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Sample records for pink tomatoes deregulated

  1. Biochemical and molecular analysis of pink tomatoes: deregulated expression of the gene encoding transcription factor SlMYB12 leads to pink tomato fruit colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballester, A.R.; Molthoff, J.W.; Vos, de C.H.; Lintel Hekkert, B.; Orzaez, D.; Fernandez-Moreno, J.P.; Tripodi, S.; Grandillo, S.; Martin, C.; Heldens, J.; Ykema, M.; Granell, A.; Bovy, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines

  2. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-11-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P emulsions than in control. Overall, incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp improved the visual colour and odour scores of raw pork emulsion. These results indicated that tomato products and guava pulp can be utilized as sources of natural antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

  3. PINK TOMATO CETUS F1 – PROSPECTS OF THE RUSSIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Barbaritskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pink tomato due to their high taste quality is particularly important crop for consumers in Russia. Pink tomato seeds become more popular in the market every year. Breeders have accomplished to combine high fruit taste quality with good transportation abilities and fruit denseness. One of the latest breeding achievement is Cetus F1. A successful combination of good fruit taste with transportability and yield makes this variety a potential leader in Russian market. This is confirmed by growers' trials in various regions of South of Russia. 

  4. I-ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. "PINK TOMATO. PRODUCTION. CONSUMPTION. MARKET TRENDS IN CENTRAL ASIA».

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Alimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 28 May 2015, in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, the Ist International conference "Pink tomato. Production, consumption, market trends" was held. The problems of breedong, seed production of cultivars and hybrids of pink tomato, as well as increasing of consumer's demand have been considered. The conference has provided good opportunity for meetings of producers, breeders, and researchers from different countries.

  5. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K.; Biswas, Ashim K.; Sahoo, Jhari

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P 

  6. Control of wilt and rot pathogens of tomato by antagonistic pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic Delftia lacustris and Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeranan Janahiraman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the biocontrol potential of pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM bacteria other than the genus Methylobacterium are scarce. In the present study, we report three facultative methylotrophic isolates; PPO-1, PPT-1 and PPB-1, respectively identified as Delftia lacustris, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Hemolytic activity was tested to investigate the potential pathogenicity of isolates to plants and humans, the results indicates that the isolates PPO-1, PPT-1 and PPB-1 are not pathogenic strains. Under in vitro conditions, D. lacustris PPO-1, B. subtilis PPT-1 and B. cereus PPB-1 showed direct antagonistic effect by inhibiting the mycelial growth of fungal pathogens; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (2.15, 2.05 and 1.95 cm, Sclerotium rolfsii (2.14, 2.04 and1.94 cm, Pythium ultimum (2.12, 2.02 and 1.92cm, and Rhizoctonia solani (2.18, 2.08 and 1.98 cm and also produced volatile inhibitory compounds. Under plant growth chamber condition methylotrophic bacterial isolates; D. lacustris PPO-1, B. subtilis PPT-1 and B. cereus PPB-1 significantly reduced the disease incidence of tomato. Under greenhouse condition, D. lacustris PPO-1, B. subtilis PPT-1 and B. cereus PPB-1 inoculated tomato plants, when challenged with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, S. rolfsii, P. ultimum and R. solani, increased the pathogenesis related proteins (β-1, 3-glucanase and chitinase and defense enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and catalase on day 5 after inoculation. In the current study, we first report the facultative methylotrophy in pink pigmented Delftia lacustris, B. subtilis, and B. cereus and their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens. Direct antagonistic and ISR effects of these isolates against fungal pathogens of tomato evidenced their possible use as a biocontrol agent.

  7. Characterization of a New Pink-Fruited Tomato Mutant Results in the Identification of a Null Allele of the SlMYB12 Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Tzfadia, Oren; Forment, Javier; Presa, Silvia; Rogachev, Ilana; Meir, Sagit; Orzaez, Diego; Aharoni, Aspah; Granell, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The identification and characterization of new tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants affected in fruit pigmentation and nutritional content can provide valuable insights into the underlying biology, as well as a source of new alleles for breeding programs. To date, all characterized pink-pigmented tomato fruit mutants appear to result from low SlMYB12 transcript levels in the fruit skin. Two new mutant lines displaying a pink fruit phenotype (pf1 and pf2) were characterized in this study. In the pf mutants, SlMYB12 transcripts accumulated to wild-type levels but exhibited the same truncation, which resulted in the absence of the essential MYB activation domain coding region. Allelism and complementation tests revealed that both pf mutants were allelic to the y locus and showed the same recessive null allele in homozygosis: Δy A set of molecular and metabolic effects, reminiscent of those observed in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) myb11 myb12 myb111 triple mutant, were found in the tomato Δy mutants. To our knowledge, these have not been described previously, and our data support the idea of their being null mutants, in contrast to previously described transcriptional hypomorphic pink fruit lines. We detected a reduction in the expression of several flavonol glycosides and some associated glycosyl transferases. Transcriptome analysis further revealed that the effects of the pf mutations extended beyond the flavonoid pathway into the interface between primary and secondary metabolism. Finally, screening for Myb-binding sites in the candidate gene promoter sequences revealed that 141 of the 152 co-down-regulated genes may be direct targets of SlMYB12 regulation. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. MicroRNA profiling of tomato leaf curl new delhi virus (tolcndv infected tomato leaves indicates that deregulation of mir159/319 and mir172 might be linked with leaf curl disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Qazi MR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV, a constituent of the genus Begomovirus, infects tomato and other plants with a hallmark disease symptom of upward leaf curling. Since microRNAs (miRs are known to control plants developmental processes, we evaluated the roles of miRNAs in Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV induced leaf curling. Results Microarray analyses of miRNAs, isolated from the leaves of both healthy and ToLCNDV agroinfected tomato cv Pusa Ruby, revealed that ToLCNDV infection significantly deregulated various miRNAs representing ~13 different conserved families (e.g., miR319, miR172, etc.. The precursors of these miRNAs showed similar deregulated patterns, indicating that the transcription regulation of respective miRNA genes was perhaps the cause of deregulation. The expression levels of the miRNA-targeted genes were antagonistic with respect to the amount of corresponding miRNA. Such deregulation was tissue-specific in nature as no analogous misexpression was found in flowers. The accumulation of miR159/319 and miR172 was observed to increase with the days post inoculation (dpi of ToLCNDV agroinfection in tomato cv Pusa Ruby. Similarly, these miRs were also induced in ToLCNDV agroinfected tomato cv JK Asha and chilli plants, both exhibiting leaf curl symptoms. Our results indicate that miR159/319 and miR172 might be associated with leaf curl symptoms. This report raises the possibility of using miRNA(s as potential signature molecules for ToLCNDV infection. Conclusions The expression of several host miRNAs is affected in response to viral infection. The levels of the corresponding pre-miRs and the predicted targets were also deregulated. This change in miRNA expression levels was specific to leaf tissues and observed to be associated with disease progression. Thus, certain host miRs are likely indicator of viral infection and could be potentially employed to develop viral resistance strategies.

  9. Control of Wilt and Rot Pathogens of Tomato by Antagonistic Pink Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophic Delftia lacustris and Bacillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Janahiraman, Veeranan; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon W.; Sundaram, Subbiah; Karthik Pandi, Veeranan; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Kim, Kiyoon; Samaddar, Sandipan; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    The studies on the biocontrol potential of pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria other than the genus Methylobacterium are scarce. In the present study, we report three facultative methylotrophic isolates; PPO-1, PPT-1 and PPB-1, respectively identified as Delftia lacustris, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Hemolytic activity was tested to investigate the potential pathogenicity of isolates to plants and humans, the results indicate...

  10. The Combination of Trichoderma harzianum and Chemical Fertilization Leads to the Deregulation of Phytohormone Networking, Preventing the Adaptive Responses of Tomato Plants to Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M B; Hermosa, Rosa; Vicente, Rubén; Gómez-Acosta, Fabio A; Morcuende, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Bettiol, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved effective mechanisms to avoid or reduce the potential damage caused by abiotic stresses. In addition to biocontrol abilities, Trichoderma genus fungi promote growth and alleviate the adverse effects caused by saline stress in plants. Morphological, physiological, and molecular changes were analyzed in salt-stressed tomato plants grown under greenhouse conditions in order to investigate the effects of chemical and biological fertilizations. The application of Trichoderma harzianum T34 to tomato seeds had very positive effects on plant growth, independently of chemical fertilization. The application of salt stress significantly changed the parameters related to growth and gas-exchange rates in tomato plants subject to chemical fertilization. However, the gas-exchange parameters were not affected in unfertilized plants under the same moderate saline stress. The combined application of T34 and salt significantly reduced the fresh and dry weights of NPK-fertilized plants, while the opposite effects were detected when no chemical fertilization was applied. Decaying symptoms were observed in salt-stressed and chemically fertilized plants previously treated with T34. This damaged phenotype was linked to significantly higher intercellular CO 2 and slight increases in stomatal conductance and transpiration, and to the deregulation of phytohormone networking in terms of significantly lower expression levels of the salt overlay sensitivity 1 ( SOS1 ) gene, and the genes involved in signaling abscisic acid-, ethylene-, and salicylic acid-dependent pathways and ROS production, in comparison with those observed in salt-challenged NPK-fertilized plants.

  11. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  12. Electrical deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.

    2001-01-01

    Deregulation in the electricity sector took effect on January 1, 2001 in Alberta. Business consumers discovered that their electricity rates had almost doubled in a one-month period. The government argued that it was the case of short term pain for long term gain. The intent of the deregulation is the lowering of prices through competition. This principle applies when the supply meets the demand, but when the demand exceeds the supply, prices increase. When initial plans were made for the deregulation of the sector, utilities did not invest huge amounts of capital to build new generation plants, as it was not known how they would fare in the deregulated environment. This situation was compounded by the fact that there was an economic boom around the same time in Alberta, adding to the demands made on the existing generation infrastructure (approximately 4 per cent per year over the past decade). At the moment, some resource developers such as Syncrude, Amoco, and Daishowa produce their own electricity and export their excess capacity to the provincial grid for general use. The rules of the deregulated market have been clarified and a number of utilities are planning new generation plants and facilities. TransAlta, EPCOR, and Enmax Corp. have announced plans to expand or build new coal-fired plants. Alberta has an estimated 35 billion tonnes of recoverable coal, and 25 million tonnes of coal were used in 1999 to produce 75 per cent of the electricity required in Alberta. Over the next ten years, 4,000 megawatts of new capacity is planned, representing a 50 per cent increase over current levels. AES Corporation, a Virginia power giant, has also announced plans to build a generator in Alberta

  13. Telecommunications Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry A. Hausman; William E. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    From Fred Kahn's writings and experiences as a telecommunications regulator and commenter, we draw the following conclusions: prices must be informed by costs; costs are actual incremental costs; costs and prices are an outcome of a Schumpeterian competitive process, not the starting point; excluding incumbents from markets is fundamentally anticompetitive; and a regulatory transition to deregulation entails propensities to micromanage the process to generate preferred outcomes, visible compe...

  14. Pink urine syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis del Carpio-Orantes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present images we allude to a syndrome of low incidence, characterized by pink urine, being related to factors such as obesity, and being triggered by abdominal surgeries, use of propofol, among others. Being favoured by the presence of abundant crystals of uric acid in the urine confers the typical pink coloration.

  15. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or child care if you're not able to take time off — just stay consistent in practicing good hygiene. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria normally present in the mother's birth canal. ...

  16. An Update on the Health Effects of Tomato Lycopene

    OpenAIRE

    Story, Erica N.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Harris, G. Keith

    2010-01-01

    Lycopene is a non-provitamin A carotenoid that is responsible for the red to pink colors seen in tomatoes, pink grapefruit, and other foods. Processed tomato products are the primary dietary lycopene source in the United States. Unlike many other natural compounds, lycopene is generally stable to processing when present in the plant tissue matrix. Recently, lycopene has also been studied in relation to its potential health effects. Although promising data from epidemiological, as well as cell...

  17. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.

  18. Pink-line syndrome

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran J.; Raghukumar, C.; Manikandan, B.

    , a physiological crisis in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea. Marine biology 149: 347-356 7. Ravindran J, Raghukumar C (2006a) Histological observations on the scleractinian coral Porites lutea affected by pink-line syndrome. Current science... handbook: guidelines for assessment and monitoring. Currie Communications, Melbourne, Australia, 94p+App 10. Vargas-Angel B, Wheeler B (2009) Coral health and disease assessment in the US Pacific territories and affiliated states. Proc. 11th Coral Reef...

  19. Costs of electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; King, M.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed efforts throughout the world to deregulate the electricity industry, with varied results. While there have been a few qualified success stories, many challenges of deregulation have come to light. These challenges can lead to negative, even disastrous, outcomes. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this paper catalogues problems experienced in various deregulation efforts, and considers the application of the lessons learned from this history to Israel, which is considering deregulation. Failings of deregulation are found to center around the following problems: high set-up cost; complicated market design; inevitable spot price volatility; market power abuse; inefficient investment; difficulty in reducing generation cost; dysfunctional input markets; stranded cost; unequal distribution of benefits. We find that many of these problems are exacerbated by the particular circumstances faced by Israel, and advise any country or region considering deregulation to carefully consider these obstacles to success. (author)

  20. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-12

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.  Created: 10/12/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/13/2010.

  1. Pink electrons, anyone?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaughey, John.

    1997-01-01

    The deregulated electric power industry in the United States is undergoing a radical change in marketing emphasis more familiar to consumers of branded products such as soft drinks. In attempts to woo customers from other companies, utilities are beginning to market a ''company image'' offering lower prices, better products (i.e. other household services such as telephone and cable television) and improved provision levels of customer services. The price of the product, in this case electric power, has been shown to be much more likely to persuade a consumer to shift supplier than any existing level of customer satisfaction. (UK)

  2. Gamma-irradiation of tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Todorov, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of gamma-ray on tomatoes picked in a pink-red ripening stage, good for consumption, is studied. For that purpose tomatoes of ''Pioneer 2'' variety packed in perforated 500 g plastic bags were irradiated on a gamma device (Cobalt-60) at a dose power of 1900 rad/min with doses 200 or 300 krad. Samples were stored after irradiation at room temperature (20 - 22sup(o)C). Microbiological studies demonstrated that 44 resp. 99.96 per cent of the initial number of microorganisms was destroyed after irradiation with 200 resp. 300 krad. The time required for the number of microorganisms to be restored was accordingly increased. Irradiation delayed tomato ripening by 4 to 6 days, demonstrable by the reduced content of the basic staining substances - carotene and licopine. Immediately after irradiation the ascorbic acid content was reduced by an average of 13 per cent. After 18 days the amount of ascorbic acid in irradiated tomatoes was increased to a higher than the starting level, this is attributed to reductone formation during irradiation. The elevated total sugar content shown to be invert sugar was due to further tomato ripening. (Ch.K.)

  3. Power deregulation in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurchy, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    The impacts of deregulation of the electric power industry in Alberta from the perspective of the natural gas industry was presented with special focus on how the power market can be brought back into balance. The issue of what impacts the deregulated power market will have on natural gas consumption or prices was also reviewed. It was noted that deregulation of the electric power industry will have a definite impact on natural gas consumption but no significant impact on prices. It is estimated that in 1999/2000 gas demand will be 90 million cf/day for incremental electricity generation. However, as long as pipe capacity out of the province exits, this increase in natural gas demand in Alberta is not expected to affect gas prices

  4. PINK1-Interacting Proteins: Proteomic Analysis of Overexpressed PINK1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Rakovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent publications suggest that the Parkinson's disease- (PD- related PINK1/Parkin pathway promotes elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. We used tandem affinity purification (TAP, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry as a first step towards identification of possible substrates for PINK1. The cellular abundance of selected identified interactors was investigated by Western blotting. Furthermore, one candidate gene was sequenced in 46 patients with atypical PD. In addition to two known binding partners (HSP90, CDC37, 12 proteins were identified using the TAP assay; four of which are mitochondrially localized (GRP75, HSP60, LRPPRC, and TUFM. Western blot analysis showed no differences in cellular abundance of these proteins comparing PINK1 mutant and control fibroblasts. When sequencing LRPPRC, four exonic synonymous changes and 20 polymorphisms in noncoding regions were detected. Our study provides a list of putative PINK1 binding partners, confirming previously described interactions, but also introducing novel mitochondrial proteins as potential components of the PINK1/Parkin mitophagy pathway.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on storage time of tomatoes in three different stages of ripending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbek, N.; Ozbilgin, S.; Aysan, P.; Celen, H.

    1985-01-01

    Effect of g-irradiation on storage time of tomatoes was studied and tomatoes of Diego variety in three different stages of ripening were used for the experiment. Green-mature tomatoes were treated with 100 and 200 krad, pink (half-mature) tomatoes were treated with 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 krad doses of gamma rays respectively. After irradiation the tomatoes were stored in a room where the temperature was kept at 22 C with a humidity of 65%. During storage period color changes, softening, spoilage and molding of the fruits were controlled daily, weight loss measurements and all necessary chemical analysis were made periodically. (author)

  6. Natural gas and deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    2001-01-01

    The gas market is progressively moving towards new organizations under the effect of the deregulation initiated in the United States, the United Kingdom and transposed to other countries, particularly in Europe, at least for the member countries of the European union. Within the framework provided by this overall trend, Cedigaz proposes this study in order to describe the main developments affecting these markets on account of deregulation. This report is structured on the basis of three main topics (market organization, marketing modes, pricing) which appear to be the most cogent in terms of deregulation. This grouping by major topics accordingly offers a relatively synthetic view of the main trends which could be observed on the European market, for example. Our analysis is largely based on the example of the American market and, to a lesser extent, on the British situation. Whenever possible, concrete examples are provided for a closer understanding of this complex subject. On the whole, deregulation is not a frozen process, but has to adapt permanently to developments in a market stage-managed by politics, the regulator and the industrial players. This obviously means a dynamic and constantly evolving process, making it a highly complex process. This report aims to shed some light on the subject. (author)

  7. Airline Deregulation and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven A.; Winston, Clifford

    1989-08-01

    An assessment of the effects of airline deregulation on travelers and carriers indicates that deregulation has provided travelers and carriers with 14.9 billion of annual benefits (1988 dollars). Airport congestion, airline safety, airline bankruptcy, and mergers are also analyzed and found in most cases to have reduced benefits. But, these costs should not be attributed to deregulation per se, but to failures by the government to pursue appropriate policies in these areas. Pursuit of policies that promote airline competition and efficient use of airport capacity would significantly increase the benefits from deregulation and would provide valuable guidance for other industries undergoing the transition to deregulation.

  8. Regulating deregulated energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The North American gas and electricity markets are fast evolving, and regulators are currently faced with a host of issues such as market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, and incentive regulation are surfacing as a result of deregulation. The regulatory environment in Ontario was reviewed by the author. Deregulated markets rule, from commodities to gas and electricity. Additionally, there is an evolution of traditional utility regulation. A look at deregulated markets revealed that there are regulations on boundary conditions on the deregulated market. Under the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), all generators, transmitters, distributors, and retailers of electricity must be licensed. The standard supply service (SSS) offered by electricity distributors and system gas which is still being sold by natural gas distributors continues to be regulated by OEB. One issue that was addressed was separation for revenues and costs of the utility's purchase and sale of gas business, at least for accounting purposes. The next issue discussed was cost of system gas and SSS, followed by timely signals and prudent incurred costs. Historical benefits were reviewed, such as historical commitments to low-cost electricity. Pooling transportation costs, transmission pricing continued, market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, incentive regulation/ performance based regulation (PBR) were all discussed. Price cap on PBR, both partial and comprehensive were looked at. A requirement to review guidelines on cost of capital and an application to extend blanket approval provisions for gas storage were discussed, as they are amongst some of the challenges of the future. Other challenges include revised rules and practice and procedure; practice directions for cost awards, appeals, and other functions; confidentiality guidelines; and refinements to the role of and approaches to alternative dispute resolution. The future role of regulators was examined in light

  9. Electric deregulation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the electric power deregulation activities across Canada, particularly in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, was presented. A central element of the restructuring is creation of a power pool which acts as an open spot market, and a transmission administrator that provides access to the generators, distribution companies, importers and exporters. Load forecasts, average daily load profile and hourly pool prices for TransAlta Corporation were presented as an example. 22 figs

  10. Natural gas deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, M.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of establishing realistic options for deregulation in the natural gas industry, this paper first considers the structural evolution of this industry and evidences how it differs from the petroleum industry with which it exhibits some essential characteristics in common. This comparison is made in order to stress that, contrary to popular belief, that which is without doubt good for the petroleum industry is not necessarily so also for the natural gas industry. The paper concludes with separate analyses of the natural gas markets in the principal industrialized countries. Arguments are provided to show that the 'soft' deregulation option for the natural gas industry is not feasible, and that 'total' deregulation instead, backed by the passing of a suitable package of anti-trust laws 'unbundling' the industry's four major activities, i.e., production, storage, primary and secondary distribution, is the preferable option. The old concept of guaranteed supplies for minor users of natural gas should give way to the laws of supply and demand governing inter-fuel competition ensured through the strict supervision of vigilance committees

  11. Tomato Preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  12. Effect of ionizing radiations on the shelf-life of tomatoes as a function of their ripeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.; Vas, K.

    1974-01-01

    San Marzano tomatoes in three different stages of ripening were treated with 1, 4, 16, 64 and 256 krad doses of gamma rays. Storage temperature was 6-8 0 C, relative humidity 75-85%. Radiation treatment of green and red tomatoes is inexpedient, because the former do not meet the organoleptic requirements while the storage life of the latter is not substantially extended. The spoilage of pink-coloured tomatoes could be delayed by radiation doses of 4,16 and 64 krad, respectively, but higher doses had an unfavourable effect. The rate of weight loss of tomatoes in different stages of maturity can be reduced by irradiation. Radiation treatment softened the texture of the tomato as an immediate effect, but during further storage, this effect diminished. On the basis of spoilage studies irradiation of tomato fruits in the pink-coloured stage of ripeness seems to be promising. (F.J.)

  13. Investigation of Pink Tourmalines by X-ray Fluorescent Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangariyavanich, A.; Na Songkhla, S.; Pimjum, S.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray fluorescent technique has been employed in the study of trace elements in six samples of gamma irradiated pink tourmalines, namely, red-pink (rubellite), light-pink, orange-pink, brownish orange-pink, purple red and purple orange-pink. The analysis of their characteristic X-ray indicated the existence of manganese in all samples. Trace amounts of iron, zinc, lead, bismuth or gallium were also investigated in certain samples. Since these elements were not present in red-pink tourmaline, therefore, we believed that manganese is the major cause of pink color in tourmaline while other elements produce various types of pink color

  14. Effect of edible coatings on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes at different maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Aviña, Jorge E; Villa-Rodríguez, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas, Guadalupe I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    This work evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits (cv. "Grandela"). Carnauba and mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink) over 28 day of storage at 10 °C was evaluated. Bioactive compound and antioxidant activity assays included total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (ASA), lycopene, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%RSA), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). The total phenolic, flavonoid and lycopene contents were significantly lower for coated fruit than control fruits. However, ascorbic acid content was highest in fruits treated with carnauba, followed by mineral oil coating and control fruits. The ORAC values were highest in breaker tomatoes coated with carnauba wax, followed by mineral oil-coated fruits and controls. No significant differences in ORAC values were observed in pink tomatoes. % RSA and TEAC values were higher for controls than for coated fruit. Edible coatings preserve the overall quality of tomatoes during storage without affecting the nutritional quality of fruit. We found that the physiological response to the coatings is in function of the maturity stage of tomatoes. The information obtained in this study support to use of edible coating as a safe and good alternative to preserve tomato quality, and that the changes of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tomato fruits, was not negatively affected. This approach can be used by producers to preserve tomato quality.

  15. The zeatin content of tomatoes as a function of the degree of ripeness, irradiation and storage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.; Voeroes, Zs.

    1975-01-01

    The zeatin content of the San Marzano variety tomatoes was studied as a function of their degree of ripeness (fruitlet, green fruit, pink fruit, red fruit), storage time (at 20-23 deg C and 40-50% RH) and radiation treatment (4 krad). The zeatin content of tomatoes determined by thin-layer chromatography decreased with the advancement of ripening. The zeatin content of freshly picked pink tomatoes increased immediately upon radiation treatment with 4 krad. After 9 day storage the zeatin content of both irradiated and untreated tomato samples decreased during the 9-day storage time. On the 9th day the zeatin content of the irradiated tomatoes was 20% higher than that of the untreated ones. (F.J.)

  16. LICOPENE AND Β-CAROTENE IN TOMATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Kondratieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high antioxidant activity in tomato fruits is caused not only by sufficient content of vitamin C and polyphenols but also the carotenoids and the fat soluble antioxidants. Lycopene and beta-carotene are the main fat-soluble antioxidants, the consumption of which influences positively on human’s health. It is known that tomato fruits are the source of lycopene for human diet, providing up to 85% of the total lycopene in food. The breeding program for tomato cultivars with high content of carotenoids is a very important task for breeders. In our study the content of betacarotene and lycopene was assessed in 18 tomato accessions with red, pink, yellow and orange fruits obtained in Solanaceae Breeding Laboratory at VNIISSOK. All plants were grown in experimental open field in Odintsovo region, Moscow oblast, VNIISSOK. It was revealed that the typical concentration ratio of lycopene to beta-carotene for pink and red fruits was 1.5 to 10.25, but for yellow and orange fruits was 0 to 0.63. Highest ratio was observed in red fruits in line 230-16. The highest lycopene content was found in red fruits of tree type tomato lines 198-16 and 86F1 (11.5 and 8.7 g/100g. respectively. The highest content of betacarotene was in yellow fruits of line 53-16 F1 (4.1 mg/100g and orange fruits of line 184-16 (6.2 mg/100g. All studied accessions with orange fruits had the higher content of beta-carotene than in standard and highest content of lycopene in this group of accessions. Thus, these fruits had the high nutritional value. The balanced content of lycopene and beta-carotene and low acidity in pink and yellow-orange tomato fruits makes these cultivars the most valuable for children’s diet and people with problems of digestive system.

  17. Utility deregulation and AMR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of deregulation on other utilities and services and examines how the electric utilities can avoid the worst of these effects and capitalize of the best aspects of competition in achieving marketing excellence. The article presents deregulation as a customer service and underscores the need for utilities to learn to compete aggressively and intelligently and provide additional services available through technology such as automated meter reading

  18. An Update on the Health Effects of Tomato Lycopene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Erica N.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Lycopene is a non-provitamin A carotenoid that is responsible for the red to pink colors seen in tomatoes, pink grapefruit, and other foods. Processed tomato products are the primary dietary lycopene source in the United States. Unlike many other natural compounds, lycopene is generally stable to processing when present in the plant tissue matrix. Recently, lycopene has also been studied in relation to its potential health effects. Although promising data from epidemiological, as well as cell culture and animal, studies suggest that lycopene and the consumption of lycopene containing foods may affect cancer or cardiovascular disease risk, more clinical trial data is needed to support this hypothesis. In addition, future studies are required to understand the mechanism(s) whereby lycopene or its metabolites are proven to possess biological activity in humans. PMID:22129335

  19. The undertow of deregulation : reregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Alberta, Ontario and New Brunswick each initiated measures to deregulate their electric power industries in order to remain competitive with lower electricity rates in some U.S. states where the industry was also moving towards deregulation. This paper considers how the original sweep of deregulation policy goals succumbed to electricity reregulation policies. The decision by British Columbia to re-examine its deregulation plans in light of the experience in Canada's 3 other province's was also examined. The paper describes the electric power industry from 1900 to 1960s, before the deregulation wave hit the industry. It then proceeds to the 1970s which was marked by the oil embargo. The 1980s saw a new era of policy shifts towards deregulation and privatization activity which was intended to introduce competition into regulated industries. Alberta was the first Canadian province to introduce competition to its electricity industry in an effort to remain competitive with neighbouring U.S. jurisdictions. By the 1990s Ontario's vertically integrated electricity industry was in trouble and recommendations were made to dissolve Ontario's Hydro One monopoly, particularly in power generation. In 1999, New Brunswick restructured its electricity industry to remain competitive with New England's electricity industry. The paper describes the gradual pull back from deregulation by all 3 provinces and the measures taken to impose price controls. Both industry and consumers paid a price for major policy changes. Complete competition in New Brunswick never materialized. It was suggested that controlled competition will likely move the electricity industry in the future. 40 refs

  20. Environmental impact of electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, Joel N.; McAlpin, Maria C.

    2006-01-01

    Restructuring of electric utilities affects environmental quality primarily through its effect on airborne emissions. We examine emissions from 1993 to 2002 and discuss possible explanatory factors. Annual NOx and SO 2 emissions fell nationally, mostly due to decreases in emission limits driven by state and Federal regulations. CO 2 emissions have increased almost proportionately with increased generation. Generation increased more than it would have, partly due to energy efficiency spending reductions that accompanied deregulation. The fuel mix shifted slightly from coal to gas, offsetting some CO 2 emissions increases and contributing to SO 2 and NOx emissions decreases. While the percentage share of generation from renewable sources remained at about 2%, recent and expected future increases in wind generating capacity promise future emissions reductions. Although deregulation lacks clear environmental advantages, the deregulation process creates an opportunity for implementation of state policies to reduce emissions. Regulated and deregulated states with renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have a higher average percent of generation from renewable sources. Average energy efficiency savings are higher in regulated states, but slightly higher in deregulated states with a system benefits charge (SBC) than in regulated states without a SBC

  1. Deregulation - a source of crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haavardstein, Hilde; Sandsmark, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, deregulation has become widespread in many of the worlds power markets. When it is no longer the authorities, but the players in the market who are deciding on investments in new production capacity, on the basis of business economic estimates of profitability, it is important that the external conditions are worked out such that they provide incentives to investments of the right extent and to the right time. Examples from deregulated markets show that the formulation of such external frames has contributed to a tight power balance

  2. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…

  3. Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct Investment In Nigerian Agriculture (1970 -2009): An Econometric Analysis. ... The study showed that foreign exchange and the economic deregulation policy of Nigerian government ...

  4. Energy deregulation: the Vattenfall experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    In 1992, Sweden prepared itself for deregulation by transforming Vattenfall, the country's main supplier of energy, from a public utility into a limited liability company. Vattenfall was still 100% owned by the state, but began to operate as a commercial entity with a separate board of directors. On January 1, 1996, Sweden and Finland deregulated, and the three Nordic countries - Norway, Sweden and Denmark - became a completely open market. Beginning November 1, 1999, Sweden will introduce simplified metering, bringing competition directly to consumers, which represents the purest and most advanced form of electricity competition, forcing Vattenfall and its peers to fight for the loyalty of customers from the smallest retail household upwards. As a central participant in deregulation, Vattenfall was faced with some major challenges. In essence, Vattenfall had to evolve from a parochial Swedish public utility into a pan-European energy services company. The transition was successful and Vattenfall today represents about 20% of Scandinavia's generation capacity, with operations that are about 1/2 the size of those of Ontario Hydro. Vattenfall had to take a number of steps to get ready for a fully competitive retail market. First it established a market oriented group organization based on three units: Vattenfall Electricity Generation, Vattenfall Energy Market, and Vattenfall Electricity Networks and Services. Second it expanded its relationship with its customers. Third it adjusted to the fact that electricity deregulation led to an immediate generation surplus. The main lessons learned from the experience are summarized

  5. Health and pink-collar work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S; Ratcliffe, G; Green, M

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a decline in the manufacturing sector of the UK economy with a corresponding growth of service-orientated pink-collar jobs in some regions. While the health outcomes of white- and blue-collar workers are well-established, less is known about this emerging pink-collar group. To outline the health of pink-collar workers in comparison to their white-collar counterparts across a range of indicators. Area-level percentages for white-, pink- and blue-collar workers were derived from residents' routinely collected employment data in a northern English town. Area-level health data pertaining to male and female life expectancy, respiratory deaths and deaths from cardiovascular and circulatory causes (all age and under 75 years) were obtained from the local authority and public health observatory. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess relationships between job collar and health. When adjusted for deprivation, areas with higher percentages of pink-collar workers experienced lower rates of death from circulatory disease under the age of 75 in comparison to white-collar workers. Other relationships between collar status and health outcomes were not statistically significant. The reasons underlying the apparent protective effect of pink-collar status for deaths from circulatory disease are uncertain and merit further study. Possibilities include differences in age, exposure to occupational hazards and lifestyle behaviours. Our work has a number of limitations and longitudinal studies with detailed exposure data should assess the long-term health outcomes of these workers using agreed definitions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Deregulation of Lesotho's maize market

    OpenAIRE

    van Schalkwyk, Herman D.; van Zyl, Johan; Botha, P.W.; Bayley, B.

    1997-01-01

    During the past year, there have been major policy reforms in Lesotho and South Africa with respect to maize pricing and marketing. In Lesotho the impact of deregulation on producers, consumers and government revenues was substantially lower than it should have been, and as a result Lesotho was not able to reap the full benefits of these changes. This is partly because information on the changes to the maize marketing system did not reach the potential beneficiaries of the new system. Free an...

  7. Lowering electricity prices through deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Klitgaard; Rekha Reddy

    2000-01-01

    A wave of regulatory reform is now transforming the U.S. electricity industry. As state and federal authorities allow independent power producers to compete with utilities in supplying electricity, consumers are paying close attention to the effects of this change on their energy bills. Although deregulation poses significant structural challenges, the introduction of competitive pressures should ultimately lead to efficiency gains for the industry and cost savings for households and businesses.

  8. Deregulator: Judgment Day for microeconomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The economic theory that motivated the deregulation and privatization of the US electricity industry is seriously flawed in three crucial ways. First, the Marshallian theory of the firm is based on two mathematical errors which, when amended, reverse the accepted welfare rankings of competitive and monopoly industry structures: on the grounds of corrected neoclassical theory, monopoly should be preferred to competition. Second, while proponents of deregulation expected market-clearing equilibrium prices to apply, it is well known that the equilibrium of a system of spot market prices is unstable. This implies that imposing spot market pricing on as basic an industry as electricity is likely to lead to the kind of volatility observed under the deregulation. Third, extensive empirical research has established that on the order of 95% of firms do not produce under conditions of rising marginal cost. Requiring electricity firms to price at marginal cost was therefore likely to lead to bankruptcies, as indeed occurred. The economic preference for marginal cost spot market pricing is therefore theoretically unsound, and it is no wonder that the actual deregulatory experience was as bad as it was. (author)

  9. Deregulator: Judgment Day for microeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, S. [University of Western Sydney, Penrith (Australia). School of Economics and Finance

    2004-09-01

    The economic theory that motivated the deregulation and privatization of the US electricity industry is seriously flawed in three crucial ways. First, the Marshallian theory of the firm is based on two mathematical errors which, when amended, reverse the accepted welfare rankings of competitive and monopoly industry structures: on the grounds of corrected neoclassical theory, monopoly should be preferred to competition. Second, while proponents of deregulation expected market-clearing equilibrium prices to apply, it is well known that the equilibrium of a system of spot market prices is unstable. This implies that imposing spot market pricing on as basic an industry as electricity is likely to lead to the kind of volatility observed under the deregulation. Third, extensive empirical research has established that on the order of 95% of firms do not produce under conditions of rising marginal cost. Requiring electricity firms to price at marginal cost was therefore likely to lead to bankruptcies, as indeed occurred. The economic preference for marginal cost spot market pricing is therefore theoretically unsound, and it is no wonder that the actual deregulatory experience was as bad as it was. (author)

  10. Chum and pink salmon genetics - Genetic and life history variation of southern chum and pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The distribution of genetic and life history variation in chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon in their southern range in North America is key to...

  11. Zesty Tomato Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/zestytomatosoup.html Zesty Tomato Soup To use the sharing features on this page, ... Number of Servings: 4 Not your traditional tomato soup, this quick-cooking dish can be a side ...

  12. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  13. Seeing the World Through "Pink-Colored Glasses": The Link Between Optimism and Pink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalay-Shahin, Lior; Cohen, Allon; Lemberg, Rachel; Harary, Gil; Lobel, Thalma E

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated optimism, which is considered a personality trait, from the grounded cognition perspective. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the association between pink and optimism. In Experiment 1A, 22 undergraduates (10 females; M age  = 23.68) were asked to classify words as optimistic or pessimistic as fast as possible. Half the words were presented in pink and half in black. Experiment 1B (N = 24; 14 females; M age  = 22.82) was identical to 1A except for the color of the words-black and light blue instead of pink-to rule out the possible influence of brightness. Experiment 2 exposed 144 participants (74 females; M age  = 25.18) to pink or yellow and then measured their optimism level. The findings for Experiments 1A and 1B indicated an association between pink and optimism regardless of brightness. Experiment 2 found that mere exposure to pink increased optimism levels for females. These results contribute to the dynamic view of personality, current views on optimism, and the growing literature on grounded cognition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Did Globalization Influence Credit Market Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Eppinger, Peter; Potrafke, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether globalization influenced credit market deregulation over the period 1970-2010. Globalization is measured by the KOF indices of globalization. Credit market deregulation is measured by the credit market freedom indicators of the Fraser Institute. The results from both cross-sectional and panel regressions using ordinary least squares indicate a positive correlation between globalization and credit market deregulation. We account for reverse causality by using predicted t...

  15. Product Market Deregulation and Employment Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Senftleben-König, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the short- and medium-term effects of the deregulation of shopopening hours legislation on retail employment in Germany. In 2006, the legislative competence was shifted from the federal to the state level, leading to a gradual deregulation of shop opening restrictions in most of Germany’s sixteen federal states. The paper exploits regional variation in the legislation in order to identify the effect product market deregulation has on retail employment. We find robust e...

  16. Deregulation, a challenge for regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Augustin

    2001-01-01

    Deregulation and competitiveness in the electricity market invites the plant owner/operator to reduce operating cost with a potential reduction in maintenance, degradation of investment in safety, reduction of operating staff and a downgrading in research and development. On the other side, deregulation and competitiveness brings the social and industrial benefit of reducing the electricity cost. Regulatory organisations have to watch that the safety level of the plant does not go beyond the established level, while recognising the benefits of the new situation; therefore they have the moral responsibility of regulating nuclear energy effectively and efficiently and in eliminating unnecessary regulatory burdens. Regulation has evolved with time and in accordance with the knowledge gained from research and the analysis of operating experience. The knowledge gained has made it possible to follow the path of other modern advanced technologies, where risk is quantified and the system approved when the risk becomes lower than an accepted level. The regulatory use of this advanced tool is being now developed by the most advanced regulatory organisations, under the name of risk informed regulation, where the reference level is the expected frequency of core damage. Deregulation and competitiveness will not change the basis of the already well established procedure to verify compliance. Nevertheless, the contents of Safety Analysis Reports and other regulatory documents, such as Technical Specifications for Operation, offer room for improvement in the sense of being more to the roots of the matter and becoming more efficient tools in the verification process. The contents of these documents have been evolving along the time and they have become unnecessary voluminous and rather burdensome. Much work has been done to improve the efficiency of regulatory inspections by concentrating on basic aspects. As a partial application of the already mentioned risk-informed regulation

  17. Deregulation impacts AMR business cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, M.; Fauth, G.

    2001-09-01

    Meter reading strategy is being affected in fundamental ways by deregulation. For the utilities attempting to cope with meter reading unbundling, the processes, insights and general rules that had been developed prior to 2000 in the field of Automatic Meter Reading can no longer be relied upon to provide useful lessons. The fundamental impact on Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) business case drivers and the increasing complexity of building the business case model result from deregulation and unbundling. More and more, management has come to rely on rigorous business case analysis to compensate for the magnitude of AMR projects on the utility and the scarcity of financial resources. One can now expect the Chief Financial Officer and the Vice President Finance to become active players on AMR project teams in the fields of business case scrutiny and approval. Increasingly, the normal expertise of AMR personnel does not suffice to build a business case acceptable to finance. The financial and economic analysis skills required are ever more complex.

  18. Power Buying: Planning For Your Deregulated Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Wayne K.

    1997-01-01

    Colleges and universities can benefit from the coming deregulation of utilities. Deregulation creates opportunity for facility managers to aggressively negotiate agreements, implement changes to the physical plant to make the institution a more attractive customer, and explore new, less expensive energy supply options and alternatives. Some action…

  19. Economic and Environmental Effects of Airline Deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Youdi; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of regulatory reform in the airline industry, in connection with environmental externalities. Deregulation has led to shorter routes, higher frequencies, probably larger aircraft sizes and more intense peak traffic at airports. In addition, deregulation has led to

  20. Deregulation: Implications for Community College Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Louis W.

    1986-01-01

    Looks at the ways in which the deregulation of business and industry may affect community colleges in the years ahead, using the banking industry as an illustration. Argues that the deregulation of higher education requires that community college leadership programs examine past assumptions and develop new strategies. (LAL)

  1. The rise and fall of pink disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dally, A

    1997-08-01

    This paper explores the social and medical history and context of pink disease (acrodynia), a serious disease of infants and young children that baffled the medical world during the first half of the twentieth century until it was shown to be caused by mercury poisoning. In the English-speaking world the commonest source of the mercury was teething powders, which were widely available and advertised with increasing sophistication. Efforts to control them (such as the BMJ's campaign against 'Secret Remedies') were as yet unsuccessful. The article discusses the social conditions that influenced the existence and recognition of pink disease, the delay in finding its cause, the way in which it was explained as a virus infection or nutritional deficiency and why it seldom occurred outside the teething period. It discusses both professional and lay attitudes to health and diseases during the early twentieth century and provides a model of how the disease developed in a specific social setting and how the medical profession attempted to deal with it within the limitations of contemporary professional thought. The resistance to the evidence of mercury poisoning is typical of resistance to new medical knowledge and declined only when the opponents and sceptics grew old and disappeared from the scene. Meanwhile, the cause having been identified and accepted, pink disease disappeared, but its consequences emerged much later, in an unexpected quarter, as a cause of male infertility.

  2. PINK1/Parkin-Dependent Mitochondrial Surveillance: From Pleiotropy to Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Corti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disease caused by the preferential, progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA neurons of the substantia nigra (SN pars compacta. PD is characterized by a multifaceted pathological process involving protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and metabolism deregulation. The molecular mechanisms governing the complex interplay between the different facets of this process are still unknown. PARK2/Parkin and PARK6/PINK1, two genes responsible for familial forms of PD, act as a ubiquitous core signaling pathway, coupling mitochondrial stress to mitochondrial surveillance, by regulating mitochondrial dynamics, the removal of damaged mitochondrial components by mitochondria-derived vesicles, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis. Over the last decade, PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control emerged as a pleiotropic regulatory pathway. Loss of its function impinges on a number of physiological processes suspected to contribute to PD pathogenesis. Its role in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammatory processes stands out, providing compelling support to the contribution of non-cell-autonomous immune mechanisms in PD. In this review, we illustrate the central role of this multifunctional pathway at the crossroads between mitochondrial stress, neuroinflammation and metabolism. We discuss how its dysfunction may contribute to PD pathogenesis and pinpoint major unresolved questions in the field.

  3. Energy deregulation: lessons from the American experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiam, L.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents a brief history of US energy regulation, considers some of the important issues arising from the US experience and finally, suggests some lessons which Australia might draw from the US deregulation of energy industries. 5 refs

  4. Power system deregulation and the Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamochanin, Vlastimir; Stojkovska, Biljana; Cherepnalkoski, Trajche

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show the current state and planned activities of the Power System deregulation and privatization in the following Balkan countries: Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Greece, Croatia, Slovenia and Turkey

  5. Banking deregulation and corporate tax avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill B. Francis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether tax avoidance substitutes for external financing. We exploit interstate banking deregulation as a quasi-external shock to examine whether firms engage in less tax avoidance after banking deregulation, because of cheaper and easier access to credit from banks. We find no empirical evidence to support this substitutive relation, even for firms with higher financial constraints or firms with higher external financing dependence.

  6. Implications of U.S. electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a concise summary of the potential impacts of electric utility deregulation, including the resolution of stranded costs, impact on electricity rates, reformation of utilities, and reshuffling of the nation's fuel portfolio. The national and state implications of the deregulation of the electricity industry are monumental and overwhelming. The implications occur on many fronts, including monetary, quality, reliability, and environmental issues. Many significant changes will occur as a result--some will be positive and others may be more disturbing

  7. Functional genomics of tomato

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... 1Repository of Tomato Genomics Resources, Department of Plant Sciences, School .... Due to its position at the crossroads of Sanger's sequencing .... replacement for the microarray-based expression profiling. .... during RNA fragmentation step prior to library construction, ...... tomato pollen as a test case.

  8. Various Stages of Pink Fungus (Upasia salmonicolor in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarwati Harsojo Tjokrosoedarmo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Pink fungus in Java is classified as Upasia salmonicolor (Basidiomycetes: Corticiaceae and its anamorph is Necator decretus. This fungus is a serious pathogen which attacks many woody plants. The pink fungus in Java exhibits five developmental stages on the surface of the host bark: I. An initial cobweb stage as thin, white, cobweb-like hyphal layer, which creeps over the surface of the bark, during which penetration of the host occurs; II. Pseudonodular stage, as conical white pustules occurring only on lenticels or cracks, and only on shady side of branches; III. Teleomorph, occurs as pink incrustation and pink pustules on shady side of branches; IV. Nodular stages, as globose white pustules occurring chiefly on intact bark, but also on the lenticels or cracks, on exposed side of branches; V. Anamorph, as small orange-red sporodochium, on exposed side of branches. Key words: pink fungus, Corticiaceae, Basidiomycetes, Necator

  9. Consequences of electricity deregulation on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podjavorsek, M.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of deregulation of electricity market started a couple of years ago and has not been finished yet. Deregulation causes increased pressure to reduce the costs of electricity generation. This presents a new challenge to regulatory bodies. They have to assess the impact of these changes on the safety of nuclear power plants. Accordingly, it is important to identify the risks to the nuclear power industry resulting from the deregulation. Today's trend is that the number of electricity generating power companies will be reduced in Europe and also in Slovenia due to tough competition in the electricity market. The electricity price has decreased after the introduction of the deregulated market in most countries. This has been also the main reason for less investment to new generating capacities since the price has been lower than the generation costs. Investment problems are also present for the existing units, because of danger of inappropriate maintenance and reduction of the number of staff and their qualifications below the desired level that leads to loss of institutional memory. It is expected that only the biggest companies can stand the consequences of competition in electricity prices and consequential pressure to reduce the cost. In order to review the impact of deregulation of the electricity market some relevant points are discussed in this paper such as the need to cut costs of companies by reducing the number of their activities and increasing the efficiency in the remaining activities and /or outsourcing of activities, power station operating regime, safety culture, grid reliability, reliability and safety of operation, increased number of transients, ageing of components, outage duration, extended cycle and response of nuclear regulators. From a regulatory point of view the impact of deregulation on nuclear safety is an important issue. This paper also discusses analyses and evaluations of this impact and proposes some measures how to

  10. Color compensation in nitrite-reduced meat batters incorporating paprika or tomato paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bázan-Lugo, Eduardo; García-Martínez, Ignacio; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Rosa Hayde; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2012-06-01

    Nitrite is a key ingredient the manufacture of meat products, forming a stable pink color characteristic of cured products, retarding the development of rancidity and off-odors and flavors during storage, and preventing microbial growth. The negative aspects of nitrite and the demands for healthy foods result in the need to reduce nitrite in cured meat products. Paprika or tomato has been employed as natural pigments in meat products. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of incorporating paprika powder or tomato paste on the texture, rancidity and instrumental and sensory color compensation in nitrite-reduced meat batters. Addition of tomato paste improved moisture content, resulting in harder but less cohesive samples as compared to control and paprika-containing meat batters. Color characteristics of reduced nitrite samples obtained higher a* red coloration (8.9 for paprika and 7.7-8.0 for tomato paste), as compared to control samples (5.65). Instrumental color was low in control samples, with high values for tomato paste and paprika samples. Nonetheless, tomato paste used to compensate color in nitrite-reduced meat batters was ranked closer to the control sample in sensory evaluation. Color characteristics-instrumental and sensory-in these kinds of meat products were enhanced by the addition of 2.5-3.0% of tomato paste, presenting results close to the non-reduced nitrite control. Similarly, antioxidant components of tomato paste or paprika reduced lipid oxidation. Nitrite reduction from 150 to 100 ppm could be achieved employing tomato paste as a natural pigment to improve color and texture. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tomatoes. (a) Identity—(1) Description. (i) Canned tomatoes is the food prepared from mature tomatoes...). Without shifting the tomatoes, so incline the sieve as to facilitate drainage of the liquid. Two minutes...

  12. Deregulating electricity in the American states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbush, Thomas Lee

    This dissertation develops nine stylized facts that summarize the major consequences of deregulation and tests these against recent experience in the electric utility industry. The experience of the electric utility industry matches the predictions of the stylized facts, except in one instance: although real electricity prices fell between 1982 and 1999, real prices fell less in states that deregulated. This dissertation presents three possible explanations for this discrepancy. First, through dynamic efficiency, consumers may benefit in the long run through lower rates and better service in the electricity market, or deregulation may be a public good that benefits electricity consumers through economy-wide improvements in efficiency. Second, higher prices may be a long-run outcome as predicted by the theory of the second best. Or third, both regulators and utilities may use deregulation to generate new rents. Because the original rents from regulation had dissipated, new rents could be generated under deregulation by making consumers pay off the utilities and then creating more new rents through re-regulation of the industry. Close examination tends to support the first and third explanations, although the second-best explanation cannot yet be ruled out completely. Higher prices appear to be a transitional phenomenon, resulting from a short-term payoff from consumers to incumbent utilities that was required to move deregulation forward. This payoff occurs as residential and commercial consumers bear relatively higher rates over three to five years to compensate utilities for stranded costs, investments thought to be unrecoverable under full competition. All states are benefiting from deregulation, but states that are deregulating are benefiting less while stranded costs are being recovered. This dissertation also examines California electricity deregulation and finds that the experience in California conforms with to the stylized facts, and that certain structural

  13. Deregulated power prices: comparison of diurnal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Li; Flynn, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    We examine electrical power price, and in particular its daily and average weekday vs. weekend pattern of change, for 14 deregulated markets. Power price in deregulated markets shows fundamentally different patterns. North American markets show a monotonic diurnal weekday price pattern, while all other markets studied show more than one price peak. Deregulated power markets differ in maximum vs. minimum daily average price and in average weekday to weekend price, in turn creating a different incentive for a consumer to time shift power consuming activities. Markets differ in the extent to which a small fraction of the days shapes the average diurnal pattern and value of price. Deregulated markets show a wide variation in the correlation between load and price. Some deregulated markets, most notably Britain and Spain, show patterns that are predictable and consistent, and hence that can encourage a customer to shape consumption behaviors. Other markets, for example South Australia, have patterns that are inconsistent and irregular, and hence are hard for a customer to interpret; a customer in such a market will have a higher incentive to escape risk through hedging mechanisms. (Author)

  14. Deregulated power prices: comparison of diurnal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Flynn, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    We examine electrical power price, and in particular its daily and average weekday vs. weekend pattern of change, for 14 deregulated markets. Power price in deregulated markets shows fundamentally different patterns. North American markets show a monotonic diurnal weekday price pattern, while all other markets studied show more than one price peak. Deregulated power markets differ in maximum vs. minimum daily average price and in average weekday to weekend price, in turn creating a different incentive for a consumer to time shift power consuming activities. Markets differ in the extent to which a small fraction of the days shapes the average diurnal pattern and value of price. Deregulated markets show a wide variation in the correlation between load and price. Some deregulated markets, most notably Britain and Spain, show patterns that are predictable and consistent, and hence that can encourage a customer to shape consumption behaviors. Other markets, for example South Australia, have patterns that are inconsistent and irregular, and hence are hard for a customer to interpret; a customer in such a market will have a higher incentive to escape risk through hedging mechanisms

  15. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  16. Transmission planning in a deregulated environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The worldwide trend for the deregulation of the electricity generation and transmission industries has led to dramatic changes in system operation and planning procedures. The optimum approach to transmission-expansion planning in a deregulated environment is an open problem especially when the r...... electricity market grid are performed. In addition, the proposed method is compared with a traditional planning method to further verify its effectiveness....... the responsibilities of the organisations carrying out the planning work need to be addressed. To date there is a consensus that the system operator and network manager perform the expansion planning work in a centralised way. However, with an increasing input from the electricity market, the objectives, constraints...... and approaches toward transmission planning should be carefully designed to ensure system reliability as well as meeting the market requirements. A market-oriented approach for transmission planning in a deregulated environment is proposed. Case studies using the IEEE 14-bus system and the Australian national...

  17. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    bly involved in plant defense responses is synthesized in tomato fruits and subjected to metabo- lism. Its catabolism or .... stored at -20°C. Enzymatic in vitro synthesis of radiolabeled ..... with nematicidal activity from Culture of basidiomycetes.

  18. Electricity deregulation roundup : Ontario prepares for electricity deregulation and anxiously watches impact elsewhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, R.

    2000-01-01

    As the time for deregulation of Ontario's electric power industry approaches, consumers are watching other Canadian and American jurisdictions to see what deregulation will mean in terms of energy costs. Albertans have expressed serious concerns about the impact of deregulating their electric power industry. They found that in the four years since deregulation in their province, electricity prices increased when markets opened to competition. The proposed start date for deregulation in Ontario is November 1, 2000. This paper suggests that if investors don't put out significant resources, problems such as power shortages and brownouts could occur, as was the case in Alberta. Potential investors in the Ontario electricity market are already sceptical because the Ontario government, in an effort to protect consumers from unreasonable price increases, has tabled legislation that restricts the efforts of municipal utility companies to raise distribution rates. One step that will inspire some confidence is the recently finalized deal between Ontario Power Generation and British Energy to operate the Bruce Nuclear Power Station. Independent consultants have warned that electricity prices will continue to increase with deregulation for a least the next few years. Industrial customers will be the hardest hit. In California, America's first deregulated electricity market, the power grid is strained and prices have doubled or tripled in one year

  19. Deregulation of Interferon Signaling in Malignant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas C. Platanias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are a family of cytokines with potent antiproliferative, antiviral, and immunomodulatory properties. Much has been learned about IFNs and IFN-activated signaling cascades over the last 50 years. Due to their potent antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo, recombinant IFNs have been used extensively over the years, alone or in combination with other drugs, for the treatment of various malignancies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on IFN signaling components and pathways that are deregulated in human malignancies. The relevance of deregulation of IFN signaling pathways in defective innate immune surveillance and tumorigenesis are discussed.

  20. A law enforcement perspective of electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Ira

    2006-01-01

    In April 2004, the California Attorney General's (AG) office issued a white paper that provided a 'law enforcement perspective of the California energy crisis.' To complete this special issue's coverage, I summarize three aspects of that paper: notably, the deficiencies in market oversight and enforcement that left the deregulated market prone to potential abuse, the principal modus operandi that some market agents used to exploit those deficiencies without fear of retribution, and the AG's 'recommendations for improving enforcement and protecting consumers in deregulated energy markets.'. (author)

  1. A law enforcement perspective of electricity deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Ira [Warrington College of Business, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7169 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    In April 2004, the California Attorney General's (AG) office issued a white paper that provided a 'law enforcement perspective of the California energy crisis.' To complete this special issue's coverage, I summarize three aspects of that paper: notably, the deficiencies in market oversight and enforcement that left the deregulated market prone to potential abuse, the principal modus operandi that some market agents used to exploit those deficiencies without fear of retribution, and the AG's 'recommendations for improving enforcement and protecting consumers in deregulated energy markets.'. (author)

  2. Cell Cycle Deregulation in Ewing's Sarcoma Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Ashley A.; Randall, R. Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a highly aggressive pediatric tumor of bone that usually contains the characteristic chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12). This translocation encodes the oncogenic fusion protein EWS/FLI, which acts as an aberrant transcription factor to deregulate target genes necessary for oncogenesis. One key feature of oncogenic transformation is dysregulation of cell cycle control. It is therefore likely that EWS/FLI and other cooperating mutations in Ewing's sarcoma modulate the cell cycle to facilitate tumorigenesis. This paper will summarize current published data associated with deregulation of the cell cycle in Ewing's sarcoma and highlight important questions that remain to be answered. PMID:21052502

  3. Cell Cycle Deregulation in Ewing's Sarcoma Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A. Kowalewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma is a highly aggressive pediatric tumor of bone that usually contains the characteristic chromosomal translocation t(11;22(q24;q12. This translocation encodes the oncogenic fusion protein EWS/FLI, which acts as an aberrant transcription factor to deregulate target genes necessary for oncogenesis. One key feature of oncogenic transformation is dysregulation of cell cycle control. It is therefore likely that EWS/FLI and other cooperating mutations in Ewing's sarcoma modulate the cell cycle to facilitate tumorigenesis. This paper will summarize current published data associated with deregulation of the cell cycle in Ewing's sarcoma and highlight important questions that remain to be answered.

  4. Pink Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for PINK SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  5. Electricity utility deregulation in Great Britain: economic and industrial consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we analyze in the first part how was made the deregulation of the public electric utilities in Great Britain and in the second the logic and the contradictions of this deregulation in an industrial point of view

  6. POSTHARVEST FUNGAL DETERIORATION OF TOMATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    commercial food vendors often intentionally use physically damaged tomatoes and ... The production of the bulk of the fresh tomato and. 'tatase' in Nigeria is in ...... mycotoxin contamination of food include but not limited to mycotoxicoses, liver ...

  7. Industrial consumers and electricity sector deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jukic, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the electricity sector deregulation from the point of view of major industrial consumers (MIC). Possibilities and limitations of MIC's impact on the introduction and development of an open power market in some European countries, the USA and Croatia are discussed. (author)

  8. IMPACT OF DEREGULATION ON FINANCIAL SECTOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the efficiency in the allocation of the society's resources, which were not ... financial system so as to make the system operate on the basis of the market ..... cases, the null hypothesis that financial sector deregulation does not granger .... Financial Sector Development and Growth: Evidence from Malaysia, Brookings.

  9. Deregulation of natural gas in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Natural Gas Competition and Deregulation Act of 1997 in Georgia is discussed. New legislation passed the Natural Gas Consumer Relief Act in 2002 legislative session to provide additional protection and increase competition. This Act and its impacts are discussed in detail. Additional commission responsibilities are summarized. (R.P.)

  10. Regulatory concern about economic deregulation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virolainen, R.; Koutaniemi, P.

    2002-01-01

    The deregulation of the electricity market may cause an increased pressure to reduce the costs of electricity generation. This makes a new challenge to the regulatory body to assess the impact of these changes on the safety of nuclear power plants. Accordingly, it is important to identify the risks to the nuclear power industry resulting from the economic deregulation. This paper is to discuss the current situation in Finland with regard to the economic deregulation of the electricity market and the experiences so far. A common view today is that the number of electricity generating power companies will be reduced in Europe because of tough competition in the electricity market. It is expected that only the biggest companies can stand the consequences of tough competition in electricity prices and the consequential pressure to reduce costs. In order to review the impact of deregulation of the electricity market some relevant points have been discussed in this paper such as change of ownership of power companies due to the economic pressure, the need to cut costs of the companies by reducing the number of their activities and increasing the efficiency in the remaining activities and/or outsourcing of activities. The need to pursue reduction or delay of planned investments in safety upgrades are discussed as well. (author)

  11. Regulatory concern about economic deregulation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virolainen, R.; Koutaniemi, P.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation of the electricity market may cause an increased pressure to reduce the costs of electricity generation. This makes a new challenge to the regulatory body to assess the impact of these changes on the safety of nuclear power plants. Accordingly, it is important to identify the risks to the nuclear power industry resulting from the economic deregulation. This paper is to discuss the current situation in Finland with regard to the economic deregulation of the electricity market and the experiences so far. A common view today is that the number of electricity generating power companies will be reduced in Europe because of tough competition in the electricity market. It is expected that only the biggest companies can stand the consequences of tough competition in electricity prices and the consequential pressure to reduce costs. In order to review the impact of deregulation of the electricity market some relevant points have been discussed in this paper, such as change of ownership of power companies due to the economic pressure, the need to cut costs of the companies by reducing the number of their activities and increasing the efficiency in the remaining activities and/or outsourcing of activities. The need to pursue reduction or delay of planned investments in safety upgrades are discussed as well. (author)

  12. Wind power in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravn, Hans F.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes organisational and economic elements related to wind power in a deregulated market, it describes physical and technical characteristics of wind power and it describes how wind power is handled in daily operation as well as on the market. (author)

  13. Energy and the deregulated marketplace 1998 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    In this comprehensive survey of the energy and deregulated marketplace, 911 respondents indicate how deregulation will impact their business. Well organized for easy reference this published survey report provides answers on how companies will procure electricity and natural gas, and what criteria will be used in their decision process. The results presented also illustrate effect of real time pricing on the procurement of energy equipment. Readers will be able to see whether companies are delaying the purchase of energy efficiency equipment as a result of deregulation, as well as what current trends are developing in the use of energy services and performance contracting. The performance and overall cost effectiveness of various types of energy efficient equipment is also rated by respondents, and the results of existing installations is reported. Responses are broken down and can be assessed by respondent categories, including utility, energy supplier, energy user, power marketer, ESCO, equipment supplier, and consultant. This survey report offers a valuable tool for all companies whose business and marketing strategies are impacted by deregulation

  14. Design of reactive power procurement in deregulated electricity market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reactive power management is different in the deregulated electricity market of various countries. In this paper, a novel reactive power procurement model is proposed, which ensure secure and reliable operation of deregulated electricity market. Various issues of reactive power management in the deregulated electricity ...

  15. Deregulation and competition in the electric utility marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of deregulation and competition in the electric utility marketplace as an extension of the deregulation of the airlines, and natural gas, telephone and trucking industries. The topics of the paper include the events and circumstances leading to deregulation, those involved in the competition, and a scenario for how the industry will develop over the next 20 years

  16. Reactor decommissioning in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverridge, George; Cooper, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Deregulation of the electricity markets in North America and Western Europe has had many profound effects on the electric utilities and the nuclear industry. Deregulation has led to cost transparency, increased competition, and a drive by the utilities to reduce costs in order to maintain market share and margins. In the context of this more competitive and dynamic market having a clear picture of decommissioning liabilities and their successful discharge has a material impact on the financial performance of a utility. This paper will summarise BNFL Environmental Services' experience with regard to its experience in both the planning and implementation phases of a reactor decommissioning project. In particular it will demonstrate how commercial projects in crucial areas of strategy development, project implementation and site restoration, can be combined with an approach that is both commercial and innovative to reduce the risks to a utility. This paper sets out to demonstrate this viewpoint. (author)

  17. Deregulation of Electricity Supply Industry in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed S. Al-Maghderi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the opportunities available and the conditions needed for the deregulation of the Electricity Supply Industry (ESI, with particular reference to the Sultanate of Oman. The paper highlights the general issues of regulation required to encourage competition in the ESI.  After that, the discussion focuses on regulation methods in the privatized ESI by describing the regulators control through price caps setting for regulatees, the conduct regulation process, the rate of return regulation setting, and the spot market (the pool contract. Finally, the prospects of restructuring and privatizing the ESI in the Sultanate of Oman are examined by reviewing the current structure of the industry and government objectives in deregulation of the electricity sector as well as the regulation framework.

  18. Utilities' ''obligation to serve'' under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities' franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that's been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions

  19. Gas directive. Which deregulation for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This study deals with the following aspects of natural gas market: deregulation of the French market; status and perspectives of the gas market: overview of the gas supplies in Europe at the 2010/2015 vista; situation of regulations: status of the gas directive at the European level and impact on member states market, transposition of the gas directive in France: present day legislation, main stakes and situation of the dialogue with the actors; consequences and actors' strategy: testimony of suppliers, past and future situation, development of new activities in the gas/power industry, possible contractual evolutions, position of the supplier; testimony of clients: new suppliers, new contracts, new risks; legal stakes for the clients: impact of deregulation on contracts, future contractual organization of the market, evolution of 'take or pay' contracts, impairment of contracts obligations, negotiation of supply contracts. (J.S.)

  20. Network industries deregulation and energy industries reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaporte, P.; Chevalier, J.M.; Bourdaire, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The electric power distribution systems deregulation is going to change the economical and institutional scenery. The empowerment term can be anything but a happy change for the customer by giving him the free choice. But this evolution calls the public power in question again. Meanwhile the government has to remain vigilant and watch over the safety in terms of cartel and environment risk. (A.L.B.)

  1. Energy subsidies in California's electricity market deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritschel, Alexander; Smestad, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation and re-regulation of California's electricity market not only failed in terms of anticipated cost reductions, improved customer service and higher competition, it also led to the introduction of various additional energy subsidies. This paper analyzes California's electricity market deregulation process from a subsidy viewpoint. Under deregulation in California, investor-owned utilities were not allowed to pass their energy procurement costs fully on to their customers, and therefore subsequently, and inevitably, ran into severe financial problems. Such retail price regulation is an energy subsidy that is both economically and environmentally unfavorable, because it veils true price signals to electricity consumers and, in this way, discourages energy conservation. Other policies implemented in California that represent perverse energy subsidies are the purchase of power by the state of California, the suspension of retail competition, and the potential misuse of money from the recovery of stranded costs. Many interventions implemented by the state to smooth out the impacts of the energy crisis insulated electricity consumers from market realities, supported the existing structure of California's electricity market, which is predominantly based on fossil fuels, and suppressed market incentives to improve energy conservation

  2. Deregulated power prices: comparison of volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Flynn, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    We examine electrical power price variability for 14 deregulated markets. Power price volatility is measured by price velocity, the daily average of the absolute value of price change per hour. Deregulated markets show a wide variability in price velocity. Some price velocity is expected and arises from the daily diurnal price pattern, which differs significantly between markets. Even when the expected daily variability in price is removed, the residual unexpected variability differs between markets. Some deregulated markets, most notably Britain and Spain, show patterns that are predictable and consistent and have low values of unexpected price velocity. These markets create a climate conducive to consumers facing the market through real time pricing and shaping consumption behaviors in response to price changes. Other markets, for example, South Australia and Alberta, have patterns that are inconsistent and irregular, and hence are hard for a customer to interpret; a customer in such a market will have a higher incentive to avoid demand side management and escape risk through hedging mechanisms

  3. Gas and electricity 2000: energy deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulot, J.C.; Charbit, N.; Tuot, Th.

    2000-11-01

    This document brings together 17 testimonies of experts about the deregulation of the gas and electricity markets. Content: 1 - the new rules controlling the market: schedule and regulatory evolutions, the new legal framework, the new regulation, the missions and competences of the Commission of Electricity Regulation; 2 - the new commercial practices: the question of electricity transport and of the network independence, the development of trading, the stock exchanges and the forecasting of Paris market, the correlations with the environment (eco-taxes and climate change); 3 - the proposals of new actors: the contribution of a deregulated market like Spain, the comparison with a fully open market like Germany, an internal out-sourcing example to create an energy entity as a whole, the role of a bank in the risk management and the derived markets, the contribution of new technologies from service suppliers; 4 - the consumers attitude with respect to new offers: the historical gas and electricity utilities at the service of French and European clients, the new opportunities offered by the deregulation, the contribution of an independent supplier to consumers, the expectations of big companies and eligible consumers. (J.S.)

  4. Pink line syndrome (PLS) in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

    Reef sites Pink line syndrome (PLS) in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea Accepted: 10 May 2002 / Published online: 5 July 2002 C211 Springer-Verlag 2002 We describe here an unreport- ed diseased state of Porites lutea (Milne-Edwards and Haime...)ontheKavarattireefof the Lakshadweep group of is- lands (11C176 N; 71C176E). Pink line syndrome (PLS) causes partial mortality of the coral P. lutea around Kavaratti Island (Fig. 1), and about 10% of colonies were found to be af- fected by PLS. The dead patches were colonized by a...

  5. Drosophila pink1 is required for mitochondrial function and interacts genetically with parkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ira E; Dodson, Mark W; Jiang, Changan; Cao, Joseph H; Huh, Jun R; Seol, Jae Hong; Yoo, Soon Ji; Hay, Bruce A; Guo, Ming

    2006-06-29

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important trigger for Parkinson's disease-like pathogenesis because exposure to environmental mitochondrial toxins leads to Parkinson's disease-like pathology. Recently, multiple genes mediating familial forms of Parkinson's disease have been identified, including PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1; PARK6) and parkin (PARK2), which are also associated with sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease. PINK1 encodes a putative serine/threonine kinase with a mitochondrial targeting sequence. So far, no in vivo studies have been reported for pink1 in any model system. Here we show that removal of Drosophila PINK1 homologue (CG4523; hereafter called pink1) function results in male sterility, apoptotic muscle degeneration, defects in mitochondrial morphology and increased sensitivity to multiple stresses including oxidative stress. Pink1 localizes to mitochondria, and mitochondrial cristae are fragmented in pink1 mutants. Expression of human PINK1 in the Drosophila testes restores male fertility and normal mitochondrial morphology in a portion of pink1 mutants, demonstrating functional conservation between human and Drosophila Pink1. Loss of Drosophila parkin shows phenotypes similar to loss of pink1 function. Notably, overexpression of parkin rescues the male sterility and mitochondrial morphology defects of pink1 mutants, whereas double mutants removing both pink1 and parkin function show muscle phenotypes identical to those observed in either mutant alone. These observations suggest that pink1 and parkin function, at least in part, in the same pathway, with pink1 functioning upstream of parkin. The role of the pink1-parkin pathway in regulating mitochondrial function underscores the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction as a central mechanism of Parkinson's disease

  6. PELAKSANAAN KEGIATAN SPECIAL EVENT JAKARTA GOES PINK OLEH LOVEPINK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Ajie Hartono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kegiatan special event yang dilakukan Lovepink Indonesiadalam menyelenggarakan Jakarta Goes Pink 2015 untuk meningkatkan kesadaran. Penelitian inimenggunakan Event Management Process Joe Goldblatt sebagai landasan konsep.Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan studi deskriptif. Teknik pengumpulan datadilakukan dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi partisipan pasif, dan studi kepustakaan, dengan teknik pengumpulan key informan purposive sampling. Teknik analisis data menggunakan tiga tahap yaitu reduksi data, penyajian data, serta penarikan kesimpulan. Teknik validitas data menggunakantriangulasi sumber data.Hasil penelitian ini mengemukakan bahwa manajemen special event Jakarta Goes Pink dikategorikandalam riset, desain, perencanaan, koordinasi, dan evaluasi. Riset yang dilakukan meliputi analisissituasi terkait kesadaran masyarakat Indonesia tentang kanker payudara, hasil riset menyatakanbahwa kesadaran masih rendah, terutama dibandingkan dengan aktivitas Pink Ribbon diluar negeridan evaluasi acara tahun sebelumnya. Desain acara dilakukan menggunakan unsur warna untukmemerahmudakan Jakarta, edukasi pengunjung terhadap kanker payudara, dan unsur hiburan dengankonsep fair and festival. Perencanaan Jakarta Goes Pink meliputi penentuan tujuan yang kemudiandapat menentukan tanggal dan lokasi, penetapan anggaran, pembagian tugas pengurus, dan publikasiyang dilakukan melalui media sosial dan bantuan mitra media. Koordinasi dilakukan sebagai upayapengelolaan komunikasi antara pihak eksternal seperti komunitas, relawan, sponsor, dan mitra media;serta pihak internal yaitu kepengurusan Jakarta Goes Pink. Tahap evaluasi yang dilakukan JakartaGoes Pink meliputi evaluasi acara, feedback langsung dari orang terdekat, dan penghitungan jumlahliputan media massa dan sifat pemberitaan.Kata kunci: Special event, kesadaran, organisasi, kanker payudara, event management process ABSTRACTThis study

  7. Deregulated gas in 1985 seen costly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffer, P.

    1980-05-05

    Deregulation of natural gas wellhead prices will mean higher prices for nonboiler industrial users, according to an Energy and Environmental Analysis Inc. (EEA) study. The price increases of high-sulfur residual fuel oil will exceed inflation rates, but low-sulfur residual oil and distillate oil will have smaller increases because of upgraded refineries. Te economc imact analysis is broken down by region and includes estimates of gas, high-sulfur coal, and low-sulfur coal prices thrugh 1995. Free copies of the report are available from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Office of Public Information. (DCK)

  8. Immunological Deregulation in Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandra; Vetro, Calogero; Caocci, Giovanni; Greco, Marianna; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Di Raimondo, Francesco; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) has a unique histology since only a few neoplastic cells are surrounded by inflammatory accessory cells that in the last years have emerged as crucial players in sustaining the course of disease. In addition, recent studies suggest that the abnormal activity of these inflammatory cells (such as deregulation in regulatory T cells signaling, expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells, HLA-G signaling and natural killer cells dysfunction) may have prognostic significance. This review is focused on summarizing recent advanced in immunological defects in cHL with translational implications. PMID:24959336

  9. Controversies about gas industry deregulation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    1992-01-01

    The E.E.C. Commission wishes to introduce more competition into the European gas industry; abolish import public monopolies, resort to competitive bidding for distribution concessions, and to the common carrier system in the transport field. This deregulation policy may induce adverse effects in the long run. This may compromise supply security, and delay the development of new gas fields. This may particularly induce subsidies among users and lead to a reinforcement of regulation if we want the Third Party Access system to respect equality conditions for all users. This paper analyzes arguments for and against this common carrier system. 15 refs., 2 figs

  10. Electric deregulation in Texas : the next steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, R.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation provided a look at the deregulated market in Texas and provided some statistics and facts about the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) which monitors the reliability of 37,000 miles of power transmission lines and 77,000 MW of generation. The governance adopted by ERCOT was described along with market design and wholesale operation in terms of open access to transmission and distribution systems, reliability, timely conveyance of information needed to support customer choice, and accurate accountability for electricity production and delivery. Transmission has been one the greatest challenges facing ERCOT, but retail operations are progressing well despite initial start-up problems. tabs., figs

  11. The Color Pink Is Bad for Fighting Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Puntoni (Stefano)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe article presents an interview with researcher Stefano Puntoni, who conducted experiments indicating that the color pink makes women think they have a reduced susceptibility to getting cancer, and also disinclines them toward donating to cancer research. Topics discussed include why

  12. Sample sufficiency of chinese pink grown in different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José lopes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cravina is an excellent plant to build up gardens due to its early flowering, abundant flowering and great performance in spring and autumn. The objective was to estimate the sample size for plant chinese pink, grown on different substrates, and check the variability of the sample size between growth parameters and production and substrates. They used seven treatments (substrates: S1 = 50% soil + 50% rice husk ash; S2 = 80% soil + 20% earthworm castings; S3 = 80% rice husk ash + 20% earthworm castings; S4 = 40% soil + 40% rice husk ash + 20% earthworm castings; S5 = 100% peat; S6 = 100% commercial substrate Mecplant®; S7 = 50% peat + 50% rice husk ash, with 56 repetitions each, totaling 392 plants of garden pink, which was evaluated in 17 of growth and production parameters. The methodology used to bootstrap resampling, with replacement, for each character within each substrate with predetermined error: 5, 10, 20 and 40% of the average (D%. To a 95% confidence interval, with D = 20%, the substrate 50% soil and 50% of rice husk ash had the largest sample size 11 characters; when comparing the characters , the number of flower buds had the highest sample size on average 113 plants. Using samples of 44 plant chinese pink for commercial substrate Mecplant® meet the lower precisions or equal to 20% for all variables. There is variation in sample size in relation to the substrate used and the variable evaluated in chinese pink plants.

  13. Lavaka lõpetajate pink on pikk / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2009-01-01

    Kevadel lavakunstikooli lõpetavate tudengite lavastusest "Pikk pink" , mis koosneb kuuest lühiloost - Mait Jooritsa "Kantani padi", Kristjan Üksküla "Jääger" ja "Albioni tütar", Roland Laosi "Genees ja katastroof", Hendrik Toompere jun. jun. "Karupoeg Puhh" ja Kerttu Moppeli " Leib!". Etendused toimuvad Hobuveskis

  14. Pink läks pikemaks... / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    20. sept. VAT Teatris esietendunud Eesti Muusika ja Teatriakadeemia Lavakunstikooli lavastajate õppesuuna tudengite koolitööst "Pink", mis koosneb kahest iseseisvast loost - Jon Fosse "Talv", lavastaja Robert Annus ja Edward Albee "Loomaaialugu", lavastaja Uku Uusberg. Lisaks küsimus "Aare Toikka, kuidas noored lavastajatudengid VAT Teatri tiiva alla sattusid?"

  15. BST-PINK PANTHER. An intelligent CAMAC crate controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troester, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technical and functional description of the PINK system for intelligent, distributed data acquisition, data formatting, and data reduction is presented. The system has been developed to bypass some of the constraints of CAMAC when collecting data with the high-resolution π 0 spectrometers of the Basel-Stockholm-Thessaloniki (BST) Collaboration at CERN. (orig.)

  16. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  17. Deregulation, privatization and the Ontario power failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE) has examined the history of deregulation of the electricity industry in the United States and presents lessons that could be learned from the California electricity crisis, the collapse of Enron, and the massive blackout that occurred in August 2003 across Ontario and northeastern United States. Unlike the United States, Canada's electricity system is mostly publicly owned and operated. This report emphasized that the need for public investment in the electricity system is greater than ever, and offers suggestions on how to strengthen the Canadian electricity system. It examines the attempts made to deregulate and privatize the electricity system in Ontario, Alberta, New Brunswick and British Columbia and exposes the reality of price caps and the debt of public utilities. It demonstrates that privatization has failed to provide a safe, reliable, affordable and adequate supply of electricity. The report claims that profit-seeking power producers want to keep supply and demand in their favour to sell electricity at the highest possible price. In addition to emphasizing the need for public investment in the electricity system, this report emphasizes the need for Canadian electricity cooperation, with particular mention of the large energy supplies in Manitoba and Quebec. 37 refs

  18. Zap... Alberta is jolted by electric deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    Of all Canadian provinces, Alberta has travelled the furthest along the electric deregulation road. On January 1, 2001, full retail competition came into effect. Wholesale electricity prices are set by the province through an auction process. The bids from purchasers are made through the Power Pool of Alberta against supply offers. Power prices increased from being amongst the lowest in the world to being amongst the highest in North America as a result of deregulation. Changes to the Electric Utilities Act were made recently by the Alberta government to try to mitigate the factors affecting power price increases. RBC Dominion Securities is of the opinion that the changes will not significantly impact the Alberta Pool Price. It is expected that the trend for power price increases to continue, despite some relief from relatively low-cost electricity being felt by other Canadian provinces as a result of the energy crisis in North America. Based on the Electric Competition Unfolds in Alberta report dated June 2, 2001 prepared by RBC Dominion Securities, this document examines the factors at play in electric price increases, assess the sustainability of current power prices in Alberta, and identify Canadian companies believed to be best positioned in the pipeline and gas and electric sectors to benefit from the high power prices in Alberta. Those companies were ATCO, Canadian Utilities, Westcoast Energy and TransCanada PipeLines, and TransAlta. 5 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Selling power : marketing energy under deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.; Hanna, F.

    2001-07-01

    This book discussed the marketing of energy in a deregulated environment. Experience from long distance telephone service providers has shown that historical dominance is not a guarantee for future success. As new brands are introduced and as consumer choice increases, so does the ability to change from one provider to another. Price is only one of the factors prompting that change. Old rules and practices do not bind new competitors who must face the challenge of open competition and must be aware of the ever-changing face of business. It was recommended that the strategic solution would be to build a brand and to develop significant market shares and create effective customer retention programs. This book focused on the elements that energy marketing professionals must use to maintain and increase share without product differentiation. It also explained how energy providers can effectively attract and retain customers over the long term while keeping marketing and service delivery costs down. It was suggested that small players can compete with the growing strength of regional providers by creating new alliances between larger energy conglomerates. The chapters of the book were entitled: (1) Introduction, (2) The Goals of Deregulation, (3) Strategic Marketing Choices, (4) Relationship Marketing, (5) The Role of Customer Service, (6) The Question of Outsourcing, and (7) Final Thoughts and Observations. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Competing in a fully deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, A.; Schoen, G.; Johansson, B.

    1999-01-01

    Vattenfall, Sweden's largest utility, has provided competitively priced nuclear electricity to a price-conscious market for several decades. As Sweden is an exporting country, the cost of products must be kept as low as possible to meet tough European competition. Since Sweden relies almost exclusively on electricity for energy, electric prices must be low to keep Swedish products competitive. Because of the available hydropower in Sweden and Norway, nuclear power plants have been forced to operate with high availability and low cost. From the first years after nuclear plants began operation, there has been a continuous development of organization, management, and work practices to sustain low-cost production. Now, the European electricity market is undergoing deregulation and open competition. This is taking place in a situation where the increase in demand is relatively weak and where the availability of generation capacity is good. Sweden is at the forefront of the competition. According to the well-known law of supply and demand, this entails the risk of squeezed prices, but the situation also offers many opportunities for those making the right decisions. The availability of electricity at competitive prices has great significance for the competitiveness of the industry in general and for the electricity-intensive industry in particular. If the customer then, in a deregulated market is free to choose the supplier, the focus definitely is on the customer

  1. Deregulation : unlocking value : the Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, F.

    2002-01-01

    Macquarie is a global investment bank based in Australia whose international focus is on niche markets such as infrastructure and utilities. A corporate review of Macquarie is presented along with a review of the evolution of the utility industry from the stages of an integrated utility to fully unbundled entities. In the first stage, the utility is vertically integrated and owned by government, or it is highly regulated. The second stage of evolution involves the unbundling of the utility into separate generation, transmission and distribution companies, each preparing for competition. The third stage involves the introduction of competition to power generation and retail sectors. Transmission and distribution remains regulated in the third stage. The fourth stage involves down-sizing in response to competition and benchmarking. It is also a period of convergence between electricity and gas. The fifth and final stage is for deriving value. Deregulation results in major structural changes and utility managers have to decide how the utility can best deliver value to the shareholders in the new environment. The author discusses how these lessons can be applied to the case of electric power industry deregulation in Alberta

  2. Energy service unbundling: where deregulation is heading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, M.

    2002-01-01

    The workings of the natural gas market is provided by the speaker at the beginning of the presentation, and covers pre-regulation, early regulation and deregulation. The pre-regulation era provided no customer choice, and the early regulation period saw industrial customers with some degree of choice (mid-1980s). The advent of deregulation created core market customer choice (around 1996). At Coral Energy, there is choice of energy supplier, choice of price structure, and choice of transportation and distribution. A forecast of North American gas demand is provided, along with the natural gas supply and the North American gas supply basins. For the period January 1996 to May 2000, a comparison of annualized volatility is discussed. The author discusses the strategies for purchasing gas: 1) to know yourself and your risk tolerance, flexibility, and load profile; 2) switching gas supply provider. It is important to choose a three year term, combination pricing, and storage position. The risk management options are reviewed: limit exposure to price volatility, mitigate price/volume volatility, and enhance bottom line by capturing market opportunities. figs

  3. Selling power : marketing energy under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, J.; Hanna, F.

    2001-01-01

    This book discussed the marketing of energy in a deregulated environment. Experience from long distance telephone service providers has shown that historical dominance is not a guarantee for future success. As new brands are introduced and as consumer choice increases, so does the ability to change from one provider to another. Price is only one of the factors prompting that change. Old rules and practices do not bind new competitors who must face the challenge of open competition and must be aware of the ever-changing face of business. It was recommended that the strategic solution would be to build a brand and to develop significant market shares and create effective customer retention programs. This book focused on the elements that energy marketing professionals must use to maintain and increase share without product differentiation. It also explained how energy providers can effectively attract and retain customers over the long term while keeping marketing and service delivery costs down. It was suggested that small players can compete with the growing strength of regional providers by creating new alliances between larger energy conglomerates. The chapters of the book were entitled: (1) Introduction, (2) The Goals of Deregulation, (3) Strategic Marketing Choices, (4) Relationship Marketing, (5) The Role of Customer Service, (6) The Question of Outsourcing, and (7) Final Thoughts and Observations. 24 refs., 3 figs

  4. Transmission management in the deregulated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, R.D.; Wollenberg, B.F.; Wangensteen, I.

    2000-01-01

    Three very different methods of accomplishing the same task--managing the operation of the transmission system in the deregulated power system operating environment--have been implemented as deregulated market structures have been created around the world. They are first, the optimal power flow (OPF) model found in various implementations in the United Kingdom, parts of the United States, and in Australia and New Zealand. Second, the point tariff, price area congestion control model used in the Nordpool market area in Norway and Sweden. Third, the US transaction-based model. All are pragmatic solutions implemented in advance of complete theoretical understanding. Each has strengths and flaws, and there are some surprising inter-relationships. Each maintains power system security but differs in its impact on the economics of the energy market. No clearly superior method has so far emerged. In the future, methods of combining decentralized market solutions with operational use of optimal power flow may provide better solutions to existing and emerging problems

  5. Detection of deregulated modules using deregulatory linked path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan Hu

    Full Text Available The identification of deregulated modules (such as induced by oncogenes is a crucial step for exploring the pathogenic process of complex diseases. Most of the existing methods focus on deregulation of genes rather than the links of the path among them. In this study, we emphasize on the detection of deregulated links, and develop a novel and effective regulatory path-based approach in finding deregulated modules. Observing that a regulatory pathway between two genes might involve in multiple rather than a single path, we identify condition-specific core regulatory path (CCRP to detect the significant deregulation of regulatory links. Using time-series gene expression, we define the regulatory strength within each gene pair based on statistical dependence analysis. The CCRPs in regulatory networks can then be identified using the shortest path algorithm. Finally, we derive the deregulated modules by integrating the differential edges (as deregulated links of the CCRPs between the case and the control group. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we apply the method to expression data associated with different states of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2. The experimental results show that the genes as well as the links in the deregulated modules are significantly enriched in multiple KEGG pathways and GO biological processes, most of which can be validated to suffer from impact of this oncogene based on previous studies. Additionally, we find the regulatory mechanism associated with the crucial gene SNAI1 significantly deregulated resulting from the activation of HER2. Hence, our method provides not only a strategy for detecting the deregulated links in regulatory networks, but also a way to identify concerning deregulated modules, thus contributing to the target selection of edgetic drugs.

  6. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is a...

  7. S-Nitrosylation of PINK1 Attenuates PINK1/Parkin-Dependent Mitophagy in hiPSC-Based Parkinson’s Disease Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ki Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in PARK6 (PINK1 and PARK2 (Parkin are linked to rare familial cases of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Mutations in these genes result in pathological dysregulation of mitophagy, contributing to neurodegeneration. Here, we report that environmental factors causing a specific posttranslational modification on PINK1 can mimic these genetic mutations. We describe a molecular mechanism for impairment of mitophagy via formation of S-nitrosylated PINK1 (SNO-PINK1. Mitochondrial insults simulating age- or environmental-related stress lead to increased SNO-PINK1, inhibiting its kinase activity. SNO-PINK1 decreases Parkin translocation to mitochondrial membranes, disrupting mitophagy in cell lines and human-iPSC-derived neurons. We find levels of SNO-PINK1 in brains of α-synuclein transgenic PD mice similar to those in cell-based models, indicating the pathophysiological relevance of our findings. Importantly, SNO-PINK1-mediated deficits in mitophagy contribute to neuronal cell death. These results reveal a direct molecular link between nitrosative stress, SNO-PINK1 formation, and mitophagic dysfunction that contributes to the pathogenesis of PD.

  8. The yeast complex I equivalent NADH dehydrogenase rescues pink1 mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Vilain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pink1 is a mitochondrial kinase involved in Parkinson's disease, and loss of Pink1 function affects mitochondrial morphology via a pathway involving Parkin and components of the mitochondrial remodeling machinery. Pink1 loss also affects the enzymatic activity of isolated Complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC; however, the primary defect in pink1 mutants is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ETC deficiency is upstream of other pink1-associated phenotypes. We expressed Saccaromyces cerevisiae Ndi1p, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex I, or sea squirt Ciona intestinalis AOX, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex III and IV, in pink1 mutant Drosophila and find that expression of Ndi1p, but not of AOX, rescues pink1-associated defects. Likewise, loss of function of subunits that encode for Complex I-associated proteins displays many of the pink1-associated phenotypes, and these defects are rescued by Ndi1p expression. Conversely, expression of Ndi1p fails to rescue any of the parkin mutant phenotypes. Additionally, unlike pink1 mutants, fly parkin mutants do not show reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that Ndi1p acts downstream or parallel to Pink1, but upstream or independent of Parkin. Furthermore, while increasing mitochondrial fission or decreasing mitochondrial fusion rescues mitochondrial morphological defects in pink1 mutants, these manipulations fail to significantly rescue the reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that functional defects observed at the level of Complex I enzymatic activity in pink1 mutant mitochondria do not arise from morphological defects. Our data indicate a central role for Complex I dysfunction in pink1-associated defects, and our genetic analyses with heterologous ETC enzymes suggest that Ndi1p-dependent NADH dehydrogenase activity largely acts downstream of, or in parallel to, Pink1 but upstream of Parkin and mitochondrial remodeling.

  9. Deregulation in environmental policy. Aufsaetze zur Wirtschaftspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, J

    1983-01-01

    In the USA the attempt is being made for the first time to leave the solution of the apparent conflict between economy and ecology to a considerable extent to the powers of the market. The framework conditions and rules for that market are characterized by the new approaches of 'deregulation': 'They create a market in which business can make a profit by producing clean air and water.' The aim of the volume is to present that new strategy, with regard to the sector of air pollution, in its individual components, explain their mode of function and briefly indicate associated problems. However, before dealing with the new approaches based on free enterprise, the publication provides some basic information current legislation in the USA regarding air pollution.

  10. Regulatory trends : deregulation, where in the world is it working?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofield, J.

    2001-01-01

    The issue of electricity deregulation was the focus of this Power-Point presentation, which discussed what deregulation entails, what it is meant to achieve and whether there is only one right answer. Different approaches and performance results were presented with reference to international experiences in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and California. The main objective of deregulation is introduce competition to give customers a choice between suppliers and products, to allow market forces to set prices with the hope that they will be lower, and to encourage industry efficiency, reduce costs, improve productivity, and ensure that the right investments are made. The underlying agenda is to raise billions of dollars to reduce government debt and to transfer the risks and investment requirements to the investors and away from the government/taxpayers and ratepayers. Deregulation entails restructuring, privatization and unbundling of monopolies. It also entails a set of market rules and new systems processes to enable retail competition. The author emphasized that there are different characteristics to deregulation in each jurisdiction and that the state of the pre-deregulation industry plays a significant role in the eventual success of deregulation. The lessons learned from international experience is that open, non-discriminatory access is essential for both transmission and distribution and that political will for restructuring is essential. It was also determined that partial deregulation will not work, since wholesale and retail markets are connected. It was concluded that deregulation can work to different degrees under different designs. Progress so far has been slow and customers have yet to see the full benefits of deregulation. tabs

  11. Deregulation experiences in Alberta and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, D.

    2003-01-01

    A brief introduction of Nexen Chemicals, one of the largest producers of sodium chlorate in the world, was offered, and a map displaying its locations throughout the world was displayed. Nexen is one of Canada's largest independent oil and gas producers, while Nexen Marketing is involved in the marketing of natural gas in North America. In January 2001, the deregulated market opened in Alberta. High natural gas prices, generation shortages, high prices in California and an upcoming provincial election all combined to complicate the situation. A high degree of volatility characterized the market. A chart displaying weekly average Alberta power and gas prices from Jan 2002 to 13 Oct 2002 was shown. In Ontario, the market opened in May 2002, and the demand growth rate was in the 1 to 2 per cent range. The author indicated that approximately 20 per cent of homeowners in Ontario have signed deals with retailers, contrary to Alberta where very few have done so. A similar chart displaying weekly average Ontario power prices was presented. The issues in Ontario are: consistency in policy, increase market transparency, transmission / distribution price flexibility, overall transmission / distribution to industrial consumers high, and increasing costs of the system operator. In Alberta, the issues are: government intent, congestion management issues, and billing settlement errors that continue. The opportunities offered by a deregulated market include process responsiveness which is rewarded, the ability to look in forward prices when prices fit margin requirement, and gives companies the opportunity to participate in the development of the market. Various charts were also displayed to further illustrate the market in both Alberta and Ontario. figs

  12. Three Pink Decades: Breast Cancer Coverage in Magazine Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbiGhannam, Niveen; Chilek, Lindsay A; Koh, Hyeseung E

    2018-04-01

    Breast cancer advocacy has experienced tremendous success since the 1980s. Yet, the quality and authenticity of breast cancer information in the media are sometimes questionable. Using a content analysis, we examined the informative (donation information, breast cancer advocacy content, etc.) and persuasive (appeals used, cues to action, etc.) contents of magazine advertisements relevant to breast cancer. While ads offered minimal informative content about the disease or about ways by which sales will contribute to the breast cancer cause, they integrated "breast cancer appeals," such as the color pink, the pink ribbon, and mostly positive depictions of survivorship and hope, into the ads. Breast cancer thus took center stage in the persuasive content of the ads, but a back seat when it came to their informative content. We discuss the implications of those findings in light of the meanings and purposes of cause-related marketing campaigns.

  13. Time response measurements of pressure sensors using pink noise technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Santos, Roberto Carlos dos

    2009-01-01

    This work presents an experimental setup for Pink Noise method application on pressure transmitters' response times. The Pink Noise method consists on injecting artificial pressure noise into the pressure transmitter. The artificial pressure noise is generated using a current-to-pressure (I-to-P) converter, which is driven by a random noise signal generator. The output pressure transmitter noise is then analyzed using conventional Noise Analysis Technique. Noise signals may be interpreted using spectral techniques or empirical time series models. The frequency domain method consists of evaluating the Power Spectral Density (PSD) function. The information needed for time constant estimation can be obtained by fitting an all-pole transfer function to this power spectral density. (author)

  14. Pink Globalization: Hello Kitty sebagai Instrumen Soft-Diplomacy Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Najamuddin Khairur

    2017-01-01

    Pink globalization merujuk pada istilah untuk menggambarkan popularitas internasional Hello Kitty melalui penyebaran berbagai jenis produk berlabel Hello Kitty yang kawaii dari Jepang sebagai bagian dari dunia industri. Popularitas Hello Kitty tersebut merupakan soft-power yang memberikan kekuatan nasional tersendiri Jepang. Jepang kemudian menjadikan Hello Kitty sebagai instrumen soft-diplomacy sebagai upaya meningkatkan citra pariwisata dan menarik wisatawan untuk berkunjung ke Jepang. Tuli...

  15. The Time is Gone!? Pink Floyds "Time" (1973)

    OpenAIRE

    Hantschel, Florian

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a hermeneutic approach on Pink Floyds popular song "Time" from 1973s album Dark Side Of The Moon. The primary aim of this examination is the analysis of the conceptual connection of music and lyrics in this song. Moreover, derivation of semantic meaning potential is used to form an intersubjectively verifiable song interpretation. All in all, the main results of this analysis suggest a close connection of the songs musical parameters, i.e. form, harmony, melody, rhythm as ...

  16. The mitochondrial fusion-promoting factor mitofusin is a substrate of the PINK1/parkin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela C Poole

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in the PINK1 or parkin genes result in recessive heritable forms of parkinsonism. Genetic studies of Drosophila orthologs of PINK1 and parkin indicate that PINK1, a mitochondrially targeted serine/threonine kinase, acts upstream of Parkin, a cytosolic ubiquitin-protein ligase, to promote mitochondrial fragmentation, although the molecular mechanisms by which the PINK1/Parkin pathway promotes mitochondrial fragmentation are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that PINK1 and Parkin promote mitochondrial fragmentation by targeting core components of the mitochondrial morphogenesis machinery for ubiquitination. We report that the steady-state abundance of the mitochondrial fusion-promoting factor Mitofusin (dMfn is inversely correlated with the activity of PINK1 and Parkin in Drosophila. We further report that dMfn is ubiquitinated in a PINK1- and Parkin-dependent fashion and that dMfn co-immunoprecipitates with Parkin. By contrast, perturbations of PINK1 or Parkin did not influence the steady-state abundance of the mitochondrial fission-promoting factor Drp1 or the mitochondrial fusion-promoting factor Opa1, or the subcellular distribution of Drp1. Our findings suggest that dMfn is a direct substrate of the PINK1/Parkin pathway and that the mitochondrial morphological alterations and tissue degeneration phenotypes that derive from mutations in PINK1 and parkin result at least in part from reduced ubiquitin-mediated turnover of dMfn.

  17. Loss of PINK1 increases the heart's vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary K Siddall

    Full Text Available Mutations in PTEN inducible kinase-1 (PINK1 induce mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons resulting in an inherited form of Parkinson's disease. Although PINK1 is present in the heart its exact role there is unclear. We hypothesized that PINK1 protects the heart against acute ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction.Over-expressing PINK1 in HL-1 cardiac cells reduced cell death following simulated IRI (29.2±5.2% PINK1 versus 49.0±2.4% control; N = 320 cells/group P5 animals/group; P<0.05. Cardiomyocytes isolated from PINK1-/- hearts had a lower resting mitochondrial membrane potential, had inhibited mitochondrial respiration, generated more oxidative stress during simulated IRI, and underwent rigor contracture more rapidly in response to an uncoupler when compared to PINK1+/+ cells suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction in hearts deficient in PINK1.We show that the loss of PINK1 increases the heart's vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion injury. This may be due, in part, to increased mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings implicate PINK1 as a novel target for cardioprotection.

  18. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gadzhieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environmental feasibility of tomatoes stage drying in the atmosphere of inert gas in solar dry kiln were evaluated; production scheme of dried tomatoes is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a production scheme of powders of pulp, skin and seeds of tomatoes is developed. Combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of the electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing product surface with hot nitrogen. Conducting the drying process in an inert gas atmosphere of nitrogen intensified the process of moisture removing from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as enriching additive was proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from Dagestan varieties of tomatoes, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physico-chemical studies of finished products, we have proved the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder during the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  19. Electric utility deregulation - A nuclear opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMella, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The implications of electric deregulation are and will continue to be pervasive and significant. Not only will the fundamental monopoly regulatory concepts of managing electric utilities change but deregulation will have a profound and dramatic impact on the way electric generating plants are managed and operated. In the past, under the various approaches to financial regulation, the economic benefits normally attributed to competition or that would have otherwise been derived from competitive or open market forces, were assumed to be embodied in and inherent to the various processes, methods and principles of financial oversight of utility companies by regional, state and municipal regulatory authorities. Traditionally, under the various forms of regulated monopolies, a utility company, in exchange for an exclusive franchise to produce and sell electricity in a particular region, was obligated to provide an adequate supply to all consumers wanting it, at a price that was 'just and reasonable'. The determination of adequate supply and reasonable price was a matter of interpretation by utility companies and their regulators. In essence, the ultimate economic benefits, normally attributed to price equilibrium, in balance with supply, demand and other market forces, were expected to be achieved through a complex, political process of financial regulatory oversight, in which utility companies were usually reimbursed for all annual expenses or their 'cost of service' and additionally allowed to earn a 'reasonable' rate of return on plant investments. The result was often escalating electric prices, over supplies of electric capacity, by justifying unnecessarily high reserve margins based on long planning horizons (typically 20 years or greater) with extrapolated demand requirements that were generally in excess of what actually occurred over time. Although the regulatory process varied from country or country and region-to-region, the fundamental principles, which

  20. Nuclear communications and deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruuskanen, Antti

    1998-01-01

    The electricity market a over the world is facing the most profound change ever. The market is to be deregulated, competition will be increased and companies privatised. The boom started from the UK but today the Nordic market is the most liberalised in the world. Nordic market consists of annual power sales around 350 TWh and only a modest growth potential of 12 percent per year. All fuels and all technologies meet in the marketplace. Nuclear has its good one fourth share of the production there. Nuclear is clearly for base-load with low marginal costs next to hydro electric power. There are four major players in the Nordic market. Swedish Vattenfall, IVO Group and Swedish Sydkraft are the three biggest in that order, and all of them have nuclear assets. The market is characterised by lowest power prices in Europe, two electricity exchanges and continuous power trade across the borders. The described market change from national and less open utility driven sector has clear impacts to companies strategies and consequently also to communications. All these circumstances demand, New target groups from corporate communications' point of view; new communications language to change to more business-like; new insider rules and new information practices; new business orientated journalists against a new reference group. This all opens new challenges and possibilities to re-build nuclear image. Market economy in electricity will also ease governmental nationally oriented energy policies and let market forces to decide whether investments are viable or not. This is positive for nuclear - again if and only if the power plants are managed in an economically viable way. Deregulation may open the market from political deadlock to new nuclear investments in case the above mentioned requirements are correct. All in all, market change comes sooner or later to regions not yet liberalised. It will challenge nuclear companies and their communications. The change always creates

  1. Utilization of biological control agents for the management of postharvest pathogens of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.U.; Ansari, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty five isolates of Trichoderma, Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp. were obtained from rhizosphere of tomato growing fields using soil dilution technique on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and nutrient agar (NA) medium. Screening of these isolates were done against Geotrichum candidum, Trichothecium roseum and Rhizopus oryzae, causal agents of sour rot, pink mold rot and Rhizopus soft rot of tomato under the laboratory conditions. One promising isolate of each Trichoderma harzianum, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens from the twenty five isolates were chosen and further evaluated as potential biological control agents (BCAs) against three important postharvest pathogens of tomato. Dual culture and spore concentration assay revealed that all three isolates inhibited radial growth of G. candidum, T. roseum and R. oryzae. Tomato fruits were inoculated with 25 micro L suspension of 10/sup 8/ cfu mL-1 for T. harzianum and 10/sup 8/cfu mL-1for each Bacillus sp. and P. fluorescens. Twenty four hours later the treated fruits were inoculated with 25 micro L of 105 conidia/mL of each of three postharvest pathogens. The results showed that P. fluorescens provided good control (78.1%) of G. candidum and (82.2%) R. oryzae, while, T. harzianum proved less effective to control all three pathogens. Bacillus spp. was only effective (88.4%) against T. roseum. Hence, our results depicted that Bacillus spp. and P. fluorescens proved to be a potential antagonist of T. roseum and R. oryzae however, all the tested BCAs were not consistent in their action against three postharvest pathogens of tomato. (author)

  2. The Effect of Pink Uniform Color on Future Imaging among Female Student Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    石井, 国雄; 加藤, 樹里; 田戸岡, 好香

    2017-01-01

    Responding to various social demands, variety of nurse uniforms have been created and worn. The present study examined the effects of pink nursing uniform on self-perception and work motivation among female student nurses. We hypothesized that female student nurses would perceive themselves more competent and increase work motivation in the pink condition. In the experiment, Japanese female student nurses imaged their future career as nurse, watching the illustration of nurse either in a pink...

  3. Self-interest, deregulation and trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvör Nordal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss Milton Friedman’s thesis that the social responsibilityof business is to maximize the shareholders’ profit. I examine the underlyingassumption of self-interest and argue, contrary to the neoliberal thesis ofderegulation, that the profit motive must be constrained by strong state regulations.Furthermore it facilitates keeping the division between business andgovernment intact. The financial crisis shows that the emphasis on a profitmotive without the external constraints of tight regulations has serious implicationsfor the trustworthiness of business. In the latter part of the paper I willdiscuss trust in relation to self-interest. The overemphasis on self-interest isparticularly unfortunate in connection with business, and not least the financialsector, as this institution is grounded in trust, without which it cannot survive.Seen from this angle, it can be claimed that a business model, celebratingprimarily self-interest, profit-motive and deregulation, is not going to be sustainablein the long run.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i2.1719

  4. The deregulation of Taiwan electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Taiwan is on the brink of embarking on an ambitious reform in the electricity sector. The future electricity market of Taiwan will be operated under the framework set out in the Electricity Act Amendment. Independent system operator (ISO) will be the core body of the future market operations and its establishment will therefore be the key to the liberalization. This paper presents the proposed implementation plan based on diverse factors considered by the officials. A three steps phased introduction of Taiwan ISO is discussed. During the proposed Phase I interim market arrangements, Taipower's System Operation Department will assume the role of System Operator for the market. The dispatch rules are largely based on the existing Taipower internal procedure. As competition increases, the need for increased transparency will necessitate the establishment of a fully independent ISO in Phase II to provide the real time dispatch services. This will be completed within 2 years after the passage of the Electricity Act Amendment Bill. In the last phase of the deregulation process a multilateral market arrangement for managing energy imbalance and transmission constraints will result in better outcomes in relation to the policy objectives of security and economic efficiency. The 2-year timeframe stipulated in the Electricity Act Amendment Bill is a challenge for the Government and the industry. However, a smoothly functioning Taiwan ISO will bring benefits to the industry and the country in general

  5. Deregulation and Nuclear Training: Cost Effective Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Coe; Patricia A. Lake

    2000-01-01

    Training is crucial to the success of any organization. It is also expensive, with some estimates exceeding $50 billion annually spent on training by U.S. corporations. Nuclear training, like that of many other highly technical organizations, is both crucial and costly. It is unlikely that the amount of training can be significantly reduced. If anything, current trends indicate that training needs will probably increase as the industry and workforce ages and changes. With the advent of energy deregulation in the United States, greater pressures will surface to make the costs of energy more cost-competitive. This in turn will drive businesses to more closely examine existing costs and find ways to do things in a more cost-effective way. The commercial nuclear industry will be no exception, and nuclear training will be equally affected. It is time for nuclear training and indeed the entire nuclear industry to begin using more aggressive techniques to reduce costs. This includes the need for nuclear training to find alternatives to traditional methods for the delivery of cost-effective high-quality training that meets regulatory requirements and produces well-qualified personnel capable of working in an efficient and safe manner. Computer-based and/or Web-based training are leading emerging technologies

  6. Coal marketability: Effects of deregulation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attanasi, E.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical utility deregulation will force power plants to compete for sales because they will not longer have captive markets. Market uncertainty and uncertainty about future environmental regulations have encouraged power plants to shift to low sulfur coal and/or to use emissions allowances to comply with Phase 2 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Mines in Northern and Central Appalachia and the Illinois Basin shipped 240 million tons of non-compliance coal to power plants without scrubbers in 1997. Under Phase 2, this coal will be replaced by low sulfur coal and/or be used with emission permits. It is possible that Powder River Basin coal production will have to increase by over 200 million tons/year to meet new demand. The prices of emissions permits will impose penalties on non-compliance coal that will probably drive out marginal coal producers. For example, if the cost of an emission permit is $200, coal from the Pittsburgh bed could bear a sulfur penalty of $6.55 per ton and similarly, coal from the Herrinbed could bear a penalty of $8.64 per ton

  7. Electricity deregulation - impact on gas users and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppel, H.

    1995-01-01

    Various scenarios for the natural gas market as a function a electricity deregulation were predicted. One scenario was the formation of an integrated market where sellers would offer a broad spectrum of energy products. This diversification would expand into the retail sector across North America. The second effect of electricity deregulation was energy cost reduction. The consumers have already been experiencing this benefit of deregulation. Cost reduction has also stimulated competition among energy suppliers, and improved suppliers' response to consumers'demands. The eventual shake-out of energy suppliers was predicted. Smaller companies that could not survive the competition would give up the market to larger companies that understood and met the customers' needs. It was concluded that deregulation of the electricity industry would have an enormous impact on the natural gas industry and that there would be opportunities for gain among buyers and sellers

  8. Efficiency and deregulation of the electricity market in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngho Chang; Tuan Hin Tay

    2006-01-01

    This study examines production efficiency of electricity generation in the New Electricity Market of Singapore (NEMS), where deregulation is currently proceeding. Singapore is reliant on foreign direct investments and exports so competition from countries with lower costs such as China and India is exerting pressure on the government to reduce the costs of doing business here. Electricity cost is one of these. Deregulation is believed to be able to bring about lower electricity costs due to the various efficiency gains possible. This study concerns itself mainly with production efficiency and attempts to calculate possible production efficiency gains by using linear programming model. Production-efficiency gains are quantified by the base case scenario of continued regulation versus four counterfactual deregulation scenarios. The results indicate that cost gains could be about eight per cent of current production cost, and this is possibly a lower-bound estimate. However, whether the purported efficiency gains are realized is to be seen as the deregulation proceeds. (author)

  9. Efficiency and deregulation of the electricity market in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Hin Tay, Tuan

    2006-01-01

    This study examines production efficiency of electricity generation in the New Electricity Market of Singapore (NEMS), where deregulation is currently proceeding. Singapore is reliant on foreign direct investments and exports so competition from countries with lower costs such as China and India is exerting pressure on the government to reduce the costs of doing business here. Electricity cost is one of these. Deregulation is believed to be able to bring about lower electricity costs due to the various efficiency gains possible. This study concerns itself mainly with production efficiency and attempts to calculate possible production efficiency gains by using linear programming model. Production-efficiency gains are quantified by the base case scenario of continued regulation versus four counterfactual deregulation scenarios. The results indicate that cost gains could be about eight per cent of current production cost, and this is possibly a lower-bound estimate. However, whether the purported efficiency gains are realized is to be seen as the deregulation proceeds

  10. European energy markets deregulation observatory. Winter 2002/2003 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Launched in 2002, the European energy markets deregulation observatory (EEMDO/OELME) aims at actualizing the main energy market indicators and at observing the advance of deregulation within the European countries. While for most of these markets, the deregulation of electricity has preceded the deregulation of gas, the natural gas market is at the evidence a key-market in Europe. For this reason, the 4. edition of the observatory (October 2003) takes into consideration for the first time the specific elements of gas markets, in addition to those of electricity markets. This article presents some excerpts of this last edition, published by Cap Gemini Ernst and Young, and synthesizes the present day situation of gas supplies and the conditions of network access by third parties. The informations reported in the EEMDO come from organizations like UCTE, Nordel, Eurelectric or from energy stock exchanges. (J.S.)

  11. Pretty in pink: The early development of gender-stereotyped colour preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobue, Vanessa; Deloache, Judy S

    2011-09-01

    Parents commonly dress their baby girls in pink and their baby boys in blue. Although there is research showing that children prefer the colour blue to other colours (regardless of gender), there is no evidence that girls actually have a special preference for the colour pink. This is the focus of the current investigation. In a large cross-sectional study, children aged 7 months to 5 years were offered eight pairs of objects and asked to choose one. In every pair, one of the objects was always pink. By the age of 2, girls chose pink objects more often than boys did, and by the age of 2.5, they had a significant preference for the colour pink over other colours. At the same time, boys showed an increasing avoidance of pink. These results thus reveal that sex differences in young children's preference for the colour pink involves both an increasing attraction to pink by young girls and a growing avoidance of pink by boys. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on tomato chromosomes using diploid tomato and tomato monosomic additions in tetraploid potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Geneticists have studied the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, for several decades and now obtained a saturated linkage map on which numerous genes controlling morphological traits and disease resistances, and molecular markers have been positioned. They also investigated the chromosomes of tomato,

  13. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.Rose

    2000-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift om the traditional business model of utilities. This paper will focus on deregulation in thc United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  14. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift from the traditional utility business model. This paper will focus on deregulation in the United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  15. Deregulating the Norwegian railway: a survey of empirical experiences abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Røstadli, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Portraying implications of deregulation, this thesis presents an extensive review of deregulation in the European railway. It targets various decision variables concerning the introduction of competitive tendering in the rail industry. This thesis attempts to take a pragmatic stand offering an improved understanding vis-à-vis on decisions that have yet to be made, concentrating on possible competition forms, auction designs and contract designs. It offers learning points and tr...

  16. Developing products and services for a deregulated market while regulated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.F.

    1997-01-01

    Products and services developed for a deregulated electric power industry were discussed. The wide-ranging discussion covered products created by unbundling existing services, new products and services related to energy use, products created by expansion into communications services, and the pricing of products and services. In addition to products and services, the discussion also covered strategies for a deregulated market and the challenges of raising equity capital in a regulated environment

  17. Dynamic Testing of Signal Transduction Deregulation During Breast Cancer Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Std. Z39.18 Victoria Seewaldt, M.D. Dynamic Testing of Signal Transduction Deregulation During Breast Cancer Initiation Duke University Durham...attomole- zeptomole range. Internal dilution curves insure a high-dynamic calibration range. DU -26 8L DU -26 6L DU -29 5R DU -22 9.2 L DU...3: Nanobiosensor technology is translated to test for pathway deregulation in RPFNA cytology obtained from 10 high-risk women with cytological

  18. Electricity market deregulation and its impact on the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.E.; Alfors, G.

    2000-01-01

    Electricity has traditionally been supplied in OECD countries by state-owned facilities, or state-protected monopolies with regulated pricing. More recently, however, several countries have deregulated their electricity markets, thus opening the door to competitive supply and pricing. Deregulation of electricity markets is a trend that is expected to be followed by many countries, and can have a significant impact on the future of nuclear power programmes. (authors)

  19. Deregulation of the European Banking Industry (1980-1991)

    OpenAIRE

    Gual, Jordi; Neven, Damien J

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the experience of deregulation in the banking sector of seven EC countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK) is analysed. Lessons are drawn for assessment of how the EC directives affecting this sector could further affect the industry. Our findings broadly confirm intuition: there is some evidence that firms in protected markets earn large rents, which are partly dissipated in excessive costs and captured by workers. Conduct deregulation seems...

  20. EFFECTIVE COMPLEX PROCESSING OF RAW TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIDA M. GADZHIEVA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5 - 6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids, 0.5 % minerals, etc. are used as research material. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have long term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace, the CO2 extraction method is applied. The technological and environmental feasibility of graded tomato drying in the atmosphere of an inert gas and in a solar drier is evaluated; the scheme of dried tomatoes production is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a scheme of tomato powder production from pulp, skin and seeds is developed. The combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing hot nitrogen on the product surface. Conducting the drying process in the atmosphere of nitrogen intensifies the process of removing moisture from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as an enriching additive is proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from the Dagestan varieties, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of finished products, we prove the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder in the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  1. What Drives Deregulation? Economics and Politics of the Relaxation of Bank Branching Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Randall S. Kroszner; Philip E. Strahan

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the key forces behind deregulation in order to assess the relative importance of alternative theories of regulatory entry and exit. We focus on bank branching deregulation across the states which began a quarter century ago and cumulated in federal deregulation in 1994. The cross-sectional and time-series variation of branching deregulation allows us to develop a hazard model to explain the timing of deregulation across the states using proxies motivated by private-interes...

  2. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus and more recently emerged Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Groundnut ringspot virus are all transmitted by thrips, making managment complex. All three viruses and the thrips vector are major pests of tomato in Florida. Current management tools for these viruses and the th...

  3. Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are

  4. In silico transcriptional regulatory networks involved in tomato fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Arhondakis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37 and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening.

  5. The undertow of de-regulation : re-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Alberta, Ontario and New Brunswick each initiated steps to deregulate their electric power industries in order to remain competitive with lower electricity rates in certain American states where the industry was also moving towards deregulation. This paper considers how the original sweep of deregulation policy goals succumbed to electricity re regulation policies. The decision by British Columbia to re-examine its deregulation plans in light of the experience in Canada's 3 other province's was also examined. The paper describes the electric power industry from 1900 to 1960s, before the deregulation wave hit the industry and then proceeds to the 1970s which was marked by the oil embargo. The 1980s saw a new era of policy shifts towards deregulation and privatization activity which was intended to introduce competition into regulated industries. Technological advances were taking place in the electricity sector, improving the viability of small gas turbines and making cogeneration possible. In the 1990s, Alberta was the first Canadian province to introduce competition to its electricity industry in an effort to remain competitive with neighbouring U.S. jurisdictions. By the 1990s Ontario's vertically integrated electricity industry was in trouble and recommendations were made to dissolve Ontario's Hydro One monopoly, particularly in power generation. In 1999, New Brunswick restructured its electricity industry to remain competitive with New England's electricity industry. The paper describes the gradual pull back from deregulation by all three provinces and the measures taken to impose price controls. Both industry and consumers paid a price for major policy changes. Complete competition in New Brunswick never materialized. It was suggested that controlled competition will likely move the electricity industry in the future. 40 refs

  6. Responses of pink salmon to CO2-induced aquatic acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Michelle; Hamilton, Trevor J.; Eom, Junho; Lyall, Emily M.; Gallup, Joshua; Jiang, Amy; Lee, Jason; Close, David A.; Yun, Sang-Seon; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification negatively affects many marine species and is predicted to cause widespread changes to marine ecosystems. Similarly, freshwater ecosystems may potentially be affected by climate-change-related acidification; however, this has received far less attention. Freshwater fish represent 40% of all fishes, and salmon, which rear and spawn in freshwater, are of immense ecosystem, economical and cultural importance. In this study, we investigate the impacts of CO2-induced acidification during the development of pink salmon, in freshwater and following early seawater entry. At this critical and sensitive life stage, we show dose-dependent reductions in growth, yolk-to-tissue conversion and maximal O2 uptake capacity; as well as significant alterations in olfactory responses, anti-predator behaviour and anxiety under projected future increases in CO2 levels. These data indicate that future populations of pink salmon may be at risk without mitigation and highlight the need for further studies on the impact of CO2-induced acidification on freshwater systems.

  7. An overlooked pink species of land iguana in the Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Gabriele; Fabiani, Anna; Marquez, Cruz; Snell, Howard L; Snell, Heidi M; Tapia, Washington; Sbordoni, Valerio

    2009-01-13

    Despite the attention given to them, the Galápagos have not yet finished offering evolutionary novelties. When Darwin visited the Galápagos, he observed both marine (Amblyrhynchus) and land (Conolophus) iguanas but did not encounter a rare pink black-striped land iguana (herein referred to as "rosada," meaning "pink" in Spanish), which, surprisingly, remained unseen until 1986. Here, we show that substantial genetic isolation exists between the rosada and syntopic yellow forms and that the rosada is basal to extant taxonomically recognized Galápagos land iguanas. The rosada, whose present distribution is a conundrum, is a relict lineage whose origin dates back to a period when at least some of the present-day islands had not yet formed. So far, this species is the only evidence of ancient diversification along the Galápagos land iguana lineage and documents one of the oldest events of divergence ever recorded in the Galápagos. Conservation efforts are needed to prevent this form, identified by us as a good species, from extinction.

  8. Biochemical and chemical characterization of pink-pigmented oxidative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, P L; Hollis, D G; Weaver, R E; Moss, C W

    1990-04-01

    The biochemical and chemical characteristics were determined for 156 clinical isolates of pink-pigmented bacteria that are similar to but distinct from Methylobacterium extorquens (synonymous with Pseudomonas mesophilica). These isolates were gram-negative, nonfermentative, usually nonvacuolated, coccoid rods; all grew at 35 degrees C and were catalase and urease positive; the majority grew on MacConkey agar and were variable for oxidase production and motility. On the basis of oxidation of xylose and mannitol and hydrolysis of esculin, these 156 strains were subdivided into four groups that were designated "pink coccoid" groups I, II, III, and IV. Groups I, II, and III are similar to an unnamed taxon described by Gilardi and Faur in 1984; only strains of group IV hydrolyze esculin. The cellular fatty acid compositions of strains of groups I, II, and III were essentially identical and differed from strains of group IV by the absence of 3-OH-C14:0 and the presence of C19:0 delta and 2-OH-C19:0 delta. The fatty acid composition of group IV strains was most similar to that of M. extorquens but differed by the presence of small amounts of two C17:1 acids, 3-OH-C16:0, and 2-OH-C18:1.

  9. Plant colonization by pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Zahra S; Tombolini, Riccardo; Gerhardson, Berndt

    2004-03-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium are characterized by being able to rely on methanol as a sole carbon and energy source and by presenting a more or less intense pink reddish pigmentation. These bacteria, also referred to as pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs), are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere and are found in many other environmental samples. Since they grow slowly they are often overlooked and their impact on phyllosphere microbial communities and on the plants harboring them is not well studied nor has their ecology been elucidated. In a survey of PPFM colonization in three different agricultural sites, PPFM populations were identified on both red clover and winter wheat, but red clover was more consistently colonized. Isolations from collected leaves showed PPFM populations to decrease from spring towards summer, but they increased again towards the end of the cropping season. Isolates from red clover readily colonized winter wheat leaves and vice versa in greenhouse experiments, but population sizes were dependent on the application procedure. Tested isolates had also good potential to colonize the rhizosphere, especially after seed inoculations. Confocal scanning laser microscopy showed gfp-tagged isolates to colonize the surface of clover leaves by forming large aggregates.

  10. Evaluation of induced color changes in chicken breast meat during simulation of pink color defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holownia, K; Chinnan, M S; Reynolds, A E; Koehler, P E

    2003-06-01

    The objective of the study was to establish a pink threshold and simulate the pink defect in cooked chicken breast meat with treatment combinations that would induce significant changes in the color of raw and cooked meat. The subjective pink threshold used in judging pink discoloration was established at a* = 3.8. Samples of three color groups (normal, lighter than normal, and darker than normal) of boneless, skinless chicken breast muscles were selected based on instrumental color values. The in situ changes were induced using sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium erythorbate, and sodium nitrite at two levels: present and not present. Fillets in all treatments were subjected to individual injections, followed by tumbling, cooking, and chilling. Samples were analyzed for color [lightness (L*), red/green axis (a*), yellow/blue axis (b*)] and reflectance spectra. Simulation of the pink defect was achieved in eight of the 16 treatment combinations when sodium nitrite was present and in an additional two treatment combinations when it was absent. Pinking in cooked samples was affected (P meat color. Results confirmed that it was possible to simulate the undesired pinking in cooked chicken white meat when in situ conditions were induced by sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium nitrite. The continuation of the simulation study can aid in developing alternative processing methods to eliminate potential pink defects.

  11. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  12. Progression of subtle motor signs in PINK1 mutation carriers with mild dopaminergic deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, C; Schmidt, A; Hagenah, J

    2010-01-01

    While homozygous mutations in the PINK1 gene cause recessively inherited early-onset Parkinson disease (PD), heterozygous mutations have been suggested as a susceptibility factor.......While homozygous mutations in the PINK1 gene cause recessively inherited early-onset Parkinson disease (PD), heterozygous mutations have been suggested as a susceptibility factor....

  13. Early-onset parkinsonism associated with PINK1 mutations: frequency, genotypes, and phenotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifati, V.; Rohe, C.F.; Breedveld, G.J.; Fabrizio, E.; Mari, M. De; Tassorelli, C.; Tavella, A.; Marconi, R.; Nicholl, D.; Chien, H.F.; Fincati, E.; Abbruzzese, G.; Marini, P.; Gaetano, A. De; Horstink, M.W.I.M.; Maat-Kievit, J.A.; Sampaio, C.; Antonini, A.; Stocchi, F.; Montagna, P.; Toni, V.; Guidi, M.; Dalla Libera, A.; Tinazzi, M.; Pandis, F. De; Goldwurm, S.; Klein, A. de; Barbosa, E.; Lopiano, L.; Martignoni, E.; Lamberti, P.; Vanacore, N.; Meco, G.; Oostra, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence, nature, and associated phenotypes of PINK1 gene mutations in a large series of patients with early-onset (<50 years) parkinsonism. METHODS: The authors studied 134 patients (116 sporadic and 18 familial; 77% Italian) and 90 Italian controls. The whole PINK1

  14. German energy policy in deregulated Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    2000-01-01

    The author argues in favor of a more fact-oriented German energy policy: Firstly, German energy policy must accept the new European framework of a market economy. This means that German utilities must no longer be burdened with the implementation of political objectives. The German power industry needs a level playing field for competition on a European scale. Consequently, also the European partner countries should not limit themselves to the minimum conditions of the Single Market Directive in opening their markets. Secondly, German energy policy must develop new forms of cooperation with the power industry so as to maintain domestic employment and the addition of value despite considerably stronger competitive pressure. Also the conflicting targets of sustainability, continuity of supply, and economic viability must not only be discussed, but must be turned into productive approaches. Thirdly, this means that there must be no inadmissible solution in matters nuclear. If the German power industry is to remain strong, in the interest of domestic jobs and opportunities for the future, it must not lose any more domestic market share to other European companies. Fourthly, we need a new energy policy which takes cognizance of the results of market development in a more rational, less emotional way. In this respect, it should be limited henceforth to supporting renewable energies and technologies so as to enhance energy efficiency in line with market requirements. Fifthly, German energy policy must not commit the mistake of enforcing deregulation and, at the same time, exempting large segments of the market from competition. Thus, the planned expansion of renewable energies, and the increase in cogeneration to more than thirty percent of the German electricty generation, by way of quotas and revenues for electricity from these sources fed into the public grid, are incompatible with competition in Europe. The electricity tax within the framework of the eco tax, the

  15. PINK1 is necessary for long term survival and mitochondrial function in human dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Wood-Kaczmar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common age-related neurodegenerative disease and it is critical to develop models which recapitulate the pathogenic process including the effect of the ageing process. Although the pathogenesis of sporadic PD is unknown, the identification of the mendelian genetic factor PINK1 has provided new mechanistic insights. In order to investigate the role of PINK1 in Parkinson's disease, we studied PINK1 loss of function in human and primary mouse neurons. Using RNAi, we created stable PINK1 knockdown in human dopaminergic neurons differentiated from foetal ventral mesencephalon stem cells, as well as in an immortalised human neuroblastoma cell line. We sought to validate our findings in primary neurons derived from a transgenic PINK1 knockout mouse. For the first time we demonstrate an age dependent neurodegenerative phenotype in human and mouse neurons. PINK1 deficiency leads to reduced long-term viability in human neurons, which die via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Human neurons lacking PINK1 demonstrate features of marked oxidative stress with widespread mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. We report that PINK1 plays a neuroprotective role in the mitochondria of mammalian neurons, especially against stress such as staurosporine. In addition we provide evidence that cellular compensatory mechanisms such as mitochondrial biogenesis and upregulation of lysosomal degradation pathways occur in PINK1 deficiency. The phenotypic effects of PINK1 loss-of-function described here in mammalian neurons provides mechanistic insight into the age-related degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons seen in PD.

  16. Oxidative stress and regulation of Pink1 in zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusmita Priyadarshini

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress-mediated neuronal dysfunction is characteristic of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD. The enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH catalyzes the formation of L-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of dopamine. A lack of dopamine in the striatum is the most characteristic feature of PD, and the cause of the most dominant symptoms. Loss of function mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK1 gene cause autosomal recessive PD. This study explored the basic mechanisms underlying the involvement of pink1 in oxidative stress-mediated PD pathology using zebrafish as a tool. We generated a transgenic line, Tg(pink1:EGFP, and used it to study the effect of oxidative stress (exposure to H2O2 on pink1 expression. GFP expression was enhanced throughout the brain of zebrafish larvae subjected to oxidative stress. In addition to a widespread increase in pink1 mRNA expression, mild oxidative stress induced a clear decline in tyrosine hydroxylase 2 (th2, but not tyrosine hydroxylase 1 (th1 expression, in the brain of wild-type larvae. The drug L-Glutathione Reduced (LGR has been associated with anti-oxidative and possible neuroprotective properties. Administration of LGR normalized the increased fluorescence intensity indicating pink1 transgene expression and endogenous pink1 mRNA expression in larvae subjected to oxidative stress by H2O2. In the pink1 morpholino oliogonucleotide-injected larvae, the reduction in the expression of th1 and th2 was partially rescued by LGR. The pink1 gene is a sensitive marker of oxidative stress in zebrafish, and LGR effectively normalizes the consequences of mild oxidative stress, suggesting that the neuroprotective effects of pink1 and LGR may be significant and useful in drug development.

  17. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil; Negrã o, Só nia; Essack, Magbubah; Morton, Mitchell J. L.; Bougouffa, Salim; Mohamad Razali, Rozaimi; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Marchand, Benoit; Kulmanov, Maxat; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tester, Mark A.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  18. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil

    2017-07-14

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  19. Transposable Elements in Human Cancer: Causes and Consequences of Deregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sumadi Lukman; Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Lehmann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) comprise nearly half of the human genome and play an essential role in the maintenance of genomic stability, chromosomal architecture, and transcriptional regulation. TEs are repetitive sequences consisting of RNA transposons, DNA transposons, and endogenous retroviruses that can invade the human genome with a substantial contribution in human evolution and genomic diversity. TEs are therefore firmly regulated from early embryonic development and during the entire course of human life by epigenetic mechanisms, in particular DNA methylation and histone modifications. The deregulation of TEs has been reported in some developmental diseases, as well as for different types of human cancers. To date, the role of TEs, the mechanisms underlying TE reactivation, and the interplay with DNA methylation in human cancers remain largely unexplained. We reviewed the loss of epigenetic regulation and subsequent genomic instability, chromosomal aberrations, transcriptional deregulation, oncogenic activation, and aberrations of non-coding RNAs as the potential mechanisms underlying TE deregulation in human cancers. PMID:28471386

  20. Transposable Elements in Human Cancer: Causes and Consequences of Deregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumadi Lukman Anwar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs comprise nearly half of the human genome and play an essential role in the maintenance of genomic stability, chromosomal architecture, and transcriptional regulation. TEs are repetitive sequences consisting of RNA transposons, DNA transposons, and endogenous retroviruses that can invade the human genome with a substantial contribution in human evolution and genomic diversity. TEs are therefore firmly regulated from early embryonic development and during the entire course of human life by epigenetic mechanisms, in particular DNA methylation and histone modifications. The deregulation of TEs has been reported in some developmental diseases, as well as for different types of human cancers. To date, the role of TEs, the mechanisms underlying TE reactivation, and the interplay with DNA methylation in human cancers remain largely unexplained. We reviewed the loss of epigenetic regulation and subsequent genomic instability, chromosomal aberrations, transcriptional deregulation, oncogenic activation, and aberrations of non-coding RNAs as the potential mechanisms underlying TE deregulation in human cancers.

  1. Competitiveness of tomato production in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, W.; Qureshi, A.H.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study measures competitiveness at farm level and economic efficiency at country level of tomato production in relation to tomato trade by using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) framework in Punjab, Pakistan. The province was divided into two tomato production regions i.e., Central and Southern Punjab for analysis purpose under importable scenario by using import parity price. Results of PAM model revealed that tomato production in both regions of Punjab has competitiveness under prevailing market situation as indicated by positive private profitability and private cost ratio (PCR) which is less than 1. Competitiveness difference in two regions indicated that Central Punjab has more competitiveness at farm level in tomato production. Economic efficiency results i.e. Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) ratio remained 0.39 and 0.51 in Central and Southern Punjab, respectively with positive social profitability indicating strong comparative advantage under importable scenario. The above results implied that Central Punjab has greater economic efficiency than Southern Punjab in domestic resources use for production of tomato as import substitute commodity. Results of Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC) and Effective Protection Coefficient (EPC) indicated that combine effects of policies on output and tradable input market did not pass any protection to tomato farmers in the study area. Net effect of policy or market failure is reducing the profitability of tomato producers at farm level which indicates lack of motivation from policies for farmers to expand tomato production as import substitute crop. Present study recommended competitiveness and economic efficiency analysis in other tomato producing regions of the country for year round tomato supply on the basis of resource efficiency and to curtail tomato imports to save the precious foreign exchange. To enhance the competitiveness there is need to increase farmer's incentives through increase of farm level price up to

  2. Ripening-Dependent Changes in Antioxidants, Color Attributes, and Antioxidant Activity of Seven Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ram Bhandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients, seven commercial cultivars (two general and five cherry of tomatoes were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Fruits were harvested at breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages of each cultivar, and antioxidant contents, color attributes, and antioxidant activities were measured. During ripening process, lycopene content increased from the breaker to red stage, while lutein displayed the reverse accumulation pattern, with higher values during the breaker stage. In contrast, β-carotene showed the highest levels of synthesis in pink and light red stages. Furthermore, flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and luteolin also showed similar ripening-dependent changes, with higher quantities in pink and light red stages. Ascorbic acid showed continuously increasing patterns throughout ripening until the red stage, while the accumulation of total phenolics was cultivar-dependent. These results indicate that each antioxidant compound has a unique pattern of accumulation and degradation during the ripening process. “Unicon” exhibited highest total carotenoid (110.27 mg/100 g, total phenol (297.88 mg GAE/100 g and total flavonoid content (273.33 mg/100 g, and consequently highest antioxidant activity (2552.4 μmol TE/100 g compared to other cultivars. Throughout the ripening processes, total phenolics showed the highest correlation with antioxidant activity, followed by β-carotene and total flavonoids. In conclusion, ripening in tomatoes is accompanied by incremental increases in various antioxidant compounds to some extent, as well as by concomitant increases in antioxidant activity.

  3. Natural gas and deregulation in the European Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The gas market is progressively moving towards new organizations under the effect of deregulation initiated in the United States, the United Kingdom and transposed to other countries, particularly in Europe, at least for the member countries of the European Union. Within the framework provided by this overall trend, Cedigaz proposes a study titled 'Natural Gas and Deregulation' in order to describe the main developments affecting these markets on account of deregulation. This report is structured on the basis of three main topics (market organization, marketing modes, pricing) which appears to be the most cogent in terms of deregulation. This grouping by major topics accordingly offers a relatively synthetic view of the main trends which could be observed in the European market, for example. The analysis is largely based on the example of the American market and, to a lesser extent, on the British situation. Incidentally, it has adapted the terms 'regulated market' to define conventional markets and 'deregulated market' to define markets which have incorporated the principle of Third Party Access (TPA). This is obviously a mere convention, since in both cases, the gas market, a network market, is regulated either by the State or by an independent agency. Also noteworthy is the diversity of the regulation methods for the network markets. While an underlying principle prevails throughout, particularly the introduction of TPA, political and energy considerations alike are liable to condition strongly the final structure of a given market. The apparently comparable British and American experience thus display substantial differences. In other words, one should not imagine a sudden transposition of either case to the European market. The different States preserve considerable leeway to guide market developments in one direction or another. On the whole, deregulation is not a frozen process, but has to adapt permanently to developments in a market stage-managed by

  4. Deregulation of an imprinted gene network in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribarska, Teodora; Goering, Wolfgang; Droop, Johanna; Bastian, Klaus-Marius; Ingenwerth, Marc; Schulz, Wolfgang A

    2014-05-01

    Multiple epigenetic alterations contribute to prostate cancer progression by deregulating gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms, especially differential DNA methylation at imprinting control regions (termed DMRs), normally ensure the exclusive expression of imprinted genes from one specific parental allele. We therefore wondered to which extent imprinted genes become deregulated in prostate cancer and, if so, whether deregulation is due to altered DNA methylation at DMRs. Therefore, we selected presumptive deregulated imprinted genes from a previously conducted in silico analysis and from the literature and analyzed their expression in prostate cancer tissues by qRT-PCR. We found significantly diminished expression of PLAGL1/ZAC1, MEG3, NDN, CDKN1C, IGF2, and H19, while LIT1 was significantly overexpressed. The PPP1R9A gene, which is imprinted in selected tissues only, was strongly overexpressed, but was expressed biallelically in benign and cancerous prostatic tissues. Expression of many of these genes was strongly correlated, suggesting co-regulation, as in an imprinted gene network (IGN) reported in mice. Deregulation of the network genes also correlated with EZH2 and HOXC6 overexpression. Pyrosequencing analysis of all relevant DMRs revealed generally stable DNA methylation between benign and cancerous prostatic tissues, but frequent hypo- and hyper-methylation was observed at the H19 DMR in both benign and cancerous tissues. Re-expression of the ZAC1 transcription factor induced H19, CDKN1C and IGF2, supporting its function as a nodal regulator of the IGN. Our results indicate that a group of imprinted genes are coordinately deregulated in prostate cancers, independently of DNA methylation changes.

  5. Deregulation, privatisation and marketisation of Nordic comprehensive education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dovemark, Marianne; Kosunen, Sonja; Kauko, Jaakko

    2018-01-01

    economy. The aim of this article is to examine education in the five Nordic countries utilising three dimensions of political change: deregulation, marketisation and privatisation. We also analyse the parallel changes in relation to segregation and differentiation in education. The analysis shows...... that the themes related to deregulation seem to show fairly similar patterns and structures in all contexts. The emerging differences were discovered mainly in the themes of marketisation and privatisation. Institutional segregation emerges in all Nordic countries to different extents along the lines...

  6. Buying and selling green: deregulation and green power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the increasing trend towards deregulation of electricity markets, and the driving forces for liberalisation in the EU and North America. The use of green tariffs offered by utilities to differentiate themselves from competitors and to gain and keep customers is reported, and the situation with regard to green energy within the deregulated electricity markets in Australia, the EU, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, the UK, Canada and the USA is outlined. Customers switching as a result of green tariffs, the growing role of renewables, and opportunities for the promotion of green tariffs are discussed. (UK)

  7. Hard X-ray emission spectroscopy with pink beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Rossberg, Andre; Exner, Joerg; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures

    2017-06-01

    Valence-band X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) with a ''pink beam'', i.e. a beam with large energy bandwidth produced by a double-multilayer monochromator, is introduced here to overcome the weak count rate of monochromatic beams produced by conventional double-crystal monochromators. Our results demonstrate that - in spite of the large bandwidth in the order of 100 eV - the high spectral resolution of the Johann-type spectrometer is maintained, while the two orders of magnitude higher flux greatly reduces the required counting time. The short working distance Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer and multilayer monochromator is available at ROBL.

  8. You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases.

  9. Pink esthetics in periodontics - Gingival depigmentation: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthiie Thangavelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection, and courtesy, and reveals self-confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of "black gums" are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line. Thus, perio-esthetic treatment modalities strive to achieve a harmonious inter-relationship of the pink with white, which is imperative of all treatment procedures. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. In the present case series, scraping, electrosurgery, and diode laser have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective, and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction.

  10. Pink-color sign in esophageal squamous neoplasia, and speculation regarding the underlying mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Ryu; Kanzaki, Hiromitsu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Nagai, Kengo; Matsui, Fumi; Yamashina, Takeshi; Matsuura, Noriko; Ito, Takashi; Fujii, Mototsugu; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Tatsuta, Masaharu; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Ishiguro, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the reasons for the occurrence of the pink-color sign of iodine-unstained lesions. METHODS: In chromoendoscopy, the pink-color sign of iodine-unstained lesions is recognized as useful for the diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with superficial esophageal neoplasms treated by endoscopic resection were included in the study. Areas of mucosa with and without the pink-color sign were evaluated histologically. The following histologic features that were possibly associated with the pink-color sign were evaluated. The keratinous layer and basal cell layer were classified as present or absent. Cellular atypia was classified as high grade, moderate grade or low grade, based on nuclear irregularity, mitotic figures, loss of polarity, chromatin pattern and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio. Vascular change was assessed based on dilatation, tortuosity, caliber change and variability in shape. Vessels with these four findings were classified as positive for vascular change. Endoscopic images of the lesions were captured immediately after iodine staining, 2-3 min after iodine staining and after complete fading of iodine staining. Quantitative analysis of color changes after iodine staining was also performed. RESULTS: A total of 61 superficial esophageal neoplasms in 54 patients were included in the study. The lesions were located in the cervical esophagus in one case, the upper thoracic esophagus in 10 cases, the mid-thoracic esophagus in 33 cases, and the lower thoracic esophagus in 17 cases. The median diameter of the lesions was 20 mm (range: 2-74 mm). Of the 61 lesions, 28 were classified as pink-color sign positive and 33 as pink-color sign negative. The histologic diagnosis was high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) or cancer invading into the lamina propria in 26 of the 28 pink-color sign positive lesions. There was a significant association between pink-color sign positive epithelium and HGIN or invasive cancer (P = 0

  11. Lead (Pb) induced ATM-dependent mitophagy via PINK1/Parkin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xueyan; Qi, Yongmei; Feng, Zengxiu; Ma, Lin; Gao, Ke; Zhang, Yingmei

    2018-07-01

    Lead (Pb), a widely distributed environmental pollutant, is known to induce mitochondrial damage as well as autophagy in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that Pb could trigger mitophagy in both HEK293 cells and the kidney cortex of male Kunming mice. However, whether ataxia telangiectasis mutated (ATM) which is reported to be linked with PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin pathway (a well-characterized mitophagic pathway) participates in the regulation of Pb-induced mitophagy and its exact role remains enigmatic. Our results indicated that Pb activated ATM in vitro and in vivo, and further in vitro studies showed that ATM could co-localize with PINK1 and Parkin in cytosol and interact with PINK1. Knockdown of ATM by siRNA blocked Pb-induced mitophagy even under the circumstance of enhanced accumulation of PINK1 and mitochondrial Parkin. Intriguingly, elevation instead of reduction in phosphorylation level of PINK1 and Parkin was observed in response to ATM knockdown and Pb did not contribute to the further increase of their phosphorylation level, implying that ATM indirectly regulated PINK1/Parkin pathway. These findings reveal a novel mechanism for Pb toxicity and suggest the regulatory importance of ATM in PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hormones and tomato seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of

  13. Novel P-TEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) variant in Indian Parkinson's disease patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Tamali; Raj, Janak; Sharma, Vivek; Das, Parimal

    2015-09-25

    Loss-of-function mutation in PINK1 is known for causing autosomal recessive early onset Parkinsonism accounting approximately 6.5% of PD cases. Recently, PINK1 has also been shown to cause Parkinson's disease (PD) in eastern India. Present study is aimed to see its contribution in north-Indian PD patients. A total of 106 PD patients and 60 ethnically matched healthy controls were included in the study. All the patients were screened for mutation in PINK1 by direct DNA sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons covering all exons and exon-intron boundaries. Identified novel variant was reconfirmed by DNA sequencing of 10 randomly selected TA clones containing the variant amplicon. In vitro functional assay of the mutant protein was performed by transfecting COS-7 cell line with wild type and mutant (created by site-directed-mutagenesis) cDNA construct of PINK1 fused to N' terminal GFP followed by western blot analysis. Two potentially pathogenic, one being novel (p.Q267X) and 6 other apparently non-pathogenic variants were identified. Western blot analysis reveals production of truncated PINK1 fusion protein of ∼55kDa in p.Q267X mutant instead of 82/93kDa of wild type PINK1 fusion protein (molecular weight of GFP is ∼27kDa). Our study concludes that PINK1 variants are prevalent for causing Parkinson's disease (PD) in India, as revealed by the occurrence of 1.8% (2/106) in PD patients from north Indian population. The novel homozygous variant of PINK1 (c.799C>T) reported here is the plausible cause for disease manifestation in this patient. Future study, however, would be helpful to understand the functional mechanism how this premature PINK1 protein (p.Q267X) responds to cellular stress leading to the PD pathophysiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clueless, a protein required for mitochondrial function, interacts with the PINK1-Parkin complex in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of mitochondrial function often leads to neurodegeneration and is thought to be one of the underlying causes of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD. However, the precise events linking mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death remain elusive. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 and Parkin (Park, either of which, when mutated, are responsible for early-onset PD, mark individual mitochondria for destruction at the mitochondrial outer membrane. The specific molecular pathways that regulate signaling between the nucleus and mitochondria to sense mitochondrial dysfunction under normal physiological conditions are not well understood. Here, we show that Drosophila Clueless (Clu, a highly conserved protein required for normal mitochondrial function, can associate with Translocase of the outer membrane (TOM 20, Porin and PINK1, and is thus located at the mitochondrial outer membrane. Previously, we found that clu genetically interacts with park in Drosophila female germ cells. Here, we show that clu also genetically interacts with PINK1, and our epistasis analysis places clu downstream of PINK1 and upstream of park. In addition, Clu forms a complex with PINK1 and Park, further supporting that Clu links mitochondrial function with the PINK1-Park pathway. Lack of Clu causes PINK1 and Park to interact with each other, and clu mutants have decreased mitochondrial protein levels, suggesting that Clu can act as a negative regulator of the PINK1-Park pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that Clu directly modulates mitochondrial function, and that Clu's function contributes to the PINK1-Park pathway of mitochondrial quality control.

  15. PINK1 is required for timely cell-type specific mitochondrial clearance during Drosophila midgut metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Lin, Jingjing; Zhang, Minjie; Chen, Kai; Yang, Shengxi; Wang, Qun; Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen; Zhou, Yongjian; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Fei; Yang, Yufeng

    2016-11-15

    Mitophagy is the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy, which is an important mitochondrial quality and quantity control process. During Drosophila metamorphosis, the degradation of midgut involves a large change in length and organization, which is mediated by autophagy. Here we noticed a cell-type specific mitochondrial clearance process that occurs in enterocytes (ECs), while most mitochondria remain in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) during metamorphosis. Although PINK1/PARKIN represent the canonical pathway for the elimination of impaired mitochondria in varied pathological conditions, their roles in developmental processes or normal physiological conditions have been less studied. To examine the potential contribution of PINK1 in developmental processes, we monitored the dynamic expression pattern of PINK1 in the midgut development by taking advantage of a newly CRISPR/Cas9 generated knock-in fly strain expressing PINK1-mCherry fusion protein that presumably recapitulates the endogenous expression pattern of PINK1. We disclosed a spatiotemporal correlation between the expression pattern of PINK1 and the mitochondrial clearance or persistence in ECs or ISCs respectively. By mosaic genetic analysis, we then demonstrated that PINK1 and PARKIN function epistatically to mediate the specific timely removal of mitochondria, and are involved in global autophagy in ECs during Drosophila midgut metamorphosis, with kinase-dead PINK1 exerting dominant negative effects. Taken together, our studies concluded that the PINK1/PARKIN is crucial for timely cell-type specific mitophagy under physiological conditions and demonstrated again that Drosophila midgut metamorphosis might serve as an elegant in vivo model to study autophagy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among Women ... their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing and marketing ... and the effect of dry season tomato farming as strategy for poverty reduction; ...

  17. PINK1 positively regulates IL-1β-mediated signaling through Tollip and IRAK1 modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hyun Jung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson disease (PD is characterized by a slow, progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantianigra. The cause of neuronal loss in PD is not well understood, but several genetic loci, including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1, have been linked to early-onset autosomal recessive forms of familial PD. Neuroinflammation greatly contributes to PD neuronal degeneration and pathogenesis. IL-1 is one of the principal cytokines that regulates various immune and inflammatory responses via the activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and activating protein-1. Despite the close relationship between PD and neuroinflammation, the functional roles of PD-linked genes during inflammatory processes remain poorly understood. Methods To explore the functional roles of PINK1 in response to IL-1β stimulation, HEK293 cells, mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from PINK1-null (PINK1−/− and control (PINK1+/+ mice, and 293 IL-1RI cells stably expressing type 1 IL-1 receptor were used. Immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis were performed to detect protein–protein interaction and protein ubiquitination. To confirm the effect of PINK1 on NF-κB activation, NF-κB-dependent firefly luciferase reporter assay was conducted. Results PINK1 specifically binds two components of the IL-1-mediated signaling cascade, Toll-interacting protein (Tollip and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1. The association of PINK1 with Tollip, a negative regulator of IL-1β signaling, increases upon IL-1β stimulation, which then facilitates the dissociation of Tollip from IRAK1 as well as the assembly of the IRAK1–TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6 complex. PINK1 also enhances Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of IRAK1, an essential modification of recruitment of NF-κB essential modulator and subsequent IκB kinase activation, and increases formation of the intermediate signalosome including IRAK1, TRAF6, and

  18. CHARACTERISTICS AND PHENOTYPICAL VARIABILITY OF TOMATO INITIAL BREEDING MATERIAL ACCORDING TO THE MAIN ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE TRAITS AND PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Rechets

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of Moldova has a large assortment of seed of foreign selection, such as large-fruited tomatoes, cherry and cocktail tomato. Therefore, it is necessary to launch the breeding program for hybrid development of local origin tomato typed, such as ‘Cherry’ and ‘Cocktail’ with a different form, mass and fruit color. Initially, 15 parental forms of tomato were studied for the main economically valuable traits in the open field condition. Phenotypic variation in tomato varieties and breeding accession was identified depending on the terms of cultivation. Such varieties and lines of tomato as ‘Trapesa’, ‘Rosovaya Kapelka’, ‘Seniyorita’, ‘Ocharovaniye’, ‘L. 46/06’, ‘L. 49/09’, ‘L 295/09,’ ‘L. 336/11’, ‘L. 354/11’, ‘L. 357/11’, ‘L. 388/09 (nor’, ‘L.498 (released by TARI, ‘Tigris’, ‘Vishnya Zheltaya’ (released by OOO ‘Gavrish’, ‘Denezhnoye Derevo’ (national breeding program were used as the initial breeding material. Totally, 15 breeding accessions were used for the study, where all of them differed in the type of bush (determinate and indeterminate; a vegetation period (ultra-early, early, middle, late; a form (roundish, oval; a fruit color (red, pink, black, orange, tiger and with a NOR gene; a fruit weight (from 10 g and above; a structure of brush (dense, loose. Lines and varieties of tomato of different terms of ripening characterized by the shortened internode, high fruit setting on the bush, high content of biologically active substances, and complex resistance to diseases were used to breed tomato hybrids of ‘cherry’ and ‘cocktail’ types with different fruit form and color.

  19. The tomato sauce making process affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of tomato phenolics: a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2015-04-15

    Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 75 FR 68321 - Forage Genetics International; Supplemental Request for Partial Deregulation of Roundup Ready...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ...] Forage Genetics International; Supplemental Request for Partial Deregulation of Roundup Ready Alfalfa... Inspection Service has received a supplemental request for ``partial deregulation'' from Forage Genetics... affected persons of the availability of the documents submitted to the Agency from Forage Genetics...

  1. Genomic variants at the PINK1 locus are associated with transcript abundance and plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations in European whites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franks, P.W.; Scheele, C.; Loos, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    these were not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing. In primary adipocytes, Pink1 knockdown affected fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4) expression, indicating that PINK1 may influence substrate metabolism. We demonstrate that PINK1 polymorphisms are associated with PINK1...

  2. An Agent-based Application to Enable Deregulated Energy Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capodieci, Nicola; Cabri, Giacomo; Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Private houses are more and more enabled with devices that can produce renewable energy, and the not so remote chance of selling the surplus energy makes them new players in the energy market. This market is likely to become deregulated since each energy home-producer can negotiate the energy price

  3. Gas prices deregulation: how to play the game well?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    At the instigation of the European Union and in a context of increasing deregulation, the end of regulated gas prices in France is coming soon. Suppliers and consumers concerned are actively preparing themselves to take the turn of gas market liberalization. This short paper reveals their strategies

  4. Structural Reforms and Growth : Product and Labor Market Deregulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Rossi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on labor and product market deregulations, as fundamental elements in the passage from an investment to an innovation-based economy.The approach undertaken is prominently empirical.After a very brief description of the regulatory levels on the two sides of the Atlantic, we take two

  5. Nuclear regulation on the electrical sector's deregulation horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindelan, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical sector is generally tending towards a deregulated system which will exert greater pressure on production costs. The author uses this article to reflect on the consequences this new conception will bring for nuclear energy and, particularly, for the activity of regulatory agencies and safety requirements. (Author)

  6. The European gaseous market deregulation and its consequences for Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.; Locatelli, C.

    2002-07-01

    Russia, the first world producer of gas in 2001 is also the main producer in the european gas market. In this framework the evolution of its gas exportations market is a major stake for the russian gas industry and for the country economy. The consequences of this gas market deregulation are analyzed in this document. (A.L.B.)

  7. Deregulation of the Nigerian economy: The theoretical milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureni Opeyemi Akintoye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The deregulation of Nigerian economy was the main thrust of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP introduced in the country in 1986 under the leadership of General Ibrahim Babandiga (1958-1993. Prior to that period the Nigerian economy was almost a command one with wide range of government control. Indeed, the introduction of SAP was said to be a final solution to the economic crisis faced by the Country. Unfortunately, SAP was introduced yet, the economy became more crunched. During the General Abach's regime (1993­1998, SAP was suspended out rightly. When General Abdulsalami Abubakar (1998-1999 took over, he continued pursuing the privatization programme which is a synonym of deregulation of the economy with the promulgation of another privatization decree. The civilian government led by President Obasanjo which took over from 1999 made deregulation the core with vigour. It is basked on this development that this paper intends to unravel the theoretical paradigm under which the deregulation of Nigerian economy could be explained. This includes capitalism, imperialism, colonialism particularly the incorporation of Nigerian into international capitalist system.

  8. Deregulation and the Alberta experience : the implications for Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spearman, C. [Industrial Association of Southern Alberta, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The government of Alberta deregulated its electric power industry to introduce industry structure and regulatory reforms that would promote competitive electricity prices. The objective was to ensure fairness for customers and generating facilities. A graph depicting power pool prices shows the reality of soaring prices at the onset of deregulation in Alberta. Today, there remains uncertainty in the development of retail choice, additional rate riders, new generation, transmission expansion, other jurisdictions and future prices. Consumers are still poorly equipped to make decisions and farmers have no means of protection from fluctuating electricity prices. They see deregulation as a complete failure because costs are up and benefits are nowhere to be seen. Ontario can learn from the Alberta experience by adopting the recommendations to set financial penalties for incompetence, financial compensation to customers for errors, and to be fully ready with systems tested ahead of deregulation. Anticipated customer benefits should be clearly identified in advance. The future electric power industry in Ontario needs vision, stability, a cohesive plan, and leadership devoid of complacency. 1 fig.

  9. Deregulation and the Alberta experience : the implications for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spearman, C.

    2002-01-01

    The government of Alberta deregulated its electric power industry to introduce industry structure and regulatory reforms that would promote competitive electricity prices. The objective was to ensure fairness for customers and generating facilities. A graph depicting power pool prices shows the reality of soaring prices at the onset of deregulation in Alberta. Today, there remains uncertainty in the development of retail choice, additional rate riders, new generation, transmission expansion, other jurisdictions and future prices. Consumers are still poorly equipped to make decisions and farmers have no means of protection from fluctuating electricity prices. They see deregulation as a complete failure because costs are up and benefits are nowhere to be seen. Ontario can learn from the Alberta experience by adopting the recommendations to set financial penalties for incompetence, financial compensation to customers for errors, and to be fully ready with systems tested ahead of deregulation. Anticipated customer benefits should be clearly identified in advance. The future electric power industry in Ontario needs vision, stability, a cohesive plan, and leadership devoid of complacency. 1 fig

  10. Electricity pricing model in thermal generating stations under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reji, P.; Ashok, S.; Moideenkutty, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    In regulated public utilities with competitive power markets, deregulation has replaced the monopoly. Under the deregulated power market, the electricity price primarily depends on market mechanism and power demand. In this market, generators generally follow marginal pricing. Each generator fixes the electricity price based on their pricing strategy and it leads to more price volatility. This paper proposed a model to determine the electricity price considering all operational constraints of the plant and economic variables that influenced the price, for a thermal generating station under deregulation. The purpose of the model was to assist existing stations, investors in the power sector, regulatory authorities, transmission utilities, and new power generators in decision-making. The model could accommodate price volatility in the market and was based on performance incentive/penalty considering plant load factor, availability of the plant and peak/ off peak demand. The model was applied as a case study to a typical thermal utility in India to determine the electricity price. It was concluded that the case study of a thermal generating station in a deregulated environment showed that the electricity price mainly depended on the gross calorific value (GCV) of fuel, mode of operation, price of the fuel, and operating charges. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Deregulation and restructuring of the electricity sector in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francia, L.

    2000-01-01

    This economic analysis of the Electric Power industry and market in Spain shows how the electricity deregulation and liberalization in Spain have given rise to an electricity industry which not only complies in spirit and letter with the E.U. Directive on the internal energy market, but which in fact goes much further. (A.L.B.)

  12. Vulnerable Consumers in the Deregulated Dutch Health System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booltink, L.; Genugten, M.L. van; Lako, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Public service deregulation is favoured for motivating providers to offer consumers better price-quality services. Consequently, consumers are enabled to make informed choices and choose for the best service provider. However, recent publications reveal that consumers are not capable of exercising

  13. Insurance brokers market dynamics in Poland before deregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Krajewski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focus on insurance broker profession in connection with second part of professions deregulations. It briefly presents modifications in polish law in this domain. Next part concerns the insurance brokers market dynamics analysis. The results shows permanent increase in brokers quantity in spite of existing regulations. Presented paper makes start point to following analysis.

  14. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hossain

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15) were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in co...

  15. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, which causes the red coloring of tomatoes. Several reports have suggested lycopene plays a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we systematically reviewed the interventional studies using tomatoes or tomato products to understandtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of the tomatoas a functional food. We found that a significantnumber of interventional studies reportedtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes, includinganti-obesity effects, hypotensiveeffects, improvement of lipid/glucose metabolismand endothelial function, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and anti-platelet effect; however, the anti-platelet effect was disagreed uponby some studies. Furthermore, we discoveredcooking methods significantlyaffect anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes.

  16. Predicting the presence of whiteflies and tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Florida tomato fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida is one of the leading states for production of fresh market tomatoes. Production is severely affected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The objective of this study was to identify landscape and climatic factors that drive whitefly populations and TYLCV incidence in commercial tomato ...

  17. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  18. Competitive positioning of power generation plants in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.

    1998-01-01

    As industrialized countries deregulate their electric power industries, there is a fundamental shift from guaranteed cost recovery to open market competition on a deregulated grid. Utilities generally competitively bid into a power exchange where the lowest cost power providers are dispatched first. Therefore, the competitiveness of utilities determines their profitability. This commercial structure compels power generators to seek out ways of improving their equipment and plant performance. The inevitability of this trend is demonstrated by a look at the installed base in the US where the move toward deregulation is gaining momentum. More than half of the generating plants in the US are over 20 years old. The average thermal efficiency nation-wide is 33%. In contrast, contemporary coal-and gas-fired plants can operate at efficiency levels up to 45 percent and 55 to 60%, respectfully. With new facilities coming on-line, existing plants will need to make improvements to be dispatched. When deregulation fully envelopes the US market, utilities will not all fit into one pattern; their strategies and actions will depend on a multiple set of factors. Their success will be based on their ability to change landscapes from guaranteed cost recovery to competitive bidding. This paper discussers technical and commercial options available to power producers to improve their competitive positions in a deregulated market as well as software for determining the competitiveness of specific power plants and the location-based market prices of electricity. Examples of the application of alternatives will be cited along with expected payback and impact on cents per kilowatt-hour production costs

  19. Why Shops Close Again : An Evolutionary Perspective on the Deregulation of Shopping Hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosfeld, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces a new perspective on the deregulation of shopping hours based on ideas from evolutionary game theory. We study a retail economy where shopping hours have been deregulated recently. It is argued that first, the deregulation leads to a coordination problem between store owners

  20. AFSC/ABL: Pink salmon data collected at Sashin Creek Weir 1934-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A database describing a 67-year time series for Sashin Creek pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) data is presented. The database details the survival and other...

  1. AFSC/ABL: Population structure of odd- and even-broodline Asian pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Electrophoretic analysis of Asian even brood-year pink salmon stocks has shown regional heterogeneity (Noll et al. in review). Hypothetical mixed fisheries were...

  2. Histological observations on the scleractinian coral Porites lutea affected by pink-line syndrome

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

    A pink-line syndrome (PLS) was reported in the reef building coral Porites lutea in Kavaratti island of the Lakshadweep archipelago. The affected corals had dead patches colonized by a cyanobacterium Phormidium valderianum and the bordering coral...

  3. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  4. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  5. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  6. Allium Discoloration: Color Compounds Formed during Pinking of Onion and Leek

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubec, R.; Urajová, P.; Lacina, O.; Hajšlová, J.; Kuzma, Marek; Zápal, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 46 (2015), s. 10192-10199 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : discoloration * plant pigment * pinking Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.857, year: 2015

  7. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  8. Breeding ecology of the pink-billed lark, Spizocorys conirostris , in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding ecology of the pink-billed lark, Spizocorys conirostris , in an agricultural landscape in South Africa. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The results are compared with data in Birdlife South Africa's Nest Record Card Scheme.

  9. Kõigepealt on näitleja ja alles siis muu, pink kaasa arvatud / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    20. sept. esietendub VAT Teatris Eesti Muusika ja Teatriakadeemia Lavakunstikooli lavastajate õppesuuna tudengite koolitöö "Pink", mis koosneb kahest iseseisvast loost - Jon Fosse "Talv", lavastaja Robert Annus ja Edward Albee "Loomaaialugu", lavastaja Uku Uusberg

  10. Pink Pungi näitusel valgub veri linale / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Kunstirühmituse Pink Punk (Sandra Jõgeva, Kristin Kalamees, Aino Ingrid Sepp, Kaarel Sammet) näitusest Y-galeriis. Lähemalt videoinstallatsioonist "Must turg" ja ruumiinstallatsioonist "Elulähedane kogemus"

  11. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  12. Enhancing NAD+ salvage metabolism is neuroprotective in a PINK1 model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Lehmann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD caused by mutations in PINK1 are linked to mitochondrial impairment. Defective mitochondria are also found in Drosophila models of PD with pink1 mutations. The co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is essential for both generating energy in mitochondria and nuclear DNA repair through NAD+-consuming poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs. We found alterations in NAD+ salvage metabolism in Drosophila pink1 mutants and showed that a diet supplemented with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide rescued mitochondrial defects and protected neurons from degeneration. Additionally, a mutation of Parp improved mitochondrial function and was neuroprotective in the pink1 mutants. We conclude that enhancing the availability of NAD+ by either the use of a diet supplemented with NAD+ precursors or the inhibition of NAD+-dependent enzymes, such as PARPs, which compete with mitochondria for NAD+, is a viable approach to preventing neurotoxicity associated with mitochondrial defects.

  13. PINK1 regulates mitochondrial trafficking in dendrites of cortical neurons through mitochondrial PKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Banerjee, Tania; Dagda, Raul Y; Dagda, Marisela; Chu, Charleen T; Rice, Monica; Vazquez-Mayorga, Emmanuel; Dagda, Ruben K

    2017-08-01

    Mitochondrial Protein Kinase A (PKA) and PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), which is linked to Parkinson's disease, are two neuroprotective serine/threonine kinases that regulate dendrite remodeling and mitochondrial function. We have previously shown that PINK1 regulates dendrite morphology by enhancing PKA activity. Here, we show the molecular mechanisms by which PINK1 and PKA in the mitochondrion interact to regulate dendrite remodeling, mitochondrial morphology, content, and trafficking in dendrites. PINK1-deficient cortical neurons exhibit impaired mitochondrial trafficking, reduced mitochondrial content, fragmented mitochondria, and a reduction in dendrite outgrowth compared to wild-type neurons. Transient expression of wild-type, but not a PKA-binding-deficient mutant of the PKA-mitochondrial scaffold dual-specificity A Kinase Anchoring Protein 1 (D-AKAP1), restores mitochondrial trafficking, morphology, and content in dendrites of PINK1-deficient cortical neurons suggesting that recruiting PKA to the mitochondrion reverses mitochondrial pathology in dendrites induced by loss of PINK1. Mechanistically, full-length and cleaved forms of PINK1 increase the binding of the regulatory subunit β of PKA (PKA/RIIβ) to D-AKAP1 to enhance the autocatalytic-mediated phosphorylation of PKA/RIIβ and PKA activity. D-AKAP1/PKA governs mitochondrial trafficking in dendrites via the Miro-2/TRAK2 complex and by increasing the phosphorylation of Miro-2. Our study identifies a new role of D-AKAP1 in regulating mitochondrial trafficking through Miro-2, and supports a model in which PINK1 and mitochondrial PKA participate in a similar neuroprotective signaling pathway to maintain dendrite connectivity. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malick, Michael J.; Cox, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  15. Distribution of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs on Leaves of Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    MIZUNO, Masayuki; YURIMOTO, Hiroya; YOSHIDA, Naoko; IGUCHI, Hiroyuki; SAKAI, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs) on the leaves of various vegetables was studied. All kinds of vegetable leaves tested gave pink-pigmented colonies on agar plates containing methanol as sole carbon source. The numbers of PPFMs on the leaves, colony-forming units (CFU)/g of fresh leaves, differed among the plants, although they were planted and grown at the same farm. Commercial green perilla, Perilla frutescens viridis (Makino) Makino, gave the highest coun...

  16. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose ( 3 H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and 3 H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate

  17. PINK1 Primes Parkin-Mediated Ubiquitination of PARIS in Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 and parkin cause autosomal-recessive Parkinson’s disease through a common pathway involving mitochondrial quality control. Parkin inactivation leads to accumulation of the parkin interacting substrate (PARIS, ZNF746 that plays an important role in dopamine cell loss through repression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1-alpha (PGC-1α promoter activity. Here, we show that PARIS links PINK1 and parkin in a common pathway that regulates dopaminergic neuron survival. PINK1 interacts with and phosphorylates serines 322 and 613 of PARIS to control its ubiquitination and clearance by parkin. PINK1 phosphorylation of PARIS alleviates PARIS toxicity, as well as repression of PGC-1α promoter activity. Conditional knockdown of PINK1 in adult mouse brains leads to a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that is dependent on PARIS. Altogether, these results uncover a function of PINK1 to direct parkin-PARIS-regulated PGC-1α expression and dopaminergic neuronal survival.

  18. Preplanting irradiation of tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltseva, S.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of the tomato varieties Pioneer-2, Drouzhba and Ace were treated prior to planting with Co 60 gamma rays in optimal doses of 2000 R and the varieties No 10 x Bison, Triumph and Extase with 1500 R. This treatment raised the germination energy and the plants started flowering and ripening earlier. The index of earliness was enhanced but the overall yield was equal to that of the control plants. (author)

  19. Red, Purple and Pink: The Colors of Diffusion on Pinterest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work—e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

  20. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B. Luz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100 Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Tomato grading system using machine vision technology and neuro-fuzzy networks (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The quality of agricultural products is associated with their color, size and health, grading of fruits is regarded as an important step in post-harvest processing. In most cases, manual sorting inspections depends on available manpower, time consuming and their accuracy could not be guaranteed. Machine Vision is known to be a useful tool for external features measurement (e.g. size, shape, color and defects and in recent century, Machine Vision technology has been used for shape sorting. The main purpose of this study was to develop new method for tomato grading and sorting using Neuro-fuzzy system (ANFIS and to compare the accuracies of the ANFIS predicted results with those suggested by a human expert. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 300 image of tomatoes (Rev ground was randomly harvested, classified in 3 ripeness stage, 3 sizes and 2 health. The grading and sorting mechanism consisted of a lighting chamber (cloudy sky, lighting source and a digital camera connected to a computer. The images were recorded in a special chamber with an indirect radiation (cloudy sky with four florescent lampson each sides and camera lens was entire to lighting chamber by a hole which was only entranced to outer and covered by a camera lens. Three types of features were extracted from final images; Shap, color and texture. To receive these features, we need to have images both in color and binary format in procedure shown in Figure 1. For the first group; characteristics of the images were analysis that could offer information an surface area (S.A., maximum diameter (Dmax, minimum diameter (Dmin and average diameters. Considering to the importance of the color in acceptance of food quality by consumers, the following classification was conducted to estimate the apparent color of the tomato; 1. Classified as red (red > 90% 2. Classified as red light (red or bold pink 60-90% 3. Classified as pink (red 30-60% 4. Classified as Turning

  2. The effect of airline deregulation on automobile fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylow, L F; Savage, I

    1991-10-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the effects of airline deregulation in the United States on intercity automobile travel and consequently on the number of highway fatalities. A demand model is constructed for auto travel, which includes variables representing the price and availability of air service. A reduced form model of the airline market is then estimated. Finding that deregulation has decreased airfares and increased flights, it is estimated that auto travel has been reduced by 2.2% per year on average. Given assumptions on the characteristics of drivers switching modes and the types of roads they drove on, the number of automobile fatalities averted since 1978 is estimated to be in the range 200-300 per year.

  3. Deregulation of brain insulin signaling in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanxing; Deng, Yanqiu; Zhang, Baorong; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Contrary to the previous belief that insulin does not act in the brain, studies in the last three decades have demonstrated important roles of insulin and insulin signal transduction in various functions of the central nervous system. Deregulated brain insulin signaling and its role in molecular pathogenesis have recently been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this article, we review the roles of brain insulin signaling in memory and cognition, the metabolism of amyloid β precursor protein, and tau phosphorylation. We further discuss deficiencies of brain insulin signaling and glucose metabolism, their roles in the development of AD, and recent studies that target the brain insulin signaling pathway for the treatment of AD. It is clear now that deregulation of brain insulin signaling plays an important role in the development of sporadic AD. The brain insulin signaling pathway also offers a promising therapeutic target for treating AD and probably other neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Economic theory and the failure of electricity deregulation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, F.E.

    2004-01-01

    The deregulation of electricity has failed in Sweden. Since the beginning of the deregulation 'experiment', the trend price of electricity has increased much faster than the consumer price index, especially during recent years. More importantly, because of (1) the lack of investment in domestic generating (and perhaps transmission) facilities by Swedish power companies, (2) the questionable strategy employed by these firms to mange hydroelectric reserves, (3) increased and to some extent irrational energy taxes, and (4) the beginning of nuclear 'disengagement', households and businesses are vulnerable to a prolonged 'spike' in electricity prices. Everything considered, the recent history of the Swedish electricity sector - and particularly that of the overpraised Nordic Electric Exchange (i.e. Nord Pool) - should be considered a wake-up call instead of an example. (author)

  5. Customer choice: Purchasing energy in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumann, A.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the detailed guidance on how to effectively purchase deregulated energy, based on first-hand reports from many of the nation's most knowledgeable experts. It is designed to provide the kind of practical advice needed by professionals who are responsible for making energy purchasing decisions. The book gives a ten-step program to guide building owners in purchasing decision making, a state-by-state retail competition update, and guidelines for buying electricity and natural gas over the worldwide web. Other topics include contract renegotiation strategies, an assessment of power pools, the role of aggregators in the energy market, real time pricing issues, where cogeneration fits within today's marketplace, and lessons learned from deregulation experiences in Scandinavia and England

  6. Revenue opportunities for gas plants arising from electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    A brief overview of deregulation in the electric power industry and an explanation of how these changes can be used to increase revenues of gas processing plants is provided. Deregulation in the electric power industry provides the potential to significantly reduce energy costs for the gas plant and allows technology to be applied to make a better use of a valuable commodity. Owners and operators of gas processing plants increase their operating income by taking advantage of co-generation systems which provide heat and electrical energy to the gas plant. Such an application has three revenue streams, the main one being the power sales to the gas plant, the second one heat sales, and the third increased revenues from the gas plant through a reduction of overall costs, not to mention significantly reduced downtime. Further savings are possible through diversion of excess energy produced to other facilities owned by the gas plant owner

  7. Current issues in Canadian electricity deregulation and competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, A.J. [Calgary Univ., Calgary, AB (Canada). Canadian Inst. of Resources Law

    1998-03-30

    The deregulation of the electricity industry in Canada was the main focus of this paper. In most developed countries, industries formerly dominated by a monopoly service provider have already been significantly restructured through the introduction of competition. In Canada, such restructuring has taken place only in the airline, railway, natural gas and telephone industry. In most Canadian provinces, except Alberta, electricity generation, transmission and distribution is still owned and operated by provincial and municipal governments. This report examines the present situation in electricity deregulation in Alberta, provides a summary of analysis of London Economics Inc.`s proposals and Bill 27, and presents the author`s own conclusions. A broader perspective and context is provided by references to other regulations of other industries throughout the report.

  8. Price-elastic demand in deregulated electricity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2003-01-01

    The degree to which any deregulated market functions efficiently often depends on the ability of market agents to respond quickly to fluctuating conditions. Many restructured electricity markets, however, experience high prices caused by supply shortages and little demand-side response. We examine the implications for market operations when a risk-averse retailer's end-use consumers are allowed to perceive real-time variations in the electricity spot price. Using a market-equilibrium mo...

  9. Power system restructuring and deregulation: trading, performance and information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loi Lei Lai

    2001-09-01

    Representatives from several countries have contributed to a book addressing the deregulation and restructuring of the electric power industry. Articles covered include guidance on asset management, transmission balancing and meter management systems, tools for studying competitive power markets, environmental impacts, costs and benefits, and the new strategies and technology available for power generation, transmission and distribution. The book should be of interest to power systems engineers, system operators, managers, planners and policy makers in the electric power business

  10. Managing an evolution: Deregulation of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the emerging competitive situation in the electric power industry as deregulation of electric utilities looms on the horizon. The paper supports this change, and the competition it will bring, but urges caution as changes are instituted, and the regulatory bodies decide how and how much to free, and at what rates. The reason for his urge for caution comes from historical experience of other industries, which were smaller and had less direct impact on every American.

  11. Labor market deregulation and globalization: empirical evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke , Niklas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper empirically investigates the influence of globalization on various aspects of labor market deregulation. I employ the data set by Bassanini and Duval (2006) on labor market institutions in OECD countries and the KOF index of globalization. The data set covers 20 OECD countries in the 1982?2003 period. The results suggest that globalization did neither influence the unemployment replacement rate, the unemployment benefit length, public expenditures on ALMP, the t...

  12. Competitive nuclear production on the nordic deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Nordic electricity market has been partly deregulated since 1994. Today only Denmark follows the timetable recommended by the European Union, while Sweden, Norway and Finland are completely deregulated. As in most countries, the production of electricity is deregulated while the distribution is still a monopoly. This deregulation of the electricity market has created a new situation for plant life management. In order to be competitive on the market it is important to cut cost down a level when the nuclear power companies earn money again. All means to cut cost have to be used while still maintaining safety and the possibilities for operation over at least 40+ years. The possibilities to invest in modernization are limited to the absolutely necessary modifications. All investments must be very thoroughly questioned and the money can only be spent where most benefit is gained. This means new prerequisites for the absolute necessary long-strategic planning. New safety requirements from the authorities have to be discussed between the industry and the authority. The requirement cost must be compared to the benefit to safety. The authority is today requested to carry out such analyses and do so in most cases. Since the electricity market is international the requirements of the authorities must be harmonized on the whole market. The political threat against nuclear power is serious in many countries and it is important to continue working with public acceptance and lobbying. Especially in Sweden a lot of effort is spent on trying to change the taxation of nuclear power. In the near future increasing electricity demand will make the prices go up to a level when nuclear power companies earn money again. The very serious worries about climate change will also strengthen the competitiveness of nuclear power. (author)

  13. Generation capacity expansion planning in deregulated electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak

    With increasing demand of electric power in the context of deregulated electricity markets, a good strategic planning for the growth of the power system is critical for our tomorrow. There is a need to build new resources in the form of generation plants and transmission lines while considering the effects of these new resources on power system operations, market economics and the long-term dynamics of the economy. In deregulation, the exercise of generation planning has undergone a paradigm shift. The first stage of generation planning is now undertaken by the individual investors. These investors see investments in generation capacity as an increasing business opportunity because of the increasing market prices. Therefore, the main objective of such a planning exercise, carried out by individual investors, is typically that of long-term profit maximization. This thesis presents some modeling frameworks for generation capacity expansion planning applicable to independent investor firms in the context of power industry deregulation. These modeling frameworks include various technical and financing issues within the process of power system planning. The proposed modeling frameworks consider the long-term decision making process of investor firms, the discrete nature of generation capacity addition and incorporates transmission network modeling. Studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the optimal investment plans on transmission network loadings in the long-run by integrating the generation capacity expansion planning framework within a modified IEEE 30-bus transmission system network. The work assesses the importance of arriving at an optimal IRR at which the firm's profit maximization objective attains an extremum value. The mathematical model is further improved to incorporate binary variables while considering discrete unit sizes, and subsequently to include the detailed transmission network representation. The proposed models are novel in the

  14. Mycorrhizal Dependency and Response of Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to evaluate the responses of tomato to inoculation of mycorrhiza (AMF) under different levels of soil phosphorus (P) concentrations in a greenhouse study. The results showed different responses on dry matter yield, shoot phosphorus concentration, ...

  15. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tomato concentrates. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato concentrates are the class of foods each of... greater in length. (c) Blemishes, such as dark brown or black particles (specks)—not more than four exceed...; place a U.S. No. 12 screen (1.68 millimeters (0.066 inch) openings) over the sink drain; transfer the...

  16. An improved Agrobacterium mediated transformation in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of tomato crop throughout the world. This disease is very dangerous in hot and humid regions, where it spreads with the irrigation water to whole field within days, which resulted in severe decline in yield. Two varieties of tomato were used for developing bacterial wilt resistance.

  17. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  18. Isolation and composition of chromoplasts from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Linn U; Chiu, Mei-Chen M

    2005-08-24

    The fruit of the tomato plant is composed of elongated tomato cells filled with organelles called chromoplasts (plastids). These plastids scattered throughout the cell are rich in nutrients, particularly protein (33%) and lipids (20%). They can be released from the cells by rupture of their cell membranes and then isolated. Plastids and their cell contents can be utilized by the food-processing industry for the preparation of special food products. This study was designed to examine the macronutrient content of isolated tomato plastids and, therefore, determine its potential nutritional value. Use of tomato plastids in pasta sauces and rice dishes, salsa, and extrusion products would increase the nutritional value of the product. Because glucose has been removed in the process of plastid isolation, tomato plastids are useful in the diets of diabetics and cardiovascular patients, as well as for patients in need of weight reduction. Composition comparison of tomato plastid is made with tomato paste, from which glucose has not been removed. Many people require low-sugar products for medical reasons (diabetics and those with cardiovascular disease) and others for weight loss. Therefore, tomato chromoplasts having high protein and lipid contents and low sugar content may be useful in meeting these particular human needs.

  19. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  20. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  1. Mineral Content in Leaves of Tomato Plants Grafted on Solanum Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...

  2. Accounting for gas in a de-regulated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawalykut, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Since the natural gas industry was deregulated, the method of buying, selling and moving gas has changed significantly. Post-deregulation, the pipeline company moves the gas but does not acquire ownership. The full impact of deregulation is seen in opening up the market for buying and selling gas. Tracking of gas has become critical. The service customer is now buying and moving gas. The end-use customer nominates to the distribution company a quantity of gas to be transported. Responsibility is placed on the customer to estimate loads as accurately as possible to avoid possible charges. The distribution company passes the end-user nomination to the upstream transmission company, which in turn passes it along, a process that is repeated until the nomination reaches the production company. Authorizations for gas follow a similar path. The major difference between sales and service gas is the accounting and tracking. As the customer will not consume the exact amount nominated, there will be an imblance between what was nominated and metered. There will also be imbalances between what the producer places into the pipeline and what was nominated. These processes can cause administrative problems, and many customers are moving from sales to service

  3. Analysis of deregulation models; Denryoku shijo jiyuka model no bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    Trends toward power market deregulation were investigated in Japan and 16 other countries, and various deregulation models were examined and evaluated for their merits and demerits. There are four basic models, that is, franchise bidding model, competitive bidding in power generation model, wholesale wheeling or retail wheeling model, and mandatory pool or voluntary pool model. Power market deregulation has been a global tendency since the second half of the 1970s, with various models adopted by different countries. Out of the above-said models, it is the retail wheeling model and pool models (open access models) that allow the final customer to select power suppliers, and the number of countries adopting these models is increasing. The said models are characterized in that the disintegration of the vertical transmission-distribution integration (separation of distribution service and retail supply service) and the liberation of the retail market are simultaneously accomplished. The pool models, in particular, are enjoying favor because conditions for fair competition have already been prepared and because it is believed high in efficiency. In Japan and France, where importance is attached to atomic power generation, the competitive bidding model is adopted as a means to harmonize the introduction of competition into the source development and power generation sectors. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Inflow shortages in deregulated power markets - Reasons for concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bye, Torstein; Bruvoll, Annegrete; Aune, Finn Roar [Research Department, Statistics Norway, P.O. Box 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-15

    In many countries hydropower constitutes a large share of the electricity producing capacity. In the earlier regulated electricity markets, production capacities exceeded demand due to security of supply concerns. The present deregulated markets base investments upon profitability alone, and security of supply issues are claimed to be less important. Market operators trust the pricing mechanism in competitive markets to clear. Then low inflow constitutes a less problem. Several markets, both under regulated and deregulated regimes, have faced serious droughts. Some of them have experienced problems with market clearance (Chile, Brazil, California) while other markets functioned well (The Nordic market). Important features to the market response are the flexibility of demand, the pattern of inflow shortage, the storage capacities, the possibility of trade between regions with different production technologies, and the market design and concentration. We apply an empirical based market model to simulate the effects under two inflow shortage scenarios in an international market with combined hydro and thermal capacities and restricted transmission capacities. We compare the scenarios with actual events and show that the model and the real market outcome are comparable. The simulations do not reveal any problems with the functioning of the market, which should calm down the anxiousness about security of supply in deregulated markets with stochastic energy supply. (author)

  5. Inflow shortages in deregulated power markets - Reasons for concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, Torstein; Bruvoll, Annegrete; Aune, Finn Roar

    2008-01-01

    In many countries hydropower constitutes a large share of the electricity producing capacity. In the earlier regulated electricity markets, production capacities exceeded demand due to security of supply concerns. The present deregulated markets base investments upon profitability alone, and security of supply issues are claimed to be less important. Market operators trust the pricing mechanism in competitive markets to clear. Then low inflow constitutes a less problem. Several markets, both under regulated and deregulated regimes, have faced serious droughts. Some of them have experienced problems with market clearance (Chile, Brazil, California) while other markets functioned well (The Nordic market). Important features to the market response are the flexibility of demand, the pattern of inflow shortage, the storage capacities, the possibility of trade between regions with different production technologies, and the market design and concentration. We apply an empirical based market model to simulate the effects under two inflow shortage scenarios in an international market with combined hydro and thermal capacities and restricted transmission capacities. We compare the scenarios with actual events and show that the model and the real market outcome are comparable. The simulations do not reveal any problems with the functioning of the market, which should calm down the anxiousness about security of supply in deregulated markets with stochastic energy supply

  6. Retail experience in the de-regulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the experience gained to date in the de-regulated electricity market through an examination of the commercial market. In 2001, chaos provided opportunity, while in 2002 the emphasis was on operations. In 2003, the landscape reflected hyper-competition, selling second services, and a changing landscape. A discussion followed on the residential market with a look at market structure, economics, and uncertainty concerning the future. The following components were identified as working well: wholesale market, commercial market, market model/data, and innovation in offerings and green supply. Areas requiring further improvement were also identified. It was suggested that the residential de-regulated roadmap should be clarified and retail friendly transactions should be imposed. Other improvements involve education and operations/system capabilities. The author concluded that the deregulated electricity market is still an immature market, where progress is being made in the commercial market. The residential market is in a critical period, with a market model still evolving. figs

  7. Cycles in deregulated electricity markets: Empirical evidence from two decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango, Santiago; Larsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the 'cycle hypothesis' in electricity generation, which states that the introduction of deregulation in an electricity system might lead to sustained fluctuations of over- and under-capacity. The occurrence of cycles is one of the major threats for electricity markets as it affects the security of supply, and creates uncertainty in both the profitability of electricity companies and in consumer prices. We discuss the background for these cycles using analogies with other capital-intensive industries, along with evidence from the analysis of behavioral simulation models as well as from experimental electricity markets. Using data from the oldest deregulated markets we find support for the hypothesis in the case of the English and Chilean markets, based on an autocorrelation analysis. Evidence from the Nordpool market is more ambiguous, although we might be observing the first half of a cycle in generation capacity. Comparing a simulation of the English market performed in 1992 with the actual performance we can observe that the qualitative behavior of the model is consistent with the actual evolution. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms for damping cycles in electricity generation, such as mothballing, capacity payments, and reliability markets. - Research highlights: → We explore the emergence of cycles in the electricity generation capacity after deregulation. → We discuss the reason for cycles in generation capacity and compare different theories. → Analysis of England and Chile data show strong indications that cycles have emerged.

  8. Choice of electricity provider in California after deregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keanini, Rasa Ilze

    Surveys often ask consumers how much they are willing to pay for certain goods and services, without requiring the consumer to actually pay for the good or service. Such surveys, termed stated preference studies, find that consumers value renewable electricity. This result is in contrast to actual experiences in recently deregulated electricity markets in several states, including California. When given the opportunity to choose in California, only one to two percent of the population opted for renewable electricity products. This dissertation used data from residential customers who chose an alternative electricity product in California's deregulated electricity market to determine the value placed on the renewable attribute of electricity products. This dissertation begins by taking a historical look at the electricity market of the nation and specifically California. From 1998 through 2001, California's electricity market was deregulated to include retail competition. This dissertation used data from electric service providers to reveal the factors influencing residential customer's choice of electricity product. Discrete choice models were used to determine the factors influencing electricity product choice. The results indicated that both price and renewable content had an effect on choice of product. Additionally, a more complicated model jointly estimating the discrete choice of electricity product with the continuous choice of electricity consumption (kWh) was specified and estimated.

  9. Plastid and Stromule Morphogenesis in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    PYKE, KEVIN A.; HOWELLS, CAROLINE A.

    2002-01-01

    By using green fluorescent protein targeted to the plastid organelle in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the morphology of plastids and their associated stromules in epidermal cells and trichomes from stems and petioles and in the chromoplasts of pericarp cells in the tomato fruit has been revealed. A novel characteristic of tomato stromules is the presence of extensive bead‐like structures along the stromules that are often observed as free vesicles, distinct from and apparently unconnected to the plastid body. Interconnections between the red pigmented chromoplast bodies are common in fruit pericarp cells suggesting that chromoplasts could form a complex network in this cell type. The potential implications for carotenoid biosynthesis in tomato fruit and for vesicles originating from beaded stromules as a secretory mechanism for plastids in glandular trichomes of tomato is discussed. PMID:12466096

  10. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  11. Migratory routes and at-sea threats to Pink-footed Shearwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Hodum, Peter; Colodro, Valentina; Carle, Ryan; López, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    The Pink-footed Shearwater (Ardenna creatopus) is a seabird with a breeding range restricted to three islands in Chile and an estimated world population of approximately 56,000 breeding individuals (Muñoz 2011, Oikonos unpublished data). Due to multiple threats on breeding colonies and at-sea, Pink-footed Shearwaters are listed as Endangered by the government of Chile (Reglamento de Clasificación de Especies, 2011), Threatened by the government of Canada (Environment Canada 2008), and are listed under Appendix 1 of the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP 2013). A principal conservation concern for the species is mortality from fisheries bycatch during the breeding and non-breeding seasons; thus, identification of areas of overlap between at-sea use by Pink-footed Shearwaters and fisheries is a high priority conservation objective (Hinojosa Sáez and Hodum 1997, Mangel et al. 2013, ACAP 2013). During the non-breeding period, Pink-footed Shearwaters range as far north as Canada, although little was known until recently about migration routes and important wintering areas where fisheries bycatch could be a risk. Additionally, Pink-footed Shearwaters face at-sea threats during the non-breeding season off the west coast of North America. Recently, areas used by wintering Pink-footed Shearwaters have been identified as areas of interest for developing alternative energy offshore in North America (e.g., floating wind generators; Trident Winds 2016). The goal of our study was to track Pink-footed Shearwater post-breeding movements with satellite tags to identify timing and routes of migration, locate important non-breeding foraging habitats, and determine population distribution among different wintering regions.

  12. Antiplatelet activity of white and pink Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindha Durairaj

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nelumbonaceae a plant used in Ayurvedic medicine (common name: lotus, is a perennial, large and rhizomatous aquatic herb most prevalent in South India. Preliminary phytochemical screening of both white and pink Nelumbo nucifera flowers revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents (flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols etc,. Hence, an attempt has been made to screen the effect of Nelumbo nucifera flowers (both types on platelet aggregation. The antiplatelet activity of hydroethanolic extract of both types of flowers was studied using platelet-rich plasma in different concentrations (100-500µg/ml. Both white and pink Nelumbo nucifera flower extracts showed dose-dependent effective antiplatelet activity with maximum activity at 500µg/ml concentration; prevention of platelet aggregation was 50% of that achieved with standard aspirin. Furthermore, the antiplatelet activity of white flowers was relatively high (pNelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nelumbonaceae, planta utilizada na medicina Ayurvédica, é erva aquática rizomatosa grande, predominante no sul da Índia. A triagem fitoquímica preliminar das flores brancas e cor-de-rosa de Nelumbo nucifera revelou a presença de constituintes fitoquímicos (flavonoides, alcaloides, fenóis etc. Assim, tentou-se a triagem do efeito das flores de Nelumbo nucifera de ambos os tipos na agregação plaquetária. A atividade antiplaquetária dos extratos hidroetanólico de ambos os tipos de flores foi estudada, utilizando-se plasma rico em plaquetas em duas diferentes concentrações (100 - 500 µg/mL. Tanto os extratos das flores brancas quanto daquelas de cor-de-rosa mostraram atividade antiplaquetária dose-dependente, com o máximo na concentração de 500 µg/mL. A prevenção da agregação plaquetária foi 50% daquela alcançada com o padrão de ácido acetilsalicílico. Além disso, a atividade antiplaquetária das flores brancas foi, relativamente, alta (p<0,05; ANOVA

  13. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN TOMATOES PRODUCTION IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.

  14. Genome Sequences of Two Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Race 1 Strains, Isolated from Tomato Fields in California

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Shree P.; Coaker, Gitta

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 strains have evolved to overcome genetic resistance in tomato. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two race 1 P.?syringae pv. tomato strains, A9 and 407, isolated from diseased tomato plants in California.

  15. Effects of tomato variety, temperature differential and post-stem removal time on internalization of Salmonella Thompson into tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatoes have been implicated in several Salmonellosis outbreaks due to possible contamination through bacterial infiltration into tomatoes during post-harvest handling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tomato variety, dump tank water to tomato pulp temperature differential, and...

  16. Deregulation strategies for local governments and the role/opportunities for energy efficiency services in the utility industry deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc

  17. Deregulation strategies for local governments and the role/opportunities for energy efficiency services in the utility industry deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, P.C.

    1998-07-01

    As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc.

  18. A study on the deregulation of the Finnish electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Governments have regarded the electricity industry as a leading industrial sector throughout the history. Because of its strategic importance to industrial development, its impacts on the social and environmental issues and its natural monopoly characteristics, it has been seen necessary to regulate electricity industry effectively. However, in the mid 1980s it was realised that even though transmission and distribution networks are natural monopolies, the scale economies in electricity production at the generating unit level had exhausted at a unit size of about 500 MW. This meant that supply and generation had become potentially competitive activities. In Finland the new Electricity Market Act (EMA) came into force in 1.11.1995. According to it the production and supply of electricity became deregulated and competition was introduced to the industry. The main aim of the law was to improve efficiency. This dissertation analyses, both theoretically and empirically, the impacts of deregulation to the Finnish electricity markets. In chapter two we discuss on the grounds and incentives of the deregulation processes that have been carried out in different countries. We also determine the crucial factors in order succeed in the deregulation process. According to our view the success depend on the number of active players in the wholesale market, the rules of the bidding procedure, the organisation of the demand side operation, the neutrality of transmission grid, the structure of production technologies and the ownership structure of the industry. In chapter three we theoretically model the profit maximising behaviour of the Finnish electricity companies based on different stages of vertical integration and on different stage of competition. According to our results the profit maximising pricing rules of distribution units is dependent on the stage of integration and on the stage of competition. The separated distribution company maximises profits by setting the

  19. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  20. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2009-01-01

    The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

  1. Early hypersynchrony in juvenile PINK1-/- motor cortex is rescued by antidromic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eCARRON

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Parkinson’s disease, cortical networks show enhanced synchronized activity but whether this precedes motor signs is unknown. We investigated this question in PINK1-/- mice, a genetic rodent model of the PARK6 variant of familial Parkinson’s disease which shows impaired spontaneous locomotion at 16 months. We used two-photon calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp in slices from juvenile (P14-P21 wild-type or PINK1-/- mice. We designed a horizontal tilted cortico-subthalamic slice where the only connection between cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN is the hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic pathway. We report excessive correlation and synchronization in PINK1-/- M1 cortical networks 15 months before motor impairment. The percentage of correlated pairs of neurons and their strength of correlation were higher in the PINK1-/- M1 than in the wild type network and the synchronized network events involved a higher percentage of neurons. Both features were independent of thalamo-cortical pathways, insensitive to chronic levodopa treatment of pups, but totally reversed by antidromic invasion of M1 pyramidal neurons by axonal spikes evoked by high frequency stimulation (HFS of the STN. Our study describes an early excess of synchronization in the PINK1-/- cortex and suggests a potential role of antidromic activation of cortical interneurons in network desynchronization. Such backward effect on interneurons activity may be of importance for HFS-induced network desynchronization.

  2. Empirical evaluation of cell critical volume dose vs. cell response function for pink mutations in tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Microdosimetric spectra for 0.43, 1.8, and 14.7 MeV neutrons, and for 215 kVp x rays and 1250 keV gammas were used in conjunction with relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for pink mutations in Tradescantia to obtain an effectiveness function (i.e., a cell critical volume dose vs. cell response function). This effectiveness function (or hit size weighting function) provides the probability of inducing a biological effect of interest (in the present study, pink mutations in Tradescantia) as a function of lineal energy density y. In a preliminary analysis the critical value of y above which pink mutations are seen was 4.5 keV/μm, and the value of y at which the probability reaches unity was 115 keV/μm. Idealized but approximate event size distributions for mono-LET particles ranging from 10 to 5000 keV/μm were generated, and these distributions were weighted by the effectiveness function to determine the pink mutation frequencies. Results are compared with measured pink mutation frequencies for 11 keV/μm ( 12 C) and 31 keV/μm ( 20 Ne) ions

  3. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P  0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  4. Nutritional evaluation of dried tomato seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persia, M E; Parsons, C M; Schang, M; Azcona, J

    2003-01-01

    Two samples of tomato seeds, a by-product of the tomato canning industry were evaluated to determine proximate analysis, amino acid content, and digestibility, TMEn, and protein efficiency ratio. Tomato seeds were also used to replace corn and soybean meal (SBM) in a chick diet on an equal true amino acid digestibility and TMEn basis. Tomato seeds were found to contain 8.5% moisture, 25% CP, 20.0% fat, 3.1% ash, 35.1% total dietary fiber, 0.12% Ca, 0.58% P, and 3,204 kcal/kg of TMEn. The total amounts of methionine, cystine, and lysine in the tomato seeds were 0.39, 0.40, and 1.34%, respectively, and their true digestibility coefficients, determined in cecectomized roosters, were 75, 70, and 54%, respectively. The protein efficiency ratio (weight gain per unit of protein intake) value when fed to chicks at 9% CP was 2.5 compared to 3.6 for SBM (P seeds could replace corn and SBM without any adverse affects on chick weight gain, feed intake, or gain:feed ratio from 8 to 21 d posthatch. Tomato seeds at any level in the diet did not significantly affect skin pigmentation. Although the protein quality of tomato seeds may not be as high as SBM, tomato seeds do contain substantial amounts of digestible amino acids and TMEn. When formulating diets on a true digestible amino acid and TMEn basis, tomato seeds can be supplemented into chick rations at up to 15% without any adverse affects on growth performance.

  5. Parallel signatures of selection in temporally isolated lineages of pink salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeb, L. W.; Waples, R. K.; Limborg, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    Studying the effect of similar environments on diverse genetic backgrounds has long been a goal of evolutionary biologists with studies typically relying on experimental approaches. Pink salmon, a highly abundant and widely ranging salmonid, provide a naturally occurring opportunity to study......-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to discover and genotype approximately 8000 SNP loci in three population pairs of even- and odd-year pink salmon along a latitudinal gradient in North America. We found greater differentiation within the odd-year than within the even-year lineage and greater differentiation...... be particularly informative in understanding adaptive evolution in pink salmon and exploring how differing genetic backgrounds within a species respond to selection from the same natural environment...

  6. Induction of in vivo mutation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cv. Pink Repin breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Augusto Tulmann; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha

    1997-01-01

    Mutation induction was used with the objective of obtaining mutants for flower colour of chrysanthemum, cv. Repin (pink colour). Rooted cuttings were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma rays and before the selection the cutting back method was used to advance the generations. The frequency of colour mutants observed was 5.8%. Among the mutants obtainedthe white and dark-pink-coloured ones were evaluated in yield trial and post-harvest. The results indicated that these mutants mantained the same agronomical characteristics showed by the control, with the exception of plant height in the white mutant that was shorter. Due to commercial interest of the producers, these mutants were multiplied and released as new cultivars. The white flower colour mutant was named Cristiane and the dark-pink, Ingrid. This was the first example of cultivars from an ornamental plant released by mutation breeding in Brazil. (author)

  7. The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adriana Régia Marques; Arthur, Valter; Nogueira, Danielle Pires

    2012-08-01

    Pink peppers, also known as "pimenta-rosa" and "poivre rose", are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (ppreservation process for pink peppers.

  8. COMPARISON OF CAROTENOID CONTENT IN TOMATO, TOMATO PULP AND KETCHUP BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. T. GAMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Although tomatoes are commonly consumed fresh, over 80 % the consumption of tomatoes is in the form of processed products such as tomato pulp, ketchup, juice and sauce. Research has indicated the potential health benefits of a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products. The present study was carried out to determine the carotenoid content of fresh tomato, tomato pulp and ketchup by high performance liquid chromatography. The major differences among these products were in the concentration of some of the pigments. Tomato had all-trans-lycopene (1046-1099 μg/g DW, cislycopene (125-132 μg/g DW and all-trans- -carotene (45-59 μg/g DW as principal carotenoids. Tomato pulp and ketchup had all-trans-lycopene (951-999 μg/g DW and 455-476 μg/g DW, all-trans- -carotene (76-88 DW μg/g and 20-27 DW μg/g and cis-lycopene (71-83 μg/g DW and 14-25 μg/g DW as the main pigments, respectively. They also contained other carotenoids in much smaller amounts (lycoxanthin, zeaxanthin, anteraxanthin, lutein, -carotene, -carotene and phytofluene.

  9. Parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E Jullien

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals and in plants, parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates embryo growth and might be involved in reproductive isolation between emerging new species. Increased dosage of maternal genomes represses growth while an increased dosage of paternal genomes has the opposite effect. These observations led to the discovery of imprinted genes, which are expressed by a single parental allele. It was further proposed in the frame of the parental conflict theory that parental genome imbalances are directly mirrored by antagonistic regulations of imprinted genes encoding maternal growth inhibitors and paternal growth enhancers. However these hypotheses were never tested directly. Here, we investigated the effect of parental genome imbalance on the expression of Arabidopsis imprinted genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2 and FLOWERING WAGENINGEN (FWA controlled by DNA methylation, and MEDEA (MEA and PHERES1 (PHE1 controlled by histone methylation. Genome dosage imbalance deregulated the expression of FIS2 and PHE1 in an antagonistic manner. In addition increased dosage of inactive alleles caused a loss of imprinting of FIS2 and MEA. Although FIS2 controls histone methylation, which represses MEA and PHE1 expression, the changes of PHE1 and MEA expression could not be fully accounted for by the corresponding fluctuations of FIS2 expression. Our results show that parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting using mechanisms, which are independent from known regulators of imprinting. The complexity of the network of regulations between expressed and silenced alleles of imprinted genes activated in response to parental dosage imbalance does not support simple models derived from the parental conflict hypothesis.

  10. Bank CEO Pay-Performance Relations and the Effects of Deregulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Anthony J; Ezzell, John R; Miles, James A

    1995-01-01

    The authors test the deregulation hypothesis that posits that bank CEO compensation became more sensitive to performance as bank management became less regulated. They observe a significant increase in pay-performance sensitivities from their 1976-81 regulation subsample to their 1982-88 deregulation subsample. These increases in pay sensitivities after deregulation are observed for salary and bonus, stock options, and common stock holdings. The authors observe increases in the pay-performanc...

  11. Product Market Deregulation and Employment Outcomes: Evidence from the German Retail Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Senftleben-König

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the short- and medium-term effects of the deregulation of shopopening hours legislation on retail employment in Germany. In 2006, the legislative competence was shifted from the federal to the state level, leading to a gradual deregulation of shop opening restrictions in most of Germany’s sixteen federal states. The paper exploits regional variation in the legislation in order to identify the effect product market deregulation has on retail employment. We find robust...

  12. Why Shops Close Again : An Evolutionary Perspective on the Deregulation of Shopping Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Kosfeld, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces a new perspective on the deregulation of shopping hours based on ideas from evolutionary game theory. We study a retail economy where shopping hours have been deregulated recently. It is argued that first, the deregulation leads to a coordination problem between store owners and customers, and second, the ‘solution’ to this problem depends on the specific cost structure of stores and the preferences of customers. In particular, it may happen that, even if extended shoppi...

  13. The German Political Economy Between Deregulation and Re-regulation: Party Discourses on Minimum Wage Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dostal, Jörg Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the German political economy of the early 21st century, labor market policymaking has shifted toward deregulation and liberalization. In particular, the so-called Hartz labor market reforms of the Social Democratic Party and Green Party government, introduced in 2002 and 2003, pushed for employment growth in low-wage and deregulated employment sectors. This article focuses on one of the key debates triggered by Germany’s labor market deregulation after 2002, namely whethe...

  14. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  15. Deregulation and pricing in a hydro electric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoea, P.; Livik, K.; Wangensteen, I.

    1992-01-01

    In line with the current development in some European countries, notably the UK and the Netherlands, deregulation and market competition has been introduced in Norwegian electricity supply in order to improve the economic efficiency of the system. The legal basis for the introduction is the new Norwegian Energy Act that was approved in the Storting (parliament) in June 1990 and came legally into effect on January 1, 1991. This paper deals with the organizational structure, the price formation in the wholesale market, and the tariffs and metering equipment that are being developed to meet the needs of the customers and the utilities in this new situation. (author)

  16. A congestion line flow control in deregulated power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatarajan Shanmuga Sundaram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Under open access, market-driven transactions have become the new independent decision variables defining the behavior of the power system. The possibility of transmission lines getting over-loaded is relatively more under deregulated operation because different parts of the system are owned by separate companies and in part operated under varying service charges. This paper discusses a two-tier algorithm for correcting the lone overloads in conjunction with the conventional power-flow methods. The method uses line flow sensitivities, which are computed by the East Decoupled Power-flow algorithm and can be adapted for on-line implementation.

  17. The Nightmare of the Leader: The Impact of Deregulation on an Oligopoly Insurance Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Wang; Larry Y. Tzeng; En-Lin Wang

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of deregulation of licensing on an oligopoly insurance market. We show that deregulation of licensing in a Stackelberg-type oligopoly market may not have any impact on the leader’s output if the number of firms increases but the market structure remains. On the other hand, if the market structure is reorganized because of the deregulation of licensing, the leader’s output could be significantly reduced after deregulation. By using the unique data of the insuranc...

  18. EFTIHIYA – THE NEWEST WINE AROMATIC VARIETY WITH PINK COLORED BERRY

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Radchevskiy P. P.

    2014-01-01

    The newest wine grape variety Eftihiya with aromatic pink colored skin (in Greek the name means “happi-ness”) was breed with hybridization at the Athens In-stitute of Viticulture by P. Zamanidi, L. Troshin and P. Radchevskiy in 2005 by crossing the Greek varieties and Malaguzya with Eurasian Traminer pink. Dura-tion of production period from bud burst to harvest 146-155 days. Yields are very high: 25-30 t / ha. Modal mass of clusters is 250 g. Bunch is conical, me-dium density. Berry is mediu...

  19. Efficacy of pink guava pulp as an antioxidant in raw pork emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-08-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. The antioxidant potential of pink guava pulp (PGP) was evaluated at different levels (0%; C, 5.0%; T-1, 7.5%; T-2 and 10.0%; T-3) in the raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage of 9 days under aerobic packaging. Lycopene and β-carotene contents increased (P emulsion than control throughout storage period. Our results indicated that pink guava pulp can be utilized as antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

  20. Pseudomonas mesophilica and an unnamed taxon, clinical isolates of pink-pigmented oxidative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, G L; Faur, Y C

    1984-10-01

    Twenty-one strains of pink-pigmented bacteria, isolated from human clinical specimens and an environmental source, were compared with Pseudomonas mesophilica ATCC 29983 and Protaminobacter ruber ATCC 8457. These isolates were gram-negative, oxidative rods which were motile by means of a single polar flagellum; gave positive catalase, indophenol oxidase, urease, and amylase reactions; and grew slowly at 30 degrees C. Fourteen isolates conformed to the designated type strains Pseudomonas mesophilica ATCC 29983 and Protaminobacter ruber ATCC 8457. The remaining seven strains represented an undescribed taxon. These pink bacteria appear to be invaders of debilitated patients with an underlying chronic disease.

  1. ‘De ongelukkigsten onder de menschen’ De Verbeelding van zenuwzwakte in advertenties voor Pink pillen, 1900-1920

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Gemma; Spijkerman, Rose

    2013-01-01

    abstractBetween 1880 and 1920 Pink Pills, a medication for blood and nerve strengthening, were heavily advertised in Dutch newspapers. The advertisements consisted of the personal stories of patients who had been amazingly healed. This article argues that the Pink Pill advertisements contributed to

  2. Postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato ( Lycopersicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. ... the ingestion of mycotoxins that are usually associated with fungal species), ...

  3. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  4. Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... propagated plants upon transfer to soil under natural conditions. ... Effect of high temperature and heat shock on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) genotypes .... Modulation of mineral and fatty acid profiles during ...

  5. (edta) on the germination of tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    response of plant to salinity stress varies according to plant ... National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Ibadan, Oyo. State .... the work of Mgbeze et al. ... accumulation of four tomato cultivars. American. Journal of Plant Physiology, ...

  6. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet .... dissolved in 10% of culture-grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; Sigma-. Aldrich .... In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.

  7. Turkish tomato greenhouse gets geothermal heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, A.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture will set up an ultramodern greenhouse in Turkey, together with Dutch greenhouse builders and contractors. Geothermal energy will be used there to provide heat and carbon dioxide for tomato cultivation.

  8. Today or not today: Deregulating the Russian gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryev, Yuli

    2007-01-01

    Although Russia is the world's biggest producer of natural gas, its ability to maintain timely and reliable supply to meet the growing global demand has come under question in recent months. The gas war with Ukraine notwithstanding, concern has been raised by a number of observers that underinvestment in the gas sector will lead to a systemic failure of the state monopolist OAO Gazprom to increase or even maintain current levels of production. Yet with a quarter of European gas coming from Russia, and with increasing presence of Gazprom in European downstream operations (such as Germany, Hungary, and other CIS states) as well as seemingly closer ties with Algeria, another major supplier of gas to Europe, there has been a strong reaction from Europe's policy-makers to decrease dependence on Russian gas. Deregulating and liberalising the gas sector would see the lifting of restrictions to foreign or independent investors wishing to gain access to Russian reserves, as well as the unhindered access to the pipeline infrastructure and export markets. It would also signal the unbundling of Gazprom and an end to the artificially low price of gas to the domestic consumer. This paper discusses whether deregulation is the optimal way to raise capital, attract investment and increase supply security for Russia's Western neighbours. In doing so, the paper identifies the objectives of the EU as the importer whilst trying to align them with the objectives of the Russian Federation as the exporter, in the current political context

  9. A novel approach for modeling deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Ofir D., E-mail: rubino@agri.huji.ac.i [Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Babcock, Bruce A., E-mail: babcock@iastate.ed [Department of Economics, Iowa State University, 578F Heady Hall, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD), Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The theoretical framework developed in this study allows development of a model of deregulated electricity markets that explains two familiar empirical findings; the existence of forward premiums and price-cost markups in the spot market. This is a significant contribution because electricity forward premiums have been previously explained exclusively by the assumptions of perfect competition and risk-averse behavior while spot markups are generally the outcome of a body of literature assuming oligopolistic competition. Our theoretical framework indicates that a certain premium for forward contracting is required for efficient allocation of generation capacity. However, due to the uniqueness of electricity and the design of deregulated electricity markets this premium might be substantially higher than its optimal level. - Research highlights: {yields} The state of knowledge regarding modeling electricity markets is incomplete. {yields} Electricity forward premiums are not necessarily driven by risk aversion. {yields} Efficiency in production requires a certain premium for forward contracting. {yields} It is likely that market premiums are substantially higher than their optimal level. {yields} Policy regulation should not seek to eliminate forward premium entirely.

  10. A novel approach for modeling deregulated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Ofir D.; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical framework developed in this study allows development of a model of deregulated electricity markets that explains two familiar empirical findings; the existence of forward premiums and price-cost markups in the spot market. This is a significant contribution because electricity forward premiums have been previously explained exclusively by the assumptions of perfect competition and risk-averse behavior while spot markups are generally the outcome of a body of literature assuming oligopolistic competition. Our theoretical framework indicates that a certain premium for forward contracting is required for efficient allocation of generation capacity. However, due to the uniqueness of electricity and the design of deregulated electricity markets this premium might be substantially higher than its optimal level. - Research highlights: → The state of knowledge regarding modeling electricity markets is incomplete. → Electricity forward premiums are not necessarily driven by risk aversion. → Efficiency in production requires a certain premium for forward contracting. → It is likely that market premiums are substantially higher than their optimal level. → Policy regulation should not seek to eliminate forward premium entirely.

  11. Bluewater Power goes ERP route to address deregulation : case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broad, K. [Bluewater Power Distribution Corp., Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Bluewater Power Distribution Corporation distributes electricity to 35,000 customers in southwestern Ontario, including residential customers, large industries and commercial establishments. Their distribution system network consists of more than 344 miles of overhead wires and 125 miles of underground wires. The company employs more than 90 full-time people and is the result of a merger of six local utilities in year 2000. Ontario's energy market was preparing to deregulate at the time of the merger. Under the deregulation rules, utilities in the province were required to provide unbundled bills and exchange customer electronic business transactions with energy retailers. New rules opened up the cost of power on the wholesale side, requiring utilities to conduct wholesale settlements with the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO). The IESO manages Ontario's bulk electricity power system and operates the wholesale market. This article described the solution that Bluewater Power's information technology (IT) team found to support Ontario's local market, meet regulatory demands and adapt to future regulatory changes.

  12. Productivity growth and deregulation of Japanese electricity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Mika; Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Deregulation of Japanese electric power industry began in 1995. After the amendment of Electricity Utility Industry Law in 1995, competition was partially introduced in a generation sector and retail competition started from 2000. Eligibility to choose suppliers was gradually extended from larger to smaller customers. As of 2008, almost all customers except households can choose their electricity suppliers. Based upon both previous implementation result of competition policy and review on their achievement, Japanese government will begin new policy debate in 2013 to assess further retail competition which includes household customers. To prepare for policy suggestion on the future electric power industry, this study examines the cost structure of Japanese electricity distribution. For the purpose, we estimate a multi-product translog cost function of Japanese electricity distribution from 1983 to 2003. Using the estimated cost function, we calculate several economic measures such as productivity growth, technical change and economies of scale and scope. The empirical results of this study indicate the improvement in productivity growth after deregulation.

  13. Effect of demand management on regulated and deregulated electricity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrioglu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Our society derives a quantifiable benefit from electric power. In particular, forced outages or blackouts have enormous consequences on society, one of which is loss of economic surplus. The society relies on having a continuous supply of electrical energy. Some customers may willingly risk this continuous supply and participate in demand management programs for electrical power. If the power system grid is in trouble, electric utilities need to have demand relief. Customers willing to reduce their demand to help the system can receive an incentive fee for helping the utilities. Demand relief can be system wide or location specific. Sometimes it can be more effective to fix the electrical demand vs. supply imbalance from the demand side. The value of demand management contracts is greatly affected by customer location. Inclusion of locational attributes into the contract design procedure increases the effectiveness of the contracts by helping a utility get more value from its demand management programs. Independent System Operators and regulators, among others, can also benefit from effective demand management. This paper will investigate how this type of demand management contracts can help the electricity sector both in regulated and deregulated environments. - Highlights: • Demand management can help prevent forced electricity outages. • Both electric utilities and ISOs can use demand management. • Regulated and deregulated electricity sectors can benefit from demand management. • Demand management contracts can be effectively used in power system grids.

  14. Competition and deregulation in electricity : the national and continental dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garant, D.

    2000-01-01

    Some of the recent developments with Hydro-Quebec in terms of moving towards a deregulated competitive market were presented. In June 2000, the Quebec National Assembly passed legislation allowing for power generation and wholesale supply of electricity within Quebec will to be a deregulated business based on the gradual introduction of a competitive, contested market at the wholesale level. This legislation mitigates Hydro-Quebec's market power by legislating a long term fixed price supply contract between Hydro-Quebec's generation and distribution groups, operating as a functionally separate division within corporate Hydro-Quebec. Hydro-Quebec's market power in generation is 36,000 MW, the bulk of which will be committed to the Quebec distribution market at a fixed price of about 2.8 cents per kWh. Hydro-Quebec will maintain the rights to develop large scale hydro in Quebec if the development meets conditions of economic viability, environmental soundness and is locally acceptable. Hydro-Quebec is also expanding into new areas of generation such as wind power. The electric utility also believes it can play a role in Atlantic Canada by trading and moving off-peak and on-peak energy by using the storage capacity of their large hydro reservoirs

  15. The impact of deregulation on the US nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratta, A.J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., Nuclear Safety Center, University Park, PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    In the United States, the electric utility industry is undergoing a dramatic shift away from a tightly regulated monopoly to a free market system. The impact on the nuclear utility industry of deregulation coupled with recent changes in the nuclear regulatory environment has had a dramatic impact on the future of nuclear power in the United States. Utilities have been broken up into separate generation, transmission, and distribution companies and are now allowed to sell electricity outside of their former service areas. As economic deregulation has occurred, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has also adopted a new approach to regulation -- risk informed regulation. The implementation of risk-informed regulation has resulted in the adoption of a new regulatory format that attempts to highlight those areas having greatest risk significance. This paper explores these and other changes that have resulted because of the changing economic and regulatory environment for nuclear energy and examines their impact on the future of nuclear energy in the United States. (author)

  16. Generation capacity adequacy in deregulated markets : options for Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) is a Calgary-based non-profit organization that conducts studies on energy and related environmental issues to help Canadian business and government organizations. This paper summarized the information in a two volume CERI study report which assessed generation capacity issues in deregulated electricity markets in Canada. The study observed the restructuring experience in several jurisdictions and described how, or if, energy-only markets are succeeding in ensuring capacity additions. Supply-side and demand-side mechanisms have been proposed as solutions to address these problems. Theoretical and practical issues of adequacy that are most relevant from a Canadian perspective were presented. In fully developed energy markets, the price of energy reflects scarcity. When generating resources are abundant prices are low. Since investment decisions are based on price expectations, it is unlikely that deregulated markets in their current state can offer adequate generation for the long term. It was concluded that long-term investment will occur with competitive markets and by adding a capacity mechanism to the market design. tabs., figs

  17. Deregulation and internationalisation - impact on the Swedish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haukeland, Sverre R.

    2010-01-01

    The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 was well known in advance, and the nuclear power plants in Sweden, as well as their main suppliers, made early preparations for a this new situation. In a study - performed by the author at Malardalen University in Sweden - it is concluded that the electricity industry, including the nuclear power plants, was fundamentally transformed in conjunction with market liberalisation. Two large foreign companies, E-on and Fortum, entered the Swedish market and became part-owners of the nuclear plants. After deregulation, the electricity market in Sweden is dominated by these two companies and the large national company Vattenfall. Similarly, Vattenfall has recently grown into an international energy company, acquiring generation capacity in Northern Europe outside of Sweden, including nuclear power plants in Germany. Restructuring of the nuclear industry on the supplier side started in the 1980's, when the Swedish company ASEA and BBC of Switzerland merged to become ABB. Several years later the Swedish nuclear plant supplier ABB-Atom became part of Westinghouse Electric Company, today owned by Toshiba. The Swedish experience thus confirms an international trend of mergers and consolidation in the nuclear industry. (authors)

  18. Electricity deregulation, spot price patterns and demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Flynn, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines extensive hourly or half-hourly power price data from 14 deregulated power markets. It analyzes average diurnal patterns, relationship to system load, volatility, and consistency over time. Diurnal patterns indicate the average price spread between off-peak and on-peak and weekend vs. weekday power consumption. Volatility is measured by price velocity: the average normalized hourly change in power price, calculated daily. The calculated price velocity is broken down into an expected component that arises from the diurnal pattern and an unexpected component that arises from unknown factors. The analysis reveals significant differences among markets, suggesting that demand-side management (DSM) of power consumption is far more difficult in some markets than in others. At one extreme, Spain, Britain and Scandinavia show consistent diurnal price patterns, a stable relationship between price and system load, and a low unexplained component of price volatility. A power consumer in these markets could form a reasonable expectation of a reward for DSM of elective power consumption. At the other extreme, two markets in Australia show erratic diurnal price patterns from year to year, low correlation between price and system load, and a high amount of unexpected price velocity. A power consumer in these markets would have far greater difficulty in realizing a benefit from DSM. Markets that experienced one period of very high prices without a clear external cause, such as California and Alberta, appear to have a significant longer-term erosion of public support for deregulation. (author)

  19. Deregulation and the Alberta experience : the implications for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrochers, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the first year of electric power industry deregulation in Alberta was presented. The way in which electricity is bought and sold in Ontario and throughout North America is changing. Costs are no longer fixed and regulated. Electricity is becoming a commodity with high levels of price volatility. The paper presented hedging options for Alberta consumers, contracting lessons, market issues and lessons for Ontario. A comparison of Alberta's deregulation schedule with that of Ontario's was included. One year after market opening in Alberta, power prices have dropped significantly. There is a greater than expected demand side response, increased development in power generation, and a decrease in natural gas prices. Issues that still need to be addressed in Alberta include billing and load settlement issues, invoicing/billing standards, the lack of competition at the retail level, and future balancing of pool charges. Energy Advantage Inc. (EA) does not foresee the same drastic increase in price as seen in Alberta market opening, but suggests that uncertainty and volatility will exist in Ontario. In Alberta, customers who did nothing and stayed on default were the ones who benefited, but took a great risk. EA suggests that customers must understand how and when they use electricity, how much is used during on- and off-peak hours, and in the summer versus the winter. When electricity is priced hourly, it is important to know consumption patterns. 7 figs

  20. The impact of deregulation on the US nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratta, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, the electric utility industry is undergoing a dramatic shift away from a tightly regulated monopoly to a free market system. The impact on the nuclear utility industry of deregulation coupled with recent changes in the nuclear regulatory environment has had a dramatic impact on the future of nuclear power in the United States. Utilities have been broken up into separate generation, transmission, and distribution companies and are now allowed to sell electricity outside of their former service areas. As economic deregulation has occurred, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has also adopted a new approach to regulation -- risk informed regulation. The implementation of risk-informed regulation has resulted in the adoption of a new regulatory format that attempts to highlight those areas having greatest risk significance. This paper explores these and other changes that have resulted because of the changing economic and regulatory environment for nuclear energy and examines their impact on the future of nuclear energy in the United States. (author)

  1. Maintenance cost models in deregulated power systems under opportunity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, K.; Dahal, K.; Azaiez, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    In a centralized power system, the operator is responsible for scheduling maintenance. There are different types of maintenance, including corrective maintenance; predictive maintenance; preventive maintenance; and reliability-centred maintenance. The main cause of power failures is poor maintenance. As such, maintenance costs play a significant role in deregulated power systems. They include direct costs associated with material and labor costs as well as indirect costs associated with spare parts inventory, shipment, test equipment, indirect labor, opportunity costs and cost of failure. In maintenance scheduling and planning, the cost function is the only component of the objective function. This paper presented the results of a study in which different components of maintenance costs were modeled. The maintenance models were formulated as an optimization problem with single and multiple objectives and a set of constraints. The maintenance costs models could be used to schedule the maintenance activities of power generators more accurately and to identify the best maintenance strategies over a period of time as they consider failure and opportunity costs in a deregulated environment. 32 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  2. PINK1-Parkin alleviates metabolic stress induced by obesity in adipose tissue and in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chen; Chen, Shihong; Qiao, Jingting; Qing, Li; Wang, Lingshu; He, Tianyi; Wang, Chuan; Liu, Fuqiang; Gong, Lei; Chen, Li; Hou, Xinguo

    2018-04-06

    Mitochondria play an important role in cellular metabolism and are closely related with metabolic stress. Recently, several studies have shown that mitophagy mediated by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin may play a critical role in clearing the damaged mitochondria and maintaining the overall balance of intracellular mitochondria in quality and quantity. A previous study showed that PINK1 and Parkin were overexpressed in adipose tissue in obese subjects. However, it is still unclear whether a direct relationship exists between obesity and mitophagy. In this study, we created a high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model and examined the expression of PINK1 and Parkin in adipose tissue using western blot and real-time quantitative PCR. After we confirmed that there is an interesting difference between regular-chow-fed mice and HFD-induced obese mice in the expression of PINK1 and Parkin in vivo, we further tested the expression of PINK1 and Parkin in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in vitro by treating cells with palmitic acid (PA) to induce metabolic stress. To better understand the role of PINK1 and Parkin in metabolic stress, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PINK1 and Parkin followed by PA treatment. Our results showed that under lower concentrations of PA, PINK1 and Parkin can be activated and play a protective role in resisting the harmful effects of PA, including protecting the mitochondrial function and resisting cellular death, while under higher concentrations of PA, the expression of PINK1 and Parkin can be inhibited. These results suggest that PINK1-Parkin can protect mitochondrial function against metabolic stress induced by obesity or PA to a certain degree. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-10-06

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. The Coming Right-Brain Economy: Daniel H. Pink Says the MFA Is the New MBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a recent "Harvard Business Review" piece by author Daniel H. Pink, MBA graduates are, in many ways, becoming this century's blue-collar workers--people who entered a workforce that was full of promise only to see their jobs move overseas. At the same time, businesses are realizing that the only way to differentiate their goods and…

  5. The mixed Ax-Lindemann theorem and its applications to the Zilber-Pink conjecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Ziyang

    2014-01-01

    The Zilber-Pink conjecture is a common generalization of the Andre-Oort and the Mordell-Lang conjectures. In this dissertation, we study its sub-conjectures: Andre-Oort, which predicts that a subvariety of a mixed Shimura variety having dense intersection with the set of special points is special;

  6. Demography and monitoring of Welsh's milkweed (Asclepias welshii) at Coral Pink Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent C. Palmer; L. Armstrong

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented of a 12-year monitoring program on the Coral Pink Sand Dunes and Sand Hills populations of the threatened Welsh's milkweed, Asclepias welshii N & P Holmgren. The species is an early sera1 member of the dune flora, colonizing blowouts and advancing with shifting dunes. When an area stabilizes and other vegetation encroaches, A. welshii is...

  7. Elegant lady a pink longiflorum lily cultivar suitable for cut flower forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim Ki-Byung,; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new pink longiflorum (Lilium longiflorum x (L. longiforum x L. rubellum)) lily cultivar was obtained by integrated intersectional hybridization techniques. The F1 intersectional hybrid was obtained by crossing between L. longiflorum 'Gelria' and wild type L. rubellum. Since the F1 hybrid was

  8. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F.; Jenkins, Erica S.; Michielsens, Catherine G. J.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2014-01-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  9. Superoxide dismutating molecules rescue the toxic effects of PINK1 and parkin loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosa, Alice; Sanchez-Martinez, Alvaro; Filograna, Roberta; Terriente-Felix, Ana; Alam, Sarah M; Beltramini, Mariano; Bubacco, Luigi; Bisaglia, Marco; Whitworth, Alexander J

    2018-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species exert important functions in regulating several cellular signalling pathways. However, an excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species can perturb the redox homeostasis leading to oxidative stress, a condition which has been associated to many neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, alterations in the redox state of cells and mitochondrial homeostasis are established hallmarks in both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease cases. PINK1 and Parkin are two genes which account for a large fraction of autosomal recessive early-onset forms of Parkinson's disease and are now firmly associated to both mitochondria and redox homeostasis. In this study we explored the hypothesis that superoxide anions participate in the generation of the Parkin and PINK1 associated phenotypic effect by testing the capacity of endogenous and exogenous superoxide dismutating molecules to rescue the toxic effects induced by loss of PINK1 or Parkin, in both cellular and fly models. Our results demonstrate the positive effect of an increased level of superoxide dismutase proteins on the pathological phenotypes, both in vitro and in vivo. A more pronounced effectiveness for mitochondrial SOD2 activity points to the superoxide radicals generated in the mitochondrial matrix as the prime suspect in the definition of the observed phenotypes. Moreover, we also demonstrate the efficacy of a SOD-mimetic compound, M40403, to partially ameliorate PINK1/Parkin phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. These results support the further exploration of SOD-mimetic compounds as a therapeutic strategy against Parkinson's disease.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640?bp and five plasmids of 64,864?bp, 59,879?bp, 42,569?bp, 41,417?bp, and 29,506?bp.

  11. Genetic and metabolic diversity of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in phyllosphere of tropical plants

    OpenAIRE

    Balachandar, D.; Raja, P.; Sundaram, SP.

    2008-01-01

    Diversity of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs (PPFMs) in phyllosphere of cotton, maize and sunflower was determined based on differential carbon-substrate utilization profile and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA data. Results indicate that six diversified groups of PPFMs are found in these crops. Sunflower and maize phyllosphere harbor four different groups of methylobacteria while cotton has only two groups.

  12. Genetic and metabolic diversity of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in phyllosphere of tropical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandar, D; Raja, P; Sundaram, Sp

    2008-01-01

    Diversity of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs (PPFMs) in phyllosphere of cotton, maize and sunflower was determined based on differential carbon-substrate utilization profile and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA data. Results indicate that six diversified groups of PPFMs are found in these crops. Sunflower and maize phyllosphere harbor four different groups of methylobacteria while cotton has only two groups.

  13. Pop nädal : Pink muutis taas imagot. Billboard 200 TOP 20 / Karolina Põder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põder, Karolina

    2002-01-01

    Ameerika popstaarist Pink (Alecia Moorist). Crazy Town'i uuest albumist "Darkhorse". Hard Rock Club' üritusest Biker's Pubis Tallinnas 5. okt.. Impaled Nazarene HR STAR üritusel Nõmme kultuurimajas 25. okt.. Saksa popkuulsuse Alphaville saabumisest Riiga Krasdtmala festivalile 4. oktoobril

  14. A comparative study of LRRK2, PINK1 and genetically undefined familial Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Kenya; Kefi, Mounir; Jasinska-Myga, Barbara; Wider, Christian; Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Ross, Owen A; Heckman, Michael G; Middleton, Lefkos T; Ishihara-Paul, Lianna; Gibson, Rachel A; Amouri, Rim; Ben Yahmed, Samia; Ben Sassi, Samia; Zouari, Mourad; El Euch, Ghada; Farrer, Matthew J; Hentati, Faycal

    2010-04-01

    Genetic classification of Parkinson's disease (PD) subtypes may become the preferred diagnostic tool for neurologists. Herein we compare clinical features from a large cohort of patients with familial PD of unknown aetiology or attributable to distinct genetic forms. Comprehensive neurological examinations were performed in 231 familial PD patients from Tunisia. Analysis was previously performed to screen for mutations in leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), PTEN induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin (PRKN). Clinical features were compared between patients with genetically undefined PD (n=107) and those with LRRK2 (n=73) and PINK1 (n=42) mutations using regression analyses adjusted for gender, age of onset and disease duration. PRKN cases (n=9) were too few for meaningful statistical analysis. In comparison with genetically undefined patients, LRRK2 mutation carriers had more severe motor symptoms (median Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores approximately 1.6 times higher, pundefined patients. As expected, PINK1 patients had younger ages and ages at disease onset, and a longer disease duration compared with LRRK2 mutation carriers and genetically undefined patients. Clinical differences between LRRK2, PINK1 and genetically undefined familial PD appear more pronounced than previously appreciated, and may prove useful in clinical practice. As future therapies are targeted to specific protein abnormalities, identifying the genetic causes and associated clinical and pathological features will determine diagnosis, preventative medicine and drug intervention strategies.

  15. Why girls go pink: Game character identification and game-players’ motivations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reijmersdal, Eva A.; Jansz, Jeroen; Peters, O.; van Noort, Guda

    2013-01-01

    Based on social role theory and uses and gratifications, this study provides insights into the popularity of so-called pink games. This study is the first to examine the roles of identification, playing time, and age in the experience of motivations while playing an online role-playing game. Drawing

  16. Why girls go pink: game character identification and game-players’ motivations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Jansz, J.; Peters, O.; van Noort, G.

    2013-01-01

    Based on social role theory and uses and gratifications, this study provides insights into the popularity of so-called pink games. This study is the first to examine the roles of identification, playing time, and age in the experience of motivations while playing an online role-playing game. Drawing

  17. Pink Tea to Proactive: CCET's Transition Years, 1961-1982, as I Remember Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alvin H.

    2015-01-01

    Alvin Thompson, former president of the California Council on the Education of Teachers (CCET), describes how he became involved with the CCET, and how the cultural environment of the CCET shifted from a "Pink Tea" society to one of political action focused on the real needs of the schools for which teachers are prepared. Thompson…

  18. INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT ON THE PROCESSING TOMATO CROP AND TOMATO FOR CONSUMPTION IN NATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. O. Castro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Weeds cause direct and indirect damage to processing tomato and tomato for consumption in natura. The coexistence period is decisive for the intensity of damage, although the economic cost is also considered for decision making when to control the weeds. There are similarities between processing tomato and tomato for consumption in natura cropping system and peculiarities. This causes the management has adopted its common applications and its variables within each system. As control alternative, the farmer has basically the preventive control, mechanical, cultural, biological and chemical. The application of a single method is not recommended. Ideally, the methods needs to be integrated in order to combat weeds, highly evolved populations and resistant to unfavorable conditions. Consider weed management taking only one control measure is to underestimate the evolutionary ability of such species. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate the various methods available to the weed interference not impede the tomato production.

  19. Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6

  20. Core designs for the de-regulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almberger, J.; Bernro, R.; Pettersson, H.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: The electricity market deregulation in the Nordic countries encourages innovations and cost reductions for power production in the Vattenfall reactors. The competition on the electricity market is strong, electricity price reductions dramatic and uncertainties about the future power demand is large. In the fuel area this situation has given increased attention to traditional areas like flexibility in power production, improved core designs, need for margins (improved fuel designs), improved surveillance, decreased lead times. At Vattenfall new fuel designs are already being implemented following the last fuel purchase, for which flexibility and margins, were given high values in the evaluations with the multipurpose task of eliminating fuel related problems and meeting the future market situation. This strategy has given Vattenfall a flying start to meeting the demands of the de-regulated market. What has been added are broad studies undertaken to investigate the various route into the future with respect to finding the most effective strategies for fuel and core design and optimization. In the present paper the Vattenfall priorities for fuel designs and margins are presented in a schematic manner summarizing the results of the last fuel purchase and also presenting the current program for LFAs. Technical limitations, licensing and R and D aspects, with respect to improving the fuel utilization will be mentioned. The main focus in the paper is on the broad study carried out in the PWR core design area. Driven by the relatively low power demand various possibilities for higher production flexibility have been investigated specifically extended coast-down, coast-up and yearly load follow. Further to reduce the costs for fuel consumption improvements in core designs have been studied: improved low leakage loading patterns, low enriched end zones, improved Gd designs etc. Main results and conclusions of the core design studies will

  1. Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan Metropolis Of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... fruits, determining marketing efficiency, margin and marketing costs associated with tomato marketing. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. TARGET MICROFLORA OF A TOMATO C ROPPED SOIL.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of benomyl on the microflora of a tomato cropped soil was investigated. ... both in culture and soil treatments. ... pseudomonads to benomyl in culture .... bacterial pathogens of tomato solanucearum. Indian Pin to 11:01. in vitro.

  3. Yield and Adaptability Evaluation of Newly Introduced Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High yield is a major ambition to tomato plant breeders and farmers. The purpose of the ... Tabora Region on the growth and yield of newly introduced tomato varieties. The tested ..... (1985). Evaluation of some American tomatocultivars grown.

  4. Effect of tomato cultivars, honey finisher and processing methods on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... microbiological and sensory quality of tomato ketchup that was prepared using low-cost ... The color of tomato ketchup samples were measured by comparing it with standard color chart .... multiple rage tests. RESULTS AND ...

  5. The bioenergetic status relates to dopamine neuron loss in familial PD with PINK1 mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüediger Hilker

    Full Text Available Mutations in the PINK1 gene cause autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease (PD. The gene encodes a mitochondrial protein kinase that plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function and integrity. However, the pathophysiological link between mutation-related bioenergetic deficits and the degenerative process in dopaminergic neurons remains to be elucidated. We performed phosphorous ((31P and proton ((1H 3-T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI in 11 members of a German family with hereditary PD due to PINK1 mutations (PARK6 compared to 23 age-matched controls. All family members had prior 18-Fluorodopa (FDOPA positron emission tomography (PET. The striatal FDOPA uptake was correlated with quantified metabolic brain mapping in MRSI. At group level, the heterozygous PINK1 mutation carriers did not show any MRSI abnormalities relative to controls. In contrast, homozygous individuals with manifest PD had putaminal GPC, PCr, HEP and β-ATP levels well above the 2SD range of controls. Across all subjects, the FDOPA K(i values correlated positively with MI (r = 0.879, p<0.001 and inversely with β-ATP (r = -0.784, p = 0.008 and GPC concentrations (r = -0.651, p = 0.030 in the putamen. Our combined imaging data suggest that the dopaminergic deficit in this family with PD due to PINK1 mutations relates to osmolyte dysregulation, while the delivery of high energy phosphates was preserved. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that PINK1 mutations result in reduced neuronal survival, most likely due to impaired cellular stress resistance.

  6. Evidence of Neurobiological Changes in the Presymptomatic PINK1 Knockout Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Craig F; Morrison, Thomas R; Iriah, Sade; Malmberg, Samantha; Kulkarni, Praveen; Hartner, Jochen C; Trivedi, Malav

    2018-01-01

    Genetic models of Parkinson's disease (PD) coupled with advanced imaging techniques can elucidate neurobiological disease progression, and can help identify early biomarkers before clinical signs emerge. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) helps protect neurons from mitochondrial dysfunction, and a mutation in the associated gene is a risk factor for recessive familial PD. The PINK1 knockout (KO) rat is a novel model for familial PD that has not been neuroradiologically characterized for alterations in brain structure/function, alongside behavior, prior to 4 months of age. To identify biomarkers of presymptomatic PD in the PINK1 -/- rat at 3 months using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. At postnatal weeks 12-13; one month earlier than previously reported signs of motor and cognitive dysfunction, this study combined imaging modalities, including assessment of quantitative anisotropy across 171 individual brain areas using an annotated MRI rat brain atlas to identify sites of gray matter alteration between wild-type and PINK1 -/- rats. The olfactory system, hypothalamus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, and cerebellum showed differences in anisotropy between experimental groups. Molecular analyses revealed reduced levels of glutathione, ATP, and elevated oxidative stress in the substantia nigra, striatum and deep cerebellar nuclei. Mitochondrial genes encoding proteins in Complex IV, along with mRNA levels associated with mitochondrial function and genes involved in glutathione synthesis were reduced. Differences in brain structure did not align with any cognitive or motor impairment. These data reveal early markers, and highlight novel brain regions involved in the pathology of PD in the PINK1 -/- rat before behavioral dysfunction occurs.

  7. PINK1 heterozygous mutations induce subtle alterations in dopamine-dependent synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, G.; Schirinzi, T.; Martella, G.; Latagliata, E.C.; Puglisi, F.; Shen, J.; Valente, E.M.; Federici, M.; Mercuri, N.B.; Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Bonsi, P.; Pisani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are causative of autosomal recessive, early onset PD. Single heterozygous mutations have been repeatedly detected in a subset of patients as well as in non-affected subjects, and their significance has long been debated. Several neurophysiological studies from non-manifesting PINK1 heterozygotes have shown the existence of neural plasticity abnormalities, indicating the presence of specific endophenotypic traits in the heterozygous state. Methods In the present study, we performed a functional analysis of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in heterozygous PINK1 knock-out (PINK1+/−) mice by a multidisciplinary approach. Results We found that, despite a normal motor behavior, repetitive activation of cortical inputs to striatal neurons failed to induce long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas long-term depression (LTD) was normal. Although nigral dopaminergic neurons exhibited normal morphological and electrophysiological properties with normal responses to dopamine receptor activation, we measured a significantly lower dopamine release in the striatum of PINK1+/−, compared to control mice, suggesting that a decrease in stimulus-evoked dopamine overflow acts as a major determinant for the LTP deficit. Accordingly, pharmacological agents capable of increasing the availability of dopamine in the synaptic cleft restored a normal LTP in heterozygous mice. Moreover, MAO-B inhibitors rescued a physiological LTP and a normal dopamine release. Conclusions Our results provide novel evidence for striatal plasticity abnormalities even in the heterozygous disease state. These alterations might be considered an endophenotype to this monogenic form of PD, and a valid tool to characterize early disease stage and design possible disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24167038

  8. Silencing of PINK1 expression affects mitochondrial DNA and oxidative phosphorylation in dopaminergic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Gegg

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD. Impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC and an increased frequency in deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, which encodes some of the subunits of the ETC, have been reported in the substantia nigra of PD brains. The identification of mutations in the PINK1 gene, which cause an autosomal recessive form of PD, has supported mitochondrial involvement in PD. The PINK1 protein is a serine/threonine kinase localized in mitochondria and the cytosol. Its precise function is unknown, but it is involved in neuroprotection against a variety of stress signalling pathways.In this report we have investigated the effect of silencing PINK1 expression in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells by siRNA on mtDNA synthesis and ETC function. Loss of PINK1 expression resulted in a decrease in mtDNA levels and mtDNA synthesis. We also report a concomitant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis, with the activity of complex IV of the ETC most affected. This mitochondrial dysfunction resulted in increased markers of oxidative stress under basal conditions and increased cell death following treatment with the free radical generator paraquat.This report highlights a novel function of PINK1 in mitochondrial biogenesis and a role in maintaining mitochondrial ETC activity. Dysfunction of both has been implicated in sporadic forms of PD suggesting that these may be key pathways in the development of the disease.

  9. Carbon Monoxide, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrogen Dioxide Levels in Gas Ovens Related to Surface Pinking of Cooked Beef and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornforth; Rabovitser; Ahuja; Wagner; Hanson; Cummings; Chudnovsky

    1998-01-19

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and total nitrogen oxide (NO(x)()) levels were monitored during meat cookery with a standard Ovenpak and a new ultralow-NO(x)() (ULN) cyclonic gas burner. With the standard burner, CO varied from 103 to 152 ppm, NO(x)() was 1.3-10.7 ppm, and surface pinking was observed on both beef and turkey. The ULN burner at optimal efficiency produced only 6.7 ppm of CO and 1 ppm of NO(x)(), insufficient to cause surface pinking. To determine the relative contribution of CO and NO(x)() to pinking, trials were also conducted in an electric oven with various pure gases. Pinking was not observed with up to 149 ppm of CO or 5 ppm of NO. However, as little as 0.4 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) caused pinking of turkey rolls. Beef roasts were pink at >2.5 ppm of NO(2). Thus, pinking previously attributed to CO and NO in gas ovens is instead due to NO(2), which has much greater reactivity than NO with moisture at meat surfaces.

  10. Parkinson phenotype in aged PINK1-deficient mice is accompanied by progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in absence of neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Gispert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD is an adult-onset movement disorder of largely unknown etiology. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations of the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1 cause the recessive PARK6 variant of PD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Now we generated a PINK1 deficient mouse and observed several novel phenotypes: A progressive reduction of weight and of locomotor activity selectively for spontaneous movements occurred at old age. As in PD, abnormal dopamine levels in the aged nigrostriatal projection accompanied the reduced movements. Possibly in line with the PARK6 syndrome but in contrast to sporadic PD, a reduced lifespan, dysfunction of brainstem and sympathetic nerves, visible aggregates of alpha-synuclein within Lewy bodies or nigrostriatal neurodegeneration were not present in aged PINK1-deficient mice. However, we demonstrate PINK1 mutant mice to exhibit a progressive reduction in mitochondrial preprotein import correlating with defects of core mitochondrial functions like ATP-generation and respiration. In contrast to the strong effect of PINK1 on mitochondrial dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster and in spite of reduced expression of fission factor Mtp18, we show reduced fission and increased aggregation of mitochondria only under stress in PINK1-deficient mouse neurons. CONCLUSION: Thus, aging Pink1(-/- mice show increasing mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in impaired neural activity similar to PD, in absence of overt neuronal death.

  11. Power plant operation and management in a deregulated market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraretto, Cristian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia, 1-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    This paper analyzes the influence of electricity deregulation on the design, operation and management of the power plants owned by strategic and non-strategic producers. After a sensitivity analysis aimed at finding market conditions of profitable operation for thermal and hydroelectric power plants, a Nash-equilibrium market model is used to determine producers' optimum strategies, depending on their relative market power and overall production characteristics. Attention is then focused on the operation of single thermal power plants. Their short-term management plans and consequent effects on emission levels and residual life are described. The available reserve for primary and secondary control deriving from producers' market strategies is discussed. Some design options to improve combined cycles contribution to reserve service are finally described. The paper discusses these problems with a general approach, and uses many cases and examples derived from the current Italian scenario. (author)

  12. Power plant operation and management in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraretto, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of electricity deregulation on the design, operation and management of the power plants owned by strategic and non-strategic producers. After a sensitivity analysis aimed at finding market conditions of profitable operation for thermal and hydroelectric power plants, a Nash-equilibrium market model is used to determine producers' optimum strategies, depending on their relative market power and overall production characteristics. Attention is then focused on the operation of single thermal power plants. Their short-term management plans and consequent effects on emission levels and residual life are described. The available reserve for primary and secondary control deriving from producers' market strategies is discussed. Some design options to improve combined cycles contribution to reserve service are finally described. The paper discusses these problems with a general approach, and uses many cases and examples derived from the current Italian scenario. (author)

  13. Pricing and University Autonomy: Tuition Deregulation in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongeun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates changes in tuition policies in the wake of tuition deregulation in Texas, which in 2003 transferred tuition-setting authority from the state legislature to institutions. We find that price increases accelerated, particularly at the most selective institutions. Institutions also began differentiating price by undergraduate program, raising relative prices for the most costly and lucrative majors, including engineering, business, nursing, and architecture. Price increases were particularly large for institutions with the highest initial costs and for programs with a high earnings premium within institutions, though lower for institutions with more low-income students. These distinctions suggest that public postsecondary institutions respond to microeconomic incentives when given greater autonomy to set price, and take some measures to alleviate impacts on low-income students. The Texas experience suggests that decentralized price-setting generates greater price differentiation within the public higher education system, both across and within institutions.

  14. Power quality and reliability issues in a deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The challenge of maintaining power quality and reliability in Ontario's new competitive electricity market was the focus of this paper. The intention of Ontario's deregulation is to lower costs and give customers more power and choice. However, some fear that costs pressures may lead to poorer quality. This paper reviewed the causes, costs, and responsibilities, and made some suggestions concerning how customers can protect their interests as the market opens. It was suggested that in order to assure power quality, especially during the transition period, customers need to take care to design their systems and equipment to tolerate some quality variations. Conversely, utilities need to strive for at least minimum industry standards under most conditions. Contracts should be carefully crafted, with responsibilities for reliability and quality clearly stated. 2 refs

  15. Impact of electricity market deregulation on information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharabod, E.; Berrier, M.

    2005-01-01

    Electricity market deregulation is based on un-bundling of activities between generation, transmission and distribution. In a very short time, mechanisms were put in place in order to allow the new market participants to buy and sell electricity. The market operation requires to exchange information at various time horizon, from yearly to real time exchanges, between various actors geographically distributed. The recent market opening to professional customers has also increased the amount of data involved. The information system developed by RTE to manage these data is organised around referential data base, internal and external exchange tools. It must be operated respecting confidentiality of commercial data and being non discriminatory with actors. The security of this information system is now a key issue for the electricity market operation. (authors)

  16. Do cost-sharing and entry deregulation curb pharmaceutical innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Volker

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the role of both cost-sharing schemes in health insurance systems and the regulation of entry into the pharmaceutical sector for pharmaceutical R&D expenditure and drug prices. The analysis suggests that both an increase in the coinsurance rate and stricter price regulations adversely affect R&D spending in the pharmaceutical sector. In contrast, entry deregulation may lead to higher R&D spending of pharmaceutical companies. The relationship between R&D spending per firm and the number of firms may be hump-shaped. In this case, the number of rivals which maximizes R&D expenditure per firm is decreasing in the coinsurance rate and increasing in labor productivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural gas deregulation: have the handcuffs really been removed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    The natural gas market in New York State was reviewed and characterized as being very competitive. A brief description of the New York State Electric and Gas Corp. (NYSEG) was given. As regards recent developments, in October 1993, the New York Public Service Commission (NYPSC) instituted a proceeding (93-G-0932) on the restructuring of the gas market. Several guidelines for market restructuring were established as a result. The guidelines were in respect to service to consumers, safety of distribution, environmental implications, consumer concerns, gas rates, regulation, and access for core customers. The speaker noted that these guidelines did not promote deregulation. Competitive issues faced by local gas distributors were enumerated. Among these were (1)service to core and non-core customers (2)transition costs, (3)streaming, (4)unbundling and repackaged services, (5)price differentiation, and (6)small customer aggregation. It was expected that marketers would oppose the Public Service Commission giving local gas distributors additional pricing flexibility

  18. Electricity pricing and load dispatching in deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geerli; Niioka, S.; Yokoyama, R.

    2003-01-01

    A rapid move to a market-based electric power industry will significantly alter the structure of electricity pricing and system operation. In this paper, we consider a game of negotiation in the electricity market, involving electric utilities, independent power producers (IPPs) and large-scale customers. We analyze the two-level game strategies for the negotiation process between utilities, IPPs and customers. These have been previously recognized as a way to come up with a rational decision for competitive markets, in which players intend to maximize their own profits. The derived operation rules based on competition can be viewed as an extension of the conventional equal incremental cost method for the deregulated power system. The proposed approach was applied to several systems to verify its effectiveness. (Author)

  19. Deregulation and the Alberta experience : the implications for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charach, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a 15 month assessment of Alberta's new competitive electricity market. It also presents lessons that Ontario customers could learn from Alberta's experience. The goal for restructuring is to achieve lower electricity prices, competitive retail markets, increased flexibility of contracts, and to remove investment risks from consumers. Alberta's restructured market includes power generation, high voltage transmission, low voltage transmission and retail sales. Economists agree that deregulation has brought lower prices and other consumer benefits despite some imperfections. After one year, prices in Alberta have gone down from $130/MWh to $30/MWh. Power supply has increased along with demand response, market competitiveness, liquidity, and thermal and economic efficiency. In 2001, Alberta was a net exporter of electricity. In 2001, it was ranked by the Center for Advancement of Energy Markets (CAEM) which ranks states and provinces by 22 attributes for how they are restructuring their power markets. Alberta ranked first overall in North America. Ontario ranked sixteenth. 4 tabs., 5 figs

  20. Steady state security assessment in deregulated power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjure, Durgesh Padmakar

    Power system operations are undergoing changes, brought about primarily due to deregulation and subsequent restructuring of the power industry. The primary intention of the introduction of deregulation in power systems was to bring about competition and improved customer focus. The underlying motive was increased economic benefit. Present day power system analysis is much different than what it was earlier, essentially due to the transformation of the power industry from being cost-based to one that is price-based and due to open access of transmission networks to the various market participants. Power is now treated as a commodity and is traded in an open market. The resultant interdependence of the technical criteria and the economic considerations has only accentuated the need for accurate analysis in power systems. The main impetus in security analysis studies is on efficient assessment of the post-contingency status of the system, accuracy being of secondary consideration. In most cases, given the time frame involved, it is not feasible to run a complete AC load flow for determining the post-contingency state of the system. Quite often, it is not warranted as well, as an indication of the state of the system is desired rather than the exact quantification of the various state variables. With the inception of deregulation, transmission networks are subjected to a host of multilateral transactions, which would influence physical system quantities like real power flows, security margins and voltage levels. For efficient asset utilization and maximization of the revenue, more often than not, transmission networks are operated under stressed conditions, close to security limits. Therefore, a quantitative assessment of the extent to which each transaction adversely affects the transmission network is required. This needs to be done accurately as the feasibility of the power transactions and subsequent decisions (execution, curtailment, pricing) would depend upon the

  1. Game-theoretic equilibrium analysis applications to deregulated electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Manho

    This dissertation examines game-theoretic equilibrium analysis applications to deregulated electricity markets. In particular, three specific applications are discussed: analyzing the competitive effects of ownership of financial transmission rights, developing a dynamic game model considering the ramp rate constraints of generators, and analyzing strategic behavior in electricity capacity markets. In the financial transmission right application, an investigation is made of how generators' ownership of financial transmission rights may influence the effects of the transmission lines on competition. In the second application, the ramp rate constraints of generators are explicitly modeled using a dynamic game framework, and the equilibrium is characterized as the Markov perfect equilibrium. Finally, the strategic behavior of market participants in electricity capacity markets is analyzed and it is shown that the market participants may exaggerate their available capacity in a Nash equilibrium. It is also shown that the more conservative the independent system operator's capacity procurement, the higher the risk of exaggerated capacity offers.

  2. BDI position on energy policy and energy market deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreklau, C.

    2003-01-01

    Secure energy supplies are indispensable for our modern way of life and our economy. Energy policy is a part of economic policy and must be shaped within the magic triangle of objectives, i.e. security, competitiveness, environmental compatibility. As a result of their outstanding role, electricity and natural gas, with respective shares of 70% in industrial energy use and 85% in energy costs, are in the focus of energy policy interest of the Federation of German Industries (BDI). One important development over the past few years has been the deregulation of the markets for electricity and gas. However, the markedly lower electricity rates to be paid by industry, commercial tariff consumers, and private customers are being offset by new burdens arising from government intervention and taxes. Other dirigistic interventions into the energy market by the red-green federal government since 1998, referred to as 'turning point of energy policy', are invalidating what market opening had been achieved. With a view to a sustainable energy policy for the future, BDI pleads in favor of a broad energy mix. In a mix neutral with respect to competition, this includes the classical energy sources, the renewables, and low-cost, environmentally friendly nuclear power. In principle, it is the forces of the market, coupled with responsible action, which are to steer further developments. On a European level, speedy implementation of the opening of the electricity and gas markets, as decided, should be urged. It is important that the leeway won as a result of deregulation not be constrained again by new regulations. More market, less regulation, and more direct responsibility must provide room for a powerful energy supply system under the premises of the triangle of objectives referred to above. (orig.) [de

  3. Public understanding of environmental impacts of electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Branden B.; Frank, Pamela G.

    2006-01-01

    Electricity deregulation has aroused concern that environmental quality might be harmed by consumer preferences for cheap, 'dirty' (e.g., coal) electricity products, despite the perhaps stronger influence of supply side policy on environmental impacts. This outcome depends on public understanding of the environmental impacts of their decisions, which this study explored with interviews, focus groups, and surveys in New Jersey. People had thought little about the topic, were unable to articulate how electricity production might affect the environment except in very general terms, and were mostly unwilling to guess whether deregulation's impacts would be negative, neutral or positive. Those who did guess expected negative impacts less than any other kind. Reactions to specific 'reasons' for expecting no, positive or negative impacts suggested that consumers had little structure to their mental models in this area; for example, people who thought positive-impact reasons were probably true were not necessarily likely to see negative-impact reasons as probably false. However, in the aggregate, people seemed to have a fairly consistent ranking of energy sources by expected negative environmental impacts. Earlier research found that consumers comparing two electricity products on environmental impacts reached different decisions if they had energy-source-only or energy-source-plus-emissions information. Although regulator-required 'environmental labels' for electricity products provide both source and emissions data, it is not clear that they do an adequate job of both alerting consumers to the possibility of negative environmental impacts and identifying the relative life-cycle impacts of different products so as to produce informed consumer decisions

  4. The economics of energy storage in 14 deregulated power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, F.C.; Flynn, P.C.; Cabral, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    In regulated power markets, electricity is stored to better utilize existing generation and to defer costly investment in generation. The justification is a reduction in the overall regulated price of power compared to the alternative investment in new primary generation. However, any storage of electrical power also involves a capital investment and incurs the cost of inefficiency. In deregulated energy markets, the sale of electricity or ancillary services from pumped storage can be evaluated based on each individual project. The economic basis for power storage is that power is purchased during periods of low price and resold during periods of high price. This study used historical power price data from 14 deregulated markets around the world to evaluate the economic incentive to use pumped storage for electrical energy. Each market was shown to have a unique average diurnal power price profile that results in a unique price spread for pumped storage. The diurnal price pattern and efficiency of storage was used to assess the net income potential from energy sales from pumped storage for each market. The markets were ranked in terms of the incentive to invest in pumped energy storage as well as on available revenue, and on potential return on investment. An optimal operating profile was illustrated in detail based on historical price patterns for one of the markets. The net income potential was then combined with the capital and operating cost of pumped storage. The adequacy of return on investment for pumped storage was analyzed by two different methods. The differences between markets stem from different diurnal power price patterns that reflect the generation mix, market design and participant behaviours. 17 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs., 1 appendix

  5. Investments into plant replacements in a deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsaesser, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    The amendment to the Power Energy Act in April 1998 marked the complete deregulation of the electricity market in Germany. The debate is now beginning about ways and means to ensure new capital investments safeguarding the continuity of supply. The present power plant park has been characterized by a broad mix of primary energy sources and, admittedly, by some overcapacity as well. However, any further reduction of generating capacity will be at the expense of the continuity of supply. Although electricity prices in Germany are on the rise again after a clear drop, they have not yet reached a level sufficient for new investments. Only subsidized power plants are recovering their full costs. The question is for how long our economy is going to sustain this state of affairs. The balance among the energy policy goals of continuity of supply, environmental performance, and economic efficiency has been upset. In the period up until 2020, Germany alone will require approx. 37,000 MW of new generating capacity. Renewable and decentralized technologies alone do not constitute a sufficient and reliable alternative. However, there is the matter also of the practical feasibility of building the new power plants required. No experience is as yet available with re-investment cycles in the deregulated electricity market. Options are needed for a diversified structure of primary energy sources. There must be neither political definition of generating technologies nor exaggerated goals of environmental protection and climate protection. We advocate the free system of market prices and free access to the market. Major players able to guarantee sufficient security of investments are needed to cope with the challenges ahead. New investments with a life of thirty to forty years require a modicum of stability and realism in political framework conditions. (orig.)

  6. Economic use of a nuclear park in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, L.

    2000-01-01

    The deregulation of the electricity market has created a new situation for plant life management. In order to be competitive it is important to cut costs. All means to cut costs have to be used while still maintaining safety and production capacity. The possibilities to invest in modernization are limited to the absolute necessary modifications. All investments must be very thoroughly questioned and the money can only be spent where most benefit is gained. This means new prerequisites for the absolute necessary long strategic planning. New safety requirements from the regulatory body have to be discussed between the industry and the regulator. The cost of new requirements must be compared to the benefit for the safety. The regulator is today requested to carry out such analyses and do so in most cases. Still the electricity market is international and the requirements of the regulator must be harmonized on the whole market. The political threat against nuclear power is serious in many countries and it is important to continue working with public and political understanding and acceptance. Especially in Sweden a lot of effort is spent on trying to get harmonized taxes and environmental fees. Nuclear power is paying for all its costs and the external costs are already internalized. Still, at the deregulated market, nuclear power is competitive, creating positive cash flow, a good object for investments and environmentally favourable. Threats have to be removed to get prerequisites for long term strategic planning and investments. Steps in that direction will be increasing electricity demand, in the near future, which will make the prices to raise creating an improved economic situation. Also the very serious worries about climate change will strengthen the competitiveness of nuclear power. (author)

  7. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  8. Economics Of Tomato Production In Yewa North Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions relating to the socio-economic characteristics of the tomato farmers, tomato outputs, output prices and cost of resources viz. labour, seed, fertilizer and land used in production, as well as constraints to tomato production were asked in the questionnaire. Production function analysis was used to show the ...

  9. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Colletotrichum acutatum from Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Živković; Saša Stojanović; Žarko IVanović; Nenad Trkulja; Nenad Dolovac; Goran Aleksić; Jelica Balaž

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium...

  10. Biochemical evaluation of tomato germplasm part I: workflow and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the seed crop species conserved at PGRU, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the largest in terms of numbers of accessions. Furthermore, tomato ranks very high among vegetable crops in economic importance to the US. We are characterizing a tomato core collection for traits that are of interest to...

  11. Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the picking time of tomato and design the control strategy for the harvesting robot, the judgment of tomato maturity under natural conditions is ... Hue-mean and red-green color-difference image mean can be used as a criterion for the judgment of tomato maturity, and the tests indicated that the redgreen mean ...

  12. The effect of gamma irradiation on the growth and flowering of stem chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum morifolium ramat.) cv. pink fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ita Dwimahyani

    2007-01-01

    Rooted shoot cuttings have been irradiated by gamma rays with 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy doses, and then planted in green house on Gadog, Ciawi. Plant growth from each doses proved to be varied, both in height and flowering process. Plants with dose 15 Gy and higher had shown late flowering time and dwarfing. The optimal dose for chrysanthemum cv. Pink Fiji irradiation is suggested to be 10-15 Gy. The highest mutation frequency shown on flower color is yellow, followed by orange, white, dark pink and light pink. (author)

  13. Effect of weather factors on the incidence and development of pink bollworm on flowers of advance cotton genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, A.; Subhani, M.N.; Hassan, S.W.; Afzal, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ten advance genotypes of cotton Viz. BH-121, NIAB KRISHMA, DNH-137, VH-142, VH-142 BH-125, MNH-635, SLH-267, FNH-245, CRIS-467 and CRIS-82 were used to determine the effect of different weather factors on the incidence and development of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossyiella) infestation at Nuclear institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) Faisalabad. Trials were laid out using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. Finally data were subjected to statistical analysis and for correlation studies between weather factors and pink bollworm. Temperature and relative humidity and rainfall affected negatively for the infestation of pink bollworm on flowers in advance genotypes of cotton. (author)

  14. Fungi of genus Alternaria occurring on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato early blight in central Poland was caused by Alternaria solani (A. porri f. sp., solani and A. alernata (A. tenuis. A. alternata was isolated more often than A. solani. All isolates of A. solani in controlled conditions killed tomato seedlings, while pathogenic isolates of A. alternata caused only slight seedling blight. In greenhouse tests A. solani proved to be strongly pathogenic for leaves and stems of tomato but A. alternata was weakly pathogenic. The latter species attacked only injured fruits while, A. solanicould penetrate through undamaged peel of fruits. Both of these species caused the same type of symptoms; the differences consisted only in intensification of disease symptoms. During 1974 and 1975 field tomatoes were moderately attacked by early blight. Thebest development of this disease occurred by the turn of August and September. Determinate variety 'New Yorker' was distinguished by more severe infection of stem parts of tomato whereas the fruits of a stock variety 'Apollo' were more strongly attacked.

  15. Superfamily of ankyrin repeat proteins in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Shizhong; Qing, Xiaohe; Sun, Meihong; Liu, Shiyang; Su, Hongyan; Shu, Huairui; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-07-10

    The ankyrin repeat (ANK) protein family plays a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no detailed information concerning this family is available for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) due to the limited information on whole genome sequences. In this study, we identified a total of 130 ANK genes in tomato genome (SlANK), and these genes were distributed across all 12 chromosomes at various densities. And chromosomal localizations of SlANK genes indicated 25 SlANK genes were involved in tandem duplications. Based on their domain composition, all of the SlANK proteins were grouped into 13 subgroups. A combined phylogenetic tree was constructed with the aligned SlANK protein sequences. This tree revealed that the SlANK proteins comprise five major groups. An analysis of the expression profiles of SlANK genes in tomato in different tissues and in response to stresses showed that the SlANK proteins play roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the tomato ANK gene family. This study provides valuable information regarding the classification and putative functions of SlANK genes in tomato. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes. Fresh fully ripen tomatoes were washed and cut in thin slices with sterilized stainless steel knife and divided into two lots, one was taken as control and other was dipped in 3% potassium meta bisulfite solution for 5 minutes. The samples were spread over stainless steel trays covered with muslin cloth and kept in solar dehydrator for 5 days at 55 +- 2 deg. C. The physicochemical analyses were carried out in both dried and fresh (control) tomatoes. They were also analyzed microbiologically for bacterial and fugal count. Results showed that sun dried tomatoes are microbiologically safe. The values of moisture content and vitamin C of fresh and sun dried tomatoes statistically differ from each others at probability level of 5 %. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. In fresh tomatoes it was 32.5 mg/100 g which is reduced to 24.6 mg/100 g after sun drying and further reduced to 15.86 mg/100 g during three months storage. The moisture content of the fresh tomatoes was 94.4% which decreased to 8.15% after drying, and then slowly increased to 9.95% in the three months storage. Statistically no major difference was found in the other nutrients during storage, which indicates that sun drying is nutritionally and microbiologically safe and can be used to preserve tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables for off season use. (author)

  17. The human PINK1 locus is regulated in vivo by a non-coding natural antisense RNA during modulation of mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahlestedt Claes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 are implicated in early-onset Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is expressed abundantly in mitochondria rich tissues, such as skeletal muscle, where it plays a critical role determining mitochondrial structural integrity in Drosophila. Results Herein we characterize a novel splice variant of PINK1 (svPINK1 that is homologous to the C-terminus regulatory domain of the protein kinase. Naturally occurring non-coding antisense provides sophisticated mechanisms for diversifying genomes and we describe a human specific non-coding antisense expressed at the PINK1 locus (naPINK1. We further demonstrate that PINK1 varies in vivo when human skeletal muscle mitochondrial content is enhanced, supporting the idea that PINK1 has a physiological role in mitochondrion. The observation of concordant regulation of svPINK1 and naPINK1 during in vivo mitochondrial biogenesis was confirmed using RNAi, where selective targeting of naPINK1 results in loss of the PINK1 splice variant in neuronal cell lines. Conclusion Our data presents the first direct observation that a mammalian non-coding antisense molecule can positively influence the abundance of a cis-transcribed mRNA under physiological abundance conditions. While our analysis implies a possible human specific and dsRNA-mediated mechanism for stabilizing the expression of svPINK1, it also points to a broader genomic strategy for regulating a human disease locus and increases the complexity through which alterations in the regulation of the PINK1 locus could occur.

  18. Genetic divergence of tomato subsamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pugnal Mattedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic variability of a species is crucial for the progress of a genetic breeding program and requires characterization and evaluation of germplasm. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate 101 tomato subsamples of the Salad group (fresh market and two commercial controls, one of the Salad group (cv. Fanny and another of the Santa Cruz group (cv. Santa Clara. Four experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and five plants per plot. The joint analysis of variance was performed and characteristics with significant complex interaction between control and experiment were excluded. Subsequently, the multicollinearity diagnostic test was carried out and characteristics that contributed to severe multicollinearity were excluded. The relative importance of each characteristics for genetic divergence was calculated by the Singh's method (Singh, 1981, and the less important ones were excluded according to Garcia (1998. Results showed large genetic divergence among the subsamples for morphological, agronomic and organoleptic characteristics, indicating potential for genetic improvement. The characteristics total soluble solids, mean number of good fruits per plant, endocarp thickness, mean mass of marketable fruit per plant, total acidity, mean number of unmarketable fruit per plant, internode diameter, internode length, main stem thickness and leaf width contributed little to the genetic divergence between the subsamples and may be excluded in future studies.

  19. Overview of the developments in the domestic airline industry in South Africa since market deregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation or liberalisation of air transport has had major global impacts on the domestic air transport markets, with effects ranging from stimulation to changes in the structure and functioning of these markets. In South Africa, deregulation has had wide-reaching effects on the domestic market. The purpose of this article was to investigate the current domestic air transport market. A literature review was performed to examine the effects of deregulation in other domestic air transport markets around the world. This was followed by a review of the South African domestic air transport market prior to deregulation in order to determine the changes that were made following deregulation. The ten-year period immediately following deregulation was also examined; this period was characterised by relatively large numbers of market entries and exits. A database was obtained from the Airports Company South Africa; air traffic movements, passenger numbers and load factors were evaluated. The study showed that the market is still characterised by regular market entries and exits. Also that the entry of the low-cost carriers has stimulated the market, resulting in increased air traffic movements, higher passenger numbers, higher load factors in general and the opening of a secondary airport in Gauteng, Lanseria International. Deregulation and, more specifically, the entry of the low-cost carriers has resulted in structural changes in the market and more choice for passengers.

  20. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  1. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh

    The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...... manuscripts (MS). These non-destructive methods show the potential of sorting tomato seeds as per their viability and varietal identity. The results are discussed in the context of possible contribution from these methods in the improvement of the seed quality in Nepal. In MS I, potential application of NIR...... spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...

  2. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  3. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  4. Internet-based wide area measurement applications in deregulated power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Abdel-Rahman Amin

    Since the deregulation of power systems was started in 1989 in the UK, many countries have been motivated to undergo deregulation. The United State started deregulation in the energy sector in California back in 1996. Since that time many other states have also started the deregulation procedures in different utilities. Most of the deregulation market in the United States now is in the wholesale market area, however, the retail market is still undergoing changes. Deregulation has many impacts on power system network operation and control. The number of power transactions among the utilities has increased and many Independent Power Producers (IPPs) now have a rich market for competition especially in the green power market. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) called upon utilities to develop the Regional Transmission Organization (RTO). The RTO is a step toward the national transmission grid. RTO is an independent entity that will operate the transmission system in a large region. The main goal of forming RTOs is to increase the operation efficiency of the power network under the impact of the deregulated market. The objective of this work is to study Internet based Wide Area Information Sharing (WAIS) applications in the deregulated power system. The study is the first step toward building a national transmission grid picture using information sharing among utilities. Two main topics are covered as applications for the WAIS in the deregulated power system, state estimation and Total Transfer Capability (TTC) calculations. As a first step for building this national transmission grid picture, WAIS and the level of information sharing of the state estimation calculations have been discussed. WAIS impacts to the TTC calculations are also covered. A new technique to update the TTC using on line measurements based on WAIS created by sharing state estimation is presented.

  5. AFSC/ABL: Adult Pink Salmon Predation in Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska, 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project objectives were to assess potential salmon predation impact on juvenile salmon and herring by: (1) comparing diets of adult pink salmon during their...

  6. Growth kinetics and efficacy as parameters for ranking and selecting biocontrol agents that reduce pink rot in stored potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased production of organic agricultural products and the relative ineffectiveness of traditional control measures support development of new biocontrol technologies for use against pink rot infections in storage. The microbiota of 84 different agricultural soils was individually transferred to...

  7. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  8. Improvement of age estimation using amino acid racemization in a case of pink teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, S; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, I

    1998-03-01

    Age was estimated from pink teeth using racemization of dentinal aspartic acid. Materials for identification were two lower second premolars. The body was determined to be that of a 40-year-old man; however, the age of the decedent had been estimated to be 29 and 30 years by the conventional method and 30 years from findings in the oral cavity. To clarify the cause of this difference, the powdered teeth were further washed in 0.01 mol/L hydrochloric acid. The racemization ratio (D/L ratio) of ordinary white teeth from persons of known age was slightly lower than that before washing, whereas that of the teeth used for identification was higher than before washing. The calculated age of the decedent using the racemization ratio of his teeth was between 36 and 37 years. These results suggest that age estimated from pink teeth is probably underestimated, but a more accurate age estimate can be obtained after adequate washing.

  9. Heterozygous carriers of a Parkin or PINK1 mutation share a common functional endophenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Nuenen, BF; Siebner, Hartwig; Weiss, MM

    2008-01-01

    inherited Parkinson disease alters the cortical control of sequential finger movements. METHODS: Nonmanifesting individuals carrying a single heterozygous Parkin (n = 13) or PINK1 (n = 9) mutation and 23 healthy controls without these mutations were studied with functional MRI (fMRI). During f...... rostral dorsal premotor cortex in mutation carriers but not in controls. Task-related activation of these premotor areas was similar in carriers of a Parkin or PINK1 mutation. CONCLUSION: Mutations in different genes linked to recessively inherited Parkinson disease are associated with an additional...... recruitment of rostral supplementary motor area and rostral dorsal premotor cortex during a simple motor sequence task. These premotor areas were recruited independently of the underlying genotype. The observed activation most likely reflects a "generic" compensatory mechanism to maintain motor function...

  10. The Pinking Shears: A Novel Tool for Improving Skin Graft Cosmesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormac W. Joyce, MB BCh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A significant aesthetic disadvantage to split skin grafts is the obvious transition between the graft and the normal skin. We report on a novel method to interrupt this transition point by using pinking shears, which are dressmaking scissors with saw-toothed blades that create a chevron pattern instead of a straight edge. We describe a case where the pinking shears were utilized on a split skin graft and Integra for reconstruction of the skin on a volar forearm. This technique allows for breaking-up of the transition point between the skin graft and normal skin and gives rise to an improved aesthetic outcome as the boundary is significantly less well-defined. This novel method shows promise and further study is certainly warranted.

  11. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  12. Analysis of the Exxon Valdez oil spill impacts on Prince William Sound pink salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, E.L.; Moulton, L.L.; Maki, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on pink salmon in Prince William Sound (PWS), was studied. Since the incident, numerous and extensive field and laboratory studies have been completed by various scientists. This paper synthesized information on the post-spill salmon harvests, the concentration of petroleum that entered the water column, the number of streams oiled, and stream sediment chemistry, to determine the potential for oil spill effects. Results from this study showed that oiling to the extent experienced during incubation and rearing during both the spring and fall of 1989 through the spring of 1991, resulted in no measurable effects on the PWS pink salmon. The estimated losses predicted earlier, likely exceeded actual losses. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Decision modelling tools for utilities in the deregulated energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, S. [Process Vision Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    This thesis examines the impact of the deregulation of the energy market on decision making and optimisation in utilities and demonstrates how decision support applications can solve specific encountered tasks in this context. The themes of the thesis are presented in different frameworks in order to clarify the complex decision making and optimisation environment where new sources of uncertainties arise due to the convergence of energy markets, globalisation of energy business and increasing competition. This thesis reflects the changes in the decision making and planning environment of European energy companies during the period from 1995 to 2004. It also follows the development of computational performance and evolution of energy information systems during the same period. Specifically, this thesis consists of studies at several levels of the decision making hierarchy ranging from top-level strategic decision problems to specific optimisation algorithms. On the other hand, the studies also follow the progress of the liberalised energy market from the monopolistic era to the fully competitive market with new trading instruments and issues like emissions trading. This thesis suggests that there is an increasing need for optimisation and multiple criteria decision making methods, and that new approaches based on the use of operations research are welcome as the deregulation proceeds and uncertainties increase. Technically, the optimisation applications presented are based on Lagrangian relaxation techniques and the dedicated Power Simplex algorithm supplemented with stochastic scenario analysis for decision support, a heuristic method to allocate common benefits and potential losses of coalitions of power companies, and an advanced Branch- and-Bound algorithm to solve efficiently nonconvex optimisation problems. The optimisation problems are part of the operational and tactical decision making process that has become very complex in the recent years. Similarly

  14. Carotenoids and lycopene content in fresh and dried tomato fruits and tomato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Important component of the tomato are carotenoid dyes, especially lycopene. The importance of lycopene in the diet of people in recent years has grown mainly for its pharmacological effects due to its ability to reduce the risk of carcinoma diseases and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of total carotenoids and lycopene in 8 varieties of tomato and to monitor dynamic changes after their different treatments (heating, drying. The experiment included following tomato varieties: Bambino F1, Darina F1, Diana F1, Denár, Milica F1, Orange F1, Paulína F1, Šejk F1.We found that processing of tomato fruits into juices and dried slices positively affected the presence of carotenoids and lycopene. Processing leads to an increase in the content of carotenoids that can be attributed to better availability of these components in the human body.

  15. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of Pink-Footed Geese: 2014 progress summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest-management strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) near their agreed target level (60 thousand) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark.  Specifically, this report provides an assessment of the most recent monitoring information and its implications for the harvest management strategy.

  16. Efficacy of pink guava pulp as an antioxidant in raw pork emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K.; Biswas, Ashim K.; Sahoo, Jhari

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. The antioxidant potential of pink guava pulp (PGP) was evaluated at different levels (0%; C, 5.0%; T-1, 7.5%; T-2 and 10.0%; T-3) in the raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage of 9 days under aerobic packaging. Lycopene and β-carotene contents increased (P 

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-06-16

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. Copyright © 2016 Morohoshi and Ikeda.

  18. Pseudomonas mesophilica and an unnamed taxon, clinical isolates of pink-pigmented oxidative bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilardi, G L; Faur, Y C

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-one strains of pink-pigmented bacteria, isolated from human clinical specimens and an environmental source, were compared with Pseudomonas mesophilica ATCC 29983 and Protaminobacter ruber ATCC 8457. These isolates were gram-negative, oxidative rods which were motile by means of a single polar flagellum; gave positive catalase, indophenol oxidase, urease, and amylase reactions; and grew slowly at 30 degrees C. Fourteen isolates conformed to the designated type strains Pseudomonas mesoph...

  19. Methylobacterium suomiense sp. nov. and Methylobacterium lusitanum sp. nov., aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, Nina V; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Tourova, Tatjana P; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2002-05-01

    Two aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria, strains F20T and RXM(T), are described taxonomically. On the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic properties, the isolates are proposed as novel species of the genus Methylobacterium, Methylobacterium suomiense sp. nov. (type strain F20T = VKM B-2238T = NCIMB 13778T) and Methylobacterium lusitanum sp. nov. (type strain RXMT = VKM B-2239T = NCIMB 13779T).

  20. Albumin Overload and PINK1/Parkin Signaling-Related Mitophagy in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin; Xie, Qi; Song, Shuling; Miao, Yuyang; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    BACKGROUND Albumin, as a major urinary protein component, is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease progression. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causes of albumin-induced proximal tubule cells injury. Mitophagy is considered as a pivotal protective mechanism for the elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria. The objective of this research was to determine whether albumin overload-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can activate PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs). MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot assay were used to detect the effects of albumin overload on autophagy marker protein LC3. Transmission electron microscopy and Western blot assay were used to investigate the role of albumin in mitochondrial injury. Western blot assay and co-localization of acidic lysosomes and mitochondria assay were employed to detect the activation of mitophagy induced by albumin. Finally, we explored the role of PINK1/Parkin signaling in albumin-induced mitophagy by inhibiting mitophagy by knockdown of PARK2 (Parkin) level. RESULTS Immunofluorescence and Western blot results showed that the expression level of LC3-II increased, and the maximum increase point was observed after 8 h of albumin treatment. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that albumin overload-induced mitochondrial injury and quantity of autophagosomes increased. Additionally, expression of PINK1 and cytosolic cytochrome C increased and mitochondria cytochrome C decreased in the albumin group. The co-localization of acidic lysosomes and mitochondria demonstrated that the number of albumin overload-induced mitophagy-positive dots increased. The transient transfection of PARK2 siRNA result showed knockdown of the expression level of PARK2 can inhibit mitophagy induced by albumin. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, our study suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction activates the PINK1/Parkin signaling and mitophagy in renal tubular

  1. Biotechnological and Agronomic Potential of Endophytic Pink-Pigmented Methylotrophic Methylobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Aparecida Camargo Neves, Aline; Santos, Daiene Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2015-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium is composed of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria, which are able to synthesize carotenoids and grow on reduced organic compounds containing one carbon (C1), such as methanol and methylamine. Due to their high phenotypic plasticity, these bacteria are able to colonize different habitats, such as soil, water, and sediment, and different host plants as both endophytes and epiphytes. In plant colonization, the frequency and distribution may be in...

  2. Growth and enzymological characteristics of a pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium sp. MB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baev, M V; Kuznetsov, E V; Skladnev, D A; Govorukhina, N I; Sterkin, V E; Tsygankov, Y D

    1992-01-01

    Growth characteristics of batch and continuous cultures of the pink facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium sp. MB1 were determined. The response of a chemostat culture to a pulse increase of methanol concentration was studied. Malate, succinate and oxaloacetate additions to the methanol-supplemented medium decreased batch culture growth inhibition by methanol. The carotenoid content in cells grown in a chemostat decreased with increasing growth rate. The key enzyme activities of C1-metabolism were measured in a chemostat culture at different dilution rates.

  3. DNA:DNA hybridization studies on the pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, D W; Dow, C S; Green, P N

    1987-03-01

    The genomic relatedness among 36 strains of pink-pigmented facultatively methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs) was estimated by determination of DNA base composition and by DNA:DNA hybridization studies. A reproducible hybridization system was developed for the rapid analysis of multiple DNA samples. Results indicated that the PPFMs comprise four major and several minor homology groups, and that they should remain grouped in a single genus, Methylobacterium.

  4. Common variants in the PARL and PINK1 genes increase the risk to leprosy in Han Chinese from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Feng, Jia-Qi; Li, Guo-Dong; Li, Xiao-An; Yu, Xiu-Feng; Long, Heng; Li, Yu-Ye; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-11-23

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious and neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an unculturable pathogen with massive genomic decay and dependence on host metabolism. We hypothesized that mitochondrial genes PARL and PINK1 would confer risk to leprosy. Thirteen tag SNPs of PARL and PINK1 were analyzed in 3620 individuals with or without leprosy from China. We also sequenced the entire exons of PARL, PINK1 and PARK2 in 80 patients with a family history of leprosy by using the next generation sequencing technology (NGS). We found that PARL SNP rs12631031 conferred a risk to leprosy (P adjusted  = 0.019) and multibacillary leprosy (MB, P adjusted  = 0.020) at the allelic level. rs12631031 and rs7653061 in PARL were associated with leprosy and MB (dominant model, P adjusted  leprosy at the genotypic level (P adjusted  = 0.004). We confirmed that common variants in PARL and PINK1 were associated with leprosy in patients underwent NGS. Furthermore, PARL and PINK1 could physically interact with each other and were involved in the highly connected network formed by reported leprosy susceptibility genes. Together, our results showed that PARL and PINK1 genetic variants are associated with leprosy.

  5. AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Involved in Response to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curly Virus in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV, transmitted by the whitefly (, causes leaf curling and yellowing, plant dwarfism, and growth inhibition in tomato ( L.. The APETALA2 (AP2 and ethylene response factor (ERF transcription factor (TF family, the largest plant-specific TF family, was identified to function in plant development and pathogen defense. Our study aimed to analyze the mechanism underlying the function of ERF (SlERF TFs in response to TYLCV infection and improve useful information to increase the resistance to TYLCV in tomato. A total of 22 tomato AP2/ERF TFs in response to TYLCV were identified according to transcriptome database. Five ERF-B3 TFs were identified in cultivars Hongbeibei (highly resistant, Zheza-301, Zhefen-702 (both resistant, Jinpeng-1, and Xianke-6 (both susceptible. Interaction network indicated that SlERF TFs could interact with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. Expression profiles of five ERF-B3 genes (, , , , and were detected by quantitative real-time–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR after TYLCV infection in five tomato cultivars. expression was upregulated in five tomato cultivars. The expressions of three genes (, , and were upregulated in Zheza-301 and Zhefen-702. and expressions were downregulated in Hongbeibei and Xianke-6, respectively. Yeast one-hybrid showed that the GCC-box binding ability of ERF-B3 TFs differed in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. Expression profiles were related to the GCC-box binding ability of SlERF TFs in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. The defense mechanism underlying the tomato’s response to TYLCV involved a complicated network, which provided important information for us in breeding and genetic analysis.

  6. Pepino mosaic virus and Tomato chlorosis virus causing mixed infection in protected tomato crops in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVATORE DAVINO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual virus-like yellow leaf disorder associated with fruit marbling was observed during the winter of 2005 in some greenhouse tomato crops in the province of Ragusa Sicily (Southern Italy. Leaf samples from 250 symptomatic tomato plants were serologically tested by DAS-ELISA technique for 5 viruses: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV. PepMV was detected in 215 of the samples. The virus was mechanically transmitted to cucumber, wild metel, wild tobacco and ‘Rio Grande’ tomato. The experimental host range of PepMV-Ragusa differed from that of the PepMV found in Sardinia in 2001, which infected ‘Camone’ tomato. By applying RT-PCR to 25 PepMV-infected tomato plants, the expected 844 bp DNA fragment for PepMV and the expected 439 bp DNA fragment for Tomato chlororis virus (ToCV were obtained from all the samples tested. Sequences of the obtained amplicons were used to study the phylogenetic relationships of the viruses with isolates from other countries. Nucleotide sequence alignments showed that the sequence CP-PepMV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ 517884 were 99% homologous with both US2 and Spain-Murcia isolates, while those of ToCV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ517885 isolate HSP70, were 99% homologous with the Florida isolate, and 98% with the Lebanon isolate. The results proved that the unusual disorder found in greenhouse tomatoes in Sicily can be associated with infections by PepMV and ToCV, reported for the first time in a mixed infection.

  7. A qualitative exploration of patients' attitudes towards the 'Participate Inform Notice Know' (PINK) patient safety video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Anna; Vincent, Charles; Darzi, Ara; Davis, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    To explore patients' attitudes towards the PINK video, a patient education video aimed at encouraging hospital patients' involvement in safety-relevant behaviours. Qualitative semi-structured interviews. Detailed field notes were taken during the interviews which were analysed using content analysis. One National Health System (NHS) teaching hospital based in London, UK. Thirty-six in-patients aged between 20 and 79 years, 18 of them males. The PINK video is a short animated educational video aimed at encouraging patients to be involved in the safety of their care during hospitalization. Patients' perceptions of how informative, relevant and acceptable the video is; attitudes towards participating in the recommended safety-related behaviours and; potential negative side effects of watching the video. Overall the video was received favourably among the interviewees. Commonly cited benefits included raising awareness and facilitating patients to be involved in their care during their hospital stay. More variability was found in participants' views with regard to the video's role as a patient safety enhancement tool. A number of suggestions for improvement of the video were provided relating to tailoring its content and design to meet the needs of individual patients and their circumstances. Educational videos such as PINK have significant potential to empower patients in the safety and quality of their care. However, efforts to implement patient safety educational videos in practice need to consider different patient groups' needs and characteristics instead of trying to adopt 'a one size fits all' approach.

  8. Recovery of polyphenols from Pink Guava processing wastes by ultra filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilis Sukeksi; Che Rosmani Che Hassan; Nik Meriam Sulaiman; Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Processing of fruits are results in high amounts of waste material that is prone to microbial spoilage and usually represents a problem that is further aggravated by legal restrictions. Polyphenols are a wide variety of compounds that occur in pink guava fruit or others fruits and vegetables. Recovery from pink guava wastes seems to be promising in the case of polyphenols, which are of considerable interest due to their healthy and anti oxidative properties. In this work the performance of commercial tubular PVDF membrane FP 200 with nominal MWCO 200,000, was studied during pretreatment for recovery polyphenols from pink guava processing wastes. The experiments have been carried out at trans-membrane pressure of 0.5 until 2.5 Bar, and all permeate flux significantly decreased with time until a steady-state was established. The steady-state permeates flux reached a maximum at a trans-membrane pressure of about 1 bar. The first results obtained confirm the flux decline at 20 minutes was 35 % of the total flux. Meanwhile concentration of polyphenols at first step reached a steady state after 900 ml of permeate volume (47 %) and the concentration of polyphenols when the permeate volume at VCR = 4 or 3000 ml is 54 %. (author)

  9. Growth, Plastochron, and the Final Number of Nodes of China Pink Seedlings Grown on Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Milani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to plot the growth curves and determine the plastochron and the final number of nodes of China pink seedlings grown on different substrates. Thus, 392 China pink seedlings were grown on seven substrates under greenhouse conditions, in Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The growth curves were plotted using the logistic model. The plastochron was estimated by the inverse of the angular coefficient of the simple linear regression between the number of accumulated nodes and accumulated thermal sum from the subsampling of the seedlings. In all substrates, the logistic model fit better for the variable number of leaves than for the plant height. The plants in substrates with 50% of soil plus 50% of rice husk ash, and 80% of rice husk ash plus 20% earthworm humus had the longest cycles with 74 and 65 days, respectively. They completed the cycles with a thermal sum of 1317.9 ºC day for number of leaves and plant height. The growth curves that were plotted by the logistic model and the plastochron of the China pink seedlings are dependent on the type of substrate used. The commercial substrate Mecplant® had the best results. The average final number of nodes of the main stem of the plants was 14 for all substrates.

  10. An experiment on the reuse of artificial medium for rearing Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiravathanapong, S.

    1983-12-01

    The development of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) was compared on rearing on used-diet or the medium remaining after larval use, with no supplements added versus used-diet with 100 percent supplement of vitamins, choline chloride and the heat sensitive antimicrobial agents (Fumidil B, Aureomycin and formaldehyde). In another evaluation of used diet it was mixed at 0, 25, 50, and 75 percent with the new diet and compared to 100 percent new diet. Used diet with no supplement and used diet with 100 percent supplement of vitamins and heat sensitive antimicrobial agents had no significant effect on the development of the pink bollworm except in adult emergence. Some pupae which developed from unsupplemented used-diet died before moth emergence. Used diet mixed with 75 percent new ingredients was the best rate for reclamation of the used diet and produced the same results in pupal production rate pupal weight, adult emergence, adult longevity and egg production of female pink bollworm when compared to those from diet prepared with 100 percent new ingredients. The other rates supplemented with 0,25 and 50 percent new ingredients were significantly poorer by most criteria

  11. Laboratory evidence for short and long-term damage to pink salmon incubating in oiled gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, R.; Rice, S.; Wiedmer, M.

    1995-01-01

    Pink salmon, incubating in gravel contaminated with crude oil, demonstrated immediate and delayed responses in the laboratory at doses consistent with the concentrations observed in oiled streams in Prince William Sound. The authors incubated pink salmon embryos in a simulated intertidal environment with gravel contaminated by oil from the Exxon Valdez. During the incubation and emergence periods the authors quantified dose-response curves for characters affected directly by the oil. After emergence, fish were coded wire tagged and released, or cultured in netpens. Delayed responses have been observed among the cultured fish, and further observations will be made when coded wire tagged fish return in September 1995. The experiments have demonstrated that eggs need not contact oiled gravel to experience increased mortality, and doses as low as 17 ppb tPAH in water can have delayed effects on growth. A comparison of sediment tPAH concentrations from streams in Prince William Sound with these laboratory data suggests that many 1989 brood pink salmon were exposed to deleterious quantities of oil

  12. The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Régia Marques de Souza, Adriana; Arthur, Valter; Pires Nogueira, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Pink peppers, also known as “pimenta-rosa” and “poivre rose”, are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (p ⁎ and b ⁎ were the most affected by the intermediate doses (0.2 and 0.8 kGy), which induced their elevation, enhancing the reddish and yellowish colors. Based on the presented data, irradiation is as an alternative preservation process for pink peppers.

  13. Deregulation and competitive power markets -- Its impact on developing economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saran, K.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of privatization in developed countries is to encourage competition in generation and supply of power whereas the focus of developing economies is to bridge the demand supply gap by addition of capacity. However, there needs to be a reconciliation between these two apparently having conflicting objectives even in case of developing economies. In competitive power markets it is necessary that rules of the game are identified in advance and followed uniformly by all players. Existence of a ''referee'' would be necessary to regulate the game so as to ensure fair play. The regulatory institution would serve this purpose and work as a stimulator to development of privatization and competitive power markets in developing economies. Consumer interests should be of upper-most priority in the mind while establishing power markets and regulatory institutions, particularly as market forces are unfavorable to consumer interests in power shortage conditions. As competition fosters, gradually market forces take over and the ''harsh'' regulator would convert itself to a ''silent vigil referee'' so as to ensure genuine competition. The debate of deregulation vs. regulation will continue but the show must go on for building of an increasingly sound, competitive and vibrant power sector in the interest of end use consumers. The planned and phased restructuring though a delayed process is a preferred process and India is fully determined to achieve this

  14. Reliability evaluation of deregulated electric power systems for planning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, A.; Ranjbar, A.M.; Jafari, A.; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.

    2008-01-01

    In a deregulated electric power utility industry in which a competitive electricity market can influence system reliability, market risks cannot be ignored. This paper (1) proposes an analytical probabilistic model for reliability evaluation of competitive electricity markets and (2) develops a methodology for incorporating the market reliability problem into HLII reliability studies. A Markov state space diagram is employed to evaluate the market reliability. Since the market is a continuously operated system, the concept of absorbing states is applied to it in order to evaluate the reliability. The market states are identified by using market performance indices and the transition rates are calculated by using historical data. The key point in the proposed method is the concept that the reliability level of a restructured electric power system can be calculated using the availability of the composite power system (HLII) and the reliability of the electricity market. Two case studies are carried out over Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) to illustrate interesting features of the proposed methodology

  15. Commercial banking in the conditions of deregulation vs. reregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaklan Damir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines contemporary trends in commercial banking, confronting the stages of deregulation and reregulation in this field triggered by the global mortgage crisis. Under deregulatory conditions the competitive position of banks has toughened, and they reacted to it by intensifying: marketization, i.e. globalization, concentration, securitization and conglomeration, and by turning to the profit-oriented risk management of their activity. The contraction of their interest margin was thus neutralized by the reduction of operational costs and loss provisions, and by an increase in non-interest revenues, thereby maintaining banking profitability. The recent crisis has pinpointed the necessity of firmer regulation or reregulation of the banking sector, aimed at reducing its systemic risk, the most important aspect of which being the stricter international banking capital and liquidity standards, along with the requirement to adequately treat systemically important banks. Reregulation should strengthen capitalization and liquidity; mitigate the volume, concentration, internationalization and business dispersion, hence improving the supervision of the banking sector, implying its lower, yet more stable profitability. Such an impact of the adopted section of targeted regulatory measures has been indicated by higher liquidity, lower globalization, slower concentration and securitization, and stabilization-oriented risk management activities of today's banks. Their growth and profitability have shrunk.

  16. Deregulation and restructuring of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, Hal [Utility Workers Union of America (UWUA), AFL-CIO, (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Federal and state policy makers are currently faced with the rapidly evolving issue of the restructuring and potential deregulation of the electric utility industry, a sector of the economy of huge importance through its sheer size and its impact on the daily life and livelihood of everyone. This paper describes eleven principles that must be adhered to in any restructuring of the electric industry. Adherence to the principle and positions outlined can help assure that the transition in this industry benefits all, not just a few, and that the general health and welfare of the people is protected and enhanced [Espanol] Los legisladores estatales y federales se estan enfrentando con el rapido y envolvente aspecto de la reestructuracion y desregulacion potencial de la industria electrica, un sector de la economia de enorme importancia por su tamano y su impacto en la vida diaria y los medios de vida. En esta ponencia se describen once principios y posiciones que deben ser considerados en cualquier reestructuracion de la industria electrica. El apego a los principios y posiciones comentados puede ayudar a asegurar que la transicion en esta industria deneficie a todos, no solo a unos cuantos, y que la salud general y bienestar de la gente sea protegida y mejorada

  17. Investment and deregulation in the electricity generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peluchon, B.

    2007-12-01

    This work addresses the issue of investment in the electricity generation industry. As the analysis of many crisis which have affected electricity markets shows, there is a systematic under-investment in peak capacity. Electricity prices are not high enough to cover fixed costs of such generators, a phenomenon that has been dubbed 'missing money' in some recent papers (Stoft). The investment decisions of a duo-poly facing random demand are then compared to those of a public monopoly. The results are that no prices may be high enough to solve the 'missing money' problem, since the duo-poly is able to exercise market power in order to maximize his profit. This results systematically in fewer peak capacity in the duo-poly case than in the public monopoly case. This remains true in the case of a n-oligopoly. The necessity of designing a mechanism remunerating capacity is thus demonstrated. Capacity markets are then analysed in the light of those results. What appears is that operating reserves are a public good and, as such, prevents capacity markets to solve the 'missing money' problem. This casts a shadow on the pursuit of deregulation in the electricity industry. (author)

  18. Deregulation - precondition for distributed energy in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper holds that deregulation, i.e. restructuring, competition and privatisation, is the main precondition for a more pronounced development of distributed power (DP) in the economies in transition in central and eastern Europe. This, then, raises the question how far the electricity, gas, steam and heat generating industries have presently moved on their way towards more market-oriented frameworks, competition and private ownership. A good benchmark for measuring progress is the existence (or lack thereof), and nature, of regulatory regimes enabling fair competition among large centralised and small decentralised power, and between wholesale generators and distributors on the one hand and customers or ''autoproducers'' or power merchants on the other. The paper describes the regulatory models applied or contemplated in the winter 2000/2001 in the various countries of central and eastern Europe and identifies fifteen general issues that require attention and solution. With regard to DP, it concludes that a major upswing is unlikely to occur before 2005-2008. While technological options abound, the institutional frameworks for customer-owned competitive DP systems are only being contemplated at present and only rarely put in place.(author)

  19. Opportunities for privatization and alliances in a deregulated marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erling, J.M. [KPMG, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    The main implications for municipal electric utilities (MEUs) and businesses in a deregulated, open access energy market include a range of possible alternative business structures, constraints on choices, increased risks, the need to understand objectives, capabilities and capacity for bearing risks. The issue of what business MEUs are in, what services they provide and how those services should be delivered, was hotly debated. It was suggested that with increasing competition, the range of possible business structures and arrangements will widen significantly. The different public-private options available to MEUs are (1) the conventional tender process, (2) contracting out, (3) joint ventures with a private company, (4) franchising, (5) outsourcing of specific functions, (6) operating agreements, (7) lease arrangements, (8) build-operate-transfer options (BOTs), and (9) the full privatization scenario. It was noted that some forms of public-private partnerships are more suited to some businesses than others. Also, different partnership structures can be used in different parts of any business. Objectives for any partnership should include maximizing profitability, minimizing risk and promoting economic development but under competition. The ability to choose objectives will change significantly and the achievement of any of the objectives will be determined by the marketplace. Some guidelines on measuring success and on maximizing market value were offered. Global trends towards more unbundling and price transparency, more outsourcing to the private sector, more competition, less government, regulatory reform and blurring of the boundaries between utility sectors were predicted.

  20. A multi-channel stakeholder consultation process for transmission deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Robin; Fischhoff, Baruch; Thorne, Sarah; Butte, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    Deregulating Ontario's energy market required designing a rate structure for transmission costs that previously had been bundled with other electricity services. The Ontario Hydro Networks Company (now called Hydro One Networks, or 'Hydro One') owns and operates the transmission lines. It sought input from a full spectrum of stakeholders in preparing a proposed rate structure for submission to the regulator, the Ontario Energy Board (OEB). Securing that input meant accommodating great differences in stakeholders' familiarity with the (often highly technical) issues of rate setting. Hydro One drew on recent developments in stakeholder processes, integrated assessment, and risk communication to create a multi-channel process for eliciting and responding to stakeholder input. That process included (a) detailed background documents, (b) dedicated briefings and workshops, (c) mental models interviews, (d) focused meetings, and (e) mail (and email) boxes. The process was coordinated with a formal expert model, summarizing the factors determining the multiple impacts of the rate structure and the regulatory process producing it. The model analyzed these impacts, structured communications, and organized inputs, in a comprehensive and coherent way. This process facilitated developing proposals that were both technically sound and widely accepted by stakeholders, including the OEB. The case study provides a model for addressing other problems requiring stakeholder input on complex technical issues. It contrasts with other consultative processes with a less formal structure for eliciting concerns, less ability to encourage learning, and greater emphasis on achieving consensus

  1. Natural gas market assessment ten years after deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    Changes which have taken place in the Canadian natural gas market in the ten years since the gas market was de-regulated, were reviewed. A 1985 agreement created conditions for a competitive natural gas market. However, the National Energy Board ensured that the pipeline transmission sector of the gas industry would continue to be regulated because of its natural monopoly characteristics. Open non-discriminatory access was to be provided to all shippers on inter-provincial gas pipelines. One objective of this report was to provide the Board with the means of assuring itself that the market was operating in such a way that Canadian requirements for natural gas were being met at fair market prices. The report also provided a review of the major changes in the gas producing and transmission sector, and reviewed developments in gas markets and sales practices. The overall assessment was that the natural gas industry was efficient and responsive to the demands of the marketplace. 5 tabs., 30 figs

  2. Global implications of U.S. power deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschoff, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    With U.S. power deregulation remaining a topic that is dominating the entire North American energy marketplace, this paper provides an update of events occurring in U.S. electric power markets, offering some observations about changes due to increasing competition in electric power markets, and discusses some reasons why the events in U.S. electric power markets will soon transform global energy markets. How quickly is the move from local service territory to global markets proceeding? More than fifty U.S. utility companies with revenues of over $1 billion (U.S.) will soon be actively seeking and participating in global business opportunities. Using the same logic that led them to pursue utility initiatives nationally, U.S. utilities will use their core capabilities to compete in global energy services markets. In connection with these global initiatives, U.S. utilities will bring the same fuel-neutral, gas-electric perspective to international electric power and natural gas markets. (Author)

  3. Deregulation in the electricity sector: Understanding strategic and regulatory risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.R. [City Univ. Business School, Dept. Management Systems and Information, London (United Kingdom); Bunn, D.W. [London Business School, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    This paper is motivated by our experiences since 1990 with developing system simulation models to help UK companies in the restructured electricity industry understand the radically different market within which they must become competitive. When public utilities such as electricity have been restructured, deregulated and/or privatised, the process has often been associated with a major change in the competitive environment. As a consequence, the strategic and regulatory uncertainties ahead for these companies are unprecedented. In such a market there has been no historical evolution and all the participants including the regulatory institutions have very little understanding of how it will operate in the short term and evolve in the future. In this situation, the use of systems dynamic models appears to offer an attractive way of gaining insights into how aspects of the competitive market might evolve. In the absence of real experience and relevant analogies, learning from models assumes a key role. Such models cannot be validated empirically, but can be developed to represent how the system is designed to operate. From such a prototypical basis, sensitivity analysis can generate insights on the strategic opportunities created failings in the market design, or its potential instability to shocks and market imperfections. (au)

  4. Price-elastic demand in deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2003-05-01

    The degree to which any deregulated market functions efficiently often depends on the ability of market agents to respond quickly to fluctuating conditions. Many restructured electricity markets, however, experience high prices caused by supply shortages and little demand-side response. We examine the implications for market operations when a risk-averse retailer's end-use consumers are allowed to perceive real-time variations in the electricity spot price. Using a market-equilibrium model, we find that price elasticity both increases the retailers revenue risk exposure and decreases the spot price. Since the latter induces the retailer to reduce forward electricity purchases, while the former has the opposite effect, the overall impact of price responsive demand on the relative magnitudes of its risk exposure and end-user price elasticity. Nevertheless, price elasticity decreases cumulative electricity consumption. By extending the analysis to allow for early settlement of demand, we find that forward stage end-user price responsiveness decreases the electricity forward price relative to the case with price-elastic demand only in real time. Moreover, we find that only if forward stage end-user demand is price elastic will the equilibrium electricity forward price be reduced.

  5. FACTS controllers and the deregulated electric utility environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, B. T.; Galiana, F. D.; McGillis, D.; Joos, G.; Marceau, R.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) is explored and the potential of power electronic converters to increase flexibility and reliability of modern power systems is explored. Power electronic controllers can reduce the required safety margin in electric power generation capacity through the use of faster controllers based on exploiting the high-power solid-state switches with gate-turn-off capabilities. The FACTS concept makes it possible to postpone the financial investment needed to build more power lines, and also offers a solution to securing the right-of-way to build new lines. Currently available FACTS controllers such as the Static var Compensator (STATCOM) and the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) are described, including their function, structure and relevant implementation issues. Since they can produce the required amount of reactive power independently of line voltage or current, and if equipped with energy storing devices they can supply real power as required, they are a necessary element for the control of power systems in a deregulated environment. 15 refs., 3 figs

  6. Virus-induced Gene Silencing-based Functional Analyses Revealed the Involvement of Several Putative Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase/Phosphatase Genes in Disease Resistance against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose and its metabolism have been demonstrated to play important roles in control of plant growth, development and stress responses. However, direct genetic evidence supporting the functions of trehalose and its metabolism in defense response against pathogens is lacking. In the present study, genome-wide characterization of putative trehalose-related genes identified 11 SlTPSs for trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, 8 SlTPPs for trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and one SlTRE1 for trehalase in tomato genome. Nine SlTPSs, 4 SlTPPs and SlTRE1 were selected for functional analyses to explore their involvement in tomato disease resistance. Some selected SlTPSs, SlTPPs and SlTRE1 responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 as well as to defense signaling hormones (e.g. salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and a precursor of ethylene. Virus-induced gene silencing-mediated silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4 or SlTPS7 led to deregulation of ROS accumulation and attenuated the expression of defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and thus deteriorated the resistance against B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. By contrast, silencing of SlTPS5 or SlTPP2 led to an increased expression of the defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and conferred an increased resistance against Pst DC3000. Silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7 or SlTPP2 affected trehalose level in tomato plants with or without infection of B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. These results demonstrate that SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7 and SlTPP2 play roles in resistance against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000, implying the importance of trehalose and tis metabolism in regulation of defense response against pathogens in tomato.

  7. Effects of the Deregulation on the Concentration of the Brazilian Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterres, Marcelo Xavier; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of the deregulation of the Brazilian air transportation industry in terms of the concentration of the market. We will show some metrics that are commonly used to study the concentration of the industry. This paper uses the Herfindhal- Hirschman Index. This index tends to zero in the competitive scenario, with a large number of small firms, and to one in case of a monopolistic scenario. The paper analyses the dynamics of the concentration of the Brazilian domestic air transportation market, in order to evaluate the effects of deregulation. We conclude that the Brazilian market presents oligopoly characteristics and aspects in its current structure that maintain the market concentrated in spite of the Deregulation measures adopted by the aeronautical authority. Keywords: Herfindhal-Hirschman Index, concentration, Deregulation

  8. TCSC based automatic generation control of deregulated power system using quasi-oppositional harmony search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Nandi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In present aspect, automatic generation control (AGC of deregulated power system with thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC device is investigated. The objective is to discuss bilateral power transaction issue with the TCSC effect. A deregulated two-area power system model having two thermal units in each control area is considered for this act. A quasi-oppositional harmony search (QOHS algorithm is being applied for the constrained optimization problem. Three cases, commonly studied in deregulation, are discussed for the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Further, sensitivity analysis is studied by varying the test system parameters up to ±25% from their rated values. The obtained simulation plots are analytically discussed with the calculation of oscillatory modes, transient details and the studied performance indices. Sugeno fuzzy logic control technique is also investigated to the studied test system. The simulation results show that the proposed QOHS based TCSC controller is quite effective in deregulated environment.

  9. Regulatory Assessment of the Effects of Economic Deregulation of the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The European Commission Nuclear Regulators Working Group (NRWG) appointed a Task Force (TF) to develop a common view among European regulators on the assessment of typical safety consequences resulting from economic pressure on operators as a result of deregulation of electricity markets. Although the report seems to imply that there are only negative aspects of deregulation, this is not the case. As the focus of the TF has been potential safety consequences we have not dealt with potential positive effects of deregulation. To provide a general background to the analyses of the safety consequences, the TF undertook a survey of the current situation within the EU and candidate countries on aspects of economic deregulation of the countries nuclear industry and the experiences so far of regulating these issues. Answers were submitted in of July 2001. 13 NRWG members with nuclear power plants took part in the survey. (author)

  10. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). The food is preserved by heat sterilization (canning), refrigeration, or freezing. When sealed in a... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  11. Enhanced regeneration in explants of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... The development of a cost effective and efficient protocol for mass propagation of high quality tomato seedlings via tissue culture could help to reduce the price per seedling. A good in vitro plant regeneration system may also assist in further improvement of the commercially important cultivars for disease.

  12. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A) + RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L- 35 S-methionine. The 35 S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues

  13. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccurullo, G; Giordano, L

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling. (paper)

  14. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses antiinflammatory activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the leaves of tomato plant that contained several active compounds including alkaloid, steroid and flavanoid has been used for the treatment of variety of diseases and as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-gout. Although, a number of pharmacological properties have already been demonstrated, the ...

  15. Genetic (in)stability in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, E.

    1993-01-01

    In the present study tomato lines carrying unstable alleles of the loci yv or sulfurea were characterized. In addition, we aimed at the isolation of an endogenous transposable element supposedly active in the unstable lines. Since the unstable loci were not cloned, we

  16. How to grasp a ripe tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fortunately, we don’t have to think about this when we are standing in the supermarket after a busy day. We adjust our grip without effort, making sure we don’t squish an overripe tomato, while we firmly grasp a hard green one. This is actually a complex task in which humans are surprisingly

  17. Nitrogen determination on tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of a new method based on color image analysis and the Minolta SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter for the diagnosis of nitrogen deficiencies of tomato seedlings, a field experiment was conducted. In this study, five levels of nitrogen fertilization were established so as to induce nitrogen ...

  18. Response of Pratylenchus spp Infected Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to reduce the negative impact of synthetic nematicides on the environment necessitated the search for bio-pesticides. This study was conducted to evaluate the nematicidal potential of chromatographic fractions from Mangifera indica on tomato in the screenhouse and field. M. indica bark was extracted with ...

  19. The limits to deregulation of entry and expansion of the US gas pipeline industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosput, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    US consumers of natural gas have enjoyed significant benefits as the pricing of the commodity has been deregulated. Thanks in large part to the success of deregulation of the natural gas commodity. US federal regulators have embarked upon a wide-ranging programme of eliminating barriers to entry and expansion of natural gas pipelines, which have traditionally been regulated as natural monopolies. As a result, there is now significant excess capacity in the natural gas transmission sector, without measurable benefits to consumers. (author)

  20. Market Power of Local Cable Television Franchises: Evidence from the Effects of Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Adam B. Jaffe; David M. Kanter

    1990-01-01

    The 1989 Cable Act eliminated most price regulation of cable television operators, including the right of municipalities to enforce price terms in franchise agreements. Deregulation was justified, at least partially, by the contention that competition from other entertainment media eliminated any market power of cable franchises. We examine the value at sale of existing cable systems before and after deregulation. Assuming that this value represents the expected present value of future profit...

  1. The Importance of Management in the Deregulated Retail Electricity Distribution Market in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Drago Papler; Stefan Bojnec

    2006-01-01

    This paper underlines the importance of management in the deregulated retail electricity distribution market, entrepreneurship and business behaviours toward consumers’ satisfaction with quality of services. The coefficients of concentration indicate a high concentration of electricity suppliers and users in the deregulated electricity retail market for industry. The production function reveals the importance of education and electricity infrastructure, and to a lesser extent of capital inten...

  2. DAIRY DEREGULATION AND LOW-INPUT DAIRY PRODUCTION: A BIOECONOMIC EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tozer, Peter R.; Huffaker, Ray G.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the Australian dairy industry could affect the utilization of resources by milk producers and the profitability of dairy production. In this study we examine the feed mix that dairy producers use, both pastures and supplements, under partial and total deregulation. We are particularly interested in the interaction of pasture utilization and farm profitability. The results of this research demonstrate that profitable low-input dairy is constrained by the most limiting resource,...

  3. Assessing the Significance of Telecommunication Deregulation on the Growth of Japan's Mobile Phone Market

    OpenAIRE

    Yuqing Xing

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the development of Japan's mobile phone market. Specifically, it focuses on the regulatory reforms of Japan's mobile communication sector and their impact on the growth of the market. The analysis based on a monopolistic competition model shows that the deregulation policies perform an essential role in fostering the rapid expansion of Japan's mobile phone market. Using quarterly data from 1991 to 1999, the paper tests the significance of the telecommunication deregulation...

  4. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'Evoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g. Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%, while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%. Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%. The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  5. Accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato skin extends shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolino, Laura; Zhang, Yang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico; Martin, Cathie

    2013-11-01

    Shelf life is one of the most important traits for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) industry. Two key factors, post-harvest over-ripening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogen infection, determine tomato shelf life. Anthocyanins accumulate in the skin of Aft/Aft atv/atv tomatoes, the result of introgressing alleles affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit from two wild relatives of tomato, which results in extended fruit shelf life. Compared with ordinary, anthocyanin-less tomatoes, the fruits of Aft/Aft atv/atv keep longer during storage and are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, a major tomato pathogen, post-harvest. Using genetically modified tomatoes over-producing anthocyanins, we confirmed that skin-specific accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato is sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Our data indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit, achieved either by traditional breeding or genetic engineering can be an effective way to extend tomato shelf life. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-07-31

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (-17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (-25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (-36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  7. Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... composition and estimation of nutritive value of dried tomato pomace (DTP) using in vitro gas ... of processed products such as tomato juice, paste, puree ..... of feeding ensiled mixed tomato and apple pomace on performance.

  8. Loss of PINK1 attenuates HIF-1α induction by preventing 4E-BP1-dependent switch in protein translation under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, William; Wadlington, Natasha L; Chen, Linan; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Brorson, James R; Kang, Un Jung

    2014-02-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has multiple proposed etiologies with implication of abnormalities in cellular homeostasis ranging from proteostasis to mitochondrial dynamics to energy metabolism. PINK1 mutations are associated with familial PD and here we discover a novel PINK1 mechanism in cellular stress response. Using hypoxia as a physiological trigger of oxidative stress and disruption in energy metabolism, we demonstrate that PINK1(-/-) mouse cells exhibited significantly reduced induction of HIF-1α protein, HIF-1α transcriptional activity, and hypoxia-responsive gene upregulation. Loss of PINK1 impairs both hypoxia-induced 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation and increase in the ratio of internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent to cap-dependent translation. These data suggest that PINK1 mediates adaptive responses by activating IRES-dependent translation, and the impairments in translation and the HIF-1α pathway may contribute to PINK1-associated PD pathogenesis that manifests under cellular stress.

  9. Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of pink-red pigments in onion (Allium cepa L.) juice and separation by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-10-01

    The formation of pink-red pigments ("pinking") by various amino acids was investigated by reacting amino acids with compounds present in onion juice. The unknown pink-red pigments were generated and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector (DAD) in the range of 200 to 700 nm. To generate pink-red pigments, we developed several reaction systems using garlic alliinase, purified 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), onion thiosulfinate, natural onion juice, and 21 free amino acids. The compound 1-PeCSO was a key compound associated with pinking in the presence of both the alliinase and amino acids. Numerous naturally occurring pink-red pigments were detected and separated from pink onion juice using the HPLC-DAD system at 515 nm. Most free amino acids, with the exceptions of histidine, serine, and cysteine, formed various pink-red pigments when reacted with onion thiosulfinate. This observation indicated that onion pinking is caused not by a single pigment, but by many. Furthermore, more than one color compound could be produced from a single amino acid; this explains, in part, why there were many pink-red compound peaks in the chromatogram of discolored natural onion juice. We presumed that the complexity of the pink-red pigments was due to the involvement of more than 21 natural amino acids as well as several derivatives of the color products produced from each amino acid. We observed that the pinking process in onion juice is very similar to that of the greening process in crushed garlic, emphasizing that both thiosulfinate from flavor precursors and free amino acids are absolutely required for the discoloration.

  10. LncRNA NEAT1 promotes autophagy in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease through stabilizing PINK1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wang; Chen, Zhao-Ying; Chen, Jia-Qi; Chen, Hui-Min

    2018-02-19

    Long non-coding RNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (lncRNA NEAT1) was found to be closely related to the pathological changes in brain and nervous system. However, the role of NEAT1 and its potential mechanism in Parkinson's disease (PD) largely remain uncharacterized. In this study, PD mouse model was established by intraperitoneal injection of MPTP. The numbers of TH + neurons, NEAT1 expression and the level of PINK1, LC3-II, LC3-I protein were assessed in PD mice. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with MPP + as PD cell model. RNA pull-down assay was used to identify the interaction between NEAT1 and PINK1 in vitro. The endogenous expression of NEAT1 was modified by lentiviral vector carrying interference sequence for NEAT1 in vivo. The numbers of TH + neurons significantly decreased in PD mice compared with the control. The expressions of NEAT1, PINK1 protein and LC3-II/LC3-I level were increased by MPTP in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, NEAT1 positively regulated the protein level of PINK1 through inhibition of PINK1 protein degradation. And NEAT1 mediated the effects of MPP + on SH-SY5Y cells through stabilization of PINK1 protein. The results of in vivo experiments revealed that NEAT1 knockdown could effectively suppress MPTP-induced autophagy in vivo that alleviated dopaminergic neuronal injury. LncRNA NEAT1 promoted the MPTP-induced autophagy in PD through stabilization of PINK1 protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protecting consumer interests in Alberta's deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains why the province of Alberta decided to deregulate its electricity sector. In the early 1990s, electricity rates were reasonable in Alberta, there was no utility debt, and electricity costs were low. In 1994 California's open access transmission system suggested that open markets would result in lower electricity rates and attract new economic activity. The government of Alberta also believed that competitive markets would set prices with no need for economic regulation. In the initial transition to competition, regulated electricity rates were offered to customers who were not ready to switch to the new competitive market. The RRO rate was set by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). The rates included the forecasted cost of purchasing energy from markets, cost of system access, and retail service costs. The end of the RRO rate was scheduled for 2005 when the market was expected be well developed. This paper also describes other protection mechanisms for consumers. Alberta's new electricity policy (NEP) eliminates generator participant costs related to transmission. EUB's zonal interconnection charges are also overruled along with the EUB-approved 50/50 division of transmission costs. Under the NEP, the ISO is to build transmission in anticipation of new generation. Consumers will fund the total cost to build new transmission capacity for exports and imports. This new transmission policy is a complete change from the original government policy which allocated some transmission costs to generators. The sudden change in policy was due to pressure from oil sands producers and oil sands co-generation developers. The claimed benefit to Albertans is a 25 per cent reduction in pool price and greater system reliability. However, the author cautioned that government interference with competitive electricity markets will cripple the electric power industry in the foreseeable future because it interferes with market prices

  12. The deregulation connection : utility competition creates new niche company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation in Ontario's utility market has created incentives for local utilities to add new services to attract and keep customers, knowing that in a competitive energy market, only those utilities which offer the best services will survive. London Hydro, which provides power to southwestern Ontario launched a private enterprise called LondonConnect Inc. The new enterprise offers high-speed digital services to area businesses. London Hydro made this unique move to take advantage of the fact that 20 per cent of businesses communicate electronically. London Hydro believes that in the next five years, that number will increase to 80 per cent. The Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) gives businesses greater connectivity to the Internet and web services. One of the network's capabilities is realtime video conferencing between hydro locations. MAN can also be used to create a secure and private virtual community-wide area network of computers and office machines. The advantages are numerous. For example, hospitals will be able to exchange information between remote sites at incredible speeds. MAN is made up of fiber-optic cables and electronic routers. LondonConnect is expecting to provide access throughout London by the fall of 1999. A dozen clients have already signed up for the service. Installation of the system will cost $1,000 with fixed monthly rates. The cost will vary depending on the level of service. The network will cost London Hydro $3 million, but it is expected to generate $2.5 million annually in its first two years. 3 figs

  13. Deregulated Renal Calcium and Phosphate Transport during Experimental Kidney Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilco P Pulskens

    Full Text Available Impaired mineral homeostasis and inflammation are hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD, yet the underlying mechanisms of electrolyte regulation during CKD are still unclear. Here, we applied two different murine models, partial nephrectomy and adenine-enriched dietary intervention, to induce kidney failure and to investigate the subsequent impact on systemic and local renal factors involved in Ca(2+ and Pi regulation. Our results demonstrated that both experimental models induce features of CKD, as reflected by uremia, and elevated renal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL expression. In our model kidney failure was associated with polyuria, hypercalcemia and elevated urinary Ca(2+ excretion. In accordance, CKD augmented systemic PTH and affected the FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D axis by elevating circulatory FGF23 levels and reducing renal αklotho expression. Interestingly, renal FGF23 expression was also induced by inflammatory stimuli directly. Renal expression of Cyp27b1, but not Cyp24a1, and blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 were significantly elevated in both models. Furthermore, kidney failure was characterized by enhanced renal expression of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 5 (TRPV5, calbindin-D28k, and sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2b (NaPi2b, whereas the renal expression of sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2a (NaPi2a and type 3 (PIT2 were reduced. Together, our data indicates two different models of experimental kidney failure comparably associate with disturbed FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D signalling and a deregulated electrolyte homeostasis. Moreover, this study identifies local tubular, possibly inflammation- or PTH- and/or FGF23-associated, adaptive mechanisms, impacting on Ca(2+/Pi homeostasis, hence enabling new opportunities to target electrolyte disturbances that emerge as a consequence of CKD development.

  14. The deregulation connection : utility competition creates new niche company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, C

    1999-08-01

    Deregulation in Ontario's utility market has created incentives for local utilities to add new services to attract and keep customers, knowing that in a competitive energy market, only those utilities which offer the best services will survive. London Hydro, which provides power to southwestern Ontario launched a private enterprise called LondonConnect Inc. The new enterprise offers high-speed digital services to area businesses. London Hydro made this unique move to take advantage of the fact that 20 per cent of businesses communicate electronically. London Hydro believes that in the next five years, that number will increase to 80 per cent. The Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) gives businesses greater connectivity to the Internet and web services. One of the network's capabilities is realtime video conferencing between hydro locations. MAN can also be used to create a secure and private virtual community-wide area network of computers and office machines. The advantages are numerous. For example, hospitals will be able to exchange information between remote sites at incredible speeds. MAN is made up of fiber-optic cables and electronic routers. LondonConnect is expecting to provide access throughout London by the fall of 1999. A dozen clients have already signed up for the service. Installation of the system will cost $1,000 with fixed monthly rates. The cost will vary depending on the level of service. The network will cost London Hydro $3 million, but it is expected to generate $2.5 million annually in its first two years. 3 figs.

  15. The deregulation connection : utility competition creates new niche company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, C.

    1999-08-01

    Deregulation in Ontario`s utility market has created incentives for local utilities to add new services to attract and keep customers, knowing that in a competitive energy market, only those utilities which offer the best services will survive. London Hydro, which provides power to southwestern Ontario launched a private enterprise called LondonConnect Inc. The new enterprise offers high-speed digital services to area businesses. London Hydro made this unique move to take advantage of the fact that 20 per cent of businesses communicate electronically. London Hydro believes that in the next five years, that number will increase to 80 per cent. The Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) gives businesses greater connectivity to the Internet and web services. One of the network`s capabilities is realtime video conferencing between hydro locations. MAN can also be used to create a secure and private virtual community-wide area network of computers and office machines. The advantages are numerous. For example, hospitals will be able to exchange information between remote sites at incredible speeds. MAN is made up of fiber-optic cables and electronic routers. LondonConnect is expecting to provide access throughout London by the fall of 1999. A dozen clients have already signed up for the service. Installation of the system will cost $1,000 with fixed monthly rates. The cost will vary depending on the level of service. The network will cost London Hydro $3 million, but it is expected to generate $2.5 million annually in its first two years. 3 figs.

  16. Deregulation led to record-breaking profit for SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    The state collected close to 15 bn Sk of SPP's last year profits. The income tax represents about 5,2 bn Sk and the dividends paid to state as owner of 51 percent of the stock of Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) amount up to 9,5 billion Sk. Investors Ruhrgas and Gaz de France will split 9 billion Sk. This was possible thank to a record-breaking net profit of 20.5 billion Sk made by the company due to deregulation of the distorted gas prices for consumers that lead to an average price increase by over 30 percent. A positive impact on the company's economy had also the dissolving of provisions and reserves but on the other hand the sales went down by close to 5 percent due to higher temperatures. Another factor that had a positive impact on the company revenues was the increase of gas volumes transported through the SPP network to Western Europe. Expenditures related to purchase of gas increased last year and not even the decrease USD exchange rates could eliminate the impact of increasing gas prices. The decrease of sales on the domestic market was one of the major factors that allowed the total cost to decrease on year-to-year basis by ten percent. A restructuring of SPP should bring along further savings but the company has not calculated the total effect of a restructuring yet. The strong positive impact the restructuring may have on the company should show in 2004 and later. Last year the company concentrated on savings in area of maintenance and repairs and this year it should be the procurement expenditures that should be decreased. The future economic result of the company would depend on several factors like exchange rates, sale volumes and price of natural gas. Oils prices have reached their new maximums and the gas prices, in general, follow the oil price

  17. Induction of mutations in tomato variety Solar Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiris, R.

    1995-01-01

    The production of tomatoes in Sri Lanka is hampered by many problems. Tomato is an economic crop which is nutritious and has export potential. The major constraint for tomato production is Bacterial Wilt caused by Pseudomonas Solanacearum. A study was initiated with the obnjective of finding tomato genotype having resistance to bacterial wilt. The seeds of the varity, Solar Set which is highly susceptible to bacterial wilt was exposed to irradiation from Co 60 source after adjusting moisture content to 14%. The dosese given were 0, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 krad. The seeds were sown in plastic trays and germination count was taken after 3 days. The LD50 value for the induction of mutants in tomato variety Solar Set is observed to be 35.6 Kr and it is the best dose value for the induction of beneficial mutants in tomato variety, Solar Set by irradiation

  18. Change in consumer sensitivity to electricity prices in response to retail deregulation: A panel empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro; Hamori, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-01

    About ten years have passed since the deregulation of the U.S. retail electricity market, and it is now generally accepted that the available data is adequate to quantitatively assess and compare conditions before and after deregulation. This study, therefore, estimates the changes in price elasticity in the residential electricity market to examine the changes, if any, in household sensitivity (as a result of retail electricity market deregulation policies) to residential electricity rates. Specifically, six types of panel data are prepared, based on three cross-sections-all states (except for Alaska and Hawaii) and the District of Columbia, deregulated states, and non-deregulated states-and two time series-the period before deregulation and the period after deregulation. The panel empirical analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not the variables are stationary, and to estimate price elasticity. We find that there is no substantial difference in the price elasticity between deregulated and non-deregulated states for both periods-before deregulation and after deregulation. Thus, it can be said that the deregulation of the retail electricity market has not made consumers more sensitive to electricity rates and that retail deregulation policies are not the cause of price elasticity differences between deregulated and non-deregulated states.

  19. Change in consumer sensitivity to electricity prices in response to retail deregulation. A panel empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro [The Kansai Electric Power Company, Incorporated, 6-16, Nakanoshima 3-chome, Kita-Ku, Osaka 530-8270 (Japan); Hamori, Shigeyuki [Faculty of Economics, Kobe University 2-1, Rokkodai, Nada-Ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    About ten years have passed since the deregulation of the U.S. retail electricity market, and it is now generally accepted that the available data is adequate to quantitatively assess and compare conditions before and after deregulation. This study, therefore, estimates the changes in price elasticity in the residential electricity market to examine the changes, if any, in household sensitivity (as a result of retail electricity market deregulation policies) to residential electricity rates. Specifically, six types of panel data are prepared, based on three cross-sections - all states (except for Alaska and Hawaii) and the District of Columbia, deregulated states, and non-deregulated states - and two time series - the period before deregulation and the period after deregulation. The panel empirical analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not the variables are stationary, and to estimate price elasticity. We find that there is no substantial difference in the price elasticity between deregulated and non-deregulated states for both periods - before deregulation and after deregulation. Thus, it can be said that the deregulation of the retail electricity market has not made consumers more sensitive to electricity rates and that retail deregulation policies are not the cause of price elasticity differences between deregulated and non-deregulated states. (author)

  20. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15 were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in control plot (999.75 μ mol m-2s-1 was remarkably higher over fruit tree based agroforestry systems and it was 58.8, 43.9 and 31.5% of the control for guava, mango and olive based systems, respectively. The shortest tomato plant was observed in olive based system (54.91 cm, while the tallest plant was observed in mango based system (60.09 cm. The highest SPAD value and number of primary branches per plant was recorded in control plot. Fruit length, fruit girth was found lowest in olive based system. The highest yield (34.06 t ha-1 was recorded in control plot while the lowest yield (10.26 t ha-1 was recorded in olive based system. The economic performance of fruit tree based tomato production system showed that both the net return and BCR of mango and guava based system was higher over control and olive based system. The contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium and sulfur of before experimentation soil were slightly higher in fruit tree based agroforestry systems than the control. After experimentation, nutrient elements in soil were found increased slightly than initial soils. Fruit tree based agroforestry systems could be ranked based on the economic performance as mango> guava> control> olive based system with BARI Tomato 15, BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 8, respectively.

  1. Analysis of Clonostachys rosea-induced resistance to tomato gray mold disease in tomato leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Dalcantara Ongouya Mouekouba

    Full Text Available Tomato gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease in tomato. Clonostachys rosea is an antagonistic microorganism to B. cinerea. To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of C. rosea, we examined the effects of these microorganisms on tomato leaves, along with changes in the activities of three defense enzymes (PAL, PPO, GST, second messengers (NO, H2O2, O2(- and phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, MeJA, SA and C2H4. Compared to the control, all treatments induced higher levels of PAL, PPO and GST activity in tomato leaves and increased NO, SA and GA3 levels. The expression of WRKY and MAPK, two important transcription factors in plant disease resistance, was upregulated in C. rosea- and C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that two abundant proteins were present in the C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples but not in the other samples. These proteins were determined (by mass spectrum analysis to be LEXYL2 (β-xylosidase and ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit. Therefore, C. rosea plus B. cinerea treatment induces gray mold resistance in tomato. This study provides a basis for elucidating the mechanism of C. rosea as a biocontrol agent.

  2. Screening of tomato genotypes for resistance to tomato fruit borer (helicoverpa armiger hubner) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.; Ashfaq, M.; Suhail, A.

    2011-01-01

    Tomato genotypes viz., Roma Local, Rio Grande, Tanja, Chico III, Long Tipped, Red-Top, FS-8001, FS-8002, Tropic, Pakit, Peelo, NARC-1, Roma VFN, Pant Bahr, Ebein, Nova Mech, Rockingham, Nagina, Shalkot-96, Pomodoro, Manik, Gressilesse, Nadir, Early Mech, Tommy, Pusha Rubi, Tropic boy, Big Long, Sahil, Sun 6002, Money-Maker and Royesta were evaluated to screen out the suitable resistant/susceptible genotypes against the fruit borer in Pakistan. The results imparted that the percentage of fruit infestation and larval population per plant on tested genotypes of tomato varied significantly. Roma VF, NARC-1 and FS-8002 were categorized as susceptible genotypes with fruit infestation (37.69%, 37.08% and 36.41%, respectively) and larval population per plant (1.02%, 1.02% and 0.84 %, respectively). Whereas, the genotypes Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb had fruit infestation (12.30%, 13.14% and 13.96%, respectively) and larval population per plant (0.42%, 0.42% and 0.43%, respectively) and declared as resistant genotypes to tomato fruit borer. Lower values of host plant susceptibility indices (HPSI) were recorded on resistant genotypes. Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb could be used as a source of resistance for developing tomato genotypes resistant to tomato fruit borer. (author)

  3. Identification of pink-pigmented bacteria isolated from environmental water samples and their biofilm formation abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Kato, Yuko; Goto, Keiichi; Saitou, Keiko; Sugiyama, Jun-Ichi; Hara, Motonobu; Fukuyama, Masahumi

    2008-06-01

    Sixty-seven strains of pink-pigmented bacteria, which were isolated from environmental water samples collected nationwide, were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. In addition, the biofilm formation ability of the isolates was experimentally investigated. We could identify only 2 strains at the species level: Pedobacter roseus HS-38 and Runella slithyformis HS-77. The results showed that of the strains tested, 22 strains (32.8%) were Pedobacter spp., which was most frequently identified, followed by 19 strains (28.4%) of Arcicella spp., 16 strains (23.9%) of Deinococcus spp., 5 strains (7.5%) of Roseomonas spp., 4 strains (6.0%) of Flectobacillus spp. and 1 strain (1.5%) of Runella sp. Most isolates showed low similarity values to previously known species, and they were found to be novel species. At a result, it was difficult to identify environmental water-derived pink-pigmented bacteria at the species level. On the other hand, when we measured the absorbance by the crystal violet staining to examine the quantities of biofilm formation of these strains, fifty-five (82.0%) of the 67 isolates formed biofilm. The absorbance of Deinococcus sp. HS-75 was the highest (3.56). When comparing the absorbance values among the genera, Roseomonas spp. showed the highest absorbance (mean:1.62), followed by Deinococcus spp. (mean: 1.03), and Arcicella spp. (mean: 1.01). Strains of Flectobacillus spp. (mean: 0.48) and Pedobacter spp. (mean: 0.42) showed lower absorbance values. As above, it was shown that, at the species level, the pink-pigmented bacteria in the water in the Japanese environment had various levels of ability to form biofilm.

  4. Increased frequency of pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The main approach for delaying pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, the United States and some other countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. The "natural" refuge strategy focuses on cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, the primary target of Bt cotton in China that attacks many crops, but it does not apply to another major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we report data showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Laboratory bioassay data from 51 field-derived strains show that the susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower during 2008 to 2010 than 2005 to 2007. The percentage of field populations yielding one or more survivors at a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac increased from 0% in 2005-2007 to 56% in 2008-2010. However, the median survival at the diagnostic concentration was only 1.6% from 2008 to 2010 and failure of Bt cotton to control pink bollworm has not been reported in China. The early detection of resistance reported here may promote proactive countermeasures, such as a switch to transgenic cotton producing toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton.

  5. Effects of pre-sowing gamma irradiation of tomato seeds on production and yield of open field tomato crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhamyansurehn, D [Institut Fiziki i Matematiki Akademii Nauk Mongol' skoj Narodnoj Respubliki, Ulan Bator; Voloozh, D

    1976-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from results obtained in experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of tomato seeds and its effect on tomato crops. The dose of 2500 R proved to be optimum for increase of tomato crops yield. The yield increase resulted from increase in average weight, quantity and the dry matter of the fruit. The irradiation did not significantly affect the concentration of sugar, phosphorus, nitrogen and ascorbic acid in the fruit.

  6. Effects of pre-sowing gamma irradiation of tomato seeds on production and yield of open field tomato crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhamyansurehn, D.; Voloozh, D.

    1976-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from results obtained in experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of tomato seeds and its effect on tomato crops. The dose of 2500 R proved to be optimum for increase of tomato crops yield. The yield increase resulted from increase in average weight, quantity and the dry matter of the fruit. The irradiation did not significantly affect the concentration of sugar, phosphorus, nitrogen and ascorbic acid in the fruit. (author)

  7. First report of bacterial speck of tomato caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, L.; Cruz, J.; Eloy, M.; Oliveira, Helena; Vaz, H.; Tenreiro, R.

    2010-01-01

    Protected and open field tomato crops are economically important for Portuguese agriculture. In 1983, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Okabe, 1933) Young, Dye & Wilkie, 1978 was first reported affecting protected crops (3) and then later under open field conditions (1). In the 2009 spring/summer season, several outbreaks of bacterial speck of tomato showing an unusual degree of severity were observed in open fields from the Tagus Valley Region

  8. Electron paramagnetic resonance of atomic hydrogen (H0) centers in pink tourmaline from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    A model for explaining the atom of hydrogen (H 0 ) in pink tourmaline irradiated with gamma rays is presented. The concentration of H 0 was evaluated and the H 0 lines using the electron paramagnetic resonance were analysed. The g factor and the hyperfine interaction constant were measured with accuracy and determined by matrix diagonalization of spin hamiltonian in vetor space of four dimensions, followed by an iterative calculation with quick convergence the local electric field produced by charges in the lattice was calculated and compared with the value obtained experimentally. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Isolation and Partial Characterization of the Pink and Blue Pigments of Pocilloporid and Acroporid Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, S G; Takabayashi, M; Hoegh-Guldberg, O

    1995-12-01

    The compounds responsible for the pink and blue colors of two families of hermatypic corals (Pocilloporidae, Acroporidae) from the southern Great Barrier Reef were isolated and biochemically characterized. Isolation of the pink pigment from Pocillopora damicornis (named pocilloporin, {lambda}max = 560 nm, 390 nm) revealed that it was a hydrophilic protein dimer with a native molecular weight of approximately 54 kD and subunits of 28 kD. The subunits are not linked by disulfide bonds. Attempts to dissociate the chromophore from the protein proved unsuccessful. Denaturing the protein with heat (60{deg}C) or 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) removed the 560-nm absorbance peak without introducing a detectable bathochromic shift. In acetone, ethanol, ether, and chloroform, the pigment precipitates out of solution, leaving a colorless supernatant. These properties suggest that the protein and chromophore are covalently linked. Ion analysis revealed that the pigment does not have metal ions chelated to it. Coral pigments were also isolated from pink morphs of other pocilloporids, Seriatopora hystrix ({lambda}max = 560 nm) and Stylophora pistillata ({lambda}max = 560 nm); and from bluish regions of the acroporids, Acropora formosa (blue; {lambda}max = 590 nm) and Acropora digitifera (purple; {lambda}max = 580 nm). With the exception of A. formosa, all the corals examined had pigments with the same native (54 kD) and subunit (28 kD) molecular weights as those of P. damicornis. A. formosa pigment has a native molecular weight of about 82.6 kD and three subunits of 28 kD. The pigments isolated from each of these coral species have properties similar to those described for P. damicornis. Isolation and biochemical purification of the pigment enabled the exploration of the function of the pink pigment. Three possibilities were eliminated. The compound does not act as (i) a photoprotectant for shielding the photosynthetic pigments of symbiotic zooxanthellae against excessive

  10. CSR - A marketing tool? : A case study of ICA's and Lindex's Pink Ribbon campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Ström, Rickard; Backteman, Richard; Batmunkh, Temuulen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how a CSR strategy can be used as a marketing tool by analyzing ICA‘s and Lindex‘s marketing approach within the Pink Ribbon campaign. Background: The concept of CSR has become more and more common in business practices and customers today almost expect companies to be socially responsible. Even though CSR is very important for companies, it has historically not been a very lucrative approach for them to involve in these activities. Howeve...

  11. Hunting for the optimal hunt - Contributions to a sustainable harvest strategy for pink-footed geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gitte Høj

    As part of the recently endorsed African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird (AEWA) International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus, a stable population target of 60,000 (current population is c. 80,000 during 2011-2013) has been agreed...... the development of the AHM plan. This has been done at the flyway level by developing demographic population models and exploring the application of dynamic optimization methods to find an optimal management strategy. At the local and regional levels I explored effects of hunting practises and organisation at one...

  12. Isolation of an unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium in a clinical specimen.

    OpenAIRE

    Odugbemi, T; Nwofor, C; Joiner, K T

    1988-01-01

    An unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from a clinical specimen is reported. The organism was oxidase, urease, and catalase positive; it grew on Thayer-Martin and MacConkey media. The isolate is possibly similar to an unnamed taxon (G.L. Gilardi and Y.C. Faur, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:626-629, 1984); however, it had unique characteristics of nonmotility with no flagellum detectable and was a gram-negative coccoid with a few rods in pairs and negative for starch hydrolysis.

  13. Isolation of an unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium in a clinical specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odugbemi, T; Nwofor, C; Joiner, K T

    1988-05-01

    An unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from a clinical specimen is reported. The organism was oxidase, urease, and catalase positive; it grew on Thayer-Martin and MacConkey media. The isolate is possibly similar to an unnamed taxon (G.L. Gilardi and Y.C. Faur, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:626-629, 1984); however, it had unique characteristics of nonmotility with no flagellum detectable and was a gram-negative coccoid with a few rods in pairs and negative for starch hydrolysis.

  14. Wearing pink as a stand against bullying: why we need to say more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugler, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a contextual discourse analysis of the media response to a campaign against bullying that was developed in the spring of 2007 in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. As a feature of masculine socialization, male-on-male bullying secures the reproduction of an aggressive and heteronormative hegemonic masculinity (Connell, 1987) for boys and young men in contemporary North American mainstream culture. I argue that the celebration of the "Pink Campaign" is illustrative of the normalizing silences, or "unremarkability," about the related discourses of sexism and homophobia that motivate everyday practices of male-on-male bullying.

  15. [Isolation and preliminary characterization of carotenoids from pink-pigmented methylotrophs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, A M; Shylin, S O; Rokytko, P V

    2006-01-01

    An effective method was developed for complete removal of pigments from the cells and solvent mixture for further separation of pigments using thin layer chromatography on silica gel. Carotenoid samples that have been obtained in this way are of good purity for further investigations. Carotenoid pigments of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria Methylobacterium have been characterized. These carotenoids are represented mainly by xanthophylls, particularly hydroxycarotenoids. Strains M. fujisawaense B-3365 and M. mesophilicum B-3352 also have nonpolar carotenes in a small amount. Physico-chemical properties of carotenoids have been studied.

  16. Waste energy boosts tomato industry at distillery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColl, J

    1989-04-01

    A trial project aimed at using waste hot water from the cooling process at a Scottish whisky distillery to heat a glasshouse for tomato production is described. Later developments have involved the installation of a waste heat boiler to make use of the heat from the still burner flue gases. Steam from the boiler is used within the distillery and to supplement the glasshouse system. The payback within the distillery industry has been excellent, but tomato production, though continuing, was adversely affected by severe cutbacks in distillery production in the early eighties. Recently further significant savings have been made in the distillery industry by the installation of a regenerative burner in one of the stills and thermo-compressors in the cooling tower condensers to produce low pressure steam which can be fed back into the system. (U.K.).

  17. Agronomic efficiency of intercropping tomato and lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Cecílio Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University, Brazil, with the aim of determining the agronomic viability of intercropping tomato and lettuce, under greenhouse conditions. The studied intercropping systems were established by transplanting lettuce at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT tomato and by transplanting tomato at 0, 10, 20 and 30 DAT lettuce. Intercropped tomato and lettuce were evaluated during two seasons and compared to their sole cropping. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with nine treatments. The productivity and the classification of the tomato fruits were not influenced by having lettuce intercropped with it, but lettuce production was lowered when tomato was intercropped with it. The longer the delay in lettuce transplanting, the greater the reduction in its productivity. There was an effect of cropping season on the extent of the agronomic advantage of intercropping over sole cropping. In the first cropping season, intercropping established by transplanting lettuce during the interval between 30 days before up to 20 DAT tomato yielded land use efficiency (LUE indices of 1.63 to 2.22. In the second period, intercropping established with the transplanting of lettuce up to 30 days before tomato yielded LUE indices of 1.57 to 2.05.Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos na Unesp, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar a viabilidade agronômica de cultivos consorciados de alface e tomate em ambiente protegido. Consórcios estabelecidos por transplantes da alface aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias após o transplante (DAT do tomate e de tomate aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 DAT da alface, foram avaliados em duas épocas e comparados às suas monoculturas. Cada experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos. Verificou-se que a produtividade do tomate e a classificação dos frutos não foram influenciadas pela alface, mas a produção da alface foi menor em cons

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on fatty acids of tomato seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.; Raouf, M.S.; Morad, M.M.; Rady, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    Since gamma irradiation of tomatoes is investigated as a tool for increasing tomato shelf-lefe, in this study the tomato seed oil produced from irradiated tomatoes was compared with that produced from industrial tomato seeds and with cotton seeds. Fatty acid contents of tomato seed oil, produced from industrial tomato seed waste and from tomato seeds (Variety Ace), were found nearly the same as in the edible cotton seed oil. Hence, both tomato seed oils may be considered as an additional source of essential fatty acids especially linoleic. Gamma irradiation doses ranged from 50-200 Krad had no significant effect on total saturated and total unsaturated fatty acids. 200 Krad led to significant increases in lenolic acid on the account of insignificant decrease in palmatic acid. Essentail and non essential amino acids of tomato seed meal seem to be equivalent to these of cotton seed meal. This suggests the possible use of tomato seed meal in animal feeding

  19. Rheological Behavior of Tomato Fiber Suspensions Produced by High Shear and High Pressure Homogenization and Their Application in Tomato Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Adhikari, Benu P.; Li, Dong

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of high shear and high pressure homogenization on the rheological properties (steady shear viscosity, storage and loss modulus, and deformation) and homogeneity in tomato fiber suspensions. The tomato fiber suspensions at different concentrations (0.1%–1%, w/w) were subjected to high shear and high pressure homogenization and the morphology (distribution of fiber particles), rheological properties, and color parameters of the homogenized suspensions were measured. The homogenized suspensions were significantly more uniform compared to unhomogenized suspension. The homogenized suspensions were found to better resist the deformation caused by external stress (creep behavior). The apparent viscosity and storage and loss modulus of homogenized tomato fiber suspension are comparable with those of commercial tomato ketchup even at the fiber concentration as low as 0.5% (w/w), implying the possibility of using tomato fiber as thickener. The model tomato sauce produced using tomato fiber showed desirable consistency and color. These results indicate that the application of tomato fiber in tomato-based food products would be desirable and beneficial. PMID:29743890

  20. Biological control of corky root in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, G; Fiume, F

    2008-01-01

    Corky root caused by Pyrenochaeta lycopersici (Schneider et Gerlach) is one of the most important soil borne fungal pathogens which develops in the soils, causing diseases in different crops. The research was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the biological control of corky root on tomato. Biological control was performed by using Trichoderma viride Pers. 18/17 SS, Streptomyces spp. AtB42 and Bacillus subtilis M51 PI. According to present and future regulations on the use of chemical fungicides and considering that treatments must avoids environmental pollution, the main object of this research was to find alternative strategies by using biocontrol agents against P. lycopersici that affect tomato plants. In laboratory, the effectiveness of T. viride 18/17 SS, Streptomyces spp. AtB42 and B. subtilis M51 PI to control P. lycopersici were studied. In greenhouse, the research was carried out comparing the following treatments: 1) untreated control; 2) T. viride 18/17 SS; 3) Streptomyces spp. AtB42; 4) B. subtilis M51 PI. Roots of plants of tomato H3028 Hazera were treated with the antagonist suspensions just prior of transplant. Treatments were repeated about 2 months after, with the same suspensions sprayed on the soil to the plant collar. In dual culture, the inhibition of P. lycopersici ranged up to 81.2% (caused from T. viride 18/17 SS), 75.6% (from Streptomyces spp. AtB42) and 66.8% (from B. subtilis M51 PI). In greenhouse trials, with regard to corky root symptoms, all treated plots showed signifycative differences compared to untreated. T. viride gave the better results followed by Streptomyces spp. and then by B. subtilis. The fungus antagonist showed good root surface competence such as demonstrated its persistence on the roots surface of the tomato plants whose roots were treated with T. viride 18/17 SS up to 2 months before.

  1. Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

    2014-12-01

    A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant.

  2. Linear relationships between cherry tomato traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify the linear relationship between cherry tomato yield components. Two uniformity trials, without treatments, were conducted on Lilli cherry tomato plants in a plastic greenhouse during the 2014 spring/summer season, with the plants in two stems. Variables observed for each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, total number of fruits, and total fruit weight; a Pearson's correlation matrix was used to estimate the relationship between the variables. Path analysis was then performed considering total fruit weight as the main variable and the remaining variables as explanatory. Due to the severe multicollinearity, the variable 'number of fruits per bunch' was eliminated. Pearson's correlation coefficients were significant between explanatory and main variables. Mean fruit weight has a low cause-and-effect relationship with the total weight of fruits produced. A low cause-and-effect relationship was also observed between number of fruits and number of bunches. Cherry tomato productivity is directly related to the number of fruits per plant.

  3. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  4. Pricing behaviour of pharmacies after market deregulation for OTC drugs: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stargardt, Tom; Schreyögg, Jonas; Busse, Reinhard

    2007-11-01

    To examine the price reactions of German pharmacies to changes made to OTC drug regulations in 2004. Prior to these changes, regulations guaranteed identical prices in all German pharmacies. Two years after market deregulation, 256 pharmacies were surveyed to determine the retail prices of five selected OTC drugs. A probit regression model was used to identify factors that increased the likelihood of price changes. In addition, 409 pharmacy consumers were interviewed to gather information on their knowledge of the regulatory changes and to better explain consumer behaviour. Data was collected on a total of 1215 prices. Two years after deregulation, 23.1% of the participating pharmacies had modified the price of at least one of the five OTCs included in our study. However, in total, only 7.5% of the prices differed from their pre-deregulation level. The probit model showed that population density and the geographic concentration of pharmacies were significantly associated with price changes. Interestingly, the association with the geographic concentration of pharmacies was negative. The consumer survey revealed that 47.1% of those interviewed were aware of the deregulation. Our findings indicate that, two years after deregulation, very few pharmacies had made use of individual pricing strategies; price competition between pharmacies in Germany is thus taking place only a very small scale.

  5. The deregulation of electricity and gas markets. The great economic challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabel, Francois; Guerassimoff, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    As the process of deregulation of electricity and gas markets started in Europe ten years ago, this book aims at recalling and describing the consequences of this evolution, notably for companies which were in a monopoly situation for electricity and gas production, transport, retailing and selling, but also in terms of new entities to be created and of entities having to give up their specialty. The author first presents the economic characteristics of gas and electricity industries in terms of infrastructures and final services, scale, coordination and size of energy networks, of existence of strong externalities in networks, of commitment in public service missions. He describes the background and implementation of this deregulation. He analyses the strategies of companies and how energy markets are controlled: strategies to mitigate competition and to strengthen their market power, firm strategies and public policies, merging strategies, strategies of competition distortion. The last chapter addresses the various priority fields of deregulation: public service missions in a deregulated environment (issues of service continuity and of affordable prices), the environmental constraint in energy market organisation (limitation of CO 2 emissions, promotion of renewable energies, and reduction of energy consumption). In conclusion, the author discusses how to conciliate deregulation and sustainable development of energy

  6. Consumer attitudes and preferences for fresh market tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Carbon dioxide enrichment: a technique to mitigate the negative effects of salinity on the productivity of high value tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-González, M. J.; Sánchez-Guerrero, M.C.; Medrano, E.; Porras, M.E.; Baeza, E.J.; Lorenzo, P.

    2016-11-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mitigating influence of greenhouse CO2 enrichment on the negative effects of salinity in Mediterranean conditions. Hybrid Raf (cv. Delizia) tomato plants were exposed to two salinity levels of the nutrient solution (5 and 7 dS/m) obtained by adding NaCl, and two CO2 concentrations (350 and 800 μmol/mol) in which CO2 enrichment was applied during the daytime according to a strategy linked to ventilation. Increasing water salinity negatively affected the leaf area index (LAI), the specific leaf area (SLA), the water use efficiency (WUE), the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and dry weight (DW) accumulation resulting in lower marketable yield. The high salinity treatment (7 dS/m) increased fruit firmness (N), total soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), whereas pH was reduced in the three ripening stages: mature green/breaker (G), turning (T), and pink/light red (P). Also, the increase in electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution led to a general change in intensity of the sensory characteristics of tomato fruits. On the other hand, CO2 enrichment did not affect LAI although SLA was reduced. RUE and DW accumulation were increased resulting in higher marketable yield, through positive effects on fruit number and their average weight. WUE was enhanced by CO2 supply mainly through increased growth and yield. Physical-chemical quality parameters such as fruit firmness, TA and pH were not affected by CO2 enrichment whereas SSC was enhanced. Greenhouse CO2 enrichment did mitigate the negative effect of saline conditions on productivity without compromising organoleptic and sensory fruit quality. (Author)

  8. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Valderas-Martinez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT, tomato sauce (TS and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW, 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol and interleukine (IL 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  9. Fitness cost of resistance to Bt cotton linked with increased gossypol content in pink bollworm larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Williams

    Full Text Available Fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops occur in the absence of Bt toxins, when individuals with resistance alleles are less fit than individuals without resistance alleles. As costs of Bt resistance are common, refuges of non-Bt host plants can delay resistance not only by providing susceptible individuals to mate with resistant individuals, but also by selecting against resistance. Because costs typically vary across host plants, refuges with host plants that magnify costs or make them less recessive could enhance resistance management. Limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms causing fitness costs, however, hampers attempts to increase costs. In several major cotton pests including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, resistance to Cry1Ac cotton is associated with mutations altering cadherin proteins that bind this toxin in susceptible larvae. Here we report that the concentration of gossypol, a cotton defensive chemical, was higher in pink bollworm larvae with cadherin resistance alleles than in larvae lacking such alleles. Adding gossypol to the larval diet decreased larval weight and survival, and increased the fitness cost affecting larval growth, but not survival. Across cadherin genotypes, the cost affecting larval growth increased as the gossypol concentration of larvae increased. These results suggest that increased accumulation of plant defensive chemicals may contribute to fitness costs associated with resistance to Bt toxins.

  10. Pink1 and Parkin regulate Drosophila intestinal stem cell proliferation during stress and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Christopher L; Perkins, Guy A; Ellisman, Mark H; Jones, D Leanne

    2017-08-07

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) maintain the midgut epithelium in Drosophila melanogaster Proper cellular turnover and tissue function rely on tightly regulated rates of ISC division and appropriate differentiation of daughter cells. However, aging and epithelial injury cause elevated ISC proliferation and decreased capacity for terminal differentiation of daughter enteroblasts (EBs). The mechanisms causing functional decline of stem cells with age remain elusive; however, recent findings suggest that stem cell metabolism plays an important role in the regulation of stem cell activity. Here, we investigate how alterations in mitochondrial homeostasis modulate stem cell behavior in vivo via RNA interference-mediated knockdown of factors involved in mitochondrial dynamics. ISC/EB-specific knockdown of the mitophagy-related genes Pink1 or Parkin suppresses the age-related loss of tissue homeostasis, despite dramatic changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure and mitochondrial damage in ISCs/EBs. Maintenance of tissue homeostasis upon reduction of Pink1 or Parkin appears to result from reduction of age- and stress-induced ISC proliferation, in part, through induction of ISC senescence. Our results indicate an uncoupling of cellular, tissue, and organismal aging through inhibition of ISC proliferation and provide insight into strategies used by stem cells to maintain tissue homeostasis despite severe damage to organelles. © 2017 Koehler et al.

  11. Logistic growth models of China pinks, cultivated on seven substrates, as a function of degree days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Milani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to characterize the height (H and leaf number (LN of China pinks, grown in seven substrates, as a function of degree days, using the logistic growth model. H and LN were measured from 56 plants per substrate, for 392 plants in total. Plants that were grown on substrates formed of 50% soil with 50% rice husk ash (50% S + 50% RH and 80% rice husk ash with 20% worm castings (80% RH + 20% W had the longest vegetative growth period (74d, corresponding to 1317.9ºCd. The logistic growth model, adjusted for H, showed differences in the estimation of maximum expected height (α between the substrates, with values between 10.47cm for 50% S + 50% RH and 35.75cm for Mecplant(r. When α was estimated as LN, variation was also observed between the different substrates, from approximately 30 leaves on plants growing on 50% S + 50% RH to 34 leaves on the plants growing on the substrate formed of 80% RH + 20% W. Growth of China pinks can be characterized using H or LN in the logistic growth model as a function of degree days, being the provided plants adequately fertilized. The best substrates in terms of maximum height and leaf number were 80% soil + 20% worm castings and Mecplant(r. However, users must recalibrate the model with the estimated parameters before applying it to different growing conditions.

  12. Maturity stages of Pink Shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis (Penaeidae) in the Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Ferro, Daniel Giovanny; Paramo Granados, Jorge Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The pink Shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis is one resource of great socioeconomic importance in the Caribbean region. However, this species has been overexploited in the last decades and there is a lack of biological and fishery information. For such reason, the objective of the present study is to determine and characterize the maturity stages a macroscopic and microscopic level of the pink Shrimp (F. notialis) as input for its management. The samples were taking from June of 2012 and May 2013, on board shrimp commercial vessels in the Colombian Caribbean. The females of F. notialis were identified and preserved for the histologic analysis and some gonads were fixed. Data of size, weight and sex were taken. The gonadal stages were determined from the morphology and coloration of gonad and to microscopic determination were carried out histologic cut from samples of thirty gonads from all stages. A total of 3019 females were obtained from F. notialis, to which five stages of gonadal development were found and described. The macroscopic results were corroborated with the analysis ovocyte development a microscopic level. The development of ovocyte was coherent to that reported for F. brevirostris in the Colombian pacific and F. paulensis in the north coast of Brazil. These results are a contribution of the great scientific importance to the determination of maturity of F. notialis in the Colombian Caribbean.

  13. IDENTITY OF THE PINK-PIGMENTED METHANOL-OXIDIZING BACTERIA AS VIBRIO EXTORQUENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STOCKS, P K; MCCLESKEY, C S

    1964-10-01

    Stocks, Peter K. (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge), and C. S. McCleskey. Identity of the pink-pigmented methanol-oxidizing bacteria as Vibrio extorquens. J. Bacteriol. 88:1065-1070. 1964.-Pink-pigmented bacteria isolated from enrichment cultures of methane oxidizers were found to possess similar morphological, cultural, and physiological characteristics. All the strains utilized methanol, formate, oxalate, succinate, glycerol, and benzene as sole carbon sources; methanol, formate, and glycerol afforded best growth. Most strains utilized fructose and ribose; other carbohydrates tested were not available as carbon and energy sources. There was strain variation in the use of hexane, heptane, n-propanol, n-butanol, acetate, and propionate. Methane, ethane, n-propane, and n-butane were not utilized. Our isolates, and Pseudomonas methanica of Harrington and Kallio (not the methane-dependent P. methanica of Dworkin and Foster), Pseudomonas AM1 of Peele and Quayle, Pseudomonas PRL-W4 of Kaneda and Roxburgh, and Protaminobacter ruber den Dooren de Jong are nearly identical with Vibrio extorquens (Bassalik) Bhat and Barker, and should be considered the same species.

  14. Distribution of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs on leaves of vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Masayuki; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Yoshida, Naoko; Iguchi, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs) on the leaves of various vegetables was studied. All kinds of vegetable leaves tested gave pink-pigmented colonies on agar plates containing methanol as sole carbon source. The numbers of PPFMs on the leaves, colony-forming units (CFU)/g of fresh leaves, differed among the plants, although they were planted and grown at the same farm. Commercial green perilla, Perilla frutescens viridis (Makino) Makino, gave the highest counts of PPFMs (2.0-4.1×10(7) CFU/g) of all the commercial vegetable leaves tested, amounting to 15% of total microbes on the leaves. The PPFMs isolated from seeds of two varieties of perilla, the red and green varieties, exhibited high sequence similarity as to the 16S rRNA gene to two different Methylobacterium species, M. fujisawaense DSM5686(T) and M. radiotolerans JCM2831(T) respectively, suggesting that there is specific interaction between perilla and the PPFMs.

  15. Behavioural response of pink salmon Fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha to fresh, weathered, and dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, A.

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about fish behaviour in relation to oil spill contamination. In this study, out-migrant pink salmon fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha were subjected to varying concentrations of oil and sea water solutions, or uncontaminated sea water at a temperature of 7 degrees C. Fresh oil, artificially weathered oil, and dispersed oil samples were used. Twenty trials were run for concentrations of 48 aromatic and 30alkane hydrocarbons. The number of minutes spent in the uncontaminated water was significantly higher than sample areas. Fry avoided water-accommodated mixtures of Alaska North Slope crude oil in sea water at concentrations of 960 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon fresh oil and 873 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon dispersed oil. Concentrations corresponded to 75 per cent and 68 per cent of the median lethal concentration level. However, the fry did not avoid the weathered oil, which indicated that the fry may be sensitive to monoaromatic hydrocarbon components in the oil. It was concluded that oil pollution may alter pink salmon migration behaviour. 28 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  16. Effects of Different Drying Conditions on Key Quality Parameters of Pink Peppercorns (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Guzzo Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pink peppercorns are among the most sophisticated condiments in the international cuisine. This culinary spice is obtained from dried fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species native to South America. In this work, a methodology for the assessment of pink peppercorn quality under various drying conditions was defined. Experiments were performed in a pilot tray dryer, which ensured integrity of the product. A central composite rotatable design with 11 experiments was devised to study the influence of drying air temperature (35–75°C and air velocity (0.3–0.9 m/s on product quality, assessed by moisture content, color (CIELAB system, and volatile compounds. The essential oils of fresh and dried fruits were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Air temperature had the greatest influence on the quality parameters under study, while air velocity had no statistically significant effect. Considering all quality criteria, temperatures between 40 and 55°C provided the best compromise, yielding an adequate moisture content in the dried product without dramatic degradation of color and essential oil.

  17. Pink adhesive substance on washstand, toilet and bathroom; Yokushitau toire senmendai nadoni hasseisuru pinkuiro fuchakubutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuhata, K. [The Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-05

    This paper describes the result of discussions on pink substances deposited on bathrooms and washstands. These deposits are in the form of cluster of rod-shaped germ-like microorganisms of various sizes, considered a kind of slime. According to a germ growing test, the number of germ was estimated to be 220,000 to 300 million per cm{sup 3}. In a test on four cases using Gram stain, the types of germs constituting the slime were found being consisted of three to seven genera, and methylobacterium is the constitutive bacteria common to the slimes. The pink color in the slimes is thought attributable to this bacteria. The slime is formed from the deposited bacteria that proliferate under high temperature and humidity using soap and other materials as its nutrient. The slime is generated in places where tap water is used. Methylobacterium has high chlorine resistivity, which gives a high possibility of the bacteria growing to a type that involves in the initial formation of the slime. Although this slime gives no effect to healthy people, infants who have been infected with specific bacteria may have their diseases aggravated as a result of activities of the slime. Slime generation may be prevented effectively by good ventilation and removal of organic matters. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Flavor characteristics of the juices from fresh market tomatoes differentiated from those from processing tomatoes by combined analysis of volatile profiles with sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yoko; Iwasaki, Yumi; Otagiri, Yuji; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsuneo; Otomo, Hiroe; Sekine, Yukio; Obata, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Various commercial tomato juices with different flavors are available at markets worldwide. To clarify the marker compounds related to the flavor characteristics of tomato juice, we analyzed 15 pure commercial tomato juices by a combination of volatile profiling and sensory evaluation. The correlations among volatiles and the relationship between volatiles and sensory descriptors were elucidated by multivariate analyses. Consequently, the tomato juices made from fresh market tomatoes (including the popular Japanese tomato variety "Momotaro") were clearly separated from other juices made from processing tomatoes, by both the volatile composition and sensory profiles. cis-3-Hexenol, hexanal, and apocarotenoids negatively contributed to the juices from fresh market tomatoes, whereas Strecker aldehydes and furfural showed positive contributions to the juices. Accordingly, the sensory characteristics of juices from fresh market tomatoes were related to cooked and fruity flavors but not to green or fresh notes.

  19. The human PINK1 locus is regulated in vivo by a non-coding natural antisense RNA during modulation of mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Petrovic, Natasa; Faghihi, Mohammad A

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are implicated in early-onset Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is expressed abundantly in mitochondria rich tissues, such as skeletal muscle, where it plays a critical role determining mitochondrial structural integrity in Drosophila. ...

  20. Role of PINK1 binding to the TOM complex and alternate intracellular membranes in recruitment and activation of the E3 ligase Parkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, Michael; Jin, Seok Min; Kane, Lesley A; Youle, Richard J

    2012-02-14

    Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the cytosolic E3 ligase Parkin can cause Parkinson's disease. Damaged mitochondria accumulate PINK1 on the outer membrane where, dependent on kinase activity, it recruits and activates Parkin to induce mitophagy, potentially maintaining organelle fidelity. How PINK1 recruits Parkin is unknown. We show that endogenous PINK1 forms a 700 kDa complex with the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) selectively on depolarized mitochondria whereas PINK1 ectopically targeted to the outer membrane retains association with TOM on polarized mitochondria. Inducibly targeting PINK1 to peroxisomes or lysosomes, which lack a TOM complex, recruits Parkin and activates ubiquitin ligase activity on the respective organelles. Once there, Parkin induces organelle selective autophagy of peroxisomes but not lysosomes. We propose that the association of PINK1 with the TOM complex allows rapid reimport of PINK1 to rescue repolarized mitochondria from mitophagy, and discount mitochondrial-specific factors for Parkin translocation and activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.