wheat, apple and chicory and to combine the results in order to understand the long-term externalities impacts of agricultural productions. Data obtained in local assessment show a wide margin of improvement of resources management at farms level in the short-term, but also allow for the investigation of future effects of environmental impacts not expressed in product price on the market. Reaching a real sustainable model for agriculture could be a value added approach firstly for farmers, but also for all the people who live in rural areas or use agricultural products.

  20. Initial sustainability assessment of tapioca starch production system in Lake Toba area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situmorang, Asido; Manik, Yosef

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to explore to what extent the principles of sustainability have been applied in a tapioca industry located in Lake Toba area and to explore the aspects that open the opportunities for system improvement. In conducting such assessment, we adopted the life-cycle approach using Mass Flow Analysis methods that covers all cassava starch production processes from fresh cassava root till dry cassava starch. The inventory data were collected from the company, in the form of both production record and interviews. From data analysis the authors were able to present a linked flow that describes the production process of tapioca starch that quantifies into the functional unit of one pack marketable tapioca starch weighs 50 kg. In order to produce 50 kg of tapioca, 200 kg cassava root and 800 kg of water are required. This production efficiency translates to 25% yield. This system generates 40 kg of cassava peel, 60 kg of pulp and 850 kg of waste water. For starch drying 208.8 MJ of thermal energy is required in the form of heating fuel. The material flow analysis is employed for impact assessment. Several options in improving the operation are proposed includes utilization of pulp into more valuable co-products, integration of waste treatment plant to enable the use of water recycled from the extraction operation for the washing process, and to application of a waste water treatment system that produces biogas as a renewable energy, which reduces the consumption of fuel in dryer unit.

  1. Effect of surface area of substrates aiming the optimization of carbon nanotube production from ferrocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, A.G.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An optimized synthesis of CNTs by ferrocene is proposed. ► The surface area of substrates influences the nucleation of CNTs. ► The higher the surface area of substrates the lower the temperature of synthesis. ► Chemical composition of substrates has no influence on the growth of CNTs. - Abstract: Ferrocene is widely used for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes due to its ability to act as catalyst and precursor of the synthesis. This paper proposes an optimization of the synthesis of carbon nanotubes from ferrocene, using a substrate with high surface area for their nucleation. Four different surface areas of silica powder were tested: 0.5, 50, 200 and 300 m 2 /g. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy were used to characterize the product obtained and X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis were also performed to evaluate the phases of the material. It was observed that the silica powder with the highest surface area allowed the synthesis of carbon nanotubes to occur at a lower temperature (600 °C), whereas substrates with a surface area lower than 50 m 2 /g will only form carbon nanotubes at temperatures higher than 750 °C. In order to evaluate the influence of chemical composition of the substrate, three different ceramic powders were analyzed: alumina, silica and zirconia. carbon black and previously synthesized carbon nanotubes were also used as substrate for the synthesis and the results showed that the chemical composition of the substrate does not play a relevant role in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, only the surface area showed an influence.

  2. Constraints and opportunities for sustainable crop production in rainfed areas of pothwar plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, A.; Shafiq, M.; Aslam, M.

    2006-01-01

    The rainfed areas, commonly known as barani tract, accounts for about 25% of the total cropped area in the Punjab. The Pothwar plateau comprising 1.82 million hectare, is the largest contiguous block of rainfed areas in Punjab. Low and erratic rainfall, water-erosion hazard, inadequate depth of soil and poor soil-fertility are the main limitations affecting the production-potential of these areas. To ensure that farmers readily adopt the agricultural technologies developed by the research-system, these should be based on real-life problems, appropriate to the natural and socio-economic environments in which farmers make decisions. The present study was undertaken in tehsils Fatehjang and Gujar Khan of Pothwar plateau, to broadly understand farmers perceptions and approaches for rainwater-harvesting and soil-fertility management. It was observed that farm size was relatively bigger in Fatehjang than Gujar Khan. About 86% and 63% of respondents in Gujar Khan and Fatehjang cultivated their own lands. Nearly 40% of respondents in both the tehsils had their lands in 3 to 6 parcels, which hindered the farm-operation and soil and water conservation activities. The uses of fertilizers are sub-optimal and imbalanced. The soil-fertility is going down. The rainwater-conservation practices are not being adopted, due to high cost of machinery and disinterest of farmers in agriculture. The farming is going to be come un- economical. The analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) was carried out and the results are discussed. Some recommendations have been proposed to control soil-erosion, moisture-stress and fertility-degradation and to sustain agricultural production in these areas. (author)

  3. Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilschut, M.; Theuws, P.A.W.; Duchhart, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. -- Highlights: ► Design can provide a link between the field of science and the field of practice. ► Design translates scientific knowledge into a specific aesthetic spatial composition. ► A landscape framework makes phytoremediation feasible in an urban context. ► Estimated time for phytoremediation conflicts with urban developments. ► Phytoremediation combined with biomass production is a feasible temporal land-use. -- A research by design method can translate scientific knowledge on phytoremediation into an aesthetic spatial composition for a specific site, thereby linking science and practice

  4. [How to carry out work on family planning after adopting production responsibility systems in rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S H

    1982-05-29

    After the Third Meeting of the Eleventh People's Congress, the entire responsibility for agricultural production was transferred to a lower level. Peasants in various areas have adopted the so called production responsibility system, and the phenomenon of an increased population rate has also appeared in some areas. In this article, the author discusses how to solve these problems created by the new situation. The 1st step is try to control population growth through socialist propaganda education, administrative measures, economic incentives and punishments, and family planning work. The 2nd step is to popularize the practice of having only 1 child per household in the rural areas. The 2nd and 3rd child in each family should be controlled and prohibited. This policy formulated by the Central Government should be carried out thoroughly. Families which follow the policy and have only 1 child should be encouraged with economic rewards, and those families which have 2 or more children should be punished economically. The 3rd step is to establish a national work team to be in charge of family planning and birth control. There should be an ideological unity among the nation's leadership. Party members and cadres should establish themselves as good examples for the people so that the population control work may become successful.

  5. Bibliometric analysis of the scientific production in the area of Optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povedano Montero, F J; López-Muñoz, F; Hidalgo Santa Cruz, F

    2016-04-01

    Using a bibliometric approach an analysis was made of the scientific publications of Spanish investigators in the area of optometry, from 1974 until 2013. The EMBASE database was used for this study, employing optomtr*, optic*, visual, vision, eye*, and ophthalm* as search terms. The most common bibliometric indicators were applied for the selected publications. The number of published articles retrieved for Spain from 1974-2013 was 1,055. The growth of publications was more exponential (R=0.93) than linear (R= 0.71). The doubling time of scientific production was 3.63 years. The level of productivity primarily corresponded to small producers (Transience index of 64%). The collaboration index was 4.4 authors per paper. The majority of the output was generated in academic settings (62.27%). The Bradford core was formed by four journals, in which Optometry and Vision Science accounted for the majority of publications, with 11.85%. Research in the area of optometry in Spain is in a phase of exponential growth, containing a high level of transient authors, which may indicate either a low productivity or the presence of investigators from other related fields that have published in a sporadic manner in this area. A small number of research groups are responsible for producing the majority of articles, primarily in an academic setting. There is a high concentration of publications in a few journals. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of climate change on agroclimatic indices in rainfed wheat production areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi nassiri mahalati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of all climatic parameters for crop growth and productivity, temperature and rainfall are more crucial compared to others and almost all climatic and agroclimatic indices are based on these two variables. Climate change will lead to variation in agroclimatic indices and evaluation of this variation is a key to study crop response to future climatic conditions. Length of growing period (LGP and rainfall deficit index could be used as indictors for assessment of potential impact of climate change of rainfed systems. To study this impact long-term weather data of main rainfed wheat production areas of Iran were collected. UKMO general circulation model was used for perdiction of climatic parameters of selected stations for years 2025 and 2050 based on pre defined scenarios of IPCC for this target years. LGP, length of dry season and rainfall deficit index were calculated from present data and the generated data for target years. The results showed that LGP based on temperature would be increased in all rainfed areas of country. However, including the water availability in the calculation was led to a lowered LGP. Reduction of LGP for the studied stations was in the range of 8-36 and 19-55 days for years 2025 and 2050, respectively. Rainfall deficit index for 2025 and 2050 was varied, respectively at 8.3-17.7 and 21.1-32.3 mm. It was estimated that under climatic condition of years 2025 and 2050 the cultivated areas in the main rainfed production regions of the country would be reduced by 16-25 and 23-33%, respectively.

  7. Vegetation Characterization and Litter Production on the Rehabilitated Mined Area of Mussoorie Hills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana JOSHI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The floristic diversity of four different age series in rehabilitated mined area which represents the degraded ecosystem was examined. Phytosociological analysis revealed that the highest number of plant species (38 nos. including tree, shrubs, herbs and grasses were found in eight years old (Site II rehabilitated site followed by eleven years old (Site I and six years old (Site 3 (33 nos. and least was in four years old Site IV (29 nos.. Maximum total basal area was represented by site I followed by site II, site III and site IV. With reference to annual litter production it was highest in Site I (5286 Kg/ha followed by Site III (1193.2 Kg/ha, Site II (804.0 kg/ha and least in Site IV (262.0 Kg/ha.

  8. Calibration of the indicators of the product KERMa-AREA in radiodiagnostic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginjaume, M.; Jarvinen, H.; Turak, O.

    2013-01-01

    Currently the IAEA proposes two procedures for the calibration of the determination of the PKA systems integrated in the x-ray equipment. The traditional method is to measure air kerma at a certain distance from the focus through an ionization chamber reference and then the area of the field of radiation in that position. The alternative method is based on measuring directly the product kerma-area using equipment calibrated in this magnitude. In both cases the calibration procedure takes into account the position of the tube on the stretcher of the patient. The objective of this study was to compare the practical application of both calibration procedures as well as assess the accuracy of indication of the PKA in the consoles of the radiology equipment. (Author)

  9. Study on rural duck production systems in selected areas of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanum, J.; Chwalibog, André; Huque, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate scavenging duck production systems in two regions (Netrokona Sadar Upazila and Sundargonj Upazila) of Bangladesh. Feeding systems and availability of feed for raising ducks, production performance of scaavenging ducks and profitability of raising...... ducks were evaluated. Information was collected from the farmers through a questionnaire. All the farmers of Sundargonj Upazila used mixed feed compund, but in Netrokona only 14% of farmers fed mixed feed to their ducks. The rest was either paddy or wheat alone or a mixture of both. Deshi (local) ducks...... were mostly used in Netrokona but in Sundargonj, farmers mostly raise exotic ducks. The farmers of Sundargonj area increased the amount of feed with the increase of age of their ducks, but the farmers of Netrokona decreased the amount of feed. The mortality rate in Netrokona was 27.1% but in Sundargonj...

  10. Ecology of litterfall production of giant bamboo Dendrocalamus asper in a watershed area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Toledo Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Giant bamboo Dendrocalamus asper is recommended in environmental and livelihood programs in the Philippines due to its various ecological, economic and social benefits. However, there are limited data on the ecology of giant bamboo litterfall production, which contributes to soil nutrient availability. Bamboo also contributed in carbon sequestration. The study was conducted within the Taganibong Watershed in Bukidnon, Philippines. Nine litterfall traps measuring 1mx1m were established within the giant bamboo stand in the study area. Results show that giant bamboo litterfall is dominated by leaves. Biological characteristics of bamboo litterfall do no not influence litterfall production but temperature, wind speed and humidity correlate with the amount of litterfall. Findings of the study further revealed that fresh giant bamboo tissue contains high carbon content and the soil in the bamboo stand has higher organic matter than the open clearing. These data indicate the role of giant bamboo in carbon sequestration and soil nutrient availability.

  11. Brazilian university patents: profile of inventors and production per knowledge area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Stefani Cativelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2016v21n47p67 The study characterizes the inventions of patents of Brazilian universities concerning authorship and subject area to identify the institutions’ possible departments and areas that concentrate efforts on or are more easily able to produce and achieve the patent grants in Brazil. For the data collection of the universities, we used the E-mec platform; the database of the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI for the collection of information concerning patents; and the International Patent Classification (IPC to determine the covered knowledge areas. Thus, we analyzed the production of patents by Brazilian region; the universities with patents granted; the number of inventors per patent; the profile of the main inventors; and the patents granted according to the IPC. The results indicate that the characteristics of the patents granted to Brazilian Public Universities belong predominantly to the areas of Chemistry and Metallurgy. They are developed by professors with graduation in Chemistry or Mechanical Engineering and most of them belong to the State University of Campinas.

  12. Environmental risk assessment in an oil production station near a mangrove area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z' Graggen, M.; Moraes, R.; Ferreira, H.; Thomas, C. [Golder Associates, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Linhares, M.; Vaqueiro, R.L.C.; Sauerbronn, J.L.B. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Pedra Branca Station is an oil production area that pumps, stores and transfers crude oil from wells located near the station. It is located 2 km of the mouth of the Sao Paulo River, northeast Brazil, in a mangrove area of social, economical and environmental importance. During the past 30+ years of operation, the area has been contaminated with leaks and spills of crude oil from pipelines and storage tanks. The assessment aimed to verify if local conditions represent risk to maintenance workers at the Station, nearby residents that collect firewood and shellfish and that consume shellfish from the Site. Crab and oyster samples were collected and analyzed and a questionnaire concerning activities of workers and residents was administrated. Contaminants of potential concern included barium, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum hydrocarbons. Potential risks associated with soil/sediment ingestion, dermal contact with soil/sediment and ingestion of shellfish were evaluated. The study indicated that risks to maintenance worker and nearby residents due to exposure to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic substances present in soil, sediment, and shellfish were below limits considered acceptable to regulatory authorities. The evaluation provided scientific bases for decision making regarding the management of the contaminated area. (author)

  13. Product kerma in the air-area and radiation dose in dental radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Alessandro Martins da

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology is to determine dosimetric quantities for the establishment and use of reference levels and comparative risk assessment. In recent publications the use of the air kerma-area product, PKA, has been suggested in dental radiology, as this quantity is more closely related to risk. The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary survey of PKA and effective dose in different types of dental examinations. The future perspective is a large-scale survey for the establishment and use of diagnostic reference levels in dentistry in Brazil. (author)

  14. Development of Distinction Method of Production Area of Ginsengs by Using a Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Sun, Gwang Min; Lee, Yu Na; Yoo, Sang Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Distinction of production area of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). A distribution of elements has varied according to the part of plant clue to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So correlation study between plants and soil has been an Issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis

  15. Identification of profitable areas to apply product configuration systems in Engineering-To-Order companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars; Shafiee, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This article suggests a systematic framework for identifying potential areas, where Engineering-To-Order (ETO) companies may increase their profit-ability by implementing a Product Configuration System (PCS). In order to do so a three-step framework is proposed based on literature. The starting...... point is to conduct a profitability analysis to determine the accuracy of the cost estima-tions, and based on that the reason for the deviations across different projects is found. The next step is to generate the scope for different scenarios that aim to improve the current situation. Finally...

  16. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  17. Strategies for resource management to improve agricultural productivity in Bariarpur Tal area of Bihar (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Upadhyaya, A.; Bhatnagar, P.R.; Gautam, U.S.; Singh, S.K.; Singh, S.R.

    2002-06-01

    Water logged Tal area is termed as the stretch of land having bowl shaped depressions inundated in monsoon season due to spill/overflow from rivers or runoff from upstream end. A team of Agricultural Scientists studied and suggested a suitable plan to the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India for improving the agricultural productivity of 40,000 hectares land lying between Ghoraghat and Bariarpur and Prasando to Khand Bihari in Munger district of Bihar, which lies in eastern India. These lands remain inundated with water from July till January. Tal lands in Bariarpur suffer due to stagnation of water during monsoon period and delay in drainage thereafter. This is a late winter mono-cropped area with very low productivity. Though the fertility status of soil is good, the quantity and quality of produce is poor. The canal network is also not efficient and other parts face drought. It is expected that the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India will take up the action plan as per the recommendations of expert scientists' team to mitigate the sufferings and misery of the farmers and rural population of the area. The team of scientists had investigated in detail the genesis of the problem and suggested the appropriate management strategies to improve the agricultural production in this area upon the instruction of the Hon'ble Union Agricultural Minister Mr. Nitish Kumar. A reputed Journalist and dedicated Social Worker Mr. Dinesh brought the unbelievable misery of the rural population to the attention of the Agricultural Minister. The sufferings of the farmers of Bariarpur tal area thus cannot be mitigated without the implementation of recommendations suggested in the scientific report. It seems that a financial crunch is coming in the way for such implementation. Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Water Resources, State Government, NGOs and Social Organizations should come forward to help the rural population otherwise the ray of hope for a better living

  18. Intercomparison of different operational oceanographic forecast products in the CMEMS IBI area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Pablo; Sotillo, Marcos G.; Dabrowski, Tomasz; Amo-Baladrón, Arancha; Aznar, Roland; De Pascual, Alvaro; Levier, Bruno; Bowyer, Peter; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Salon, Stefano; Tonani, Marina; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique

    2017-04-01

    The development of skill assessment software packages and dedicated web applications is a relatively novel theme in operational oceanography. Within the CMEMS IBI-MFC, the quality of IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland) forecast products is assessed by means of NARVAL (North Atlantic Regional VALidation) web-based tool. The validation of IBI against independent in situ and remote-sensing measurements is routinely conducted to evaluate model's veracity and prognostic capabilities. Noticeable efforts are in progress to define meaningful skill scores and statistical metrics to quantitatively assess the quality and reliability of the IBI model solution. Likewise, the IBI-MFC compares the IBI forecast products with other model solutions by setting up specific intercomparison exercises on overlapping areas at diverse timescales. In this context, NARVAL web tool already includes a specific module to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of IBI versus other CMEMS operational ocean forecasting systems (OOFSs). In particular, the IBI physical ocean solution is compared against the CMEMS MED and NWS OOFSs. These CMEMS regional services delivered for the Mediterranean and the North West Shelves include data assimilation schemes in their respective operational chains and generate analogous ocean forecast products to the IBI ones. A number of physical parameters (i.e. sea surface temperature, salinity and current velocities) are evaluated through NARVAL on a daily basis in the overlapping areas existing between these three regional systems. NARVAL is currently being updated in order to extend this intercomparison of ocean model parameters to the biogeochemical solutions provided by the aforementioned OOFSs. More specifically, the simulated chlorophyll concentration is evaluated over several subregions of particular concern by using as benchmark the CMEMS satellite-derived observational products. In addition to this IBI comparison against other regional CMEMS products on overlapping areas, a

  19. Measurement and properties of the dose-area product ratio in external small-beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Jarkko; Partanen, Mari; Ojala, Jarkko; Sipilä, Petri; Björkqvist, Mikko; Kapanen, Mika; Keyriläinen, Jani

    2017-06-21

    In small-beam radiation therapy (RT) the measurement of the beam quality parameter, i.e. the tissue-phantom ratio or TPR 20,10 , using a conventional point detector is a challenge. To obtain reliable results, one has to consider potential sources of error, including volume averaging and adjustment of the point detector into the narrow beam. To overcome these challenges, a different type of beam quality parameter in small beams was studied, namely the dose-area product ratio, or DAPR 20,10 . With this method, the measurement of a dose-area product (DAP) using a large-area plane-parallel chamber (LAC) eliminates the uncertainties in detector positioning and volume averaging that are present when using a point detector. In this study, the properties of the DAPR 20,10 of a cone-collimated 6 MV photon beam were investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and the obtained values were compared to measurements obtained using two LAC detectors, PTW Type 34073 and PTW Type 34070. In addition, the possibility of determining the DAP using EBT3 film and a Razor diode detector was studied. The determination of the DAPR 20,10 value was found to be feasible in external small-beam radiotherapy using cone-collimated beams with diameters from 4-40 mm, based on the results of the two LACs, the MC calculations and the Razor diode. The measurements indicated a constant DAPR 20,10 value for fields 20-40 mm in diameter, with a maximum relative change of 0.6%, but an increase of 7.0% for fields from 20-4 mm in diameter for the PTW Type 34070 chamber. Simulations and measurements showed an increase of DAPR 20,10 with increasing LAC size or dose integral area for the studied 4-40 mm cone-collimated 6 MV photon beams. This has the consequence that there should be a reference to the size of the used LAC active area or the DAP integration area with the reported DAPR 20,10 value.

  20. Measurement and properties of the dose-area product ratio in external small-beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Jarkko; Partanen, Mari; Ojala, Jarkko; Sipilä, Petri; Björkqvist, Mikko; Kapanen, Mika; Keyriläinen, Jani

    2017-06-01

    In small-beam radiation therapy (RT) the measurement of the beam quality parameter, i.e. the tissue-phantom ratio or TPR20,10, using a conventional point detector is a challenge. To obtain reliable results, one has to consider potential sources of error, including volume averaging and adjustment of the point detector into the narrow beam. To overcome these challenges, a different type of beam quality parameter in small beams was studied, namely the dose-area product ratio, or DAPR20,10. With this method, the measurement of a dose-area product (DAP) using a large-area plane-parallel chamber (LAC) eliminates the uncertainties in detector positioning and volume averaging that are present when using a point detector. In this study, the properties of the DAPR20,10 of a cone-collimated 6 MV photon beam were investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and the obtained values were compared to measurements obtained using two LAC detectors, PTW Type 34073 and PTW Type 34070. In addition, the possibility of determining the DAP using EBT3 film and a Razor diode detector was studied. The determination of the DAPR20,10 value was found to be feasible in external small-beam radiotherapy using cone-collimated beams with diameters from 4-40 mm, based on the results of the two LACs, the MC calculations and the Razor diode. The measurements indicated a constant DAPR20,10 value for fields 20-40 mm in diameter, with a maximum relative change of 0.6%, but an increase of 7.0% for fields from 20-4 mm in diameter for the PTW Type 34070 chamber. Simulations and measurements showed an increase of DAPR20,10 with increasing LAC size or dose integral area for the studied 4-40 mm cone-collimated 6 MV photon beams. This has the consequence that there should be a reference to the size of the used LAC active area or the DAP integration area with the reported DAPR20,10 value.

  1. Status of compost usage and its performance on vegetable production in Monga areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K.M.M. Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the existing status of compost usage on vegetable production and determine the overall effect of household waste compost (HWC on growth and yield of vegetables and enhancement of soil fertility in the monga areas of Bangladesh. A field survey was conducted on 152 sampled farmers during 2010 to 2011. Questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions were used to assess existing production practices of vegetables using compost in both homestead and field conditions. Three field trials at Badargonj and Kawnia upazilas of Rangpur district were conducted taking four treatments i.e. control, recommended doses (RD of fertilizers, HWC at the rate of 10 tha-1, and HWC 10 t ha-1 plus RD as IPNS based with Lal shak, Palong shak, Pui shak and Tomato. Base line survey results indicated inadequate knowledge of the farmers on use and preparation of the household waste compost. Yield data of all vegetables i.e. Tomato, Lal shak, Palong shak and Pui shak indicated that the combined application of nutrients using organic and inorganic sources were significantly better than that of solitary application of inorganic fertilizers. The potential of household waste compost applied @ 10 t ha-1 along with inorganic fertilizers applied was found highly satisfactory in producing Tomato, where yield was recorded 75 t ha-1 in the study area. The fresh yield of Palong shak was found 16 t ha-1 when recommended doses of inorganic fertilizers were applied, but it was about 19 t ha-1 under combined application of HWC @ 10 t ha-1 and inorganic fertilizers following IPNS concept. The fresh yield of Pui shak was found about 49 t ha-1 under combined application of organic and inorganic nutrients. Considering the availability and costs of different composts, it is evinced that HWC contained good amount of NPK which indicates its potentiality to be used as a soil amendment, improving soil fertility and crop productivity. It can be

  2. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown around battery production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery production is one of the main sources of heavy metals that present great harm to human health even in low concentrations. Chromium (Cr, Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb were measured in edible portions of vegetables and soils around a battery production area in China, and the potential health risk of heavy metal contamination to the local population via vegetable consumption was evaluated. Their concentrations in edible portions of vegetables were 2.354 (0.078-14.878, 0.035 (0.003-0.230 and 0.039 (0.003-0.178 mg kg-1, respectively. Approximately 3 % of the Cd in the vegetable samples exceeded the maximum concentration allowable by national food safety criteria, although Pb content in all samples were within the criteria. Transfer factors (TF from soils to vegetables were dependent on vegetable species. Leguminous vegetables were more likely to accumulate Cr, while leaf vegetables tended to show higher levels of concentration of Cd and Pb. Melon vegetables demonstrated a relatively low capacity for accumulating the heavy metals studied. TF were positively correlated with soil organic matter and negatively correlated with soil pH. The mean estimated daily intake of Cr, Cd and Pb via dietary consumption of vegetables was 0.011, 1.65 × 10-4 and 1.84 × 10-4 mg kg-1 of body weight per day, respectively, levels that were much lower than the reference doses recommended by USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, indicating that the potential health risk of Cr, Cd and Pb exposure via vegetable consumption to the local population around this battery production area could be negligible.

  3. Global gradients in vertebrate diversity predicted by historical area-productivity dynamics and contemporary environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Jetz

    Full Text Available Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or "evolutionary arenas," characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients.

  4. Analysis of causes of combustible mixture explosions inside production floor areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapin Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work provides a cause analysis for major industrial explosions and a review of the causes of combustive air-gas mixture generation in a production environment. It has been established that during operation of explosive production facilities, it is process equipment that, as a rule, creates explosive environment inside the floor area. A qualitative method for determination of a potential accident has been reviewed. Analysis of the nature of explosion effect on building structures and equipment has shown that exposions characterised by absence of equipment and building structure disintegration normally have a localized character. It has been identified that during explosions inside process equipment, the largest structural damage occurs in spots hit by equipment debris. Complete destruction of building structures and equipment is caused by explosions inside equipment containing large quantities of combustible products. It has been identified that most explosions are accompanied by partial or total destruction of building structures and equipment. Therefore, measures taken to protect equipment and buildings from explosion effects lack efficiency.

  5. Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatikobo, P; Choga, T; Ncube, C; Mutambara, J

    2013-05-01

    A participatory epidemiological study was conducted to identify and prioritize constraints to livestock health and production on smallholder farms in Sanyati and Gokwe districts of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to 294 randomly selected livestock owners across the two districts. Livestock diseases (29% of the respondents), high cost of drugs (18.21%), weak veterinary extension (15.18%), inadequate grazing (13.60%), inadequate water (13.54%), and livestock thefts (10.44%) were the major livestock health and production constraints identified. The number of diseases reported varied (Pdomestic chicken, donkeys, and guinea fowls, respectively. Seven (19.4%) of the 36 diseases including rabies and foot and mouth disease were those listed by the OIE. Thirty-four percent of the respondents rated bovine dermatophilosis as the most important livestock disease. Respondents rated, in descending order, other diseases including tick borne diseases (21%); a previously unreported disease, "Magwiriri" or "Ganda renzou" in vernacular (14%); mastitis (11%); parafilariosis (11%); and blackleg (9%). Cattle skin samples from "Magwiriri" cases had Besnoitia besnoiti parasites. Overall, this study revealed factors and diseases that limit livestock production in Zimbabwe and are of global concern; in addition, the study showed that the skin diseases, bovine dermatophilosis and besnoitiosis, have recently emerged and appear to be spreading, likely a consequence of ectoparasite control demise in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe over the last 15 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hanford Immobilized LAW Product Acceptance: Tanks Focus Area Testing Data Package II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Rebecca L.; Lorier, Troy H.; Peeler, David K.; Brown, Kevin G.; Reamer, Irene A.; Vienna, John D.; Jiricka, Antonin; Jorgensen, Benaiah M.; Smith, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    This report is a continuation of the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Waste (LAW) Product Acceptance (HLP): Initial Tanks Focus Area Testing Data Package (Vienna (and others) 2000). In addition to new 5000-h product consistency test (PCT), vapor hydration test (VHT), and alteration products data, some previously reported data together with relevant background information are included for an easily accessible source of reference when comparing the response of the various glasses to different test conditions. A matrix of 55 glasses was developed and tested to identify the impact of glass composition on long-term corrosion behavior and to develop an acceptable composition region for Hanford LAW glasses. Of the 55 glasses, 45 were designed to systematically vary the glass composition, and 10 were selected because large and growing databases on their corrosion characteristics had accumulated. The targeted and measured compositions of these glasses are found in the Appendix A. All glasses were fabricated according to standard procedures and heat treated to simulate the slow cooling that will occur in a portion of the waste glass after vitrification in the planned treatment facility at Hanford

  7. Carob pod as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol in Mediterranean areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, S.; Lozano, L.J.; Godinez, C.; Juan, D.; Perez, A.; Hernandez, F.J. [Technical University of Cartagena, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, C/Dr. Fleming S/N, Campus Muralla del Mar, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    There is a growing interest worldwide to find out new and cheap carbohydrate sources for production of bioethanol. In this context, carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) is proposed as an economical source for bioethanol production, especially, in arid regions. The carob tree is an evergreen shrub native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods and it is currently being reemphasised as an alternative in dryland areas, because no carbon-enriched lands are necessary. In this work, the global process of ethanol production from carob pod was studied. In a first stage, aqueous extraction of sugars from the pod was conducted, achieving very high yields (>99%) in a short period of time. The process was followed by acid or alkaline hydrolysis of washed pod at different operating conditions, the best results (R = 38.20%) being reached with sulphuric acid (2% v/v) at 90 C, using a L/S (liquid/solid) ratio of 7.5 and shaking at 700 rpm for 420 min. After that, fermentation of hydrolysates were tested at 30 C, 125 rpm, 200 g/L of sugars and 15 g/L of yeast with three different kinds of yeasts. In these conditions a maximum of 95 g/L of ethanol was obtained after 24 h. Finally, the distillation and dehydration of water-bioethanol mixtures was analyzed using the chemical process simulation software CHEMCAD with the aim of estimate the energy requirements of the process. (author)

  8. OZONE PRODUCTION IN THE PHILADELPHIA URBAN AREA DURING NE-OPS 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KLEINMAN, L.I.; DAUM, P.H.; BRECHTEL, F.; LEE, Y.N.; NUNNERMACKER, L.J.; SPRINGSTON, S.R.; WEINSTEIN-LLOYD, J.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the 1999 NARSTO Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NE-OPS) field campaign, the DOE G-1 aircraft sampled trace gases and aerosols in and around the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Twenty research flights were conducted between July 25 and August 11. The overall goals of these flights were to obtain a mechanistic understanding of O(sub 3) production; to characterize the spatial and temporal behavior of photo-oxidants and aerosols; and to study the evolution of aerosol size distributions, including the process of new particle formation. Within the NE-OPS program, other groups provided additional trace gas, aerosol, and meteorological observations using aircraft, balloon, remote sensing, and surface based instruments (Phillbrick et al., 2000). In this article we provide an overview of the G-1 observations related to O(sub 3) production, focusing on the vertical distribution of pollutants. Ozone production rates are calculated using a box model that is constrained by observed trace gas concentrations. Highest O(sub 3) concentrations were observed on July 31, which we present as a case study. On that day, O(sub 3) concentrations above the 1-hour 120 ppb standard were observed downwind of Philadelphia and also in the plume of a single industrial facility located on the Delaware River south of the city

  9. Environmental analysis of the logistics of agricultural products from roof top greenhouses in Mediterranean urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyé-Mengual, Esther; Cerón-Palma, Ileana; Oliver-Solà, Jordi; Montero, Juan Ignacio; Rieradevall, Joan

    2013-01-15

    As urban populations increase so does the amount of food transported to cities worldwide, and innovative agro-urban systems are being developed to integrate agricultural production into buildings; for example, by using roof top greenhouses (RTGs). This paper aims to quantify and compare, through a life cycle assessment, the environmental impact of the current linear supply system with a RTG system by using a case study for the production of tomatoes. The main results indicate that a change from the current linear system to the RTG system could result in a reduction, per kilogram of tomatoes (the functional unit), in the range of 44.4-75.5% for the different impact categories analysed, and savings of up to 73.5% in energy requirements. These savings are associated with re-utilisation of packaging systems (55.4-85.2%), minimisation of transport requirements (7.6-15.6%) and reduction of the loss of product during transportation and retail stages (7.3-37%). The RTG may become a strategic factor in the design of low-carbon cities in Mediterranean areas. Short-term implementation in the city of Barcelona could result in savings of 66.1 tonnes of CO₂ eq. ha(-1) when considering the global warming potential, and of 71.03 t ha(-1) when considering that the transformation from woodland to agricultural land is avoided. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Determination of arsenic in agricultural products, animal products and drinking water of rural areas of Bijar and Gharve, Kurdestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pirsaheb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and food contamination with toxic element arsenic is one of the important issues that are threatening public health and other creatures. In this study, a total sample of 983 consisting agricultural and animal products as well as water samples was analyzed for arsenic contamination. According to the results, the highest concentration of arsenic (1.737 mg/l was found in the piped water of Aliabad. Moreover, the highest level of arsenic contamination was detected in wheat obtained from Giklo and Gondak (0.14 mg/kg. Accordingly, highest arsenic level in barley, peas and lentils, was estimated in the samples of Gondak (0.11 mg/kg, Giklo (mg/kg 0.013 and Ghojagh (0.017 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, the highest mean concentration of arsenic in meat and milk samples was found in Ghojagh (0.167 mg/kg and Gondak (0.0129 mg/l. The results revealed that the contamination level of arsenic in all crops, meat and milk samples were lower than the maximum acceptable limit adopted in many other countries. However, the concentration of arsenic in water samples was 174 times higher than the acceptable limit (0.01 mg/l determined by the Iranian National Standard. Therefore, it is necessary to perform comprehensive studies on contaminations of water sources in this area.

  11. [Scientific production in microbiology and affinity areas in Spain during 1990-2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, José Manuel; Gutiérrez, Félix; Royo, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    To analyze the production and repercussions of the scientific activity of Spanish authors in the fields of microbiology, mycology, parasitology and virology. Documents published during the period of 1990 to 2000 compiled on the MEDLINE database >(WEBSPIRS 4.2) were retrieved using the following search terms ("Spain" OR "Espana") AND ("microb*" OR "virol*" OR "parasit*" OR "bacter*" OR "micol*" OR "mycol*" OR "retrovirus*) in the field, author's address. A total of 5259 documents were retrieved. Over the period studied, the number of documents published annually increased two-fold, from 256 documents in 1990 to 512 in 2002 (r = 0.92; p < 0.001), particularly those in foreign journals, from 175 to 447 documents (r = 0.95; p < 0.001). 50.9% of the documents came from universities, 35.8% from hospitals, 5.4% from the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) (5.4%), and 5.3% from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III. The CSIC centers (r 2 = 0.90), and universities (r 2 = 0.88) showed the highest rate of growth in the number of publications. The University of Barcelona (5.3%) had the largest number of publications among teaching institutions and Hospital Ramón y Cajal (2.9%) was the first among hospitals. The Autonomous Communities of Madrid (29.2%) and Catalonia (17.5%) showed the highest scientific production. The mean expected impact factor for all the published documents was 2.340. The expected impact factor grew from 1.977 in 1990 to 2.507 en 2002 (r 2 = 0.81). The published scientific production of Spanish researchers and the repercussion of these studies in the field of microbiology and related areas increased during the period of 1990 to 2002, particularly in the number of articles published in foreign journals. The Universities are the most productive institutions in this field.

  12. Forestry and fiber crop production in the higher rainfall areas of tropical Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, I.M.; Volck, H.E.; Cameron, D.M.; Thomson, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the nearly 1 million square km of higher rainfall area shows that less than 4% has potential for arable agriculture or commercial forestry. Except for rain forest on the eastern Queensland coast (now largely protected), native forest has little potential for timber or pulp. Plantations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis offer the best potential for forest production in Queensland and Northern Territory. The most promising agricultural fiber crops for paper pulp are bagasse, which could be upgraded by mixing with pine mill wastes, and kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus). The freight costs involved in a forestry and fiber project in northern Australia are analyzed and the possibility of some local processing is considered. (Refs. 33).

  13. Aspects of supervision of the clearance of nuclear fuel production sites in the Hanau area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, L.; Ibach, T.M.; Lehmann, K.-H.

    2002-01-01

    Five nuclear fuel production facilities in the Hanau area are shut down and have to be dismantled. The activities and the licenses for these activities are carried out and issued step by step. In charge of the licensing authorities, TUeV Sueddeutschland evaluated clearance limits as far as they were not given by law and carried out the on-site supervision. This includes independent measurements, the control of a safe clearance strategy and the solution of the specific problems that arise by the characteristics of nuclear fuel. These problems were solved, mainly by specific gamma spectrometric measuring and evaluation techniques, such as adapted in situ spectrometry and a conveyor belt device. At the end of this process is a green field or a site with buildings which can be re-used for purposes not subject to the atomic law. (author)

  14. Typology of production systems in the rural area of Ibague, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rocha-Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform a classification of the farms in the rural area of Ibague, Colombia. Between March and April 2013, 55 surveys were applied in five districts. The survey covered human, social, physical, financial, and natural aspects. The classification showed three types of farms: group 1 had a significant proportion of soil under pastures (3.71 ± 5.88 ha and these were typical systems of peasant economy, which combine agricultural and livestock activities. Group 2 was basically made up of farms dedicated to grow coffee; its surface was small (3.15 ± 2,31 ha. In group 3, farms with land use under pastures predominated; these farms had atypical characteristics, particularly by its size (52.43 ± 111.51 ha. Both agricultural and livestock productive diversity predominated, as well as the typical social heterogeneity of peasant societies.

  15. Survey of the traditional poultry production system in the Bamenda area, Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekue, F.N.; Pone, K.D.; Mafeni, M.J.; Nfi, A.N.; Njoya, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the traditional poultry production system in the Bamenda area in Cameroon was conducted using a baseline survey covering the rainy and dry seasons from December, 1999-June, 2000. This survey focused mainly on the characterization of the flock size and structure, housing system, feeding, marketing of chickens, health, flock breeding and ownership patterns. The results showed that among poultry species surveyed, chickens predominated in all households, followed by ducks (15.4%) and pigeons (7.7%). A cock had access to about 2-3 hens and one hen had a brood of 1-3 chicks at a time with an overall higher hen/cock and chicks/hen ratio for the dry season. Production and reproduction performance results showed that hens laid about 3 clutches of 12 eggs per year and this was similar for both seasons. The most predominant disease symptoms in descending order of importance included diarrhoea, coughing and ectoparasitism. Although the overall disease occurrence rate was high in growers, chicks suffered from many unclassified ailments. From the survey results, ethno-veterinary therapy featured as the most frequent method of treating diseases in rural poultry in the Bamenda area. With regard to flock ownership and management patterns, the survey results showed that women owned birds in the majority of the cases (38.5%) followed by men (23.1%) and children (15.3%). Although all gender categories were involved in village chicken management, the greatest participation came from women, followed by men, children and the family as a whole. Construction of shelters was mainly a job for the men with assistance from the children. Women were mostly involved in providing water to the birds, preparing supplementation rations and selling eggs. Finally, with regard to household decision making on issues related to poultry management, men played the leading role (66.7%), followed by women (28.4%) and then children (3.7%). (author)

  16. Bacteriological quality of vegetables from organic and conventional production in different areas of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Choi, Na-Jung; Chung, Myung-Sub; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Foods grown in organic production systems have been described as representing an increased risk to public health compared with foods from conventional production. Leafy vegetables (spinach, romaine lettuce, and green sesame leaves) grown in organic and conventional systems were collected from various areas in Korea and examined using standard culture methods to compare the microbiological quality of the produce grown in the two agricultural systems. The 354 samples of these leafy vegetables were analyzed for levels of indicator bacteria (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the prevalence of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. Aerobic bacteria and coliforms were detected in all vegetable types, but nonpathogenic E. coli was below the limit of detection in all samples. B. cereus was the most prevalent pathogen, found on 7 (11.1%) of the 63 organic spinach samples. The prevalence of S. aureus was highest in organic sesame leaves; it was found on 5 (8.0%) of the 63 samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was highest on organic romaine lettuce and spinach; it was found in 4 (6.4%) of 63 samples of each type of vegetable. E. coli O157:H7 found on only 1 (1.58%) of 55 conventional spinach samples. These results suggest that farming type at most only slightly affects the hygienic quality of leafy vegetables, and no effect was found for sample collection area. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the conventional or organic leafy vegetables. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic produce poses a substantially greater risk of pathogen contamination than does conventional produce.

  17. Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svancara, Leona K.; Scott, J.M.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Pidgorna, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10 km of both parks and refuges and those within 10 km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10 km of just refuges and counties greater than 10 km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged  2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level

  18. Emerging feed markets for ruminant production in urban and peri-urban areas of Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konlan, S P; Ayantunde, A A; Addah, W; Dei, H K; Karbo, N

    2018-01-01

    Feed shortage in urban and peri-urban areas has triggered the emergence of feed markets in Northern Ghana. These markets were surveyed at three locations (Tamale, Bolgatanga, and Wa markets) to determine types and prices of feedstuffs sold across seasons; early dry (November-January), late dry (February-April), early wet (May-July), and main wet (August-October). Semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Three samples of each feed type in the markets were bought from three different sellers per market in each season. The samples were oven dried to constant weight and price/kg DM of each feed determined. The total respondents were 169. Out of this number, 41% were feed sellers, 46% buyers, and 13% retailers. The feedstuffs found were crop residues (groundnut haulm and cowpea haulm), agro-industrial by-products (bran of maize, rice, and sorghum), fresh grasses (Rotteboellia cochinchinensis), and local browses (Ficus sp. and Pterocarpus erinaceous). Prices of feeds differed (P  0.05) in all seasons but that of crop residues were higher (P < 05) in early to late dry season than the wet season. Majority (90%) of respondents opined that the feed market will expand due to increasing number of livestock population in the peri-urban areas.

  19. Effect of lung injuries on [14C]urea permeability-surface area product in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelter, M.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether [ 14 C]urea permeability-surface area product (PS) is a reliable indicator of changes in permeability in various injuries and its relationship to indicator-dilution and gravimetric lung water contents, we studied six groups of anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated dogs (5 animals each). The groups consisted of control dogs, those injured by intravenous alloxan, oleic acid, or glass beads, and those exposed to acute hypoxia or increased left atrial pressure from volume loading (Pla). Interanimal variation of PS was large (3.0-15.0 ml/s), but successive hourly values in individual animals were stable for 2 h in experimental groups and for 4 h in controls. The PS increased after alloxan, elevated Pla, and 2 h of hypoxia; PS decreased after oleic acid and micremboli. The gravimetric lung water increased after alloxan, oleic acid, and microemboli, and indicator-dilution lung water increased only after alloxan. We conclude (1) that intersubject variability requires normalization to enable detection of significant deviation from base line, and (2) that decreased PS after oleic acid and microvascular injury occurred because vascular obstruction, which decreased surface area, masked probable coexisting increases in capillary permeability

  20. Directions of development for areas with unfavourable conditions for agricultural production, an example of the podlaskie voivodeship (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Niewiadomski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the directions of development of rural areas, primarily agricultural areas of the Podlaskie voivodeship, which in light of current criteria has been qualified almost entirely as problem area (ONW. Results presented are culmination of research related to issues of problem areas primarily in the area of the Podlaskie voivodeship by the author of the herewith paper during last few years. In conclusion to the results of the research it can be said that the primary direction of the development of rural areas in the Podlaskie voivodeship will be modern, large-scale farms able to adjust to current conditions, in particular environmental and soil conditions. In problem areas these will be mostly farms focusing on production of cattle and milk, developing production based on very high share of grassland areas. Complementary role in relation to conventional agriculture will be fulfilled by farms developing organic farming and agro-touristic farms. More intensive development of conventional tourism in rural areas can be expected once new tourism products and services have been developed. Assessment of the current economic development parameters of the Podlaskie voivodeship does not point at the convergence with other regions and possibility of decreasing the distance between the Podlaskie voivodeship and average results for Poland in the near future. However, some positive trends in terms of convergence with other regions in Poland can be observed in agriculture, primarily due to relatively good results in production of cattle and milk.

  1. Pesticides in surface waters in areas influenced by banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, L.E.; Ruepert, C.; Solis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Banana production in Costa Rica is highly dependent on pesticide use. However, only a few studies have been undertaken regarding the presence and environmental impact of the agrochemical substances used in the banana culture on the aquatic ecosystem of the Atlantic Region of Costa Rica. This study was, therefore, undertaken in Rio Suerte Basin that drains into the 'Nature Conservation Area' of Tortuguero in the Atlantic lowlands of the country from June 1993 to December 1994. In order to investigate further the occurrence of pesticides in the water bodies located near the possible sources especially during worst-case situations, water samples were analysed following pesticide applications during 1995-1997. Pesticide residues were determined by GC equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) and a nitrogen phosphorous detector (NPD). The study targeted 11 of the 21 pesticides used in banana production, the others were not analyzed. The most frequently found compounds during the 1993-94 survey were the fungicide propiconazole and the nematocide cadusafos. Maximum concentrations measured after the pesticide applications were found in the main drainage canal and these were 2.1 ug/L carbofuran, 1.2 ug/L terbufos and 0.48 ug/L cadusafos. The peak concentration found shortly after the aerial application of the fungicide propiconazole was 13 ug/L in the creek leaving the banana plantation. (author)

  2. Aquaponic System: A sustainable production form in Family Farming and periurban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Borro Celestrino

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics is a food culture system that involves the integration of hydroponics and aquaculture with recirculation of water and nutrients. Due to its sustainable characteristics, it presents alternatives for the production of animal protein and olerícolas in an integrated way, less impacting the ecosystem. For the development of this essay, a methodological structure of an applied nature and of a scientific character with a qualitative-quantitative approach was adopted, it is a descriptive and experimental research. The data were collected through field research in triangulation with the bibliographic reference. Taking into account the sustainability and practicality of the aquaponic system, the purpose of this work was to survey the cost for the small-scale implementation of the system for family agriculture and peri-urban areas, as well as to present the step-by-step driving the system. The practical experiment consisted of 27 kilos of fish fed with ration referring to 2% of its live weight, the residues nourished 144 seedlings of the Crespa Lettuce. The aquaponic system for family and peri-urban agriculture tends to be a sustainable alternative, presenting low implantation costs, the practicality of management and healthier production due to the organic nutrition of the plants and the non-use of chemicals in the system.

  3. Evaluation of the MODIS Albedo Product over a Heterogeneous Agricultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Jose Antonio; Franch, B.; Oltra-Carrio, R.; Vermote, E. F.; Fedele, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/Albedo product (MCD43) is evaluated over a heterogeneous agricultural area in the framework of the Earth Observation: Optical Data Calibration and Information Extraction (EODIX) project campaign, which was developed in Barrax (Spain) in June 2011. In this method, two models, the RossThick-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR) (which corresponds to the MODIS BRDF algorithm) and the RossThick-Maignan-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR-HS), were tested over airborne data by processing high-resolution images acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor. During the campaign, airborne images were retrieved with different view zenith angles along the principal and orthogonal planes. Comparing the results of applying the models to the airborne data with ground measurements, we obtained a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.018 with both RTLSR and RTLSR-HS models. The evaluation of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43) was performed by comparing satellite images with AHS estimations. The results reported an RMSE of 0.04 with both models. Additionally, taking advantage of a homogeneous barley pixel, we compared in situ albedo data to satellite albedo data. In this case, the MODIS albedo estimation was (0.210 +/- 0.003), while the in situ measurement was (0.204 +/- 0.003). This result shows good agreement in regard to a homogeneous pixel.

  4. Measurements and simulation of forest leaf area index and net primary productivity in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Sun, R; Hu, J; Zhu, Q; Zhou, Y; Li, L; Chen, J M

    2007-11-01

    Large scale process-based modeling is a useful approach to estimate distributions of global net primary productivity (NPP). In this paper, in order to validate an existing NPP model with observed data at site level, field experiments were conducted at three sites in northern China. One site is located in Qilian Mountain in Gansu Province, and the other two sites are in Changbaishan Natural Reserve and Dunhua County in Jilin Province. Detailed field experiments are discussed and field data are used to validate the simulated NPP. Remotely sensed images including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+, 30 m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, 15m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) are used to derive maps of land cover, leaf area index, and biomass. Based on these maps, field measured data, soil texture and daily meteorological data, NPP of these sites are simulated for year 2001 with the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS). The NPP in these sites ranges from 80 to 800 gCm(-2)a(-1). The observed NPP agrees well with the modeled NPP. This study suggests that BEPS can be used to estimate NPP in northern China if remotely sensed images of high spatial resolution are available.

  5. Performance evaluation of domestic prototype dose area product meter SFT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Sun; Han, Seong Gyu; Roh, Young Roh; Lim, Hyun Jong; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Jong Uk; Chae, Hyun Sik; Yoon, Yong Su

    2016-01-01

    The importance of radiation dose display of medical X-ray equipment was emphasized, while third edition of IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission) 60601 started to apply. The existing medical X-ray equipment selected a method for attaching the DAP(Dose Area Product) meter when the dose display. However, because the DAP meter was dependent on all of the income, And it did not yet produced in Korea. So, we received the support of Seoul R and BD Program(Grants No. C1152055) to produce DAP meter prototype of the Domestically technology. In this study, the performance of this prototype was evaluated by comparing the German company's product. Evaluation item was an electronic capture performance, radiation dose dependence, radiation quality dependence, energy transmittance, repeatability, light transmittance of 6 entries. And IEC 60580 was based on this evaluation. Evaluation results were electronic capture performance intrinsic error 9.5%, radiation dose dependence limits of variation 1%, repeatabilit y coefficient of variation 2%, energy transmittance 91% each assessment was passed. However radiation quality dependence limits of variation 29%, light transmittance 55% was less than acceptance criteria

  6. Proposed procedure and analysis of results to verify the indicator of the product dose-area in radiology equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Marcos, R.; Gallego Franco, P.; Sierra Diaz, F.; Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Rodriguez Checa, M.; Brasa Estevez, M.; Gomez Calvar, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish a procedure to verify the value of the product dose-area showing certain teams of Radiology, with an alternative to the use of external transmission cameras. (Author)

  7. What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiler, C.S. (comp.)

    1991-06-25

    The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the biological pump''. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

  8. What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiler, C.S. [comp.

    1991-06-25

    The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the ``biological pump``. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

  9. Exploring Simple Algorithms for Estimating Gross Primary Production in Forested Areas from Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna R. Nemani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms that use remotely-sensed vegetation indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP, a key component of the global carbon cycle, have gained a lot of popularity in the past decade. Yet despite the amount of research on the topic, the most appropriate approach is still under debate. As an attempt to address this question, we compared the performance of different vegetation indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in capturing the seasonal and the annual variability of GPP estimates from an optimal network of 21 FLUXNET forest towers sites. The tested indices include the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, Leaf Area Index (LAI, and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by plant canopies (FPAR. Our results indicated that single vegetation indices captured 50–80% of the variability of tower-estimated GPP, but no one index performed universally well in all situations. In particular, EVI outperformed the other MODIS products in tracking seasonal variations in tower-estimated GPP, but annual mean MODIS LAI was the best estimator of the spatial distribution of annual flux-tower GPP (GPP = 615 × LAI − 376, where GPP is in g C/m2/year. This simple algorithm rehabilitated earlier approaches linking ground measurements of LAI to flux-tower estimates of GPP and produced annual GPP estimates comparable to the MODIS 17 GPP product. As such, remote sensing-based estimates of GPP continue to offer a useful alternative to estimates from biophysical models, and the choice of the most appropriate approach depends on whether the estimates are required at annual or sub-annual temporal resolution.

  10. Land substitution effects of biofuel side products and implications on the land area requirement for EU 2020 biofuel targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Enver Doruk; Haerdtlein, Marlies; Eltrop, Ludger

    2009-01-01

    The provision of biofuels today is based on energy crops rather than residual biomass, which results in the requirement of agricultural land area. The side products may serve as animal feed and thus prevent cultivation of other feedstock and the use of corresponding land area. These effects of biofuel provision have to be taken into account for a comprising assessment of land area requirement for biofuel provision. Between 18.5 and 21.1 Mio. hectares (ha) of land area is needed to meet the EU 2020 biofuel target depending on the biofuel portfolio when substitution effects are neglected. The utilization of the bioethanol side products distiller's dried grain and solubles (DDGS) and pressed beet slices may save up to 0.7 Mio. ha of maize cultivation area in the EU. The substitution effect due to the utilization of biodiesel side products (oil cakes of rape, palm and soy) as animal feed may account for up to 7.1 Mio. ha of soy cultivation area in Brazil. The results show that the substitution of land area due to use of side products might ease the pressures on land area requirement considerably and should therefore not be neglected in assessing the impacts of biofuel provision worldwide.

  11. Production of Landsat ETM+ reference imagery of burned areas within Southern African savannahs: comparison of methods and application to MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. M. S. Smith; N. A. Drake; M. J. Wooster; A. T. Hudak; Z. A. Holden; C. J. Gibbons

    2007-01-01

    Accurate production of regional burned area maps are necessary to reduce uncertainty in emission estimates from African savannah fires. Numerous methods have been developed that map burned and unburned surfaces. These methods are typically applied to coarse spatial resolution (1 km) data to produce regional estimates of the area burned, while higher spatial resolution...

  12. A Herbal Formula HT048, Citrus unshiu and Crataegus pinnatifida, Prevents Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and HFD-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available HT048 is a combination composed of Crataegus pinnatifida leaf and Citrus unshiu peel extracts. This study aimed to investigate potential anti-obesity effect of the combination. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of HT048 and triglyceride accumulation, glycerol release and adipogenesis-related genes were analyzed. For in vivo study, male Sprague Dawley rats were divided according to experimental diets: the chow diet group, the high-fat diet (HFD group, the HFD supplemented with orlistat group, the HFD supplemented with HT048 group (0.2% or 0.4% for 12 weeks. We measured the body weight, serum lipid levels and the expression of genes involved lipid metabolism. HT048 treatment dose-dependently suppressed adipocyte differentiation and stimulated glycerol release. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα mRNA were decreased by HT048 treatment in adipocytes. HT048 supplementation significantly reduced the body and fat weights in vivo. Serum lipid levels were significantly lower in the HT048 supplemented groups than those of the HFD group. Expression of the hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased and expression of the β-oxidation-related genes were increased in rats fed HT048 compared to that of animals fed HFD. These results suggest that HT048 has a potential benefit in preventing obesity through the inhibition of lipogenesis and adipogenesis.

  13. Multiple stress by repeated use of plant protection products in agricultural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik, R.; Zorn, M.I.; Brock, T.C.M.; Roex, E.W.M.; Linden, van der A.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Current risk assessment of plant protection products is performed on a formulated-product-by-formulated-product basis and does not take into account the fact that products may be mixed and/or that different products are used sequentially within a growing season. This report evaluates three

  14. First direct landscape-scale measurement of tropical rain forest Leaf Area Index, a key driver of global primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Clark; Paulo C. Olivas; Steven F. Oberbauer; Deborah A. Clark; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (leaf area per unit ground area, LAI) is a key driver of forest productivity but has never previously been measured directly at the landscape scale in tropical rain forest (TRF). We used a modular tower and stratified random sampling to harvest all foliage from forest floor to canopy top in 55 vertical transects (4.6 m2) across 500 ha of old growth in...

  15. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  16. Seasonal phenology and species composition of the aphid fauna in a northern crop production area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha M Kirchner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species diversity of aphids and seasonal timing of their flight activity can have significant impacts on crop production, as aphid species differ in their ability to transmit plant viruses and flight timing affects virus epidemiology. The aim of the study was to characterise the species composition and phenology of aphid fauna in Finland in one of the northernmost intensive crop production areas of the world (latitude 64°. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flight activity was monitored in four growing seasons (2007-010 using yellow pan traps (YPTs placed in 4-8 seed potato fields and a Rothamsted suction trap. A total of 58,528 winged aphids were obtained, identified to 83 taxa based on morphology, and 34 species were additionally characterised by DNA barcoding. Seasonal flight activity patterns analysed based on YPT catch fell into three main phenology clusters. Monoecious taxa showed early or middle-season flight activity and belonged to species living on shrubs/trees or herbaceous plants, respectively. Heteroecious taxa occurred over the entire potato growing season (ca. 90 days. Abundance of aphids followed a clear 3-year cycle based on suction trap data covering a decade. Rhopalosiphum padi occurring at the end of the potato growing season was the most abundant species. The flight activity of Aphis fabae, the main vector of Potato virus Y in the region, and Aphis gossypii peaked in the beginning of potato growing season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detailed information was obtained on phenology of a large number aphid species, of which many are agriculturally important pests acting as vectors of plant viruses. Aphis gossypii is known as a pest in greenhouses, but our study shows that it occurs also in the field, even far in the north. The novel information on aphid phenology and ecology has wide implications for prospective pest management, particularly in light of climate change.

  17. Role of Production Area, Seasonality and Age of Fermented Camel (Camelus Dromedarius Milk Gariss on Mineral Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the differences between some minerals content of gariss samples collected from two different production areas in two different production systems (i.e. traditional system Kordofan area and semi-intensive system- which, the camels are kept in an open barn and graze around the farm. The lactating female camels are supplemented with concentrates in addition to good quality ration containing groundnut cake and Sorghum biocolor and water supply upon required in Kordofan and Khartoum provinces in Sudan at the different seasons (summer, autumn and winter and their gariss samples were collected. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus of gariss samples collected in autumn season (Kordofan area, summer season (Khartoum area, and winter season (Khartoum and Kordofan areas were determined, after that the age of gariss was noted from farmers directly when the samples were collected. Four different ages of gariss which registered were (5-8 hrs, 12 hrs, 48 hrs and more than 48 hrs. Each fermentation time (age of gariss was used for analyzing mineral contents. The results showed that gariss prepared from different production locations and in different seasons in Kordofan and Khartoum production areas were statistically different in most of the mineral contents determined. To conclude, different feeding sources or different physiological status may affect camels’ milk and consequently their gariss product, also different age of gariss had affects the mineral content of milk.

  18. The Use of Woodland Products to Cope with Climate Variability in Communal Areas in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte S. Woittiez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common lands provide smallholder farmers in Africa with firewood, timber, and feed for livestock, and they are used to complement human diets through the collection of edible nontimber forest products (NTFPs. Farmers have developed coping mechanisms, which they deploy at times of climatic shocks. We aimed to analyze the importance of NTFPs in times of drought and to identify options that could increase the capacity to adapt to climate change. We used participatory techniques, livelihood analysis, observations, and measurements to quantify the use of NTFPs. Communities recognized NTFPs as a mechanism to cope with crop failure. We estimated that indigenous fruits contributed to approximately 20% of the energy intake of wealthier farmers and to approximately 40% of the energy intake of poor farmers in years of inadequate rainfall. Farmers needed to invest a considerable share of their time to collect wild fruits from deforested areas. They recognized that the effectiveness of NTFPs as an adaptation option had become threatened by severe deforestation and by illegal harvesting of fruits by urban traders. Farmers indicated the need to plan future land use to (1 intensify crop production, (2 cultivate trees for firewood, (3 keep orchards of indigenous fruit trees, and (4 improve the quality of grazing lands. Farmers were willing to cultivate trees and to organize communal conservation of indigenous fruits trees. Through participatory exercises, farmers elaborated maps, which were used during land use discussions. The process led to prioritization of pressing land use problems and identification of the support needed: fast-growing trees for firewood, inputs for crop production, knowledge on the cultivation of indigenous fruit trees, and clear regulations and compliance with rules for extraction of NTFPs. Important issues that remain to be addressed are best practices for regeneration and conservation, access rules and implementation, and the

  19. [Correlations between PBDEs and thyroid hormone concentrations in adults from production source area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Yuan; Jin, Jun; Yang, Cong-Qiao; Wang, Ying; Ding, Wen-Wei; Yang, Xian-Feng; Liu, An-Ming

    2011-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentrations in 36 resident serum samples from PBDEs production source area were analyzed by gas chromatography/negative chemical ionization/mass spectrometry(GC-NCI-MS) method, and the concentrations of thyroid hormones were determined as well. The sigma5PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -153, -183, -209) concentrations(lipid weight) in serum ranged from 130.3 to 4 478.4 ng x g(-1), with an average value of 529.9 ng x g(-1). BDE-209 was a dominant PBDE congener, on average accounting for 69.8% of the total PBDEs concentrations. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated between PBDEs and thyroid hormone, it showed that there were high significant negative correlation between BDE-28, -47, -153, -183 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and significant negative correlation was also found between BDE-183 and free thyroxine (fT4). Additionally, there were significant positive correlation between BDE-28, -47 and triiodothyronine (T3), as well as between BDE-28, -153, -183 and free triiodothyronine(fT3). In summary, the concentrations of PBDEs in serum in this study were at a high level, and BDE-209 was the predominant congener. The exposure to the PBDEs may affect thyroid hormone levels, and the further research should focus on the relationship between PBDEs and thyroid hormone concentrations.

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in atmosphere and soil of a production area in China: levels and partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Liu, Weizhi; Yang, Congqiao; Hu, Jicheng; Cui, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in atmosphere and soil samples taken in winter and summer at a PBDE production area of Laizhou Bay in China. The concentrations of Sigma11PBDE were 0.017-1.17 ng/m3 in gaseous phase, 0.5-161.1 ng/m3 in particulate phase, and 73-2629 ng/g dry weight in soil samples. The PBDE congener pattern in the gaseous phase differed from that in the particulate phase, and the PBDE congener pattern in the particulate phase was similar with that in soil. This demonstrated that there was little difference with atmospheric particle-soil transfer efficiency among PBDE congeners. In addition, there were seasonal variations in percentages on particle for lower brominated congeners. The BDE-28 was mostly in the gaseous phase in summer (88.3%), whereas the average proportion of BDE-28 in gaseous phase in winter was 38.9%. Higher brominated congeners (i.e., BDE-206, BDE-207, BDE-208, and BDE-209) were bound to the atmospheric particulate phase, and their potentials for long-range migration were mainly affected by the environmental behavior of atmospheric particles. Results indicated that PBDE congeners in summer were closer to gas-particle partition equilibrium than in winter. Temperature should be considered the main factor causing nonequilibrium in winter.

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in atmosphere and soil of a production area in China: Levels and partitioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jin; Ying Wang; Weizhi Liu; Congqiao Yang; Jicheng Hu; Jian Cui

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in atmosphere and soil samples taken in winter and summer at a PBDE production area of Laizhou Bay in China. The concentrations of ∑11 PBDE were 0.017-1.17 ng/m3 in gaseous phase, 0.5-161.1 ng/m3 in particulate phase, and 73-2629 ng/g dry weight in soil samples. The PBDE congener pattern in the gaseous phase differed from that in the particulate phase, and the PBDE congener pattern in the particulate phase was similar with that in soil. This demonstrated that there was little difference with atmospheric panicle-soil transfer efficiency among PBDE congeners. In addition, there were seasonal variations in percentages on particle for lower brominated congeners. The BDE-28 was mostly in the gaseous phase in summer (88.3%),whereas the average proportion of BDE-28 in gaseous phase in winter was 38.9%. Higher brominated congeners (i.e., BDE-206, BDE207, BDE-208, and BDE-209) were bound to the atmospheric particulate phase, and their potentials for long-range migration were mainly affected by the environmental behavior of atmospheric particles. Results indicated that PBDE congeners in summer were closer to gas-particle partition equilibrium than in winter. Temperature should be considered the main factor causing nonequilibrium in winter.

  2. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  3. Dose area product measurement for diagnostic reference levels and analysis of patient dose in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.; Lee, B.; Shin, G.; Choi, J.; Kim, J.; Park, C.; Park, H.; Lee, K.; Kim, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were suggested and patient doses were analysed through the dose-area product value in dental radiography. In intraoral radiography, at three sites, i.e. molar, premolar and incisor on the maxilla and acquired third quartile values: 55.5, 46 and 36.5 mGy cm 2 , respectively, were measured. In panoramic, cephalo-metric and cone beam computed tomography, the values were 120.3, 146 and 3203 mGy cm 2 (16 x 18 cm), respectively. It has been shown that, in intraoral radiography, the patient dose changes proportionally to the value of mA s, but the change in extra-oral radiography in response to mA s could not be confirmed. The authors could confirm, however, the difference in dose according to the manufacturer in all dental radiography examinations, except for panoramic radiography. Depending on the size of hospital, there were some differences in patient dose in intraoral radiography, but no difference in patient dose in extra-oral radiography. (authors)

  4. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  5. Dose area product evaluations with Gafchromic XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R

    2006-12-07

    Gafchromic XR-R films are a useful tool to evaluate entrance skin dose in interventional radiology. Another dosimetric quantity of interest in diagnostic and interventional radiology is the dose area product (DAP). In this study, a method to evaluate DAP using Gafchromic XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner was developed and tested. Film samples were exposed to an x-ray beam of 80 kVp over a dose range of 0-10 Gy. DAP measurements with films were obtained from the digitalization of a film sample positioned over the x-ray beam window during the exposure. DAP values obtained with this method were compared for 23 cardiological interventional procedures with DAP values displayed by the equipment. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the absorbed dose, with values below 6% for doses above 1 Gy. A maximum discrepancy of 16% was found, which is of the order of the differences in the DAP measurements that may occur with different calibration procedures. Based on the results presented, after an accurate calibration procedure and a thorough inspection of the relationship between the actual dose and the direct measured quantity (net optical density or net pixel value variation), Gafchromic XR-R films can be used to assess the DAP.

  6. Influence of land area and capital strengthening fund of rural economic enterprises toward corn production in North Sumatera province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanta

    2018-02-01

    Corn is one of the staple food crops. Corn can also be processed into various foods and also as animal feed. The need for corn will continue to increase from year to year so it is necessary to increase production. The government has targeted corn crop self-sufficiency to achieve the corn production standards required by the animal feed industry. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of land area and capital strengthening funds to rural economic enterprises on corn production. This study uses secondary data obtained from the Central Statistical Agency of North Sumatra Province. The research method used is panel regression method. The result shows that the area of land has a significant effect on corn production and the capital strengthening fund to the rural economy institution has an insignificant effect on corn production in North Sumatera Province.

  7. Larval and small juvenile cod Gadus morhua concentrated in the highly productive areas of a shelf break front

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Larsson, P.O.; Danielsen, D.

    1995-01-01

    describe the identified nursery areas of larvae/juveniles and analyse the connection between the distribution of cod and hydrographical (frontal) characteristics of the areas. A total area of 67000 km(2) was covered by stations in a 10 x 10 nautical mile grid. Salinity, temperature, NO3+NO2 and chlorophyll...... part of the investigation area, and within the zone of the front we observed enhanced primary production and abundance of both phyto- and zooplankton. The distribution of larval and juvenile cod was also related to the hydrography, the abundance of cod peaked within a restricted zone...

  8. Statistical Analysis of Long-Term Trend of Performance, Production and Cultivated Area of 17 Field Crops Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zareabyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any planning for the future requires estimates of future conditions. It is possible to study changes over time series. In this study, changes of production and cultivated area of 17 field crops of Khorasan Razavi province in a 25-year period were determined with Mann - Kendall test, Sen’s Estimator Slope and linear regression. Analysis of the three tests showed that performance of 76.5% from yield, 88.2% from area under cultivation and 55.8% from agricultural production were significant at the 0.01 and 0.05 level. On the other hand, trend of yields 58.8% was increase, 17.7% was reduced and 23.5% was no significant trend. Similarly, trend of 23.5% from area under cultivation was acreage, 64.7% was reduction, and 11.8% was no significant trend. For production variable, 29.4% was significantly increased and 29.4% was significant reduction. More detailed analysis showed that performance, production and area under cultivation of three crops of cotton, grain and tomatoes increased significantly. Results of all three methods showed the highest trend of negatively performance and area under cultivation variation is related to pea and melon respectively. Furthermore, most of the positive trend in production of tomatoes and grain, performance in onions, potatoes and tomatoes and area under cultivation in tomato observed. The results showed that linear trend and the nonparametric tests of important products of province: wheat, barley, sugar beet, cotton, melons, watermelons and tomatoes in 0.01 were significant. This result shows the importance of these yields in gross state province product.

  9. Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V.; Zhuravleva, L.A.; Marenny, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of 226 Ra and 232 Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 μSv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 μSv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 μSv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for 226 Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq/m 3 . The seasonal dependence

  10. Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V. [FSBI SRC A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE ' Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation); Marenny, A.M. [Ltd ' Radiation and Environmental Researches' (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 μSv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 μSv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 μSv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for {sup 226}Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq

  11. Productivity analysis of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umar, H. S.; Okoye, C. U.; Agwale, A. O

    2011-01-01

    The study assessed productivity levels of sesame farms under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. Multi-stage random sampling was used in selecting 96 sesame farmers; made up of 48 organic and 48 inorganic fertilizers users. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using Total Factor Productivity Analysis, OLS Regression Analysis and Gross Margin Analysis. Results show that sesame farmers who applied inorganic...

  12. Biología, distribución e integración del alga alóctona Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta en las comunidades bentónicas de las costas de Galicia (NW de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremades Ugarte, Javier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Undaria pinnatifida is an Asian seaweed that is valuable as an edible species. This kelp was first reported for Spain in the 1980s on Galician coasts, where it is now widely distributed and incorporated into the native community. In Galicia, intertidal populations of the sporophytic phase typically inhabit sites under moderate wave-exposure in the early spring, albeit they can be found throughout the year as the species displays at least two recruitment periods per year. The morphology varies between individuals and depends strongly on the spatiotemporal pattern of environmental conditions. The chronology of the introduction of this species and the types of habitat where it is currently integrated on Galician coasts clearly reveal that the presence and local expansion of this kelp is influenced largely by human activities, mainly shellfish aquaculture and maritime traffic. U. pinnatifida has a slow natural expansion, limited aggressiveness and it temporarily fills empty niches; this kelp displays luxuriant growth only on artificial substrates or in otherwise disturbed communities.Undaria pinnatifida es una especie asiática de gran interés económico como alga alimentaria que en la década de los ochenta apareció por primera vez en España en las costas de Galicia, donde actualmente se encuentra ampliamente distribuida y naturalizada. Las poblaciones intermareales de los esporófitos de esta especie en la costa gallega son propias de localidades moderadamente expuestas a la acción del oleaje, siendo muy notorias a principios de primavera; aunque pueden encontrarse casi todoel año, al existir al menos dos períodos anuales de reclutamiento. La morfología de los ejemplares que las forman es muy variable y está fuertemente relacionada con las variaciones espaciotemporales de las condiciones ambientales. Analizando la cronología de su introducción en Galicia y los hábitats y tipos de comunidades en las que se integra, se observa claramente

  13. High surface area starch products as filler-binder in direct compression tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierik, G.HP; Ramaker, J.S; Eissens, A.C; Bergsma, J; Arends-Scholte, A.W.; Lerk, C.F

    Amylodextrin and modified starch products were prepared from amylose-free starches and from (amylose containing) potato starch by enzymatic degradation, followed by precipitation and filtration. The intermediate retrograded starch products were dehydrated by drying at room temperature or washing

  14. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  15. Calibration methodology application of kerma area product meters in situ: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N. A.; Potiens, M. P. A.

    2014-11-01

    The kerma-area product (KAP) is a useful quantity to establish the reference levels of conventional X-ray examinations. It can be obtained by measurements carried out with a KAP meter on a plane parallel transmission ionization chamber mounted on the X-ray system. A KAP meter can be calibrated in laboratory or in situ, where it is used. It is important to use one reference KAP meter in order to obtain reliable quantity of doses on the patient. The Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC) is a new equipment from Radcal that measures KAP. It was manufactured following the IEC 60580 recommendations, an international standard for KAP meters. This study had the aim to calibrate KAP meters using the PDC in situ. Previous studies and the quality control program of the PDC have shown that it has good function in characterization tests of dosimeters with ionization chamber and it also has low energy dependence. Three types of KAP meters were calibrated in four different diagnostic X-ray equipments. The voltages used in the two first calibrations were 50 kV, 70 kV, 100 kV and 120 kV. The other two used 50 kV, 70 kV and 90 kV. This was related to the equipments limitations. The field sizes used for the calibration were 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm. The calibrations were done in three different cities with the purpose to analyze the reproducibility of the PDC. The results gave the calibration coefficient for each KAP meter and showed that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument to calibrate clinical KAP meters.

  16. Improving yield and water productivity of maize grown under deficit-irrigated in dry area conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Abd el-wahed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of water is the most severe constraint for development of maize in arid and semi-arid areas. Based on the actual crop need, the irrigation management has to be improved so that the water supply to the crop can be reduced while still achieving high yield. Therefore, the current study has been organized to evaluate the effects of deficit sprinkler irrigation (DSI and farmyard manure (FYM on Grain yield (GY and crop water productivity (CWP of corn, a 2-year experiment was conducted in arid region of Libya. The DSI treatments were (I100 = 100%, I85 = 85% or I70 = 70% of the crop evapotranspiration. FYM treatments were (0, 10 ton ha−1 spread either on the soil surface, incorporated with surface or subsurface layer (FYM10s, FYM10m or FYM10ss, respectively and 20 ton ha−1 spread as before (FYM20s, FYM20m or FYM20ss, respectively. Results indicated that the highest values of grain yield (GY were obtained from I100 treatment, while the lowest were observed in I70. FYM20ss enhanced GY than other FYM treatments in both seasons. The highest GY and CWP were recorded with I100 and received FYM20ss. It could be considered as a suitable under arid environmental conditions and similar regions, the treatment (I100 × FYM20ss is the most suitable for producing high GY and CWP. Under limited irrigation water, application of (I85 ×FYM20ss treatment was found to be favorable to save 15% of the applied irrigation water, at the time in which produced the same GY.

  17. Contemporary Australian dose area product levels in the fluoroscopic investigation of paediatric congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.; Brennan, P.C.; Mello-Thoms, C.; Ryan, E.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines radiation dose levels delivered to children from birth to 15 y of age in the investigation of congenital heart disease (CHD) at a major Sydney children's hospital. The aims are to compare values with those derived from similar studies, to provide a template for more consistent dose reporting, to establish local and national diagnostic reference levels and to contribute to the worldwide paediatric dosimetry database. A retrospective review of 1007 paediatric procedural records was undertaken. The cohort consisted of 795 patients over a period from January 2007 to December 2012 who have undergone cardiac catheterisation for the investigation of CHD. The age range included was from the day of birth to 15 y. Archived dose area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time (FT) readings were retrieved and analysed. The mean, median, 25. and 75. percentile DAP levels were calculated for six specific age groupings. The 75. percentile DAP values for the specific age categories were as follows: 0-30 d-1.9 Gy cm 2 , 1-12 months-2.9 Gy cm 2 , 1-3 y-5.3 Gy cm 2 , 3-5 y-6.2 Gy cm 2 , 5-10 y-7.5 Gy cm 2 and 10-15 y-17.3 Gy cm 2 . These levels were found to be lower than the values reported in comparable overseas studies. Individual year-specific levels were determined, and it is proposed that these are more useful than the common grouping method. The age-specific 75. percentile DAP levels outlined in this study can be used as baseline local diagnostic reference levels. The needs for the standardisation of DAP reporting and for a greater range of age-specific diagnostic reference levels have been highlighted. For the first time, Australian dose values for paediatric cardiac catheterisation are presented. (authors)

  18. Performance evaluation of turbomachinery in the petroleum exploration and production area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alisson Cardoso Gomes da [Petrobras Santos Basin Exploration and Production Operation Unit, Santos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: alissoncardoso@petrobras.com.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [State University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], e-mail: soj@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    In light of the recent discoveries of new oil and natural gas reserves in the coast of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states, it will be required a large amount of investments for the development of hydrocarbons exploration and production. In this scenario, the turbomachinery play a crucial role because of its strong influence in the areas of power generation and ensuring the flow of current oil and natural gas produced in offshore platforms to the continent. Among the turbomachinery, it is possible to highlight gas turbines and centrifugal compressors, since they have high reliability, high thermodynamic efficiency and great operation and maintenance flexibility. However, gas turbines and centrifugal compressors show performance characteristics that distinctly depend on ambient and operating conditions. They are not only influenced by site elevation, ambient temperature and relative humidity, but also by the speed of the driven equipment, the fuel and the load conditions. Because of that, performance testing of gas turbines and compressors has become increasingly common due to the need to verify efficiency, power, fuel flow, capacity and head of the packages upon delivery. This paper suggests the use of seven performance parameters that generally describe the performance of a gas turbine and centrifugal compressor. Special consideration will be given to show a comprehensive view of the physical models and mathematical formulations required for evaluating this seven performance parameters based on the basic relationships of pressure, temperature, flow and head. Since the test conditions are rarely fully controlled, it will be discussed an approach to perform measurement uncertainties analysis, with the interest of assuring results validity. Finally, the paper present some considerations for conduct a proper performance evaluation test. (author)

  19. Regional myocardial flow and capillary permeability-surface area products are nearly proportional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J H; Martin, G V; Raymond, G M; Bassingthwaighte, J B

    1994-08-01

    Analyses of data on the transcapillary exchange and cellular uptake in the normal heart have generally been based on the assumption that local membrane conductances and volumes of distribution are everywhere the same. The question is whether such an assumption is justified in view of the marked (sixfold) heterogeneity of local blood flows per gram tissue. The method was to estimate both flow and capillary membrane permeability-surface area products (PS) locally in the heart. For each of five dogs running on a sloped treadmill, the deposition of tracer microspheres and of [131I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA), after left atrial injection, was determined in 256 pieces of left ventricular myocardium by killing the animals at approximately 100 s after radiotracer injection. A hydraulic occluder stopped the flow to a portion of the myocardium supplied by the left circumflex coronary artery 30 s before tracer injection. Regional flows ranged from 0.1 to 7.0 ml.g-1.min-1. IPPA extractions ranged from 20 to 49%. Using the known flows, we assumed the applicability of an axially distributed blood-tissue exchange model to estimate the PS for the capillary (PSc) and the parenchymal cell. It was impossible to explain the data if the PSc values for membrane transport were uniform throughout the organ. Rather, the only reasonable descriptors of the data required that local PSc values increase with local flow, almost in proportion. Current methods of analysis using data based on deposition methods need to be revised to take into account the near proportionality of PS to flow for at least some substrates.

  20. Research regarding agro-tourism stage in Apuseni Mountains area and capitalize of traditional products through this

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Most studies have shown that rural tourism combined with rural resources and traditional products would be an important "tool" for revitalizing the rural economy, and that they should be essential components of the rural economy development strategy, desirable goal for Apuseni Mountains. A great part of the localities from this area are great keeper of traditions. If on the customs and traditions we put the mountain natural resources and specific traditional products results a valuable tourist product that could local increase revenue and attract young people in rural areas. Many rural areas have a potentially remarkable natural and cultural history, and those who developed the required tourist infrastructure (boarding/private farms, and realized tourist opportunity and have used it with success.

  1. EVALUATION OF PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY AT THE WILDLIFE PROTECTED AREA, "NEVADO DE TOLUCA" MEXICO, DURING THE DRY SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martínez-Hernández

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on grassland primary productivity for the wildlife protected area Nevado de Toluca (APFF Nevado de Toluca. We evaluated three communities in this area during dry season: Loma Alta, La Peñuela y Agua Blanca. Following Hodgson (1994, for this study we used exclusion cages. Vegetation was cut every 28 days during a five months sampling period. A randomized block design was used, where the blocks represented the grassland communities and the different months constituted treatments. The month of September showed the higher production (610.3 kg/ha DM. No significant differences were observed among communities (P >0.05. In conclusion, these communities have similar low primary productivity through the evaluation dry season months, which in addition was found lower in comparison to other areas, therefore livestock grazing in this region should be limited this season.

  2. Radon and its decay product activities in the magmatic area and the adjacent volcano-sedimentary Intrasudetic Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Solecki, A. T.; Puchala, R.; Tchorz, D.

    2007-01-01

    In the magmatic area of Sudetes covering the Karkonosze granite and adjacent volcano-sedimentary Intrasudetic Basin a study of atmospheric radon activity was performed by means of SSNTD Kodak LR-115. The study was completed by gamma spectrometric survey of eU and eTh determined by gamma activity of radon decay products 214Bi and 208Tl respectively. In the case of the western part of the Karkonosze granite area the radon decay products activity in the granitic basement was ...

  3. Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Das, Anubrata; Bardoloi, R K

    2009-10-01

    Data on pig production system was derived through structured household interviews from a total number of 320 rural households and performance of pigs was assessed. Results revealed that the pig production system represented mixed farming based mainly on the common property resources. Majority of the pigs were reared in intensive system and fed with home made cooked feed (kitchen waste and locally available plants). The body weight of crossbred, Burmese and local pigs were 67, 65.4 and 45.6 kg, respectively at 12 months of age with average daily body weight of 184, 179 and 125 g, respectively. The overall mortality among the pigs was 17.96%. The major causes of mortality in pigs were Swine fever, Swine erysipelas, digestive disorders, nephritis and respiratory disorders. The body weight gain in pigs subjected to deworming and mineral mixture supplementation (218 g/day) was significantly (p pigs, while the corresponding ratio for local pigs was 1:1.2. It is inferred that the smallholder resource driven pig production system is economically viable and sustainable at household level and there is enough scope to improve the smallholder resource driven pig production system.

  4. A new generation of starch products as excipient in pharmaceutical tablets .2. High surface area retrograded pregelatinized potato starch products in sustained-release tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TeWierik, GHP; Eissens, AC; ArendsScholte, AW; Lerk, CF

    1997-01-01

    A new linear short-chain starch product was prepared by gelatinization of potato starch followed by enzymatic degradation, precipitation (retrogradation) and filtration. A high specific surface area was subsequently created by washing with ethanol or acetone or freeze-drying. Tablets compressed from

  5. A new generation of starch products as excipient in pharmaceutical tablets .1. Preparation and binding properties of high surface area potato starch products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierik, GHPT; ArendsScholte, AW; Eissens, AC; Lerk, CF

    1996-01-01

    A new pharmaceutical excipient with a high binding capacity was prepared from potato starch by enzymatic degradation, followed by suitable dehydration of the precipitated and filtered retrograded starch to produce high specific surface area products. Thermal dehydration methods like drying at room

  6. The effect of contraceptive use on labor Woman Productivity at PT Bomar Makassar Industrial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Masni; Isnawati, Andi; Darmawansyah

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Work productivity is potential on the survival of a company. The use of contraceptives can affect the physiology of each woman, so it can affect daily activitiesand resulted in labor productivity. The aim of this study was todetermine the effect of contraceptive use on labor woman productivity.Study with cross sectional design involves 71 women workersof PT. Bomar Makassar who had got married. Data were found by interview using questionnaire and then analyze using univariate, b...

  7. A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing-First public demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Norrman, Kion

    2009-01-01

    , complete processing in air using commonly available screen printing, and finally, simple mechanical encapsulation using a flexible packaging material and electrical contacting post-production using crimped contacts. We detail the production of more than 2000 modules in one production run and show......A complete polymer solar cell module prepared in the ambient atmosphere under industrial conditions is presented. The versatility of the polymer solar cell technology is demonstrated through the use of abstract forms for the active area, a flexible substrate, processing entirely from solution...

  8. Evaluation of Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects in Phenolrich Fraction of Crataegus pinnatifida Fruit in Hyperlipidemia Rats and Identification of Chemical Composition by Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadropole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Gu, Lifei; Chen, Huijuan; Liu, Ronghua; Huang, Huilian; Chen, Lanying; Yang, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruit has enjoyed a great popularity as a pleasant-tasting food associated with hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Objective: Our aim was to screen the effective fraction of hawthorn fruit in the treatment of hyperlipidemia rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, ethanol extract of hawthorn fruit (Fr.1) and four fractionated extracts (Fr.2, Fr.3, Fr.4, and Fr.5) were compared to total phenol content evaluated using Folin–Ciocalteu method, and hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects were assessed in hyperlipidemic rats. Results: Total phenol content of Fr.4 was higher than other fractions by at least 2 fold. Furthermore, this fraction possessed the strongest hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in hyperlipidemic rats. On this basis, 15 phenolic compounds and four organic acids in Fr.4 were positively or tentatively identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In addition, 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid butyl ester was first reported in hawthorn fruit. Conclusion: Phenol-rich fraction in hawthorn fruit exhibited satisfactory hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects, and this could be exploited for further promotion of functional foods. SUMMARY Phenol-rich fraction in hawthorn fruit possesses most potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in hyperlidemia rats. Abbreviations used: UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS: Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry; TC: Total cholesterol; TG: Triglyceride; LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; GSH-Px: Glutathione peroxidase; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; MDA: Malondialdehyde; CAT: Catalase; NO: Nitric oxide; NOS: Nitric oxide synthase; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; •OOH: Superoxide anions, •OH: Hydroxyl radicals. PMID:29200740

  9. Product kerma in the air-area and radiation dose in dental radiodiagnosis; Produto kerma ar-area e dose efetiva em radiodiagnostico odontologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alessandro Martins da, E-mail: amcosta@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    The main purpose of patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology is to determine dosimetric quantities for the establishment and use of reference levels and comparative risk assessment. In recent publications the use of the air kerma-area product, PKA, has been suggested in dental radiology, as this quantity is more closely related to risk. The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary survey of PKA and effective dose in different types of dental examinations. The future perspective is a large-scale survey for the establishment and use of diagnostic reference levels in dentistry in Brazil. (author)

  10. Product kerma air area and effective dose in dental radiology; Produto kerma no ar-area e dose efetiva em radiodiagnostico odontologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Rodrigo A.P.; Souza, M. Daiane M.; Costa, Alessandro M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology is to determine dosimetric quantities for the establishment and use of reference levels and comparative risk assessment. The use of the air kerma-area product, P{sub KA}, has been suggested in dental radiology, as this quantity is more closely related to risk. The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary survey of P{sub KA} and effective dose in different types of dental examinations. The future perspective is a large-scale survey for the establishment and use of diagnostic reference levels in dentistry in Brazil. (author)

  11. Product kerma air area and effective dose in dental radiology; Produto kerma no ar area e dose efetiva em radiodiagnostico odontologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Rodrigo A.P.; Souza, Daiane M.; Costa, Alessandro M., E-mail: rodrigomauro@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology is to determine dosimetric quantities for the establishment and use of reference levels and comparative risk assessment. The use of the air kerma-area product, P{sub KA}, has been suggested in dental radiology, as this quantity is more closely related to risk. The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary survey of P{sub KA} and effective dose in different types of dental examinations. The future perspective is a large-scale survey for the establishment and use of diagnostic reference levels in dentistry in Brazil. (author)

  12. Productivity and efficiency of economic activity of the Lower Silesia's large area farms in comparison with other large area farms in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Minta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows economical and financial situation of the agricultural companies which have most of the grounds in lease. Analysed objects were settled on Lower Silesia (the province in the south – west Poland. The main part of the results of research was about productivity and efficiency of economic resources in these objects. The research was made in years 2000-2002. The results of research in analyzed Lower Silesia’s companies were compared with the best Polish large area farms in order of law and organisation forms: leased farms, private farms and partnerships of Polish public agency AWRSP.

  13. Animal health and production in the Tihama area of the Yemen Arab Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford, K.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock and poultry production throughout the Tihama has developed to suit the agricultural necessities of the region. Livestock in general exist off agricultural by-products and semi-arid land and are not in competition with the human requirement for grains. Such economic production needs not be modified in its essentials. Rinderpest, foot and mouth disease and contagious caprine pleuro pneumonia are the major hindrance to livestock productivity. Malnutrition though a problem can easily be countered with phosphorus and other mineral supplementation.

  14. Impact of salinity on the production of tomato along the coastal areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coast of Benin lies on a wide bay in the Gulf of Guinea called the Bight of Benin, about 125 km between Togo and Nigeria. The coastal areas of Benin cover part of the cultivable lands of the country. A total of 15 tomato varieties were recorded in the areas of study. The characteristics of each variety grown under salinity ...

  15. Spatial products available for identifying areas of likely wildfire ignitions using lightning location data-Wildland Fire Assessment System (WFAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Sopko; Larry Bradshaw; Matt Jolly

    2016-01-01

    The Wildland Fire Assessment System (WFAS, www.wfas.net) is a one-stop-shop giving wildland fire managers the ability to assess fire potential ranging in scale from national to regional and temporally from 1 to 5 days. Each day, broad-area maps are produced from fire weather station and lightning location networks. Three products are created using 24 hour...

  16. A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durlinger, Bart; Durlinger, B.P.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Toxopeus, Marten E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to

  17. 78 FR 45181 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-31-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 230--Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., (Foil-Backed Paperboard), Winston-Salem, North Carolina On March 25, 2013, the Piedmont Triad Partnership...

  18. Diversity of governance arrangements for indigenous natural products in communal areas of Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndeinoma, A.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2017-01-01

    In several countries, it has been observed that development of policies and regulations for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) rarely follows a systematic approach. This paper characterises the diversity of governance arrangements for accessing and marketing indigenous natural products in communal

  19. Mixed crop-livestock production systems of smallholder farmers in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, J.C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on the other. In Zambia, crop production depends on draught animals for tillage of cropping area, animal manure for fertilisation of crops while livestock depend on crop residues for dry season feeding. Good quality grass is generally available in adequate amounts to support reasonable level of livestock productivity during the rainy season. But livestock rely on low quantity and poor quality, highly fibrous perennial grass from veld and fibrous crop residues during the dry season. These resources are inadequate to support optimum livestock productivity activities. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to diseases. With the increasing human population cropping land is expanding, leading to increased production of crop residues. This has however, reduced the grazing land available for ruminant production. In Zambia large quantities of crop residues (stovers, husks and straws, legume tops and hulls, sugar cane tops, cassava leaves, potato vines, etc.) are left in the field where they are wasted each year because small-scale farmers lack the knowledge on how best to use them. There is a need to find ways to reverse this situation by adapting known and workable technologies to local conditions and by introducing new approaches for improving the use of crop residues and poor quality fibrous feeds. Efforts should also be made to enlarge feed resource base. The technologies should be simple and effective. In the presence of a dynamic market system, livestock production in a crop/livestock system could be intensified and made profitable for small-scale farmers. (author)

  20. Presentation of the results of 1993-1994 of the peat production research area; Turvetuotanto - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.

    1996-12-31

    The development target of the peat production research area of the Biomass research programme is to improve the competitivity of peat by reducing the production costs by 20 % (5-6 FIM/MWh) from the level of 1992 and to reduce the environmental load. The main targets of peat production, by which the target can be met, are ditching and preparation technologies, drying technology, machine technology, methodology, integration of wood harvesting and peat production, and application of the results of the Optimiturve research programme in practice. The objectives of the peat production research are possible to meet if the partial targets are met. Increment of the open-ditch distance from 20 m to 60 m reduces the production costs by 5.0 %, increment of the rate of utilization of solar radiation from 30 % to 40 % reduces the production costs by 8 %, reduction of the amount of residual peat from 3000 MWh to 1500 MWh reduces the costs by 6.5 %, development of light and firesafe machines by 3 %, and integrated harvesting of wood by 3 %. Meeting of the partial targets reduces the production costs by 24 %. The main research areas of peat production will be carried out further. The total funding of the peat production researches in 1993-1994 was 19.4 million FIM (9.7 million FIM/a). The share of the total funding of the research organization projects has been 6.7 million FIM and that of the company projects 12.7 million FIM. The share of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry of the funding has been 9.0 million FIM (46 %)

  1. Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  2. Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  3. Production of the Large-area Plastic Scintillator for Beta-ray Detection using Epoxy Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Seok; Hong, Sang Bum; Seo, Bum Kyung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared a plastic scintillator whose manufacturing process is simple and can be freely shaped. A thin plate of the plastic scintillator was manufactured using epoxy resin as a polymer. The plastic scintillator was made by mixing epoxy resin and organic scintillators under various conditions. The optimal mixture ratio to prepare the plastic scintillator was derived from the above results. Using the derived results, we made the large-area plastic scintillator which can quickly measure the contamination site and evaluated characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator in the laboratory. A thin plate of a plastic scintillator with a simple preparation process can be freely shaped using epoxy resin and organic scintillators such as PPO and POPOP. PPO emits scintillation of light in the ultraviolet range, and POPOP is a wave shifter for moving the wavelength responsible for the PMT. The mixture ratio of PPO and POPOP was determined using their emission spectra. The optimal weight percentage of PPO and POPOP in an organic scintillator was determined to be 0.2 wt%:0.01 wt%. Based on the above results, the large-area plastic scintillator of the window size of a typical pancake-type αβ surface contamination counter was prepared. We want to evaluate the characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. However, there were the difficulties in evaluating characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. The cross-sectional area of the large-area plastic scintillator is significantly different to PMT

  4. Production of the Large-area Plastic Scintillator for Beta-ray Detection using Epoxy Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Seok; Hong, Sang Bum; Seo, Bum Kyung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we prepared a plastic scintillator whose manufacturing process is simple and can be freely shaped. A thin plate of the plastic scintillator was manufactured using epoxy resin as a polymer. The plastic scintillator was made by mixing epoxy resin and organic scintillators under various conditions. The optimal mixture ratio to prepare the plastic scintillator was derived from the above results. Using the derived results, we made the large-area plastic scintillator which can quickly measure the contamination site and evaluated characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator in the laboratory. A thin plate of a plastic scintillator with a simple preparation process can be freely shaped using epoxy resin and organic scintillators such as PPO and POPOP. PPO emits scintillation of light in the ultraviolet range, and POPOP is a wave shifter for moving the wavelength responsible for the PMT. The mixture ratio of PPO and POPOP was determined using their emission spectra. The optimal weight percentage of PPO and POPOP in an organic scintillator was determined to be 0.2 wt%:0.01 wt%. Based on the above results, the large-area plastic scintillator of the window size of a typical pancake-type αβ surface contamination counter was prepared. We want to evaluate the characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. However, there were the difficulties in evaluating characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. The cross-sectional area of the large-area plastic scintillator is significantly different to PMT.

  5. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Algal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Machu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis. HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g−1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g−1, respectively. A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99. Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  6. Examining the roles that changing harvested areas, closing yield-gaps, and increasing yield ceilings have had on crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, there has been tremendous effort to examine strategies for sustainably increasing agricultural production to meet this surging global demand. Before developing new solutions from scratch, though, we believe it is important to consult our recent agricultural history to see where and how agricultural production changes have already taken place. By utilizing the newly created temporal M3 cropland datasets, we can for the first time examine gridded agricultural yields and area, both spatially and temporally. This research explores the historical drivers of agricultural production changes, from 1965-2005. The results will be presented spatially at the global-level (5-min resolution), as well as at the individual country-level. The primary research components of this study are presented below, including the general methodology utilized in each phase and preliminary results for soybean where available. The complete assessment will cover maize, wheat, rice, soybean, and sugarcane, and will include country-specific analysis for over 200 countries, states, territories and protectorates. Phase 1: The first component of our research isolates changes in agricultural production due to variation in planting decisions (harvested area) from changes in production due to intensification efforts (yield). We examine area/yield changes at the pixel-level over 5-year time-steps to determine how much each component has contributed to overall changes in production. Our results include both spatial patterns of changes in production, as well as spatial maps illustrating to what degree the production change is attributed to area and/or yield. Together, these maps illustrate where, why, and by how much agricultural production has changed over time. Phase 2: In the second phase of our research we attempt to determine the impact that area and yield changes have had on agricultural production at the country-level. We calculate a production

  7. AREAS FOR INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS IMPLEMENTATION IN THE INSURANCE MARKET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Tretiak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the prospects for the implementation of the investment life insurance in Ukraine. The study analysed the experience of foreign countries in the investment life insurance market development. Also, an analysis of existing definitions for the "unit-linked" term is carried out; the result is the conclusion that they are limited to only a descriptive characteristic that relates to a particular aspect of the product. Upon that, a comprehensive definition is absent at all now. Methods. The study is based on a comparison of "unitlinked" products with the traditional life insurance, which exist in the world practice. Practical importance. Increase in the inflow of long-term resources in the Ukrainian economy through the implementation of an innovative unitlinked product. Transformation of the life insurance industry into the high-margin business sphere in Ukraine. Importance/originality. A technique of constructing an innovative unit-linked product depending on the specifics of the domestic insurance market performance is developed. Results. The article considers in depth the specific features of unit-linked products, which distinguish this life insurance type from the classic accumulative insurance. In addition, it highlights other important characteristics such as a high level of flexibility and transparency of all the components. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of unit-linked products are considered as compared to alternative products, its classification is held for the selected parameter group. The estimations of the unit-linked product development prospects, as well as its influence on the growth of the insurance market, are made. The study justifies the legislative consolidation of the investment life insurance along with a number of expansionary measures successfully implemented in Eastern European countries, which are similar to Ukraine. The result within the framework of this direction is the

  8. Impact of salinity on the production of tomato along the coastal areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ishola

    input use, land availability, cultivated areas in 2009, and cost price. SPSS was used for .... of farmers produced tomato in an open air without any measure of protection. ..... Impact of climate change on agriculture in Asia and the. Pacific.

  9. Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, M.; Theuws, P.; Duchhart, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation

  10. A Basal Area Increment-Based Approach of Site Productivity Evaluation for Multi-Aged and Mixed Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of forest site productivity are essential for environmental planning and forest management. In this study, we developed a new productivity index, hereafter termed basal area potential productivity index (BAPP, to estimate site productivity for irregular and complex forests characterized by multi-aged, multi-species, and multi-layer stands. We presented the biological relevance of BAPP with its computational details. We also compared BAPP against basal area realized productivity (BARP in order to verify the practicability and reliability of BAPP. Time-series data of the national forest inventory on 1912 permanent sample plots that were located in two main forest types and consisted of oak-dominated mixed forests and other broadleaf forests in northeast China were used to demonstrate the application of BAPP. The results showed that the value of BAPP for each sample plot was larger than or equal to the corresponding BARP value for each forest type. For appropriately managed stands with relatively better site conditions, the values of both BARP and BAPP were almost identical. The values of the difference between BAPP and BARP could therefore be used to effectively assess forest site productivity. Meanwhile, BAPP also provides much reliable and valuable information that can aid decision-making in forest management.

  11. Interdependence between body surface area and ultraviolet B dose in vitamin D production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, M K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, P A

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation.......Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation....

  12. A Cost-Constrained Sampling Strategy in Support of LAI Product Validation in Mountainous Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofei Yin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid on leaf area index (LAI retrieval in mountainous areas. Mountainous areas present extreme topographic variability, and are characterized by more spatial heterogeneity and inaccessibility compared with flat terrain. It is difficult to collect representative ground-truth measurements, and the validation of LAI in mountainous areas is still problematic. A cost-constrained sampling strategy (CSS in support of LAI validation was presented in this study. To account for the influence of rugged terrain on implementation cost, a cost-objective function was incorporated to traditional conditioned Latin hypercube (CLH sampling strategy. A case study in Hailuogou, Sichuan province, China was used to assess the efficiency of CSS. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, land cover type, and slope were selected as auxiliary variables to present the variability of LAI in the study area. Results show that CSS can satisfactorily capture the variability across the site extent, while minimizing field efforts. One appealing feature of CSS is that the compromise between representativeness and implementation cost can be regulated according to actual surface heterogeneity and budget constraints, and this makes CSS flexible. Although the proposed method was only validated for the auxiliary variables rather than the LAI measurements, it serves as a starting point for establishing the locations of field plots and facilitates the preparation of field campaigns in mountainous areas.

  13. Secondary production of the fiddler crab Uca rapax from mangrove areas under anthropogenic eutrophication in the Western Atlantic, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tarso de M M; Soares-Gomes, Abilio

    2015-12-30

    Fiddler crabs Uca rapax were analyzed in three mangrove areas located in both a lagoon and estuarine system in order to study the influence of eutrophication on their population dynamics and production. Populations at the three sites showed a biased sex ratio. Densities were similar at the three sites, but biomass was higher at the lagoon system. Despite biomass being higher at the most eutrophic site, this site exhibited the lowest production. Regarding age structure, the population inhabiting the less eutrophic site mainly comprised younger crabs. The lower production and smaller P/B ratio found in the more eutrophic site were most likely consequences of a high mortality rate and an aged population. Our study evidences the high plasticity of the fiddler crab U. rapax, and confirms secondary production and P/B ratio estimates as useful tools to assess the effects of environmental change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A patient dose survey for femoral arteriogram diagnostic radiographic examinations using a dose-area product meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, J.H.; Rafferty, M.W.; Gray, N.; Black, J.; Stock, B.

    1996-01-01

    A patient dose survey was carried out for femoral arteriogram procedures at the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The procedure involves fluoroscopy to the pelvic region to locate a guide wire and catheter, followed by a series of radiographs extending from the pelvic area to the feet to form a collage image of the entire arterial system. Radiographs are taken whilst a bolus of contrast media is injected into the arterial system. A dose-area product meter was used to determine the dose-area product delivered to patients. Radiographic and patient details were logged with dose-area product for each part of each procedure. Mean energy imparted, mean effective dose and effective dose equivalent are calculated for the examinations. Calculated effective doses are shown to produce results consistent with those of other authors. We present a method for dealing with a complex radiographic procedure including multiple radiographs and fluoroscopy in an attempt to provide a simple way of calculating effective dose from which a general risk factor can be determined. The effective dose varies considerably from examination to examination due to the large range in the number of radiographs taken in any one procedure. A useful index can be obtained by logging the number of radiographs in each region, and fluoroscopy time, from which the effective dose may be easily calculated. These measurements extend a continuing survey of doses for common diagnostic radiographic examinations which previously included the simple examinations: lumbar spine, abdoment and pelvis. (author)

  15. Practices of farmers in production and marketing of tomato in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iwuchukwu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study described socio-economic characteristics, production, consumption and marketing patterns of tomato farmers as well as constraints they encounter in tomato production in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty tomato farmers randomly selected form twelve villages in the area constituted sample for the study. Data were collected with interview schedule and questionnaire and were presented with frequency, percentage and mean scores. Findings show that the respondents were mainly married (71% women (72.5% who were literate with mean age and mean farming experience of 42.22 years and 17.21years respectively. Greater proportion of the respondents grew tomatoes on communal land (31.7% with personal savings (42.5% and hired labour (45%. They grew tomatoes during rainy season (54.1% using personal reserved seeds (53.3%. Lack/poor storage facility (M=2.00 and fluctuation in price of tomato (M = 2.13 were some of the serious constraints to production and marketing of tomatoes respectively in the area. The study recommends that government, non-governmental organisations, self help development organisations/agencies as well as philanthropists should assist in provision of storage facilities for tomatoes so as to reduce losses and ensure preservation and availability of the product all year round at reasonable and stable price.

  16. Endosulfan in water soils and fruits usage impact in a production intensive rural area of vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, R.; Stapff, M.; Mandl, B.; Franchi, S.; Enrich, N.; Campelo, E.

    2007-01-01

    The first phase of a project aimed to detect agrochemical remainders in soil, fruits and groundwater was carried out in four rural properties located in the vegetable and fruit production region of Salto. The presence of endosulfan was tracked because the alert was given from Europe about the withdrawal of this chemical from the authorized product list, considering that it may be a potencial threat with long persistence for human health. From this first sampling phase was concluded that there is a high persistence in soil, in harvested fruit the remainings found stay below the Maximum Limits for Residuum of the Alimentarius Codex, and it is not detected at all in groundwater. The advantages of working with an interdisciplinary approach were highly valuable to perform this study of the impact of the remainings of one of the chemicals currently used for the agricultural production in our country

  17. Wastewater Reuse: An Economic Perspective to Identify Suitable Areas for Poplar Vegetation Filter Systems for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Viccaro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest towards climate change, water and energy saving, and soil protection has led the research community to consider non-conventional water as a sustainable source for irrigation of energy crops. Vegetation filter systems are considered a reliable technique for sustainable biomass cultivation, enabling the use of reclaimed wastewater as water and nutrients sources during irrigation periods. In this study, a geographic information system (GIS-based spatial model was developed to identify areas potentially suitable for creating vegetation filter systems with poplars to size the plants of energy production. An economic assessment allowed us to identify the cost-effectiveness areas for biomass production that can be fertigated by reclaimed wastewater. Considering the Basilicata region as the test region, a surface area of 258,512 ha was investigated, identifying 73,331 ha of SRF soils sited downstream of 45 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. However, considering only areas that have positive net present value and are economically attractive, results indicate 1606 ha of SRF falling within the areas of influence of 39 WWTPs. The results show that the sector of dedicated crops, adjacent and linked with WWTPs, expresses a total capacity of 50.56 MW for thermal, 8.25 MW for electricity, and 31 MW for cogeneration (25.07 MWt and 5.94 MWe plants.

  18. The Boolean Algebra of Cubical Areas as a Tensor Product in the Category of Semilattices with Zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Ninin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a model of concurrency together with an algebraic structure reflecting the parallel composition. For the sake of simplicity we restrict to linear concurrent programs i.e. the ones with no loops nor branching. Such programs are given a semantics using cubical areas. Such a semantics is said to be geometric. The collection of all these cubical areas enjoys a structure of tensor product in the category of semi-lattice with zero. These results naturally extend to fully fledged concurrent programs up to some technical tricks.

  19. Limits to intensity of milk production in sandy areas in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, H.F.M.; Habekotté, B.; Keulen, van H.

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural land in sandy areas is mainly in use by dairy farms. As a result of intensive fertilisation and irrigation, environmental quality is threatened by lost nutrients and lowered groundwater levels. Therefore, Dutch government put decreasing limits to losses of nutrients, with lowest values

  20. Application of production geochemistry for new exploration of the Cicuco - Boquete - Violo area: Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Antonio; Gonzalez, Santiago; Posada, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    This study involves the oil geochemical evaluation of twenty-eight (28) wells in the Cicuco-Boquete area with the purpose to establish reservoir continuity, to infer pathways of hydrocarbon migration and opportunities for new explorations in the area. As for reservoir connectivity, the Momposina and Boquilla fields are not connected among themselves or to the Cicuco-Boquete fields and the Cicuco-Boquete oils seem constitute various subgroups, indicating stratigraphic and/or structural discontinuities inside their reservoirs. The Cienaga de Oro formation is the main source rock in the area and their extracts show correlation with crude oils from the Cicuco-Boquete fields. As for the pathway of migration related to the Cienaga de Oro Formation, the generation zone can be divided in at least three areas, related to the two main faulting tendencies. These are four different migration routes related to the accumulations of: 1) Cicuco-boquete; 2) Momposina-1; 3) Ayombe-1 and Guepaje-1; and, 4) Apure-1 and Apure-2X. Regarding new exploration opportunities, it is suggested that structures located along the migration route be evaluated, especially those structures along the migration pathway

  1. The Finnish multisource national forest inventory: small-area estimation and map production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkki Tomppo

    2009-01-01

    A driving force motivating development of the multisource national forest inventory (MS-NFI) in connection with the Finnish national forest inventory (NFI) was the desire to obtain forest resource information for smaller areas than is possible using field data only without significantly increasing the cost of the inventory. A basic requirement for the method was that...

  2. Transportation costs for forest products from the Puget Sound area and Alaska to Pacific Rim markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold W. Wisdom

    1990-01-01

    Ocean freight rates to Pacific Rim markets for softwood logs, cants, and wood pulp from Alaska were compared with rates from the Puget Sound area by using analysis of covariance and analysis of variance techniques. The results did not support the hypothesis that lower freight rates for Alaska result from shorter shipping distances. In many cases, ocean freight rates...

  3. On scaling of scientific knowledge production in U.S. metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nomaler, Önder; Frenken, Koen; Heimeriks, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Using data on all scientific publications from the Scopus database, we find a superlinear scaling effect for U.S. metropolitan areas as indicated by the increase of per capita publication output with city size. We also find that the variance of residuals is much higher for mid-sized cities (100,000

  4. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; Świ ȩtosławski, J.; Świ ȩtosławski, J.

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: "Cockroach Kill Gel" for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  5. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J.

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: 'Cockroach Kill Gel' for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change

  6. Evaluation of SMOS soil moisture products over the CanEx-SM10 area

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Earth observation satellite was launched in November 2009 to provide global soil moisture and ocean salinity measurements based on L-Band passive microwave measurements. Since its launch, different versions of SMOS soil moisture products processors have be...

  7. Size-density metrics, leaf area, and productivity in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. C. Innes; M. J. Ducey; J. H. Gove; W. B. Leak; J. P. Barrett

    2005-01-01

    Size-density metrics are used extensively for silvicultural planning; however, they operate on biological assumptions that remain relatively untested. Using data from 12 even-aged stands of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) growing in southern New Hampshire, we compared size-density metrics with stand productivity and its biological components,...

  8. The use of woodland products to cope with climate variability in communal areas in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, L.S.; Rufino, M.C.; Giller, K.E.; Mapfumo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Common lands provide smallholder farmers in Africa with firewood, timber, and feed for livestock, and they are used to complement human diets through the collection of edible nontimber forest products (NTFPs). Farmers have developed coping mechanisms, which they deploy at times of climatic shocks.

  9. Greenhouse technology for sustainable production in mild winter climate areas: Trends and needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montero, J.I.; Stanghellini, C.; Castilla, N.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse production in the near future will need to reduce significantly its environmental impact. For this purpose, elements such as the structure, glazing materials, climate equipments and controls have to be developed and wisely managed to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, achieve maximum

  10. Towards Regenerated and Productive Vacant Areas through Urban Horticulture: Lessons from Bologna, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gasperi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, urban agriculture has been asserting its relevance as part of a vibrant and diverse food system due to its small scale, its focus on nutrition, its contribution to food security, its employment opportunities, and its role in community building and social mobility. Urban agriculture may also be a tool to re-appropriate a range of abandoned or unused irregular spaces within the city, including flowerbeds, roundabouts, terraces, balconies and rooftops. Consistently, all spaces that present a lack of identity may be converted to urban agriculture areas and, more specifically, to urban horticulture as a way to strengthen resilience and sustainability. The goal of this paper is to analyse current practices in the requalification of vacant areas as urban gardens with the aim of building communities and improving landscapes and life quality. To do so, the city of Bologna (Italy was used as a case study. Four types of vacant areas were identified as places for implementing urban gardens: flowerbeds along streets and squares, balconies and rooftops, abandoned buildings and abandoned neighbourhoods. Six case studies representing this variety of vacant areas were identified and evaluated by collecting primary data (i.e., field work, participant observations and interviews and performing a SWOT analysis. For most cases, urban horticulture improved the image and quality of the areas as well as bringing numerous social benefits in terms of life quality, food access and social interaction among participants. Strong differences in some aspects were found between top-down and bottom-up initiatives, being the later preferable for the engagement of citizens. Policy-making might focus on participatory and transparent planning, long-term actions, food safety and economic development.

  11. Estimative of dose area product in interventional cardiology procedures: a literature review; Estimativa do produto dose-area em procedimentos de cardiologia intervencionista: uma revisao de literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Santos, Romulo R.; Luz, Renata M. da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas. Servico de Fisica Medica; Friedrich, Barbara Q.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work is to present a literature review of the values of dose area product (DAP) in coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), achieved by papers pubMaria E. D.lished in the last ten years. The results shows that the average values of DAP decreased by 22.6% and 5.78% for CA and PTCA procedures, respectively, in comparison with the studies published in the last 5 and 10 years. It was found that these values are in accordance to the recommendations published by IAEA and NCRP Although there was a reduction along the years for the average values of DAP, the data highlight the need for further studies on reference levels, as large variability are observed. (author)

  12. Aerial radiological survey of the Feed Materials Production Center and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio. Date of survey: April 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Feed Materials Production Center, located near Fernald, Ohio, during the period April 24 to 27, 1985. The survey covered a 70-square-kilometer (27-square-mile) area centered on the plant. The highest exposure rates, in excess of 0.35 milliroentgens per hour (mR/h), were inferred from the data measured directly over the plant. This radiation was due to the presence of nuclides which were consistent with normal plant operations. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates, varying from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), were due to naturally-occurring potassium, uranium, thorium, and daughter products. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the inferred aerial results. Soil sample results showed several areas just outside the site boundary with slightly elevated amounts of U-238. The levels, however, were well below the detection limit of the aerial system. The only off-site area that showed apparent above background activity in the aerial data was directly west of the storage silos. The symmetric shape of the contours, however, suggests that these elevated levels are due to ''shine'' from material stored on-site in the silos and not to actual off-site contamination. Detailed comparison of the 1985 aerial survey data with a previous survey conducted in 1976 showed no significant change in any area outside the plant boundary. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Climatic and non-climatic drivers of spatiotemporal maize-area dynamics across the northern limit for maize production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that the ongoing anthropogenic climate change will drive changes in agricultural production and its geographic distribution. Here, we assess the extent to which climate change is already driving spatiotemporal dynamics in maize production in Denmark. We use advanced spatial...... regression modeling with multi-model averaging to assess the extent to which the recent spatiotemporal dynamics of the maize area in Denmark are driven by climate (temperature as represented by maize heating units [MHU] and growing-season precipitation), climate change and non-climatic factors (cattle...... cultivation and cattle farming, probably reflecting a change to a more favorable climate for maize cultivation: in the beginning of the study period, northern areas were mostly too cold for maize cultivation, irrespective of cattle density, but this limitation has been diminishing as climate has warmed...

  14. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias; Speidel, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm 2 , calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 ± 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising

  15. Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Hansen, Birger Ulf

    2013-01-01

    vegetation index (NDVI) product derived from the WorldView-2 satellite. An object-based classification based on a bi-temporal image composite was used to classify the study area into heath, copse, fen, and bedrock. Temporal evolution of vegetation greenness was evaluated and modeled with double sigmoid...... and GPP (R-2 = 0.85, p remote Arctic regions....... (C) 2013 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS) Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. About peculiarities of hydrocarbons deposits location in the productive series of the Baku archipelago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasanov, V.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : In Azerbaijan domestic and foreign companies hold wide-scaled prospecting operations in the central and southern parts of the Baku Archipelago and also in the Kobystan. There are hydrocarbons deposits determined in the northern of the Baku Archipelago. Deposits location by phase condition of hydrocarbons mainly follows the general regularity determined on many oil and gas bearing areas, pass of oil deposits to oil-gas and gas-condensate ones in the direction of increase of layers occurrence depth. There is also a considerable influence of a tectonic factor on the area location of deposits observed, expressing in difference of deposits height on different tectonic blocks and also there is an influence of a lithological factor. Results of works conducted on drilling and wells testing are still not enough for judging about lack of oil and gas content.

  17. Economic analysis for the electricity production in isolated areas in Cuba using different renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Salas, Joel; Moreno Figueredo, Conrado; Briesemeister, Ludwig; Arzola, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Despite the effort and commitment of the Cuban government in more of 50 year, there are houses without electricity in remote areas of the Electricity Network. These houses or communities have the promise and commitment of the local and national authorities to help them in improve his life quality. How the houses and communities are remote of the electricity network, the cost to extend the network is considerably high. For that reason, the use of renewable sources in these areas is an acceptable proposal. This article does an analysis to obtain different configurations depending to the number of houses. It do a proposal with the use of the Hydrothermal Carbonization process in the cases where is not feasible introduce different renewable source; a technology new in Cuba, and advantageous taking into consideration the kind of biomass that exist in Cuba. The study of the chemical process of the Hydrothermal Carbonization with the Cuban biomass should be further researched. (full text)

  18. Historic production evaluation in Biochemistry Education area during the SBBq annual meetings between 1993 and 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V.; N. N.; G. G. Pereira; Gonçalves; Hornink

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The annual meetings of the Brazilian Society Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (SBBq, with the inclusion of the area of education in Biochemistry in 1993, present themselves as important spaces for the presentation and discussion of the work in the area of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology teaching. OBJECTIVES: Systematize and evaluate the historical development of abstracts in the Education in Biochemistry area, in the SBBq annual meeting, indicating quantitative and qualitative data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 408 abstracts were evaluated, from the panels presented in the area of Education in Biochemistry, from 1993 to 2016. The quantitative evaluation was done by surveying the thematic content, institutions, regions, methods and qualitative analysis based on content analysis (Bardin of the works of the two most frequently approached themes. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The works of the southeast region (65,4% of papers presented were highlighted, with 32% of the works with qualitative methodology, 10% quantitative and 33% quali-quantitative. The most studied topics were Biochemistry teaching (107 papers and metabolism (94 papers. In the contents analysis of the two most frequently addressed themes, the constructivist and socio-interacionist foundations as the most used teaching-learning processes, as well as the use of software as the most used didactic strategy in both themes. The most used didactic resources were texts / informative in the subject of Teaching of Biochemistry (33% and games (21% in the subject of Metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: The results evidenced the major focus of the work addressing undergraduate courses, with a qualitative or quantitative method, focusing mainly on Biochemistry teaching, as well as on metabolism, with an expressive amount of activities using educational software, followed by practical classes. There has been a change in the prevailing fundamentals of the teaching-learning process with the emergence in the

  19. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: 'Cockroach Kill Gel' for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  20. Southern Africa Fire Network (SAFNet) regional burned-area product-validation protocol

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roy, DP

    2005-10-10

    Full Text Available on the spatial extent and timing of burning, as clouds may preclude hotspot detection and because the satellite may not overpass when burning occurs (Justice et al. 2002). Algorithms that use multi-temporal satellite data to map the areas affected by the passage... independent reference data from aircraft observations of prescribed fires and wildfires (Kaufman et al. 1998). However, aircraft campaigns are expensive to undertake in a regionally representative manner and are difficult to coordinate with cloud...

  1. Mass-independent area (or entropy) and thermodynamic volume products in conformal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of conformal gravity in four dimensions. We compute the area (or entropy) functional relation for this black hole (BH). We consider both de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) cases. We derive the Cosmic-Censorship-Inequality which is an important relation in general relativity that relates the total mass of a spacetime to the area of all the BH horizons. Local thermodynamic stability is studied by computing the specific heat. The second-order phase transition occurs at a certain condition. Various types of second-order phase structure have been given for various values of a and the cosmological constant Λ in the Appendix. When a = 0, one obtains the result of Schwarzschild-dS and Schwarzschild-AdS cases. In the limit aM ≪ 1, one obtains the result of Grumiller spacetime, where a is nontrivial Rindler parameter or Rindler acceleration and M is the mass parameter. The thermodynamic volume functional relation is derived in the extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure and its conjugate variable as a thermodynamic volume. The mass-independent area (or entropy) functional relation and thermodynamic volume functional relation that we have derived could turn out to be a universal quantity.

  2. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  3. Feeding strategies for improving ruminant productivity in areas of fluctuating nutrient supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This publication contains the results of a five-year Coordinated Research Programme aimed at assisting animal nutritionists in tropical and subtropical developing countries in their efforts to develop feeding systems for ruminant livestock. The feeds available have been studied, as have ways in which these may be manipulated to improve the efficiency with which they are used by animals for productive processes. The sixteen papers presented at the final research Coordination Meeting are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Biogas Production and Engine Conversion From Diesel Engine to Biogas Engine for Lighting in Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Seint Thandar

    2012-01-01

    The research of alternative fuels implemented in internal combustion engines are becoming the subjects of interest nowadays. This paper describes a production of biogas from cow dung, diesel engine conversion process with piston modification of ZH1115 diesel engine. To produce biogas, the usual practice is to mix water with some organic material, such as cow dung (a free source of the appropriate micro-organisms). The slurry is placed in a leak-proof container (called a digester) and leaves i...

  5. Socioeconomic analysis and problems of maize seed production in mid hill area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Sapkota

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize is considered as staple food and is a way of life for the hilly region of Nepal. The production and yield of maize crop is very low which is unable to meet the current demand and is mostly affected by various insect/pests and diseases. For such a backdrop, 182 cross sectional data were collected using simple random techniques in Palpa in June, 2016. Forced scaling technique was used to rank problems based on index value. The total average landholding was 0.91 hectare with 0.32 ha under maize seed cultivation. About 90.7 and 69.8% farmers were access to extension service and had received training respectively. Infestation of insect/pests ranked at first as a major problem in maize seed production with 0.79 index value followed by infrastructure/credit, storage, unavailability of inputs and marketing problems. Similarly poor bargaining power ranked as a 1st major marketing problem. Better access to extension service as well as frequent training service to farmers should be provided to increase production and yield of maize seed. Government and other stakeholder organizations should focus to develop irrigation infrastructure for the overall development of maize sector.

  6. Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B.Baon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the consequences of poor interaction between the government, private sector and research sector. The aim of this study is to transfer and to implement good agricultural practices of cocoa in surrounding area of mining sites of Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC and Berau Coal (BC, East Kalimantan, in order to increase farmer capacity and cocoa productivity. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute as the developing agent of cocoa technology has established collaboration with corporate social responsibility program of KPC (already 7 years and BC (already 2 years to improve productivity and farmer capacity of cocoa farms surroundings the two cocoa mining companies. This paper discusses the aspects of natural, economic and human resources; baseline study; technology transfers; marketing partnership; cocoa productivity; farmer income after technology implementing; study of cocoa growth on post-coal-mining. It is concluded that improvement of the cocoa productivity and farmer capacity surroundings the two mining sites associated with high adoption of technology by farmers, better access to availability of knowledge for good agricultural practices, extension officers, demonstration plots, cocoa price, and length of market chains, partnership, and competition with oil palm plantations.

  7. Prospects for using peat and products of its processing in municipal power engineering in rural and remote areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, E. A.; Zhenikhov, Yu. N.; Urvantsev, I. V.; Tsyba, V. E.

    2017-06-01

    This article presents a detailed analysis of the economic efficiency of peat utilization for generating electricity and heat in Russian rural areas and decentralized power consumption areas on the basis of the comparison of power tariffs (prices) and full costs of peat-based electricity and heat production. The research was performed using the model-information complex detailed with respect to municipal areas and major peat deposits that was developed at the Energy Institute, National Research University Higher School of Economics. It is shown that the firing of lignin helium fuel (LHF) granules that are made from peat extracted by the excavating method according to the new, patented technology is considered most efficient. In nongasified areas, the total cost of heat power that is generated in new boiler houses on the basis of LHF granules is often lower than the total heat cost for the gasification of the area and construction of gas boiler houses. In some cases, the heat cost in gasified areas is lower when using a boiler house based on LHF granules than that provided by the conversion of a boiler house to gas fuel. It is also shown that the construction of peat-based heat sources with the overall power of up to 27600 GJ/h that generate a heat power of up to 167.5 million GJ/year will be economically efficient in the coming years, provided that the tariffs for energy sources remain the same. Taking into account the supportive measures that were accepted on a legislative basis in July 2016, sources with the total power of up to 70 GW may be effective for peat-based plants with combined heat-andpower generation. To stimulate the utilization of peat in decentralized power consumption areas and rural areas located in the vicinity of deposits of this fuel type, it is also suggested to make amendments in the normative legal base.

  8. Genetic Population Structure of Cacao Plantings within a Young Production Area in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the

  9. EuroMInd-D: A Density Estimate of Monthly Gross Domestic Product for the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Marczak, Martyna; Mazzi, Gianluigi

    EuroMInd-D is a density estimate of monthly gross domestic product (GDP) constructed according to a bottom–up approach, pooling the density estimates of eleven GDP components, by output and expenditure type. The components density estimates are obtained from a medium-size dynamic factor model...... of a set of coincident time series handling mixed frequencies of observation and ragged–edged data structures. They reflect both parameter and filtering uncertainty and are obtained by implementing a bootstrap algorithm for simulating from the distribution of the maximum likelihood estimators of the model...

  10. Area-intensive bottom culture production of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp

    column have the potential to become an alternative seed source for mussel production in bottom cultures. When compared to mussels collected from natural benthic mussel beds, suspended mussels had an active predator response by developing a significantly stronger attach-ment to the substrate and having...... a more pronounced aggregation behaviour. Bottom mussels exhibited a passive strategy by developing a thicker shell and larger relative size of the posterior adductor muscle. When comparing the performance of suspended and bottom seed mussels on complex and smooth sub-strate, respectively, originally...

  11. Production of a large area diffuse arc plasma with multiple cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cheng; Cui Hai-Chao; Li Wan-Wan; Liao Meng-Ran; Xia Wei-Dong; Xia Wei-Luo

    2017-01-01

    An arc channel at atmospheric pressure tends to shrink generally. In this paper, a non-transferred DC arc plasma device with multiple cathode is introduced to produce a large area arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. This device is comprised of a 42-mm diameter tubular chamber, multiple cathode which is radially inserted into the chamber, and a tungsten anode with a nozzle in its center. In argon/helium atmosphere, a large area and circumferential homogenous diffuse arc plasma, which fills the entire cross section surrounded by the cathode tips, is observed. Results show that the uniformity and stability of diffuse arc plasma are strongly related to the plasma forming gas. Based on these experimental results, an explanation to the arc diffusion is suggested. Moreover, the electron excitation temperature and electron density measured in diffuse helium plasma are much lower than those of constricted arc column, which indicates the diffuse helium plasma probably deviates from the local thermodynamic equilibrium state. Unlike the common non-transferred arc plasma devices, this device can provide a condition for axial-fed feedstock particles. The plasma device is attempted to spheroidize alumina powders by using the central axis to send the powder. Results show that the powder produced is usually a typical hollow sphere. (paper)

  12. Knowledge production status of Iranian researchers in the gastric cancer area: based on the medline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Nasrolah-Zadeh, Raheleh; Bayat-Khajeh, Parvaneh; Piri, Reza; Mirnia, Keyvan; Azami-Aghdash, Saber

    2014-01-01

    Scientometrics is a useful method for management of financial and human resources and has been applied many times in medical sciences during recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of science production by Iranian scientists in the gastric cancer field based on the Medline database. In this descriptive-cross sectional study Iranian science production concerning gastric cancer during 2000-2011 was investigated based on Medline. After two stages of searching, 121 articles were found, then we reviewed publication date, authors names, journal title, impact factor (IF), and cooperation coefficient between researchers. SPSS.19 was used for statistical analysis. There was a significant increase in published articles about gastric cancer by Iranian researchers in Medline database during 2006-2011. Mean cooperation coefficient between researchers was 6.14±3.29 person per article. Articles of this field were published in 19 countries and 56 journals. Those basex in Thailand, England, and America had the most published Iranian articles. Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Mohammadreza Zali had the most outstanding role in publishing scientific articles. According to results of this study, improving cooperation of researchers in conducting research and scientometric studies about other fields may have an important role in increasing both quality and quantity of published studies.

  13. Hanford immobilized LAW product acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area testing data package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JD Vienna; A Jiricka; BP McGrail; BM Jorgensen; DE Smith; BR Allen; JC Marra; DK Peeler; KG Brown; IA Reamer; WL Ebert

    2000-03-08

    The Hanford Site's mission has been to produce nuclear materials for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during plutonium production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The total volume of LAW requiring immobilization will include the LAW separated from the tank waste, as well as new wastes generated by the retrieval, pretreatment, and immobilization processes. Per the Tri-Party Agreement (1994), both the LAW and HLW will be vitrified. It has been estimated that vitrification of the LAW waste will result in over 500,000 metric tons or 200,000 m{sup 3} of immobilized LAW (ILAW) glass. The ILAW glass is to be disposed of onsite in a near-surface burial facility. It must be demonstrated that the disposal system will adequately retain the radionuclides and prevent contamination of the surrounding environment. This report describes a study of the impacts of systematic glass-composition variation on the responses from accelerated laboratory corrosion tests of representative LAW glasses. A combination of two tests, the product consistency test and vapor-hydration test, is being used to give indictations of the relative rate at which a glass could be expected to corrode in the burial scenario.

  14. Hanford immobilized LAW product acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area testing data package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JD Vienna; A Jiricka; BP McGrail; BM Jorgensen; DE Smith; BR Allen; JC Marra; DK Peeler; KG Brown; IA Reamer; WL Ebert

    2000-01-01

    The Hanford Site's mission has been to produce nuclear materials for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during plutonium production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The total volume of LAW requiring immobilization will include the LAW separated from the tank waste, as well as new wastes generated by the retrieval, pretreatment, and immobilization processes. Per the Tri-Party Agreement (1994), both the LAW and HLW will be vitrified. It has been estimated that vitrification of the LAW waste will result in over 500,000 metric tons or 200,000 m 3 of immobilized LAW (ILAW) glass. The ILAW glass is to be disposed of onsite in a near-surface burial facility. It must be demonstrated that the disposal system will adequately retain the radionuclides and prevent contamination of the surrounding environment. This report describes a study of the impacts of systematic glass-composition variation on the responses from accelerated laboratory corrosion tests of representative LAW glasses. A combination of two tests, the product consistency test and vapor-hydration test, is being used to give indictations of the relative rate at which a glass could be expected to corrode in the burial scenario

  15. Technical snow production in skiing areas: conditions, practice, monitoring and modelling. A case study in Mayrhofen/Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Hanzer, Florian; Marke, Thomas; Rothleitner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The production of technical snow today is a self-evident feature of modern alpine skiing resort management. Millions of Euros are invested every year for the technical infrastructure and its operation to produce a homogeneous and continuing snow cover on the skiing slopes for the winter season in almost every larger destination in the Alps. In Austria, skiing tourism is a significant factor of the national economic structure. We present the framing conditions of technical snow production in the mid-size skiing resort of Mayrhofen (Zillertal Alps/Austria, 136 km slopes, elevation range 630 - 2.500 m a.s.l.). Production conditions are defined by the availability of water, the planned date for the season opening, and the climatic conditions in the weeks before. By means of an adapted snow production strategy an attempt is made to ecologically and economically optimize the use of water and energy resources. Monitoring of the snow cover is supported by a network of low-cost sensors and mobile snow depth recordings. Finally, technical snow production is simulated with the spatially distributed, physically based hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN. The model explicitly considers individual snow guns and distributes the produced snow along the slopes. The amount of simulated snow produced by each device is a function of its type, of actual wet-bulb temperature at the location, of ski area infrastructure (in terms of water supply and pumping capacity), and of snow demand.

  16. Safe drinking water production in rural areas: a comparison between developed and less developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotruvo, J A; Trevant, C

    2000-01-01

    At the fundamental level, there are remarkable parallels between developed and less developed countries in problems of providing safe drinking water in rural areas, but of course, they differ greatly in degree and in the opportunities for resolution. Small water supplies frequently encounter difficulty accessing sufficient quantities of drinking water for all domestic uses. If the water must be treated for safety reasons, then treatment facilities and trained operating personnel and finances are always in short supply. Ideally, each solution should be sustainable within its own cultural, political and economic context, and preferably with local personnel and financial resources. Otherwise, the water supply will be continuously dependent on outside resources and thus will not be able to control its destiny, and its future will be questionable. The history of success in this regard has been inconsistent, particularly in less developed but also in some developed countries. The traditional and ideal solution in developing countries has been central water treatment and a piped distribution network, however, results have had a mixed history primarily due to high initial costs and operation and maintenance, inadequate access to training, management and finance sufficient to support a fairly complex system for the long term. These complete systems are also slow to be implemented so waterborne disease continues in the interim. Thus, non-traditional, creative, cost-effective practical solutions that can be more rapidly implemented are needed. Some of these options could involve: small package central treatment coupled with non piped distribution, e.g. community supplied bottled water; decentralized treatment for the home using basic filtration and/or disinfection; higher levels of technology to deal with chemical contaminants e.g. natural fluoride or arsenic. These technological options coupled with training, technical support and other essential elements like community

  17. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  18. Promoted Ru on high-surface area graphite for efficient miniaturized production of hydrogen from ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Zink; Klerke, Asbjørn; Quaade, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    decomposition. The catalytic activities for production of hydrogen from ammonia are determined for different promoters and promoter levels on graphite supported ruthenium catalysts. The reactivity trends of the Ru/C catalysts promoted with Cs and Ba are in excellent agreement with those known from earlier......Promoted Ru/C catalysts for decomposition of ammonia are incorporated into micro-fabricated reactors for the first time. With the reported preparation technique, the performance is increased more than two orders of magnitude compared to previously known micro-fabricated reactors for ammonia...... studies of both ammonia synthesis and decomposition, and it is shown how proper promotion can facilitate ammonia decomposition at temperatures below 500 K....

  19. Elements for a Comparative Study of Textile Production and Use in Hittite Anatolia and Neighbouring Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Matteo; Bellucci, Benedetta; Baccelli, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    . Finally the information provided by the diplomatic and administrative texts will be compared with iconography, in order to better understand the recipients of the finished products, often luxury goods. The main goal of this introductory exploration is to propose this comparative study and evaluate its...... prices, workmanship, quality and shape of the fabrics. Thanks to the information provided by other cuneiform texts found in Anatolia, such as administrative accounts of goods hoarded in the Hittite palaces and inventories of daily economic activities of Hittite court officers, the Hittitologists have...... drawn up indexes of realia (i.e. a presentation of the evidence of everyday objects used by the Hittites), in which luxurious textiles (or fabrics) and clothes often occur. Moreover Hittite official texts, such as the accounts of royal victories, the descriptions of cultic activities and the diplomatic...

  20. Cultivation, production and management techniques of broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima Roxb. in hilly areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jahangir Alam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results on appropriate cultivation, plantation, production and management techniques of Thysanolaena maxima for domestication at age 1–4 yr (grown 2007–2011. Rhizome cuttings were planted in research experimental plots at spacings of T1 = 1.0 m × 1.0 m, T2 = 1.5 m × 1.5 m and T3 = 2.0 m × 2.0 m in a randomized complete block design with six replications and three treatments. The results showed that the number of panicles produced was 1048, 41,237, 78,737 and 105,094 in year 1 to year 4, respectively. The average total green weight (kg/plot was 10.26, 632.15, 423.34 and 543.40 and the average dry weight (kg/plot was 9.88, 287.65, 216.93 and 241.60 in year 1 to year 4, respectively. Composite soil samples were collected and the soil pH values of the surface soil from the different treatments varied from 5.1 to 5.2. There was no significant difference among the treatments in the available P and S. The available Ca, Mg and K were higher in the T3 treatment compared with the other treatments. Planting rhizome cuttings at 2.0 m × 2.0 m spacing gave the maximum broom/panicle production.

  1. Area balance method for calculation of air interchange in fire-resesistance testing laboratory for building products and constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargsyan Samvel Volodyaevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire-resistance testing laboratory for building products and constructions is a production room with a substantial excess heat (over 23 W/m . Significant sources of heat inside the aforementioned laboratory are firing furnace, designed to simulate high temperature effects on structures and products of various types in case of fire development. The excess heat production in the laboratory during the tests is due to firing furnaces. The laboratory room is considered as an object consisting of two control volumes (CV, in each of which there may be air intake and air removal, pollutant absorption or emission. In modeling air exchange conditions the following processes are being considered: the processes connected with air movement in the laboratory room: the jet stream in a confined space, distribution of air parameters, air motion and impurity diffusion in the ventilated room. General upward ventilation seems to be the most rational due to impossibility of using local exhaust ventilation. It is connected with the peculiarities of technological processes in the laboratory. Air jets spouted through large-perforated surface mounted at the height of 2 m from the floor level, "flood" the lower control volume, entrained by natural convective currents from heat sources upward and removed from the upper area. In order to take advantage of the proposed method of the required air exchange calculation, you must enter additional conditions, taking into account the provision of sanitary-hygienic characteristics of the current at the entrance of the service (work area. Exhaust air containing pollutants (combustion products, is expelled into the atmosphere by vertical jet discharge. Dividing ventilated rooms into two control volumes allows describing the research process in a ventilated room more accurately and finding the air exchange in the lab room during the tests on a more reasonable basis, allowing to provide safe working conditions for the staff without

  2. Irradiation of Oil / Water Biphasic Systems: the Importance of Interfacial Surface Area on the Production of Hydrogen and Other Deleterious Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, Patrick-W.; Stuart, Craig-R.

    2012-09-01

    -water interfacial surface area, control of headspace gas composition, and removal of sample aliquots. Results highlight the importance of interfacial surface area in affecting the radiolytic degradation of the studied hydrocarbons. In particular, experiments having higher oil-water interfacial surface areas generate greater quantities of oil degradation products as compared with lower surface area samples. As expected, one notable result from these irradiations was the formation of significant quantities of hydrogen, which was found to be dependent on the interfacial surface area. Presented here is a review of the radiolytic degradation of insoluble organic material in aqueous systems, a summary of experimental results focusing on biphasic systems and a description of a strategy to mitigate the effects of insoluble organic material ingress and to aid in developing station-appropriate responses. (authors)

  3. Internet Reagency: The Implications of a Global Science for Collaboration, Productivity, and Gender Inequity in Less Developed Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B. Paige; Duque, Ricardo; Anderson, Meredith; Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Palackal, Antony; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.; Mbatia, Paul N.; Shrum, Wesley

    This article focuses on the nature of scientific research in less developed areas in the context of new information and communication technologies (ICTs). We examine the notion that the internet will globalize the practice of science by creating connections between researchers from geographically dispersed areas. By altering the spatial and temporal mechanisms through which professional ties are developed and maintained, internet access and use in less developed areas may change the nature of knowledge production or simply reproduce traditional practices and relationships. The diffusion of the internet to Africa, Asia, and Latin America requires us to go beyond traditional views of development and technology transfer, to contemporary neo-institutional and reagency perspectives. The potential of the internet to globalize science, however, is largely dependent on the places and institutions in which it is used, as well as the identities of its users. Reviewing data collected in Africa and Asia since 1994, we summarize findings on access to and use of the internet and its impact on scientific productivity, collaboration, networking, and gender inequity.

  4. Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, G.A.; Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE's needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities

  5. Optimization of operating variables for production of ultra-fine talc in a stirred mill. Specific surface area investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toraman Oner Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its properties such as chemical inertness, softness, whiteness, high thermal conductivity, low electrical conductivity and adsorption properties talc has wide industrial applications in paper, cosmetics, paints, polymer, ceramics, refractory materials and pharmaceutical. The demand for ultra-fine talc is emerging which drives the mineral industry to produce value added products. In this study, it was investigated how certain grinding parameters such as mill speed, ball filling ratio, powder filling ratio and grinding time of dry stirred mill affect grindability of talc ore (d97=127 μm. A series of laboratory experiments using a 24 full factorial design was conducted to determine the optimal operational parameters of a stirred mill in order to minimize the specific surface area. The main and interaction effects on the volume specific surface area (SV, m2.cm−3 of the ground product were evaluated using the Yates analysis. Under the optimal conditions at the stirrer speed of 600 rpm, grinding time of 20 min, sample mass of 5% and ball ratio of 70%, the resulting talc powder had larger volume specific surface area (i.e., 3.48 m2.cm−3 than the starting material (i.e., 1.84 m2.cm−3.

  6. Milk production, feeding systems and environmental impact of dairy cattle farming in Alpine areas: results of a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.8±9.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.09±17.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.9±16.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280±203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.5±1.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.

  7. Approach to valuing visual pollution from Western Electricity Production. [For Western Systems Coordinating Council area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1977-02-01

    This paper outlines an approach to valuing visual pollution from electric power plants. The differences between public-good pollution externalities, such as these aesthetic damages, and other market failures are discussed. Approaches generally used to value externalities are briefly described. The approach used relies heavily on an earlier application of bidding games to estimate people's willingness to pay for abatement of emissions from the Four Corners fossil-fuel power plant in northwestern New Mexico. The results of these surveys were used here to estimate the value of visual pollution from electric power plants for residents of and visitors to the Four Corners Air Quality Control Region, as a function of power plant emissions in that region. The approach presented here for the Four Corners region is structured so that replication for other air quality control regions is relatively easy. Preliminary results of this procedure for all of the air quality control regions in the Western Systems Coordinating Council area are presented. Visual pollution damages from electric power plants to residents of and recreational visitors to these western regions are estimated to total more than $100 million annually by 1985. These damages are expected to occur unless additional pollution controls are implemented, even if these subject populations do not increase.

  8. Analysis of available wind resources and their suitability for hydrogen production in the Sacramento area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomy, O.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at the technical, economic, environmental and regulatory barriers to the production of hydrogen from local wind resources in Sacramento, CA. Both central and distributed hydrogen generation are compared. The technical analysis uses 6 years of hourly wind data from Solano County to define the diurnal and seasonal wind resource. The impacts of a fluctuating power source on the electrolyzer are examined as well as the grid or hydrogen distribution and storage infrastructure constraints for implementation. An economic analysis comparing the price of hydrogen produced from the local wind resource is done with sensitivity analyses for capital and operating costs of both wind turbines and electrolyzers. In addition, the economic analysis includes considerations of increased demand for wind electricity by California utilities attempting to meet their Renewable Portfolio Standards. The environmental analysis compares the emissions reductions of CO 2 and criteria pollutants for different energy usage scenarios. These include comparing electricity and transportation emissions rates to optimize the use of wind energy and natural gas, as well as comparison of SULEV hybrid vehicles with FCV's and H 2 ICE's. Finally, an examination of the existing regulatory structure and policies that could prevent or encourage the use of wind to produce hydrogen in Sacramento is also included. (author)

  9. Inventions in the nanotechnological area considerably increase wear- and chemical resistance of construction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193» is referred to construction materials. Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone consists of: natural or conglomerate materials as the basis; multilayer coating which protects the mentioned basis from chemical substances and wearing mechanical factors influencing on this element where the multilayer coating includes at least three layers formed by one or many film-forming compositions which comprise top layer with scratch-resistant nanoparticles and encircled with polyester, melamine, phenolic, acryl or epoxy resin (or any combination of them which provides protection against scratches; damper intermediate layer made of epoxy and/or acryl resin which provides impact resistant; lower layer adjoining to the basis and containing particles of Al2O3 or silicon carbide plus acryl polymer and providing resistance to abrasive wear. Technical result is increased wear- and chemical resistance of flaked elements from natural or conglomerate materials. The invention «Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it (RU 2515858» is referred to the area of physical and colloid chemistry and can be used to obtain polymer compositions. Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures is produced by interaction between nanostructures and polyethylenepolyamine. At first the powder of carbon metalcontaining nanostructures (which are nanoparticles of 3d-metal such as copper, cobalt, nickel stabilized in carbon nanostructures is mechanically milled, then it is mechanically ground with polyethylenepolyamine introduced portionally unless and until the content of nanostructures is less 1 g/ml. The invention results in decreased power inputs as the obtained fine organic suspension of carbon and metal-containing nanostructures is able to recover due to

  10. A comparison for acid production, proteolysis, autolysis and inhibitory properties of lactic acid bacteria from fresh and mature Feta PDO Greek cheese, made at three different mountainous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoudi, Despina; Kotzamanidis, Charalambos; Hatzikamari, Magdalini; Tzanetakis, Nikolaos; Menexes, George; Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, Evanthia

    2015-05-04

    Isolates of NSLAB were obtained from fresh (58 isolates) and mature (38) Feta cheese made at household level in three different mountainous areas, in order to study the effect of the area of production on NSLAB composition and their technological characteristics. Results obtained by SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins indicated that the microflora of the fresh cheese was composed of either lactococci (areas 1, 2), or lactococci and enterococci (area 3). The NSLAB microflora of mature cheese was composed almost entirely of lactobacilli species, differing according to the area of production. Species allocation by the SDS-PAGE method was confirmed by sequencing representative strains. Lactococci of cheese made in area 1 exhibited a narrow spectrum of antibacterial activity compared to isolates from areas 2 and 3, while for lactobacilli from all three areas a similar spectrum was noticed. Lactococci from area 2 exhibited higher (Pautolysis at pH5.1. Mean acidifying activity of lactobacilli after 6h was for strains of area 3>2=1. The strains from areas 1 and 3 degraded preferentially αs-CN, while a clear preference towards β-CN was noticed for strains of area 2; their mean proteolytic activity was for strains of area 1 higher (Pautolysis allowed the distinction of lactococci according to their derivation area enabling the selection of appropriate strains as starters for cheese production in each area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Alstrup, J.; Spanggaard, H.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of making large area (100 cm(2)) polymer solar cells based on the conjugated polymer poly 1,4-(2-methoxy-5-ethylhexyloxy)phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) was demonstrated. Devices were prepared by etching an electrode pattern on ITO covered polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrates....... A pattern of conducting silver epoxy allowing for electrical contacts to the device was silk screen printed and hardened. Subsequently a pattern of MEH-PPV was silk screen printed in registry with the ITO electrode pattern on top of the substrate. Final evaporation of an aluminum electrode or sublimation......). The half-life based on I-sc in air for the devices were 63 h. The cells were laminated in a 125 mum PET encasement. Lamination had a negative effect on the lifetime. We demonstrate the feasibility of industrial production of large area solar cells (1 m(2)) by silk screen printing and envisage...

  12. Demonstration of generic handbooks for assisting in the management of contaminated food production systems and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Duranova, T.

    2010-01-01

    Two handbooks have been developed in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders that provide assistance in the management of contaminated food production systems and inhabited areas following a radiological incident. Emergency centres in Member States not involved in the development...... of these handbooks were invited to take part in demonstration activities to establish whether the handbooks would be useful for the purposes of contingency planning and accident management. Some eight centres took part. Emergency exercises or similar events based on scenarios involving contamination of the foodchain...... and inhabited areas were used. Feedback from all of the demonstrations was positive with constructive criticism given on how to improve the navigation, structure and format of the handbooks. All of the key improvements highlighted during the demonstrations were taken into account and included in version 2...

  13. Development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crop production in rural areas with niche energy markets. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This project was supported as a Concerted Action under the EC DGVI AIR programme from 1993-1996. It has successfully developed a standard methodology to help integrate non-food crop production in rural areas with niche energy markets. The methodology was used to compare the costs of different energy crop production and conversion options across the six participating nations. The partners provide a representative cross-section of European agriculture and energy expertise. All partners agreed on three niche markets favourable for biomass and biofuels: small-scale heat markets (less than 1 MW th ) for agro-industry, domestic and commercial buildings, medium-scale heat markets (1-10MW th ), including cogeneration for light industry and district heating, and liquid biofuels as substitutes for fossil fuels in transport, heat and power applications. (Author)

  14. Analysis of the production of scientific literature in clinical research areas in Physiotherapy between 2005 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Narváez Martha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: characterize the behavior of clinical research in Physiotherapy, through the analysis of theproduction of scientific literature in a period of five years in order to identify areas of concentrationand dispersion, collaborative research and types of clinical studies have conducted. Methods andmaterials: descriptive study on the papers in Medline/PubMed from 2005-2009. Were considereda total 404 publications, clinical trials and epidemiological studies side, analyzed according to thepercentage distribution of articles by clinical area, year of publication, and institutional affiliation ofresearchers. Results: It found a greater number of trials (93% systematic reviews represented thegreatest number of epidemiological studies side. The clinical areas pulmonary and cardiovascularaccount for 65% of scientific publications in the studies analyzed. The year with highest numberof publications was 2008. Half of the clinical research produced in this five-year have affiliationwith academic institutions, and secondly, studies conducted in hospitals. Conclusions: the clinicalresearch publications in Physiotherapy in Medline/PubMed registered show sustained activity ofscientific production in the pulmonary and cardiovascular areas, consistent with the major healthconcerns in the world. The findings suggest that the ability of physiotherapists to develop qualityresearch, use and transfer of results into clinical practice should achieve greater development.

  15. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  16. EFFECT OF COMMERCIALIZATION ON PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY AMONG CASSAVA PRODUCING HOUSEHOLDS IN IKWUANO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Ukeh OTEH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated factors affecting commercialization of cassava producing household in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. It specifically examined the socio-economic characteristics of cassava household; determine commercialization index and analyzed factors that influence commercialization among cassava producing households. The study employed purposive sampling technique in the selection of 120 respondents from one local government area (LGA based on characteristics of interest, nearness and other related features. The selection was done from 6 communities at the rate of 20 respondents per community. Analytically, descriptive statistics, household commercialization index (HCI, and multiple regression analysis were used. The results showed that the mean age of the cassava producing household was about 40 years with a mean farming experience of 14 years. They are mostly married with an average of 5 persons per households. The result further revealed that only a few households (less than 2% have very high commercialization orientation, which exposes the level of farming in the area. With respect to determinants of factors that influence commercialization, value of output, farm size, sex, nearness to market, membership of cooperative and farming experience were significant and found to exhibit varying degree. The study therefore recommends that support policies that sustain and improve the productivity among farming household especially land tenure policy issues, greater incentives policies for farmers in the rural areas; linkages between farm households and the markets; increase access and exchange of information on markets.

  17. Proceedings of the specialist meeting on personal dosimetry and area monitoring suitable for radon and daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The programme of work of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency includes topics relating to radiation and environmental protection matters in mining and milling operations. A first Specialist Meeting on Personal Dosimetry and Area Monitoring suitable for Radon and Daughter Products was organised in October 1976 at Elliot Lake, Canada. The proceedings were published by NEA some months later. Following an enquiry among interested persons, NEA decided to organise a new meeting on the same subject in Paris from 20th to 22nd November 1978. The meeting dealt with questions relating to personal dosimetry techniques, the monitoring of the atmosphere in mines and their neighbourhood, as well as in buildings

  18. Feasibility of using a dose-area product ratio as beam quality specifier for photon beams with small field sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpinella, Maria; Caporali, Claudio; Guerra, Antonio Stefano; Silvi, Luca; De Coste, Vanessa; Petrucci, Assunta; Delaunay, Frank; Dufreneix, Stéphane; Gouriou, Jean; Ostrowsky, Aimé; Rapp, Benjamin; Bordy, Jean-Marc; Daures, Josiane; Le Roy, Maïwenn; Sommier, Line; Vermesse, Didier

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using the ratio of dose-area product at 20 cm and 10 cm water depths (DAPR 20,10 ) as a beam quality specifier for radiotherapy photon beams with field diameter below 2 cm. Dose-area product was determined as the integral of absorbed dose to water (D w ) over a surface larger than the beam size. 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams with field diameters from 0.75 cm to 2 cm were considered. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to calculate energy-dependent dosimetric parameters and to study the DAPR 20,10 properties. Aspects relevant to DAPR 20,10 measurement were explored using large-area plane-parallel ionization chambers with different diameters. DAPR 20,10 was nearly independent of field size in line with the small differences among the corresponding mean beam energies. Both MC and experimental results showed a dependence of DAPR 20,10 on the measurement setup and the surface over which D w is integrated. For a given setup, DAPR 20,10 values obtained using ionization chambers with different air-cavity diameters agreed with one another within 0.4%, after the application of MC correction factors accounting for effects due to the chamber size. DAPR 20,10 differences among the small field sizes were within 1% and sensitivity to the beam energy resulted similar to that of established beam quality specifiers based on the point measurement of D w . For a specific measurement setup and integration area, DAPR 20,10 proved suitable to specify the beam quality of small photon beams for the selection of energy-dependent dosimetric parameters. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Climate change trends, grape production, and potential alcohol concentration in wine from the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teslić, Nemanja; Zinzani, Giordano; Parpinello, Giuseppina P.; Versari, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The trend of climate change and its effect on grape production and wine composition was evaluated using a real case study of seven wineries located in the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (northern Italy), one of the most important wine producing region of Italy. This preliminary study focused on three key aspects: (i) Assessment of climate change trends by calculating bioclimatic indices over the last 61 years (from 1953 to 2013) in the Romagna Sangiovese area: significant increasing trends were found for the maximum, mean, and minimum daily temperatures, while a decreasing trend was found for precipitation during the growing season period (April-October). Mean growing season temperature was 18.49 °C, considered as warm days in the Romagna Sangiovese area and optimal for vegetative growth of Sangiovese, while nights during the ripening months were cold (13.66 °C). The rise of temperature shifted studied area from the temperate/warm temperate to the warm temperate-/warm grape-growing region (according to the Huglin classification). (ii) Relation between the potential alcohol content from seven wineries and the climate change from 2001 to 2012: dry spell index (DSI) and Huglin index (HI) suggested a large contribution to increasing level of potential alcohol in Sangiovese wines, whereas DSI showed higher correlation with potential alcohol respect to the HI. (iii) Relation between grape production and the climate change from 1982 to 2012: a significant increasing trend was found with little effect of the climate change trends estimated with used bioclimatic indices. Practical implication at viticultural and oenological levels is discussed.

  20. Tertiary particle production and target optimization of the H2 beam line in the SPS North Area

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079540; Tellander, Felix; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    In this note, the tertiary particle yield from secondary targets of different materials placed at the ‘filter’ position of the H2 beam line of SPS North Area are presented. The production is studied for secondary beams of different momenta in the range of 50-250 GeV/c. More specifically, we studied six different targets: two copper cylinders with a radius of 40 mm and lengths of 100 and 300 mm, one solid tungsten cylinder with a radius of 40 mm and a length of 150 mm and three polyethylene cylinders with radius of 40 mm and lengths of 550, 700 and 1000 mm. Eight different momenta of the secondary beam (50, 60, 70, 100, 120, 150, 200 and 250 GeV/c) as well as two different physics lists (QGSP_BIC and FTFP_BERT) have been extensively studied. The purpose of this study is (a) to optimize (using the appropriate filter target) the particle production from the secondary targets as demanded by the experiments (b) investigate the proton production (with respect to the pion production) in the produced tertiary bea...

  1. Prevalence and risk factor's analysis of bovine brucellosis in peri-urban areas under intensive system of production in Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    M. D. Patel; P. R. Patel; M. G. Prajapati; A. N. Kanani; K. K. Tyagi; A. B. Fulsoundar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A study on surveillance of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds of peri-urban areas under intensive system of production was carried out by milk-ELISA. Various risk factors were identified having significant association with occurrence of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds of peri-urban areas. Materials and Methods: Five randomly selected peri-uban areas of six cities of Gujarat were included in the present study. Five randomly selected dairy herds under intensive system of production fro...

  2. Productive and reproductive behavior of three herd of Cebu cattle of the Magdalena Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nossa Hernandez, M.O.; Obando Correa, H.; Castro Hernandez, A.; Gallego Marin, M.I.

    1989-01-01

    The productive and reproductive behavior of 3 herd of cattle is studied of Cebu cattle located in Savannah of Torres, Giron and Lebrija to the northwest of Santander, with heights of 118 to 160 m.s.n.m, temperatures of 25 to 27 centigrade degrees, relative humidity of 65 to 80 percent and plane topography with waves and acid soil. The exploitation system evolved from the continuous shepherding in native prairies to the rotational with improved prairies and mineral supplementation. The system of it mounts it was continuous and oscillate among 35 cows/bull to the beginning and 25-30 cows/bull at the end. Due to the location and different handling, the 3 herds were analyzed independently. 1, 1843 observations were analyzed to measure the interval between childbirths and 478 for the weight to the birth and the weaning (270 days). An analysis was used by minimum squares with unequal subclasses. The weight to the weaning was adjusted by covariance, due to the dispersion of the age to the weaning. For the natality rate they were processed and they analyzed for high X to the 2 3175 herds. The prevalence of infectious illnesses of the reproduction was studied in 156 blood samples and it was analyzed by the pattern 1 of Cavanzo. The intervals among childbirths for the herds 1, 2 and 3 were: 466 days (C V same 24 percent), 458 days (C V same 29 percent) and 513 days (C V same 31 percent), respectively. When studying the effect of the month of the childbirth on the interval among childbirths, the months of low precipitation (December to March and July) they diminished the interval the bull it also influenced in the duration of the interval among childbirths; in all the herds, the effect of the reproducer increased or it diminished the interval significantly. In the herd 1, the weight average to the birth was of 32 but or less 1.9 kg and the males weighed 3.8 kg more that the females. The weight to the weaning was of 219.4 but or less 16.9 kg (C V similar to 8.0 percent) and it

  3. 9 CFR 314.7 - Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of livestock condemned on... DISPOSAL OF CONDEMNED OR OTHER INEDIBLE PRODUCTS AT OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.7 Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas. Carcasses of livestock which...

  4. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de calibracao e testes de medidores de produto Kerma-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  5. Radioecological situation in the area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association in Russian Zabaikalye Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Akhromeev, S.V.; Semenova, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company, which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. Contamination of local parts of the health protection zone results from discharges and releases, dust transport of radionuclides from the mine rock dumps containing uranium, radium, radon and its decay products, spillage of ore along highways, straits uraniferous pulp and mine water from the pool pump shaft station. The radionuclide migration results in groundwater contamination. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of natural radionuclides. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of 226 Ra and 2 32 Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining.

  6. Short rotation woody biomass production as option for the restoration of post-mining areas in lower Lusatia, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, C.; Quinkenstein, A.; Freese, D. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; Huttl, R.R. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatian lignite-mining district in Germany are characterized by low annual precipitation and marginal soils. As such, crop yield is typically low and conventional land use systems fail in terms of reliable and efficient crop production. The production of woody biomass for bioenergy may be a promising alternative to improve soil fertility and also to enhance the economic value of these post-mining areas. Previous studies have shown that black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) may be a suitable tree species for this purpose. This paper evaluated the ecological and economic benefits of producing woody biomass in short rotation coppices (SRC) and alley cropping systems (ACS) with black locust. The results showed that compared to conventional agriculture, such land use is not very profitable due to high establishment and harvesting costs and the comparatively low prices for wood energy. However, because of the improved microclimate, the crop yield in ACS is higher than in conventional agriculture. The cultivation of black locust resulted in a higher humus accumulation and in a lower harvest-related nutrient export than the cultivation of alfalfa as a typical recultivation crop in this region. It was concluded SRC with black locust is more beneficial than conventional agriculture in terms of improving soil fertility in the degraded post-mining areas of Lower Lusatia.

  7. Beneficial use of industrial by-products for phytoremediation of an arsenic-rich soil from a gold mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, G; Ferreira, P A A; Pereira, F G; Curi, N; Rangel, W M; Guilherme, L R G

    2016-08-02

    This study investigated two industrial by-products - red mud (RM) and its mixture with phosphogypsum (RMG), as amendments in an As((5+))-contaminated soil from a gold mining area in Brazil in order to grow three plant species: Brachiaria decumbens, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande. These amendments were applied to reach a soil pH of 6.0. Using RM and RMG increased shoot dry matter (SDM) and root dry matter (RDM) of most plants, with RMG being more effective. Adding RMG increased the SDM of Brachiaria and Crotalaria by 18 and 25% and the RDM by 25 and 12%, respectively. Stylosanthes was sensitive to As toxicity and grew poorly in all treatments. Arsenic concentration in shoots of Brachiaria and Crotalaria decreased by 26% with the use of RMG while As in roots reduced by 11 and 30%, respectively. Also, the activities of the plant oxidative stress enzymes varied following treatments with the by-products. The plants grew in the As-contaminated soil from the gold mining area. Thus, they might be employed for phytoremediation purposes, especially with the use of RMG due to its potential advantage in terms of nutrient supply (Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) from phosphogypsum).

  8. A phantom based method for deriving typical patient doses from measurements of dose-area product on populations of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapple, C.-L.; Broadhead, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the chief sources of uncertainty in the comparison of patient dosimetry data is the influence of patient size on dose. Dose has been shown to relate closely to the equivalent diameter of the patient. This concept has been used to derive a prospective, phantom based method for determining size correction factors for measurements of dose-area product. The derivation of the size correction factor has been demonstrated mathematically, and the appropriate factor determined for a number of different X-ray sets. The use of phantom measurements enables the effect of patient size to be isolated from other factors influencing patient dose. The derived factors agree well with those determined retrospectively from patient dose survey data. Size correction factors have been applied to the results of a large scale patient dose survey, and this approach has been compared with the method of selecting patients according to their weight. For large samples of data, mean dose-area product values are independent of the analysis method used. The chief advantage of using size correction factors is that it allows all patient data to be included in a survey, whereas patient selection has been shown to exclude approximately half of all patients. (author)

  9. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near natural gas extraction and processing facilities, and estimating the relative contributions from gas production and motor vehicle emissions to ambient VOC concentrations. Although only a small-scale case study, the results may be useful for guidance in planning future ambient air quality studies and human exposure estimates in areas of intensive shale gas production.

  10. Photon Recollision Probability: a Useful Concept for Cross Scale Consistency Check between Leaf Area Index and Foliage Clumping Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisek, J.

    2017-12-01

    Clumping index (CI) is the measure of foliage aggregation relative to a random distribution of leaves in space. CI is an important factor for the correct quantification of true leaf area index (LAI). Global and regional scale CI maps have been generated from various multi-angle sensors based on an empirical relationship with the normalized difference between hotspot and darkspot (NDHD) index (Chen et al., 2005). Ryu et al. (2011) suggested that accurate calculation of radiative transfer in a canopy, important for controlling gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) (Baldocchi and Harley, 1995), should be possible by integrating CI with incoming solar irradiance and LAI from MODIS land and atmosphere products. It should be noted that MODIS LAI/FPAR product uses internal non-empirical, stochastic equations for parameterization of foliage clumping. This raises a question if integration of the MODIS LAI product with empirically-based CI maps does not introduce any inconsistencies. Here, the consistency is examined independently through the `recollision probability theory' or `p-theory' (Knyazikhin et al., 1998) along with raw LAI-2000/2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA) data from > 30 sites, surveyed across a range of vegetation types. The theory predicts that the amount of radiation scattered by a canopy should depend only on the wavelength and the spectrally invariant canopy structural parameter p. The parameter p is linked to the foliage clumping (Stenberg et al., 2016). Results indicate that integration of the MODIS LAI product with empirically-based CI maps is feasible. Importantly, for the first time it is shown that it is possible to obtain p values for any location solely from Earth Observation data. This is very relevant for future applications of photon recollision probability concept for global and local monitoring of vegetation using Earth Observation data.

  11. Radon and its decay product activities in the magmatic area and the adjacent volcano-sedimentary Intrasudetic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tchorz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the magmatic area of Sudetes covering the Karkonosze granite and adjacent volcano-sedimentary Intrasudetic Basin a study of atmospheric radon activity was performed by means of SSNTD Kodak LR-115. The study was completed by gamma spectrometric survey of eU and eTh determined by gamma activity of radon decay products 214Bi and 208Tl respectively. In the case of the western part of the Karkonosze granite area the radon decay products activity in the granitic basement was found to be as high as 343 Bq/kg for 214Bi and 496 Bq/kg for 208Tl respectively. Atmospheric radon content measured by means of Kodak LR115 track detector at the height of 1.5 m was found as high as 70 Bq/m3 in the regions, where no mining activities took place. However in the eastern part of the granitic massif in the proximity of abandoned uranium mine atmospheric radon content was found to be 6000 Bq/m3. In the case of sedimentary basin where sedimentary sequence of Carboniferous rocks has been penetrated by younger gases and fluids of volcanic origin uranium mineralization developed. The region known from its CO2 outburst during coal mining activity is characterized by good ventilation of the uranium enriched geological basement resulting in increased atmospheric radon activity being in average 72 Bq/m3. In the vicinity of coal mine tailing an increase up to 125 Bq/m3 can be observed. Seasonal variations of atmospheric radon content are influenced in agricultural areas by cyclic cultivation works (plough on soils of increased uranium content and in the case of post-industrial brownfields varying rates of radon exhalation from tailings due to different meteorological conditions.

  12. Incorporating Sentinel-2-like remote sensing products in the hydrometeorological modelling over an agricultural area in south west France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Gascoin, Simon; Etchanchu, Jordi; Coustau, Mathieu; Cros, Jérôme; Tallec, Tiphaine

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 mission will enable to monitor the land cover and the vegetation phenology at high-resolution (HR) every 5 days. However, current Land Surface Models (LSM) typically use land cover and vegetation parameters derived from previous low to mid resolution satellite missions. Here we studied the effect of introducing Sentinel-2-like data in the simulation of the land surface energy and water fluxes in a region dominated by cropland. Simulations were performed with the ISBA-SURFEX LSM, which is used in the operational hydrometeorological chain of Meteo-France for hydrological forecasts and drought monitoring. By default, SURFEX vegetation land surface parameters and temporal evolution are from the ECOCLIMAP II European database mostly derived from MODIS products at 1 km resolution. The model was applied to an experimental area of 30 km by 30 km in south west France. In this area the resolution of ECOCLIMAP is coarser than the typical size of a crop field. This means that several crop types can be mixed in a pixel. In addition ECOCLIMAP provides a climatology of the vegetation phenology and thus does not account for the interannual effects of the climate and land management on the crop growth. In this work, we used a series of 26 Formosat-2 images at 8-m resolution acquired in 2006. From this dataset, we derived a land cover map and a leaf area index map (LAI) at each date, which were substituted to the ECOCLIMAP land cover map and the LAI maps. The model output water and energy fluxes were compared to a standard simulation using ECOCLIMAP only and to in situ measurements of soil moisture, latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results show that the introduction of the HR products improved the timing of the evapotranspiration. The impact was the most visible on the crops having a growing season in summer (maize, sunflower), because the growth period is more sensitive to the climate.

  13. Groundwater origin investigation with isotopic compositions for evaluation of high productive deep aquifers in Khon Kaen area, Northeast Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buaphan, C.; Yangme, W.; Wannakao, L.; Sriboonlue, V.; Tassanasorn, A.; Buapeng, S.

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of groundwater origin by using isotopic compositions for evaluation of high productive deep aquifers in Khon Kaen Province is emphasized on hydrogeology and isotopes technique. The study area consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated sediments of Quaternary. Phu Tok aquifers in the southern part of the study area are mainly confined in very well sorted, fine grained sandstone as well as in fractures and joints. They extend from Ban Tha Pra to Ban Phai covering area 500 km 2 . Depth to the aquifers is from 20 to 250 m, while their piezometric surface ranges from 0.35 m to 15 m from the ground surface. Their thickness range from 50 to 100 m. The transmissivity is from 0.45 to 1,047 m 2 /d on the pumping rate of 48-1,200 m 3 /d with drawdown of less than 10% and rough annual safe yield is 83.34x10 6 m 3 . The water is very good in quality for drinking, except for the TDS and total hardness around aquifer boundary. The groundwater and surface water are analysed for stable and radioactive isotopes, including 2 H, 18 O, 3 H and 14 C. The results show that the shallow groundwater of the depth less than 50 m is originated by direct recharge of rainfall between 180 and 6,820 a. The groundwater flow is relatively rapid from west to east and northwest to southeast, the high productive deep aquifer of Phu Tok flow radiate from recharging area to all direction. However, the groundwater flow rate based on 14 C analyses for Phu Tok is 2 to 3 m/a. Within some areas the flow is about 8 m/a, while the unconsolidated aquifers along the Phong River give flow rate about 4 m/a. The deeper aquifers also have direct rain recharge the same as the above aquifers but the flow rate are lower, especially the deepest aquifer at the depth of nearly 200 m indicated no direct rain recharge with age of more than 20 000 a, which is confirmed with the amount of tritium less than 1.0 TU. (author)

  14. Study on Net Primary Productivity over Complicated Mountainous Area based on Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, X.; Shen, H.; Li, X.; Gan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous area hosts approximately a quarter of the global land surface, with complex climate and ecosystem conditions. More knowledge about mountainous ecosystem could highly advance our understanding of the global carbon cycle and climate change. Net Primary Productivity (NPP), the biomass increment of plants, is a widely used ecological indicator that can be obtained by remote sensing methods. However, limited by the defective characteristic of sensors, which cannot be long-term with enough spatial details synchronously, the mountainous NPP was far from being understood. In this study, a multi-sensor fusion framework was applied to synthesize a 1-km NPP series from 1982 to 2014 in mountainous southwest China, where elevation ranged from 76m to 6740m. The validation with field-measurements proved this framework greatly improved the accuracy of NPP (r=0.79, prun-off. What is more, it was indicated that the NPP variation showed three distinct stages at the year break-point of 1992 and 2002 over the region. The NPP in low-elevation area varied almost triple more drastic than the high-elevation area for all the three stages, due to the much greater change rate of precipitation. In summary, this study innovatively conducted a long-term and accurate NPP study on the not understood mountainous ecosystem with multi-source data, the framework and conclusions will be beneficial for the further cognition of global climate change.

  15. Siting of Nuclear Power Plants in Metropolitan Areas. Estimation of Population Doses due to Accidental Release of Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresser, H. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Rheinland E.V., Cologne (Germany); Schwarzer, W. [Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit der Technischen Ueberwachungs-Vereine E.V., Cologne (Germany)

    1967-09-15

    The safety of large nuclear power plants in heavily populated areas depends entirely on engineered safeguards. An assessment of their reliability and effectiveness will have to play a major role in any safety analysis of such a plant, and this assessment will have to be made on the basis of the radiological burden to the environment - in terms of individual dose and a population dose - which can be accepted as tolerable in case of a severe accident. The calculation of the dispersion of fission products in the atmosphere, which links the radiological burden to the release of radioactivity, should be modified. The fact that distance factors, aside from a comparably small exclusion area, can no longer be taken into account suggests the introduction of the parameter ''population density'' and an extensive use of the man-rem concept. In this connection the time history of the release and the influence of variations of wind directions lose their importance. The authors have carried out calculations of the population dose, which could be received in a metropolitan area as a consequence of a severe reactor accident, using population densities, height of release above ground and generalized meteorological data as the main parameters. The results of these calculations are used as a basis for an assessment of the performance requirements of the engineered safeguards system, and the relative importance of different components of this system is discussed. (author)

  16. CREDIT RATIONING OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN THE RURAL AREAS OF CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Nuryartono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The agricultural sector provides the highest contribution to economic development in the Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. On average, the share of agriculture in the Product Domestic Regional Bruto (GRDP is more than 40% (2003. However, poverty is a widespread problem found in this area, as indicated by almost 46% of the total household are categorized as poor and most of them are farmers. Smallholders and poor farmers may perpetually be trapped in poverty due to lack of finance needed to undertake productive investment. This is indicated by lower rate of advance agricultural technology adoption, which results the productivity of some agricultural products in this area is lower compared to the national average.This paper addresses the question of whether greater access of financial services increase agricultural production. Specific research question addressed are as follow: (1 How many household have access to formal credit markets? (2 How many households are credit constrained? (3 What factors influence that households are credit constrained? (4 How does credit rationing influences agricultural production?As many studies have shown, many rural households lack access to either formal or informal credit institutions. In the rural areas of Central Sulawesi Province, particularly in the vicinity of the Lore Lindu National Park only 21.5% of the household have access to formal credits. The results also show that under certain conditions, only 18.1% of the households are not

  17. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT IN COFFEE PRODUCTION IN TWO COMMUNITIES IN THE CENTRAL AREA OF VERACRUZ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Veracruz comes third in terms of national coffee production; however this sector is facing a crisis because of the fall in prices in the international market which has resulted amongst other things in increased emigration to the United States. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between migration and the level of technology employed in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz State: Capulapa and Zapoapan. Information was obtained through observation and by interviewing the members of 46 family production units (FPU. In Zapoapan, the FPUs which presented the highest level of technological management in their coffee plantations were those with greatest access to capital, as they are more extensive, produce other crops than coffee, have more family members in the United States and receive greater remittances; investing 14% more in agriculture. In the case of the FPUs in Capulapa, no relationship was observed between the number of international emigrants, the amount of remittances received and the level of technological management. This may be because 83% of the FPUs cultivate solely coffee and are beholden to the ups and downs of the international market, thus their socio-economic situation is more precarious and 86% of remittances are directed towards family sustenance; with only 7% directed towards agricultural investment.

  18. [Characteristics of Phthalic Acid Esters in Agricultural Soils and Products in Areas of Zhongshan City, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wu, Shan; Liang, Jin-ming; Liang, Wen-li; Chen, Gui-xian; Li, Yong-jun; Yang, Guo-yi

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate and assess the pollution level of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in farm soils and products from typical agricultural fields in areas of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, South China, 65 topsoil and 37 agricultural product samples were collected and contents of 6 PAEs compounds that classified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants were determined by the GC-FID. The results indicated that total contents of the PAEs (∑ PAEs) in soils ranged from 0. 14 to 1. 14 mg x kg(-1), and the mean value was 0.43 mg x kg(-1), with the detected ratio of 100%. Various concentrations of PAEs differed in three land-use types were ordered by vegetable soil > orchard soil > paddy soil. Comparing with six U.S. EPA priority pollutants of PAEs, the contents of Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Dimethyl phthalate ( DMP) in soils exceeded the control limits of PAEs in the American soil by 93.85% and 27.69% respectively, but the rest four PAEs compounds were lower than the control limits. Generally, the pollution level of soils contaminated by PAEs in agricultural fields of Zhongshan City was relatively low. The contents of 3 PAEs in agricultural products ranged from 0.15 to 3.15 mg x kg(-1) with the average of 1.12 mg x kg(-1), which was lower than the suggested standards in USA and Europe and with low health risk. Meanwhile, ∑ PAEs concentrations in vegetables were higher than those both in rice and fruits. DBP and DEHP were the main components of PAEs both in agricultural soils and products, with higher percentage contents and detected ratio. ∑ PAEs and DBP contents in various agricultural products-soils had a significantly positive correlation, with Pearson coefficients (r) in vegetables-vegetable soils were 0.81 (P = 0.000), 0.75 (P = 0.000), and corresponding r among rice-paddy soil and fruits-fruit soils were 0.74 (P = 0.036), 0.65 (P = 0.041) and 0.66 (P = 0.029), 0.78 (P = 0.045), respectively. Although there existed a

  19. Assessment of productivity and water use efficiency in three maize (zea mays L.) varieties in Kwabenya-Atomic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimpong, J. O.

    2010-06-01

    The production of rain-fed maize in the Kwabenya-Atomic area of the coastal savannah environment of Ghana is limited by low and erratic rainfall. Enhancing maize production in the area will require the use of maize varieties efficient in the use of soil moisture. The study was, therefore, conducted to evaluate three recently released maize varieties (Obatanpa, Mamaba, and Golden Crystal) for their efficiency in the use of soil moisture for total dry matter and grain production and consequently identify the maize varieties suitable for rain-fed production in the Kwabenya-Atomic area. Field experiments were conducted m 2008 during the major and minor cropping seasons at Kwabenya-Atomic area in Ghana using three maize varieties grown at a planting distance of 0.4 m within rows and 0.8 m between rows. The experimental design used was the randomised complete block design in four replicates. Plants were sampled every two weeks throughout the maize growing seasons. Access tubes installed in each sub-plot facilitated simultaneous moisture monitoring with the aid of a neutron probe (CPN (R) 503 Hydroprobe) in a 120 cm soil profile. The moisture content values were used for the estimation of actual evapotranspiration of the maize crop using the water balance approach. Grain yield (GY) and its associated water use efficiency (WUE GY ) were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) among the maize varieties during the major cropping season with Mamaba producing the highest grain yield of 7250.0 kg ha -1 and WUE GY of 13.2 kg ha -1 mm -1 . For the minor cropping season, no significant difference was observed in grain yield, which ranged between 5800.0 and 7200.0 kg ha -1 , with Obatanpa producing the highest grain yield. No significant difference was observed in WUE GY during the minor cropping season which ranged between 14.6 and 19.1 kg ha -1 mm -1 with Obatanpa having the highest WUE GY . The maize genotype produced similar total dry matter (TDM) during each of the cropping

  20. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  1. Vacuum-thermal-evaporation: the route for roll-to-roll production of large-area organic electronic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D M

    2015-01-01

    Surprisingly little consideration is apparently being given to vacuum-evaporation as the route for the roll-to-roll (R2R) production of large-area organic electronic circuits. While considerable progress has been made by combining silicon lithographic approaches with solution processing, it is not obvious that these will be compatible with a low-cost, high-speed R2R process. Most efforts at achieving this ambition are directed at conventional solution printing approaches such as inkjet and gravure. This is surprising considering that vacuum-evaporation of organic semiconductors (OSCs) is already used commercially in the production of organic light emitting diode displays. Beginning from a discussion of the materials and geometrical parameters determining transistor performance and drawing on results from numerous publications, this review makes a case for vacuum-evaporation as an enabler of R2R organic circuit production. The potential of the vacuum route is benchmarked against solution approaches and found to be highly competitive. For example, evaporated small molecules tend to have higher mobility than printed OSCs. High resolution metal patterning on plastic films is already a low-cost commercial process for high-volume packaging applications. Similarly, solvent-free flash-evaporation and polymerization of thin films on plastic substrates is also a high-volume commercial process and has been shown capable of producing robust gate dielectrics. Reports of basic logic circuit elements produced in a vacuum R2R environment are reviewed and shown to be superior to all-solution printing approaches. Finally, the main issues that need to be resolved in order to fully develop the vacuum route to R2R circuit production are highlighted. (paper)

  2. Observation-based modelling and analysis of O3 Production in the Seoul Metropolitan Area during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J.; Crawford, J. H.; Fried, A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Lee, G.; Ahn, J. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) has a population of 24 million and frequently experiences unhealthy levels of ozone (O3). In this work, data from the Korea-United States Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ, May 2 - June 11, 2016) were used to constrain a 0-D photochemical box model, allowing for calculation of key photochemical parameters related to O3 chemistry in the SMA. During KORUS-AQ, the NASA DC-8 flew 20 research flights over the Korean Peninsula. Routine overflights of the SMA in the morning, midday, and afternoon allowed for evaluation of diurnal photochemical tendencies in both the urban core of Seoul and surrounding areas. During KORUS-AQ, the SMA experienced 39 days where the max 8-hour O3 exceeded the Korean AQS value of 60 ppbv. Box model calculations constrained with high-frequency data from the DC-8 show that rates of net O3 production (P(O3)) in urban Seoul were similar to outlying metropolitan areas across all times of day, with the highest median values occurring around midday in both cases ( 15 ppbv/hr). Although mixing ratios of key ozone precursors such as NOx and reactive VOCs were substantially higher in urban Seoul than outlying areas, net P(O3) was sustained across the region due to non-linearities in O3 chemistry. Box model calculations show that urban Seoul was strongly radical-limited, while outlying areas were either slightly NOx-limited or near the `transition' area. This suggests that P(O3) can be mitigated in urban Seoul by reducing VOC emissions, but regional air quality would benefit from reductions in both NOx and VOCs. Box model simulations of the response of P(O3) to omitting select VOCs suggest that reactive aromatics - particularly toluene, which had a median mixing ratio of 2 ppbv across SMA - contributed most to radical abundances ( 60%) and P(O3), and reductions in aromatic emissions would be most effective towards reducing P(O3). Biogenics and light alkenes account for 25% and 10% of radical abundances in the SMA, respectively

  3. Improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Mzuzu milk shed area in Malawi: Constraints and possible interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumwenda, M.S.L.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Mzuzu milk shed area in Northern Malawi, to identify major constraints to dairy cattle production systems prevailing in the area (Phase I) and develop a sustainable feed supplementation intervention (Phase II) based on tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban for increasing milk production. Phase I of the study revealed that the major constraint to increasing productivity was poor nutrition related to the fluctuating supply of quality and quantity of feed. Body weights of cows averaged 301 ± 81.3 kg and ranged from 189 to 550 kg whereas the body condition score (BCS, on 1-9 scale) averaged 5.73 ± 1.35 and ranged from 2.00 to 9.00. Average milk production was 6.1 ± 5 kg/d and ranged from 1.5 to 19.0 kg/d. Post-partum reproductive status varied considerably. Cows consumed 10.6 ± 6.2 kg/day of roughage and 2.96 ± 1.45 kg/day of concentrates. The quality of the feeds was moderate. Roughages contained 1.56 ± 0.12% N while concentrates contained 1.88 ± 0.04% N. Poor reproductive management and prevalence of internal parasites were also identified as constraints. The intervention (Phase II) based on supplementation with tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban significantly (P <0.05) improved the performance of dairy cows. Cows supplemented with tree legume leaves showed significantly higher body weights (368 ± 65.5 vs 348.7 ± 59.2 kg) and BCS (6.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.3 ± 1) compared to their counterparts receiving a supplement according to the present management practice. Daily milk yields of cows on the experimental diet averaged 8.6 ± 3.2 kg whereas those on control diet averaged 5.4 ± 1.7 kg. Significant differences in milk yields between the two groups of cows could have been due to higher dry matter intake from the supplementary diet. Cows on experimental diet consumed 3.5 ± 1.2 kg of supplementary feed as compared to 2.2 ± 0.7 kg by cows on the control diet. (author)

  4. Determination of the geographic origin of onions between three main production areas in Japan and other countries by mineral composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyama, Kaoru; Aoyama, Yoshinori; Mochizuki, Akashi; Homura, Yuji; Kadokura, Masashi; Yasui, Akemi

    2007-01-24

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are produced in many countries and are one of the most popular vegetables in the world, thus leading to an enormous amount of international trade. It is currently important that a scientific technique be developed for determining geographic origin as a means to detect fraudulent labeling. We have therefore developed a technique based on mineral analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The onion samples used in this study were from Hokkaido, Hyogo, and Saga, which are the primary onion-growing areas in Japan, and those from countries that export onions to Japan (China, the United States, New Zealand, Thailand, Australia, and Chile). Of 309 samples, 108 were from Hokkaido, 52 were from Saga, 77 were from Hyogo, and 72 were from abroad. Fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs, and Ba) in the samples were determined by frame atomic adsorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The models established by LDA were used to discriminate the geographic origin between Hokkaido and abroad, Hyogo and abroad, and Saga and abroad. Ten-fold cross-validations were conducted using these models. The discrimination accuracies obtained by cross-validation between Hokkaido and abroad were 100 and 86%, respectively. Those between Hyogo and abroad were 100 and 90%, respectively. Those between Saga and abroad were 98 and 90%, respectively. In addition, it was demonstrated that the fingerprint of an element pattern from a specific production area, which a crop receives, did not easily change by the variations of fertilization, crop year, variety, soil type, and production year if appropriate elements were chosen.

  5. ESTIMATION OF THE CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS FROM DOSE-AREA PRODUCT TO EFFECTIVE DOSE FOR BARIUM MEAL EXAMINATIONS FOR ADULT PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vodovatov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroscopic examinations of the upper gastro-intestinal tract and, especially, barium meal examinations, are commonly performed in a majority of hospitals. These examinations are associated both with substantial individual patient doses and contribution to the collective dose from medical exposure. Effective dose estimation for this type of examinations is complicated due to: 1 the necessity to simulate the moving X-ray irradiation field; 2 differences in study structure for the individual patients; 3 subjectivity of the operators; and 4 differences in the X-ray equipment. The aim of the current study was to estimate conversion coefficients from dose-area product to effective dose for barium meal examinations for the over couch and under couch exposure conditions. The study was based on data collected in the X-ray unit of the surgical department of the St-Petersburg Mariinsky hospital. A model of patient exposure during barium meal examination was developed based on the collected data on fluoroscopy protocols and adult patient irradiation geometry. Conversion coefficients were calculated using PCXMC 2.0 software. Complete examinations were converted into a set of typical fluoroscopy phases and X-ray images, specified by the examined anatomical region and the projection of patient exposure. Conversion coefficients from dose-area product to effective dose were calculated for each phase of the examination and for the complete examination. The resulting values of the conversion coefficients are comparable with published data. Variations in the absolute values of the conversion coefficients can be explained by differences in clinical protocols, models for the estimation of the effective dose and parameters of barium meal examinations. The proposed approach for estimation of effective dose considers such important features of fluoroscopic examinations as: 1 non-uniform structure of examination, 2 significant movement of the X-ray tube within a single

  6. Shallow groundwater quality and geochemistry in the Fayetteville Shale gas-production area, north-central Arkansas, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippian Fayetteville Shale serves as an unconventional gas reservoir across north-central Arkansas, ranging in thickness from approximately 50 to 550 feet and varying in depth from approximately 1,500 to 6,500 feet below the ground surface. Primary permeability in the Fayetteville Shale is severely limited, and successful extraction of the gas reservoir is the result of advances in horizontal drilling techniques and hydraulic fracturing to enhance and develop secondary fracture porosity and permeability. Drilling and production of gas wells began in 2004, with a steady increase in production thereafter. As of April 2012, approximately 4,000 producing wells had been completed in the Fayetteville Shale. In Van Buren and Faulkner Counties, 127 domestic water wells were sampled and analyzed for major ions and trace metals, with a subset of the samples analyzed for methane and carbon isotopes to describe general water quality and geochemistry and to investigate the potential effects of gas-production activities on shallow groundwater in the study area. Water-quality analyses from this study were compared to historical (pregas development) shallow groundwater quality collected in the gas-production area. An additional comparison was made using analyses from this study of groundwater quality in similar geologic and topographic areas for well sites less than and greater than 2 miles from active gas-production wells. Chloride concentrations for the 127 groundwater samples collected for this study ranged from approximately 1.0 milligram per liter (mg/L) to 70 mg/L, with a median concentration of 3.7 mg/L, as compared to maximum and median concentrations for the historical data of 378 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data sets revealed statistically larger chloride concentrations (p-value gas extraction activities. Major ions and trace metals additionally had lower concentrations in data gathered for this study than in the historical

  7. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic characterization of wines by grape varieties and production areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hong-Seok; Kim, Ki Myong; van den Berg, Frans; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Park, Won-Mok; Lee, Cherl-Ho; Hong, Young-Shick

    2008-09-10

    (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the metabolic differences in wines produced from different grape varieties and different regions. A significant separation among wines from Campbell Early, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Shiraz grapes was observed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The metabolites contributing to the separation were assigned to be 2,3-butanediol, lactate, acetate, proline, succinate, malate, glycerol, tartarate, glucose, and phenolic compounds by PCA and PLS-DA loading plots. Wines produced from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes harvested in the continental areas of Australia, France, and California were also separated. PLS-DA loading plots revealed that the level of proline in Californian Cabernet Sauvignon wines was higher than that in Australian and French Cabernet Sauvignon, Australian Shiraz, and Korean Campbell Early wines, showing that the chemical composition of the grape berries varies with the variety and growing area. This study highlights the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics with multivariate statistical data sets in determining wine quality and product origin.

  8. Measurement of 222Rn, 220Rn and their decay products in high background radiation area in Yangjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yongling

    2000-01-01

    The investigators have measured concentrations of Rn-222, rn-220 and their decay products in high background radiation area (HBRA) and the neighboring control area (CA), as well as the equilibrium factor F for Rn-222. The average concentrations of Rn-222 in the air indoors and outdoors in the HBRA are 42.6 and 17.3 Bq/m 3 respectively, and CA, 13.2 and 11.7 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The average α-potential energy concentrations for daughters of Rn-222 indoors and outdoors in HBRA are 0.109 and 0.051 μJ/m 3 , CA, 0.045 and 0.041 μJ/m 3 , respectively. The average α-potential energy values for daughters of Rn-220 indoor and outdoor in HBRA are 0.249 and 0.053 μJ/m 3 , CA, 0.051 and 0.025 μJ/m 3 , respectively. With regard to equilibrium factor F for Rn-222, the authors have also measured 52 points of 10 hamlets in HBRA (indoor 31, outdoor 21), 9 points of 2 hamlets in CA (indoor 5, outdoor 4), respectively. These figures are 0.46, 0.53, 0.62 and 0.64, respectively

  9. Effective dose per unit kerma-area product conversion factors in adults undergoing modified barium swallow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw Bonilha, Heather; Wilmskoetter, Janina; Tipnis, Sameer V.; Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Huda, Walter

    2017-01-01

    This study presents an investigation of adult effective dose (E) per unit Kerma-Area Product (KAP) in Modified Barium Swallow Study (MBSS) examinations. PC program for X-ray Monte Carlo (version 2.0.1) was used to calculate patient organ doses during MBSS examinations, which used combined to generate effective dose. Normalized patient doses were obtained by dividing the effective dose (mSv) by the incident KAP (Gy.cm 2 ). Five standard projections were studied and the importance of X-ray beam size and in patient size (body mass index) were investigated. Lateral projections had an average E/ KAP conversion factor of 0.19 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy.cm 2 . The average E/KAP was highest for upper gastrointestinal (GI) anterior- posterior projections (0.27 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy.cm 2 ) and lowest for upper GI posterior-anterior projections (0.09 ± 0.03 mSv/ Gy.cm 2 ). E/KAP always increased with increasing filtration and/or X-ray tube voltage. Reducing the X-ray beam cross-sectional area increased the E/KAP conversion factors. Small patients have the E/KAP conversion factors that are twice those of a standard adult. Conversion factors for effective dose of adult patients undergoing MBSS examinations must account for X-ray beam projection, beam quality (kV and filtration), image size and patient size. (authors)

  10. Livestock Production - Current Status in South and South-East Asia, Future Directions and Priority Areas for Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, B. M.A. Oswin, [Kandy (Sri Lanka)

    2014-01-15

    The role of livestock in agriculture in South and South-East Asia is complex and significantly different from that of industrialized nations. The traditional farming systems are mostly based on mixed crop-livestock systems, with small farms predominating. The most important livestock species in the region are cattle (Bos indicus, Bos taurus and their crosses), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, both river and swamp types), goats, sheep, pigs and poultry. In some high altitude areas Yaks (Poephagus grunniens) and Mithun or Gayal (Bos frontalis) are also important. Although the contribution of the livestock sub-sector to national GDP in most Asian countries is low, it is a crucial source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins to the population, by way of milk, meat and eggs. For millions of smallholder farmers it provides food security, draught power, fibre, manure and fuel, and also serves as a 'living bank' in periods of economic hardship. The farming systems in the region vary widely (Perera et al., 2005), determined by a matrix of several interacting factors that include climate (latitude, altitude and rainfall), location (rural, peri-urban or urban), cropping systems (rain-fed or irrigated, annual or perennial crops), type of operation (small or large farm, subsistence or commercial), and the species and their primary purpose (milk, meat, eggs, draught, capital or mixed). The ruminant production systems that were largely extensive or semi-intensive in the past (grassland-based or mixed crop-livestock, with rain-fed or irrigated mixed farming), which were sustained with locally available resources, have become constrained due to many factors. Competition for land from the increasing human population that demands space for habitation, crop production and other economic activities have dwindled grazing lands. Mechanization of agricultural operations and commercial market forces have also made such systems less competitive. Thus some enterprising farmers have moved

  11. Methane and Benzene in Drinking-Water Wells Overlying the Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shale Hydrocarbon Production Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Peter B; Barlow, Jeannie R B; Engle, Mark A; Belitz, Kenneth; Ging, Patricia B; Hunt, Andrew G; Jurgens, Bryant C; Kharaka, Yousif K; Tollett, Roland W; Kresse, Timothy M

    2017-06-20

    Water wells (n = 116) overlying the Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shale hydrocarbon production areas were sampled for chemical, isotopic, and groundwater-age tracers to investigate the occurrence and sources of selected hydrocarbons in groundwater. Methane isotopes and hydrocarbon gas compositions indicate most of the methane in the wells was biogenic and produced by the CO 2 reduction pathway, not from thermogenic shale gas. Two samples contained methane from the fermentation pathway that could be associated with hydrocarbon degradation based on their co-occurrence with hydrocarbons such as ethylbenzene and butane. Benzene was detected at low concentrations (2500 years, indicating the benzene was from subsurface sources such as natural hydrocarbon migration or leaking hydrocarbon wells. One sample contained benzene that could be from a surface release associated with hydrocarbon production activities based on its age (10 ± 2.4 years) and proximity to hydrocarbon wells. Groundwater travel times inferred from the age-data indicate decades or longer may be needed to fully assess the effects of potential subsurface and surface releases of hydrocarbons on the wells.

  12. Order of the 23 March 2006 relative to the return rate on the immobilized capital for the electric power production installation in non connected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    This order fixes the return rate on the investments capital of electric power production in non connected areas, used for the calculation of the compensation expenses of the electric utilities. (A.L.B.)

  13. Effect of structural modifications on the drying kinetics of foods: changes in volume, surface area and product shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Michelis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Macro and micro-structural changes take place during food dehydration. Macro-structural changes encompass modifications in shape, area and volume. Studies of such changes are important because dehydration kinetics (essential for calculating industrial dryers may be highly influenced by changes in food shape and dimensions. The overall changes in volume, surface area (“shrinkage” and shape (Heywood factor, with provides a close description of food shape were determined experimentally, and the results were correlated with simple expressions. Hence, although dehydration kinetics can be modeled with simplified overall shrinkage expressions, the possibility of selecting a suitable geometry and predicting the characteristics dimensions will provide higher accuracy. An additional unresolved problem is the lack of a general model that predicts macro-structural changes for various foods and diverse geometries. In this work, based on experimental data of sweet and sour cherries, and rose hip fruits, a simplified general model to predict changes in volume and surface area are proposed. To estimate how the changes in characteristic dimensions affect the kinetic studies, experimental drying curves for the three fruits by means of a diffusional model considered the following variants for the characteristic dimensions: (i The radius of the fresh food, assumed constant; (ii The radius of the partially dehydrated product; (iii The radius predicted by the correlation for structural changes, especially volume, obtained in this work and generalized for the three fruits, and (iv to demonstrate the need to study the macro-structural changes for all dehydrated foods, also be present the case of a restructured food.

  14. Measurement of X-ray for the dose area product and spectrum by the added filtration in Rando phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Woong; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Jiwon; Kweon, Dae Cheol

    2014-02-01

    The most important point in the medical use of radiation is to minimize the patient entrance dose while maintaining the diagnostic information. Low-energy photons (long-wave X-ray) are unnecessary among diagnostic X-ray because they are mostly absorbed and increase the patient's entrance dose. The most effective method to eliminate the low-energy photon is use of a filtering plate. Using a filter appropriate for the image will maintain diagnostic value. Obtaining an effective image allows comparison of the resulting images in a logical objective way. This experiment was performed to determine the quality of image dosimeter when there is no filter, and when 2 mm Al, 0.1 mm Cu + 1 mm Al, 0.2 mm Cu + 1 mm Al filters are used. Using TORECK PD-8100 dose area products meter placed on top of an abdominal phantom, we measured the dose when the filter changes in this condition 85 kVp, 40 mAs, anode angle 13, source image distance 100 cm, 20 cm × 20 cm. We used the SRS-78 program for accurate comparison because we could not evaluate the difference in the image optically. The spectrum changed due to the emission of X-rays as the filter changed. We observed that the use of a filter eliminated the low-energy photons and revealed continuous X-ray and special X-ray. Therefore, the experiment highlighted the advantages of filters and confirmed that there are no changes in the quality of image through signal to noise ratio, peak signal to noise ratio, root mean square error comparison. We found that the use of filter did not lead to distortions in the image or drop in diagnostic value while minimizing the radiation dose. This means that it can help manage long-term patient dose. We conclude that we need to recommend the use of the filter as it reduces the area of dose.

  15. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTION OF COPAIBA OLEORESIN BETWEEN VALLEYS AND HILLSIDES OF THE MINING AREA OFTROMBETAS RIVER - PARÁ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gebara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We aimed in this work to study natural populations of copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne on the Monte Branco mountain at Porto Trombetas-PA, in order to support sustainable management and the exploitation of oleoresin from copaiba. We studied the population structure of copaiba on hillsides and valleys of the south face of Monte Branco, within Saracá Taquera National Forest, where bauxite ore was extracted in the biennium 2013-2014 by Mineração Rio do Norte (MRN. We produced a 100% forest inventory of the specie and of oleoresin extraction in order to quantify the potential production of the remaining area. The density of copaiba individuals with DBH > 30 cm was 0.33 individuals per hectare in the hillside and 0.25 individuals per hectare in the valley. Both environments presented a density of 0.28 individuals per hectare. The average copaiba oleoresin yield was 0.661±0.334 liters in the hillside and 0.765±0.280 liters in the valley. The average value of both environments together (hillside and valley was 0.714±0.218 liters. From all individuals with DBH over 30 cm, 38 (58% produced some amount of oleoresin, averaging 1.113±0.562 liters in the hillside, 1.329±0.448 liters in the valley and 1.190±0.355 liters in both environments together. The results show the need for planning the use of the surroundings of the study area in order to reach the required volume of copaiba to make feasible the sustainable management of oleoresin extraction in the region.

  16. The AreA transcription factor in Fusarium graminearum regulates the use of some nonpreferred nitrogen sources and secondary metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Henriette; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2013-01-01

    Growth conditions are known to affect the production of secondary metabolites in filamentous fungi. The influence of different nitrogen sources and the transcription factor AreA on the production of mycotoxins in Fusarium graminearum was examined. Growth on glutamine or NH4-sources was poor and asparagine was found to be a preferential nitrogen source for F. graminearum. Deletion of areA led to poor growth on NaNO₃ suggesting its involvement in regulation of the nitrate reduction process. In addition utilization of aspartic acid, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine as nitrogen sources was shown to depend of a functional AreA. AreA was shown to be required for the production of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone, and fusarielin H regardless of the nutrient medium. Deletion of nmr, the repressor of AreA under nitrogen sufficient conditions, had little effect on either growth or toxin production. AreA appears to regulate production of some mycotoxins directly or indirectly independent on nitrogen status and plays a role in utilization of certain amino acids. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Reference air kerma and kerma-area product as estimators of peak skin dose for fluoroscopically guided interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Deukwoo; Little, Mark P.; Miller, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine more accurate regression formulas for estimating peak skin dose (PSD) from reference air kerma (RAK) or kerma-area product (KAP). Methods: After grouping of the data from 21 procedures into 13 clinically similar groups, assessments were made of optimal clustering using the Bayesian information criterion to obtain the optimal linear regressions of (log-transformed) PSD vs RAK, PSD vs KAP, and PSD vs RAK and KAP. Results: Three clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK, seven clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs KAP, and six clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK and KAP. Prediction of PSD using both RAK and KAP is significantly better than prediction of PSD with either RAK or KAP alone. The regression of PSD vs RAK provided better predictions of PSD than the regression of PSD vs KAP. The partial-pooling (clustered) method yields smaller mean squared errors compared with the complete-pooling method.Conclusion: PSD distributions for interventional radiology procedures are log-normal. Estimates of PSD derived from RAK and KAP jointly are most accurate, followed closely by estimates derived from RAK alone. Estimates of PSD derived from KAP alone are the least accurate. Using a stochastic search approach, it is possible to cluster together certain dissimilar types of procedures to minimize the total error sum of squares.

  18. Retrospective estimation of patient dose-area product in thoracic spine tomosynthesis performed using VolumeRAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, Magnus; Svalkvist, Angelica; Soederman, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a recently developed method of retrospectively estimating the patient dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination, performed using VolumeRAD, in thoracic spine tomosynthesis and to determine the necessary field-size correction factor. Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data for the projection radiographs acquired during a thoracic spine tomosynthesis examination were retrieved directly from the modality for 17 patients. Using the previously developed method, an estimated DAP for the tomosynthesis examination was determined from DICOM data in the scout image. By comparing the estimated DAP with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs, a field-size correction factor was determined. The field-size correction factor for thoracic spine tomosynthesis was determined to 0.92. Applying this factor to the DAP estimated retrospectively, the maximum difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was <3 %. In conclusion, the previously developed method of retrospectively estimating the DAP in chest tomosynthesis can be applied to thoracic spine tomosynthesis. (authors)

  19. Dose area product evaluations with Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R

    2006-01-01

    Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films are a useful tool to evaluate entrance skin dose in interventional radiology. Another dosimetric quantity of interest in diagnostic and interventional radiology is the dose area product (DAP). In this study, a method to evaluate DAP using Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner was developed and tested. Film samples were exposed to an x-ray beam of 80 kVp over a dose range of 0-10 Gy. DAP measurements with films were obtained from the digitalization of a film sample positioned over the x-ray beam window during the exposure. DAP values obtained with this method were compared for 23 cardiological interventional procedures with DAP values displayed by the equipment. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the absorbed dose, with values below 6% for doses above 1 Gy. A maximum discrepancy of 16% was found, which is of the order of the differences in the DAP measurements that may occur with different calibration procedures. Based on the results presented, after an accurate calibration procedure and a thorough inspection of the relationship between the actual dose and the direct measured quantity (net optical density or net pixel value variation), Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films can be used to assess the DAP. (note)

  20. Dose area product evaluations with Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R [Struttura Complessa Fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Battista, Corso Bramante 88, 10126 Turin (Italy)

    2006-12-07

    Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films are a useful tool to evaluate entrance skin dose in interventional radiology. Another dosimetric quantity of interest in diagnostic and interventional radiology is the dose area product (DAP). In this study, a method to evaluate DAP using Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner was developed and tested. Film samples were exposed to an x-ray beam of 80 kVp over a dose range of 0-10 Gy. DAP measurements with films were obtained from the digitalization of a film sample positioned over the x-ray beam window during the exposure. DAP values obtained with this method were compared for 23 cardiological interventional procedures with DAP values displayed by the equipment. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the absorbed dose, with values below 6% for doses above 1 Gy. A maximum discrepancy of 16% was found, which is of the order of the differences in the DAP measurements that may occur with different calibration procedures. Based on the results presented, after an accurate calibration procedure and a thorough inspection of the relationship between the actual dose and the direct measured quantity (net optical density or net pixel value variation), Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films can be used to assess the DAP. (note)

  1. Amplitude and phase of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in the guinea pig in an (f1,f2) area study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra; Prijs, Vera F.; Schoonhoven, Ruurd

    2003-06-01

    Lower sideband distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), measured in the ear canal upon stimulation with two continuous pure tones, are the result of interfering contributions from two different mechanisms, the nonlinear distortion component and the linear reflection component. The two contributors have been shown to have a different amplitude and, in particular, a different phase behavior as a function of the stimulus frequencies. The dominance of either component was investigated in an extensive (f1,f2) area study of DPOAE amplitude and phase in the guinea pig, which allows for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of isophase contours. Making a minimum of additional assumptions, simple relations between the direction of constant phase in the (f1,f2) plane and the group delays in f1-sweep, f2-sweep, and fixed f2/f1 paradigms can be derived, both for distortion (wave-fixed) and reflection (place-fixed) components. The experimental data indicate the presence of both components in the lower sideband DPOAEs, with the reflection component as the dominant contributor for low f2/f1 ratios and the distortion component for intermediate ratios. At high ratios the behavior cannot be explained by dominance of either component.

  2. Using Very High Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery to Estimate Agricultural Production: A comparison of food insecure and secure growing areas in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Husak, G. J.; Bogle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Determining the amount of food produced in a food insecure, isolated, subsistence farming community can be used to help identify households or communities who may be in need of additional food resources. Measuring annual food production in developing countries, much less at a sub-national level, is complicated by lack of data. It can be difficult and costly to access all of the farming households engaged in subsistence farming. However, recent research has focused on the use of remotely sensed data to aid in the estimation of area under cultivation and because food production is the measure of yield (production per hectare) multiplied by area (number of hectares), we can use the area measure to reduce uncertainty in food production estimates. One strategy for estimating cultivated area relies on a fairly time intensive manual interpretation of very high resolution data. Due to the availability of very high resolution data it is possible to construct estimates of cultivated area, even in communities where fields are small. While this strategy has been used to effectively estimate cultivated area in a timely manner, questions remain about the spatial and temporal generalizability of this approach. The purpose of this paper is to produce and compare estimates of cultivated area in two very different agricultural areas of Kenya, a highly food insecure country in East Africa, during two different agricultural seasons. The areas selected represent two different livelihood zones: a marginal growing area where poor farmers rely on inconsistent rainfall and a lush growing area near the mountainous region of the middle-West area of the country where rainfall is consistent and therefore more suited to cultivation. The overarching goal is to determine the effectiveness of very high resolution remotely sensed imagery in calculating estimates of cultivated area in areas where food production strategies are different. Additionally the results of this research will explore the

  3. Remote Sensing of Leaf Area Index from LiDAR Height Percentile Metrics and Comparison with MODIS Product in a Selectively Logged Tropical Forest Area in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is an important parameter to describe the capacity of forests to intercept light and thus affects the microclimate and photosynthetic capacity of canopies. In general, tropical forests have a higher leaf area index and it is a challenge to estimate LAI in a forest with a very dense canopy. In this study, it is assumed that the traditional Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR-derived fractional vegetation cover (fCover has weak relationship with leaf area index in a dense forest. We propose a partial least squares (PLS regression model using the height percentile metrics derived from airborne LiDAR data to estimate the LAI of a dense forest. Ground inventory and airborne LiDAR data collected in a selectively logged tropical forest area in Eastern Amazonia are used to map LAI from the plot level to the landscape scale. The results indicate that the fCover, derived from the first return or the last return, has no significant correlations with the ground-based LAI. The PLS model evaluated by the leave-one-out validation shows that the estimated LAI is significantly correlated with the ground-based LAI with an R2 of 0.58 and a root mean square error (RMSE of 1.13. A data comparison indicates that the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS LAI underestimates the landscape-level LAI by about 22%. The MODIS quality control data show that in the selected tile, the cloud state is not the primary factor affecting the MODIS LAI performance; rather, the LAI from the main radiative transfer (RT algorithm contributes much to the underestimation of the LAI in the tropical forest. In addition, the results show that the LiDAR-based LAI has a better response to the logging activities than the MODIS-based LAI, and that the leaf area reduction caused by logging is about 13%. In contrast, the MODIS-based LAI exhibits no apparent spatial correlation with the LiDAR-based LAI. It is suggested that the main algorithm of MODIS should be

  4. The AreA transcription factor in Fusarium graminearum regulates the use of some nonpreferred nitrogen sources and secondary metabolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Sorensen, Jens Laurids

    2013-01-01

    and asparagine was found to be a preferential nitrogen source for F. graminearum. Deletion of areA led to poor growth on NaNO3 suggesting its involvement in regulation of the nitrate reduction process. In addition utilization of aspartic acid, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine...... as nitrogen sources was shown to depend of a functional AreA. AreA was shown to be required for the production of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone, and fusarielin H regardless of the nutrient medium. Deletion of nmr, the repressor of AreA under nitrogen sufficient conditions, had little effect...

  5. The impact on the landscape, environment and society of new productive chains in a mountain area: strategies, analysis and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Rainis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zootechnical farms enhance the preservation and valorization of the environmental value of the surroundings in marginal areas, such as the mountains of Friuli Venezia Giulia. An important tool for relaunching mountain animal husbandry can be the promotion of an appropriate policy to maintain and develop local food chains, supporting typical products, tightly related to the peculiarity of the agro-ecosystem. The aim of the chain Carne della Montagna Friulana-Carne di Qualità is to create a cooperation among primary producers, transformation companies, sellers and research institutes, in order to develop innovative pathways throughout the production of meat in Carnia (UD. The project was designed in 2007/08 but it was operative from 2010, with a first batch of animals. The stakeholders subscribed a chain agreement, adopting production guidelines and a commercial trademark. Since the meat is not yet ready, the present paper is, in part, an analysis of the preliminary modification of the operative context and, in part, a previsional examination of the possible effect of the activation of this production chain on the area. The results investigated economic, social, landscape, technical and technological (related to food safety elements. It can be observed, by an introductive evaluation, that this productive circuit may valorize the resources of this mountain area and can enhance zootechnics in mountain areas. The guidelines allow a vertical integration throughout the production path, coordinating all the operators. This type of production can be considered a niche product, related to the territory, with the maximum guarantee for the consumers. The environmental worthiness is the recovering and the improving of these marginal, agricultural areas. Actually, an overall evaluation can be done only from the summer of 2011, when data such as the organoleptic and qualitative characteristics, selling prices, level of appreciation by the customers and

  6. Application areas of phosphogypsum in production of mineral binders and composites based on them: a review of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvorkin Leonid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the consumption of gypsum products in construction industry with a limited amount of natural gypsum deposits requires alternative sources of gypsum-containing raw materials. In some countries which have fertilizers industry plants, the problem can be solved using industrial wastes, e.g. phosphorgypsum – a byproduct of fertilizers’ production. Kept in dumps over decades, phosphorgypsum is subjected to the chemical changes due to washing out impurities with rain and other natural factors. However, there are observed deviations of harmful impurities in dumped PG depending on its age., Phosphorgypsum of any age requires chemical treatment to neutralize remains of phosphorus and sulfuric acids, fluorine compounds. According to our researches one of the most simple and effective method of neutralization the impurities is using lime-containing admixtures. The paper presents results of laboratory tests of phosphorgypsum as a component of clinker and non-clinker binders. There were investigated the impact of phosphorgypsum as admixture for clinker binders to substitute natural gypsum. Neutralized phosphorgypsum can be applied as mineralizing admixture in calcination of Portland cement clinker. Adding 2 to 2.5% of phosphorgypsum as setting time regulator resulted in a similar physical and mechanical properties compared to mix made with natural gypsum. Another important area of phosphorgypsum application is sulphate activatoion of low-clinker blast-furnace slag cement (clinker content is less than 19%. According to results, the incorporation of phosphorgypsum as sulphate activator in cement has the better effect as natural gypsum. Other development has been carried out to modify the phosphorgypsum binder properties. Complex additive consisted of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizer and slaked lime permitted an increase mechanical properties of hardened phosphorgypsum binder due to significant a reduction of water consumption. Such

  7. Aboveground Net Primary Production of tree cover at the post-disturbance area in the Tatra National Park, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konôpka Bohdan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale disturbances under the conditions of Slovakia, caused especially by storm and bark beetle, bring dramatic decline in carbon budget of the country, besides other negative consequences. The largest disturbance in modern history of the Slovak forestry was the storm damage that occurred in November 2004. The Tatra National Park (TNP was one of the most affected regions. Thus, in this territory, two transects (T1 – the Danielov dom site and T2 – near the Horný Smokovec village were established to survey basic dendrometric properties of trees in young stands established after the disaster. The standing stock of aboveground biomass in tree cover for the spring and autumn 2014 was calculated using the recorded variables, i.e. tree height and diameter measured at the stem base, together with the region-specific allometric relations. Then, the Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP in tree cover was estimated with respect to its components (stem, branches and foliage. ANPP was 315 g m−2 per year (Transect T1, and 391 g m−2 per year (Transect T2. The differences in the structure of ANPP, i.e. contribution of tree components, were found between transects T1 and T2. They were caused by the contrasting tree species composition, specifically the ratios between Norway spruce and broadleaved species. Broadleaves allocated more biomass production to foliage than spruce. This phenomenon together with higher turnover (once a year of foliage caused that broadleaves manifest higher share of fast-cycling carbon in comparison to the amount of carbon sequestrated in woody parts (stem and branches. High variability of ANPP was found within the transects, i.e. among the plots (microsites. As for the representative estimation of the standing stock of aboveground part of tree cover as well as ANPP at the post-disturbance area in the TNP territory, the survey should be performed on a net of research plots. Only this approach enables reliable estimates

  8. Methane and benzene in drinking-water wells overlying the Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shale hydrocarbon production areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Groundwater samples were collected from domestic and public-supply wells in the Eagle Ford study area in 2015–16, in the Fayetteville study area in 2015, and in the...

  9. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Båth, Magnus; Söderman, Christina; Svalkvist, Angelica

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  10. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Båth, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.bath@vgregion.se; Svalkvist, Angelica [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-413 45, Sweden and Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg SE-413 45 (Sweden); Söderman, Christina [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-413 45 (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  11. Conflicts of interests in the area of healthcare products and technology. Current state of affairs and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarez, Jean-Paul; Funck-Brentano, Christian; Molimard, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    The handling of conflicts of interest in the area of healthcare products and technology has become a major issue for all of those involved in healthcare. Round Table N°4 at the Giens Workshops 2011 has put forward concrete proposals to clarify and optimise the handling of conflicts of interest. Conflicts of interest cannot be defined by the individuals consulted or applying for funds since each institution, whether public or private, that puts out a call for projects or that requests advice, analyses or expert testimony in the healthcare field has different degrees of what it defines as a conflict of interest, depending on the context of the proposal or specific request that it puts out. In contrast, each individual has ties of personal interest that can and must be openly disclosed. The ties are much more diverse than what is commonly found in the conflict of interest statements of large institutions operating in the healthcare field and are not limited to financial and operational ties between companies and individuals. In addition, the statements are difficult to manage because of their sheer number. The Round Table recommends that each individual should openly disclose all of his or her ties of personal interest in a Single Statement of Ties of personal Interest (SSTI). The SSTI would be updated regularly and accessible on line. Each institution could then determine whether or not the reported ties represent a conflict in the context of the mission proposed. Each institution could publish in advance the conditions that would give rise to a conflict and, in this way, an individual could refrain from applying for the mission. Other practical approaches to handling conflicts of interest were put forward. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  12. Cerebral extraction of N-13 ammonia: its dependence on cerebral blood flow and capillary permeability, surface area product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.C.; Kuhl, D.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Slin, C.

    1979-01-01

    13 N-labeled ammonia was used to investigate: (1) the cerebral extraction and clearance of ammonia; (2) the mechanicsm by which capillaries accommodate changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF); and (3) its use for the measure of CBF. This was investigated by measuring the single pass extraction of 13 NH 3 in rhesus monkeys during P/sub a/CO 2 induced changes in CBF, and with dog studies using in vitro tissue counting techniques to examine 13 NH 3 extraction in gray and white matter, mixed tissue, and cerebellum during variations in CBF produced by combinations of embolization, local brain compression, and changes in P/sub a/CO 2 . The single pass extraction fraction of 13 NH 3 varied from about 70 to 20% over a CBF range of 12 to 140cc/min/100gms. Capillary permeability-surface area product (PS) estimates from this data and the dog experiments show PS increasing with CBF. The magnitude and rate of increase in PS with CBF was highest in gray matter > mixed tissue > white matter. Tissue extraction of 13 NH 3 vs CBF relationship was best described by a unidirectional transport model in which CBF increases by both recruitment of capillaries and by increases of blood velocity in open capillaries. Glutamine synthetase, which incorporates 13 NH 3 into glutamine, appears to be anatomically located in astrocytes in general and specifically in the astrocytic pericapillary end-feet that are in direct contact with gray and white matter capillaries. The net 13 NH 3 extraction subsequent to an i.v. injection increases nonlinearly with CBF. Doubling or halving basal CBF produced from 40 to 50% changes in the 13 N tissue concentrations with further increases in CBF associated with progressively smaller changes in 13 N concentrations. 13 NH 3 appears to be a good tracer for the detection of cerebral ischemia with positron tomography but exhibits a poor response at high values of CBF

  13. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Båth, Magnus; Svalkvist, Angelica; Söderman, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis

  14. Mapping the productive sands of Lower Goru Formation by using seismic stratigraphy and rock physical studies in Sawan area, southern Pakistan: A case study

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, K.

    2011-02-24

    This study has been conducted in the Sawan gas field located in southern Pakistan. The aim of the study is to map the productive sands of the Lower Goru Formation of the study area. Rock physics parameters (bulk modulus, Poisson\\'s ratio) are analysed after a detailed sequence stratigraphic study. Sequence stratigraphy helps to comprehend the depositional model of sand and shale. Conformity has been established between seismic stratigraphy and the pattern achieved from rock physics investigations, which further helped in the identification of gas saturation zones for the reservoir. Rheological studies have been done to map the shear strain occurring in the area. This involves the contouring of shear strain values throughout the area under consideration. Contour maps give a picture of shear strain over the Lower Goru Formation. The identified and the productive zones are described by sands, high reflection strengths, rock physical anomalous areas and low shear strain.

  15. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling & production of oil & gas in wetland areas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, incorporating milestone schedule/status, October 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    This report is a progress report on a planned program falling under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. During this period, task 5, subscale tests, and task 7, environmental impacts, were completed. Work was continued on task 10, technology transfer, and the preparation of the final report as part of task 11.

  16. The Influences of Women Leadershp, Organizational Culture, Working Climate and Effective Communication on Employee€™s Productivity at PT. Bank Mandiri Area Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Tololiu, Melisa I.M

    2015-01-01

    In this global era, every organization seeks to improve employee€™s performance to create productive employees as their asset. PT. Bank Mandiri Area Manado is one of the organizations on the banking sector which has the main task of managing and marketing loans especially micro-credit segment. The aim of this study is to determine the influences of women leadership, organizational culture, working climate and effective communication on employee€™s productivity. In this study, population refer...

  17. Evaluation of water productivity under climate change in irrigated areas of the arid Northwest China using an assemble statistical downscaling method and an agro-hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Guo, Zezhong; Huang, Guanhua

    2018-06-01

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river basin, located in the arid region of Northwest China with a serious water shortage. Evaluation of water productivity will provide scientific implications for agricultural water-saving in irrigated areas of the arid region under climate change. Based on observed meteorological data, 23 GCMs outputs and the ERA-40 reanalysis data, an assemble statistical downscaling model was developed to generate climate change scenarios under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5 respectively, which were then used to drive the SWAP-EPIC model to simulate crop growth in the irrigated areas of the middle HRB for the future period from 2018 to 2047. Crop yield showed an increasing trend, while crop water consumption decreased gradually in Gaotai and Ganzhou irrigated areas. The water productivity in future 30 years showed an increasing trend in both Gaotai and Ganzhou areas, with the most significant increase under RCP4.5 scenario, which were both larger than 2 kg m-3. Compared with that of the period from 2012 to 2015, the water productivity during 2018-2047 under three RCP scenarios increased by 9.2, 14.3 and 11.8 % in the Gaotai area, and 15.4, 21.6, 19.9 % in the Ganzhou area, respectively.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS IN THE ECONOMIC AND GEOGRAPHIC AREAS OF THE AZERBAIJAN PART OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Jafarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to study the political, economic and environmental aspects of food security, which is an important component of national security; to study the issues of the use of environmentally friendly agricultural products, as well as the environmental safety of livestock products.Methods. Determination of the dynamics of livestock production on the basis of the comparative statistical analysis, the study of animal breeding territorial organization through a systematic approach.Results. The region has favorable conditions for the production of ecologically clean agricultural products, using environmentally friendly feed. We should develop manufacturing industries to meet international standards and provide the population with healthy food.Conclusion. We revealed the ecological safety of livestock products in the economic and geographic regions of the Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus.

  19. Special Analysis: Updated Analysis of the Effect of Wood Products on Trench Disposal Limits at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) develops revised radionuclide inventory limits for trench disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the presence of wood products in the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility. These limits should be used to modify the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for trench disposal. Because the work on which this SA is based employed data from tests using 100 percent wood products, the 40 percent limitation on wood products for trench (i.e., slit or engineered trench) disposal is not needed in the modified WAC

  20. Mapping the productive sands of Lower Goru Formation by using seismic stratigraphy and rock physical studies in Sawan area, southern Pakistan: A case study

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, K.; Iqbal, M.A.; Farid, A.; Shabih, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study has been conducted in the Sawan gas field located in southern Pakistan. The aim of the study is to map the productive sands of the Lower Goru Formation of the study area. Rock physics parameters (bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio

  1. Inkjet printing as a roll-to-roll compatible technology for the production of large area electronic devices on a pre-industrial scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, P.; Rubingh, E.; Lammeren, T. van; Abbel, R.J.; Groen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Inkjet printing is a promising approach towards the solution processing of electronic devices on an industrial scale. Of particular interest is the production of high-end applications such as large area OLEDs on flexible substrates. Roll-to-roll (R2R) processing technologies involving inkjet

  2. Farmers' Perception of Integrated Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Crop Production: A Study of Rural Areas in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouque, Md. Golam; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine farmers' perception of integrated soil fertility and nutrient management for sustainable crop production. Integrated soil fertility (ISF) and nutrient management (NM) is an advanced approach to maintain soil fertility and to enhance crop productivity. A total number of 120 farmers from eight villages in four districts…

  3. Climate-smart crop production in semi-arid areas through increased knowledge of varieties, environment and management factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Smaling, E.M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    In large regions of sub-Saharan Africa, semi-arid conditions are likely to increase with climate change, yet these regions are becoming more important to feed production zones due to increasing population pressure. A production system in the semi-arid south eastern Zimbabwe was studied to assess

  4. THE LABEL - AN ESSENTIAL TOOL FOR KEEPING THE CONSUMER INFORMED AND FOR PROMOTING PRODUCTS IN THE ECONOMIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria-Mihaela BRINZEA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The lifestyle and the technology evolution have significantly changed the consumers’ expectations and behaviors for the alimentary products. Paying more attention to health and welfare, consumers are looking for healthy products, which induces a special sensitivity to all information on the packaging and to the guarantees offered by the presence of official signs of quality. The quality of the product itself is undoubtedly the key to success, but before arriving there, the consumer must be convinced that the product should be bought from all the others that are available in the same category, moment at which the visual appearance of the product must fulfill his role. Deepening the analysis, we can say that although the shape, color, packaging originality are particularly important points, finally, the element that will really make the difference for consumers, today, is the label and the containing information.

  5. Determination of trace elements in coffee beans by XRF spectrometer equipped with polarization optics and its application to identification of their production area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamine, Takao; Otaka, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Hokura, Akiko; Ito, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    The production area of coffee beans becomes a brand name, which gives reputations for the products, which is related to the price. This leads to room for mislabeling the products by unscrupulous market dealers. A rapid and easy method for the analysis of trace-element composition of coffee beans, which could be a good indicator of their production area, was studied in the present work. Coffee beans of 6 different regions (Brazil, Colombia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Tanzania, Guatemala) were analyzed by using a highly sensitive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with three dimensional polarization optics. The experimental conditions were optimized so as to analyze 6 elements (Mn, Fe, Ni, Rb, Sr, Ba) in coffee beans, and linear calibration curves were obtained for the quantitative analysis of those elements. The analytical results were used in principal-component analysis to classify the coffee beans according to the geographical origin, which results in a successful characterization of the 6 production areas. It is found that roasted beans can be used with the same criterion as their green beans. Consequently, a rapid and easy way for the characterization of the geographic origin of coffee beans has been established in this study. (author)

  6. Landscape Changes and a Salt Production Sustainable Approach in the State of Salt Pan Area Decreasing on the Coast of Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Landsat images from 1979, 1988, 1999, 2008, and 2013 were used to analyze the landscape area change of salt pans lying on the coast of Tianjin. While initially (1979–1988, the area of Tianjin’s salt pan increased, later (1988–2013 it declined dramatically. In the first phase (1979–1988 of the studied period the primary roll-in landscape of the salt pan wasbarren land with an area of 60.0 km2. By 1988, the area of Tianjin’s salt pan rose to 457.8 km2. The main roll-out landscape of the salt pan during 1988–2013 was urban, barren land, village/town, harbor, and road whose area amounted to 69.8, 35.9, 27.3, 25.5 and 18.4 km2 respectively. The roll-out barren land will be transformed to construction land ultimately. By 2013, the total loss reached 167.3 km2, which was 36.5% of the salt pan area of Tianjin in 1988. With the development of coastal economy, the salterns with a lower economic value were transformed to and replaced by land use types with a higher economic value. This trend would influence the production of sea salt and the development of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate industries. Seawater desalination provides an opportunity for the restoration and compensation of salt production capacity. Based on the theory of circular economy and industrial symbiosis, in this article an industrial symbiosis model for sea salt production and sea water desalination is explored: “mariculture–power plant cooling–seawater desalination–Artemia culture–bromide extraction–sea salt production–salt chemical industry”. Through the application of this process sustainable development of the sea salt production in Tianjin could be achieved.

  7. Present practices of the Department of National Health and Welfare for the area monitoring of radon and daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, H.

    1977-01-01

    The present practices of the Radiation Protection Bureau for the measurement of radon and daughter products have been briefly described. For radon gas, the Lucas chamber method is in use. Short-lived radon daughter products are determined by the modified Kusnetz method. These field methods are supported by radioanalytical procedures carried out at the environmental radioactivity laboratory. Some recent studies using these methods have been briefly summarized. Concentrations of daughter products up to 29 WL were found in a columbium mine and 63 WL in a tin mine under development. The level of radon daughters in some homes in a uranium mining community ranged up to 2 WL

  8. Annual effective dose equivalents arising from inhalation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their decay products in high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhonghou

    1985-01-01

    The author presents the data of on-the-sport investigations in the high background radiation area in Yangjiang County in 1975 and 1981. Monazite sand is contained in the soil of this area. The average concentrations of 222 Rn in the air indoors and out doors of the high background radiation area are 31.8 and 16.4 Bqm -3 respectively, which are equal to 2.9 and 1.5 times the average concentrations in the control area. The average concentrations of 220 Rn in the air indoors and outdoors of the high background area are 167.5 and 18.4 Bqm -3 , corresponding to 9.6 and 4.8 times those of the control area respectively. The average potential alpha energy concentrations for daughters of 222 Rn indoors and outdoors are 0.1 and 0.097 μJm -3 , which are equal to 2.6 and 2.2 times those of the control are respectively. The average potential alpha energy concentrations for daughters of 220 Rn indoors and outdoors are 0.255 and 0.053 μJm -3 , corresponding to 3.7 and 2.7 times those of the control area respectively. The average annual effective dose equivalents arising from inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their decay products in high background radiation area are estimated to be 2.8 mSv per caput, in which 40.5% arise from 220 Rn and its decay products. This result is about 3 times that in the neighboring control area

  9. Use of biocidal products (insect sprays and electro-vaporizer) in indoor areas--exposure scenarios and exposure modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Koch, Wolfgang; Gerling, Susanne; Kock, Heiko; Appel, Klaus E

    2009-09-01

    Five commercially available insect sprays were applied in a model room. Spraying was performed in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions and in an overdosed manner in order to simulate worst-case conditions or an unforeseeable misuse. In addition, we examined electro-vaporizers. The Respicon aerosol monitoring system was applied to determine inhalation exposure. During normal spraying (10 seconds) and during the following 2-3 minutes, exposure concentrations ranged from 70 to 590 microg/m3 for the pyrethroids tetramethrin, d-phenothrin, cyfluthrin, bioallethrin, and the pyrethrins. Calculated inhalable doses were 2-16 microg. A concentration of approximately 850 microg chlorpyrifos/m(3) (inhalable dose: approximately 20 microg) was determined when the "Contra insect fly spray" was applied. Highest exposure concentrations (1100-2100 microg/m3) were measured for piperonyl butoxide (PBO), corresponding to an inhalation intake of 30-60microg. When simulating worst-case conditions, exposure concentrations of 200-3400microg/m3 and inhalable doses of 10-210microg were determined for the various active substances. Highest concentrations (4800-8000 microg/m3) were measured for PBO (inhalable: 290-480 microg). By applying the electro-vaporizer "Nexa Lotte" plug-in mosquito killer concentrations for d-allethrin were in the range of 5-12microg/m3 and 0.5-2 microg/m3 for PBO while with the "Paral" plug-in mosquito killer concentrations of 0.4-5microg/m3 for pyrethrins and 1-7 microg/m3 for PBO were measured. Potential dermal exposures were determined using exposure pads. Between 80 and 1000microg active substance (tetramethrin, phenothrin, cyfluthrin, bioallethrin, pyrethrins, chlorpyrifos) were deposited on the clothing of the total body surface area of the spray user. Highest levels (up to 3000 microg) were determined for PBO. Worst-case uses of the sprays led to 5-9 times higher concentrations. Also a 2-hour stay nearby an operating electro-vaporizer led to a

  10. Perturbation of the left inferior frontal gyrus triggers adaptive plasticity in the right homologous area during speech production

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Saur, Dorothee; Price, Cathy J.; Ulmer, Stephan; Baumgaertner, Annette; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2013-01-01

    The role of the right hemisphere in aphasia recovery is unclear. We demonstrate that a virtual lesion of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) decreased activity in the targeted area and increased activity in the contralateral homologous area during pseudoword repetition. This was associated with a stronger facilitatory drive from the right IFG to the left IFG. Importantly, responses became faster with increased influence of the right IFG on the left IFG. Our results shed new light on the dynamic...

  11. Soil Water Retention and Gross Primary Productivity in the Zábrod area in the Šumava Mts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šír, Miloslav; Lichner, Ľ.; Tesař, Miroslav; Krejča, M.; Váchal, J.

    roč. 3, s. 1 (2008), s130-s138 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200420562; GA ČR GA205/05/2312; GA ČR GA205/06/0375; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1A6/151/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : hydrologic cycle * evapotranspiration * gross primary productivity * entropy production * soil water retention Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  12. Life cycle assessment of opencast coal mine production: a case study in Yimin mining area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Jinman; Feng, Yu

    2018-03-01

    China has the largest coal production in the world due to abundant resource requirements for economic development. In recent years, the proportion of opencast coal mine production has increased significantly in China. Opencast coal mining can lead to a large number of environmental problems, including air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste occupation. The previous studies on the environmental impacts of opencast coal mine production were focused on a single production process. Moreover, mined land reclamation was an important process in opencast coal mine production; however, it was rarely considered in previous research. Therefore, this study attempted to perform a whole environmental impact analysis including land reclamation stage using life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The Yimin opencast coal mine was selected to conduct a case study. The production of 100 tons of coal was used as the functional unit to evaluate the environmental risks in the stages of stripping, mining, transportation, processing, and reclamation. A total of six environmental impact categories, i.e., resource consumption, acidification, global warming, solid waste, eutrophication, and dust, were selected to conduct this assessment. The contribution rates of different categories of environmental impacts were significantly different, and different stages exhibited different consumption and emissions that gave rise to different environmental effects. Dust was the most serious environmental impact category, and its contribution rate was 36.81%, followed by global warming and acidification with contribution rates of 29.43% and 22.58%, respectively. Both dust and global warming were mainly affected in mining stage in Yimin opencast coal mine based on comprehensive analysis of environmental impact. Some economic and feasible measures should be used to mitigate the environmental impacts of opencast coal mine production, such as water spraying, clean transportation, increasing processing

  13. Biomass and energy production of catch crops in areas with deficiency of precipitation during summer period in central Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant, V.; Pivec, J.; Fuksa, P.; Neckar, K.; Kocourkova, D.; Venclova, V.

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production dynamics of catch crops, volunteers and weeds in dependence on precipitation and air temperature, was studied in central Bohemia from 2004 to 2006. The cover of individual components of the growth was monitored during the same period. Also measured were energy and efficiency of utilization of global radiation by catch crops and volunteers. The catch crops included the following species: Brassica napus, Lolium multiflorum, Lolium perenne, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Sinapis alba, Trifolium incarnatum, Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis and Trifolium subterraneum. The highest biomass production and the highest cover of catch crops were observed in treatments with S. alba (1382.0 kg ha -1 , 47.8%). The average biomass production (sum of catch crops, volunteers and weeds) was highest in treatments with S. alba, R. sativus, and P. tanacetifolia and lowest in treatments with B. napus, L. multiflorum and L. perenne. It was demonstrated that an increase in the percentage share of volunteers caused a decrease in the biomass production of catch crops. The average energy production ranged from 0.31 to 2.37 MJ m -2 in treatments with catch crops, and from 0.25 to 0.89 MJ m -2 in treatments with cereal volunteers. The highest effectivity of global radiation utilization, was determined in treatments with S. alba (0.11-0.47%). Based on regression analysis the closest dependence between biomass production from all treatments on the experimental site and precipitation was observed from 1st May till the time of sowing and the average air temperatures from the sowing period till the time of the last biomass production assessment.

  14. From Phonemes to Articulatory Codes: An fMRI Study of the Role of Broca's Area in Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zwart, Jacco A.; Jansma, J. Martijn; Pickering, Martin J.; Bednar, James A.; Horwitz, Barry

    2009-01-01

    We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuroanatomical substrates of phonetic encoding and the generation of articulatory codes from phonological representations. Our focus was on the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and in particular whether the LIFG plays a role in sublexical phonological processing such as syllabification or whether it is directly involved in phonetic encoding and the generation of articulatory codes. To answer this question, we contrasted the brain activation patterns elicited by pseudowords with high– or low–sublexical frequency components, which we expected would reveal areas related to the generation of articulatory codes but not areas related to phonological encoding. We found significant activation of a premotor network consisting of the dorsal precentral gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, and the supplementary motor area for low– versus high–sublexical frequency pseudowords. Based on our hypothesis, we concluded that these areas and in particular the LIFG are involved in phonetic and not phonological encoding. We further discuss our findings with respect to the mechanisms of phonetic encoding and provide evidence in support of a functional segregation of the posterior part of Broca's area, the pars opercularis. PMID:19181696

  15. The distribution feature of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity in Prydz Bay and its north sea area during the austral summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琳; 陈忠元

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity were carried out in three longitudinal sections (63°-69°12′S, 70°30′E, 73°E and 75(30′E) at December 18 -26, 1998 and January 12 -18, 1999 in Prydz Bay and its north sea area, Antarctica. The results showed that surface chlorophyll a concentration were 0.16 - 3.99 μg dm -3. The high values of chlorophyll a concentration ( more than 3.5 μg dm -3 ) were in Prydz Bay and in the west Ladies Bank. The average chlorophyll a concentration at sub-surface layer was higher than that at surface layer; its concentration at the deeper layers of 50 m decreased with increasing depth and that at 200 m depth was only 0.01 -0.95 μg dm-3. The results of size-fractionated chlorophyll a showed that the contribution of the netplanktion to total chlorophyll a was 56% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 24% and 20% respectively in the surveyed area. The potential primary productivity at the euphotic zone in the surveyed area was 0. 11 - 11.67 mgC m-3 h -1 and average value was 2.00 ±2.80 mgC m-3h-1. The in-situ productivity in the bay and the continental shelf was higher and that in the deep-sea area was lower. The assimilation number of ted primary productivity show that the contribution of the netplanktion to total productivity was 58% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 26% and 16% respectively. The cell abundance of phytoplankton was 1. 6 + 103 - 164. 8 + 103 cell dm-3 in the surface water.

  16. Culture modes and financial evaluation of two oleaginous microalgae for biodiesel production in desert area with open raceway pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiaoning; Yang, Haijian; Hu, Chunxiang

    2016-10-01

    Cultivation modes of autotrophic microalgae for biodiesel production utilizing open raceway pond were analyzed in this study. Five before screened good microalgae were tested their lipid productivity and biodiesel quality again in outdoor 1000L ORP. Then, Chlorella sp. L1 and Monoraphidium dybowskii Y2 were selected due to their stronger environmental adaptability, higher lipid productivity and better biodiesel properties. Further scale up cultivation for two species with batch and semi-continuous culture was conducted. In 40,000L ORP, higher lipid productivity (5.15 versus 4.06gm(-2)d(-1) for Chlorella sp. L1, 5.35 versus 3.00gm(-2)d(-1) for M. dybowskii Y2) was achieved in semi-continuous mode. Moreover, the financial costs of 14.18$gal(-1) and 13.31$gal(-1) for crude biodiesel in two microalgae with semi-continuous mode were more economically feasible for commercial production on large scale outdoors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Heavy metals in vegetables collected from production and market sites of a tropical urban area of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Marshall, Fiona M

    2009-03-01

    Vegetables (Beta vulgaris L., Abelmoschus esculentus L. and Brassica oleracea L.) from the production and market sites of India were tested for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb. At market sites, the mean concentration of Cu in cauliflower, and of Zn and Cd in both palak and cauliflower had exceeded the PFA standard. Zn at the production sites also exceeded the PFA standard in cauliflower. Cd concentration in vegetables tested from both production and market sites was many folds higher than the EU standard. In contrast, Pb in vegetables tested from both production and market sites was below the PFA limit, but was considerably higher than the current EU and WHO standards. Heavy metals accumulation in vegetables tested are higher at market sites than those at the crop production sites. The contributions of these vegetables to dietary intake of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were 13%, 1%, 47% and 9% of provisional tolerable daily intake, respectively. The study concludes that the transportation and marketing systems of vegetables play a significant role in elevating the contaminant levels of heavy metals which may pose a threat to the quality of the vegetables with consequences for the health of the consumers of locally produced foodstuffs.

  18. Field data provide estimates of effective permeability, fracture spacing, well drainage area and incremental production in gas shales

    KAUST Repository

    Eftekhari, Behzad

    2018-05-23

    About half of US natural gas comes from gas shales. It is valuable to study field production well by well. We present a field data-driven solution for long-term shale gas production from a horizontal, hydrofractured well far from other wells and reservoir boundaries. Our approach is a hybrid between an unstructured big-data approach and physics-based models. We extend a previous two-parameter scaling theory of shale gas production by adding a third parameter that incorporates gas inflow from the external unstimulated reservoir. This allows us to estimate for the first time the effective permeability of the unstimulated shale and the spacing of fractures in the stimulated region. From an analysis of wells in the Barnett shale, we find that on average stimulation fractures are spaced every 20 m, and the effective permeability of the unstimulated region is 100 nanodarcy. We estimate that over 30 years on production the Barnett wells will produce on average about 20% more gas because of inflow from the outside of the stimulated volume. There is a clear tradeoff between production rate and ultimate recovery in shale gas development. In particular, our work has strong implications for well spacing in infill drilling programs.

  19. Biodiesel production and Environmental CO2 cleanup using Oleaginous Microorganisms from Al-Hassa area in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sinawi, Abdulaziz; Shathele, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Biodiesel production is rapidly moving towards the mainstream as an alternative source of energy. Algae oil is one of the viable feed stocks among others to produce Biodiesel. However the difficulties in efficient biodiesel production from algae lie not in the extraction of the oil, but in finding an algal strain with a high lipid content and fast growth rate. This paper presents an experimental work performed to study the production of biodiesel from local algae strains in Al-Hassa territory of the eastern province in Saudi Arabia which was found to contain high lipid contents and show rapid growth. The collected results predict that those types of desert algae are promising and are considered to be a potential feedstock for biofuels.

  20. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND in vitro GAS PRODUCTION OF SOME LEGUME BROWSE SPECIES IN SUBTROPICAL AREAS OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Garcia Montes de Oca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and in vitro gas production of different legume and wild arboreal pods. Seven seeds of legume browse species, Mexican calabash (Crescentia alata, esculent leadtree (Leucaena esculenta, guamuchil (Phitecellobium dulce, bastard cedar (Guazuma ulmifolia, needle bush (Acacia farnesiana, mimosa (Mimosa sp. and elephant ear tree (Enterolobium cyclocarpum. Were evaluated for their chemical composition (g/kg DM and in vitro gas production pattern. Crude Protein was higher for L. esculenta (220 and lower for G. ulmifolia (70. Neutral and acid detergent fiber were higher for G. ulmifolia (687 and 554 and lower for A. farnesiana (267 and 176. Lignin was higher for Mimosa sp. (219 and lower for P. dulce (81. Total gas production (ml gas/g DM of P. dulce (187 and E. cyclocarpum (164 were higher (P

  1. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of long-term organic rice production in a Subtropical area of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xueqing, He; Qiao, Yuhui; Liang, Long

    2018-01-01

    a considerable environmental impact and changing from conventional to organic rice cultivation might therefore have a potentially great impact. Meanwhile, it takes time for the organic farming systems to reach a new steady state after conversion to organic. Thus, the environmental profile of the organic products...... will change over time and it is therefore important to examine whether the difference to conventional will be reduced (and disappear) or be increased over time. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess the environmental impact of organic rice production 5 (OR5), 10 (OR10) and 15 (OR15) years since...... conversion and compare it to conventional rice (CR) in subtropical China. The life cycle assessment (LCA) method was used to assess environmental impact of rice production systems with regard to nine environmental impact categories: Non-renewable Energy Depletion (NED), Water Depletion (WD), Land Occupation...

  2. Social inclusion and its approach at Information Science: scientific production analysis in the area of information science periodicals between 2001 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Serrano Almeida

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has the purpose to check how the social inclusion has been approached at Information Science area, from the scientific production area published at the area national periodicals. Over there, to verify which inclusion forms are recurrently approached at Information Science area; to show the use tendencies of social inclusion concept at the Science Information area scientific articles; to find how it presents the social inclusion concept connected to the information professional and analyze if it there is any association to other themes. It was realized searches in six periodicals at the period between 2001 and 2010. We used how analysis method the Bardin content analysis reference. The analysis corpus was constituted of 30 articles which approached the social inclusion theme. As the results, it was showed that the social inclusion on Information Science area publications, in general, is turned to digital inclusion and to the Information Science area publications uses. Besides, it was still identified connections with the information professionals, which one must serve as mediator between the information and the environment where information and users are inserted.

  3. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  4. Dynamics of 137Cs concentration in agricultural products in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Sanzharova, N.I.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of 137 Cs concentration in the main types of agricultural products obtained in regions of Russia contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in 1986, have been analysed. The rate of decline of 137 Cs contamination in agricultural products during the period under study (1987-1992) was not uniform. Reductions of the 137 Cs content of produce was most rapid during the early years after the accident, as a consequence of the intensive application of countermeasures at that time. Half-life periods for 137 Cs content in milk (the basic dose-forming product) and the decrease in products for areas in Russia subjected to the most intensive contamination amounted to 1.6 to 4.8 years, depending on the scale of countermeasures carried out. Half-life periods of decrease of 137 Cs content in other types of agricultural products (grain, potato) were within the range of 2 to 7 years. Based on the comparison of the dynamics of 137 Cs levels in agricultural products of the regions where the countermeasures scales differed, the contribution of countermeasures and of natural biogeochemical processes to the decrease of 137 Cs contamination levels of the main types of agricultural products that determine the dose from internal irradiation of local population has been estimated. (author)

  5. Survey on the amount of cadmium in milk and its correlation with milk production in dairy farms of Tabriz area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir parviz rezaei saber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a metal widely dispersed in the environment. The main sources of this metal are industrial compounds and phosphate fertilizers. This metal is absorbed by plants and accumulates and accumulates in tissues like liver and kidney and causes anemia, hypertension, destruction of testicular tissue and bone complications. Considering the numerous side effects of cadmium, it is necessary to determine the amount of cadmium in milk in different areas in order to reduce milk contamination. In this study, a total of 400 milk samples were obtained from industrial and traditional farms from northern, southern, eastern and western areas of the city of Tabriz. All samples were frozen at -21°C and the concentration of cadmium in milk was measured by atomic flame spectrophotometry. The average values of cadmium in western, southern, northern and eastern areas of Tabriz were respectively 0/006 ± 0/0005 ppm, 0/0005 ± 0/004 ppm, 0/0004± 0/0059 ppm and 0/0002 ± 0/0037 ppm. Statistical comparison of cadmium concentrations in different areas indicated a significant difference (p

  6. An ethnography of knowledge : knowledge production and dissemination in land resettlement areas in Zimbabwe: the case of Mupfurudzi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mudege, N.

    2005-01-01

    This research is an ethnographic study carried out among farmers inMupfurudziresettlement area inZimbabweover a period of 30 months. The research was carried out in

  7. Identification of beef production farms in the Pampas and Campos area that stand out in economic and environmental performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modernel, P.; Dogliotti, S.; Alvarez, S.; Corbeels, M.; Picasso, V.; Tittonell, P.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, native grasslands are being converted to non-native pastures and cropland. This process threatens local grassland biomes as well as the livelihoods of farm families that utilize these grasslands. In the Río de la Plata grasslands region meat production and multispecies native grasslands

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT. STORMWATER SOURCE AREA TREATMENT DEVICE. THE TERRE HILL CONCRETE PRODUCTS TERRE KLEEN™ 09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Terre Hill Concrete Products Terre Kleen™ 09 was conducted on a 1.27 acre portion of the City of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Department of Public Works facility. The Terre Kleen™ devices combines primary and secondary chambers, baffles, a screen, and incl...

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Areas of Historical Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This report contains maps and associated spatial data showing historical oil and gas exploration and production in the United States. Because of the proprietary nature of many oil and gas well databases, the United States was divided into cells one-quarter square mile and the production status of all wells in a given cell was aggregated. Base-map reference data are included, using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Map, the USGS and American Geological Institute (AGI) Global GIS, and a World Shaded Relief map service from the ESRI Geography Network. A hardcopy map was created to synthesize recorded exploration data from 1859, when the first oil well was drilled in the U.S., to 2005. In addition to the hardcopy map product, the data have been refined and made more accessible through the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The cell data are included in a GIS database constructed for spatial analysis via the USGS Internet Map Service or by importing the data into GIS software such as ArcGIS. The USGS internet map service provides a number of useful and sophisticated geoprocessing and cartographic functions via an internet browser. Also included is a video clip of U.S. oil and gas exploration and production through time.

  10. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis: Waste Pit Area storm water runoff control, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    This report evaluates remedial action alternatives at the Feed Materials production Center in response to the need to contain contaminated storm water runoff. The storm water is being contaminated as it falls over a radioactive/chemical waste pit which contains uranium contaminated wastes. Alternatives considered include no action, surface capping, surface capping with lateral drainage, runoff collection and treatment, and source removal

  11. Review of areas that may require simultaneous coupled solution of the thermal hydraulic and fission product/aerosol behavior equations for source term determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, T.S.

    1984-01-01

    In the determination of the behavior of nuclear aerosols in the reactor coolant system and in the containment for the development of severe accident source terms, present practice generally is to first perform thermal hydraulic calculations for specific plant types and sequences and then to utilize the results as input for separate fission product/aerosol dynamic transport calculations. It is recognized that there are several areas in which the thermal-hydraulics and the fission product/aerosol behavior may be significantly coupled and that it is then basically incorrect to do the analyses in a separated manner. This review paper produces a speculative list of these potentially coupled areas and attempts to assess the importance of the coupling for as many of the specific items that time has allowed before this conference

  12. Areas contributing recharge to production wells and effects of climate change on the groundwater system in the Chipuxet River and Chickasheen Brook Basins, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesz, Paul J.; Stone, Janet R.

    2015-01-01

    The Chipuxet River and Chickasheen Brook Basins in southern Rhode Island are an important water resource for public and domestic supply, irrigation, recreation, and aquatic habitat. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rhode Island Department of Health, began a study in 2012 as part of an effort to protect the source of water to six large-capacity production wells that supply drinking water and to increase understanding of how climate change might affect the water resources in the basins. Soil-water-balance and groundwater-flow models were developed to delineate the areas contributing recharge to the wells and to quantify the hydrologic response to climate change. Surficial deposits of glacial origin ranging from a few feet to more than 200 feet thick overlie bedrock in the 24.4-square mile study area. These deposits comprise a complex and productive aquifer system.

  13. K-Ar ages of the Nyuto-Takakura volcanic products, southern part of the Sengan geothermal area, northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Shigeru; Uto, Kozo; Uchiumi, Shigeru

    1990-01-01

    The K-Ar age determination of the volcanic rocks from the Nyuto-Takakura volcano group, northeast Japan, was carried out. Nyuto-Takakura volcanoes are situated in the southern part of the Sengan geothermal area. And the Young Volcanic Rocks in the area were already divided into the Early stage volcanics (erupted in Matsuyama reversed epoch or more older epoch) and the Later stage volcanics (erupted in Brunhes normal epoch) by accumulated paleomagnetic and K-Ar age data. The results in this study are as follows; Nyuto Volcano: 0.63±0.06, 0.36±0.07 Ma, Sasamoriyama Volcano: 0.09±0.07, 0.3±0.3 Ma, Marumori Lava Dome: 0.4±0.3, 0.31±0.12 Ma, Mikadoyama Lava Dome: <1 Ma, Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano: 1.4±0.5, 1.0±0.4, <0.4 Ma. The determinated ages are concordant with the volcanic stratigraphy and the paleomagnetic data. Nyuto Volcano, Sasamoriyama Volcano, Marumori Lava Dome, Mikadoyama Lava Dome and upper part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama Volcano are interpreted to be erupted in Brunhes normal epoch. The volcanic rocks from the lower part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano show normal magnetic polarity, so they are interpreted to be erupted in Jaramillo normal polarity event. The Early stage volcanics and the Later stage volcanics in the studied area are tend to be distributed in the central part and the outer part of the area, respectively. But the determinated ages in this study show that there is no simple migration of the eruption center of the volcanic rocks from the central part to the peripheral part. There is no geothermal manifestation or alteration area around the Sasamoriyama Volcano and the Marumori Lava Dome, which are the youngest volcanoes in the studied area. So it is concluded that there is no direct correlation between the eruption age of the nearest volcano and the geothermal activity. (author)

  14. Prevalence and risk factor's analysis of bovine brucellosis in peri-urban areas under intensive system of production in Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Patel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A study on surveillance of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds of peri-urban areas under intensive system of production was carried out by milk-ELISA. Various risk factors were identified having significant association with occurrence of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds of peri-urban areas. Materials and Methods: Five randomly selected peri-uban areas of six cities of Gujarat were included in the present study. Five randomly selected dairy herds under intensive system of production from each selected peri-urban area were included for further investigation. In total, 199 bulk and 582 individual milk samples were screened by milk-ELISA. Forty three different risk factors were identified and grouped into four major categories as general characteristics of farms, introduction of infection to farms, management systems of farms and exposure of disease. Further, their distribution and association with prevalence of bovine brucellosis was studied. Results: The overall herd and animal prevalence in peri-urban areas was 33.70 and 11.90%, respectively. Out of 11 risk factors on general characteristics of dairy farms, only five (herd size, type of animals, type of breed, age of owner and knowledge gained by owners showed significant (p<0.05 association with occurrence of bovine brucellosis. None of risk factors on introduction of infection to farms (n=6 and management systems of farms (n=11 was found significantly associated with occurrence of brucellosis. Among risk factors on exposure of disease (n=15, history of abortion, retention of placenta, still birth and metritis/endometritis showed significant (p<0.05 association with prevalence of bovine brucellosis. Conclusion: It was concluded that prevalence of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds under intensive system of production in peri-urban areas of Gujarat was comparatively higher than reported overall prevalence of brucellosis. Risk factors like larger herd in close confinement without adequate sheds

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Behaviours of Rural Areas at Provincial Level Using Public Data of Gross Domestic Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Guangfeng; Li, Yiyang

    2013-01-01

    A spatial approach that incorporates three economic components and one environmental factor has been developed to evaluate the dynamic behaviours of the rural areas at a provincial level. An artificial fish swarm algorithm with variable population size (AFSAVP) is proposed for the spatial problem......, and the results have shown that the modelling method based on GDP data can assess the spatial dynamic behaviours and can be taken as an operational tool for the policy planners....

  16. THE CONSUMPTION OF BASIC PRODUCTION MEANS IN POLISH AGRICULTURE IN RESPECT TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Jarecki

    2014-10-01

    The plant protection by pesticides is increasing in Poland and the established trend rate took into account years 2005-2011. In the period 2002-2004 statistics did not present the full range of crop protection measures authorized for sale and consumption. In contrast the consumption of qualified seeds of basic grains and seed potatoes considerably decreased in Polish agriculture. Only for triticale it was noticed that the trend rate of qualified seeds was increasing. So the farmers should be more widely informed about the advantages of the exchange of seed grain for qualified grains. It will facilitate the quicker implementation of variety progress to agricultural production and adverse changes slowdown agricultural production.

  17. USE OF GUACIMO (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. AS A FORAGE SOURCE FOR EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN A TROPICAL AREA OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the traditional uses of guacimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam, compared to other local forage resources for livestock. The expectative of farmers on the use of trees as alternative sources of forage in Angostillo, Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz, Mexico was also investigated. Data was collected through interviews and direct observation. All farmers practice ranching and 85% combine animal production with crop cultivation; allocating 40% of their land to corn and 60% to dual purpose cattle production. The principal uses of guacimo are as forage, firewood, timber, shade, and living fence posts. Guacimo has the highest value as forage compared to other local fodder trees such as guaje de indio (Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson, espino (Acacia cavenia Mol. and huizache (A. farnesiana Willd.. Farmers showed interest in establishing silvopastoral systems including forage banks using guacimo. However, they foresaw limitations due to a lack of consulting, agronomic training and financial support to establish the crops.

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the serum and breast milk of the resident population from production area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Yang, Congqiao; Hu, Jicheng; Liu, Weizhi; Cui, Jian; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2009-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been produced in the south coast area of Laizhou Bay, Shandong Province in China, but little is known about the PBDE exposure level of residents to these compounds. We set out to assess potential health risks of PBDEs in the south coast area of the Laizhou Bay by determining the concentrations of PBDEs in serum and breast milk. We measured concentrations of eight PBDE congeners in serum and breast milk. The arithmetic means of Sigma(8)PBDE in pooled serum and breast milk were 613 ng/g lipid and 81.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. The highest concentration for Sigma(8)PBDE in all serum pools was 1830 ng/g lipid from the 41-50 year old female group. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, with the mean concentrations of 403 ng/g lipid in serum and 45.6 ng/g lipid in breast milk, respectively. BDE-209 averagely accounted for 65.8% and 54.2% of the total PBDEs, respectively. Our results suggest that high exposures to PBDEs have led to very high PBDE concentrations in serum and breast milk from the residents living in the south coast area of Laizhou Bay. High PBDE concentrations in human serum, particularly in women, pose a potential public health threat to local residents.

  19. Space and time variability of heating requirements for greenhouse tomato production in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi; Cola, Gabriele; Bulgari, Roberta; Ferrante, Antonio; Martinetti, Livia

    2016-08-15

    The Euro-Mediterranean area is the seat of a relevant greenhouse activity, meeting the needs of important markets. A quantitative assessment of greenhouse energy consumption and of its variability in space and time is an important decision support tool for both greenhouse-sector policies and farmers. A mathematical model of greenhouse energy balance was developed and parameterized for a state-of-the-art greenhouse to evaluate the heating requirements for vegetables growing. Tomato was adopted as reference crop, due to its high energy requirement for fruit setting and ripening and its economic relevance. In order to gain a proper description of the Euro-Mediterranean area, 56 greenhouse areas located within the ranges 28°N-72°N and 11°W-55°E were analyzed over the period 1973-2014. Moreover, the two 1973-1987 and 1988-2014 sub-periods were separately studied to describe climate change effects on energy consumption. Results account for the spatial variability of energy needs for tomato growing, highlighting the strong influence of latitude on the magnitude of heat requirements. The comparison between the two selected sub-periods shows a decrease of energy demand in the current warm phase, more relevant for high latitudes. Finally, suggestions to reduce energy consumptions are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Free sugar contents in onion bulbs on different cultivars and different production areas, and their changes by storage and gamma-irradiation. Free sugars in onion bulbs, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishibori, Sukie [Tokaigakuen Women' s Coll., Nagoya (Japan); Namiki, Kazuko

    1982-05-01

    Changes in the contents of free sugar in onion bulbs of different cultivars and different production areas were investigated during storage and processing by using gas-chromatography. No significant difference was observed in the total free sugar contents among the onions of different cultivars and different production areas except early season's cultivars which showed a slightly lower content of sugar. The free sugar was mainly composed with glucose (1.7 - 3.2%), fructose (1.1 - 2.5%) and sucrose (0.7 - 2.6%), and the composition was somewhat different among the onions of different cultivars and different production areas. During the storage at 4 - 5/sup 0/C, the total free suger contents gradually decreased during the first few months but more markedly to about 30% after sprouting. The middle part of onion bulbs contained more total free sugar than the other parts (middle part, 5.6 ..-->.. 3.5%, inner part, 5.2 ..-->.. 3.2%, outer part, 4.8 ..-->.. 1.5%), and the total free sugar contents in the outer part decreased markedly during the storage. The changes of the sugar contents after the freeze-drying were almost negligible, but showed significant decrease after the hot-air drying, especially for sucrose. The gamma irradiation with 5 - 50 krad gave no appreciable effects on the total free sugar contents though it seemed to make a slight increase in the sucrose content.

  1. Consumption of homegrown products does not increase dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury by young children living in an industrialized area of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Michael; Wittsiepe, Juergen; Schrey, Petra; Hilbig, Annett; Kersting, Mathilde

    2005-01-01

    The dietary intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) was studied among young German children with different food consumption behaviour (consumption of own grown foodstuffs and of products from the supermarket). The study area comprised an industrialized and a rural area of West Germany. Dietary intake of contaminants was measured by the duplicate method according to the WHO guideline. A total 588 duplicate portions were collected daily from 84 individuals between May and September 1998. Intake of food groups was calculated from dietary records. Determination of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb was performed following high-pressure digestion of lyophilized samples by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Geometric mean weekly intake [μg/(kg bw .week)] was as follows: As 1.4, Cd 2.3, Hg 0.16, and Pb 5.3. Geometric mean intake corresponded to the percentage of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) as follows: As 9.7%, Cd 32%, Hg 3.3%, Pb 21%. As and Hg intake were mainly influenced by fish consumption. The amount of cereals and bakery wares mainly determined the Cd and Pb intake. Children living in the industrialized area with a substantial food consumption of own grown vegetables or products from domestic animals products had no increased dietary intake of the metals

  2. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.

  3. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in Wetland Areas. Fourth quarterly report, [October--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.

    1992-12-31

    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. During the.reporting period, a report that contained the results of each of the five subtasks that comprise Task 1, Environmental Considerations, was prepared and submitted to DOE. The subtasks were an overview of oil and gas activities in wetlands; a review of present wetland access practices; identification of past environmental impacts experienced; definition of marsh habitat considerations and discussion of forested wetland considerations. In Task 2, Transport Requirements, a report on the acquisition of data on the transport requirements to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in Wetland Areas was prepared and submitted to DOE. Task 3, Parametric Analysis, was completed during the reporting period. The analysis showed that a cyclocraft, having a payload capacity of 45 tons, was the most economic and would be able to transport all of the required equipment and materials. The final report on the parametric analysis was to be submitted in January, 1993.

  4. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Neto Schneider; André Nadvorny; Verônica Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of res...

  5. A sensorimotor area in the songbird brain is required for production of vocalizations in the song learning period of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piristine, Hande C; Choetso, Tenzin; Gobes, Sharon M H

    2016-11-01

    Sensory feedback is essential for acquiring and maintaining complex motor behaviors, including birdsong. In zebra finches, auditory feedback reaches the song control circuits primarily through the nucleus interfacialis nidopalii (Nif), which provides excitatory input to HVC (proper name)-a premotor region essential for the production of learned vocalizations. Despite being one of the major inputs to the song control pathway, the role of Nif in generating vocalizations is not well understood. To address this, we transiently inactivated Nif in late juvenile zebra finches. Upon Nif inactivation (in both hemispheres or on one side only), birds went from singing stereotyped zebra finch song to uttering highly variable and unstructured vocalizations resembling sub-song, an early juvenile song form driven by a basal ganglia circuit. Simultaneously inactivating Nif and LMAN (lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium), the output nucleus of a basal ganglia circuit, inhibited song production altogether. These results suggest that Nif is required for generating the premotor drive for song. Permanent Nif lesions, in contrast, have only transient effects on vocal production, with song recovering within a day. The sensorimotor nucleus Nif thus produces a premotor drive to the motor pathway that is acutely required for generating learned vocalizations, but once permanently removed, the song system can compensate for its absence. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1213-1225, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of harvest time on production and chemical evolution of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) cultivated in the Mediterranean area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losavio, N.; Ventrella, D.; Lamascese, N.; Vonella, A.V. [Istituto Sperimentale Agronimico, Bari (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the optimum harvest time and to evaluate biomass and sugar production of a Jerusalem artichoke crop. Field trials were conducted during 1994 and 1995 at Metaponto (MT) in southern Italy (lat. 40{sup o} 24'N; long. 16{sup o} 48' E) on clay loam soil (Typic Epiaquerts in accordance with soil taxonomy). In both years tubers were planted at the end of March with a density of 7.4 plants m{sup -2} (0.45 m rows spacing). The Jerusalem artichoke crop (cv. ''Violette de Rennes'') was irrigated during the whole growing cycle by re-establishment of 50% maximum evapotranspiration on the basis of agrometeorological data. Tubers and stalks were harvested at a plant height of 0.25 and 0.5 m; 40 and 20 days before flowering stage; at flowering stage; and at physiological maturity stage. Tubers and stalks were analyzed for fresh and dry matter weight, and for fructose and glucose contents determined by the Samogyi-Nelsen method. Our observations show that the best harvest times were at flowering stage (for stalk production) and at physiological maturity stage (for tuber production). (author)

  7. Comprehensive Technical Support for High-Quality Anthracite Production: A Case Study in the Xinqiao Coal Mine, Yongxia Mining Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective production of high-quality anthracite has attracted increasing global attention. Based on the coal occurrence in Yongxia Mining Area and mining conditions of a coalface in Xinqiao Coal Mine, we proposed a systematic study on the technical support for the production of high-quality anthracite. Six key steps were explored, including coal falling at the coalface, transport, underground bunker storage, main shaft hoisting, coal preparation on the ground, and railway wagon loading. The study resulted in optimized running parameters for the shearers, and the rotating patterns of the shearer drums was altered (one-way cutting was employed. Mining height and roof supporting intensity were reduced. Besides, loose presplitting millisecond blasting and mechanized mining were applied to upgrade the coal quantity and the lump coal production rate. Additionally, the coalface end transloading, coalface crush, transport systems, underground storage, and main shaft skip unloading processes were improved, and fragmentation-prevention techniques were used in the washing and railway wagon loading processes. As a result, the lump coal production rate was maintained at a high level and fragmentation was significantly reduced. Because of using the parameters and techniques determined in this research, high-quality coal production and increased profits were achieved. The research results could provide theoretical guidance and methodology for other anthracite production bases.

  8. Low-Cost and Scaled-Up Production of Fluorine-Free, Substrate-Independent, Large-Area Superhydrophobic Coatings Based on Hydroxyapatite Nanowire Bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-Fei; Yang, Zi-Yue; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Xiong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Li-Ying; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Wu, Jin; Yang, Ri-Long

    2018-01-09

    To date, the scaled-up production and large-area applications of superhydrophobic coatings are limited because of complicated procedures, environmentally harmful fluorinated compounds, restrictive substrates, expensive equipment, and raw materials usually involved in the fabrication process. Herein, the facile, low-cost, and green production of superhydrophobic coatings based on hydroxyapatite nanowire bundles (HNBs) is reported. Hydrophobic HNBs are synthesised by using a one-step solvothermal method with oleic acid as the structure-directing and hydrophobic agent. During the reaction process, highly hydrophobic C-H groups of oleic acid molecules can be attached in situ to the surface of HNBs through the chelate interaction between Ca 2+ ions and carboxylic groups. This facile synthetic method allows the scaled-up production of HNBs up to about 8 L, which is the largest production scale of superhydrophobic paint based on HNBs ever reported. In addition, the design of the 100 L reaction system is also shown. The HNBs can be coated on any substrate with an arbitrary shape by the spray-coating technique. The self-cleaning ability in air and oil, high-temperature stability, and excellent mechanical durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic coatings are demonstrated. More importantly, the HNBs are coated on large-sized practical objects to form large-area superhydrophobic coatings. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The role of human parietal area 7A as a link between sequencing in hand actions and in overt speech production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eHeim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the evolutionary basis of the human language faculty has proposed the mirror neuron system as a link between motor processing and speech development. Consequently, most work has focussed on the left inferior frontal cortex, in particular Broca's region, and the left inferior parietal cortex. However, the direct link between planning of hand motor and speech actions remains to be elucidated. Thus, the present study investigated whether sequencing of hand motor actions vs. speech motor actions has a common neural denominator. For the hand motor task, 25 subjects performed single, repeated, or sequenced button presses with either the left or right hand. The speech task was in analogy; the same subjects produced the syllable "po" once or repeatedly, or a sequence of different syllables (po-pi-po. Speech motor vs. hand motor effectors resulted in increased perisylvian activation including Broca's region (left area 44 and areas medially adjacent to left area 45. In contrast, common activation for sequenced vs. repeated production of button presses and syllables revealed the effector-independent involvement of left area 7A in the superior parietal lobule (SPL in sequencing. These data demonstrate that sequencing of vocal gestures, an important precondition for ordered utterances and ultimately human speech, shares area 7A, rather than inferior parietal regions, as a common cortical module with hand motor sequencing. Interestingly, area 7A has previously also been shown to be involved in the observation of hand and non-hand actions. In combination with the literature, the present data thus suggest a distinction between area 44, which is specifically recruited for (cognitive aspects of speech, and SPL area 7A for general aspects of motor sequencing. In sum, the study demonstrates a yet little considered role of the superior parietal lobule in the origins of speech, and may be discussed in the light of embodiment of speech and language in the

  10. Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of solar cell metallization pattern design on solar cell performance and the costs and performance effects of different metallization processes are discussed. Definitive design rules for the front metallization pattern for large area solar cells are presented. Chemical and physical deposition processes for metallization are described and compared. An economic evaluation of the 6 principal metallization options is presented. Instructions for preparing Format A cost data for solar cell manufacturing processes from UPPC forms for input into the SAMIC computer program are presented.

  11. APPROACH REGARDING SOME CONFORMATION AND MILK PRODUCTION TRAITS IN ROMANIAN SIMMENTAL CATTLE FORM HARGHITA AREA INCLUDED IN THE OFFICIAL CONTROLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. CIGHI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of performance data regarding the conformation traits (withers height, body weight, thoracic perimeter, including the traits that concur to milk production (total milk production per normal lactation, fat percent, total fat amount from milk, in mothers-cattle of bulls, candidate mothers-cattle of bulls and active population of Romanian Spotted Simmental breed from Harghita region, allow us to ascertain the followings: The body weight of mothers-cattle of bulls, candidate mothers-cattle for bulls and also of those from the active population of Harghita region, prove the existence of a valuable genetic material with a high superiority of 30 kg of the mothers-cattle of bulls related the candidate mothers-cattle of bulls and of 50 kg related the active population; all of these emphasize the stringency of the selection performed. Analyzing the waistline of the three populations, it was possible to ascertain that the mothers-cattle of bulls values over class those of the candidate mothers-cattle of bulls and of the active population with 1 cm, respectively 4,1 cm. This difference indicates the researchers concern for raising the waistline in the Romanian Spotted Simmental breed from Harghita region. The thoracic perimeter values were adjacent those of the mothers-cattle of bulls and of the candidate mothers-cattle of bulls (200,00±3,70 cm respectively 199,30±1,24 cm and 185,70±0,61 cm in the active population. The values of circa 7000 kg milk realized in normal lactation of the mothers-cattle of bulls and candidate mothers-cattle of bulls, are showing a very good intensity of the selection, proved by the selection difference registered between the active population and the above two categories. These high milk productions registered for the mothers-cattle of bulls and candidate mothers-cattle of bulls are indicating a high productivity potential. The 250 kg of total milk fat achieved are showing a high potential of the Romanian Spotted

  12. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in retail meat and dairy products in the area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derra, F. A.; Karlsmose, Susanne; Monga, D. P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Listeriosis, a bacterial disease in humans and animals, is mostly caused by ingestion of Listeria monocytogenes via contaminated food and/or water, or by a zoonotic infection. Globally, listeriosis has in general a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. Objective. The objective...... of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antimicrobial profiles, and genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes from raw meat and dairy products (raw milk, cottage cheese, cream cake), collected from the capital and five neighboring towns in Ethiopia. Methods. Two hundred forty food samples were purchased...

  13. Productivity of aboveground coarse wood biomass and stand age related to soil hydrology of Amazonian forests in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, B. B. L.; Schietti, J.; Emillio, T.; Martins, D.; Moulatlet, G.; Souza, P.; Levis, C.; Quesada, C. A.; Schöngart, J.

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing demand for information on forest productivity has increased the number of permanent monitoring plots across the Amazon. Those plots, however, do not comprise the whole diversity of forest types in the Amazon. The complex effects of soil, climate and hydrology on the productivity of seasonally waterlogged interfluvial wetland forests are still poorly understood. The presented study is the first field-based estimate for tree ages and wood biomass productivity in the vast interfluvial region between the Purus and Madeira rivers. We estimate stand age and wood biomass productivity by a combination of tree-ring data and allometric equations for biomass stocks of eight plots distributed along 600 km in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area that is crossed by the BR-319 highway. We relate stand age and wood biomass productivity to hydrological and edaphic conditions. Mean productivity and stand age were 5.6 ± 1.1 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 102 ± 18 yr, respectively. There is a strong relationship between tree age and diameter, as well as between mean diameter increment and mean wood density within a plot. Regarding the soil hydromorphic properties we find a positive correlation with wood biomass productivity and a negative relationship with stand age. Productivity also shows a positive correlation with the superficial phosphorus concentration. In addition, superficial phosphorus concentration increases with enhanced soil hydromorphic condition. We raise three hypotheses to explain these results: (1) the reduction of iron molecules on the saturated soils with plinthite layers close to the surface releases available phosphorous for the plants; (2) the poor structure of the saturated soils creates an environmental filter selecting tree species of faster growth rates and shorter life spans and (3) plant growth on saturated soil is favored during the dry season, since there should be low restrictions for soil water availability.

  14. Attempt to assess tourist products in rural areas based on the Kano method as basis of customer experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Walas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism, which is at the same time a kind of broadly understood sustainable tourism, is a concept, although widely used, difficult to define. Many researchers such as M. Jansen-Verbeke distinguish between rural tourism, agritourism and farm tourism. Ecotourism is also often found, although each of them represents another phenomenon. Rural tourism is a very important part of active participation in the life of a farm, in the socio-cultural life of the village and is inherent in its connection to the natural environment. It is ecologically-oriented farming and the protection of natural and socio-cultural environments that are the foundation of ecotourism. The only significant differences that can be identified are some forms of rural tourism that do not fall into the category of ecotourism, such as alienated tourism, as well as a partial focus of ecotourism, out of cities areas but not in rural areas. In the countryside there is also a tourist of the stream "bleisure".

  15. Occurrence forms of uranium in the production solutions in the areas of underground leaching of epigenetic uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serebrennikov, V.S.; Dorofeeva, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Redox, acid-basic features of solutions (Eh changes from + 50 to 650 mV, pH from 7.5 to 1.5) and their chemical composition are studied in the process of hydrogeochemical investigations at the areas of underground leaching (UL) of epigenetic uranium deposits. It is shown that at studied areas of UL under neutral and weakly acidic conditions up to (pH 6.0-5.8), carbonate complexes of uranyl are the prevailing form of uranium existence in the solution, and sulfate complexes prevail under more acidic conditions. A supposition is made that it is expedient to process separate ore blocks with increased carbonate contents, particularly with oxidant additions under near-neutral acid-basic conditions (pH 7.2-6.8) with the use of weakly acid pumping solutions, which act (at the expense of their interaction with carbonates of ore-containing rocks) for enrichment of working solutions with HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- ions, promoting uranium transfer into solution

  16. Detection of Citrus psorosis virus in the northwestern citrus production area of Argentina by using an improved TAS-ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanek, Maria Cecilia; Peña, Eduardo; Reyes, Carina Andrea; Figueroa, Julia; Stein, Beatriz; Grau, Oscar; Garcia, Maria Laura

    2006-11-01

    Citrus Psorosis in Argentina is a serious disease. Citrus is produced in two regions located in the northeast (NE) and northwest (NW) area of the country. These two areas have different climates and soil types, and therefore different citrus species and varieties are cultivated. In the NE region, Psorosis is epidemic, and in the NW region, the disease was described on several occasions since 1938, but it is not observed commonly in the orchards. Recently, trees with symptoms of Psorosis were observed in the Tucumán and Salta Provinces located in the NW region. Epidemiological studies in Argentina and Texas suggested that the disease is spread naturally by an unknown vector. The causal agent of the disease is the Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), which can be detected by TAS-ELISA, RT-PCR and indicator plants. A new more rapid TAS-ELISA-HRP (horseradish peroxidase) is described which is more reliable, faster and more sensitive than the currently used for this virus, the TAS-ELISA-AP (alkaline phosphatase). Psorosis was detected by this improved method in few trees in the orchards of the Tucumán Province, in the NW citrus region, although natural spread does not seem to occur.

  17. Large scale hydrogen production from wind energy in the Magallanes area for consumption in the central zone of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolezzi, J.M.; Garay, A.; Reveco, M.

    2010-01-01

    The energy proposal of this research suggests the use of places with abundant wind resources for the production of H 2 on a large scale to be transported and used in the central zone of Chile with the purpose of diversifying the country's energy matrix in order to decrease its dependence on fossil fuels, increase its autonomy, and cover the future increases in energy demand. This research showed that the load factor of the proposed wind park reaches a value of 54.5%, putting in evidence the excellent wind conditions of the zone. This implies that the cost of the electricity produced by the wind park located in the Chilean Patagonia would have a cost of 0.0213 US$ kWh -1 in the year 2030. The low prices of the electricity obtained from the park, thanks to the economy of scale and the huge wind potential, represent a very attractive scenario for the production of H 2 in the future. The study concludes that by the year 2030 the cost of the H 2 generated in Magallanes and transported to the port of Quinteros would be 18.36 US$ MBTU -1 , while by that time the cost of oil would be about 17.241 US$ MBTU -1 , a situation that places H 2 in a very competitive position as a fuel. (author)

  18. Potato black scurf, production practices and fungitoxic efficacy of rhizoctonia solani isolates in hilly areas of gilgit-biltistan pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ali, S.; Ali, Z.; Khan, S. W.; Abbas, Q.; Awan, M. S.; Ali, S.

    2017-01-01

    Potato is the main cash crop of Gilgit-Baltistan in particular of buffer zone of Central Karakorum National Park (CKNP). There are many biotic and abiotic threats to its production. Amongst them the black scurf disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani is the major constraint. In order to assess black scurf of potato a comprehensive survey was carried out in four main valleys of the region consisting of 24 villages. The survey revealed that valley wise mean disease prevalence was high in Bagrote (63.85+-9.06) and low in Haramosh (45.4+- 14.62). Maximum mean disease incidence and severity were recorded in Hoper valley while least disease incidence appeared in Haramosh and severity in Bagrote valley. Production practices as risk factor were assessed through a questionnaire. The majority of farmers performed activities in field that were supportive to the black scurf epidemics, such as, use of pits for storage of late harvested potato tuber for growing in next season, table potato, lack of general awareness about black scurf, not maintaining proper depth of sowing, irrigation, harvesting time and crop rotation. In vitro efficacy of three fungicides at different concentrations i.e. 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm were tested against Rhizoctonia solani isolates. Results indicated that increase of fungicide concentration significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of respective isolates. However, sensitivity reaction of each of isolates against each fungicide was also differential. Fungicide ridomil gold and mencozeb showed more toxic effect against the fungus compared to vitavax. (author)

  19. Effect of space availability at feed bunk and rest area on metabolic conditions and productive responses in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stefanini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that dairy cows spend 3 to 5 h/d eating, consuming 9 to 14 meals per day. In addition, they ruminate 7 to 10 h/d, spend approximately 30 min/d drinking, 2 to 3 h/d being milked, and require approximately 10 h/d for lying time (Grant and Albright, 2000. Management decisions on dairy must not interfere with the cow’s ability to perform these activities which comprises her daily routines. It is well known that feed bunk space modifies eating behaviour, while the amount and characteristics of rest area modify resting activity of the cows. The traditional recommendation of 0.6 linear meter of bunk space per cow is the minimal amount of space needed for all cows to eat at one time (Grant and Albright, 2001.......

  20. Case study: Evaluation of a scenario for the reuse of structures in the production area at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.J.; Folga, S.; Janke, R.J.; Kozlowski, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for the reuse of uncontaminated structures at federal facilities that are being remediated should be evaluated. Although various factors often limit the viability of such reuse, it may be economically attractive to reuse selected structures. Consideration of a hypothetical reuse scenario for the US Department of Energy's Fernald, Ohio facility shows that the reuse of selected buildings that were not significantly contaminated by production activities at the site may be considerably less expensive than the construction of new ones. The cost of removal of existing buildings is a major factor influencing the relative advantages of these two options. For Fernald, no need for the facility's buildings has been identified; however, the reuse of structures may be a viable option at other facilities

  1. A validated RP-HPLC method for the determination of Irinotecan hydrochloride residues for cleaning validation in production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Reddy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: cleaning validation is an integral part of current good manufacturing practices in pharmaceutical industry. The main purpose of cleaning validation is to prove the effectiveness and consistency of cleaning in a given pharmaceutical production equipment to prevent cross contamination and adulteration of drug product with other active ingredient. Objective: a rapid, sensitive and specific reverse phase HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of irinotecan hydrochloride in cleaning validation swab samples. Method: the method was validated using waters symmetry shield RP-18 (250mm x 4.6mm 5 µm column with isocratic mobile phase containing a mixture of 0.02 M potassium di-hydrogen ortho-phosphate, pH adjusted to 3.5 with ortho-phosphoric acid, methanol and acetonitrile (60:20:20 v/v/v. The flow rate of mobile phase was 1.0 mL/min with column temperature of 25°C and detection wavelength at 220nm. The sample injection volume was 100 µl. Results: the calibration curve was linear over a concentration range from 0.024 to 0.143 µg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. The intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation were below 3.2%. The recoveries obtained from stainless steel, PCGI, epoxy, glass and decron cloth surfaces were more than 85% and there was no interference from the cotton swab. The detection limit (DL and quantitation limit (QL were 0.008 and 0.023 µg ml-1, respectively. Conclusion: the developed method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and solution stability. The overall procedure can be used as part of a cleaning validation program in pharmaceutical manufacture of irinotecan hydrochloride.

  2. Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, T.; Majstrenko, T. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Brown, J.E., E-mail: Justin.brown@nrpa.no [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini naeringspark 13, 1332 Osteras (Norway); Belykh, E. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-01

    Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine dose-effect relationships and the range of doses that cause biological effects in natural Vicia cracca L. populations inhabiting the study area. The studied plant species is native to the area and is found ubiquitously. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at a reference location and six contaminated sites characterized by distinct floodplain depositional units with different enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. A large fraction of the dose at the study sites (including the reference location) was attributable to internal irradiation and {sup 226}Ra was found to be an important contributor to this component of dose. The relationship between the frequency of chromosome aberrations in seedlings' root tip cells and the absorbed dose was found to be quadratic. An exponential model provided the best result in describing the empirical dependence between the absorbed dose and both the germination capacity of seeds and the survival rate of sprouts of V. cracca. For V. cracca plants inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, a weighted absorbed dose of 0.2 Gy (weighting factor for alpha particles = 5) during the vegetation period could be considered to be a level below which no increase in genetic variability and decrease in reproductive capacity might be observed above background.

  3. Measurements of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their decay products in the environmental air of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yongling; Shen Tong; Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    For the renewal of dose estimation from internal irradiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, the measurements of radon, thoron and their decay products in the environmental air were conducted, including: integrating measurements of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentrations; equilibrium factor F for Rn-222 and alpha-potential energy value of Rn-220; external gamma radiation in places where radon measurements were undertaken; cumulative exposure to indoor radon for each family in a case-control study on lung cancer. The Rn-Tn cup monitor method was used for the integrating measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentration. An alpha track detector was used for the integration measurement of Rn-222 concentration in the case-control study on lung cancer. The results of measurements show that although the investigated areas are located between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer, and that people live in well-ventilated dwellings, the concentrations of radon, especially of Rn-220 are significantly higher in the indoor air of HBRA than those in the control area. The value of equilibrium factors for Rn-222, the alpha potential energy of decay products from Rn-222 and Rn-220 are determined. (author)

  4. SISCAL project: establishing an internet-based delivery of near-real-time data products on coastal areas and lakes from satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Frank; Burgess, Phelim; Gruenewald, Alexander; Meyer, Mia V.; Santer, Richard P.; Koslowsky, Dirk; Ganor, Dov; Herut, Barak; Nimre, Saleem; Tibor, Gideon; Berastegui, Diego A.; Nyborg, Lotte; Schultz-Rasmussen, Michael; Johansen, Torunn; Johnsen, Geir; Brozek, Morten; Joergensen, Henrik; Habberstad, Jan; Hanssen, Frank; Amir, Ran; Zask, Alon; Koehler, Antje

    2003-05-01

    SISCAL (Satellite-based Information System on Coastal Areas and Lakes) is a pan-European project dedicated to develop facilities to provide end-users with customized and easy-to-use data for environmental monitoring of coastal areas and lakes. The main task will be to create a software system providing Near-Real-Time information on the aquatic environment (using instruments such as AVHRR, MODIS or MERIS) and ancillary GIS-data. These products will be tailored to individual customers needs, allowing them to exploit Earth Observation (EO) data without extensive in-house knowledge. This way, SISCAL aims at closing the gap between research institutes, satellite data providers and the actual end-users. Data and information exchange will entirely take place over the internet, from the acquisition of satellite data raw from the providers to the dissemination of finalized data products to the end-users. The focus of SISCAL is set on the optimal integration of existing techniques. The co-operation between the ten SISCAL partners, including four end-users representative of public authorities from local to national scale, aims at strengthening the operational use of EO data in the management of coastal areas and lakes.

  5. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in wetland areas. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, Second quarter, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.

    1993-09-01

    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft that utilizes aerostatic and aerodynamic lift. This type of aircraft has considerable payload capacity, VTOL capability, high controllability, low operating cost, low downwash and high safety. The benefits of using a cyclocraft to transport drill rigs and materials over environmentally-sensitive surfaces would be significant. The cyclocraft has considerable cost and operational advantages over the helicopter. The major activity during the second quarter of 1993 was focussed on completion of Task 4, Preliminary Design. The selected design has been designated H.1 Cyclocraft by MRC. Also during the report period, Task 6, Ground Support, was completed and a report containing the results was submitted to DOE. This task addressed the complete H.1 Cyclocraft system, i.e. it included the need personnel, facilities and equipment to support cyclocraft operations in wetland areas.

  6. Footprint area analysis of binary imaged Cupriavidus necator cells to study PHB production at balanced, transient, and limited growth conditions in a cascade process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlja, Denis; Koller, Martin; Novak, Mario; Braunegg, Gerhart; Horvat, Predrag

    2016-12-01

    Statistical distribution of cell and poly[3-(R)-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) granule size and number of granules per cell are investigated for PHB production in a five-stage cascade (5CSTR). Electron microscopic pictures of cells from individual cascade stages (R1-R5) were converted to binary pictures to visualize footprint areas for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and non-PHA biomass. Results for each stage were correlated to the corresponding experimentally determined kinetics (specific growth rate μ and specific productivity π). Log-normal distribution describes PHA granule size dissimilarity, whereas for R1 and R4, gamma distribution best reflects the situation. R1, devoted to balanced biomass synthesis, predominately contains cells with rather small granules, whereas with increasing residence time τ, maximum and average granule sizes by trend increase, approaching an upper limit determined by the cell's geometry. Generally, an increase of intracellular PHA content and ratio of granule to cell area slow down along the cascade. Further, the number of granules per cell decreases with increasing τ. Data for μ and π obtained by binary picture analysis correlate well with the experimental results. The work describes long-term continuous PHA production under balanced, transient, and nutrient-deficient conditions, as well as their reflection on the granules size, granule number, and cell structure on the microscopic level.

  7. Snow driven Radiative Forcing in High Latitude Areas of Disturbance Using Higher Resolution Albedo Products from Landsat and Sentinel-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, A.; Li, Z.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Rogers, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface albedo plays an important role in the surface energy budget and radiative forcing by determining the proportion of absorbed incoming solar radiation available to drive photosynthesis and surface heating. In Arctic regions, albedo is particularly sensitive to land cover and land use change (LCLUC) and modeling efforts have shown it to be the primary driver of effective radiative forcing from the biogeophysical effects of LCLUC. In boreal forests, the effects of these changes are complicated during snow covered periods when newly exposed, highly reflective snow can serve as the primary driver of radiative forcing. In Arctic biomes disturbance scars from fire, pest and harvest can remain in the landscape for long periods of time. As such, understanding the magnitude and persistence of these disturbances, especially in the shoulder seasons, is critical. The Landsat and Sentinel-2 Albedo Products couple 30m and 20m surface reflectances with concurrent 500m BRDF Products from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The 12 bit radiometric fidelity of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 allow for the inclusion of high-quality, unsaturated albedo calculations over snow covered surfaces at scales more compatible with fragmented landscapes. Recent work on the early spring albedo of fire scars has illustrated significant post-fire spatial heterogeneity of burn severity at the landscape scale and highlights the need for a finer spatial resolution albedo record. The increased temporal resolution provided by multiple satellite instruments also allows for a better understanding of albedo dynamics during the dynamic shoulder seasons and in historically difficult high latitude locations where persistent cloud cover limits high quality retrievals. Here we present how changes in the early spring albedo of recent boreal forest disturbance in Alaska and central Canada affects landscape-scale radiative forcing. We take advantage of the long historical Landsat record

  8. Trace elements in atmospheric particulate matter over a coal burning power production area of western Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaloti, Christina; Triantafyllou, Athanasios; Kouimtzis, Themistoklis; Samara, Constantini

    2006-12-01

    Total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations were determined in the Eordea basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an area with intensive lignite burning for power generation. The study was conducted over a one-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Annual means of TSP concentrations ranged between 47+/-33 microg m(-3) and 110+/-50 microg m(-3) at 9 out of the 10 sites. Only the site closest to the power stations and the lignite conveyor belts exhibited annual TSP levels (210+/-97 microg m(-3)) exceeding the European standard (150 microg m(-3), 80/779/EEC). Concentrations of TSP and almost all elemental components exhibited significant spatial variations; however, the elemental profiles of TSP were quite similar among all sites suggesting that they are affected by similar source types. At all sites, statistical analysis indicated insignificant (Pmining activities.

  9. A patient dose survey or femoral arteriogram diagnostic radiographic examinations using a dose-area product meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, J.H.; Rafferty, M.W.; Gray, N.; Black, J.; Stock, B.

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for dealing with a complex radiographic procedure (which involves multiple radiographs and fluoroscopy) in an attempt to provide a simple way of calculating effective dose from which a general risk factor can be determined. A useful index of harm can be obtained by recording the number of radiographs in each region, and the fluoroscopy time, from which the effective dose may be easily calculated. A patient dose survey was carried out using a PTW diamentor for femoral arteriogram procedures in a large teaching hospital. The procedure involves fluoroscopy to the pelvic region to locate a guide wire and catheter, followed by a series of radiographs extending from the pelvic area to the feet to form a collage image of the entire arterial system. Radiographs are taken whilst a bolus of contrast media is injected into the arterial system. The measurements extend a continuing survey of doses for common diagnostic radiographic examinations which have previously included the simple examinations of lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. (Author)

  10. The comparative study of pressing and extrusion like processes of construction ceramic products in the Metropolitan Area of Cucuta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelves, J. F.; Monroy, R.; Sanchez, J.; Ramirez, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    The present work studies the principal variables of control in the manufacturing process of construction pieces of the Metropolitan Area of San Jose de Cucuta by extrusion and pressing techniques for its forming. The investigation was taken out using clayey samples of the two principal geological formations of the region where the raw material is taken for processing at an industrial level. The clayey samples milling was made by dry means as well as by moisture means and its particle size was measured. Subsequently the forming process was taken over by using an hydraulic press and extruder with vacuum system , both equipment s at laboratory scale, the pieces shaped were dry and firing between 980 degree centigrade and 1180 degree centigrade at the end of the process the tests were made to determine water absorption, contraction and mass loss at the pieces firing. The study results left to see that the extrusion technique allowed a faster vitrification for the region's clay in comparing with the pressing technique, the contractions of drying and firing are less marked on the pressing techniques with standard deviations much lower than in extrusion. (Author) 13 refs.

  11. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs.

  12. The Ndop plain clayey materials (Bamenda area – NW Cameroon: Mineralogical, geochemical, physical characteristics and properties of their fired products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Yongue-Fouateu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical, mineralogical and technological properties of clayey materials from the Ndop plain (NW Cameroon have been investigated, for their ceramic applications. The clayey materials have mixed facies with colour ranging from brown, grey, mottled and yellowish brown. The thickness of the exploitable clay layer is more than 5 m. Their mineralogical constituents are quartz, kaolinite, illite and feldspars, with kaolinite as major clay mineral. Based on the geochemistry, their source rocks might be felsic, with a mafic rock inference. These materials display high percentage in fine particles and high Atterberg limits. For all the firing temperatures, flexural strength (1.2–11 MPa, water absorption (8.03–24.27%, linear shrinkage (2.10%, weight loss (4.88–16.54% and bulk density (1.57–2.03 g/cm3 indicate good ceramic properties for firing samples between 900 and 1100 °C. Most of the fired test bricks show a brick red colour with good to very good cohesion. The studied clays were thus, suitable as raw materials for roof tiles, light weight blocks and hollow bricks; however, mixing of high clayey and highly silty materials could improve the quality of the products.

  13. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Via, Cinzia; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Darbo, Giovanni; Fleta, Celeste; Gemme, Claudia; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris; Kok, Angela; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as ˜4 μm. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R&D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of ˜4 cm2. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  14. Visible-light-induced hydrogen production over Pt-Eosin Y catalysts with high surface area silica gel as matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaojie [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Jin, Zhiliang; Li, Shuben; Lu, Gongxuan [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Yuexiang [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanjing Road 245, Nanchang, 330047 (China)

    2007-03-30

    A new system for the production of hydrogen, constructed using silica gel as a matrix, Eosin Y as a photosensitizer, and Pt as a cocatalyst, has been reported. It was found that the rate of photosensitized hydrogen evolution in the presence of silica gel is enhanced about 10-fold relative to the homogeneous phase, i.e. in the absence of silica gel. The pH value of the solution and the concentration of Eosin Y have remarkable effects on the rate of hydrogen evolution. The optimal pH and concentration of Eosin Y are 7 and 3.60 x 10{sup -4} mol dm{sup -3} (E/S = 1/3) to 7.24 x 10{sup -4} mol dm{sup -3} (E/S = 1/1), respectively. Triethanolamine (TEOA) as an electron donor, the rate of hydrogen evolution and the apparent quantum efficiency in the silica gel system under visible-light irradiation ({lambda} {>=} 420 nm) can reach about 43 {mu}mol h{sup -1} and 10.4%, respectively. In addition, the roles of silica gel, Pt and TEOA, respectively; and the probable mechanism of photosensitized hydrogen evolution have been discussed. (author)

  15. Visible-light-induced hydrogen production over Pt-Eosin Y catalysts with high surface area silica gel as matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Jin, Zhiliang; Li, Yuexiang; Li, Shuben; Lu, Gongxuan

    A new system for the production of hydrogen, constructed using silica gel as a matrix, Eosin Y as a photosensitizer, and Pt as a cocatalyst, has been reported. It was found that the rate of photosensitized hydrogen evolution in the presence of silica gel is enhanced about 10-fold relative to the homogeneous phase, i.e. in the absence of silica gel. The pH value of the solution and the concentration of Eosin Y have remarkable effects on the rate of hydrogen evolution. The optimal pH and concentration of Eosin Y are 7 and 3.60 × 10 -4 mol dm -3 (E/S = 1/3) to 7.24 × 10 -4 mol dm -3 (E/S = 1/1), respectively. Triethanolamine (TEOA) as an electron donor, the rate of hydrogen evolution and the apparent quantum efficiency in the silica gel system under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm) can reach about 43 μmol h -1 and 10.4%, respectively. In addition, the roles of silica gel, Pt and TEOA, respectively; and the probable mechanism of photosensitized hydrogen evolution have been discussed.

  16. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Neto Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of resistance to cefaclor was observed, both in surface water (51.9% and groundwater (62.9%, while all samples were sensitive to amikacin. The percentages of multi-resistant samples were 25.96% and 26.73% in surface water and groundwater, respectively, while 19.23% and 13.86% were sensitive to all antibiotics tested. It was determined that the rate of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR was 0.164 for surface water and 0.184 for groundwater. No significant differences were found in the profile of the antimicrobial resistance in strains of E. coli isolated in surface water and groundwater, but the index MAR calculated in certain points of groundwater may offer a potential risk of transmission of resistant genes.

  17. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs

  18. Male hatchling production in sea turtles from one of the world’s largest marine protected areas, the Chagos Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Nicole; Laloë, Jacques-Olivier; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Guzman, Antenor N.; Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-02-01

    Sand temperatures at nest depths and implications for hatchling sex ratios of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nesting in the Chagos Archipelago, Indian Ocean are reported and compared to similar measurements at rookeries in the Atlantic and Caribbean. During 2012-2014, temperature loggers were buried at depths and in beach zones representative of turtle nesting sites. Data collected for 12,546 days revealed seasonal and spatial patterns of sand temperature. Depth effects were minimal, perhaps modulated by shade from vegetation. Coolest and warmest temperatures were recorded in the sites heavily shaded in vegetation during the austral winter and in sites partially shaded in vegetation during summer respectively. Overall, sand temperatures were relatively cool during the nesting seasons of both species which would likely produce fairly balanced hatchling sex ratios of 53% and 63% male hatchlings, respectively, for hawksbill and green turtles. This result contrasts with the predominantly high female skew reported for offspring at most rookeries around the globe and highlights how local beach characteristics can drive incubation temperatures. Our evidence suggests that sites characterized by heavy shade associated with intact natural vegetation are likely to provide conditions suitable for male hatchling production in a warming world.

  19. Prospects of potential fodder-crops in hilly regions, especially northern areas of pakistan, their production and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Khan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The comparison of green-fodder and dry-matter yields in various winter cereal fodder crops showed that oat is a high fodder-yielding and more nutritive crop than barley, cereal rye wheat and triticale. Average of the three locations in northern areas of Pakistan (i.e. Gilgit, Chilas and Skardu) indicated that green-fodder yield obtained from oats was 54% higher than barley and 50% than cereal rye. It was also determined that oats and barley have greater re-growth potential than triticale. In oats, it was assessed that whole dose of N=75 kg/ha applied at the time of sowing and the split doses of N at the time of sowing and at vegetative stage of the crop increased green-fodder yield by 250% and 287% respectively than control. Improved varieties of oats viz. PD2L V65 and S-81 produced the highest total green-fodder yields of 87.34 and 86.10 t/ha under two cut system. Also re-growth potential of these varieties was the highest than the other cultivars. In winter legume fodder crops, berseem produced two times more green and dry matter yields as compared to shaftal at Gilgit and Chilas. Berseem harvested 6 cm above ground level and 45 days interval showed good results. Protein percentage decreased as cutting intervals increased in berseem crop. The improved lucerne variety Sundor was superior to local variety both in green-fodder and dry-matter yields. The yield of lucerne decreased with the increase in altitude which might be due to low temperattlre, variation in soil fertility and short growing seasons. Green forage and pasture crop species are dried enough to permit their safe storage, without spoilage or serious loss of nutrients. About 70-90% of water present in standing crop at mowing is reduced to 18-20% by sun and wind without adversely affecting nutritive value. (author)

  20. Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on NPK Uptake and Production of Sweet Corn in Inceptisol Soil of Lowland Swamp Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Neni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study objective was to determine the dose of organic and inorganic fertilizers which can increase N, P and K nutrients uptake as well as the growth and yield of sweet corn on inceptisol soil of lowland swamp. Inceptisol soil has low soil fertility and relatively low to moderate levels of organic matter content. Application of organic fertilizer on inceptisol soil of lowland swampis expected capable to increase N, P and K nutrients as well as yield of sweet corn. This research was conducted from April to July 2014 at Experimental Farm Area of Pulau Semambu Village, Indralaya Utara Subdistrict, Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatra Province. The method used in this research was randomized block design consisting treatments as follows: 75% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer, 50% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer, 25% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1 organic fertilizer, 0% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer with six replications. The recommended dose of inorganic fertilizerswas 200 kg.ha−1 urea, 100 kg.ha−1 SP-36 and 100 kg. ha−1 KCl. The results showed that treatment of 75% of inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer had produced N, P and K nutrients uptake with magnitude of 1.850, 0.418 and 2.374 g.plant−1 respectively as well as good growth and yield of sweet corn with magnitude of 356.36 g. plant−1or 15.21 ton ha−1.

  1. Salmonella in pork retail outlets and dissemination of its pulsotypes through pig production chain in Chiang Mai and surrounding areas, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Tansiricharoenkul, Kankanok; Buawiratlert, Tunyamai; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Angchokchatchawal, Kittipat; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Yano, Terdsak; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Rojanasatien, Suvichai; Tadee, Pakpoom

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella spp. is acknowledged as a significant zoonotic foodborne pathogen throughout the world. Contaminated pork consumption is considered as a main cause of human salmonellosis. In the later stage of the pig production chain, poor hygiene and unsuitable storage conditions in retail outlets are considered to be key factors linked to the risk of Salmonella infection. The purpose of current study, which was conducted throughout April 2014 to September 2014, was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in pork sold at the retail stage in wet markets and supermarkets in the Chiang Mai urban area of Thailand. Additionally, clonal relations between Salmonella strains described in this study and those identified in earlier study from the same geographical area were considered. It is provided as a means of contributing to current knowledge regarding Salmonella epidemiology with an ultimate aim of improved food security and consumer protection in this region. From a total of 82 pork samples analyzed in this study, 41% were positive for Salmonella, with prevalence of 73.2% from wet markets (n=30/41) and 9.8% from supermarkets (n=4/41). Twelve Salmonella serovars were identified, S. Rissen being the most commonly encountered. Antibiotic resistance of the isolates was highest for ampicillin and tetracycline (53%), followed by streptomycin (44%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and subsequent geographical distribution analysis indicated that the clonal Salmonella strains originated from multiple sources had been spread over a wide area. The existence of a common pig supply chain "farm-slaughterhouse-retail" transmission route is inferred. Continuous monitoring of Salmonella along the entire production chain is needed to reduce contamination loads and to ensure the safety of pork products for end consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in retail meat and dairy products in the area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derra, Firehiwot Abera; Karlsmose, Susanne; Monga, Dharam P; Mache, Abebe; Svendsen, Christina Aaby; Félix, Benjamin; Granier, Sophie A; Geyid, Abera; Taye, Girum; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2013-06-01

    Listeriosis, a bacterial disease in humans and animals, is mostly caused by ingestion of Listeria monocytogenes via contaminated food and/or water, or by a zoonotic infection. Globally, listeriosis has in general a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antimicrobial profiles, and genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes from raw meat and dairy products (raw milk, cottage cheese, cream cake), collected from the capital and five neighboring towns in Ethiopia. Two hundred forty food samples were purchased from July to December 2006 from food vendors, shops, and supermarkets, using a cross-sectional study design. L. monocytogenes were isolated and subjected to molecular serotyping. The genetic relatedness and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and minimum inhibitory concentration determinations. Of 240 food samples tested, 66 (27.5%) were positive for Listeria species. Of 59 viable isolates, 10 (4.1%) were L. monocytogenes. Nine were serotype 4b and one was 2b. Minimum inhibitory concentration determination and PFGE of the 10 L. monocytogenes isolates showed low occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among eight different PFGE types. The findings in this study correspond to similar research undertaken in Ethiopia by detecting L. monocytogenes with similar prevalence rates. Public education is crucial as regards the nature of this organism and relevant prevention measures. Moreover, further research in clinical samples should be carried out to estimate the prevalence and carrier rate in humans, and future investigations on foodborne outbreaks must include L. monocytogenes.

  3. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Via, Cinzia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco, E-mail: dallabe@disi.unitn.it [DISI, Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Darbo, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Fleta, Celeste [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Gemme, Claudia [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Grenier, Philippe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grinstein, Sebastian [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE) and ICREA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Hansen, Thor-Erik [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kok, Angela [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Parker, Sherwood [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pellegrini, Giulio [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as {approx}4 {mu}m. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R and D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of {approx}4 cm{sup 2}. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  4. Scientific research in the area of coking and coking by-products (based on material from the All-Union Coordinating Conference)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydkevich, M.I.; Tselik, M.P.; Belkina, T.V.

    1985-06-01

    Subjects covered in the all-union coordinating conference on coking and chemical by-products of coking, which took place on 13-15 July 1984, are discussed. One hundred forty eight on-going and new research themes accepted as research projects for 1985-86 were discussed. Areas of research include coals from the eastern deposits and Pechora basin as raw materials for coking; coals from the southern deposits as coking raw materials; technology of coal preparation for coking; technology for producing blast furnace coke and methods of assessing its quality; technology for producing other kinds of coke and carbon graphite materials; methods for extraction processing and producing chemical products from coking.

  5. Non-invasive techniques for the measurement of extraction fraction and permeability surface area product of 99Tcm DTPA in the human forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, S.D.; Peters, A.M.; Myers, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Only a very limited number of clinical studies have been reported on the measurement of endothelial permeability to hydrophilic solutes (molecular weight 99 Tc m DTPA, are perfusion-dependent as well as diffusion-dependent. The authors describe non-invasive techniques for measurement of clearance and extraction fraction of 99 Tc m DTPA into the extravascular space of the resting forearm using a scintillation probe, from which we then calculated permeability surface area (PS) product. Their values for extraction fraction of about 0.5 and for PS product of about 3 ml per minute per 100 ml tissue are comparable to values reported in the literature for resting skeletal muscle using more invasive techniques. (author)

  6. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio. Dates of surveys, August 1976/May-June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1979-06-01

    Two aerial radiological surveys to measure terrestrial gamma radiation were made over an area centered on the United States Department of Energy's Feed Materials Production Center in the city of Fernald, Ohio. The Center is operated by the National Lead Company of Ohio. Gamma ray data were collected from east-west flight lines at 90 m intervals over an area 25 km 2 centered on the plant site. The small Ohio towns of Shandon, Ross, and New Baltimore were surveyed from north-south flight lines at 300 m intervals. Processed data indicated that on-site radioactivity was due primarily to radionuclides currently being handled or processed at the Center. Off-site data showed the radioactivity to be due to naturally occurring radionuclides northeast and south of the site. If the northwest corner of the survey area an unusually high count rate region of airborne radon daughter activity was encountered. This was equivalent to approximately four times the normal background. However, the follow-up survey of 1977 showed this area to be within the background count rate level

  7. Ability to join the workforce and work productivity among drug users under methadone maintenance treatment in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Vuong Minh; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Xuan Bach, Tran; Nguyen, Hung Van; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Minh Thuc Thi

    2017-07-26

    A major measure of treatment success for drug users undergoing rehabilitation is the ability to enter the workforce and generate income. This study examines the absenteeism and productivity among people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Northern Vietnam. We conducted a cross-sectional study in two clinics in Tuyen Quang province. A total of 241 patients enrolled in MMT. Patients' work productivity was measured using the WPAI-GH instrument (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health V2.0). We also collected additional characteristics about participants' employment history, such as proficient jobs, whether they actively found a new job and be accepted by employers. Most of the participants (>90%) were employed at the time of the study. Rates of absenteeism (missed work), presenteeism (impairment while working) and overall loss of productivity were 15.8%, 5.6% and 11.2%, respectively, as measured by the WPAI-GH questionnaire. The most proficient job was 'freelancer' (17.5%), followed by 'blue-collar worker' (10.6%) and 'farmer' (10.2%). Only 26.8% of patients reported that they actively sought jobs in the past. About half of them had been refused by employers because of their drug use history and/or HIV status. We found no statistically significant difference between patients enrolled in MMT for 1 year. Factors associated with higher work productivity included not endorsing problems in mobility, self-care or pain; being HIV-negative and having greater MMT treatment adherence. Our study highlights the high employment rate and work productivity among PWID in MMT programmes in remote areas of Northern Vietnam. The results can help to improve the quality and structure of MMT programmes across Vietnam and in other countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  8. Ability to join the workforce and work productivity among drug users under methadone maintenance treatment in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Vuong Minh; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Xuan Bach, Tran; Nguyen, Hung Van; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Minh Thuc Thi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A major measure of treatment success for drug users undergoing rehabilitation is the ability to enter the workforce and generate income. This study examines the absenteeism and productivity among people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Northern Vietnam. Setting We conducted a cross-sectional study in two clinics in Tuyen Quang province. Participants A total of 241 patients enrolled in MMT. Primary and secondary outcome measures Patients’ work productivity was measured using the WPAI-GH instrument (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health V2.0). We also collected additional characteristics about participants’ employment history, such as proficient jobs, whether they actively found a new job and be accepted by employers. Results Most of the participants (>90%) were employed at the time of the study. Rates of absenteeism (missed work), presenteeism (impairment while working) and overall loss of productivity were 15.8%, 5.6% and 11.2%, respectively, as measured by the WPAI-GH questionnaire. The most proficient job was ‘freelancer’ (17.5%), followed by ‘blue-collar worker’ (10.6%) and ‘farmer’ (10.2%). Only 26.8% of patients reported that they actively sought jobs in the past. About half of them had been refused by employers because of their drug use history and/or HIV status. We found no statistically significant difference between patients enrolled in MMT for 1 year. Factors associated with higher work productivity included not endorsing problems in mobility, self-care or pain; being HIV-negative and having greater MMT treatment adherence. Conclusion Our study highlights the high employment rate and work productivity among PWID in MMT programmes in remote areas of Northern Vietnam. The results can help to improve the quality and structure of MMT programmes across Vietnam and in other countries. PMID:28751487

  9. Feasibility of biodiesel production and CO2 emission reduction by Monoraphidium dybowskii LB50 under semi-continuous culture with open raceway ponds in the desert area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haijian; He, Qiaoning; Hu, Chunxiang

    2018-01-01

    Compared with other general energy crops, microalgae are more compatible with desert conditions. In addition, microalgae cultivated in desert regions can be used to develop biodiesel. Therefore, screening oil-rich microalgae, and researching the algae growth, CO 2 fixation and oil yield in desert areas not only effectively utilize the idle desertification lands and other resources, but also reduce CO 2 emission. Monoraphidium dybowskii LB50 can be efficiently cultured in the desert area using light resources, and lipid yield can be effectively improved using two-stage induction and semi-continuous culture modes in open raceway ponds (ORPs). Lipid content (LC) and lipid productivity (LP) were increased by 20% under two-stage industrial salt induction, whereas biomass productivity (BP) increased by 80% to enhance LP under semi-continuous mode in 5 m 2 ORPs. After 3 years of operation, M. dybowskii LB50 was successfully and stably cultivated under semi-continuous mode for a month during five cycles of repeated culture in a 200 m 2 ORP in the desert area. This culture mode reduced the supply of the original species. The BP and CO 2 fixation rate were maintained at 18 and 33 g m -2  day -1 , respectively. Moreover, LC decreased only during the fifth cycle of repeated culture. Evaporation occurred at 0.9-1.8 L m -2  day -1 , which corresponded to 6.5-13% of evaporation loss rate. Semi-continuous and two-stage salt induction culture modes can reduce energy consumption and increase energy balance through the energy consumption analysis of life cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining biodiesel production and CO 2 fixation using microalgae grown as feedstock under culture modes with ORPs by using the resources in the desert area. The understanding of evaporation loss and the sustainability of semi-continuous culture render this approach practically viable. The novel strategy may be a promising alternative to existing technology for CO 2 emission

  10. Experimental modeling of aerosols produced by microorganisms in working area air as risk factor exerting hazardous impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Dudchik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific foundation and practices in the sphere of hygienic and ecological standardization concerning biological factors of the environment have a number of peculiarities and are methodically less developed than chemical factors standardization. Efficient industrial control over maximum permissible concentrations of standardized microorganisms-producers in working area air is based on validated instrumental techniques of quantitative assessment. Our goal was to create experimental models for microorganisms-producers' aerosols of a multi-component microbe specimen in working area air as a risk factor causing impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production; another task was to work out a procedure for measuring Pseudomonas aurantiaca B-162/255.17concentration and cells and spores of Bacillus sp. BB58-3 strain in working area air. We gave grounds for a technology aimed at quantitative determination of microorganisms-producers in working area air in a modeling experiment; it was based on conventional stages and tech-niques accepted in microbiological practices, namely air samples taking via aspiration technique allowing for a volume taken; cultivation under conditions which are optimal for examined microorganisms-producers in a nutrient medium with reduced composition; calculation of evolved colonies with specific morphological features; morphologic identification of microorganisms and colonies; calculation of microorganisms' quantity on dishes with recalculation per 1 m3 of air. Bas-ing on the detected regular concentration dependences of microbe contamination dynamics in air we worked out a proce-dure for quantitative determination of microorganisms-producers; we also performed metrological estimate of opera-tional properties for assessing microorganisms-producers of a multi-component microbe specimen as a risk factor caus-ing hazardous impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production. We validated our

  11. Development of a High Resolution BRDF/Albedo Product by Fusing Airborne CASI Reflectance with MODIS Daily Reflectance in the Oasis Area of the Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqin You

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A land-cover-based linear BRDF (bi-directional reflectance distribution function unmixing (LLBU algorithm based on the kernel-driven model is proposed to combine the compact airborne spectrographic imager (CASI reflectance with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS daily reflectance product to derive the BRDF/albedo of the two sensors simultaneously in the foci experimental area (FEA of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER, which was carried out in the Heihe River basin, China. For each land cover type, an archetypal BRDF, which characterizes the shape of its anisotropic reflectance, is extracted by linearly unmixing from the MODIS reflectance with the assistance of a high-resolution classification map. The isotropic coefficients accounting for the differences within a class are derived from the CASI reflectance. The BRDF is finally determined by the archetypal BRDF and the corresponding isotropic coefficients. Direct comparisons of the cropland archetypal BRDF and CASI albedo with in situ measurements show good agreement. An indirect validation which compares retrieved BRDF/albedo with that of the MCD43A1 standard product issued by NASA and aggregated CASI albedo also suggests reasonable reliability. LLBU has potential to retrieve the high spatial resolution BRDF/albedo product for airborne and spaceborne sensors which have inadequate angular samplings. In addition, it can shorten the timescale for coarse spatial resolution product like MODIS.

  12. Reclaimed water as a main resource to enhance the adaptive capacity to climate change in semi-arid Mediterranean agricultural areas using Earth Observation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia Rico, Ana; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Matieu, Pierre-Philippe; Hernandez Sancho, Francesc; Loarte, Edwin

    Lack of water is being a big problem in semi-arid areas to make agricultural profits. Most of Mediterranean countries like Spain, Italy, Greece or Cyprus and other countries like Morocco, the Arab United Emirates, South-American countries or China are starting to reuse wastewater as adaptation to climate change water scarcity. Drought areas are nowadays increasing, thus making fertile areas unproductive. For this reason, the European trend is to work on reusing wastewater as a solution to water scarcity in agriculture. Moreover, since population is growing fast, wastewater production is increasing as well as drinkable water demand, thus making reclaimed water as the water guarantee for irrigation and better agricultural management. This work represents a preliminary initiative to check, analyse and monitor the land by using remote sensing techniques to identify and determine the potential lands that used to be productive in the past, are now abandoned, and we want to recuperate to obtain socio-economic benefits. On top of this, this initiative will clearly enhance the adaption capacity of rural/agricultural lands to climate change. Alternatively to reclaimed water, greenhouses, desalination plants or transboarding water do not really eliminate the problem but only offer a temporary solution, make spending plenty of money and always provoking irreversible damages to the environment. The pilot area to first develop this research is the Valencia and Murcia Autonomous Communities located in the Spanish Mediterranean Coastline. An added value of this work will be to develop a methodology transferable to other potential countries with similar climatic characteristics and difficulties for irrigation, by using remote sensing methods and techniques. The remote sensing products obtained provide full information about the current state of the potential lands to grow crops. Potential areas are then being selected to carry out a socio-economic analysis leading to: (i

  13. Evaluation of optical remote sensing parameters to improve modeling of gross primary productivity in a heterogeneous agricultural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickling, A.; Damm, A.; Schween, J.; Rascher, U.; Crewell, S.; Wahner, A.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial photosynthesis greatly determines plant mediated exchange processes in the vegetation atmosphere system and substantially influences patterns in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and water vapor. Therefore, an accurate quantification of photosynthetic CO2 uptake, commonly referred to as gross primary productivity (GPP), is a key parameter to distinguish those atmospheric patterns on various spatio-temporal scales. Remote sensing (RS) offers the unique possibility to determine GPP at different spatial scales ranging from the local to the global scale. Attempts to estimate GPP from RS data focus on the light use efficiency (LUE) concept of Monteith which relates GPP to the absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and the efficiency of plant canopies to utilize the absorbed radiation for photosynthesis. To reliably predict GPP on different spatio-temporal scales LUE has to be linked to optical RS parameters which detect changes in photosynthetic efficiency due to environmental conditions. In this study we evaluated two optical RS parameters, namely the sun-induced fluorescence (Fs) and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), for their potential to serve as a proxy for LUE. The parameters were derived from two ASD FieldSpec spectrometers which were operated in parallel. During several days one instrument was installed on the ground above the vegetation canopy of either a winter wheat or a sugar beet field. The second instrument was operated from a small research aircraft continuously crossing the observation sites at low altitude (sugar beet fields during the day. Results of this spatio-temporal investigation revealed a significant variability of GPP between different winter wheat fields compared to the within-field variability. In addition to the significant between-field variability of sugar beet the results also showed an increase of the within-field variability in the afternoon. Moreover, for the first time it could be shown that

  14. Energy plant cultivation test on peat production areas and the suitability of the bioenergy for different purposes; Energiakasvien esim. ruokohelpin viljelykokeilu turvesuoalueilla ja saatavan bioenergian soveltuvuus eri kaeyttoekohteisiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puuronen, M.; Mikkonen, T. [Vapo Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    New reed canary grass plantations have been made at the Hirvineva in Liminka on 39 ha in 1996 as planned. At Hirvineva the plantation of reed canary grass was carried out on the area withdrawn from peat production. The peat layer depth was 0 - 20 cm. Municipal waste water sludges were used for fertilising the plantations in order to reduce the fertilising costs. The Kemper cutting machine was tested at the natural common reed area in the Liminka gulf in the spring 1996. Compared to the reed canary grass plantations the common reed is more difficult to harvest. The reed canary grass is also more productive to harvest. The first reed canary grass harvest will be harvested in spring 1997, then it is possible to find out the effect of ashes and slag on growth, as well as the effect of different fertilising levels on harvest at the mires. Ruukki research center has made reed canary grass test plantations at the Hirvineva in Liminka where the fertilisation levels will be studied. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in wetland areas. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, Third quarter, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.

    1993-12-31

    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft that utilizes aerostatic and aerodynamic lift. This type of aircraft has considerable payload capacity, VTOL capability, high controllability, low operating cost, low downwash and high safety. The benefits of using a cyclocraft to transport drill rigs and materials over environmentally-sensitive surfaces would be significant. The cyclocraft has considerable cost and operational advantages over the helicopter. In 1992, Task 1, Environmental Considerations, and Task 2, Transport Requirements, were completed. In the first two quarters of 1993, Task 3, Parametric Analysis, Task 4, Preliminary Design, and Task 6, Ground Support, were completed. Individual reports containing results obtained from each of these tasks were submitted to DOE. In addition, through June 30, 1993, a Subscale Test Plan was prepared under Task 5, Subscale Tests, and work was initiated on Task 7, Environmental Impacts, Task 8, Development Plan, Task 9, Operating Costs, and Task 10, Technology Transfer.

  16. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in wetland areas. Third quarterly technical progress report, First quarter, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.

    1993-06-01

    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft that utilizes aerostatic and aerodynamic lift. This type of aircraft has considerable payload capacity, VTOL capability, high controllability, low operating cost, low downwash and high safety. The benefits of using a cyclocraft to transport drill rigs and materials over environmentally-sensitive surfaces would be significant. The cyclocraft has considerable cost and operational advantages over the helicopter. The major activity during the report period was focussed on Task 4, Preliminary Design. The selected design has been designated H.1 Cyclocraft by MRC. The preliminary design work was based on the results of the three preceding tasks. A report was initiated that contains descriptions of the H.1 Cyclocraft and its subsystems; options available for the final aircraft design process; performance, geometry, weights and power data; logistics and considerations relating to cyclocraft operations in wetlands.

  17. Decontamination of the product handling area at the West Valley Demonstration Project: Final topical report for period July 1985 to February 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.C.

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) preparations of an existing facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the Product Handling Area (PHA), to be part of a Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS) in conjunction with the Cement Solidification System (CSS). Two interconnected facilities, the Uranium Product Cell (UPC) and the Uranium Loadout Area (ULO), form the PHA. Both of these facilities contain large tanks. Both of the tanks in the UPC are suitable for use as components of the LWTS. In addition, the UPC is the only existing means of access to the bottom of the Product Purification Cell (PPC) in which some of the equipment for the LWTS will be installed. Consequently, this report describes the decontamination of the PHA from a radioactively contaminated environment to one which may be entered in street clothes. Of the two facilities of the PHA, the UPC was the more highly contaminated prior to decontamination. Decontamination of the UPC has been completed leaving most of the surfaces in the facility smearably clean. Decontamination of the UPC consisted of washing all surfaces, draining the floor sump, removing unneeded piping, installing a back flow filter system, painting all surfaces, installing rubber matting on the floor and placing new stainless steel covering on the UPC ledge. Decontamination operations in the ULO have been completed and were similar to those in the UPC consisting of decontaminating by hand wipedown, removing contamination fixed in paint, and applying new paint. In addition, two pumps and a concrete pump niche were removed. Prior to decontamination, surface contamination was present in the ULO. After decontamination, most of the surfaces in the ULO were clean of smearable contamination. D and D Operations were initiated in the PHA in July 1985 and completed in February 1986. 13 figs., 9 tabs

  18. Academic scientific-production in Brazil in the area of high abilities/giftedness on the period from 1987 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Claudio Moriel Chacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among students with special educational needs, subjects of special education, are those with high ability/giftedness, a complex phenomenon that requires the participation of education professionals and researchers to foster the potential of development of these students. In this sense, we aimed to identify and analyze thesis and dissertations that they propose to investigate the theme high ability/giftedness, verifying participation of the area of education in these studies. The study was done through a literature review, guided by the following questions: Have the researches on high ability/giftedness been growing in recent years? What is the participation of education area in those researches? What are the issues related to high ability/giftedness addressed in Education? The results show that the institutions present an increasing trend and there is a predominance of education area in this scientific production. However, there is an imbalance between the institutions that aim to investigate the theme in Brazilian regions, as well as among the cases covered by these researches on high ability/giftedness.

  19. Analysis on biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors in the Gufu River basin, Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jiwen; Wu, Shuyuan; Touré, Dado; Cheng, Lamei; Miao, Wenjie; Cao, Huafen; Pan, Xiaoying; Li, Jianfeng; Yao, Minmin; Feng, Liang

    2017-12-01

    The main purpose of this study conducted from August 2010 was to find biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors and try to explore the restrictive factors affecting the growth of algae in the Gufu River, the one of the branches of Xiangxi River located in the Three Gorges Reservoir of the Yangtze River, Hubei Province, Central China. An improved method of in situ primary productivity measurement was utilized to estimate the primary production of the epilithic algae. It was shown that in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, algae are the main primary producers and have a central role in the ecosystem. Chlorophyll a concentration and ash-free dry mass (AFDM) were estimated for epilithic algae of the Gufu River basin in Three Gorges Reservoir area. Environmental factors in the Gufu River ecosystem highlighted differences in periphyton chlorophyll a ranging from 1.49 mg m -2 (origin) to 69.58 mg m -2 (terminal point). The minimum and maximum gross primary productivity of epilithic algae were 96.12 and 1439.89 mg C m -2  day -1 , respectively. The mean net primary productivity was 290.24 mg C m -2  day -1 . The mean autotrophic index (AFDM:chlorophyll a) was 407.40. The net primary productivity, community respiration ratio (P/R ratio) ranged from 0.98 to 9.25 with a mean of 2.76, showed that autotrophic productivity was dominant in the river. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics and biomass was discussed through cluster and stepwise regression analysis which indicated that altitude, total nitrogen (TN), NO 3 - -N, and NH 4 + -N were significant environmental factors affecting the biomass of epilithic algae. However, a negative logarithmic relationship between altitude and the chlorophyll a of epilithic algae was high. The results also highlighted the importance of epilithic algae in maintaining the Gufu River basin ecosystems health.

  20. Influence of environmental factors on the contents of active ingredients and radical scavenging property of potentilla fruticosa in the main production areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Yin, D. X.; Wang, D. M.; Li, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from Potentilla fruticosa have been applied in traditional medicine and exhibited antioxidant property, but little has been known about the diversity of phytochemicals and properties on this species from different growing environment. This study investigated the influence of environmental factors on the active ingredient contents and radical scavenging property of P. fruticosa from different production areas of China in order to discover a location could produce high-quality resources for pharmaceutical products. The contents of tannin, total flavonoids, and rutin were determined and varied within the range of 7.64 ± 0.43 ∼ 10.68 ± 0.67 percentage, 2.29 ± 0.34 ∼ 5.37 ± 0.36 percentage, and 0.19 ± 0.053 ∼ 0.79 ± 0.125 percentage, respectively. Radical scavenging property was quantified, with the IC /sub 50/ of 7.24 ± 0.423 to 17.23 ± 0.551 μ g mL-1. Principal component analysis, multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, and path analysis were conducted to further analysis the relationship between the variations of active ingredients and radical scavenging capacity and growth environment. The results showed dominant environmental factors for these variations were rapidly available nitrogen, rapidly available phosphorus, pH, July average temperature, and annual sunshine duration. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between pH, annual sunshine duration and active ingredients and radical scavenging property (p<0.05). Considering the high active ingredient contents and strong radical scavenging property, leaf extracts from P. fruticosa could become useful supplements for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant agent, and Huzhu Northern Mountain in Qinghai Province and E-mei Mountain in Sichuan Province were selected as favorable production locations. (author)

  1. Determination of the microbiological quality and proximate composition of fermented cassava food products sold in Ilorin-west local government area, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Adetunji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the microbiological safety and the proximate analyses of five urban markets within Ilorin-West Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria were carried out using standard protocols. The bacterial load of fermented staple products from cassava ranged from 0.1 to 10.9×105 CFU/g while the fungi and yeast content ranged from 1.1 to 8.2×105 CFU/g. The isolates of bacteria from all the markets include the following; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Streptococus faecalis, Lactobacillus species, Acetobacter spp.., Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus species while the isolated fungi include Fusarium oxysporium, Aspergillus niger, A.flavus, A. fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, Penicillum spp., Rhizopus stolonifera, Mucor spp..The results of the proximate composition showed that moisture content of fermented staple products of cassava ranged from 6.21% (garri Ijebu from market A and lebu from market C to 72.25% (fufu from market C while dry matter content ranged between 27.75% (Fufu from market C to 93.79% (garri Ijebu market A and lebu from market C. Ash content ranged from 0.23% (Tapioca from market A to 1.96% (lebu from market A, crude fibre content ranged between 1.13% (Fufu from market C and 5.28% (Abacha from market D, and the carbohydrate content of the fermented staple products from cassava ranged from 18.61% (Fufu from market C to 81.44% (Tapioca from market A. Even though some potential pathogenic bacteria like E.coli and Bacillus were isolated from cassava fermented products, the minimum microbial load obtained could not impose any health risk.

  2. Energy plant cultivation test on peat production areas and the suitability of the bioenergy for different purposes; Energiakasvien viljelykokeilu turvesuoalueilla ja saatavan bioenergian soveltuvuus eri kaeyttoekohteisiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puuronen, M.; Mikkonen, T. [Vapo Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Reed canary grass plantations have been grown on 39 ha in 1995 as planned. The growths were at the Hirvineva mire in Liminka and the Ahmaneva mire in Vihanti. At the Hirvineva mire the cultivation of reed canary grass will be carried out on the area withdrawn from peat production. The Ahmaneva mire is almost totally peatland dried but not yet prepared for peat production. Utilization of e.g. municipal waste water sludges for fertilizing of the plantations, and steel plant slag and wood waste boiler ashes will be used as liming substances. The first reed canary grass harvest will be harvested in spring 1997, then it is possible to find out the effect of ashes and slag on growth, as well as the effect of different fertilizing levels on harvest at the mires. Ruukki research center has made reed canary grass plantations at the Hirvineva mire in Liminka, there the fertilization levels will be studied. Field biomasses are a newcomer on the Finnish bioenergy markets so the procurement chains will also be developed for Finnish conditions. Procurement chains have first to be designed for prevailing field biomasses such as straw and reed grass. It is naturally reasonable to utilize in the first place the prevailing biomasses. E.g. in Denmark the utilization of field biomass is very common. The experiences gained in other countries have to be applied for Finnish conditions. The effective procurement chain of peat production has to be utilized, and procurement chains will be developed in the project in order to produce biomasses profitably on peat production fields. Possible field biomasses in Finland are straw, reed grass and reed canary grass

  3. Management and Area-wide Evaluation of Water Conservation Zones in Agricultural Catchments for Biomass Production, Water Quality and Food Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Global land and water resources are under threat from both the agricultural and urban development to meet increased demand for food and from the resulting degradation of the environment. Poor crop yields due to water stress is one of the main reasons for the prevailing hunger and rural poverty in parts of the world. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s particularly in Latin America and Asia resulted in increased agricultural production and depended partly on water management. In the future, most food will still need to come from rain-fed agriculture. Water conservation zones in agricultural catchments, particularly in rainfed areas, play an important role in the capture and storage of water and nutrients from farmlands and wider catchments, and help improve crop production in times of need in these areas. Water conservation zones are considered to be an important part of water resource management strategies that have been developed to prevent reservoir siltation, reduce water quality degradation, mitigate flooding, enhance groundwater recharge and provide water for farming. In addition to making crop production possible in dry areas, water conservation zones minimize soil erosion, improve soil moisture status through capillary rise and enhance soil fertility and quality. These water conservation zones include natural and constructed wetlands (including riparian wetlands), farm ponds and riparian buffer zones. The management of water conservation zones has been a challenge due to the poor understanding of the relationship between upstream land use and the functions of these zones and their internal dynamics. Knowledge of sources and sinks of water and redefining water and nutrient budgets for water conservation zones are important for optimizing the capture, storage and use of water and nutrients in agricultural landscapes. The overall objective of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to assess and enhance ecosystem services provided by wetlands, ponds

  4. Limited production of sulfate and nitrate on front-associated dust storm particles moving from desert to distant populated areas in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Zhang, Daizhou; Cao, Junji; Guo, Xiao; Xia, Yao; Zhang, Ting; Lu, Hui; Cheng, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate and nitrate compounds can greatly increase the hygroscopicity of mineral particles in the atmosphere and consequently alter the particles' physical and chemical properties. Their uptake on long-distance-transported Asian dust particles within mainland China has been reported to be substantial in previous studies, but the production was very inefficient in other studies. We compared these two salts in particles collected from a synoptic-scale, mid-latitude, cyclone-induced dust storm plume at the Tengger Desert (38.79° N, 105.38° E) and in particles collected in a postfrontal dust plume at an urban site in Xi'an (34.22° N, 108.87° E) when a front-associated dust storm from the Tengger Desert arrived there approximately 700 km downwind. The results showed that the sulfate concentration was not considerably different at the two sites, while the nitrate concentration was slightly larger at the urban site than that at the desert site. The estimated nitrate production rate was 4-5 ng µg-1 of mineral dust per day, which was much less than that in polluted urban air. The adiabatic process of the dust-loading air was suggested to be the reason for the absence of sulfate formation, and the uptake of background HNO3 was suggested to be the reason for the small nitrate production. According to our investigation of the published literature, the significant sulfate and nitrate in dust-storm-associated samples within the continental atmosphere reported in previous studies cannot be confirmed as actually produced on desert dust particles; the contribution from locally emitted and urban mineral particles or from soil-derived sulfate was likely substantial because the weather conditions in those studies indicated that the collection of the samples was started before dust arrival, or the air from which the samples were collected was a mixture of desert dust and locally emitted mineral particles. These results suggest that the production of nitrate and sulfate on dust

  5. Limited production of sulfate and nitrate on front-associated dust storm particles moving from desert to distant populated areas in northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wu

    2017-12-01

    production of nitrate and sulfate on dust particles following cold fronts is likely limited when the particles move from the desert to populated areas within the continent. For an accurate quantification of sulfate and nitrate formed on long-distance-transported desert dust particles at downwind populated areas in eastern China, dust collection efforts are indispensable to minimize any possible influence by locally emitted particles or at least to ensure that the samples are collected after dust arrival.

  6. Ultra-low switching energy and scaling in electric-field-controlled nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions with high resistance-area product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grezes, C.; Alzate, J. G.; Cai, X.; Wang, K. L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebrahimi, F.; Khalili Amiri, P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Inston, Inc., Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Katine, J. A. [HGST, Inc., San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Langer, J.; Ocker, B. [Singulus Technologies AG, Kahl am Main 63796 (Germany)

    2016-01-04

    We report electric-field-induced switching with write energies down to 6 fJ/bit for switching times of 0.5 ns, in nanoscale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with high resistance-area product and diameters down to 50 nm. The ultra-low switching energy is made possible by a thick MgO barrier that ensures negligible spin-transfer torque contributions, along with a reduction of the Ohmic dissipation. We find that the switching voltage and time are insensitive to the junction diameter for high-resistance MTJs, a result accounted for by a macrospin model of purely voltage-induced switching. The measured performance enables integration with same-size CMOS transistors in compact memory and logic integrated circuits.

  7. Technology strategy for deepwater and subsea production systems 2008 update; Technology Target Areas; TTA7 - Deep water and subsea prodution technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Executive summary 'Deepwater and Subsea Production Systems' has been identified as one of the eight new Technology Target Areas (TTAs) in Norway's technology strategy for the Oil and Gas sector. This TTA covers deepwater floating production systems, subsea systems (except subsea processing technologies which are addressed by TTA6) and arctic development systems (in both shallow and deepwater). The total hydrocarbon reserves worldwide, which are enabled by the technologies under this TTA exceed 400 billion boe which, itself exceeds the proven reserves of Saudi Arabia. For deepwater developments the long term technical challenge is to develop flexible and adaptive systems which are better able to cope with subsurface uncertainties e.g. compartmentalisation and provide required access to the reservoir to enable successful recovery. More specific medium term challenges relate to developing solutions for harsh environmental conditions such as those offshore Norway and to develop cost effective methods of installing subsea hardware in deep and ultra deep water without requiring expensive crane vessels. For subsea systems the challenge is to develop solutions for ultra deepwater without increasing costs, so that Norway's leading export position in this area can be maintained and strengthened. Considering developments in the arctic, Norwegian industry is already well placed through its familiarity with arctic climate, close relationship with Russia and involvement in Sakhalin II. As we move to water depth beyond about 150m use of Gravity Base Structures (GBS) becomes very expensive or non-feasible and we need to consider other solutions. Subsea-to-beach could be an attractive solution but we need to resolve challenges related to long distance tie backs, flow assurance, uneven terrain, etc. There is also a specific need to develop floating systems capable of drilling and production in an arctic environment. To address the above technical challenges the

  8. A review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions and effects of decomposition temperature on the surface area of the plutonium dioxide product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, R.M.; Sims, H.E.; Taylor, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Plutonium (IV) and (III) ions in nitric acid solution readily form insoluble precipitates with oxalic acid. The plutonium oxalates are then easily thermally decomposed to form plutonium dioxide powder. This simple process forms the basis of current industrial conversion or ‘finishing’ processes that are used in commercial scale reprocessing plants. It is also widely used in analytical or laboratory scale operations and for waste residues treatment. However, the mechanisms of the thermal decompositions in both air and inert atmospheres have been the subject of various studies over several decades. The nature of intermediate phases is of fundamental interest whilst understanding the evolution of gases at different temperatures is relevant to process control. The thermal decomposition is also used to control a number of powder properties of the PuO_2 product that are important to either long term storage or mixed oxide fuel manufacturing. These properties are the surface area, residual carbon impurities and adsorbed volatile species whereas the morphology and particle size distribution are functions of the precipitation process. Available data and experience regarding the thermal and radiation-induced decompositions of plutonium oxalate to oxide are reviewed. The mechanisms of the thermal decompositions are considered with a particular focus on the likely redox chemistry involved. Also, whilst it is well known that the surface area is dependent on calcination temperature, there is a wide variation in the published data and so new correlations have been derived. Better understanding of plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalate decompositions will assist the development of more proliferation resistant actinide co-conversion processes that are needed for advanced reprocessing in future closed nuclear fuel cycles. - Highlights: • Critical review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions. • New analysis of relationship between SSA and calcination temperature. • New SEM

  9. A review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions and effects of decomposition temperature on the surface area of the plutonium dioxide product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, R.M.; Sims, H.E.; Taylor, R.J., E-mail: robin.j.taylor@nnl.co.uk

    2015-10-15

    Plutonium (IV) and (III) ions in nitric acid solution readily form insoluble precipitates with oxalic acid. The plutonium oxalates are then easily thermally decomposed to form plutonium dioxide powder. This simple process forms the basis of current industrial conversion or ‘finishing’ processes that are used in commercial scale reprocessing plants. It is also widely used in analytical or laboratory scale operations and for waste residues treatment. However, the mechanisms of the thermal decompositions in both air and inert atmospheres have been the subject of various studies over several decades. The nature of intermediate phases is of fundamental interest whilst understanding the evolution of gases at different temperatures is relevant to process control. The thermal decomposition is also used to control a number of powder properties of the PuO{sub 2} product that are important to either long term storage or mixed oxide fuel manufacturing. These properties are the surface area, residual carbon impurities and adsorbed volatile species whereas the morphology and particle size distribution are functions of the precipitation process. Available data and experience regarding the thermal and radiation-induced decompositions of plutonium oxalate to oxide are reviewed. The mechanisms of the thermal decompositions are considered with a particular focus on the likely redox chemistry involved. Also, whilst it is well known that the surface area is dependent on calcination temperature, there is a wide variation in the published data and so new correlations have been derived. Better understanding of plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalate decompositions will assist the development of more proliferation resistant actinide co-conversion processes that are needed for advanced reprocessing in future closed nuclear fuel cycles. - Highlights: • Critical review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions. • New analysis of relationship between SSA and calcination temperature.

  10. Dose-effect relationship in production of dicentrics and rings in blood lymphocytes of individuals living in high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Tao; Hayata, I.; Wang Cunyan

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To explore the dose-effect relationship in the production of chromosome aberrations by high background radiation by using statistically appropriate individual measurements. Methods: Chromosome analysis was performed in separated blood lymphocytes of 39 family members of different ages from either high background radiation area (HBRA) or control area (CA). Individual cumulative doses ranged from 23.9-261.3 and 5.2-29.8 mGy for HBRA and CA, respectively. A total of about 100,000 cells were scored and dicentric and ring chromosome (dic + Rc) aberrations recorded. Results: In the case of HBRA, individual chromosome aberration frequencies increased with age within each family. The increasing trend was in general not significantly different among families. The increase in individual aberration was closely correlated with age and cumulative dose. Age-and dose-effect relationship fit well the linear equation: Y = 0.0448X + 0.4913 (R 2 = 0.7814) for age and Y 0.0156X + 0.5715 (R 2 = 0.7061) for cumulative dose, respectively. In the case of CA, there was no significant difference in aberration yields among individuals of different ages, and the group mean aberration frequency was 1.24 +- 0.69 x 10 -3 . Conclusions: Dic and Rc can continuously accumulate over a lifetime chronic low dose exposures, and can serve as a reliable biological indicator. However, the ultimate sensitivity is about 50 mGy

  11. Simulating the production and dispersion of environmental pollutants in aerosol phase in an urban area of great historical and cultural value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librando, Vito; Tringali, Giuseppe; Calastrini, Francesca; Gualtieri, Giovanni

    2009-11-01

    Mathematical models were developed to simulate the production and dispersion of aerosol phase atmospheric pollutants which are the main cause of the deterioration of monuments of great historical and cultural value. This work focuses on Particulate Matter (PM) considered the primary cause of monument darkening. Road traffic is the greatest contributor to PM in urban areas. Specific emission and dispersion models were used to study typical urban configurations. The area selected for this study was the city of Florence, a suitable test bench considering the magnitude of architectural heritage together with the remarkable effect of the PM pollution from road traffic. The COPERT model, to calculate emissions, and the street canyon model coupled with the CALINE model, to simulate pollutant dispersion, were used. The PM concentrations estimated by the models were compared to actual PM concentration measurements, as well as related to the trend of some meteorological variables. The results obtained may be defined as very encouraging even the models correlated poorly: the estimated concentration trends as daily averages moderately reproduce the same trends of the measured values.

  12. Software Development for Estimating the Conversion Factor (K-Factor) at Suitable Scan Areas, Relating the Dose Length Product to the Effective Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Suzuki, Syouichi; Koshida, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Haba, Tomonobu; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kato, Ryouichi

    2017-05-01

    We developed a k-factor-creator software (kFC) that provides the k-factor for CT examination in an arbitrary scan area. It provides the k-factor from the effective dose and dose-length product by Imaging Performance Assessment of CT scanners and CT-EXPO. To assess the reliability, we compared the kFC-evaluated k-factors with those of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 102. To confirm the utility, the effective dose determined by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) was evaluated by a phantom study and k-factor studies. In the CCTA, the effective doses were 5.28 mSv in the phantom study, 2.57 mSv (51%) in the k-factor of ICRP, and 5.26 mSv (1%) in the k-factor of the kFC. Effective doses can be determined from the kFC-evaluated k-factors in suitable scan areas. Therefore, we speculate that the flexible k-factor is useful in clinical practice, because CT examinations are performed in various scan regions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Yearly variation of bacterial production in the Arraial do Cabo protection area (Cabo Frio upwelling region): an evidence of anthropogenic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Souza, Sérgio A; Pereira, Gilberto C; Coutinho, Ricardo; Guimarães, Jean R D

    2013-12-01

    Arraial do Cabo is where upwelling occurs more intensively on the Brazilian coast. Although it is a protection area it suffers anthropogenic pressure such as harbor activities and sporadic sewage emissions. Short-time studies showed a high variability of bacterial production (BP) in this region but none of them evaluated BP during long periods in a large spatial scale including stations under different natural (upwelling and cold fronts) and anthropogenic pressures. During 2006, we sampled surface waters 10 times (5 in upwelling and 5 in subsidence periods) in 8 stations and we measured BP, temperature as well as the concentrations of inorganic nutrients, pigments and particulate organic matter (POM). BP was up to 400 times higher when sewage emissions were observed visually and it had a positive correlation with ammonia concentrations. Therefore, in 2007, we did two samples (each during upwelling and subsidence periods) during sewage emissions in five stations under different anthropogenic pressure and we also measured particles abundance by flow cytometry. The 12 samples in the most impacted area confirmed that BP was highest when ammonia was higher than 2 μM, also reporting the highest concentrations of chlorophyll a and suspended particles. However, considering all measured variables, upwelling was the main disturbing factor but the pressure of fronts should not be neglected since it had consequences in the auto-heterotrophic coupling, increasing the concentrations of non fluorescent particles and POM. Stations clustered in function of natural and anthropogenic pressures degrees and both determined the temporal-spatial variability.

  14. Software development for estimating the conversion factor (k-factor) at suitable scan areas, relating the dose length product to the effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Syouichi; Kato, Ryouichi; Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Haba, Tomonobu; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We developed a k-factor-creator software (kFC) that provides the k-factor for CT examination in an arbitrary scan area. It provides the k-factor from the effective dose and dose-length product by Imaging Performance Assessment of CT scanners and CT-EXPO. To assess the reliability, we compared the kFC-evaluated k-factors with those of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 102. To confirm the utility, the effective dose determined by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) was evaluated by a phantom study and k-factor studies. In the CCTA, the effective doses were 5.28 mSv in the phantom study, 2.57 mSv (51%) in the k-factor of ICRP, and 5.26 mSv (1%) in the k-factor of the kFC. Effective doses can be determined from the kFC-evaluated k-factors in suitable scan areas. Therefore, we speculate that the flexible k-factor is useful in clinical practice, because CT examinations are performed in various scan regions. (authors)

  15. Time lapse survey plan on the first offshore methane hydrate production test in 2013 around the eastern Nankai Trough area by multi-component OBC seismic tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, T.; Hayashi, T.; Asakawa, E.; Takahashi, H.; Saeki, T.

    2011-12-01

    We are planning to conduct the multi-component ocean bottom cable (hereafter OBC) seismic survey to monitor the methane hydrate dissociation zone at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan, in 2013. We conducted the first OBC survey in the methane hydrate concentrated zone around the eastern Nankai Trough area in 2006 by RSCS which we developed. We obtained to the good image of methane hydrate bearing layer by P-P section as similar as the conventional surface seismic survey. However, we could not obtain the good image from P-S section compared with P-P section. On the other hand, we studied the sonic velocity distribution at the Mallik 2nd production test before and after in 2007, by the sonic tool data. We could clearly delineate the decrease of S-wave velocity, however, we could not detect the decrease of P-wave velocity because of the presence of the dissociated methane gas from methane hydrate. From these reason we guess the S-wave data is more proper to delineate the condition of the methane hydrate zone at the methane hydrate production tests than P-wave data. We are now developing the new OBC system, which we call Deep-sea Seismic System (hereafter DSS). The sensor of the DSS will install three accelerometers and one hydrophone. A feasibility study to detect the methane hydrate dissociation with the DSS was carried out and we found that the methane hydrate dissociation could be detected with the DSS depending on the zone of the dissociation. And the baseline survey will be held at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in summer 2012. Two monitoring surveys are planned after the methane hydrate production test in 2013. We believe that we will get the good images to delineate the methane hydrate dissociated zone from this time lapse survey. The Authors would like to thank METI, MH21 consortium and JOGMEC for permissions to publish this paper.

  16. Effect of Different Mulches under Rainfall Concentration System on Corn Production in the Semi-arid Areas of the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoli; Guo, Jingjing; Jia, Zhikuan

    2016-01-01

    The ridge and furrow farming system for rainfall concentration (RC) has gradually been popularized to improve the water availability for crops and to increase the water use efficiency (WUE), thereby stabilizing high yields. In the RC system, plastic-covered ridges are rainfall harvesting zones and furrows are planting zones. In this study, we optimized the mulching patterns for RC planting to mitigate the risks of drought during crop production in semi-arid agricultural areas. We conducted a four-year field study to determine the effects on corn production of mulching with 0.08-mm plastic film, maize straw, 8% biodegradable film, liquid film, bare furrow, and conventional flat (CF) farming. We found that RC significantly increased (P > 0.05) the soil moisture storage in the top 0-100 cm layer and the topsoil temperature (0-10 cm) during the corn-growing season. Combining RC with mulching further improved the rain-harvesting, moisture-retaining, and yield-increasing effects in furrows. Compared with CF, the four-year average yield increased by 1497.1 kg ha-1 to 2937.3 kg ha-1 using RC with mulch treatments and the WUE increased by 2.3 kg ha-1 mm-1 to 5.1 kg ha-1 mm-1.

  17. PAH assessment in the main Brazilian offshore oil and gas production area using semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD) and transplanted bivalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    André Lourenço, Rafael; Francisco de Oliveira, Fábio; Haddad Nudi, Adriana; Rebello Wagener, Ângela de Luca; Guadalupe Meniconi, Maria de Fátima; Francioni, Eleine

    2015-06-01

    The Campos Basin is Brazil's main oil and gas production area. In 2013, more than 50 million cubic meters of produced water (PW) was discharged into these offshore waters. Despite the large volumes of PW that are discharged in the Campos Basin each day, the ecological concern of the chemicals in the PW are not completely understood. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are the most important contributors to the ecological hazards that are posed by discharged PW. This study aimed to evaluate the potential bioaccumulation of PAH using transplanted bivalves (Nodipecten nodosus) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD). The study was conducted in two platforms that discharge PW (P19 and P40). Another platform that does not discharge PW (P25) was investigated for comparison with the obtained results. Time-integrated hydrocarbon concentrations using SPMD and transplanted bivalves were estimated from the seawater near the three platforms. The bioaccumulation of the PAH in the transplanted bivalves at platforms P19 and P40 were up to fivefold greater than the bioaccumulation of the PAH at platform P25. The lowest PAH concentrations were estimated for platform P25 (4.3-6.2 ng L-1), and the highest PAH concentrations were estimated for platform P19 (9.2-37.3 ng L-1). Both techniques were effective for determining the bioavailability of the PAH and for providing time-integrated hydrocarbon concentrations regarding oil and gas production activities.

  18. Comparative assessment of geo dynamics processes of oil and gas production areas at the west and east boards of the south-Caspian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhardecki, A.V; Zhukov, V.S; Poloudin, G.A

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Alpine geosynclinals s belt including fold mountains up Carpathian and Crimea Mountainous to Copetdag and Pamirs divided to two unequal parts by the South-Caspian depression.Ashgabadian depression at the east side and Kyrian depression extends and get deeper at the east direction and transforms to South-Caspian depression. Large in number of oil and gas deposits and fields are situated at the areas of this depressions on the west and east boards of the South Caspian. They have a many common characteristics. They are:1.Anticline highs are form tectonic structure like a line. Lines was branching, anticline highs are shingling.2.Red color reservoir of the depression at the east board and production reservoir at the west board of the depression are the main oil and gas containing reservoirs and are stratigraphic analogy of the middle Pliocene age.3.Both side of the depression are areas of the diapiric folding and mud volcanic activity. 4.The intensive seismic activity.5 Marine gryphons, island and sandbank sometime appear and disappear at the littoral area. 6.The Caspian Sea level has quick changes at the geological history and present time.Thus, it is possible to mark two main factors of activation of the geo dynamic processes. First deformation terrestrial surface, and second -induced seismic activity. Comparing above mentioned data on western and east it is visible to boards of the South-Caspian hollow, that for want of availability of the large number identical tectonic of features there are essential distinctions in a character of induced geo dynamic activity. In the long term, in accordance with me development of oil deposits, it is possible to expect manifestation of both factors of activation of geo dynamic processes on both boards of the South-Caspian hollow

  19. Dose levels from thoracic and pelvic examinations in two pediatric radiological departments in Norway - a comparison study of dose-area product and radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjernlie Saether, Hilde; Traegde Martinsen, Anne Catrine; Lagesen, Bente; Platou Holsen, Eva; Oevreboe, Kirsti Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pediatric doses expressed in dose-area product (DAP) can be retrieved from only a few publications; most of which correlate DAP to patient size or large age spans. In clinical practice age is often the only available parameter describing the patient, and thus, evaluation of dose levels in pediatric radiology on the basis of DAP related to age alone would be useful in optimization work. Purpose: To provide comparable data on age-related DAP from thoracic and pelvic radiological examinations of children, and evaluate the usefulness of comparing age-related DAP and radiographic technique between systems to identify areas with potential for optimization. Material and Methods: DAP, age, and radiographic technique were registered for 575 thoracic examinations and 371 pelvic examinations of children from newborn up to 14 years of age in groups with an age span of 1 year, performed with two digital flat-panel systems and one computed radiography system. Results: DAP varies from 2.2 to 54.0 mGycm2 for thoracic examinations, and from 4.6 to 532.5 mGycm2 for pelvic examinations. There are significant differences in DAP between systems and departments due to differences in technique, equipment, and staff. Conclusion: This study provides comparable data on age-related DAP from thoracic and pelvic radiological ex